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Title: A Little Candy Book for a Little Girl
Author: Waterman, Amy L.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Transcriber's Note: Bold text is surrounded by =equal signs= and
italic text is surrounded by _underscores_.]



A LITTLE CANDY BOOK FOR A LITTLE GIRL



The Ideal Series for Girls


=A Little Cook Book for a Little Girl=

BY CAROLINE FRENCH BENTON

Cloth decorative, small 12mo.

    75 cents; carriage paid, 85 cents

The simple, vivacious style makes this little manual as delightful
reading as a story-book.


    =A Little Housekeeping Book for a Little Girl;= OR
    MARGARET'S SATURDAY MORNINGS

BY CAROLINE FRENCH BENTON

Cloth decorative, small 12mo.

    75 cents; carriage paid, 85 cents

A little girl, home from school on Saturday mornings, finds out how to
make helpful use of her spare time.


=A Little Candy Book for a Little Girl=

BY AMY L. WATERMAN

    Cloth decorative, with a frontispiece in full color, small
    12mo.

    75 cents; carriage paid, 85 cents

This is a book of special appeal, as it explains in simple fashion the
processes of making delicious fudges, fondants, nut dainties and the
like.


=A Little Sewing Book for a Little Girl=

BY LOUISE FRANCES CORNELL

    Cloth decorative, with a frontispiece in full color, small
    12mo.

    75 cents; carriage paid, 85 cents

A splendid volume to encourage little girls in the study of the useful
and beautiful art of the needle.


    THE PAGE COMPANY
    53 BEACON ST., BOSTON, MASS.

[Illustration: Harriet O'Brien]



A LITTLE CANDY BOOK FOR A LITTLE GIRL


    BY
    AMY L. WATERMAN

    _With a frontispiece in full color by_
    HARRIET O'BRIEN

[Illustration]

    BOSTON           THE PAGE
    COMPANY         MDCCCCXVIII



    _Copyright, 1918_
    BY THE PAGE COMPANY


    _All rights reserved_


    First Impression, May, 1918


    THE COLONIAL PRESS
    C. H. SIMONDS CO., BOSTON, U. S. A.



    TO

    Elizabeth and Dorothy



PREFACE


THE publishers wish to call the attention of the little candy maker to
the Appendix in this book.

The United States Food Administration, while it does not object to a
moderate use of sugar in candy making, strongly advises that it be used
sparingly in order that our soldiers and allies may be provided with
this energy-giving food that they require.

Accordingly, a number of recipes requiring a small quantity of sugar,
or eliminating it entirely, have been prepared under the direction of
this able Administration, and the publishers, glad to co-operate in
every way, take pleasure in incorporating these recipes and suggestions
as an Appendix.

It should be noted, however, that the author has furnished, throughout
the book, a number of recipes that conform in every way to the
suggestions made by the Government.



CONTENTS


    CHAPTER                           PAGE
          PREFACE                      vii
       I. COOL WEATHER CANDIES           9
      II. POPCORN GOODIES               37
     III. FUDGE                         47
      IV. CARAMELS                      86
       V. CREAM CANDIES--UNCOOKED       92
      VI. STUFFED DAINTIES              99
     VII. CREAM CANDIES--COOKED        107
    VIII. SALTED NUTS                  124
      IX. BETSEY'S PARTY               129
          APPENDIX                     131
          INDEX                        139



A LITTLE CANDY BOOK FOR A LITTLE GIRL



CHAPTER I

COOL WEATHER CANDIES


BETSEY BOBBITT was a little girl whose real name was Elizabeth, but
who, whenever she had anything to tell, came rushing to her mother and
bobbed about so much--just couldn't keep still--that she earned the
name Betsey Bobbitt.

Now, the funny part about the nickname was that it was not always
appropriate; it only fitted when she came bobbing in with "Oh, mother!"
and back and forth she would bob, like--like--well, if you ever saw a
restless tiger at the circus, or at the zoo, pace back and forth in his
cage bobbing his head, you will know just how Betsey Bobbitt looked as
she told her little story.

Like most little girls, Betsey Bobbitt would often run errands for
the neighbors and nearly always they would insist upon giving Betsey
Bobbitt a penny, saying: "Thank you, dear; now buy yourself a stick of
candy."

