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´╗┐Title: A Little Preserving Book for a Little Girl
Author: Waterman, Amy L.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK FOR A LITTLE GIRL



The Ideal Series for Girls

    Each, one volume, cloth decorative, 12mo,
    $1.00


=A Little Cook Book for a Little Girl=

    BY CAROLINE FRENCH BENTON

The simple, vivacious style makes this little manual as delightful
reading as a story-book.


=A Little Housekeeping Book for a Little Girl=; OR MARGARET'S SATURDAY
MORNINGS

    BY CAROLINE FRENCH BENTON

A little girl, home from school on Saturday mornings, finds out how to
make helpful use of her spare time.


=A Little Candy Book for a Little Girl=

    BY AMY L. WATERMAN

This is a book of special appeal, as it explains in simple fashion the
processes of making delicious fudges, fondants, nut dainties and the
like.


=A Little Preserving Book for a Little Girl=

    BY AMY L. WATERMAN

In simple story form is explained every step of the process of
preserving and canning fruits and vegetables.


=A Little Sewing Book for a Little Girl=

    BY LOUISE FRANCES CORNELL

A splendid volume to encourage little girls in the study of the useful
and beautiful art of the needle.


_Other Volumes in Preparation_

  =A Little Vegetable Book for a Little Girl=
  =A Little Flower Garden Book for a Little Girl=
  =A Little Knitting Book for a Little Girl=
  =A Little Nursing Book for a Little Girl=
  =A Little Gift-Making Book for a Little Girl=
  =A Little Party Book for a Little Girl, Etc.=


    THE PAGE COMPANY
    53 BEACON STREET      BOSTON, MASS.

[Illustration]



A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK FOR A LITTLE GIRL

  BY
  AMY L. WATERMAN

  Author of
  "A LITTLE CANDY BOOK FOR A LITTLE GIRL," Etc.


  _With a frontispiece in full color by_
  HARRIET O'BRIEN

[Illustration: SPE LABOR LEVIS]

  BOSTON   [Illustration]   THE PAGE
  COMPANY  [Illustration]  MDCCCCXX



    _Copyright, 1920_
    BY THE PAGE COMPANY

    _All rights reserved_


    First Impression, February, 1920


    THE COLONIAL PRESS
    C. H. SIMONDS CO., BOSTON, U. S. A.



    TO

    Adelaide

    THE LITTLE DAUGHTER OF

    J. C. M.

    MY LIFE-LONG FRIEND
    AND TO
    MY NAMESAKE

    Amy



CONTENTS


  CHAPTER                                              PAGE
     I. MARMALADES                                        1
    II. JAMS                                             25
   III. JELLIES                                          41
    IV. PRESERVING AND CANNING                           70
     V. CONSERVES                                       107
    VI. SPICED FRUITS                                   114
   VII. PICKLES                                         127
  VIII. CANNING THE GOVERNMENT WAY                      154
          Special Instructions for Canning Vegetables   166
          Special Instructions for Canning Fruits       174
          Principles of Jelly Making                    179
          Fruit Butters                                 184
    IX. THE GOVERNMENT WAY OF PRESERVING EGGS           187



A LITTLE PRESERVING BOOK FOR A LITTLE GIRL



CHAPTER I

MARMALADES


THERE were two long and very wide shelves, besides a good-sized bench
that had a shelf underneath, in mother's preserve closet. Before these
stood two little girls, Jessie May and Adelaide.

Jessie May was Adelaide's most intimate friend, who had been away
the whole summer long. To be sure, they had written to one another
regularly, and in each letter that Adelaide sent to Jessie May she
hinted at a wonderful secret. Now they were together again, the one
longing to hear and the other eager to tell the wonderful secret.

"You see," said Adelaide, pointing proudly to the bench and its shelf
underneath, "this is all my work, the other (indicating the two long
and very wide shelves) is mother's."

Jessie May gasped, for the top of the bench and the underneath shelf
had every spare inch covered with jars of jams, jellies, preserves,
pickles, vegetables, etc.

"Why, Adelaide! You couldn't,--I mean, how could you?" hastily
corrected Jessie May, for she wouldn't for the world have Adelaide
think she doubted her word.

"Well," said Adelaide, "let's go upstairs and I'll tell you how it all
happened."

When the two little girls were comfortably seated on the back porch the
great secret was disclosed, and mother, busy in the kitchen, smiled to
herself at their very evident enjoyment. Jessie May was all interest,
and you may be sure that Adelaide did not neglect even the smallest
detail. She poured out her very soul. In fact, mother learned a good
many things that morning about her small daughter's thoughts that she
had hardly realized before, until she overheard them being laid bare to
Jessie May.

Of course, Adelaide always told mother everything, but it was usually
the result of her thoughts, and not the process of thinking. You see,
Adelaide had been trained to think for herself, so in one way it was
not surprising to hear her tell Jessie May that for two or three years
she had been longing to help "preserve."

She told Jessie May it was the "great war" that made her decide she
surely was old enough to begin, because she had read of so many
little girls who were helping in all sorts of ways to "conserve" and
"preserve."

"But," she said, "the thing that really started me was Daddy's fondness
for orange marmalade, and his disappointment when we came to the end of
mother's supply. It was way back last March," Adelaide continued, and
then went on to explain how mother had said that she would make some at
once, as it was the very best month of the year to make marmalade. At
that season the "Valencia" oranges, "Mediterranean Sweets," and Seville
oranges were on the market, all of which had the special flavor most
desirable for orange marmalade.

"So mother bought the oranges and lemons and grapefruit," said
Adelaide, "and then she was so busy that she couldn't begin to make it
at once. Well, I thought Daddy ought to have his marmalade, so I said,
'why can't I make it, mother?' And, just think, Jessie May, mother _let
me_!" exclaimed the excited little girl.

Jessie May took a deep, deep breath, for during Adelaide's recital she
had hardly dared breathe, for fear of missing a single point of the
story, and leaned back in her chair with a long drawn sigh. She was too
full for words.

"The best part of it is," continued Adelaide, "that I have all of the
recipes right here, Jessie May." (Adelaide then exhibited a small
covered wooden box that she had been carefully guarding.)

Jessie May was very much interested in the little box, and eagerly
looked over the neat little cards which the box contained, and on which
the precious directions were to be found.

Jessie May wanted to see the one for orange marmalade, "Because," as
she said, "it was really the first recipe you ever tried, Adelaide."
Suddenly she exclaimed, "My goodness! did you only use two oranges and
one lemon and a grapefruit? I shouldn't think they would make very
much."

"Well, they did," replied Adelaide, "they made several small tumblers
_full_, and, besides, you will notice that all my recipes are for small
quantities, because mother did not want me to grow tired of my work but
enjoy each new recipe as it came along, and I most certainly did," she
ended.

Then the two little girls went into the kitchen, and Adelaide showed
Jessie May the different things she used while preserving. There were
not very many, and they were all easy to take care of. There was the
aluminum kettle, just deep enough to hold a pint jar overflowing with
water (the pint jar was the largest sized jar which Adelaide used) for
sterilizing; a pair of scales; a jelly bag attached to a wire frame
(which was very inexpensive), and could be slipped on to a bowl or
saucepan so that the juice could drip slowly; a long wooden spoon; a
silver tablespoon for skimming; a silver knife to insert in the jars
to let the air bubbles rise to the top when filled with fruit; two
half-pint glass measuring cups; a large aluminum funnel; a small round
wire rack to put in the bottom of the saucepan to prevent the jars from
touching bottom and to allow the water to flow under as well as over
the top; a strawberry huller; a small sharp knife; a wire strainer; a
colander; and a quart pitcher.

Adelaide told Jessie May that if she had forgotten anything she would
be sure to find what was needed by referring to the proper card
alphabetically arranged under "Utensils" in the precious little box.

When Adelaide commenced her lessons in preserving mother said that
she would find many general rules to remember, which, if carefully
followed, saved time and expense, and brought successful results.

Adelaide had sampled mother's preserves for some few years now, even
though she was not so very old, and she knew the difference between
jams, jellies, preserves, marmalades, conserves, etc., as far as taste
was concerned, but the process of making was the pleasure she was
eagerly anticipating. She began to feel "quite grown up" when mother
told her to write down the following:

The preserve closet, where the fruit is to be stored, should be dark,
dry and cool.

The jars and tumblers used should be properly sterilized. Then mother
explained that to sterilize, you washed your jars and tumblers
perfectly clean, placed them in a large pan (a dishpan would do) of
clean cold water over the fire, and let boil gently for ten minutes.
The jars would be less likely to crack if a wire or wooden rack was
at the bottom of the pan for the jars to rest on. Also, the jars must
have no nicks around the top, the covers must fit perfectly, and they
should be left in the boiled water until ready to use.

After filling the jar to overflowing, insert a silver knife between the
sides and fruit, to let the air bubbles rise to the top before sealing.
Always use new rubbers every year, and dip them in boiling water before
putting them smoothly on the jar.

Never stand a jar where a cold draft can reach it; let it stand over
night upside down, to be sure there is no possible chance of its
leaking.

The fruit used should be of the best quality, firm and not too ripe,
and preserved as soon as possible after picking, to have the finest
flavor.

Hands, utensils, fruit, etc. should be spotlessly clean.

A silver knife, fork, and spoon (or a wooden spoon) were the best
articles to use in preparing or stirring the fruit, thus preventing
discoloration.

Each jar should be thoroughly wiped on the outside with a clean damp
cloth and labeled before putting away.

Marmalades, jams, and jellies, were sufficiently protected if covered
with a coating of melted paraffin.

If you wanted nice clear jelly it must never be squeezed, but
allowed to _drip_ through a jelly bag made of a double thickness of
cheesecloth, or a jelly bag that you can buy attached to a wire frame.

You could tell when the "jelly point" had been reached if a little
poured on to a cold saucer began to set, or if the juice dropped as one
mass from the side of a spoon, or when two drops ran together and fell
as one from the side of the spoon.

Mother thought these ten "rules and regulations" were sufficient, and,
of course, Adelaide agreed.

"Mother, please do not tell Daddy that I am going to make his marmalade
for him," said Adelaide, busily preparing to begin.

"No, dear, I won't," responded mother, then added, "we'll keep it as a
surprise."


Orange Marmalade

  Oranges,      Two
  Lemons,       One
  Sugar
  Water

Mother told Adelaide to wash the oranges and lemons thoroughly and to
wipe them dry, then, using the little sharp knife, cut the fruit into
quarters, lengthwise. This made it easy to remove the seeds and cut out
the thick parts of each center or core. For this Adelaide used a small,
smooth board (in fact, it was the cover of a five-pound butter box)
upon which to cut the fruit, and she sliced each quarter, peel and all,
very, very thinly across (not lengthwise this time), then put them into
a bowl until all were ready.

Adelaide was surprised to find that it took quite a long while to get
these few prepared, and was glad she had not attempted too many.

Next, she measured the fruit, using the glass measuring cup, and poured
the fruit into mother's four quart aluminum saucepan. In a separate pan
Adelaide measured as many cups of sugar as she had had of fruit. Then
to each cup of fruit Adelaide added two cups of boiling water, covered
the saucepan, and let it stand for twenty-four hours.

This completed her work for that day, except for the clearing away of
the things with which she had finished.

The next morning Adelaide removed the cover from the saucepan
containing the fruit and put the saucepan on the stove. While the
fruit was coming to the boiling point, Adelaide brought a number of
tumblers from the preserve closet. These she washed thoroughly and
stood in a large pan in which had been placed a wire rack. Then, being
covered with cold water, they were put on the stove to be sterilized,
or, in other words, boiled. This was to kill all germs and to prevent
the spoiling of the fruit when put away.

When the fruit began to boil, mother told Adelaide to look at the
clock, and then let it boil for one hour (not too hard), or until
the peel of the oranges and lemons was very tender. In the meantime,
the sugar had been placed at the back of the range to heat through,
and as soon as the fruit had boiled sufficiently, the sugar was
added gradually. The marmalade was then allowed to boil until a
little dropped on a cold saucer would begin to jell. After the sugar
was added, Adelaide stirred the mixture every few minutes with a
long-handled wooden spoon.

You could not always tell just how long it would take for the marmalade
to jell, as oranges and lemons differ so, but mother said it was safer
to allow an hour, and if it was cooked in less time you felt that so
much time had been gained.

As soon as the marmalade was done, the saucepan was lifted to the back
of the range. Adelaide then took a long-handled spoon and lifted the
tumblers out of the boiling water on to a tray, and filled them at once
with the marmalade. Mother happened to have a small glass cup, not a
regular measuring cup but smaller, which proved the very thing with
which to dip out the marmalade.

As Adelaide, her cheeks flushed and eyes shining, stood filling the
tumblers with the golden marmalade, mother said, "Well, dear, was it
worth the work (for it is a great deal of work, you see) and effort?"

"Oh mother, I'm so proud and happy now, that I've almost forgotten how
hot and tired I felt while stirring the marmalade and waiting for it to
jell," answered Adelaide.

Now that the marmalade was finished, it seemed easy work to clear the
things away. Mother helped her stand the marmalade in the sun while it
set, and then Adelaide ran away to play. Later, when it was cool, she
took a clean cloth, dipped it in hot water, and wiped off the drops
of jelly from the tops of the tumblers and outsides, then melted some
paraffin and poured it over the top. By moving the tumblers gently
from side to side the paraffin formed on the sides and excluded the air.

Last of all, she put on the little labels and carried all but one
tumbler to the bench in the preserve closet, which mother had told her
might be for her special use.

The next morning at breakfast Daddy was very much delighted to find a
jar of marmalade before his plate, and he proceeded to help himself
generously when the hot buttered toast was passed. He was so intent
in his enjoyment of this that Adelaide and mother could smile at
one another without being observed. When he had quite satisfied his
appetite he announced:

"Well, mother, there is no question about it, you certainly do know how
to make marmalade. I've never tasted better; I only hope Adelaide can
make it as well when she grows up."

At that mother and Adelaide burst out laughing, while Daddy looked
surprised and questioned, "What's the joke? There's nothing funny about
that statement that I can see."

"Oh, no, Daddy, only, you see, I happened to make that marmalade myself
and before I grew up," replied Adelaide.

Can't you just imagine how surprised and delighted Daddy was?

Mother said that many people liked the addition of grapefruit in their
marmalade, so she let Adelaide try


Orange and Grapefruit Marmalade

  Oranges,         Two
  Lemons,          One
  Grapefruit,      One
  Sugar
  Water

This was prepared in exactly the same manner as the previous recipe,
except that Adelaide grated the rind of the grapefruit instead of
cutting it into thin slices. The oranges, lemon, and grapefruit were
all washed thoroughly and wiped. Adelaide cut the oranges and lemon
lengthwise into quarters, removing the seeds and thick skin at the
centers. Each quarter was then sliced as thinly as possible with a
sharp little knife, and put into a bowl until all were ready to be
measured. The rind of the grapefruit was grated and added to the sliced
oranges and lemon, then, after cutting the grapefruit in halves,
Adelaide removed the seeds and used only the juice and fruit pulp,
which she separated from the little pockets with a very sharp knife.

After measuring the prepared fruit with the glass measuring cup and
putting it into the saucepan, Adelaide added two cups of boiling water
to each cup of fruit, then covered it and let it stand for twenty-four
hours. In another pan Adelaide measured as many cups of sugar as there
were cups of fruit,--she remembered the number of cups of fruit she had
before adding the water--so that all would be ready for the next day.

The following morning Adelaide put the saucepan containing the fruit
on the stove to boil, removing the cover first. When the mixture came
to the boiling point, she began to time it and let it continue boiling
gently for an hour. This gave her time to wash the jelly tumblers,
after which she sterilized the same by placing them on a rack in a
pan of cold water deep enough to cover them, then putting them on the
stove and bringing the water to the boiling point. The pan of sugar was
placed on the back of the range to heat through, and when the fruit had
boiled an hour the sugar was added.

After adding the sugar Adelaide stirred the marmalade frequently, and
as soon as it had boiled another half-hour she began testing to see if
it would "jell." This she did by dropping a little from the spoon into
a cold saucer. If it began to thicken and set, it was ready to remove
from the fire and pour into the sterilized tumblers. These were placed
on a tray in the sun to set, and when cool, the tops and outsides were
wiped with a clean cloth dipped in hot water to remove any marmalade
that might have been spilled in the process of filling. Then, melting
some paraffin, Adelaide poured it over the top of the marmalade, and
gently moving the tumbler from side to side she completely covered it
with paraffin which kept out all air. Next came the labels, and then
the tumblers were ready to be stored in the preserve closet.


Orange and Rhubarb Marmalade

  Oranges,            Two
  Rhubarb,     1-1/4 lbs.
  Sugar
  Water

Adelaide found this marmalade much more simple to make. The oranges
and sticks of rhubarb were thoroughly washed, the oranges then cut
into quarters lengthwise, and all seeds and tough centers removed.
After this, they were put through the meat chopper and the rhubarb was
skinned and cut into one-half inch pieces.

Putting these together, Adelaide measured them to see how many cups
of fruit she had and emptied each cup in the saucepan. To each cup of
fruit she added one-fourth cup of cold water, then placed them on the
stove in the saucepan to boil. When the boiling point was reached,
Adelaide noted the time and let them boil slowly for one half-hour.
Removing the saucepan from the fire, Adelaide again measured the
contents and to each cup she added three-fourths of a cup of sugar.
These were all put back in the saucepan and boiled slowly until thick,
then poured at once into the sterilized tumblers, which Adelaide had
previously made ready. When cool, there followed the usual wiping
with a clean cloth dipped in hot water, to remove any spillings while
filling, and the paraffin was melted and poured over the top.

Adelaide never forgot to shake each tumbler gently while the paraffin
was still soft, as it sealed the marmalade much more securely from
all air. Next came the labels and the removal of tumblers to preserve
closet.


Peach Marmalade

  Peaches,     1 dozen
  Sugar

What little girl does not love peaches? Adelaide was no exception, and
this marmalade was very simply made.

First, mother told Adelaide to put the peaches in a pan and completely
cover them with boiling water and let them stand for a minute or two,
or until the skins would slip off easily. Pouring off the water, she
then proceeded to remove the skins with a small silver fruit knife (a
steel knife would discolor the fruit), and to take out the stones.

Next, Adelaide weighed the saucepan (in which the peaches were to be
cooked) while it was empty, and then cut the peaches into thin slices
and placed them in the saucepan. Again the saucepan was weighed, this
time containing the peaches. The differences between the weight of the
empty saucepan and the same saucepan containing the peaches showed
Adelaide just how much the peaches weighed, and to these she added half
their weight in sugar.

Mixing the fruit and sugar well together, she put the saucepan away in
a cool place until the next day. Picking out four of the best peach
stones, she cracked them and removed the kernels. These she scalded
in boiling water and removed the brown skins, after which they were
shredded into small pieces and added to the sliced peaches.

The next morning Adelaide put the saucepan containing the peaches
on the stove to heat and let them cook very slowly until thick and
smooth, not forgetting to stir frequently with the wooden spoon. In
the meantime, her tumblers had been sterilized, and, as soon as the
marmalade was done, they were removed from the boiling water and at
once filled. When they were cool Adelaide wiped them carefully, poured
melted paraffin over the top (shaking the tumbler gently from side to
side), labelled them, and carried them away to the preserve closet.

Another way to make Peach Marmalade was as follows:


Peach Marmalade No. 2

  Peaches,           1 lb.
  Sugar,             1 lb.
  Lemon (juice),       One
  Water,             1 cup

Adelaide scalded the peaches with boiling water, then removed the
skins. Then she cut the peaches into small pieces, put them in the
saucepan with the water, and boiled slowly until the fruit was
thoroughly soft. Adelaide stirred the fruit frequently with the wooden
spoon. Next she rubbed the cooked fruit through a strainer, returned
the peaches to the saucepan, added the sugar and lemon juice, and let
the mixture cook slowly another half hour, stirring it occasionally.

When the marmalade was finished she poured it at once into the
sterilized tumblers that were ready waiting. As soon as they were cool
she wiped the tumblers clean, poured the melted paraffin over the
marmalade, labelled them, and stored them away in the preserve closet.

Mother told Adelaide that she could also make marmalade of apricots,
quinces, plums, and even prunes, in exactly the same manner. So
Adelaide tried each one in its season.


Apricot Marmalade

  Apricots,          1 lb.
  Sugar,             1 lb.
  Lemon (juice),       One
  Water,             1 cup

From the apricots Adelaide did not remove the skins, she simply cut
them in halves and took out the stones, put them in the saucepan, added
the water, and boiled slowly until the fruit was very soft, stirring
frequently with the wooden spoon. When sufficiently cooked she rubbed
the fruit through a wooden strainer, put it back in the saucepan, added
the sugar and lemon juice, and let it cook slowly for about half an
hour. Adelaide stirred occasionally to be sure that the marmalade did
not burn, and poured it at once into sterilized tumblers when it was
finished. The tops and outsides she wiped clean when they were cool,
and then poured melted paraffin over the top of the marmalade, and
gently shook the paraffin from side to side to make them air tight.

The labels were then pasted on and the tumblers stored away in the
preserve closet.


Quince Marmalade

  Quinces,          1 lb.
  Sugar,            1 lb.
  Lemon (juice),      One
  Water,            1 cup

Mother told Adelaide to wash the quinces thoroughly, wipe, remove
blossom ends, cut in quarters and remove seeds, then cut in small
pieces; to put into saucepan, add water, and let cook slowly until very
tender, stirring with the wooden spoon frequently; to then rub fruit
through a strainer, return to saucepan, add sugar and lemon juice, and
cook slowly one half-hour. This she did, and when the quinces were
properly cooked, Adelaide poured them at once into the sterilized
tumblers she had ready waiting, and put them on a tray to cool.

Then mother told her to wipe the tops and outsides clean, cover with
melted paraffin (shaking gently from side to side), label, and store
away in the preserve closet.


Plum Marmalade

  Plums,            1 lb.
  Sugar,            1 lb.
  Lemon (juice),      One
  Water,            1 cup

Adelaide first wiped the plums and removed the stones, then put the
fruit into a saucepan, added the water and cooked until very soft,
stirring every little while with the wooden spoon. Next she rubbed the
fruit through a strainer, returned it to saucepan, added the sugar and
lemon juice, and cooked slowly one half-hour.