Poor Betsey Bobbitt how she did wish she might buy the candy, because
if there was anything Betsey Bobbitt liked it was candy; and poor, poor
mother how _she_ wished the neighbors would not be so kind, or rather
unkind, for she had tried ever since Betsey Bobbitt first tasted candy
to let her eat only those candies that were pure and wholesome!

It truly was hard, because while mother had carefully explained that
"penny candies" were unsafe for little children to eat, on account of
the cheap, impure materials used in the making, as well as the bright,
dangerous colors used upon the outside, to make them look attractive,
still Betsey Bobbitt could not understand why other little girls and
boys were allowed to eat them.

Mother said she was sure the other mothers of little children did not
realize how harmful they were, because if they did, they would never
allow their little girls and boys to eat them.

So Betsey Bobbitt tried to feel that mother was right about it, but she
couldn't quite forget those "sticks of candy."

One afternoon in early September, Betsey Bobbitt and several little
schoolmates, on their way home from school, were very busily engaged
in talking, and what do you think they were talking about? They were
discussing what they wanted to do when they grew up.

At first Betsey Bobbitt was very quiet; this was most unusual, but she
listened attentively to the plans of all the others. Just then they
came to a candy shop in which was displayed a most tempting array of
candies.

Like a flash Betsey Bobbitt made her decision, and when she said she
wanted to be a teacher of "Domestic Science" the other little girls
were so impressed that their own plans were forgotten; in fact some of
them did not even know what "Domestic Science" meant and they were very
eager to learn.

So Betsey Bobbitt explained as best she could, what she knew about it
and how she ever came to think of such a future; she told them of her
mother's friend who went to college to learn how to become a teacher of
"Domestic Science," which included knowing how to cook just everything,
the best of all being the most, _oh! most_ delicious candies, and that
was what she, Betsey Bobbitt, wanted to study.

The little girls were very much excited and looked first at the pretty
candies wistfully and then at Betsey Bobbitt with awe as it seemed
to them very wonderful for any one to be able to make such delicious
candies.

Betsey Bobbitt herself was so enthused that she could not wait for
the others, so with another hasty glance at the candies and a hurried
goodbye to her friends she left them and ran all the way home to tell
mother about her wonderful plan for the future.

Mother knew at once that something very special must have happened and
as soon as Betsey could gain her breath it all came out.

When Betsey Bobbitt finished her story she received the happiest
surprise of her short life, for mother, seeing how earnest and eager
her little girl was over her new plan, had been thinking rapidly, and
so when all had been told Betsey's mother laughed merrily at her little
daughter and said: "Why wait until you are old enough to go to college?
Wouldn't you like to begin to learn now?"

Do you wonder Betsey Bobbitt nearly fell off her chair, for when she
really understood that mother was to teach her to make candy, she
bobbed about all over the room, exclaiming: "Oh! mother, may I really
and truly?" and, again: "Oh! mother, I don't think I'll even want to
look at penny candy again!"

This pleased mother so much that she began at once to look up all the
simple ways of making candy that she herself had learned when she was a
little girl like Betsey, as well as many that had been given to her or
that she had cut from favorite magazines and cook books.

When these recipes were all arranged, Betsey Bobbitt began her candy
making, and a happy, busy winter and spring she had indeed.

Mother did not get any special outfit, but just let Betsey use the
things she had in the house and which would generally be found in any
ordinary home, some of which were as follows:--

Aluminum and agate saucepans, one, two and three quarts; a double
boiler; two glass and one tin half-pint measuring cups (divided
into quarters, thirds and halves); a set of spoons (measuring one
tablespoon, one dessert spoon, one teaspoon, one half teaspoon and
one fourth teaspoon); an old large steel knife that had become very
flexible with constant use; scales; food-chopper; nut-cracker;
corn-popper; a long handled wooden spoon; a small brush for buttering
tins; a fine wire strainer for sifting confectioner's sugar; one large
and one small egg-beater; and a pair of scissors kept specially for
kitchen use.

Mother also wrote out the following rules for measuring and weighing
and hung them up so that Betsey could find them easily. These Betsey
found very helpful.

    Sugar, granulated,         2     cups = 1 lb.
    Sugar, brown,              2-2/3 cups = 1 lb.
    Sugar, confectioner's,     3-1/2 cups = 1 lb.
    Sugar, powdered,           2-2/3 cups = 1 lb.
    Butter, packed solidly,        2 cups = 1 lb.
    Molasses,                  1-1/2 cups = 1 lb.
    Corn Syrup,                1-1/4 cups = 1 lb.
    Chocolate,                 16 squares = 1 lb.