The sterilized tumblers were waiting, and into these Adelaide poured
the marmalade. When the jars were cool she wiped the tumblers clean,
poured over melted paraffin, shook gently from side to side to make
them air tight, added the labels, then stored them away in the preserve
closet.

When Adelaide came to the prunes mother wondered what would happen,
for Adelaide did not like prunes. It had been a tender subject between
them for some time. However, the results were better than mother had
expected, for Adelaide remarked: "Well, mother, I may as well try
it, because even if I don't like prunes, you do, so I'll make this
marmalade especially for you."


Prune Marmalade

  Prunes,           1 lb.
  Sugar,            1 lb.
  Lemon (juice),      One
  Water,            1 cup

The prunes, mother said, would have to be thoroughly washed in several
waters, then soaked over night in the cup of water. This Adelaide did,
and the next morning put them on the stove in her little saucepan to
boil until thoroughly cooked. With two silver forks Adelaide then
removed the stones and rubbed the fruit through a strainer; returning
the fruit to the saucepan, she added the sugar and lemon juice, cooked
it slowly one half-hour, poured into sterilized tumblers, and let cool.

When cold, Adelaide wiped each tumbler, poured melted paraffin over the
top of marmalade, shook gently from side to side to exclude all air,
pasted on the labels, and stored away in the preserve closet.

Apple marmalade came next, and mother thought that that was sufficient
for the present.


Apple Marmalade

  Apples,      1 doz.
  Sugar
  Water

These were nice tart apples of fine flavor. Adelaide washed them well,
cut into quarters (removing stem and blossoms only), put in saucepan,
and added enough water to almost, though not quite, cover the apples.
These she cooked slowly until very soft, then pressed them through a
strainer. She next measured the fruit, returned it to the saucepan,
and to each cup of fruit added three-fourths of a cup of sugar.
Returning the saucepan to the fire, Adelaide let it boil gently for
three-quarters of an hour, stirring every little while.

The sterilized tumblers were ready, and into these Adelaide poured the
marmalade; when cool she wiped the tops and outsides clean, poured
melted paraffin over the marmalade, shook the tumblers from side to
side gently to exclude all air, pasted on the labels, and stored away
in the preserve closet.



CHAPTER II

JAMS


OF course Adelaide did not make her jams, jellies, etc., in the order
given, but according to the season, and she welcomed each fruit in its
turn. Adelaide was especially fond of jams; they did make the most
delicious sandwiches when she came home hungry from school or went on
a picnic, but the climax of enjoyment was reached when mother made
rolly-polly jam puddings in the winter.

Strawberries were usually first on the market, and so "Strawberry Jam"
was the first attempt in the jam making line.


Strawberry Jam

  Strawberries,      1 quart
  Sugar

Mother told Adelaide to empty the strawberries into the colander and
place in a pan of cold water, then to dip the colander up and down so
as to thoroughly cleanse the berries; next to change the water two or
three times until it was clear, then lift out the colander and drain.
Mother also said that you should never wash berries after they were
hulled, because if you did you lost part of the juice.

After Adelaide felt sure they were clean, and after mother had
carefully inspected them, she commenced to hull the berries, using
the strawberry huller, then she weighed the berries and measured out
three-fourths their weight in sugar.

With a wooden potato masher Adelaide mashed the berries in the saucepan
and poured over the sugar; this mixture she let stand a few minutes
before putting the saucepan on the stove and letting it come slowly
to the boiling point. When the fruit had cooked slowly for forty-five
minutes, Adelaide stirring frequently, meanwhile, with the wooden
spoon, it was ready for her to pour into sterilized tumblers, which
she had previously prepared. The tops and outsides of the tumblers she
wiped with a clean cloth as soon as the jam had cooled, then poured
melted paraffin over the jam, and shook gently from side to side to
make it air tight.

Adelaide was always glad when it came time to paste on the neat little
labels and put the tumblers away in the preserve closet; she was very
much surprised, too, to see how quickly her bench was becoming filled.

In the beginning, mother had told her that sometimes it would seem
as though she spent all of her time preserving, for the fruits and
vegetables followed fast upon one another, but Adelaide replied she was
sure she would not mind, she was so eager to learn.


Raspberry Jam

  Raspberries,     1 quart
  Sugar

Adelaide picked over the raspberries before washing them, and mother
told her to keep a sharp look-out for little worms that sometimes
curled themselves up in the center, and you may be sure Adelaide's
keen eyes never missed one if there were any. Next she put them in
the colander, and then dipped the colander up and down in a pan of
clear cold water several times. When all possible dirt had been washed
away, Adelaide stood the colander to drain, after which she poured the
berries into the saucepan and weighed them.

Adelaide found it a great convenience to know the weight of each
saucepan she used, and she kept a little card showing just how much
each one weighed, then when they were weighed with the fruit, all she
needed to do was to subtract the weight from the total of the saucepan
to find out how much the fruit weighed.

To each pound of raspberries Adelaide measured three-fourths of a pound
of sugar, then she mashed the berries, added the sugar, and let the
mixture stand a short time before putting it on the stove to cook.

When the fruit had become heated to the boiling point, Adelaide let
it cook slowly for forty-five minutes, not forgetting to stir with
the wooden spoon to keep from burning; meanwhile, she had sterilized
the tumblers and they were ready when the jam had finished cooking.
Adelaide poured the jam into the tumblers at once, and as soon as it
had cooled she wiped the tops and outsides carefully, poured melted
paraffin over the jam, shook it gently from side to side to make it
secure from the air, pasted on the labels, and stored them away in the
preserve closet.


Raspberry and Red Currant Jam

  Raspberries,      1 quart
  Red Currants,      1 pint
  Sugar

First, Adelaide picked over the raspberries very carefully and placed
them in the colander, then she removed the stems from the currants and
added them to the raspberries. These she then dipped in clear cold
water several times and set aside to drain. Next she weighed the fruit,
and to each pound she added a pound of sugar.

She mashed the fruit well with the wooden masher in the saucepan and
poured over the sugar. After a few minutes the juice began to run
and she put the saucepan on the stove, letting the jam heat slowly
through. When it boiled, Adelaide stirred it frequently and let it
cook forty-five minutes. It was then ready to pour into the sterilized
tumblers. When cold, she wiped the top and outside of each tumbler,
poured melted paraffin over the jam, shook it gently from side to
side, thus excluding all air, pasted on the labels and put away in the
preserve closet.

This combination of raspberries and red currants was a great favorite
with everybody.


Red Currant Jam

  Red Currants,      1 quart
  Sugar

The red currants Adelaide removed from their stems and put in the
colander to be thoroughly washed. This was done by dipping the colander
up and down in a pan of clear cold water. If they were very dusty, she
changed the water several times.

After draining the currants sufficiently, she weighed them and put them
into the saucepan. To each pound of fruit Adelaide added one pound of
sugar. With the wooden masher she mashed the currants and stirred them
well with the sugar.

Putting the saucepan on the stove, she let the fruit come slowly to the
boiling point, stirring with the wooden spoon frequently to prevent it
from burning. It boiled gently for forty-five minutes, then Adelaide
poured it into sterilized tumblers at once and stood them away to cool.
When they were cold she wiped the top and outside of each tumbler,
poured melted paraffin over the jam, shaking it gently from side to
side to keep out any air, pasted on the labels and stored away in the
preserve closet.


Black Currant Jam

  Black Currants,      1 quart
  Sugar

Adelaide found that when she used red currants, the picking off of
the stems consumed a lot of time, so she was glad to find the black
currants come already stemmed.

Putting the black currants in the colander, she proceeded to wash them
thoroughly by dipping the colander up and down in a pan of clear cold
water several times. If they were very dusty she changed the water two
or three times until it was clear. After weighing the currants she
poured them into a saucepan, mashed them with the wooden masher, added
an equal weight of sugar, mixed well with the wooden spoon, let stand
until the juice ran, then put the saucepan on the stove and let the
mixture come slowly to the boiling point, stirring occasionally. While
this was boiling gently for forty-five minutes, Adelaide sterilized the
tumblers, not forgetting, however, to stir the jam frequently.

When it was cooked she poured the jam at once into the tumblers and
let it cool; as soon as it was cold, Adelaide wiped each tumbler
thoroughly, inside the top and on the outside, poured melted paraffin
over the jam, which she shook gently from side to side to keep out all
air, then pasted on the labels and stored away in the preserve closet.


Blackberry Jam

  Blackberries,      2 quarts
  Sugar

Mother explained to Adelaide that the flavor of the blackberry was
delicious, but you did not enjoy it so much if the seeds were allowed
to remain, so that jam was prepared a little differently.

After picking the blackberries over carefully, Adelaide put them in
the colander, then dipped it up and down in a pan of cold water and
set aside to drain. Afterwards, she put the fruit in the saucepan and
with the wooden masher mashed it well. Then she stood the saucepan over
the fire and let the fruit come gradually to the boiling point. While
she let the fruit boil gently for twenty minutes, Adelaide stirred
frequently, using the long wooden spoon.

Moving the saucepan from the fire, Adelaide then rubbed the fruit
through a fine sieve (mother said if the sieve let the seeds pass
through to use a cheesecloth bag) and measured. To each cup of juice,
which she returned to the saucepan, she added three-fourths of a cup
of sugar, and putting the jam back over the fire, let it heat slowly,
stirring often. This took three-quarters of an hour of gentle boiling
before it was done.

Adelaide poured at once into the sterilized tumblers, which were
waiting to be filled, and set aside to cool. When cold, she wiped the
tops and outsides carefully with a damp cloth, poured melted paraffin
over the jam, shaking it gently from side to side, thus keeping out all
air, pasted on the labels, and stored the jars away in the preserve
closet.


Gooseberry Jam

  Gooseberries,      1 quart
  Sugar

"The jams with a nice tart flavor," Adelaide said, "are the ones Daddy
likes best." He was especially fond of gooseberry jam and for that
reason Adelaide decided to surprise him.

The gooseberries Adelaide put in the colander and dipped up and down
in a pan of clear cold water until thoroughly clean, then she drained
them. With the strawberry huller she pulled off the tops, though
she could have used the little sharp knife; next she weighed the
gooseberries and put them in the saucepan to be mashed with the wooden
masher.

To each pound of fruit she added a pound of sugar, placed the saucepan
over the fire and let the fruit come slowly to the boiling point. This
needed to be stirred with the wooden spoon occasionally, but after it
had reached the boiling point Adelaide stirred it very frequently to
prevent burning. It took three-quarters of an hour to cook, and then
Adelaide filled the sterilized tumblers with the jam and set it aside
to cool. When the jam was cold she wiped each tumbler around the top
and on the outside with a clean damp cloth, poured melted paraffin over
the jam, pasted on the labels and stored away in the preserve closet.

Of course Daddy was very much pleased with this jam.


Large Blue Plum Jam

  Plums,      1 doz.
  Sugar

The large blue plums, Adelaide's mother said, made delicious jam.
Adelaide washed and wiped each plum carefully, then slit each one with
a silver knife and took out the stone. After weighing them and putting
the plums in the saucepan she added three-fourths of a pound of sugar
to each pound of fruit, letting them stand until the juice ran. Placing
the saucepan over the fire, she stirred the fruit occasionally until
it reached the boiling point, after which she let it boil slowly, for
forty-five minutes, and continued to stir very frequently to prevent
the jam from burning or sticking to the bottom. In the meantime,
Adelaide had the tumblers sterilized and waiting, and as soon as the
jam had finished cooking she poured it at once into the tumblers. When
the jam was cold she wiped the top and outside of each tumbler with a
clean damp cloth and poured melted paraffin over the jam, shaking it
gently from side to side to exclude all air. Next came the labels, and
then the tumblers of jam were stored away in the preserve closet.


Green-Gage Plum Jam

  Plums,      1 dozen
  Sugar

The green-gage plums, Adelaide found, came later in the season, but
they were worth waiting for. These she cut open with a silver knife,
after having washed and wiped them carefully, and removed the stones.
Weighing the plums, she put them in the saucepan, and to each pound
of fruit she added three-quarters of a pound of sugar. When the juice
began to run she placed the saucepan over the fire, and let the jam
come slowly to the boiling point, stirring it every little while;
continuing to cook the jam for forty-five minutes, Adelaide stirred
frequently to prevent its sticking to the bottom and becoming burned.
As soon as the jam had cooked sufficiently she poured it into the
sterilized tumblers which were ready, and when the jam was cold,
Adelaide wiped the tops and outsides of the tumblers with a clean damp
cloth, poured melted paraffin over the top, and shook gently from side
to side to exclude all air. The labels were next pasted on, and the jam
was then stored away in the preserve closet.


Damson Plum Jam

  Damson Plums,      1 quart
  Sugar
  Water,       2 tablespoons

Compared to the large blue plums and the green-gage plums Adelaide
found the damson plums quite small, and mother told her they would
have to be cooked first before she could remove the stones easily. So
Adelaide washed the Damson plums carefully, and with a silver knife
slit each one before putting them into the saucepan. This was to let
the juice run. But, first, Adelaide measured two tablespoons of cold
water into the saucepan, then poured in the plums. Of course she had
weighed the plums as usual, and also an equal amount of sugar, but the
sugar she placed in a bowl and placed on one side until ready to use.
The saucepan was then placed over the fire and the plums were cooked
slowly until tender, when they were removed, and with two silver forks
Adelaide easily picked out the stones. Adding the sugar, she returned
the saucepan to the fire, and while it was coming to the boiling point
she stirred constantly with a wooden spoon, so that the sugar would not
stick to the bottom and burn. Still continuing to stir, she let the jam
cook slowly for forty-five minutes.

The tumblers had been sterilized and the jam was poured into them at
once. After the jam was cold Adelaide wiped the top and outside of each
tumbler with a clean damp cloth, then poured melted paraffin over the
top, and shook gently from side to side to exclude the air, pasted on
the labels and stored the jars away in the preserve closet.

There were many other kinds of plums, but these were the ones that
had the best flavors, mother said, and quite enough for Adelaide to
experiment with for the present.


Barberry Jam

  Barberries,      1 quart
  Sugar
  Water,           1/2 cup

Barberries make a very tasty jam. Adelaide put them in the colander,
which she dipped up and down in a pan of clean cold water until free
from all dust, then carefully picked them over. Into the saucepan she
poured one-half a cup of cold water, then added the barberries. Placing
the saucepan over the fire, she let the barberries become just warm,
then Adelaide pressed the fruit through a wire strainer and measured.
To each cup of fruit she added a cup of sugar, which she returned
to the saucepan, placed over the fire, let it heat gradually to the
boiling point, then cooked twenty minutes, stirring constantly with the
wooden spoon. The sterilized tumblers were waiting, and into these
Adelaide poured the jam. When the jam was cold she wiped the tops and
outsides with a clean damp cloth, poured melted paraffin over the jam,
shaking it gently from side to side to exclude all air, then pasted on
the labels and stored jam away in the preserve closet.


Rhubarb and Fig Jam

  Rhubarb,      2-1/2 lbs.
  Figs,            1/2 lb.
  Sugar

An English friend gave this recipe to Adelaide, and it proved to be
very "tasty."

The friend said to choose the pretty pink rhubarb, then wash and wipe
it thoroughly, and cut with a sharp knife into one-inch pieces. The
figs were looked over carefully and Adelaide cut out the hard little
part near the stem, then she put them through the meat chopper and
added them to the rhubarb. When she had weighed the prepared fruit and
put it into the saucepan she poured over it three-fourths its weight
of sugar, and let the mixture stand until the juice ran. Placing the
saucepan over the fire, she let the fruit come slowly to the boiling
point, stirring with a wooden spoon occasionally. After it had boiled
Adelaide stirred it frequently and cooked gently three-quarters of an
hour. It was then ready to pour into the sterilized tumblers, which
Adelaide never failed to have on hand, and stood away to cool.

When it was cool she wiped the top and outside of each tumbler with
a clean damp cloth, poured melted paraffin over the jam, shaking it
gently from side to side to exclude all air, then pasted on the labels
and stored the jam away in the preserve closet.



CHAPTER III

JELLIES


WHEN mother gave Adelaide her first lesson in jelly making, Adelaide
had visions. Jelly rolls, thin bread and butter sandwiches with jelly
in between, soft boiled custards served in individual glasses with
a spoonful of jelly on top, and many many other delicious dainties
it would take too long to tell about passed before her active little
mind. For some years now, Adelaide's mother had been using a small thin
glass for her red currant jelly, and any other jelly of which she was
especially choice. A glass measuring cup full of jelly was sufficient
to fill three of these dainty glasses, and the beauty of these lay in
the fact that you could put them on the table as they were. One little
glass was sufficient to serve as a relish with cold meat or chicken for
a family of four.

Mother thought that as Adelaide's quantities were all small she would
let her use these small glasses exclusively for her jellies. Adelaide
was delighted, and often held the little glasses up to the sunlight to
see how clear and attractive the jelly was.


Red Currant Jelly

  Red Currants,      1 quart
  Sugar
  Water,       2 tablespoons

The large cherry currants were the ones mother bought, and she told
Adelaide that they made the most delicious jelly. Adelaide emptied the
currants into the colander, which she dipped up and down in a pan of
clear cold water until the currants were thoroughly cleansed, then she
drained them.

Picking them over but not removing the stems, Adelaide poured a few
at a time into the saucepan (which contained two tablespoons of cold
water), and mashed them with the wooden potato masher; this she
continued to do until all the currants were used.

Placing the saucepan over the fire, she let the currants cook slowly
until they looked white, stirring occasionally with the wooden spoon to
prevent burning.

The little jelly bag attached to the wire frame fitted nicely over
another large saucepan, and into this bag Adelaide poured the currants,
letting them stand until all the juice had dripped.

Now she measured the juice and returned it to the original saucepan,
which had been washed clean. Again she placed the saucepan over the
fire and brought the juice to the boiling point; then she let it
continue to boil rapidly for twenty minutes (mother said it was not
necessary to stir this).

When Adelaide measured the juice she also measured to each cupful
a cup of sugar. This she placed in an earthenware dish at the back
of the range, or in the oven with the door open, to let it heat
through gradually but not to brown. As soon as the juice had boiled
sufficiently she added the heated sugar gradually and stirred with the
wooden spoon until it was all dissolved; when it again came to the
boiling point it jellied in about three minutes.

Adelaide worked very quickly now; she removed the saucepan from the
fire, skimmed the jelly, poured it into a pitcher, and from there into
the little sterilized glasses. These she placed in the sun and let them
stand until the next day; they were then wiped around the tops and
outsides carefully with a clean damp cloth, the jelly was covered with
melted paraffin, the glass being shaken gently from side to side to
exclude all air. Next came the labels, and then the jelly was stored
away in the preserve closet. It was a beautiful color, and it made
Adelaide's mouth water just to look at it.


Red Currant and White Currant Jelly

  Red Currants,        1 pint
  White Currants,      1 pint
  Sugar
  Water,        2 tablespoons

The red and white currants Adelaide found made the jelly a beautiful
color and more delicate in flavor. These she washed carefully in the
colander by dipping it up and down in a pan of clear cold water, then
she picked them over without removing the stems. Into the saucepan she
measured two tablespoons of water, added the currants a few at a time,
and mashed them with the wooden potato masher until all were used. Next
the saucepan was placed over the fire and the currants boiled until
the red currants looked white. Adelaide did not forget to stir with the
wooden spoon to prevent the currants from burning.

The jelly bag was ready and into this Adelaide poured the currants. She
let the juice drip overnight, and the next morning measured it into the
saucepan. To each cup of juice she measured a cup of sugar, which she
placed in an earthenware dish on the back of the range to heat through,
but not to brown. The juice Adelaide boiled for twenty minutes rapidly,
then she added the sugar very gradually and stirred until it was
dissolved. When it came to the boiling point it "jellied" very quickly,
and Adelaide skimmed it, poured it into a pitcher, then into the small
glasses at once, which were already sterilized.

Standing them in a sunny window she let them remain until the next day.
With a clean damp cloth she wiped the top and outside of each glass
carefully, poured melted paraffin over the jelly, shook each glass
gently from side to side to exclude the air, pasted on the labels and,
as usual, stored the jelly away in the preserve closet.


Red Currant and Raspberry Jelly

  Red Currants,      1 pint
  Raspberries,       1 pint
  Sugar
  Water,      2 tablespoons

Of all the jellies this was mother's favorite.

Adelaide picked over the raspberries (looking in each centre to be sure
there were no little worms), poured them into the colander, dipped
them up and down in a pan of clear cold water to cleanse thoroughly,
and after draining emptied them into the saucepan with two tablespoons
of cold water. The currants were washed in the same manner as the
raspberries, and Adelaide picked them over but did not remove the
stems. These were added to the raspberries, and she mashed them all
with the wooden potato masher.

Setting the saucepan over the fire, she stirred well with the wooden
spoon, and, when the fruit boiled, Adelaide let it cook until the
currants looked white. The jelly bag was ready, and Adelaide poured in
the fruit and the juice dripped over night.

When she measured the juice into the saucepan she also measured an
equal amount of sugar into an earthenware dish. This Adelaide stood on
the back of the range to heat through but not brown.

While the juice came to the boiling point Adelaide attended to the
sterilizing of the little glasses.

As soon as the juice had boiled rapidly for twenty minutes Adelaide
added the sugar gradually, stirring constantly until the sugar was
dissolved. It very quickly boiled again and in a few minutes reached
the "jelly point." Adelaide skimmed it carefully and poured it into a
pitcher. It was then easy to pour the jelly into the small glasses and
stand it in the sun to set.

The next morning Adelaide wiped each glass carefully with a damp cloth
around the top and outside, then she poured melted paraffin over the
jelly, shaking it gently from side to side to exclude all air. Next
the labels were pasted on, and then the jelly was stored away in the
preserve closet.