The hints for candy making that mother gave Betsey, and which she
memorized, were as follows:--

FIRST. To butter with a brush the inside of the saucepan from the top
about two inches down, to prevent the candy from boiling over.

SECOND. To use fresh, cold water each time she tried the candy.

THIRD. Any candy that is to be beaten is better if allowed to cool a
few minutes by standing the pan in cold water and if when beaten it
looks like smooth thick cream before pouring in pans.

FOURTH. To butter the hands well when pulling candies.

FIFTH. That "soft ball," "hard ball," "thread," and "brittle" mean the
different stages sugar reaches while cooking.

When a little syrup dropped in cold water can be easily worked between
the thumb and finger, it is a "soft ball;" when it is firm and solid,
it is a "hard ball;" when it drops from the spoon into a fine thread,
it is called "thread;" and when it becomes so hard it will break, it is
called "brittle."

SIXTH. Never to stir hard candies (unless told to do so) after
ingredients are well mixed and have reached the point where the syrup
"threads."

SEVENTH. That uncooked foundation cream and fondant cream can be made
into all sorts of candies.

EIGHTH. That pretty, harmless colorings may be made from the following:
different shades of red and pink from the juice of raspberries,
strawberries, blackberries, elderberries and cranberries; yellow from
saffron; and green from spinach and beet leaves bruised and boiled in a
very little water.

So Betsey followed every instruction carefully and these are the
candies "Betsey Bobbitt" learned to make.

Betsey chose to make the hard candies first, and mother told her she
had chosen well as the cool fall and cold winter weather were much
better for these candies as they did not become so sticky and hard to
handle as in warm weather. One thing in particular mother impressed
upon Betsey's mind was this: it would be much easier to have all the
materials and utensils, used in making the candy, ready, _before_ the
cooking began; and another equally important thing was to wash all the
dishes and pans and leave everything tidy and in order when finished.


Butter Scotch No. 1

    Sugar (brown),         2-2/3 cups
    Butter,                   1/2 cup
    Water (cold),       2 tablespoons

When Betsey put these all in the saucepan, she remembered to dip her
brush in melted butter and brush the pan about two inches down from
the top so that the candy would not boil over, then she let the syrup
boil, without stirring, until a little which she dropped from the spoon
formed a hard ball in cold water. It was then ready to pour (thinly) in
buttered pans and mark, at once, in squares.

This was Betsey's favorite recipe for butter scotch although she found
the following two recipes very nice.


Butter Scotch No. 2

    Sugar (granulated),      1 cup
    Corn Syrup,              1 cup
    Vinegar,            1 teaspoon
    Butter,                1/2 cup

Betsey put the sugar, corn syrup, vinegar and butter in the saucepan,
then dipping her brush in melted butter she brushed the top of the
saucepan two inches down, next she stirred the ingredients well
together before putting the saucepan on the stove, because after the
syrup began to cook it must not be stirred.

When it was boiling well Betsey tried a few drops in cold water every
little while (each time remembering to use fresh water), and when it
formed a hard ball she knew it was done.

The buttered pans were all ready and into these Betsey poured the candy
(thinly) and marked it at once into squares.


Butter Scotch No. 3

    Molasses,                        1 cup
    Sugar (granulated),              1 cup
    Butter,                   1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (lemon),        1/2 teaspoon

After the molasses, sugar and butter were put into the saucepan and the
saucepan had been well brushed two inches down from the top as mother
instructed, Betsey let them cook until the syrup reached the hard ball
stage when a little of it was dropped in cold water.

It was then time to add the flavoring and pour at once into the
buttered pans, not forgetting to mark in squares.

Betsey found that butter scotch was much more tasty when thin, so that
was why she buttered more than one pan and had it only a quarter of an
inch thick.


Butter Taffy

    Sugar (brown),                 3 cups
    Molasses,                     1/2 cup
    Vinegar,                      1/4 cup
    Water (hot),                  1/4 cup
    Butter,                 2 tablespoons
    Flavoring (vanilla),       1 teaspoon

Betsey put everything except the butter and vanilla into the saucepan
and boiled these until the syrup formed a hard ball when a little was
tried in cold water, then the butter and vanilla were added, and it was
cooked three minutes more (Betsey counted up to one hundred and eighty)
and poured into a large buttered pan.


Lemon Cream Candy

    Sugar (granulated),            2 cups
    Water,                        1/2 cup
    Cream of tartar,         1/4 teaspoon
    Butter,              Size of a walnut
    Flavoring (lemon),       2/3 teaspoon

Betsey dissolved the sugar in the water and let it come to the boiling
point, then she added the cream of tartar, which she first dissolved in
one teaspoon of hot water, and when the candy was nearly done she put
in the piece of butter.

When a little of the syrup dropped in cold water formed a hard ball it
was then time to add the flavoring and pour in a buttered pan to cool.

While the candy was cooling Betsey greased her finger-tips well, and
when the candy was cool enough to handle Betsey began to pull it; at
first she found it very awkward but mother showed her just how to do it
and before long Betsey could do it very nicely. This pulling, as mother
explained, was very _quick_ work. Then when the candy was white Betsey
cut it into small pieces with the scissors.


Vanilla Cream Candy

    Sugar (granulated),                 2 cups
    Water,                             1/2 cup
    Cream of tartar,              1/4 teaspoon
    Butter,                   Size of a walnut
    Flavoring (vanilla),            1 teaspoon

The sugar and water were put into the saucepan and let come to the
boiling point, then the cream of tartar was dissolved in one teaspoon
of hot water and Betsey added it to the sugar and water. She let these
cook, and just before they reached the hard ball stage, added the
butter.

When the hard ball formed, by dropping a little of the syrup in cold
water, the vanilla was added and the candy was poured in a buttered pan
to cool.

In the meantime Betsey greased her finger-tips, and as soon as the
candy was cool enough to handle she began to pull it. Betsey had to
work quickly and as soon as the candy was white she cut it into small
pieces.


Peppermint Cream Candy

    Sugar (granulated),                      2 cups
    Water,                                  1/2 cup
    Cream of tartar,                   1/4 teaspoon
    Butter,                        Size of a walnut
    Flavoring (oil of peppermint),          4 drops

After Betsey let the sugar and water come to the boiling point she
added the cream of tartar dissolved in one teaspoon of hot water and
continued to boil until a little of the syrup dropped in cold water had
nearly reached the hard ball stage, then she added the butter.

When it had quite reached the hard ball stage Betsey took it from the
fire, dropped in the four drops of peppermint and poured the candy into
a buttered pan to cool.

Greasing her finger-tips just as she did for the lemon and vanilla
cream candy, Betsey proceeded to pull until white and then cut it in
small pieces.


Betsey's Orange Cream Candy

    Sugar (granulated),             2 cups
    Water,                         1/2 cup
    Cream of tartar,          1/4 teaspoon
    Butter,               Size of a walnut
    Flavoring (orange),         1 teaspoon

Betsey called this her own recipe, because, while it was made exactly
like the "Lemon," "Vanilla," and "Peppermint Cream Candy," she said
to mother one day, "Why can't I use orange flavoring and have still
another change?" Mother told her there was no reason at all why
she couldn't, and that she was glad to see Betsey thinking out new
combinations for herself.

So Betsey was delighted, and once more mother wrote it out, for, as
Betsey said, "It was much easier to have it right before you under its
own name than to keep turning back to the recipes that had gone before."

The sugar and water were brought to the boiling point, the cream of
tartar was dissolved in one teaspoon of hot water and added; these she
let boil until a little dropped in cold water was almost hard, then
Betsey put in the butter. When it was quite hard she took it from the
fire, added the orange flavoring and poured at once into the buttered
pan to cool.

Betsey found she had time to wash her saucepan, spoon and other dishes
before she needed to grease her fingers, and thus made the kitchen more
tidy and attractive while she pulled the candy.


Lemon Cream Taffy

    Sugar (granulated),            2 cups
    Water,                          1 cup
    Vinegar,                      1/4 cup
    Butter,                  1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (lemon),       1/2 teaspoon

After Betsey began to think for herself she acted in such an important
manner that mother smiled to see how rapidly her little daughter was
advancing.

The sugar, water and vinegar were measured carefully into the saucepan,
well mixed, then placed upon the stove to boil. One thing in particular
that Betsey learned from her own experience was never to let any candy
she was making boil too hard; an even steady boil made the candy much
nicer, and, besides, it did not then "spit" all over the stove and make
the unpleasant odor of burned sugar in the house.

Betsey tried the candy in cold water and just before it formed a hard
ball she added the butter; when it formed a ball that was quite hard
she removed the saucepan from the fire, added the lemon flavoring and
poured into the buttered pan.