Blackberry Jelly

  Blackberries,      1 quart
  Sugar
  Water,       2 tablespoons

Adelaide picked the blackberries very carefully into the colander. This
she dipped up and down in a pan of clear cold water several times to
thoroughly cleanse the berries. When they were well drained she poured
them into the saucepan with two tablespoons of cold water, and mashed
the berries with the wooden potato masher. Placing the saucepan over
the fire, she let the blackberries heat through slowly until they were
soft, then she poured them into the jelly bag and the juice dripped
all night. The next morning she measured the juice, and to each cup
she allowed three-fourths of a cup of sugar. The juice she put over
the fire to boil rapidly for twenty minutes, and stood the sugar in
an earthenware dish at the back of the range to heat through, but not
brown. After the juice had boiled sufficiently Adelaide added the sugar
gradually and stirred with a wooden spoon until it was all dissolved,
then she let it boil until it reached the jelly point. Skimming it
carefully, she then poured the jelly into the pitcher, and from there
into the small sterilized glasses, which she stood in a sunny window to
set.

When cold, Adelaide wiped each glass carefully around the top and
outside, and poured melted paraffin over the top of the jelly, shaking
it gently from side to side to exclude all air; then she pasted on the
labels and stored away in the preserve closet.


Spiced Blackberry Jelly

  Blackberries,            1 quart
  Sugar
  Water,             2 tablespoons
                        { cinnamon
  Spices (ground),      { mace
                        { cloves

The blackberries Adelaide picked over carefully and put in the colander
to wash thoroughly by dipping them up and down several times in a pan
of cold water. After they were well drained she poured them into a
saucepan with two tablespoons of cold water, and mashed them with the
wooden potato masher. Placing the saucepan over the fire, she let the
blackberries simmer until they were soft, then poured them into the
jelly bag to drip. To each cup of juice she measured a cup of sugar
which she stood on the back of the range in an earthenware dish to heat
through, but not brown, also one-fourth of an ounce of ground cinnamon,
one-eighth of an ounce of ground mace, and one-fourth of a teaspoonful
of ground cloves, which she tied up in a piece of thin muslin. The
juice and spices were then boiled together rapidly for twenty minutes,
after which time Adelaide took out the bag of spices and added the
sugar gradually, stirring constantly with a wooden spoon until the
sugar was dissolved.

When the "jelly point" was reached she skimmed it at once and poured
the jelly into a pitcher. It was then easy for her to fill the
sterilized glasses and let the jelly stand until cold. Next, Adelaide
wiped each glass with a damp cloth around the top and outside, poured
melted paraffin over the jelly, shook it gently from side to side to
exclude all air, pasted on the labels and stored away the jelly in the
preserve closet.

Mother said that this was better than any medicine.


Black Currant Jelly

  Black Currants,      1 quart
  Sugar
  Water,         2 tablespoons

Black currant jelly, mother told Adelaide, was what _her_ mother
gave her when she was a little girl if ever she complained of a sore
throat. After Adelaide had tasted it she said, "Mother, I should think
you would have felt almost glad to have a sore throat, it is so good."

The black currants Adelaide picked over and washed thoroughly in the
usual way by pouring them into the colander, then dipping it up and
down several times in a pan of clear cold water. After draining them
well, she emptied them into the saucepan, added two tablespoons of
cold water, mashed well with the wooden potato masher, and placed the
mixture over the fire to simmer until soft. Into the jelly bag they
went next, and Adelaide let the juice drip all night.

Next morning she measured the juice and an equal amount of sugar, which
she placed in an earthenware dish at the back of the range, to heat
through but not brown. The juice she brought to the boiling point and
it continued to boil rapidly for twenty minutes.

Adding the sugar gradually, she stirred with the wooden spoon until
it was all dissolved and cooked to the "jelly point." After skimming
the jelly Adelaide poured it into a pitcher and from there into the
sterilized small glasses, and then stood the tumblers in a sunny
window. When the jelly was cold she wiped the top and outside of
each glass with a damp cloth, poured melted paraffin over the jelly,
and shook gently from side to side to exclude all air. Pasting on the
labels, Adelaide then stored the jelly away in the preserve closet.


Green Gooseberry Jelly

  Green Gooseberries,      1 quart
  Sugar
  Water,             2 tablespoons

The gooseberries were easily picked over and washed. Adelaide put them
in the colander, dipped it up and down in a pan of clear cold water,
and stood it aside to drain. She measured two tablespoons of cold water
into the saucepan, added the gooseberries and mashed them with the
wooden potato masher.

Placing the saucepan over the fire she let the gooseberries simmer
until they were soft, not forgetting to stir with the wooden spoon to
keep them from burning. Pouring the fruit into the jelly bag came next,
and Adelaide let it drip over night.

To each cup of juice Adelaide added three-fourths of a cup of sugar.
The sugar was placed in an earthenware dish at the back of the range
to heat but not brown. When the juice had boiled rapidly for twenty
minutes Adelaide added the sugar gradually and stirred until it was all
dissolved. It was then cooked to the "jelly point."

Adelaide skimmed the jelly, poured it into the pitcher, and from there
into the sterilized small glasses, then stood them in a sunny window.
When the jelly was cold Adelaide wiped each glass around the top and on
the outside with a damp cloth, poured melted paraffin over the jelly,
shook gently from side to side to exclude all air, then pasted on the
labels and stored the jars away in the preserve closet.


Wild Cherry Jelly

  Wild Cherries,      1 quart
  Sugar
  Water,        2 tablespoons

After picking the cherries carefully into the colander, Adelaide dipped
it up and down several times in a pan of clear cold water, then stood
it aside to drain. Into the saucepan she measured two tablespoons of
cold water, added the cherries and mashed them with the wooden potato
masher.

Placing the saucepan over the fire, she let the cherries simmer until
they were soft, stirring occasionally to prevent burning, after which
she poured the fruit into the jelly bag and let the juice drip over
night.

The next morning she measured the juice, and to each cup she measured
three-fourths of a cup of sugar. The sugar she placed in an earthenware
dish and stood on the back of the range to heat through but not burn.

The juice she let boil rapidly twenty minutes, added the heated sugar
gradually, and stirred with the wooden spoon until all was dissolved.
After the juice and sugar had boiled to the "jelly point" Adelaide
skimmed it carefully, poured quickly into a pitcher and then into the
sterilized small glasses.

Mother liked to have all of her jelly stand in the sun if possible, so
Adelaide stood the glasses in a sunny window.

When the jelly was cold she wiped the tops and outsides of each glass
carefully with a damp cloth, poured melted paraffin over the jelly
(shaking it gently from side to side to exclude all air), pasted on the
labels and stored the jelly away in the preserve closet.


Wild Grape Jelly

  Wild Grapes,      1 quart
  Sugar
  Water,      2 tablespoons

The wild grapes Adelaide poured into the colander, dipped it up and
down several times in cold water and stood it to drain. Next, she
picked them over carefully, pinched each grape to break the skin, and
dropped them into the saucepan containing two tablespoons of cold water.

Placing the saucepan over the fire, she let the grapes simmer until
soft, stirring occasionally to prevent burning, then poured them into
the jelly bag to drip over night.

In the morning she measured the juice and an equal amount of sugar.
The saucepan containing the juice she placed over the fire that the
juice might boil rapidly for twenty minutes, and the sugar was put in
an earthenware dish and stood at the back of the range to heat through,
but not brown.

The small glasses were all sterilized, and as soon as the juice had
boiled the necessary time, Adelaide added the sugar gradually and
stirred with the wooden spoon until it was all dissolved.

Adelaide tended the juice and sugar carefully until it reached the
"jelly point," then, skimming quickly, she poured the jelly into a
pitcher, and from there into the small glasses. Next she stood them
in a sunny window, and when the jelly was cold the glasses were wiped
around the tops and on the outsides with a damp cloth. Melting the
paraffin she poured it over the jelly and shook it gently from side to
side to exclude all air. The labels were pasted on finally, and the
jelly was stored away in the preserve closet.


Wild Plum Jelly

  Wild Plums,       1 quart
  Sugar
  Water,      2 tablespoons

The wild plums that Adelaide used were brought to her by a friend who
lived in the country. They were about the size of large cherries. The
flavor of the jelly was most delicious and a general favorite with
everybody.

Adelaide washed the plums after emptying them into the colander, by
dipping the colander up and down several times in a pan of clear
cold water, after which she drained them. Into the saucepan she had
measured two tablespoons of cold water, and as she picked over the
plums she slit each one with a silver knife and dropped it into the
waiting saucepan.

These she let simmer until soft and mushy, not forgetting to stir
occasionally to keep them from burning, then poured the fruit into the
jelly bag to drip over night. In the morning Adelaide measured the
juice, and to each cup she measured three-quarters of a cup of sugar.
The juice she let boil rapidly for twenty minutes, while the sugar was
stood at the back of the range in an earthenware dish to heat through,
but not brown.

When the juice had boiled sufficiently, Adelaide added the sugar
gradually and stirred with the wooden spoon until it was all dissolved.
As soon as the "jelly point" was reached, Adelaide skimmed it quickly,
poured it into a pitcher, from there into the sterilized small glasses,
and stood them in a sunny window. After the jelly was cold she wiped
each glass around the top and on the outside with a damp cloth, poured
melted paraffin over the jelly, shaking it gently from side to side to
exclude all air, pasted on the labels and stored the tumblers away in
the preserve closet.


Damson Plum Jelly

  Damson Plums,      1 quart
  Sugar
  Water,       2 tablespoons

Adelaide wiped and picked over the Damson Plums, and slit each one
with a silver knife before placing them in the saucepan with two
tablespoons of cold water. These she let boil until very soft, stirring
occasionally with the wooden spoon to prevent burning. When the fruit
had cooked sufficiently, she poured it into the jelly bag and let it
drip over night. The next morning she measured the juice, and to each
cup she measured three-fourths the amount of sugar. It (the juice) was
boiled rapidly for twenty minutes, while the sugar stood on the back of
the range in an earthenware dish to heat through, but not brown.

After twenty minutes of boiling for the juice, the sugar was added
gradually and stirred until it was all dissolved. When the "jelly
point" was reached Adelaide skimmed the jelly quickly, poured it into
a pitcher, and from there into the sterilized glasses, and then stood
them in a sunny window.

As soon as the jelly was cold, Adelaide wiped the tops and outsides of
each glass with a damp cloth, poured melted paraffin over the jelly,
shaking it gently from side to side to exclude all air, pasted on the
labels and stored the jelly glasses away in the preserve closet.


Apple Jelly

  Apples,      1 dozen
  Sugar
  Water

The apples that made the best jelly, mother told Adelaide, were the
"porter apples," the "gravenstein apples," the "maiden's blush," and
the "fall pippins."

Adelaide wiped each apple thoroughly with a damp cloth and removed the
stems and blossom ends. With a silver knife she cut them in quarters.
Placing them in the saucepan, she added cold water until it came nearly
to the top of the apples.

Covering the saucepan, she stood it over the fire and let the apples
cook slowly until they were very soft. She found it necessary to stir
the fruit with a wooden spoon occasionally to prevent the juice from
burning. When it was done Adelaide poured it into the jelly bag and let
the juice drip over night.

The next morning she measured the juice, and to each cup she measured
a cup of sugar, which she placed in an earthenware dish on the back of
the range to heat through but not burn.

As soon as the juice had boiled rapidly for twenty minutes, Adelaide
added the sugar a little at a time, stirring constantly until it
had all dissolved. Then she let it cook to the "jelly point," after
which she skimmed it quickly, poured it into a pitcher and filled the
sterilized small glasses at once. The glasses were then placed in a
sunny window, and, when cold, Adelaide wiped each glass around the top
and on the outside with a damp cloth, poured melted paraffin over the
jelly, shook it gently from side to side to exclude air, pasted on the
labels and stored the jelly away in the preserve closet in the space
allotted for jellies.


Crab Apple Jelly

  Crab Apples,      2 dozen
  Sugar
  Water

The crab apples make a very handsome jelly, and as they are very small,
mother did not think two dozen would be too many for Adelaide to
prepare.

These, mother said, you only needed to wipe clean with a damp cloth and
remove the stem and blossom end. It was not necessary to cut them, just
put them into the saucepan and nearly cover them with cold water.

Standing the saucepan over the fire, Adelaide put on the cover and
let the apples cook slowly until very soft, stirring occasionally to
keep from burning, then she poured them into the jelly bag and let the
juice drip over night. In the morning she measured the juice, and for
each cup of juice she measured a cup of sugar. The sugar was put in an
earthenware dish and stood at the back of the range, to heat through,
but not brown, while the juice was boiling rapidly for twenty minutes.

As soon as the juice was ready, Adelaide added the sugar gradually,
stirring constantly with the wooden spoon until it had all dissolved.
This she let come to the "jelly point," skimmed quickly, poured into a
pitcher, and filled the sterilized small glasses at once.

Next she placed the jelly in a sunny window. When cold, she wiped each
glass around the top and on the outside with a damp cloth, poured
melted paraffin over the jelly (shaking gently from side to side to
exclude all air), pasted on the labels and stored away in the preserve
closet.


Barberry Jelly

  Barberries,      1 quart
  Sugar
  Water,      2 tablespoons

Mother saw to it that the barberries were bought just before any frost
came, and she liked a few of the berries to be green. The reason for
this, she told Adelaide, was to make the jelly firmer and a much better
color.

Adelaide poured the barberries into the colander, and dipped them up
and down several times in a pan of clear cold water, to rinse off all
dust, then she picked them over and put them into the saucepan with
two tablespoons of cold water; next she mashed the barberries with the
wooden potato masher and placed over the fire to cook slowly until very
soft. It was necessary, Adelaide found, to stir with the wooden spoon
occasionally to prevent burning.

When the fruit was done, she poured it into the jelly bag and the juice
dripped over night. In the morning she measured the juice, and for
each cup she measured an equal amount of sugar, which she put in an
earthenware dish and stood on the back of the stove to heat through,
but not brown, while the juice boiled rapidly for twenty minutes. At
the end of that time Adelaide added the sugar gradually, stirring
constantly until it was all dissolved, then she let it cook to the
"jelly point."

Skimming the jelly quickly, she poured the jelly into a pitcher and
filled the sterilized small glasses at once. They were then placed in
a sunny window, and, when cold, Adelaide wiped around the top and the
outside of each glass with a damp cloth, poured melted paraffin over
the jelly, and shook it gently from side to side to exclude all air.
Before storing the glasses away in the preserve closet Adelaide pasted
on the labels.


Quince Jelly

  Quinces (large),      1/2 dozen
  Sugar
  Water

Quinces are very hard to cut, so Adelaide found it necessary to use the
little sharp knife, after washing and wiping them thoroughly.

In preparing these, Adelaide removed the blossom ends and seeds, cut
each quince into small pieces, nearly covered the fruit with cold
water, placed the saucepan on the fire and let the quinces cook very
slowly until soft, stirring occasionally with the wooden spoon to
prevent burning.

As soon as they had finished cooking she poured the fruit into the
jelly bag and let it drip over night. Next morning she measured the
juice, and for each cup Adelaide measured an equal quantity of sugar.
The sugar she stood at the back of the range in an earthenware dish to
heat through, but not brown, and the juice she let boil rapidly for
twenty minutes. Then she added the sugar gradually, stirring constantly
until all the sugar had dissolved. When the "jelly point" was reached
Adelaide skimmed quickly and poured the jelly into a pitcher. Filling
the sterilized small glasses at once, she then stood them in a sunny
window.

When cold, each glass was carefully wiped with a damp cloth around the
top and on the outside, melted paraffin was poured over the jelly, the
glass was shaken gently from side to side to exclude all air, and,
finally, Adelaide pasted on the labels and stored the glasses away in
the preserve closet.


Quince and Apple Jelly

  Apples (sour),        1/2 dozen
  Quinces (large),      1/4 dozen
  Sugar
  Water

The apples and quinces Adelaide wiped thoroughly clean with a damp
cloth, and removed the stems and blossom ends. The apples she cut into
quarters, but the quinces were cut into very small pieces. When she
emptied the fruit into the saucepan she nearly covered it with cold
water, then stood it over the fire, put on the cover and let it boil
gently until very soft. Occasionally Adelaide stirred it with the
wooden spoon to prevent burning.

As soon as the fruit was sufficiently soft she poured it into the jelly
bag, where it remained over night to drip. In the morning she measured
the juice, and to each cup she measured an equal quantity of sugar,
which she put at the back of the range in an earthenware dish to heat
through, but not brown.

The juice then boiled for twenty minutes, at the end of which time
Adelaide added the sugar gradually, stirring constantly until all had
dissolved. When the juice and sugar reached the "jelly point" Adelaide
skimmed quickly, poured the jelly into a pitcher, filled the sterilized
small glasses at once and stood them in a sunny window.

Each glass was carefully wiped with a damp cloth around the top and on
the outside when they were cold and melted paraffin poured over the
jelly. This Adelaide shook gently from side to side to exclude all air.
Next she pasted on the labels, then stored the tumblers away in the
preserve closet.


Cranberry Jelly

  Cranberries,      1 quart
  Sugar
  Water

After Adelaide had emptied the cranberries into the colander, then
dipped them up and down several times in a pan of clear cold water, she
picked them over.

While her little fingers worked quickly she told mother the cranberries
made her long for Thanksgiving Day to come, and especially this year,
as she wanted _her_ "cranberry jelly" served with the turkey. Mother
said she would feel very proud to have it grace the "festive board."

When the cranberries were all in the saucepan, Adelaide poured enough
cold water over the top so that she could see it easily among the
berries. Placing the saucepan over the fire, the berries cooked slowly,
and Adelaide used the wooden potato masher with which to mash them. She
also stirred them occasionally to keep them from burning.

When the fruit was soft, Adelaide poured the cranberries into the jelly
bag and the juice dripped over night. In the morning she measured to
each cup of juice a cup of sugar. This she stood at the back of the
range in an earthenware dish, to heat through but not brown.

Adelaide cooked the juice rapidly for twenty minutes, then added the
sugar gradually, stirred constantly until the sugar was all dissolved,
and let it continue to cook until the "jelly point" was reached.

Now she worked quickly, skimming the jelly, pouring it into a pitcher
and filling the sterilized small glasses at once. These she stood in a
sunny window.

As soon as the jelly was cold she wiped around the top and the outside
of each glass with a damp cloth, poured melted paraffin over the top,
shaking it gently from side to side to exclude all air, pasted on the
labels, then stored the tumblers away in the preserve closet.

Adelaide tried the combination of cranberries and apples which mother
said made a very good jelly.


Cranberry and Apple Jelly

  Cranberries,       1 pint
  Apples,            4 lbs.
  Sugar
  Water

After wiping the apples thoroughly with a damp cloth, Adelaide removed
the stems and blossom ends and cut into quarters. The cranberries
Adelaide placed in the colander, dipped up and down several times in a
pan of clear cold water, set aside to drain, then picked them over.

Putting the apples and cranberries into the saucepan she nearly covered
them with water, placed them over the fire to cook slowly, stirred
occasionally with the wooden spoon, then when they were very soft and
mushy, Adelaide poured the fruit into the jelly bag. The juice dripped
over night, and, in the morning, she measured the juice. To each cup,
Adelaide measured an equal amount of sugar. The sugar was placed at
the back of the range in an earthenware dish to heat through, but not
brown, while the juice boiled rapidly for twenty minutes. Adding the
sugar gradually, Adelaide stirred constantly until it had all dissolved.

When the cooked juice and sugar reached the "jelly point" she skimmed
quickly, poured into a pitcher, filled the sterilized small glasses at
once, and stood in a sunny window. After the jelly was cold, Adelaide
wiped around the top and outside of each glass with a damp cloth,
poured melted paraffin over the top, shook it gently from side to side
to exclude all air, pasted on the labels, then stored the jelly away in
the preserve closet.

This finished the "jelly making."



CHAPTER IV

PRESERVING AND CANNING


"MOTHER," questioned Adelaide, "what is the difference between
'preserving' and 'canning'?"

"Well, dear, according to the cook books, preserved fruits are cooked
with from three-fourths to an equal weight of sugar, while canned
fruits have only sufficient added to sweeten. Some fruits are often
canned without sugar, as it is not the sugar that keeps the fruit, but
the perfect sterilization of fruit and jars. Sterilizing, you remember,
is the killing of all germs by boiling."

"Some fruits I much prefer canning without sugar, such as apples,
peaches, blueberries and rhubarb. When you open the jars in the winter
time and add the sugar as you need it the flavor is almost like that of
fresh fruit," answered mother.

"Oh, I see, so that is why our peaches taste so much better to me than
anybody else's!" exclaimed Adelaide.

Adelaide began with strawberries, but first she read the "general
rules" again that she had written down in the beginning, because she
did not wish to make a single mistake.


Canned Strawberries

  Strawberries,        1 quart
  Sugar

Emptying the berries into the colander she dipped it up and down
several times in a pan of clear cold water, then let them drain
thoroughly. The berries were hulled, weighed, and put into the
saucepan, which she placed over the fire, heating the fruit through
very gradually. It was better, mother said, to let them stand at the
back of the range until the juice began to run, before bringing the
berries to the boiling point. These boiled slowly five minutes, and
then Adelaide added one-third their weight in sugar. The sugar had
been standing in an earthenware dish at the back of the range, to heat
through, but not brown.

While Adelaide added the sugar very gradually she stirred the fruit
gently with the wooden spoon, and was very careful not to break the
berries.

It did not take long for the fruit and sugar to come to the boiling
point, and then Adelaide filled to overflowing the sterilized pint jar
at once, inserted the silver knife between the jar and fruit to let
the air bubbles rise and break, put on the new rubber smoothly, sealed
quickly and stood the jar upside down out of the way of any draft.

The next morning she inspected the jar carefully, to be sure it did not
leak, then wiped away all stickiness with a damp cloth, pasted on the
label and stored it away in the preserve closet.


Canned Raspberries

  Raspberries,          1 quart
  Sugar

Mother was delighted with this quart of raspberries, they were just
ripe enough, large, and almost every one perfect. It did not take
Adelaide long to pick these over, and she could see each center very
easily. There wasn't a single bug or worm.

She weighed the raspberries before putting them in the colander to dip
up and down several times in a pan of clear cold water. When they had
drained, she emptied the berries into the saucepan and stood it on the
back of the range to let the juice run. She also placed a third of
their weight of sugar in an earthenware dish at the back of the range,
to heat through, but not brown.

When the juice had run sufficiently, Adelaide moved the saucepan
forward, the berries came slowly to the boiling point, and continued
to boil very slowly for five minutes. It was then time to add the warm
sugar, stirring very gently while it dissolved. Adelaide was very
careful not to break the fruit. As soon as the fruit boiled again it
was ready to pour into the sterilized pint jar.