With fingers well greased she pulled the candy, as soon as it was cool
enough to handle comfortably, until it was very white, then cut it into
small pieces with a pair of scissors.


Orange Cream Taffy

    Sugar (granulated),            2 cups
    Water,                          1 cup
    Vinegar,                      1/4 cup
    Butter,                  1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (orange),      1/2 teaspoon

Betsey let the sugar, water and vinegar boil until a little of the
syrup, dropped in cold water, formed a hard ball. The butter was added
just before it was done and the orange flavoring as soon as it was
taken from the stove.

Pouring the candy into the buttered pan, Betsey let it stand until she
could handle it easily, then with well-greased fingers she pulled the
candy white and cut it in pieces.


Vanilla Cream Taffy

    Sugar (granulated),           2 cups
    Water,                         1 cup
    Vinegar,                     1/4 cup
    Butter,                 1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),      1 teaspoon

The sugar, water and vinegar were boiled until a little of the syrup,
tried by Betsey in cold water, formed a hard ball. Just before it
reached this stage Betsey slipped in the butter.

As soon as it was done Betsey took it from the fire, added the vanilla,
poured into the buttered pan, let it cool until she could handle it,
then greased her fingers and pulled until it was quite white and cut
into small pieces.


Vinegar Candy

    Sugar (granulated),         2 cups
    Vinegar,                   1/2 cup
    Water,                     1/2 cup

When the sugar, vinegar and water had boiled long enough so that a
little of the syrup, dropped in cold water, formed a hard ball, it was
poured into a buttered pan, let cool sufficiently and pulled. It was
very simple, since Betsey did not have to stir this while cooking or
add anything extra.


Cream of Tartar Candy

    Sugar (granulated),         2 cups
    Water (hot),                 1 cup
    Cream of tartar,        1 teaspoon

The sugar, water and cream of tartar were put in the saucepan and
well stirred, then boiled until a little of the syrup, dropped in cold
water, formed the usual hard ball. Betsey found this took about twenty
minutes. Then she poured the candy into a buttered pan and let it cool
so that she could handle it easily.

With well-greased fingers she pulled the candy quickly, then cut into
small pieces or short sticks with the scissors.


Chocolate Taffy

    Sugar (granulated),      1 cup
    Corn Syrup,              1 cup
    Milk,                  1/2 cup
    Butter,                1/2 cup
    Chocolate,           2 squares

This Betsey found to be delicious. She cooked all of the ingredients
together, and when a little of the candy, dropped in cold water, was
quite hard, she poured it into the buttered pan. When the candy was
cool Betsey marked it into squares.

Most little girls like molasses candy and Betsey was no exception; she
thought the recipes that follow were the best of the kind she had ever
tasted.


Molasses Candy

    Molasses,                1 cup
    Sugar (granulated),      1 cup
    Butter,         Size of an egg
    Vinegar,          1 tablespoon
    Baking soda,        1 teaspoon

Betsey put all the above named ingredients except the soda into her
saucepan to boil. When a little of the syrup, dropped in cold water,
became brittle, she took the saucepan off the stove, and added the
soda; then she poured the candy into the buttered pan.

When it was cool enough to handle Betsey greased her fingers and pulled
the candy until it was a shiny golden brown, then with the scissors cut
it into short sticks.


Peanut Molasses Candy (not Pulled)

    Molasses,                2 cups
    Sugar (brown),            1 cup
    Butter,           3 tablespoons
    Vinegar,           1 tablespoon
    Peanuts (shelled),      1/2 cup

After Betsey put the molasses, sugar and butter together in the pan
she let them boil until they formed a hard ball when tried in cold
water, then she added the vinegar and continued cooking until it became
brittle.

The buttered pan was ready with the peanuts in and the candy was poured
over them. Before it became quite cool Betsey marked it in squares.

       *       *       *       *       *

Betsey thought pulling candy the best kind of fun and after she learned
perfectly how not to get all sticky, mother allowed her to invite a few
of her little friends to have a "pulling bee."

This pleased Betsey and her little friends very much. One of the little
girls said she knew what a "husking bee" was, for once when she was in
the country at the time when the corn was full grown, all the friends
and neighbors round about had been invited to come and help with the
husking.

Betsey's mother told the little girl a "pulling bee" was the same idea
exactly, for they were to come and help pull the candy after it was
cooked.