Adelaide filled the jar to overflowing, inserted a silver knife between
the jar and the berries to let all air bubbles come to the top and
break, put on the new rubber smoothly, sealed quickly, then stood the
jar upside down out of the way of any draft.

In the morning she made sure that the jar had not leaked, then with
a damp cloth she wiped away all stickiness, pasted on the label and
stored the jar away in the preserve closet.


Canned Raspberries and Currants

  Raspberries,      1 quart
  Currants,          1 pint
  Sugar,             2 cups

Adelaide picked over the raspberries and currants very carefully,
washed and drained them in the usual manner, but kept them separate.

The currants she placed in the saucepan and mashed with the wooden
potato masher. Next she cooked them very slowly until the currants
looked white, then she strained them through two thicknesses of cheese
cloth. Returning the juice to the saucepan, she added the sugar,
stirring until it was all dissolved, and let it boil slowly twenty
minutes, then she poured in the raspberries carefully and boiled them
three minutes.

The sterilized pint jar Adelaide filled to overflowing at once,
inserted the silver knife to force the air bubbles to the top, placed
the new rubber on smoothly, sealed quickly and stood upside down out of
the way of any draft.

In the morning she wiped off all stickiness with a damp cloth, made
sure the jar did not leak, pasted on the label and stored it away in
the preserve closet.


Canned Cherries

  Cherries,      1 quart
  Sugar

Mother liked to have her cherries cut in halves and the stones taken
out, though she told Adelaide many people preferred them canned whole.
Adelaide followed mother's way, so the large ripe cherries she placed
in the colander, and washed thoroughly by dipping it up and down
several times in a pan of clear cold water.

Next she removed the stems, and cut the cherries in halves with a
silver knife, taking out the stones. Then she weighed the fruit. If
they were tart, she used one-half their weight of sugar, but if they
were of the sweet variety, she needed only one-third of their weight of
sugar.

The cherries and sugar Adelaide put in the saucepan together and stood
at the back of the range to heat gradually. As the sugar began to melt
and the juice to run, she removed the saucepan forward and stirred the
fruit gently with the wooden spoon. Adelaide was careful not to break
the halves, and boiled the cherries slowly twenty minutes.

She filled the sterilized pint jar to overflowing, inserted the silver
knife to bring the air bubbles to the top, placed the new rubber on
smoothly, sealed quickly and stood the jar upside down out of the way
of any draft.

In the morning she wiped off all stickiness with a damp cloth,
inspected the jar carefully to see that it did not leak, pasted on the
label and stored the jar away in the preserve closet.


Canned Blackberries

  Blackberries,      1 quart
  Sugar

These were great big blackberries, firm but ripe, and Adelaide poured
them into the colander. She could not resist popping the biggest one
into her mouth, but mother told her that that was a very bad practice
to begin. Adelaide sighed, but she realized mother was right, so she
stopped eating any more and proceeded to wash the blackberries. She
dipped the colander up and down several times in a pan of clear cold
water, drained thoroughly, then weighed the fruit. Weighing one-third
their weight of sugar, she put it in an earthenware dish and placed it
at the back of the range to heat through, but not brown.

The saucepan containing the blackberries was also stood toward the
back of the range until the juice began to run, when it was moved
forward, and Adelaide watched it while it came slowly to the boiling
point.

For five minutes the berries boiled very slowly, then the warm sugar
was added a little at a time, and Adelaide stirred gently with the
wooden spoon, being careful not to break the blackberries.

They were ready to put in the sterilized pint jar as soon as they
boiled up again. Adelaide filled the jar to overflowing, inserted a
silver knife to bring all bubbles to the top, placed on the new rubber
smoothly, sealed quickly, and stood the jar upside down, out of the
way of any draft. The next morning she examined the jar carefully to
see that it did not leak, wiped off the stickiness with a damp cloth,
pasted on the label, then stored the jar away in the preserve closet.


Canned Blueberries

  Blueberries,      1 quart
  Sugar

The blueberries that mother bought were almost as large as currants and
they were firm and dry.

Adelaide picked them over carefully, put them into the colander, which
she placed in a pan of clear cold water, dipping it up and down several
times to cleanse the berries thoroughly, then set aside to drain. The
berries were then weighed, put into the saucepan and heated gradually.

To each pound of berries Adelaide added one-third of a pound of sugar,
setting it in an earthenware dish at the back of the range to heat
through, but not brown. When the berries had boiled slowly for five
minutes, Adelaide added the sugar very gradually, stirring gently until
it had all dissolved. The fruit was ready to can as soon as it boiled
up again, and at once Adelaide filled to overflowing the sterilized
pint jar. She inserted a silver knife between the fruit and the sides
of the jar to bring all air bubbles to the top, then placed the new
rubber on smoothly, sealed quickly and stood the jar upside down out of
the way of any draft.

In the morning Adelaide removed all stickiness from the jar with a damp
cloth, inspected it thoroughly to see that it did not leak, pasted on
the label and stored the jar away in the preserve closet.


Canned Blueberries (without sugar)

  Blueberries,          1 quart
  Water,          2 tablespoons

Mother let Adelaide put up a jar of blueberries without sugar. They
made delicious pies in the winter.

Adelaide picked over the berries carefully into the colander, then she
dipped it up and down several times in a pan of clear cold water to
cleanse them from all dust. After they had drained thoroughly, Adelaide
poured them into the saucepan, with two tablespoons of cold water (this
was to prevent burning), then she placed the saucepan over the fire and
let the berries heat through very gradually. It was necessary to stir
occasionally with the wooden spoon. They needed to boil but a minute or
two, as they had softened sufficiently while heating through.

As soon as they were done, Adelaide filled the sterilized pint jar to
overflowing, inserted a silver knife to let all air bubbles rise to the
top, then break, placed the new rubber on smoothly, sealed quickly and
stood it upside down out of the way of any draft.

After inspecting the jar next morning to be sure it did not leak, she
wiped it carefully with a damp cloth to remove all stickiness, pasted
on the label and stored the finished product away in the preserve
closet.


Canned Peaches No. 1

  Peaches,      1 dozen
  Sugar,          1 cup
  Water,         2 cups

There were three different ways mother told Adelaide that she might
put up peaches, two ways with sugar and one without. Adelaide put up a
dozen peaches at a time.

The first dozen Adelaide placed in a pan and covered with boiling water
and let them stand a few minutes. It was then easy for her to remove
the skins with a silver knife, cut in halves and take out the stones.
The peaches were large, and mother said they should fill two pint jars.
So Adelaide washed and sterilized two jars. Into a saucepan Adelaide
measured two cups of water and one cup of sugar, which she placed over
the fire and let boil ten minutes, then she dropped the peaches in
carefully and let them cook until you could pierce them with a silver
fork. When they were done she lifted each half peach out with great
care and put twelve of them in one pint jar, and the remaining twelve
in the other pint jar. Next she filled the jars to overflowing with
the syrup, inserted a silver knife between the fruit and the sides of
the jars, to let the air bubbles rise to the top and break, placed new
rubbers on smoothly, sealed quickly and stood both jars upside down out
of the way of any draft.

The next morning she inspected them carefully to see that they did not
leak; then Adelaide wiped off all stickiness with a damp cloth, pasted
on the labels and stored the jars away in the preserve closet.


Canned Peaches No. 2

  Peaches,      1 dozen
  Sugar
  Water,         2 cups

The second dozen of peaches Adelaide prepared in the same manner. She
placed them in a pan, covered them with boiling water, let them stand
a few minutes, removed their skins with a silver knife, cut them in
halves, took out the stones, then weighed the peaches. Placing them
carefully in the saucepan, Adelaide poured over the peaches one-third
of their weight of sugar, and let them stand over night.

In the morning she added two cups of cold water and stood the saucepan
over the fire, letting it come slowly to the boiling point.

From then on the peaches simmered slowly, until they could be pierced
easily with a silver fork, Adelaide stirring occasionally in a careful
manner with a wooden spoon so as not to break the fruit.

When they were sufficiently cooked, she picked out the fruit with
the fork, putting twelve halves in each pint jar, filled them to
overflowing with the syrup, then inserted a silver knife between the
fruit and the jars to let all air bubbles rise to the top and break,
placed the new rubbers on smoothly, sealed quickly, and stood the jars
upside down out of the way of any draft.

In the morning she examined each jar carefully to be sure they did not
leak, wiped off all stickiness with a damp cloth, pasted on the labels,
then stored the peaches away in the preserve closet.


Canned Peaches (without sugar)

  Peaches,      1 dozen
  Water,         2 cups

After Adelaide had covered the peaches with boiling water and let them
stand a few minutes, she removed the skins with a silver knife, cut
them in halves, took out the stones and placed them carefully in the
saucepan.

To these she added two cups of cold water, put the saucepan over the
fire, let the peaches heat through gradually, stirring occasionally
with the wooden spoon, and then boiled them very gently for twenty
minutes, or until they could be pierced easily with a silver fork.

Lifting the peaches out carefully with a fork, Adelaide put twelve
halves in each sterilized pint jar, and filled them to overflowing with
the juice.

Inserting a silver knife between the fruit and the sides of the jars,
she let the air bubbles rise to the top and break. Next she placed the
new rubbers on smoothly, sealed quickly and stood each jar upside down
out of the way of any draft.

Next morning Adelaide examined each jar carefully to be sure they did
not leak, wiped off all stickiness with a damp cloth, pasted on the
labels and stored away the jars in the preserve closet.


Canned Apricots

  Apricots,      1-1/2 dozen
  Sugar
  Water,               1 cup

The apricots are so much smaller than peaches that one dozen, mother
said, should just fill a pint jar, but, to be on the safe side, she
would let Adelaide prepare eighteen. Mother also said she was surprised
that more people did not can this fruit, it was of such a rich and
delicate flavor.

Adelaide washed and wiped each apricot thoroughly, cut it in halves
and removed the stone. After weighing the apricots she put them in the
saucepan and added one-third their weight in sugar and one cup of water.

Placing the saucepan over the fire, Adelaide let the fruit come slowly
to the boiling point, stirring frequently with a wooden spoon to
prevent burning. After they had boiled gently twenty minutes (Adelaide
stirred all the time being very careful not to break the apricots) she
filled the sterilized pint jar at once.

Adelaide picked the apricots out with a silver fork and placed them in
the jar first, then she poured in the juice so that it overflowed.
Using a silver knife, she inserted it between the fruit and the jar, to
let all air bubbles rise to the top and break. Next she placed a new
rubber, which had been dipped in boiling water, on the jar smoothly,
sealed quickly and stood the jar upside down out of the way of any
draft.

In the morning the jar was carefully inspected to see that it did not
leak, and Adelaide used a damp cloth to wipe away all stickiness. After
pasting on the label she stored the jar away in the preserve closet.


Canned Pears

  Pears,      1 dozen
  Sugar
  Water

Adelaide prepared a dozen large pears, although mother said eight were
quite sufficient (if large) to fill a pint jar. It was not a good plan
to crowd such fruit as peaches, pears, and apricots in too closely,
because you might break the fruit.

With the little sharp knife Adelaide peeled the pears very thinly and
cut them in halves, removing the cores. The stems she left on. After
weighing the fruit, she placed it in the saucepan and measured one cup
of water to each pound of fruit. If the pears were tart, she weighed
one-half their weight of sugar; if they were sweet she weighed only
one-third their weight of sugar.

The sugar was put in an earthenware dish at the back of the range to
heat through, but not brown.

Placing the saucepan containing the pears and water over the fire,
Adelaide let them come slowly to the boiling point. With the wooden
spoon she stirred them frequently, being careful not to break the
fruit. If, after twenty minutes of gentle boiling, the pears were
easily pierced with a silver fork, Adelaide added the warm sugar
gradually and stirred carefully and constantly until it boiled up again.

Into the sterilized pint jar Adelaide lifted each half pear with
a silver fork, then poured in the juice until it overflowed. The
inserting of a silver knife between the fruit and the jar, to let all
the bubbles rise to the top and break, was the next thing to be done,
after which she placed a new rubber smoothly on the jar, sealed it
quickly, then stood the jar upside down out of the way of any draft.

In the morning Adelaide wiped off all stickiness from the jar with a
damp cloth, and examined it carefully to be sure that it did not leak.
Next she pasted on the labels and stored the fruit away in the preserve
closet.

Mother told Adelaide that some people found pears a little too flat for
their taste, and in that case a tablespoon of lemon juice was added
with each dozen pears.


Canned Crab Apples

  Crab Apples,       1 dozen
  Sugar
  Water

These crab apples made one of the prettiest jars Adelaide put up. She
did not have to peel the crab apples, just wash and wipe the fruit
thoroughly and remove the blossom ends. The crab apples, of course,
needed to be absolutely perfect.

They were weighed, placed in the saucepan, and a cup of water poured
over to each pound of fruit. One-half their weight of sugar Adelaide
placed in an earthenware dish at the back of the range to warm through,
but not brown. The saucepan she placed on the fire and let the crab
apples and water come slowly to the boiling point, stirring frequently
with the wooden spoon.

When the crab apples could be pierced easily with a silver fork
Adelaide added the sugar gradually and let the fruit boil up again. She
stirred constantly until they had boiled quietly five minutes more,
then she picked the crab apples out with the silver fork and placed in
the sterilized pint jar.

With a silver knife, which she inserted between fruit and jar, Adelaide
let the air bubbles rise to the top and break. The new rubber, after
being dipped in boiling water, was placed on the jar smoothly, then she
sealed it quickly and stood it upside down out of the way of any draft.

In the morning the jar was carefully inspected for any possible leaks,
and Adelaide wiped off all stickiness with a damp cloth. Next she
pasted on the labels and stored the canned fruit away in the preserve
closet.


Canned Quinces

  Quinces,       1/2 dozen
  Sugar
  Water

Six large orange quinces (these are of the best variety) Adelaide
washed and wiped thoroughly, peeled, cut into quarters, and removed
the cores. After weighing the quinces she measured into the saucepan
one and one-third cups of water to each pound of fruit.

Placing the saucepan over the fire she let the water just boil, and
then poured in the quinces. They boiled gently for about twenty
minutes, or until you could pierce them easily with a silver fork.
Adelaide lifted these out very carefully on to a large plate.

To the water in which the quinces had been cooked, she added one-half
their weight in sugar. This she stirred with the wooden spoon until it
was all dissolved and the syrup boiled. The quinces were gently dropped
into the boiling syrup (Adelaide took particular care not to break the
quarters) and when they had cooked slowly for five minutes she filled
the sterilized pint jar with the fruit and poured the syrup over it
until it overflowed. Next she inserted a silver knife between the fruit
and the jar, to let all air bubbles rise to the top and break.

The new rubber, after being dipped in boiling water, was placed
smoothly around the top, then she sealed the jar quickly and stood it
upside down out of the way of any draft.

In the morning the jar was carefully examined to be sure that it did
not leak, and Adelaide wiped off all stickiness from the outside.
Pasting on the label she stored it away in the preserve closet.

Mother had told Adelaide to save the peelings and cores of the quinces,
and put in a saucepan with just enough water to cover. These she let
boil slowly for about one hour, then she poured them into the jelly bag
to drain off the juice. This juice she used to cook her apples in when
she canned some the next day.


Canned Apples

  Apples,          1 dozen
  Sugar
  Quince juice

After washing and peeling the apples, Adelaide cut them into quarters
and removed the cores.

The quince juice was made from the peelings and cores of the quinces
she had canned the day before, by just covering them with cold water
and boiling slowly for one hour. Then she drained them through the
jelly bag.

To each pound of apples Adelaide measured one and one-third cups of
quince juice into the saucepan, and she put one-fourth of their weight
of sugar into an earthenware dish, which she stood at the back of the
stove to warm but not brown.

The saucepan containing the apples and quince juice was placed over the
fire, and the fruit came slowly to the boiling point. Adelaide stirred
quite frequently with the wooden spoon, being careful not to break the
fruit. When you could easily pierce the apples with a silver fork, they
were ready to have the warm sugar added. This Adelaide poured in very
carefully and stirred until dissolved.

Five more minutes they needed to boil, being stirred constantly,
then Adelaide filled the sterilized pint jar at once. First the
fruit (lifted out with a silver fork), then the syrup poured in to
overflowing, then the silver knife inserted between fruit and jar, to
let the air bubbles rise to the top and break, then the new rubber
placed around the top smoothly, and lastly the quick sealing. Adelaide
stood the jar upside down out of the way of any draft. In the morning
she wiped off all stickiness with a damp cloth, from the outside of the
jar, examined it carefully to be sure that it didn't leak, pasted on
the label, then stored the jar away in the preserve closet beside her
steadily growing line of preserves.

The addition of the quince juice made the flavor of the apples
delicious.


Canned Apples (without sugar)

  Apples,                           1 dozen
  Water

Wiping the apples clean, Adelaide pared them with the sharp knife, cut
them into quarters and removed the core. If the apples were very juicy
she did not need to cook them in very much water, otherwise the water
(which she poured over the apples _boiling_) came nearly to the top of
the apples.

Placing the saucepan over the fire, the fruit boiled slowly until
tender, then Adelaide at once filled to overflowing the sterilized pint
jar. Inserting a silver knife between the jar and the fruit, she let
the air bubbles rise to the top and break.

The new rubber, dipped in boiling water, was placed on smoothly, and
the jar sealed quickly, then Adelaide stood it upside down out of the
way of any draft. In the morning she wiped off all stickiness with a
damp cloth from the outside of the jar, inspected it carefully for
any possible leaks, pasted on the label and stored the apples in the
preserve closet.


Canned Pineapples No. 1

  Pineapples (large),                        One
  Sugar,                                   1 cup
  Water,                                  2 cups

Mother had to show Adelaide how to remove the skin and eyes from the
pineapple. Adelaide found it a rather prickly thing to handle, but
after it was ready, she cut it into slices fairly thick, and removed
the little hard core with a sharp knife. Mother told her she could
leave the slices whole, or she could cut them into cubes. Adelaide said
that she preferred cutting them into cubes.

The cup of sugar and two cups of water were measured into the saucepan,
which she placed over the fire and let boil ten minutes, then the
pineapple was dropped in and cooked until tender, or until you could
pierce it easily with a silver fork.

As soon as it had cooked sufficiently, Adelaide filled the sterilized
pint jar, first with the fruit, and then poured in the syrup so that
it overflowed. Next she inserted a silver knife between the pineapple
and the jar, to let the air bubbles rise to the top and break. The new
rubber, which had been dipped in boiling water, was placed around the
top smoothly, then Adelaide sealed it quickly and stood the jar upside
down out of the way of any draft.

In the morning she wiped all stickiness off the jar with a damp cloth,
examined the jar carefully to be sure there were no leaks, pasted on
the label and stored the canned fruit away in the preserve closet.

Another way that mother liked to put up pineapples is as follows:


Canned Pineapples No. 2

  Pineapple (large),                  One
  Sugar

Adelaide, after removing the skin and eyes from the pineapple, cut it
into quarters lengthwise and removed the cores. Then she weighed it,
after which she put the pineapple through the meat chopper.

Into the saucepan she measured one-half its weight of sugar and added
the chopped pineapple.

Placing the saucepan over the fire, Adelaide let the fruit and sugar
come slowly to the boiling point, stirring frequently with the wooden
spoon to keep from burning. After the boiling point was reached, the
fruit cooked slowly for twenty minutes, and Adelaide put it into the
sterilized pint jar at once. The jar was filled to overflowing and a
silver knife inserted between the fruit and the jar, to let all air
bubbles rise to the top and break.

Next she placed a new rubber around the top smoothly, sealed it quickly
and stood it upside down out of the way of any draft.

In the morning she examined the jar carefully to see that it did not
leak, wiped off all stickiness with a damp cloth, pasted on the label
and stored the finished product away in the preserve closet.

Mother often used pineapple put up in this manner for pineapple ice
cream, or pineapple sherbet. It made a delicious dessert.


Canned Plums

  Plums (large),                   1-1/2 dozen
  Sugar
  Water

The large blue plums, the green-gage plums, or the large red plums,
were all put up in the same manner.

Adelaide wiped each plum thoroughly with a damp cloth, cut it in halves
with a silver knife, and removed the stone. Then she weighed them.
To each pound of fruit Adelaide measured one cup of water and one cup
of sugar. The plums and the water she placed in the saucepan over the
fire and let them come slowly to the boiling point, while the sugar was
heating at the back of the range in an earthenware dish.

Adelaide boiled the plums gently, stirring occasionally with a wooden
spoon, until they were tender or until you could pierce them with a
silver fork easily. It usually took twenty minutes. The sugar was
then ready to add to the fruit, and Adelaide stirred the mixture very
carefully until it was all dissolved. As soon as the fruit boiled up
Adelaide canned at once. She lifted each plum carefully with a silver
fork into the sterilized pint jar, then poured in the juice till it
overflowed. Inserting a silver knife between the fruit and the jar,
Adelaide let the air bubbles come to the top and break. The new rubber,
after being dipped in boiling water, was fitted on smoothly, then she
sealed the jar quickly and stood it upside down out of the way of any
draft.

In the morning, with a damp cloth she wiped off all stickiness from
the outside of the jar, inspected it carefully to be sure that it did
not leak, pasted on the label and stored the jar away in the preserve
closet.


Canned Rhubarb

  Rhubarb,      2-1/2 lbs.
  Sugar

If the rhubarb is pretty in color and young and tender, mother told
Adelaide that she did not need to peel the stalks, but just wash and
wipe them clean and cut them in small pieces with the little sharp
knife. Then she weighed the fruit and allowed one-half pound of sugar
to each pound of rhubarb. Both sugar and rhubarb were put in the
saucepan and placed over the fire to come very slowly to the boiling
point. Adelaide stirred constantly with a wooden spoon to prevent
burning, and as soon as it had boiled fifteen minutes she poured it
into the sterilized pint jar. The silver knife she inserted between the
jar and the fruit, to let all air bubbles rise to the top and break.
After the new rubber was dipped in boiling water and placed over the
jar smoothly, Adelaide sealed it quickly, then stood the jar upside
down out of the way of any draft. In the morning she inspected the jar
carefully to be sure that there were no leaks, wiped off all stickiness
with a damp cloth, pasted on the label and stored the jar away in the
preserve closet.