Each little girl put on one of mother's big aprons and carefully washed
her hands, then Betsey read the names of the different recipes out
loud and mother said they might choose two to make.

They chose "Betsey's Orange Cream Candy" on page 22 and "Molasses
Candy" given on page 28.

Mother stayed with them in case they needed her help, although Betsey
took full charge.

Betsey certainly managed well, for she kept each little girl busy doing
her share, and when the candy was cooked and ready to pull the real fun
started.

Despite Betsey's careful teaching, mother's help was much needed in
assisting some of the little girls, who just could not help getting all
sticky.

The afternoon passed so quickly and the candy was so good that the
little crowd voted it to be the best time they had ever had.

The following week Betsey made:


Molasses Kisses

    Molasses,                  1 cup
    Water,                   1/4 cup
    Sugar (granulated),      1/4 cup
    Honey,                   1/4 cup
    Corn Syrup,         1 tablespoon

The molasses, water, sugar, honey and corn syrup Betsey measured
carefully into the saucepan, and cooked them until when tried in cold
water the syrup formed the usual hard ball. Pouring the candy into the
buttered pan, Betsey let it cool until she could handle it easily.
With well-greased fingers she pulled the candy, then cut in pieces and
wrapped in wax paper.


Brown Sugar Candy (Pulled)

    Sugar (brown),           1 cup
    Corn Syrup,              1 cup
    Butter,          2 tablespoons
    Lemon juice,      1 tablespoon

Betsey put the sugar, corn syrup and butter in the saucepan and let
them boil without stirring until a little of the syrup, dropped in cold
water, became brittle. Taking the saucepan from the fire, she added
the lemon juice and poured the candy into a buttered pan, greased her
fingers well, and pulled when sufficiently cool. Then with the scissors
she cut in small pieces.

       *       *       *       *       *

Once when Betsey's mother was a young girl she visited a large farm in
northern Vermont and it was there she had her first butternuts.

Betsey thought the recipes for butternut candy that follow were the
best ever.


Lemon Butternut Candy

    Sugar (granulated),           2 cups
    Water,                       1/2 cup
    Butternut meats (broken),      1 cup
    Flavoring (lemon),        1 teaspoon

After Betsey boiled the sugar and water without stirring until thick
enough to spin a fine thread, she added the flavoring, placed her pan
in cold water, and then stirred it very quickly until it was white,
added the nuts, and poured into a buttered pan.

When it was cold she cut the candy into small squares.


Orange Butternut Candy

    Sugar (granulated),           2 cups
    Water,                       1/2 cup
    Butternut meats (broken),      1 cup
    Orange juice,           1 tablespoon

Putting the sugar and water in the saucepan, Betsey let them boil
without stirring until it would spin a fine thread from the tip of the
spoon. The orange juice was added, and the pan placed in cold water and
stirred very quickly until it was white. Now Betsey added the nuts and
poured into a buttered pan, and when cold she cut the candy into small
squares.


Vanilla Butternut Candy

    Sugar (granulated),           2 cups
    Water,                       1/2 cup
    Butternut meats (broken),      1 cup
    Flavoring (vanilla),      1 teaspoon

Like the "Lemon" and "Orange Butternut Candy," Betsey put the sugar and
water on to boil without stirring. When a fine thread spun itself from
the tip of the spoon she removed the saucepan from the fire, added the
vanilla flavoring and stood it in cold water.

Stirring the candy very quickly until it was white, Betsey then added
the nuts and poured it into a buttered pan. When it was cold she cut
the candy into small squares.

       *       *       *       *       *

Another candy that Betsey was very fond of was peanut brittle, and she
was eager to make some of her own.

Mother told her it was very easy to make if you were only careful not
to let the sugar burn and worked quickly, so one day Betsey made this


Peanut Brittle

    Sugar (granulated),    2 cups
    Peanuts (shelled),      1 cup

For this Betsey had to have a slow fire. Mother told her to put the
sugar into the iron frying-pan, and explained how it would first lump,
then gradually melt, and that when it was a clear pale coffee color it
was ready to pour quickly over the nuts.

Betsey had put the peanuts in a buttered pan on the back of the range
so as to be ready the minute the sugar was properly melted.

Here is another candy with peanuts that Betsey liked.