Sometimes mother canned rhubarb without sugar, so Adelaide tried a jar.
Mother said the flavor was much better and it was not so juicy, also
it was excellent for pies, shortcakes, etc., adding the sugar when you
used it.


Canned Rhubarb (without sugar)

  Rhubarb,                               2-1/2 lbs.
  Water,                               1 tablespoon

Adelaide washed and wiped each stalk thoroughly, then cut it into small
pieces. These she put in the saucepan with a tablespoon of cold water
to keep from burning, and stirred with a wooden spoon. She let the
fruit heat very gradually and boiled slowly for fifteen minutes. It was
then ready to can, and Adelaide poured the rhubarb into the sterilized
pint jar at once, after which she inserted a silver knife between the
jar and the fruit, to let all air bubbles rise to the top and break.
Next came the new rubber, which she dipped in boiling water, placed
over the top smoothly, then sealed quickly. Standing the jar upside
down she stood it out of the way of any draft. In the morning Adelaide
examined the jar carefully to be sure that it did not leak, wiped off
the outside with a damp cloth, pasted on the label and stored the jar
away in the preserve closet.


Damson Plum Preserves

  Damson Plums,      1 quart
  Sugar
  Water

The Damson plums Adelaide wiped thoroughly, and pricked each one with
a silver fork twice. Then she weighed the fruit. To each pound she
measured three-quarters of a pound of sugar. To each pound of sugar
Adelaide measured one cup of water. The sugar and water she put in the
saucepan and placed over the fire. When the syrup boiled, Adelaide
skimmed it and added the plums. The plums Adelaide cooked until they
were tender, stirring them carefully with a wooden spoon so as not to
break the fruit, then filled the sterilized pint jar to overflowing.
A silver knife was inserted between the fruit and jar to let all
air bubbles rise to the top and break. The new rubber was dipped in
boiling water, placed over the top smoothly and the jar sealed quickly.
This Adelaide stood upside down out of the way of any draft. In the
morning the jar was carefully examined to see that it did not leak, all
stickiness was wiped off with a damp cloth, the label was pasted on,
and then Adelaide stored the jar away in the preserve closet.


Preserved Currants

  Currants,      1 quart
  Sugar

The currants Adelaide picked over carefully and put into the colander.
This she placed in a pan of clear cold water and dipped up and down
several times until quite clean. After they had drained well she
weighed them, and to each pound of fruit she measured a pound of sugar.
Half of the currants Adelaide put in the saucepan and placed on the
fire to heat through. When they were thoroughly warmed she removed the
saucepan from the fire and mashed the currants with the wooden potato
masher, then she strained the juice through the jelly bag.

The juice and sugar Adelaide put into the saucepan and boiled gently
for fifteen minutes, after which she added the other half of the
currants. It took the currants only five minutes to just cook through
and they remained whole in the jelly.

This was poured into sterilized tumblers. When cold the tumblers were
wiped free from all stickiness, and Adelaide sealed them by pouring
melted paraffin over the top, shaking it gently from side to side to
exclude all air. Pasting on the labels she stored them away in the
preserve closet.


Preserved Currants and Raspberries

  Currants,          1 pint
  Raspberries,      1 quart
  Sugar

The currants and raspberries Adelaide picked over and kept separate.
She did not forget to look carefully in the center of each raspberry to
be sure that there were no little worms. After washing the currants,
placing them in the colander and dipping it up and down several
times in a pan of clear cold water she poured them into the saucepan
and mashed them with the wooden potato masher. Adelaide washed the
raspberries in the same manner, but stood them aside to drain while the
currants were cooking. The currants simmered slowly for half an hour
(or until the currants looked white), and then the juice was strained
through the jelly bag. Adelaide returned the juice to the saucepan,
and added the sugar. (The currants and berries had been weighed after
washing them, and to each pound of fruit she measured three-fourths of
a pound of sugar.)

The juice and sugar boiled slowly for twenty minutes, then Adelaide
poured in the raspberries carefully and cooked three minutes more.

Into the sterilized pint jar she skimmed the raspberries, then added
the juice to overflowing. The silver knife was inserted between the jar
and the fruit, to let all air bubbles rise to the top and break, the
new rubber was placed on smoothly and Adelaide sealed the jar quickly.
It was then placed upside down out of the way of any draft. In the
morning the jar was carefully inspected for any leaks, wiped free from
all stickiness with a damp cloth and the label pasted on. Adelaide then
stored it away in the preserve closet.


Preserved Strawberries

  Strawberries,      1 quart
  Sugar

Before hulling the strawberries, Adelaide put them into the colander
and dipped it up and down several times in a pan of clear cold water to
cleanse the berries thoroughly. After hulling the fruit she weighed it,
and for each pound she weighed a pound of sugar.

The strawberries were put into the saucepan and the sugar sprinkled
over them and they stood until the juice ran freely. Then the saucepan
was placed on the fire and the fruit and sugar heated through.
Adelaide stirred with the wooden spoon, being careful not to break the
strawberries.

When the sugar was all dissolved and the berries thoroughly heated,
Adelaide skimmed the berries out into a dish. The syrup then boiled
for ten minutes slowly, after which the strawberries were dropped in
carefully and boiled two minutes. Into the sterilized pint jar Adelaide
skimmed all the berries, filled it to overflowing with the syrup,
inserted a silver knife between the fruit and the jar to let all air
bubbles rise to the top and break, placed on the new rubber smoothly,
sealed the jar quickly and stood it upside down out of the way of any
draft.

In the morning she examined the jar carefully to see that it did not
leak, wiped off all stickiness with a damp cloth, pasted on the label
and stored the preserved berries away in the preserve closet.


Preserved Blackberries

  Blackberries,      1 quart
  Sugar

After picking over the blackberries Adelaide placed them in the
colander and dipped it up and down in a pan of clear cold water several
times to remove all dust and dirt. After weighing the berries she
poured them into a saucepan and sprinkled over them an equal weight
of sugar. These stood for an hour before Adelaide put the saucepan
over the fire and let the berries and sugar come slowly to the boiling
point. Adelaide stirred them gently with a wooden spoon, being careful
not to break the fruit.

When they boiled up she skimmed out the blackberries into a dish and
the syrup cooked for five minutes.

Returning the blackberries to the syrup she put the saucepan at the
back of the range and let the fruit slowly heat without stirring.
After they had stood fifteen minutes she poured the berries at once
into the sterilized pint jar, filling it to overflowing. With a silver
knife, which she inserted between the jar and the fruit, she let all
air bubbles rise to the top and break. Placing a new rubber over the
top smoothly she sealed quickly and stood the jar upside down out of
the way of any draft. In the morning it was ready to be inspected
carefully for any leaks, and she wiped off all stickiness with a damp
cloth, pasted on the label and stored the fruit away in the preserve
closet.


Preserved Cherries

  Cherries,      1 quart
  Sugar

Adelaide washed the cherries in the colander, which she dipped up and
down several times in a pan of clear cold water. She took off the stems
and removed the stones, weighed the cherries and added a pound of sugar
to each pound of fruit. Then she let them stand over night, and the
next morning put them into the saucepan to cook slowly until clear and
tender, stirring carefully with a wooden spoon so as not to break the
fruit.

When they were done Adelaide picked out the cherries first with the
skimmer and dropped them into the sterilized pint jar, then she filled
it to overflowing with the syrup, inserted a silver knife between the
fruit and the jar to let all air bubbles rise to the top and break,
placed on a new rubber smoothly, sealed quickly and stood the jar
upside down out of the way of any draft.

In the morning she inspected the jar carefully to be sure that it did
not leak, wiped off all stickiness with a damp cloth, pasted on the
label and stored the jar away in the preserve closet.

"Mother," said Adelaide one morning, "it is not nearly as discouraging
to preserve as it is to just plain cook."

"Why, what do you mean, dear?" answered mother.

"Well, I've been thinking how quickly we eat up things you cook for us
every day, while my jams and jellies are still in the preserve closet,"
mused Adelaide.

"Just wait until next winter, young lady, then you'll see how quickly
they will disappear," laughed mother.



CHAPTER V

CONSERVES


WHEN Adelaide came to "conserves," mother told her she had only a very
few recipes, but that what they lacked in numbers they made up for in
quality.

"Have you the recipe for 'Peach conserve'?" asked Adelaide anxiously.

"Oh, yes, dear, that is our favorite, and I don't know how many people
have asked me how to make it. I couldn't possibly keep house without
it," answered mother.

Conserves, mother explained to Adelaide, were very similar to jams,
with the addition of lemon or orange juice, raisins and nuts.


Rhubarb Conserve

  Rhubarb (cut up),                        2 cups
  Sugar,                                   2 cups
  Lemon juice,                    1 dessert spoon
  Seedless raisins,                       1/4 lb.
  Walnut meats,                           1/4 lb.

Mother picked out the pinkest, prettiest rhubarb she could find, then
Adelaide washed and wiped each stalk and cut it into small pieces. When
she had filled the cup with rhubarb twice she put it into the saucepan
and poured over it two cups of sugar and a dessert spoon of lemon juice.

Adelaide next measured out a fourth of a pound of seedless raisins.
Upon these she poured boiling water which stood a minute or two, then
she drained them. After looking them over carefully to remove any
stems, she added them to the rhubarb, sugar, etc. Twelve or fourteen
large walnuts were sufficient to crack. The meats Adelaide put through
the meat chopper and added to the rest of the good things.

After standing three hours the saucepan was placed on the fire and the
conserve came slowly to the boiling point. Adelaide stirred the mixture
frequently with a wooden spoon while it boiled for twenty minutes. It
was then ready to pour into the sterilized tumblers.

When the conserve was cold, Adelaide wiped around the top and the
outside of each tumbler with a damp cloth, poured melted paraffin over
the top (which she shook gently from side to side to exclude all air),
pasted on the labels and stored the glasses away in the preserve closet.


Apricot Conserve

  Apricots,                            1 dozen
  Sugar,                                2 cups
  Lemon juice,                 1 dessert spoon
  Orange juice,                1 dessert spoon
  Grated rind of half a lemon
  Grated rind of half an orange
  Seedless raisins,                    1/4 lb.
  Walnut meats,                        1/4 lb.

Adelaide wiped the apricots thoroughly with a damp cloth, then cut them
in halves with a silver knife and removed the stones. These she placed
in a saucepan, poured over them two cups of sugar, a dessert spoon each
of lemon and orange juice, and the grated rind of half a lemon and
half an orange. Next she measured out a fourth of a pound of seedless
raisins and covered them with boiling water for a few minutes, after
which she drained them and picked off any stems. Twelve or fourteen
large walnuts were sufficient to crack, and the walnut meats and the
raisins Adelaide put through the meat chopper, then added these to the
fruit in the saucepan.

Placing the saucepan over the fire she heated it through slowly and let
the fruit boil for forty minutes. Adelaide stirred the contents of the
saucepan constantly with a wooden spoon, and when it was done, poured
it at once into the sterilized tumblers.

As soon as it was cool she wiped the tops and outsides with a damp
cloth, poured melted paraffin over the conserve, shaking the tumblers
from side to side to exclude all air, pasted on the labels and stored
the jars away in the preserve closet.


Peach Conserve

  Peaches (large),        Eight
  Sugar,                 2 cups
  Oranges,                  One
  Seedless raisins,     1/4 lb.
  Walnut meats,         1/4 lb.

To remove the skins from the peaches easily, Adelaide poured boiling
water over them. Letting them stand for a minute or two, she then
peeled off the skins with a silver knife and sliced the peaches into
small pieces, throwing away the stones. Placing the peaches into a
saucepan she added two cups of sugar. After weighing out one-fourth
of a pound of seedless raisins she covered them with boiling water for
about a minute, drained, and picked off any stems. The walnuts (twelve
or fourteen large ones) she cracked and put with the raisins.

The rind of the orange she grated over the sugar and peaches, and then,
after removing the seeds, Adelaide put the pulp of the orange, the
raisins and the nuts through the meat chopper.

When everything was in the saucepan together, Adelaide placed it over
the fire and let it come slowly to the boiling point, and then cook
gently for an hour. Adelaide stirred frequently with a wooden spoon
to prevent burning, and when the conserve had cooked sufficiently she
poured it into the sterilized tumblers.

As soon as it was cold, she wiped around the top and outside of each
tumbler with a damp cloth, poured melted paraffin over the conserve
(shaking it gently from side to side to exclude all air), pasted on the
labels and stored the glasses away in the preserve closet.


Plum Conserve

  Large blue plums,      1 dozen
  Sugar,                  2 cups
  Oranges,              One-half
  Seedless raisins,      1/4 lb.
  Walnut meats,          1/4 lb.

After washing and wiping the plums thoroughly, Adelaide cut them in
halves with a silver knife, and removed the stones. Placing them in
the saucepan she poured two cups of sugar and the grated rind of half
an orange over them. Twelve or fourteen large walnuts were cracked and
the meats taken out. Over the quarter of a pound of raisins (which she
weighed) Adelaide poured boiling water. These stood thus for about a
minute, then she drained off the water and picked out the stems.

The raisins, the walnut meats, and the pulp of the half orange Adelaide
put through the meat chopper and added to the plums, etc. in the
saucepan. Placing the saucepan over the fire she let the contents come
slowly to the boiling point, stirring it occasionally with the wooden
spoon. It cooked gently for one hour, and then Adelaide poured the
conserve at once into the sterilized tumblers.

When it was cold the tops and outsides were wiped off carefully with a
damp cloth, melted paraffin was poured over the top and shaken gently
from side to side to exclude all air, the labels were pasted on and
then the conserve was stored away in the preserve closet.

The green-gage plums and the large red plums would make an equally
delicious conserve, mother said, and she thought it would be nice to
substitute figs sometimes in place of raisins. As the foregoing recipes
were all she had, mother told Adelaide that it was just as well to
leave further experimenting until another year. Adelaide was very
willing, as she was eager to try "Spiced Fruits."



CHAPTER VI

SPICED FRUITS


"WHEN you were a tiny little baby," said mother, "I had a young girl
living with me who taught me how to put up Spiced Currants. She had
lived in the country, and her favorite aunt was renowned for her
tempting preserves."

"Oh, mother," interrupted Adelaide, "do you think I could ever become
renowned, or whatever you called it?"

"I think there is no reason why you shouldn't, if you continue to do
as good work in the future as you have thus far. Every year you will
become more expert, and find out many new combinations that especially
suit your taste and appeal to others," answered mother. "All spiced
fruits," she continued, "are particularly tasty when served with cold
meats."


Spiced Currants

  Currants,                             1 quart
  Sugar,                                  1 lb.
  Vinegar,                              1/2 cup
  Cloves (ground),                   1 teaspoon
  Cinnamon (ground),                 1 teaspoon

Adelaide picked over the currants and removed the stems. Putting the
currants into the colander, she dipped it up and down several times
in a pan of clear cold water, then set it aside to drain. Into the
saucepan she poured the currants, added one pound of sugar, a half a
cup of vinegar, and a teaspoon each of cloves and cinnamon.

Placing the saucepan over the fire, she let the currants heat through
gradually, stirring occasionally with a wooden spoon, and when
thoroughly scalded she lifted out the currants with a skimmer.

Adelaide boiled the juice until it thickened, then added the currants
again and let them just boil up. They were then ready to put into the
sterilized pint jar, so Adelaide filled it to overflowing. Next she
inserted a silver knife between the jar and the fruit, to let all air
bubbles rise to the top and break, placed a new rubber on the jar
smoothly, sealed quickly and stood upside down out of the way of any
draft.

In the morning the jar was examined carefully to be sure it did not
leak, all stickiness was wiped off with a damp cloth from the outside,
then the label was pasted on and Adelaide stored the jar away in the
preserve closet.


Spiced Cherries

  Cherries,                                  2 lbs.
  Sugar,                                      1 lb.
  Vinegar,                                  1/2 cup
  Stick cinnamon,                         1/3 ounce
  Whole cloves,                           1/3 ounce

Adelaide stemmed the cherries and washed them in the colander by
dipping it up and down several times in a pan of clear cold water,
after which she stoned them. Into a saucepan she measured one-half a
cup of vinegar. To this she added a third of an ounce each of whole
cloves and cinnamon tied up in a muslin bag. The vinegar and spices
Adelaide let boil gently for fifteen minutes, then she added one
pound of sugar and boiled the mixture ten minutes longer, stirring
constantly with the wooden spoon and skimming well. At the end of the
ten minutes Adelaide dropped in the cherries and cooked the fruit
gently for one-half hour. Lifting out the cherries with a skimmer, she
put them into the sterilized pint jar, added the juice to overflowing,
and inserted a silver knife between the jar and the fruit to let all
air bubbles rise to the top and break. Then she placed on a new rubber
and sealed quickly, standing the jar upside down out of the way of any
draft.

The next morning, after carefully inspecting the jar for any possible
leaks, Adelaide wiped off all stickiness from the outside with a damp
cloth, pasted on the label and stored the jar away in the preserve
closet.


Spiced Gooseberries

  Gooseberries,               1-3/4 lbs.
  Sugar,                      1-1/4 lbs.
  Vinegar,                       1/2 cup
  Green ginger root,       a small piece
  Whole cloves,                      Six
  Whole allspice,                  Three
  One bay leaf
  One blade of mace
  Stick cinnamon,        one small piece

From the gooseberries Adelaide removed the tops, then washed them in
the colander, which she placed in a pan of clear cold water and dipped
up and down several times. While these drained, Adelaide measured the
half cup of vinegar and one and one-fourth pounds of sugar into the
saucepan. Placing the saucepan on the fire she brought the sugar and
vinegar to the boiling point, added the gooseberries, then removed the
saucepan from the fire.

The small piece of green ginger root she cut into small pieces, the
six whole cloves, the three whole allspice, the bay leaf, the blade
of mace, and the piece of stick cinnamon were tied in a small piece
of muslin and added to the contents of the saucepan. Covering the
saucepan, it was placed aside over night.

The next day Adelaide brought the fruit quickly to the boiling point
and cooked the gooseberries gently until they were tender but not
broken. When they were done, she carefully skimmed out the gooseberries
and placed them into the sterilized pint jar, then filled it to
overflowing with the syrup. Between the jar and the fruit Adelaide
inserted a silver knife, to allow all air bubbles to rise to the top
and break. The new rubber was placed on smoothly, and she sealed the
jar quickly, standing it upside down out of the way of any draft.

In the morning the jar was carefully wiped with a damp cloth to remove
all stickiness and examined for any possible leaks. Next Adelaide
pasted on the label and stored the spiced gooseberries away in the
preserve closet.


Spiced Pears

  Pears (medium),                   Eight
  Sugar,                            1 cup
  Vinegar,                        1/2 cup
  Water,                          1/2 cup
  Cinnamon (stick),           small piece
  Cloves (whole),              1 teaspoon
  Mixed spices (ground),       1 teaspoon

Mother said she found that when she put up "spiced pears" the year
before that it took fifteen pears of medium size to fill a quart jar,
so she told Adelaide to prepare eight pears. Adelaide washed, wiped,
pared, quartered and removed the core from each pear.

The cup of sugar, half cup each of water and vinegar, cinnamon stick
and whole cloves were put into the saucepan and placed over the fire,
then the teaspoon of mixed ground spices was also added; the latter
were tied in a small piece of muslin.

These Adelaide let boil for five minutes, after which she skimmed the
syrup and added the pears. It was necessary to boil the pears very
gently for thirty-five minutes, stirring them frequently with the
wooden spoon, but carefully so as not to break the fruit. When they
were done Adelaide lifted the pears out carefully with a silver fork
into the sterilized pint jar, and poured in the syrup to overflowing.

With a silver knife, which she inserted between the fruit and jar, she
let all air bubbles rise to the top and break, then fitted on a new
rubber smoothly, sealed the jar quickly and stood it upside down out of
the way of any draft. In the morning, after examining the jar carefully
to see that it did not leak, Adelaide wiped off all stickiness with a
damp cloth, pasted on the label and stored the jar away in the preserve
closet.


Spiced Peaches

  Peaches (medium),            1 dozen
  Sugar (brown),                 1 lb.
  Vinegar,                       1 cup
  Cloves (whole)
  Cloves (ground),          1 teaspoon
  Cinnamon (ground),        1 teaspoon
  Allspice (ground),      1/2 teaspoon

Adelaide put the pound of brown sugar and the cup of vinegar into the
saucepan and added the ground spices (clove, cinnamon, and allspice)
tied up in a small piece of muslin. The saucepan she placed over the
fire and let the contents boil gently for ten minutes.

While the syrup was boiling, Adelaide poured boiling water over the
peaches, and after they had stood a minute she peeled them with a
silver knife. Adelaide left the peaches whole, and stuck four or five
cloves in each peach.

As soon as the syrup had cooked sufficiently she dropped the peaches
in it and cooked them until they could be pierced easily with a silver
fork.

The twelve peaches were enough to fill two pint jars. Adelaide lifted
the peaches out carefully with the silver fork and placed them in the
sterilized jars. Then she filled the jars to overflowing with the
syrup. With a silver knife, which she inserted between the fruit and
the jar, Adelaide let all air bubbles rise to the top and break. Next,
new rubbers were fitted on smoothly and the jars sealed quickly, after
which she stood them upside down out of the way of any draft. In the
morning the stickiness was wiped from each jar with a damp cloth, they
were carefully inspected to be sure there were no leaks, then Adelaide
pasted on the labels and stored the jars away in the preserve closet.


Spiced Watermelon Rind

  Watermelon rind,          2-1/3 lbs.
  Sugar (brown),                 1 lb.
  Vinegar,                       1 cup
  Cinnamon (ground),      1/2 teaspoon
  Cloves (ground),        1/3 teaspoon
  Allspice (ground),      1/2 teaspoon
  Ginger root,             small piece
  Whole mace,               1 teaspoon
  Bay leaves,                      Two

One day when watermelons were in their prime Adelaide's mother bought
a part of one for dessert. She told Adelaide to save all the rind and
the next day she would show her how to make another tasty relish to be
eaten with cold meats.

In the morning Adelaide pared the rind neatly and cut it into many
attractive shapes. The saucepan had been previously placed over the
fire, containing the pound of sugar, the cup of vinegar, the piece of
ginger root, the whole mace and the bay leaves. The ground spices,
one-half teaspoon each of cinnamon and allspice, and the one-third
teaspoon of cloves, were tied in a small piece of muslin and added to
the syrup. When the syrup reached the boiling point Adelaide dropped
in the watermelon rind, and it was cooked slowly until perfectly
tender. Then Adelaide lifted out the rind very carefully with a silver
fork into a dish, covered, and stood it away over night. The saucepan
was removed from the fire and placed aside to cool. Next morning,
Adelaide let the syrup again come to the boiling point, and added the
rind. She watched carefully, and when it came to the boiling point a
second time she lifted the rind carefully with a silver fork into the
sterilized jar. The syrup she poured in until it overflowed.

Inserting a silver knife between the jar and the rind Adelaide let all
air bubbles rise to the top and break, then fitted the new rubber on
smoothly, sealed quickly and stood the jar upside down out of the way
of any draft.

In the morning Adelaide wiped off all stickiness from the outside of
the jar, examined it carefully to be sure it did not leak, pasted on
the label and stored it away in the preserve closet.


Spiced Grapes

  Grapes,                 1-3/4 lbs.
  Sugar,                       1 lb.
  Vinegar,                   1/4 cup
  Cinnamon (ground),      1 teaspoon
  Cloves (ground),        1 teaspoon

Adelaide picked over and washed the grapes by placing them in the
colander and dipping it up and down several times in a pan of clear
cold water. After draining thoroughly she removed the skins and placed
them in a dish which she stood aside. The pulps were put into the
saucepan and cooked slowly until the seeds could be removed by pressing
the grapes through a strainer.

The strained pulp, the skins, the pound of sugar, the fourth of a cup
of vinegar, and the teaspoon each of ground cinnamon and cloves (the
spices were tied in a piece of muslin) were all put in the saucepan
together and cooked until thick. Adelaide then filled the sterilized
jar with the fruit, inserted a silver knife between the grapes and the
jar to let the air bubbles rise to the top and break, fitted on a new
rubber smoothly, sealed the jar quickly and stood it upside down out of
the way of any draft. In the morning she inspected the jar carefully
to be sure that it did not leak, wiped off all stickiness with a damp
cloth, pasted on the label and stored the jar away in the preserve
closet.


Spiced Blackberries

  Blackberries,            2-1/2 lbs.
  Sugar,                        1 lb.
  Vinegar,                    1/2 cup
  Cinnamon (ground),       1 teaspoon
  Cloves (ground),         1 teaspoon

Adelaide put the pound of sugar, the half cup of vinegar, and the
teaspoon each of ground cinnamon and cloves (the spices she tied in a
piece of muslin) into the saucepan over the fire.

While the syrup was coming slowly to the boiling point Adelaide picked
over and washed the blackberries by placing them in the colander, which
she dipped up and down several times in a pan of clear cold water.
After the blackberries had drained well and the syrup had come to the
boiling point Adelaide added the blackberries. These she let boil
gently for fifteen minutes, when she skimmed out the blackberries and
dropped them carefully into the sterilized pint jar. Next she filled
the jar to overflowing with the syrup, inserted a silver knife between
the fruit and the jar to let all air bubbles rise to the top and break,
fitted on a new rubber smoothly, sealed the jar quickly, and stood it
upside down out of the way of any draft.

In the morning Adelaide inspected the jar carefully to see that it did
not leak, wiped off all stickiness from the outside with a damp cloth,
pasted on the label and stored the jar away in the preserve closet.

"Perhaps," said mother, "you may like to try other fruits another year,
preserved in vinegar and sugar with spices, but I think for the present
the ones I have given you will do."

"Yes, I think so too," replied Adelaide.



CHAPTER VII

PICKLES


ADELAIDE had never been allowed to eat many pickles, because mother did
not approve of them for growing children, but an occasional sample had
made Adelaide look forward to the time when she could have the same
privilege as "grown ups," to eat anything she liked. The thought of
preparing the pickles seemed to Adelaide the next best thing to eating
them.

"I hope when I put up 'pickled onions' I don't cry," laughed Adelaide.
"I can just remember grandma peeling a great big pan of onions and the
tears rolling down her cheeks."

"Well, Adelaide," said mother, "if you will peel your onions under
running water you won't need to waste any of your tears over them."

Mother said she would start Adelaide with the small pickled beets, as
they were not only a general favorite, but exceedingly attractive to
look at.

The vinegar used was the very best cider vinegar, as it did not pay to
use any other kind.


Pickled Beets

  Beets (very small),       1 quart
  Sugar,                    1/4 cup
  Vinegar,                  1/2 cup
  Water,                      1 cup

Mother ordered her beets from a market gardener and he brought them to
her fresh. Mother always asked for the very, very small ones.

Adelaide cooked the beets until she could pierce them easily with
a silver fork, plunged them into cold water, peeled and filled two
sterilized pint jars. The half cup of vinegar, the fourth cup of sugar,
and the cup of water, were put in a saucepan. Adelaide placed it over
the fire and let it come to the boiling point.

After boiling the mixture for two minutes, Adelaide filled the jars to
overflowing with the syrup. Inserting a silver knife between the beets
and the jar she let all air bubbles rise to the top and break. To fit
on a new rubber smoothly, seal the jar quickly and stand it upside
down out of the way of any draft, was the work of but a moment.

The next morning Adelaide wiped the outside of the jar with a damp
cloth, examined it carefully to see that it did not leak, pasted on the
label and stored the jar in the preserve closet.


Pickled Onions No. 1

  Onions (very small),                 1 quart
  Salt,                                1/2 cup
  Water (cold),                       2 quarts
  Vinegar,                               1 cup
  Mixed spices (whole),      1/4 small package

This recipe was one that had been given to Adelaide's mother by a dear
old friend. The onions were just the common variety but very small, not
much larger than a good sized cherry.

Adelaide poured boiling water on the onions, as it made them easier to
peel, then she let the cold water run into the pan all the time she
was peeling them. This was to prevent her wasting precious tears. The
little sharp knife was the best one to use.

A quart of onions does not sound very big, but before Adelaide finished
peeling them she thought she would never come to the end, there seemed
so many.

Into a large saucepan she measured two quarts of cold water and
one-half a cup of salt, then added the onions.

These stood for twenty-four hours, covered, after which she poured off
the brine (mother explained to Adelaide that that was what they called
the salt and water) and rinsed them by pouring clear cold water on them.

After draining the onions well in the colander, she filled two
sterilized pint jars with the onions.

The cup of vinegar and fourth of a package of whole mixed spices (the
package was the size that sold for ten cents before the war) were put
in a saucepan and simmered slowly on the fire for one hour, after which
Adelaide divided the vinegar and spices equally between the two jars
and filled them to overflowing with cold vinegar.

She inserted a silver knife between the onions and the jars to let the
air bubbles rise and break, fitted on a new rubber smoothly, sealed
quickly and stood the jars upside down over night.

In the morning she wiped the jars thoroughly with a damp cloth,
inspected them carefully to be sure that they did not leak, pasted on
the labels and stored the jars away in the preserve closet.

Mother said these would need to stand a month before they would be
ready to be eaten.


Pickled Onions No. 2

  Onions (small white),         1 quart
  Salt,                         1/2 cup
  Water (boiling),             2 quarts
  Vinegar,
  Whole cloves,                 1 dozen
  Bay leaf,                         One
  Mace,                       One blade

The onions used in this recipe were what are called the "silver skins"
or little white button onions.

After Adelaide poured boiling water on the onions, so that she could
peel them more easily, she let the cold water run in the pan and peeled
the onions (with the little sharp knife) under running water to prevent
the tears from falling.

The onions she placed in a stone jar and poured over a brine made of
two quarts of boiling water and one-half of a cup of salt.

These she covered and let stand over night.

The next morning Adelaide emptied the onions into the colander,
draining off the brine and rinsing them in clear cold water.

Into a saucepan she poured enough vinegar to cover the onions, added
the dozen whole cloves, the blade of mace and the bay leaf and let them
come slowly to the boiling point. Then she added the onions and moved
the saucepan towards the back of the range to let it stand for fifteen
minutes.

At the end of that time Adelaide filled the two sterilized pint jars
with the onions, poured over the hot vinegar and spices to overflowing,
inserted a silver knife between the onions and the jar to let all air
bubbles rise to the top and break, fitted on the new rubbers smoothly,
sealed the jars quickly, then stood them upside down over night.

In the morning they were inspected carefully for any leaks, wiped off
thoroughly with a damp cloth and after the labels were pasted on,
stored away in the preserve closet.


Chili Sauce

  Tomatoes (large, ripe),                Nine
  Onions (large),                         Two
  Onions (small),                         One
  Red peppers,                            One
  Salt,                          1 tablespoon
  Mixed spices (ground),      1-1/2 teaspoons
  Ginger (ground),               1/2 teaspoon
  Sugar (brown),                        1 lb.
  Vinegar,                         1-1/2 cups

Over the tomatoes and onions Adelaide poured boiling water, then peeled
them.

The red pepper she washed and wiped, cut in halves, and removed the
seeds. Through the meat chopper she put the tomatoes, onions, and
pepper, then emptied them into a saucepan.

To these Adelaide added the tablespoon of salt, the one and one-half
teaspoons of ground mixed spices, the half teaspoon of ground ginger,
the pound of brown sugar and the one and one-half cups of vinegar.

Placing the saucepan over the fire she let the contents come slowly to
the boiling point, stirring occasionally with the wooden spoon, and
stewed the mixture gently for one-half hour.

It was then ready to pour into the sterilized pint jars. These she
filled to overflowing, inserted a silver knife around the sides to let
all air bubbles rise to the top and break, fitted on the new rubbers,
sealed quickly and stood upside down out of the way of any draft.

In the morning Adelaide looked the jars over carefully to be sure they
did not leak, wiped the outside thoroughly with a damp cloth, pasted on
the labels, then stored the jars away in the preserve closet.

Adelaide found that nearly everybody enjoyed this "Chili Sauce" on
Saturday night with their beans.

Piccalilli was another general favorite, and the recipe came from a
friend who had experimented with it a number of years so that now she
considered the flavor exactly right.


Piccalilli

  Green tomatoes,                  1 quart
  Onions,                         3/4 pint
  Green pepper,                   One-half
  Salt
  Vinegar
  Water
  Sugar (brown),                   1/4 lb.
  Mixed spices (ground),      1/4 teaspoon

Adelaide washed and wiped the tomatoes and peeled the onions. From the
half of the green pepper she removed the seeds.

Using an earthenware bowl Adelaide sliced the tomatoes, onions and
half pepper, and arranged them in layers. Over each layer she sprinkled
salt (she was careful not to sprinkle too much), then covered the bowl
and let it stand over night.

In the morning she drained off the water and emptied the contents of
the bowl into the saucepan. Adelaide partly covered the tomatoes,
onions and half pepper with vinegar and added sufficient cold water to
just come to the top. Then she added the fourth of a pound of brown
sugar and the fourth of a teaspoon of mixed ground spices.

The saucepan was placed over the fire and the ingredients Adelaide let
boil for fifteen minutes.

At the end of that time she filled the sterilized pint jars to
overflowing, inserted a silver knife to let all air bubbles rise to
the top and break, fitted on the new rubbers smoothly, sealed the jars
quickly and stood them upside down out of the way of any draft.

The next morning, after examining the jars to be sure they did not
leak, Adelaide wiped off the outsides with a damp cloth, pasted on the
labels and stored the jars away in the preserve closet.


Pepper Relish

  Green peppers (large),           Six
  Red peppers,                     Six
  Onions (medium),                 Two
  Salt,                   1 tablespoon
  Sugar,                         1 cup
  Vinegar,                      1 pint

The young lady who gave this recipe to mother was a graduate of the
college that leads in the teaching of domestic science and was herself
a teacher at the time. Mother said it was a nice change to eat with
cold meats, only Adelaide must be sure not to make the mistake she did
when she (mother) first made it.

"What was that?" asked Adelaide.

"Well, dear, I forgot to remove the seeds from the peppers, and we
nearly burned our mouths, it was so hot," mother smilingly replied.

Washing and wiping the peppers Adelaide cut them in halves and _removed
every seed_.

She peeled the onions, then put the peppers and onions through the meat
chopper.

Placing these in a saucepan, she covered them with boiling water and
they stood for ten minutes before putting over the fire.

They boiled for three minutes and then Adelaide drained them in the
wire strainer until they were very dry.

Returning to the saucepan, she added the tablespoon of salt, the cup of
sugar and the pint of vinegar.

After boiling all the ingredients together for twenty minutes Adelaide
filled the sterilized pint jars to overflowing, inserted a silver knife
to let all air bubbles rise to the top and break, fitted on new rubbers
smoothly, sealed the jars quickly and stood them upside down out of the
way of any draft.

In the morning she looked the jars over carefully to be sure that they
did not leak, wiped off the outsides with a damp cloth, pasted on the
labels and stored the final results of her labor away in the preserve
closet.


Mustard Pickles No. 1

  Cucumbers (tiny),                          1 pint
  Onions (small button),                     1 pint
  Cauliflower (medium),                         One
  Green pepper,                                 One
  Salt,                                     1/2 cup
  Water,                                    1 quart
  Flour,                                    1/4 cup
  English mustard (ground),      1-1/2 tablespoons
  Turmeric,                         1/4 tablespoon
  Vinegar
  Sugar,                                   1/4 cup

Each tiny cucumber was washed and wiped and placed in the saucepan.
Adelaide covered the onions with boiling water for a few minutes, then
let the cold water run into the pan while she peeled them--if you peel
onions under running water you will not cry. These she added to the
cucumbers.

The cauliflower Adelaide stood in a pan of cold water, to which she
had added a handful of salt (this mother explained was to draw out any
worms if there were any). Then she separated the cauliflower into small
flowers, cutting off the thick stalk, and added to the cucumbers and
onions.

The green pepper was washed and wiped, cut in halves and the seeds
removed. It was then put through the meat chopper and added to the
other vegetables.

Adelaide made a brine of one quart of water and one-half of a cup of
salt. This she poured over the mixture of vegetables, covered and stood
for twenty-four hours.

At the end of that time she placed the saucepan over the fire and let
the contents heat through, then turned them into the colander to drain.

Mixing together the one-fourth cup of flour, the one and one-half
tablespoons of ground English mustard, and the one-fourth tablespoon
of turmeric powder with enough cold vinegar to make a smooth paste,
Adelaide added one-fourth of a cup of sugar and sufficient vinegar to
make one and one-fourth pints in all.

This mixture she boiled until it thickened and was smooth, stirring
constantly with the wooden spoon, then added the vegetables and cooked
until they were well heated throughout.

Filling the sterilized pint jars to overflowing, Adelaide inserted the
silver knife to let all air bubbles rise to the top and break, fitted
on the new rubbers smoothly, sealed the jars quickly and stood them
upside down out of the way of any draft.

In the morning the jars were carefully inspected to be sure that they
did not leak, the outsides were wiped off with a damp cloth, then
Adelaide pasted on the labels and stored the pickles away in the
preserve closet.


Mustard Pickles No. 2

  Cucumbers (tiny),                 1 pint
  Cauliflower (large),                 One
  Celery,                    1-1/2 bunches
  Red peppers,                         Two
  Green peppers,          One and one-half
  Onions (small button),            1 pint
  Water,                      2-1/2 quarts
  Salt,                         1-1/4 cups
  Vinegar,                        2 quarts
  Sugar,                        1-1/4 cups
  Celery seed,                 2 teaspoons
  English mustard,               1/4 pound
  Turmeric powder,               1/4 ounce
  Flour,                           3/8 cup

"You just wait, my dear, until Daddy finds out you have put up this
special recipe of 'Mustard Pickles' and you'll have to hide them under
lock and key, if you wish to keep any," said mother.

"But I shan't tell him," laughed Adelaide.

"I'll put them away and then surprise him next winter; perhaps I'll
give him a jar for a Christmas present."

So Adelaide smiled away to herself as she busily prepared the
vegetables.

The tiny cucumbers were washed and wiped carefully and placed in a
large earthenware bowl. The cauliflower was placed in a pan of cold
water to which had been added a handful of salt (this was to draw
out any insects or little worms that might be there), it was pulled
apart into small flowers, cutting off the thick stalk, then added to
the cucumbers. The celery was thoroughly washed, the leaves and tough
outside stalks removed, the sticks cut into small pieces about an inch
long and added to the cucumbers and cauliflower. The red and green
peppers were washed and wiped and the seeds removed, then Adelaide
put them through the meat chopper and used the seeds of one-eighth of
one pepper. These were placed in the bowl and mixed with the other
vegetables.

Over the little button onions or silver skins, Adelaide poured boiling
water, then removed the skins under running water (to prevent her from
crying) and poured them into the bowl.

After a brine of two and one-half quarts of cold water and a cup and a
quarter of salt was made, it was poured over the vegetables and stood
over night.

In the morning the vegetables were well drained in the colander and one
and three-fourths quarts of vinegar was brought to the boiling point.

Adding the pickles, Adelaide let them cook until they were perfectly
tender, next she added one and one-fourth cups of sugar and two
teaspoons of celery seed.

Mixing together one-fourth of a pound of English mustard, one-fourth of
an ounce of turmeric powder and three-eighths of a cup of flour with
one cup of vinegar (added gradually so that it made a smooth paste)
Adelaide poured this over the pickles and stirred with the wooden spoon
until it just thickened.

The sterilized jars were filled at once to overflowing, the silver
knife inserted to let all air bubbles rise to the top and break, and
the new rubbers fitted on smoothly. Sealing them quickly, Adelaide
stood the jars upside down out of the way of any draft.

The next morning, after carefully inspecting each jar to see that it
did not leak, she wiped off the outsides with a damp cloth, pasted on
the labels and stored away in the preserve closet.


Ripe Cucumber Pickles

  Ripe cucumbers,      2-1/3 lbs.
  Salt,              1 tablespoon
  Water,                  1 quart
  Sugar,                   2 cups
  Vinegar,                2/3 cup
  Whole cloves,        1 teaspoon
  Stick cinnamon,         1 stick

Adelaide washed and wiped the cucumbers, cut them in quarters
lengthwise and each quarter in halves. These she weighed, then placed
in an earthenware bowl and covered with a weak brine made of one quart
of cold water and one tablespoon of salt.

After allowing them to stand for twelve hours, she rinsed the cucumbers
thoroughly in several waters, then steamed them for twenty minutes.
Putting the two-thirds of a cup of vinegar, the two cups of sugar, the
teaspoon of whole cloves and the stick of cinnamon (broken in small
pieces) into a saucepan, Adelaide boiled them for five minutes; adding
the cucumbers she let them simmer for twenty minutes.

Removing the saucepan, she covered it and stood it away until the
next day, when she lifted out the cucumbers with a silver fork and
placed them in the sterilized pint jars. The syrup she boiled for five
minutes, then poured at once into the jars so that it overflowed. Next
she inserted the silver knife to let all air bubbles rise to the top
and break, fitted on the new rubbers smoothly, sealed quickly and stood
upside down out of the way of any draft.

In the morning the jars were inspected carefully to see that they did
not leak, the outsides were wiped clean with a damp cloth, the labels
were pasted on and then Adelaide stored the jars away in the preserve
closet.


Chopped Pickles

  Green tomatoes (chopped),                1 pint
  Small onion (chopped),                      One
  Small green pepper (chopped),               One
  Salt,                              1 tablespoon
  Pepper,                            1/4 teaspoon
  Mustard (ground),          1/2 teaspoon (scant)
  Cinnamon (ground),                 1/2 teaspoon
  Allspice (ground),                 1/2 teaspoon
  Cloves (ground),                   1/2 teaspoon
  White mustard seed,             1-1/2 teaspoons
  Vinegar,                                  1 cup

After washing and wiping the tomatoes, and peeling the onion, Adelaide
put them through the meat chopper. The green pepper was also washed and
wiped and put through the meat chopper when she had removed the seeds.

Placing these in an earthenware bowl, Adelaide sprinkled a tablespoon
of salt over them, covered them, stood them aside for twenty-four hours
and then drained them.

The cup of vinegar, the one-fourth teaspoon of pepper, the scant half
teaspoon of ground mustard, the one-half teaspoon each of ground
cinnamon, allspice, and cloves, and the one and one-half teaspoons of
white mustard seed were placed in a saucepan and heated to the boiling
point, after which Adelaide added the tomatoes, onion, and pepper,
cooking them slowly for fifteen minutes.

She next filled the sterilized pint jar to overflowing, inserted a
silver knife to let all air bubbles rise to the top and break, fitted a
new rubber on smoothly, sealed the jar quickly and stood it upside down
out of the way of any draft.

In the morning Adelaide examined the jar carefully to be sure that it
did not leak, wiped the outside with a damp cloth, pasted on the label
and stored the jar away in the preserve closet.


Chow Chow

  Green tomatoes (small),              1 dozen
  Onions (small button),               1 dozen
  Cucumbers (tiny),                    1 dozen
  Cauliflower (small pieces),          1 dozen
  Celery,                             2 sticks
  String beans,                        1 dozen
  Mustard seed,                      1/2 ounce
  Turmeric powder,                   1/4 ounce
  Allspice (ground),                1 teaspoon
  Pepper,                           1 teaspoon
  Clove (ground),                   1 teaspoon
  Salt,                           1 tablespoon
  Vinegar,                              2 cups

When Adelaide had washed and wiped the tomatoes she cut them into
quarters.

The small button onions she peeled under running water. The tiny
cucumbers were washed and wiped, then cut in halves. The cauliflower
was placed in a pan of cold water. She added one tablespoon of salt
(this drew out any insects or small worms that might be there), then
she broke off twelve small pieces. The two white stalks of celery she
washed and cut into inch pieces. The string beans were washed, wiped,
the strings removed and each bean cut into small pieces.

All these Adelaide placed in a large earthenware bowl and sprinkled a
tablespoon of salt over the vegetables, letting them stand over night,
then draining them.

The one-half ounce of mustard seed, the one-fourth ounce of turmeric
powder, the teaspoon each of allspice, pepper, and clove and the two
cups of vinegar Adelaide put in the saucepan and brought to the boiling
point. After which, she added the vegetables and cooked until tender.

The sterilized pint jars were filled to overflowing, the silver knife
inserted to let all air bubbles rise to the top and break, the new
rubbers were fitted on smoothly, and the jars sealed quickly. Then
Adelaide stood them upside down out of the way of any draft.