Peanut Candy

    Sugar (brown),         2-2/3 cups
    Corn Syrup,                 1 cup
    Water,                      1 cup
    Butter,             4 tablespoons
    Peanuts (shelled),     1-1/2 cups

The sugar, syrup and water Betsey boiled until it was crisp or brittle
when tried in cold water. Just before taking from the fire she added
the butter and nuts, then poured into buttered pans.

Betsey also made


Plain Peppermints

    Sugar (granulated),      2 cups
    Milk,                   1/2 cup
    Cream of tartar,        A pinch
    Oil of peppermint,      4 drops

After the sugar, milk and cream of tartar were put in the saucepan
Betsey set it on the back of the range until it looked clear and
watery. Then she brought it forward and when the boiling point was
reached, let it boil one minute, or while she counted sixty. Taking it
from the fire, she added the oil of peppermint drops and beat until the
candy was creamy, then quickly dropped from tip of spoon on waxed paper.

Sometimes this hardened before Betsey could get it all dropped, but
putting the saucepan back on the stove, it would melt and she could
finish the dropping.


Cocoanut Drops

    Sugar (granulated),      2 cups
    Water,                  1/2 cup
    Cocoanut (prepared),      1 cup

Betsey cooked the sugar and water until it formed a hard ball when
tried in cold water, removed from fire, added the cocoanut and beat to
a cream. Like the peppermints, she dropped quickly on waxed paper.



CHAPTER II

POPCORN GOODIES


BETSEY was glad when mother decided on "Popcorn Goodies," for she found
it such splendid fun popping the corn.

How Betsey loved to watch the kernels burst into the pretty white
snowflakes!

Her first attempt was just plain hot buttered popcorn.

Mother was busily explaining this recipe to Betsey when Dorothy,
Betsey's dearest friend, came over to spend the afternoon. Mother
invited the little guest to share the fun of popping the corn, and on
observing how well the little girls worked together then and there gave
Dorothy a standing invitation to join in the candy-making whenever she
could find the time, and, you may be sure, the invitation was eagerly
accepted.


Hot Buttered Corn

    Corn (not popped),      1/2 cup
    Butter,                 1/4 cup
    Salt.

Mother saw that the fire was just right, not too hot nor too cold.

She told Betsey that if it was too hot the kernels of corn did not
heat evenly and you were apt to burn them; so Betsey followed every
instruction, and as the corn popped so also did Betsey's eyes pop with
excitement to see the little kernels turn inside out.

The half-cup of corn she found made about six cups of popped corn.

Betsey's mother was very particular about having her use only the corn
that popped perfectly; the imperfect corn was thrown away.

While Betsey was popping the corn, the butter had been standing in a
large bowl in the warm kitchen, so that it was soft and creamy (mother
said it was not so nice if you let the butter melt to oil), and while
the corn was still warm, Betsey added it to the creamy butter, stirring
all the time, then with the salt shaker she shook the fine salt through
the corn.

This buttered corn was so good it was quickly eaten, so Betsey often
made double quantity, and many a cold winter's day she and her dearest
friend popped corn. Sometimes Betsey made


Brown Sugar Popcorn Candy

    Sugar (brown),            2 cups
    Water,             6 tablespoons
    Butter,            2 tablespoons
    Corn (not popped),         1 cup

A saucepan containing the sugar, water and butter was placed on the
back of the stove to melt the ingredients while Betsey popped the corn,
one half a cup at a time. While the candy was cooking she carefully
picked over the corn, using only the kernels that were perfectly
popped, and put them in a large saucepan at the back of the stove.

When the candy became brittle as soon as a little was dropped in cold
water, Betsey poured it over the corn, stirred and mixed it well,
removed from fire and continued to stir until the candy cooled a little.

It was then poured into a buttered pan, a heavy weight placed on the
top (mother had to show her how) and as soon as it was cold Betsey cut
it into bars with a very sharp knife. Sometimes the knife would stick
while cutting, but mother said if she would dip the blade in water now
and then she would find it much easier.


Popcorn Candy

    Sugar (granulated),         1 cup
    Water,              3 tablespoons
    Butter,              1 tablespoon
    Corn (not popped),          1 cup

First Betsey popped the corn, putting one half a cup in the popper at a
time; after picking the corn over carefully she had about twelve cups
or three quarts of popped corn.

Then the sugar, water, and butter were put in a saucepan and cooked
until it was brittle, when tried in cold water; the popped corn, which
had been kept in a large saucepan at back of the stove, was then
covered with the syrup, stirred until it was well mixed, then taken
from fire and the stirring continued till the mixture cooled a little.
Now she poured it into a buttered pan, placed a weight over it, and
when cold cut into bars with a sharp knife. If the knife stuck while
cutting, Betsey dipped the blade in water now and then, as mother had
taught her.