In the morning Adelaide examined the jars to be sure that they did not
leak, wiped off the outsides with a damp cloth, pasted on the labels
and stored her work away in the preserve closet.


Pickled Red Cabbage

  Red cabbage,               One-half
  Salt,                  1/2 teaspoon
  Pepper,                1/4 teaspoon
  Red pepper,                One-half
  Celery seed,         1/2 tablespoon
  Mustard seed,          1 tablespoon
  Vinegar,                      1 cup

Adelaide stood the cabbage in a pan of cold water containing one
tablespoon of salt. This was to draw out any insects or worms that are
sometimes found among the leaves. After draining the cabbage she cut it
into fine strips.

The red pepper she wiped, removed the seed, and cut into small pieces.
This with the one-half tablespoon of celery seed, the tablespoon of
mustard seed, the one-half teaspoon of salt, the one-fourth teaspoon of
pepper, and the cup of vinegar Adelaide put into a saucepan and brought
to the boiling point.

Packing the cabbage into a sterilized jar, Adelaide poured over the
vinegar, mustard and celery seeds as soon as they were cold.

The air bubbles were forced to the top and broken by inserting a silver
knife in the jar, a new rubber was fitted on, then Adelaide sealed the
jar quickly and stood it upside down over night.

Next morning, after examining it carefully to see that it did not leak,
she wiped the jar on the outside with a damp cloth, pasted on the label
and stored the pickled cabbage away in the preserve closet.


Cucumber Pickles

  Tiny cucumbers
  Salt,                          1/4 cup
  Water,                         1 quart
  Vinegar
  Onion,                       One slice
  Whole cloves,               1 teaspoon
  Mustard seed,                1/2 ounce
  Mace,                         3 blades
  Horseradish (grated),          1/2 cup

Adelaide measured enough of the tiny cucumbers to fill a pint jar,
washed and wiped them, then placed them in an earthenware bowl. These
she covered with one quart of water and one-fourth of a cup of salt and
let them stand twenty-four hours.

At the end of this time Adelaide took out the cucumbers, wiped each
one, and placed them in the sterilized pint jar. Measuring enough
vinegar to fill the jar, Adelaide poured it into a saucepan, then
added one slice of onion, a teaspoon of whole cloves, one-half ounce
of mustard seed, three blades of mace and one-half cup of grated
horseradish.

As soon as the vinegar boiled Adelaide poured it over the cucumbers at
once. Next she inserted a silver knife in the jar to force all air
bubbles to the top, fitted on a new rubber, sealed quickly, then stood
the jar upside down over night.

In the morning the jar was carefully inspected to be sure it did not
leak, the outside was wiped off with a damp cloth, then Adelaide pasted
on the label and stored the outcome of her work away in the preserve
closet.


Plum Tomato Pickles

  Plum tomatoes (small yellow),      1 dozen
  Cinnamon (ground),              1 teaspoon
  Cloves (ground),                1 teaspoon
  Sugar,                             1 pound
  Vinegar,                             1 cup

First Adelaide measured out the cup of vinegar, the pound of sugar and
the teaspoon each of cloves and cinnamon into a saucepan. While these
were boiling for five minutes, Adelaide washed and wiped the tomatoes.

Dropping them carefully into the syrup, Adelaide let the tomatoes
simmer gently until they could be pierced easily with a silver fork.
Taking care not to break the fruit, she lifted the tomatoes into the
sterilized jar and poured on the syrup to overflowing. After inserting
a silver knife between the jar and the fruit to let all air bubbles
rise to the top and break, Adelaide fitted on a new rubber smoothly,
sealed the jar quickly and stood it upside down out of the way of any
draft.

The next morning she inspected the jar carefully to be sure it did not
leak, wiped off the outside with a damp cloth, pasted on the label and
stored the jar away in the preserve closet.


Tomato Catsup

  Ripe tomatoes
  Vinegar,                      1/4 cup
  Salt,                 1-1/2 teaspoons
  Black pepper,            3/4 teaspoon
  Cayenne pepper,          1/8 teaspoon
  Mustard,                 3/4 teaspoon
  Sugar (brown),                1/4 cup

Adelaide placed several large tomatoes in a pan and covered them with
boiling water. It was then easy, she found, to remove the skins. After
cutting them into quarters, she put the tomatoes into a saucepan and
let them just come to the boiling point. Removing the saucepan from the
fire, Adelaide poured the tomatoes into the colander, pressed them
through, and then pressed them again through a sieve.

To one pint of pressed tomatoes Adelaide added one-fourth of a cup
of vinegar, one and one-half teaspoons of salt, three-fourths of a
teaspoon of black pepper, one-eighth of a teaspoon of cayenne pepper,
three-fourths of a teaspoon of dry mustard, and one-fourth of a cup of
brown sugar.

Adelaide boiled these ingredients together until they thickened, then
poured them into bottles. She filled the bottles clear to the top
allowing just enough room for the cork, which she pressed in tightly,
then dipped the top of the bottle into melted paraffin. After putting
on the label, Adelaide stored the jar away in the preserve closet.

"Mother," said Adelaide one morning, "how do you put up tomatoes? I
mean ones like those you use for tomato bisque and scalloped tomatoes?"

"There is nothing simpler, my dear, and as soon as those big beauties
on Daddy's tomato plants are ripe enough you shall have them for your
own," answered mother.


Tomatoes

  Ripe tomatoes,           1 dozen

Adelaide watched those tomatoes every day, and as soon as they were
sufficiently ripe she picked them.

Placing the tomatoes in a pan, she covered them with boiling water for
about a minute, drained off the water, peeled them and cut them into
quarters. Adelaide let these come just to the boiling point, then she
filled the sterilized pint jars at once. In filling the jars Adelaide
was careful not to let any of the little seeds of the tomatoes remain
on the rubber as they might prevent the jar from being perfectly
air-tight.

As usual, Adelaide inserted the silver knife in the jar to let all air
bubbles rise to the top and break, fitted on new rubbers smoothly,
sealed the jar quickly and let it stand upside down out of the way of
any draft.

The next morning Adelaide examined the jar thoroughly to be sure it did
not leak, wiped off the outside with a damp cloth, pasted on the label,
then stored the jar away in the preserve closet.



CHAPTER VIII

CANNING THE GOVERNMENT WAY


EARLY in the summer a friend who was doing government extension work in
one of our New England states sent Adelaide a book on "Home Canning"
that the government had published.

Adelaide was much pleased and she and mother pored over it eagerly.
Mother picked out the "Single Period Cold-Pack" method as being the
simplest and best for a little girl.

This is what the government says--

"By the 'Single Period Cold-Pack' method it is as easy to can
vegetables as to can fruits. The prepared vegetables or fruits are
blanched in boiling water or live steam, then quickly cold-dipped and
packed at once into hot jars and sterilized in boiling water or by
steam pressure. The jars are then sealed, tested for leaks and stored."

The Single Period Cold-Pack method is a simple and sure way of canning.
It insures a good color, texture and flavor to the vegetable or fruit
canned. In using this method sterilization is completed in a single
period, saving time, fuel and labor. The simplicity of the method
commends it. Fruits are put up in syrups. Vegetables require only salt
for flavoring and water to fill the container.

Another advantage is that it is practicable to put up food in small as
well as large quantities.


Single Period Cold-Pack Equipment

_The Homemade Outfit._--A serviceable Single Period Cold-Pack canning
outfit may be made of equipment found in almost any household. Any
utensil large and deep enough to allow an inch of water above jars,
and having a closely fitting cover, may be used for sterilizing. Into
this utensil should be placed a wire or wooden rack to hold the jars
off the bottom and to permit circulation of water underneath the jars.
For lifting glass top jars use two buttonhooks or a similar device. For
lifting screw-top jars, suitable lifters may be bought for a small sum.


Containers

For home use glass jars are more satisfactory for canning. Glass jars
properly cared for will last for years. All types of jars which seal
readily may be used. Jars having glass tops held in place by bails are
especially easy to handle while they are hot.

Tops for Economy jars must be purchased new each year.

Small necked bottles can be used for holding fruit juices. Large
mouthed bottles can be used for jams, marmalades and jellies.


Tests for Jars and Rubbers

Jars should be tested before they are used. Some of the important tests
are here given:

_Glass-top Jars._--Fit top to jar. If top rocks when tapped it should
not be used on that jar. The top bail should not be too tight nor too
loose. If either too tight or too loose the bail should be taken off
and bent until it goes into place with a light snap. All sharp edges on
top and jar should be filed or scraped off.

_Screw-top Jars._--Use only enameled, lacquered or vulcanized tops.
Screw the top on tightly without the rubber. If thumb nail can be
inserted between top and jar, the top is defective. If the edge is only
slightly uneven it can be bent so that it is usable. Put on the rubber
and screw on the top tightly, and then pull the rubber out. If the
rubber returns to place the top does not fit properly and should not be
used on that jar.

_Rubbers._--Be very particular about the rubbers used. Buy new rubbers
every year as they deteriorate from one season to another. It is
always well to test rubbers when buying. A good rubber will return to
its original size when stretched. When pinched it does not crease. It
should fit the neck of the jar snugly, and be fairly wide and thick. It
is cheaper to discard a doubtful rubber than to lose a jar of canned
goods.


Grading

Vegetables and fruits should be sorted according to color, size
and ripeness. This is called grading. It insures the best pack and
uniformity of flavor and texture to the canned product, which is always
desirable.


Blanching and Cold-Dipping

The most important steps in canning are the preliminary steps of
blanching, cold-dipping, packing in hot, clean containers, adding hot
water at once, then immediately half sealing jars and putting into the
sterilizer. Spoilage of products is nearly always due to carelessness
in one of these steps. Blanching is necessary with all vegetables and
many fruits. It insures thorough cleansing and removes objectionable
odors and flavors and excess acids. It reduces the bulk of greens and
causes shrinkage of fruits, increasing the quantity which may be packed
in a container, which saves storage space.

Blanching consists of plunging the vegetables or fruits into boiling
water for a short time. For doing this place them in a wire basket or
piece of cheesecloth. The blanching time varies from one to fifteen
minutes, as shown in the time-table.

Spinach and other greens should not be blanched in hot water. They must
be blanched in steam. To do this place them in a colander and set this
into a vessel which has a tightly fitting cover. In this vessel there
should be an inch or two of water, but the water must not be allowed
to touch the greens. Another method is to suspend the greens in the
closed vessel above an inch or two of water. This may be done in a wire
basket or in cheesecloth. Allow the water to boil in the closed vessel
from fifteen to twenty minutes.

When the blanching is complete remove the vegetables or fruits from the
boiling water or steam and plunge them once or twice into cold water.
Do not allow them to stand in the cold water. This latter process is
the Cold Dip. It hardens the pulp and sets the coloring matter in the
product.


Steps in the Single Period Cold-Pack Method

In canning by the Single Period Cold-Pack method it is important that
careful attention be given to each detail. Do not undertake canning
until you have familiarized yourself with the various steps, which are
as follows:

1. Vegetables should be canned as soon as possible after being picked;
the same day is best. Early morning is the best time for gathering
them. Fruits should be as fresh as possible.

2. Before starting work have on the stove the boiler or other holder
in which the sterilizing is to be done, a pan of boiling water for use
in blanching and a kettle of boiling water for use in filling jars of
vegetables; or, if canning fruits, the syrup to be used in filling the
jars. Arrange on this working table all necessary equipment, including
instructions.

3. Test jars and tops. All jars, rubbers and tops should be clean and
hot.

4. Wash and grade product according to size and ripeness. (Cauliflower
should be soaked 1 hour in salted water, to remove insects if any are
present. Put berries into a colander and wash, by allowing cold water
to flow over them, to prevent bruising.)

5. Prepare vegetable or fruit. Remove all but an inch of the tops from
beets, parsnips and carrots and the strings from green beans. Pare
squash, remove seeds and cut in small pieces. Large vegetables should
be cut into pieces to make close pack possible. The pits should be
removed from cherries, peaches and apricots.

6. Blanch in boiling water or steam as directed.

7. Cold-dip, but do not allow product to stand in cold water at this or
any other stage.

8. Pack in hot jars which rest on hot cloths or stand in a pan of hot
water. Fill the jars to within 1/4 to 1/2 inch of tops. (In canning
berries, to insure a close pack, put a 2 or 3 inch layer of berries
on the bottom of the jar and press down gently with a wooden spoon.
Continue in this manner with other layers until jar is filled. Fruits
cut in half should be arranged with pit surface down.)

9. Add salt and boiling water to vegetables to cover them. To fruits
add hot syrup or water.

10. Place wet rubber and top on jar.

11. With a bail-top jar adjust top bail only, leaving lower bail or
snap, free. With screw top jar screw the top on lightly, using only the
thumb and little finger. (This partial sealing makes it possible for
steam generated within the jar to escape, and prevents breakage.)

12. Place the jars on rack in boiler or other sterilizer. If the
home-made hot-water bath outfit is used enough water should be in the
boiler to come at least one inch above the tops of the jars, and the
water, in boiling out, should never be allowed to drop to the level
of these tops. In using the hot-water bath outfit, begin to count
sterilizing time when the water begins to boil. Water is at the
boiling point when it is jumping or rolling all over. Water is not
boiling when bubbles merely form on the bottom or when they begin to
rise to the top. The water must be kept boiling all during the period
of sterilization.

13. Consult time table and at the end of the required sterilizing
period remove the jars from the sterilizer. Place them on a wooden rack
or on several thicknesses of cloth to prevent breakage. Complete the
sealing of jars. With bail-top jars this is done by pushing the snap
down; with screw-top jars by screwing cover on tightly.

14. Turn the jars upside down as a test for leakage and leave them in
this position till cold. Let them cool rapidly but be sure that no
draft reaches them as a draft will cause breakage. (If there is any
doubt that a bail-top jar is perfectly sealed a simple test may be made
by loosening the top bail and lifting the jar by taking hold of the top
with the fingers. The internal suction should hold the top tightly in
place when thus lifted. If the top comes off put on a new wet rubber
and sterilize 15 minutes longer for fruits.) With screw-top jars try
the tops while the jars are cooling, or as soon as they have cooled,
and, if loose, tighten them by screwing on more closely.

15. Wash and dry each jar, label and store. If storage place is exposed
to light, wrap each jar in paper, preferably brown, as light will fade
the color of products canned in glass. The boxes in which jars were
bought affords a good storage place.


Caution Against Freezing

Care should be taken to store canned vegetables and fruits where
they will be protected from freezing. If the place of storage is not
frost-proof the jars should be moved to a warmer place when the weather
becomes severe.


Time Table for Blanching and Sterilizing

The following time table shows blanching time for various vegetables
and fruits, and also sterilizing time.

  =====================+====================+============
                       |                    | STERILIZING
       VEGETABLES      |      BLANCHING     +------------
                       |                    |  Hot Water
  ---------------------+--------------------+------------
                       |      _Minutes_     | _Minutes_
  Asparagus            |      10 to 15      |    120
  Beets                |       5            |     90
  Brussels Sprouts     |       5 to 10      |    120
  Cabbage              |       5 to 10      |    120
  Cauliflower          |       3            |     60
  Carrots              |       5            |     90
  Corn                 |       5 to 10      |    180
  Greens               |      15            |    120
  Lima Beans           |       5 to 10      |    180
  Okra                 |       5 to 10      |    120
  Parsnips             |       5            |     90
  Peppers              |       5 to 10      |    120
  Peas                 |       5 to 10      |    180
  Pumpkin              |   See directions   |    120
  Salsify              |       5            |     90
  Sauerkraut           |          --        |    120
  String Beans         |       5 to 10      |    120
  Squash               |   See directions   |    120
  Tomatoes             |   To loosen skins  |     22
                       |                    |
  FRUITS               |                    |
                       |                    |
  Apples               |       1-1/2        |     20
  Apricots             |       1 to 2       |     16
  Blackberries         |        none        |     16
  Blueberries          |        none        |     16
  Dewberries           |        none        |     16
  Cherries, sweet      |        none        |     16
  Cherries, sour       |        none        |     16
  Currants             |        none        |     16
  Gooseberries         |       1 to 2       |     16
  Oranges              |       1 to 2       |     12
  Pears                |       1-1/2        |     20
  Peaches              | To loosen skins[1] |  16 to 25
  Plums                |        none        |     16
  Pineapples           |       3 to 5       |     30
  Quinces              |       1-1/2        |     20
  Raspberries          |        none        |     16
  Rhubarb              |       1 to 3       |     20
  Strawberries         |        none        |     16
  Fruits without sugar |         --         |     30
  =====================+====================+============

FOOTNOTE:

[1] Some peaches do not peel readily even if dipped in boiling water.
In such cases omit dipping in boiling water and pare them.

The time given in this table and in the special instructions is for
quart jars. For pint jars deduct 5 minutes. For 2 quart jars add 30
minutes.

The time here given is for 1 quart jars and fresh products at altitudes
up to 1,000 feet above sea level. For higher altitudes increase the
time 10 per cent for each additional 500 feet. For example, if the time
is given as 120 minutes in the table and your location is 1,500 feet
above sea level, the time should be made 132 minutes; for 2,000 feet,
144 minutes.

The time here given is for fresh, sound and firm vegetables. For
vegetables which have been gathered over 24 hours increase the time of
sterilization by adding one-fifth.


SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR CANNING VEGETABLES

The addition of 1 level teaspoonful of salt to a jar of vegetables is
for quart jars. For pint jar use 1/2 teaspoonful. For 2 quart jar use 2
teaspoonfuls.


Asparagus

Wash, scrape off scales and tough skin. With a string bind together
enough for one jar. Blanch tough ends from 5 to 10 minutes, then turn
so that the entire bundle is blanched 5 minutes longer. Cold-dip.
Remove string. Pack, with tip ends up. Add 1 teaspoonful of salt and
cover with boiling water. Put on rubber top and adjust top bail or
screw top on with thumb and little finger. Sterilize 120 minutes in
hot-water bath. Remove, complete seal and cool.


Beets

Use only small ones. Wash and cut off all but an inch or two of root
and leaves. Blanch 5 minutes, cold-dip and scrape off skin and stems.
They may be packed in jar sliced or whole. Add 1 teaspoonful of salt
and cover with boiling water. Put on rubber and top and adjust top bail
or screw top on with thumb and little finger. Sterilize 90 minutes in
hot-water bath. Remove, complete seal and cool.


Cabbage and Brussels Sprouts

The method is the same as for cauliflower, except that the vegetables
are not soaked in salted water. Blanch 5 to 10 minutes. Sterilize 120
minutes in hot-water bath.


Carrots

Select small, tender carrots. Leave an inch or two of stems, wash,
blanch 5 minutes and cold-dip. Then remove skin and stems. Pack whole
or in slices, add 1 teaspoonful of salt and cover with boiling water.
Put on rubber and top and adjust top bail or screw top on with thumb
and little finger. Sterilize 90 minutes in hot-water bath. Remove,
complete seal and cool.


Cauliflower

Wash and divide head into small pieces. Soak in salted water 1 hour,
which will remove insects if any are present. Blanch 3 minutes,
cold-dip and pack in jar. Add 1 teaspoonful of salt and cover with
boiling water. Put on rubber and top and adjust top bail or screw top
on with thumb and little finger. Sterilize 60 minutes in hot-water
bath. Remove, complete seal and cool.


Corn

Canning corn on the cob, except for exhibition purposes, is a waste
of space. For home use remove the husks and silk, blanch tender ears
5 minutes, older ears 10 minutes, cold-dip, and cut from cob. Pack
lightly to within 1/2 inch of the top of the jar, as corn swells during
sterilization. Add 1 teaspoonful of salt and cover with boiling water,
put on rubber and top, adjust top bail or screw top on with thumb
and little finger. Sterilize 180 minutes in hot-water bath. Remove,
complete seal and cool.


Greens

Wash until no dirt can be felt in the bottom of the pan. Blanch in
steam 15 minutes. (Mineral matter is lost if blanched in water.)
Cold-dip, cut in small pieces and pack or pack whole. Do not pack too
tightly. Add 1 teaspoonful of salt to each jar and cover with boiling
water. Put on rubber and top and adjust top bail or screw top on with
thumb and little finger. Sterilize 120 minutes in hot-water bath.
Remove, complete seal and cool.


Lima Beans

Shell. Blanch 5 to 10 minutes. Cold-dip, pack in jar, add 1 teaspoonful
of salt and cover with boiling water. Put on rubber and top, and adjust
top bail or screw top on with thumb and little finger. Sterilize 180
minutes in hot-water bath. Remove, complete seal and cool.


Okra

Wash and remove stems. Blanch 5 to 10 minutes, cold-dip and pack in
jar. Add 1 teaspoonful of salt and cover with boiling water. Put on
rubber and top, adjust top bail or screw top on with thumb and little
finger. Sterilize 120 minutes in hot-water bath. Remove, complete seal
and cool.


Parsnips

The method is the same as for carrots.


Peas

Those which are not fully grown are best for canning. Shell, blanch
5 to 10 minutes and cold-dip. Pack in jar, add 1 teaspoonful of salt
and cover with boiling water. If the jar is packed too full some of
the peas will break and give a cloudy appearance to the liquid. Put
on rubber and top and adjust top bail or screw top on with thumb
and little finger. Sterilize 180 minutes in hot-water bath. Remove,
complete seal and cool.


Peppers

Wash, stem and remove seeds. Blanch 5 to 10 minutes, cold-dip and
pack in jar. Add 1 teaspoonful of salt. Cover with boiling water,
put on rubber and top and adjust top bail or screw top on with thumb
and little finger. Sterilize 120 minutes in hot-water bath. Remove,
complete seal and cool.


Pumpkin, Winter Squash

Remove seed. Cut the pumpkin or squash into strips. Peel and remove
stringy center. Slice into small pieces and boil until thick. Pack in
jar and sterilize 120 minutes in hot-water bath.


Salsify

Wash, blanch 5 minutes, cold-dip and scrape off skin. It may be packed
whole or in slices. Add 1 teaspoonful of salt, and cover with boiling
water. Put on top and rubber and adjust top bail or screw top on with
thumb and little finger. Sterilize 90 minutes in hot-water bath.
Remove, complete seal and cool.


String Beans

Wash and remove ends and strings and cut into small pieces if desired.
Blanch from 5 to 10 minutes, depending on age. Cold-dip, pack
immediately in jar, add 1 teaspoonful salt and cover with boiling
water. Put on rubber and top and adjust top bail or screw top on with
thumb and little finger. Sterilize 120 minutes in hot-water bath.
Remove, complete seal and cool.


Summer Squash

Pare, cut in slices or small pieces and blanch 10 minutes. Cold-dip,
pack in jars, add 1 teaspoonful of salt, cover with boiling water,
put on rubber and top and adjust top bail or screw top on with thumb
and little finger. Sterilize 120 minutes in hot-water bath. Remove,
complete seal and cool.


Tomatoes

Take medium sized tomatoes. Wash them, blanch until skins are loose,
cold-dip and remove the skins. Pack whole in jar, filling the spaces
with tomato pulp made by cooking large and broken tomatoes until done
and then straining and adding 1 teaspoonful of salt to each quart of
the pulp. Put on rubber and top and adjust top bail or screw top on
with thumb and little finger. Sterilize 22 minutes in hot-water bath.
Remove, complete seal and cool.

Tomatoes may be cut in pieces, packed closely into jars and sterilized
25 minutes in hot-water bath. If this is done do not add any liquid.


THE CANNING OF FRUITS

For fruits, as well as for vegetables, the Single Period Cold-Pack
method is best. With some exceptions, as shown in the table, fruits
should be blanched before canning. When fruits are intended for table
use, syrup should be poured over them to fill the jars. In canning
fruits to be used for pie-filling or in cooking, where unsweetened
fruits are desirable, boiling water is used instead of syrup. When
boiling water is thus used the sterilization period in hot-water bath
is thirty minutes.


Syrups

In the directions given various grades of syrup are mentioned. These
syrups are made as follows:

Thin--1 part sugar to 4 parts water.

Medium--1 part sugar to 2 parts water.

Thick--1 part sugar to 1 part water.

Boil the sugar and water until all the sugar is dissolved.

Use thin syrup with sweet fruits. Use medium syrup with sour fruits.
Thick syrup is used in candying and preserving.


SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR CANNING FRUITS


Apples

Wash, pare, quarter or slice and drop into weak salt water. Blanch
1-1/2 minutes, cold-dip, pack into jar and cover with water or thin
syrup. Put on rubber and top and adjust top bail or screw top on with
thumb and little finger. Sterilize for 20 minutes in hot-water bath.

Apples shrink during sterilization and for this reason economy of
space is obtained by canning them in the form of sauce instead of in
quarters or slices. In canning sauce fill the jars with the hot sauce
and sterilize 12 minutes in hot-water bath.


Apricots

Use only ripe fruit. Blanch 1 to 2 minutes. Wash, cut in half and
remove pit. Pack in jar and cover with medium syrup. Put on rubber and
top and adjust top bail or screw top on with thumb and little finger.
Sterilize 16 minutes in hot-water bath. Remove, complete seal, cool and
store.


Blackberries

Wash, pack closely and cover with medium syrup. Put on rubber and top
and adjust top bail or screw on top with thumb and little finger.
Sterilize 16 minutes in hot-water bath. Remove, complete seal and cool.


Blueberries Currants Loganberries Raspberries

The method is the same as for blackberries. Sterilize 16 minutes in
hot-water bath.


Cherries

Cherries should be pitted before being canned. Pack in jar and cover
with medium syrup. Put on rubber and top and adjust top bail or screw
on top with thumb and little finger. Sterilize 16 minutes in hot-water
bath. Remove, complete seal and cool.


Pears

Peel and drop into salt water to prevent discoloration. Blanch 1-1/2
minutes. Pack in jar, whole or in quarters, and cover with thin syrup.
Put on rubber and top and adjust top bail or screw on top with thumb
and little finger. Sterilize 20 minutes in hot-water bath. Remove,
complete seal and cool. A slice of lemon may be added to the contents
of each jar for flavor.


Peaches

Blanch in boiling water long enough to loosen skins. Cold-dip and
remove skins. Cut in half and remove stones. Pack in jar and cover with
thin syrup. Put on rubber and top and adjust top bail or screw on top
with thumb and little finger. If soft ripe, sterilize 16 minutes in
hot-water bath; if flesh is very firm, 25 minutes. Remove, complete
seal and cool.

Some peaches do not peel readily even if dipped in boiling water. In
such cases omit dipping in boiling water and pare them.


Plums

Wash, pack in jar and cover with medium syrup. Put on rubber and top
and adjust top bail or screw on top with thumb and little finger.
Sterilize 16 minutes in hot-water bath. Remove, complete seal and cool.


Pineapples

Pare, remove eyes, shred or cut into slices or small pieces, blanch 3
to 5 minutes, and pack in jar. Cover with medium syrup. Put on rubber
and top and adjust top bail or screw on top with thumb and little
finger. Sterilize 30 minutes in hot-water bath. Remove, complete seal
and cool.


Quinces

The method is the same as for apples. They may be canned with apples.
Sterilize 20 minutes in hot-water bath.


Rhubarb

Wash and cut into short lengths. Cover with boiling water or thin
syrup. Put on rubber and top and adjust top bail or screw on top with
thumb and little finger. Sterilize 20 minutes in hot-water bath.
Remove, complete seal and cool.


Strawberries

Wash and pack closely in jar. Cover with medium syrup, put on rubber
and top and adjust top bail or screw on top with thumb and little
finger. Sterilize 16 minutes in hot-water bath. Remove, complete seal
and cool.


PRINCIPLES OF JELLY MAKING

To be satisfactory, jelly must be made from fruit juice containing
pectin and acid. Pectin is a substance in the fruit which is soluble
in hot water and which, when cooked with sugar and acid, gives, after
cooling, the right consistency to jelly.

Fruits to be used should be sound, just ripe or slightly under-ripe,
and gathered but a short time. Wash them, remove stems and cut large
fruits into pieces. With juicy fruits add just enough water to prevent
burning while cooking. In using fruits which are not juicy cover them
with water. Cook slowly until the fruits are soft. Strain through a bag
made of flannel or two thicknesses of cheesecloth or similar material.


Test for Pectin

To determine if the juice contains pectin, boil 1 tablespoonful and
cool. To this add 1 tablespoonful of grain alcohol and mix, gently
rotating the glass. Allow the mixture to cool. If a solid mass--which
is pectin--collects, this indicates that in making jelly one part of
sugar should be used to one part of juice. If the pectin collects in
two or three masses, use 2/3 to 3/4 as much sugar as juice. If it
collects in several small particles use 1/2 as much sugar as juice. If
the presence of pectin is not shown as described it should be supplied
by the addition of the juice of slightly under-ripe fruits, such as
apples, currants, crab-apples, green grapes, green gooseberries or wild
cherries.

Measure the juice and sugar. The sugar may be spread on a platter and
heated. Do not let it scorch. When the juice begins to boil add the
sugar. Boil rapidly. The jelly point is reached when the juice drops
as one mass from the side of a spoon or when two drops run together
and fall as one from the side of the spoon. Skim the juice, pour into
sterilized glasses and cool as quickly as possible. Currant and green
grape require 8 to 10 minutes' boiling to reach the jelly point while
all other juices require from 20 to 30 minutes.

When the jelly is cold pour over the surface a layer of hot paraffin.
A toothpick run around the edge while the paraffin is still hot will
give a better seal. Protect the paraffin with a cover of metal or paper.

Three or more extractions of juice may be made from fruit. When the
first extraction is well drained cover the pulp with water and let it
simmer 30 minutes. Drain, and test juice for pectin. For the third
extraction proceed in the same manner. The juice resulting from the
second and third extractions may be combined. If the third extraction
shows much pectin a fourth extraction may be made. The first pectin
test should be saved for comparison with the others.

If the second, third or fourth extraction of juice is found thinner
than the first extraction, boil it until it is as thick as the first;
then add the sugar called for.


Jelly Making without Test

The test for pectin is desirable, but it is not essential. In some
states it is inconvenient because of the difficulty of obtaining grain
alcohol. A large percentage of housewives make jelly without this test,
and satisfactory results may be obtained without it if care is taken to
follow directions and to use the right fruits. For the inexperienced
jelly maker the safe rule is to confine jelly making to the fruits
which are ideal for the purpose. These include currants, sour apples,
crab-apples, under-ripe grapes, quinces, raspberries, blackberries,
blueberries, wild cherries, and green gooseberries. These contain
pectin and acid in sufficient quantities.

In making jelly without the alcohol test, with the juice of currants
and under-ripe grapes use 1 cup of sugar to 1 cup of juice. With
raspberries, blackberries, blueberries, sour apples, crab-apples,
quinces, wild cherries and green gooseberries use 3/4 cup of sugar to 1
cup of juice. This applies to the first extraction of juice and to the
later extractions when they have been boiled to the consistency of the
first extraction.

Fruits which contain pectin but lack sufficient acid are peach, pear,
quince, sweet apple and guava. With these acid may be added by the use
of juice of crab-apples or under-ripe grapes.

Strawberries and cherries have acidity but lack pectin. The pectin may
be supplied by the addition of the juice of crab-apples or under-ripe
grapes.


Directions for Jelly Making

Wash, remove stems, and with the larger fruits cut into quarters. Put
into a saucepan and cover with water. Allow to simmer until the fruit
is tender. Put into a bag to drain. If desired, test juice for pectin
as described. Measure juice and sugar in _proportions indicated by the
test for pectin or as directed under "Jelly Making without Test."_ Add
the sugar when the juice begins to boil. The sugar may be heated before
being added. When the boiling juice reaches the jelly point, skim and
pour into sterilized glasses.


Winter Jelly Making

Fruit juices may be canned and made into jelly as wanted during the
winter. Allow 1 cup of sugar to 6 cups of juice. Boil juice and sugar
for 5 minutes. Pour into sterilized bottles or jars. Put into hot-water
bath, with the water reaching to the neck of the containers. Allow to
simmer 20 to 30 minutes. If jars are used half seal them during the
simmering. Put absorbent cotton into the necks of bottles and when the
bottles are taken from the bath put in corks, forcing the cotton into
the neck. Corks should first be boiled and dried to prevent shrinking.
They may also be boiled in paraffin to make them air-tight. After
corking the bottles apply melted paraffin to the tops with a brush, to
make an air-tight seal. Each bottle should be labeled and the label
should specify the amount of sugar used. In making jelly from these
juices during the winter follow the "Directions for Jelly Making,"
adding enough sugar to give the amount called for.


FRUIT BUTTERS

Fruit butters may be made from good sound fruits or the sound portions
of fruits which are wormy or have been bruised. Wash, pare and remove
seeds if there are any. Cover with water and cook 3 or 4 hours at a low
temperature, stirring often, until the mixture is of the consistency of
thick apple sauce. Add sugar to taste when the boiling is two-thirds
done. Spices may be added to suit the taste when the boiling is
completed. If the pulp is coarse it should be put through a wire sieve
or colander. Pour the butter into sterilized jar, put on rubber and
cover and adjust top bail. Put into a container having a cover and
false bottom. Pour in an inch or so of water and sterilize quart jar or
smaller jar 5 minutes after the steam begins to escape. Remove, push
snap in place and cool.


Apple Butter with Cider

Four quarts of sweet or sterilized cider should be boiled down to 2
quarts. To this add 4 quarts of apples peeled and cut in small pieces.
If the texture of the apples is coarse they should be boiled and put
through a strainer before being added to the cider. Boil this mixture
until the cider does not separate from the pulp. When two-thirds done
add one pound of sugar. One-half teaspoonful each of cinnamon, allspice
and cloves may be added. Pour into sterilized jars and sterilize 5
minutes in steam.

Apple and pear butter may be made by following the directions for apple
butter with cider but omitting the cider.


Peach Butter

Dip peaches in boiling water long enough to loosen the skins. Dip in
cold water, peel and stone them. Mash and cook them without adding any
water. Add half as much sugar as pulp and cook until thick. Pour into
sterilized jars and sterilize 5 minutes in steam.

Plum butter may be made following the directions for peach butter.


Apple Butter with Grape Juice

To every 4 quarts of strained apple sauce add 1 pint of grape juice, 1
cup of brown sugar and 1/4 teaspoonful of salt. Cook slowly, stirring
often, until of the desired thickness. When done stir in 1 teaspoonful
of cinnamon, pack in hot jars and sterilize 5 minutes in steam.


Dried Peach Butter

Soak dried peaches over night. Cook slowly until tender. To each
2 pounds of dried peaches add 1 quart of canned peaches and 1-3/4
pounds of sugar. If a fine texture is desired, strain pulp through a
colander. Cook slowly, stirring often, until thick. Pack in hot jars
and sterilize 5 minutes in steam.



CHAPTER IX

THE GOVERNMENT WAY OF PRESERVING EGGS


A FRIEND hearing of Adelaide's "Preserving efforts," said laughingly to
the little girl, "I hope, dear, you have not forgotten eggs." "Oh, no,"
replied Adelaide, "we've already done those. Mother ordered a whole
crate of thirty dozen and we preserved them in 'water glass,' just as
the government told us, although we could have preserved them by the
'Lime Method' if we had wished."

The friend's face was a study, while Adelaide's mother shook with
silent laughter, exulting at her little daughter's instant reply. All
unconsciously she had commanded a feeling of profound respect, instead
of the desire for gentle teasing which the friend had at first intended.

"Suppose you read what the government says about eggs," said mother,
thus giving the friend a chance to recover from her surprise. Adelaide
at once went for her little "wooden box," and this is what she read
from its proper card:

During the spring and early summer, when eggs are abundant and
reasonable in price, attention should be given to preserving them for
winter use. Fresh eggs properly preserved may be kept for 8 to 12
months in excellent condition and used with good results.

Eggs laid during April, May, and early June have been found to keep
better than those laid later in the season.

If satisfactory results are to be obtained, the eggs should be _fresh_
and _clean_ and, if possible, infertile. Eggs that float when placed
in the solution are not fresh and therefore cannot be preserved. When
an egg is only slightly soiled, a cloth dampened with vinegar can be
used to remove such stains. Under no circumstances should badly soiled
eggs be used for preserving; if put into the jar while dirty they will
spoil, and washing removes a protective coating which prevents spoiling.


Water-Glass Method

A good method for the preservation of eggs is the use of sodium
silicate, or water glass. If the price of sodium silicate is about 30
cents a quart, eggs may be preserved at a cost of approximately 2 cents
a dozen. It is not desirable to use the water-glass solution a second
time.

Use 1 quart of sodium silicate to 9 quarts of water that has been
boiled and cooled. Place the mixture in a 5-gallon crock or jar. This
will be sufficient to preserve 15 dozen eggs and will serve as a guide
for the quantity needed to preserve larger numbers of eggs.

(1) Select a 5-gallon crock and clean it thoroughly, after which it
should be scalded and allowed to dry.

(2) Heat a quantity of water to the boiling point and allow it to cool.

(3) When cool, measure out 9 quarts of water, place it in the crock,
and add 1 quart of sodium silicate, stirring the mixture thoroughly.

(4) The eggs should be placed in the solution. If sufficient eggs are
not obtainable when the solution is first made, additional eggs may be
added from time to time. Be very careful to allow at least two inches
of the solution to cover the eggs at all times.

(5) Place the crock containing the preserved eggs in a cool, dry place,
well covered to prevent evaporation. Waxed paper covered over and tied
around the top of the crock will answer this purpose.


Lime Method

When water glass cannot be obtained, the following method may be used
in its stead. Many consider this method entirely satisfactory, though
instances are known where eggs so preserved have tasted slightly of
lime.

Dissolve 2 or 3 pounds of unslaked lime in 5 gallons of water that has
previously been boiled and allowed to cool, and allow the mixture to
stand until the lime settles and the liquid is clear. Place _clean_,
_fresh_ eggs in a clean earthenware crock or jar and pour the clear
limewater into the vessel until the eggs are covered. At least 2 inches
of the solution should cover the top layer of eggs. Sometimes a pound
of salt is used with the lime, but experience has shown that in general
the lime without the salt is more satisfactory.


Using Preserved Eggs

Fresh, clean eggs, properly preserved, can be used satisfactorily for
all purposes in cooking and for the table. When eggs preserved in
water glass are to be boiled, a small hole should be made in the shell
with a pin at the large end before placing them in the water. This is
done to allow the air in the egg to escape when heated so as to prevent
cracking.

"Well, well," said the friend, "I shall certainly know where to come
when I need any new hints on preserving."

"When these recipes (touching the cards in the little 'wooden box'
lovingly) are made into a little book--an idea that has been suggested
to mother--perhaps you could buy one," suggested Adelaide innocently.

"I most certainly shall," answered the friend.

And she (the friend) did.

Jessie May could hardly wait for her copy of the "little book," and
you will be interested to know that she was just as successful in
her efforts at "preserving" as was Adelaide, and also found it very
interesting work.


THE END



INDEX


CONSERVES

  Apricot Conserve, 109
  Peach Conserve, 110
  Plum Conserve, 111
  Rhubarb Conserve, 107


JAMS

  Barberry Jam, 38
  Blackberry Jam, 32
  Black Currant Jam, 31
  Damson Plum Jam, 36
  Gooseberry Jam, 33
  Green-Gage Plum Jam, 35
  Large Blue Plum Jam, 34
  Raspberry Jam, 27
  Raspberry and Red Currant Jam, 29
  Red Currant Jam, 30
  Rhubarb and Fig Jam, 39
  Strawberry Jam, 25


JELLIES

  Apple Jelly, 59
  Barberry Jelly, 62
  Blackberry Jelly, 47
  Black Currant Jelly, 50
  Crab Apple Jelly, 60
  Cranberry Jelly, 66
  Cranberry and Apple Jelly, 68
  Damson Plum Jelly, 58
  Green Gooseberry Jelly, 52
  Quince Jelly, 63
  Quince and Apple Jelly, 65
  Red Currant Jelly, 42
  Red Currant and Raspberry Jelly, 46
  Red Currant and White Currant Jelly, 44
  Spiced Blackberry Jelly, 49
  Wild Cherry Jelly, 53
  Wild Grape Jelly, 55
  Wild Plum Jelly, 56


MARMALADES

  Apple Marmalade, 23
  Apricot Marmalade, 19
  Orange Marmalade, 8
  Orange and Grapefruit Marmalade, 13
  Orange and Rhubarb Marmalade, 15
  Peach Marmalade, 17
  Peach Marmalade No. 2, 18
  Plum Marmalade, 21
  Prune Marmalade, 22
  Quince Marmalade, 20


MISCELLANEOUS

  Blanching and Cold-Dipping, 158
  Canning of Fruits, 172
  Caution against Freezing, 163
  Containers, 156
  Directions for Jelly Making, 183
  Grading, 157
  Jelly Making without Test, 181
  Principles of Jelly Making, 179
  Single Period Cold-Pack Equipment, 155
  Steps in the Single Period Cold-Pack Method, 159
  Syrups, 173
  Test for Pectin, 179
  Tests for Jars and Rubbers, 156
  Time Table for Blanching and Sterilizing, 164-165
  Winter Jelly Making, 183


PRESERVING AND CANNING

  Canned Apples, 90, 174
  Canned Apples (without sugar), 92
  Canned Apricots, 84, 174
  Canned Asparagus, 166
  Canned Beets, 166
  Canned Blackberries, 76, 175
  Canned Blueberries, 77, 175
  Canned Blueberries (without sugar), 79
  Canned Cabbage and Brussels Sprouts, 167
  Canned Carrots, 167
  Canned Cauliflower, 167
  Canned Cherries, 75, 175
  Canned Corn, 168
  Canned Crab Apples, 87
  Canned Currants, 175
  Canned Greens, 168
  Canned Lima Beans, 169
  Canned Loganberries, 175
  Canned Okra, 169
  Canned Parsnips, 169
  Canned Peaches No. 1, 80
  Canned Peaches No. 2, 81
  Canned Peaches--Government Recipe, 176
  Canned Peaches (without sugar), 82
  Canned Pears, 85, 176
  Canned Peas, 170
  Canned Peppers, 170
  Canned Pineapples No. 1, 93
  Canned Pineapples No. 2, 94
  Canned Pineapples--Government Recipe, 177
  Canned Plums, 95
  Canned Plums--Government Recipe, 176
  Canned Pumpkin, Winter Squash, 170
  Canned Quinces, 88, 177
  Canned Raspberries, 72, 175
  Canned Raspberries and Currants, 74
  Canned Rhubarb, 97, 177
  Canned Rhubarb (without sugar), 98
  Canned Salsify, 171
  Canned Strawberries, 71, 178
  Canned String Beans, 171
  Canned Summer Squash, 171
  Canned Tomatoes, 172
  Damson Plum Preserves, 99
  Preserved Blackberries, 104
  Preserved Cherries, 105
  Preserved Currants, 100
  Preserved Currants and Raspberries, 101
  Preserved Eggs, 187
  Preserved Eggs--Lime Method, 190
  Preserved Eggs, Use of, 190
  Preserved Eggs--Water-Glass Method, 188
  Preserved Strawberries, 102
  Special Instructions for Canning Fruits, 174


PICKLES

  Chili Sauce, 132
  Chopped Pickles, 144
  Chow Chow, 145
  Cucumber Pickles, 149
  Mustard Pickles No. 1, 137
  Mustard Pickles No. 2, 140
  Pepper Relish, 136
  Piccalilli, 134
  Pickled Beets, 128
  Pickled Onions No. 1, 129
  Pickled Onions No. 2, 131
  Pickled Red Cabbage, 147
  Plum Tomato Pickles, 105
  Ripe Cucumber Pickles, 142
  Tomato Catsup, 151
  Tomatoes, 153


SPICED FRUITS

  Spiced Blackberries, 125
  Spiced Cherries, 116
  Spiced Currants, 114
  Spiced Gooseberries, 117
  Spiced Grapes, 123
  Spiced Peaches, 120
  Spiced Pears, 119
  Spiced Watermelon Rind, 122

  Fruit Butters, 184
  Apple Butter with Cider, 185
  Apple Butter with Grape Juice, 186
  Dried Peach Butter, 186
  Peach Butter, 185


       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes:

Obvious punctuation errors repaired.

Page 165, "145" changed to "144" (2,000 feet, 144)

Page 183, "cotten" changed to "cotton" (Put absorbent cotton)





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