Popcorn Balls

    Molasses,                  1 cup
    Sugar (granulated),      1/2 cup
    Butter,             1 tablespoon
    Corn (not popped),         1 cup

The corn Betsey popped, picked over and put in a good-sized buttered
pan, then shook just a little salt over it.

The butter, sugar and molasses she boiled until it became brittle
when tried in cold water, then poured the candy slowly over the corn,
stirring all the while.

Betsey then buttered her hands and shaped the corn into balls as soon
as it was cool enough for her to handle.


Maple Sugar Popcorn Balls

    Maple Syrup,               1 cup
    Sugar (granulated),      1/2 cup
    Butter,             1 tablespoon
    Corn (not popped),         1 cup

As Betsey became more and more expert in making candy she found she
could plan many ways to save time.

Having everything ready to work with at the beginning made the work far
easier.

So while Betsey popped the corn, the maple syrup, sugar and butter were
busily boiling.

Of course Betsey had to work quickly and put her whole mind on what she
was doing. By the time the corn was popped, carefully picked over and
placed in a good-sized buttered pan, then sprinkled with a little salt,
the candy was about done. She tried a little in cold water, and when it
became brittle she poured it slowly over the corn, constantly stirring.

When it was cool enough to handle, Betsey, with well-buttered fingers,
shaped it into balls, which she wrapped in waxed paper.


How to Sugar Popcorn

    Sugar (granulated),                 2 cups
    Water,                             1/2 cup
    Butter,                      2 tablespoons
    Corn (not popped),                 3/4 cup

Betsey, after first popping the corn, put the sugar, water and butter
in a saucepan. When the candy was boiling Betsey added the popcorn
gradually, until all had been added that the syrup would cover, then
stirred gently from the bottom until the sugar formed grains on the
corn.

It was then turned into a dish to cool.


Frosted Popcorn

    Molasses,                          1 cup
    Sugar (granulated),              1/2 cup
    Butter,                     1 tablespoon
    Corn (not popped),                 1 cup
    Powdered sugar.

This was very pretty. After the popcorn was nicely popped and placed in
a large buttered saucepan Betsey cooked the molasses, sugar and butter
until it was brittle when tried in cold water, poured it over the
corn slowly and mixed thoroughly. Over this she shook an abundance of
powdered sugar and mixed it in until the kernels separated and rattled.


Pink Frosted Popcorn

    Sugar (granulated),               2 cups
    Water,                           1/2 cup
    Butter,                     1 tablespoon
    Corn (not popped),                 1 cup
    Powdered sugar.
    Strawberry juice.

Betsey popped the corn, picked it over, then placed in a large buttered
saucepan. The sugar, water and butter she cooked until a little of the
syrup, dropped in cold water, became brittle, then she added enough
strained strawberry juice (a few drops at a time) to make it just
the shade of pink she liked best. This she then poured over the corn
slowly, stirring all the while, next she shook an abundance of powdered
sugar over it all and stirred it in until the kernels separated and
rattled.


Red Frosted Popcorn

    Sugar (granulated),                2 cups
    Water,                            1/2 cup
    Butter,                      1 tablespoon
    Corn (not popped),                  1 cup
    Powdered sugar.
    Cranberry juice.

The granulated sugar, water and butter were placed in a saucepan at the
back of the range to melt while Betsey popped the corn, one half a cup
at a time.

Picking it over carefully and throwing away all those kernels that were
not properly popped, she placed the corn in a large buttered saucepan,
then cooked the syrup until a little dropped in cold water became
brittle. Adding the strained cranberry juice a few drops at a time
until it became a brilliant red, Betsey slowly poured the candy over
the corn, stirring constantly, then shaking an abundance of powdered
sugar over the corn, she stirred it in until each kernel was separate.


Chocolate Frosted Popcorn

    Sugar (granulated),                   2 cups
    Water,                               1/2 cup
    Butter,                         1 tablespoon
    Chocolate,                         2 squares
    Corn (not popped),                     1 cup
    Powdered sugar.

This Betsey made just as she did the other "Frosted Popcorn."

She popped the corn, one half a cup at a time, picked it over and
placed the perfect kernels in a large buttered saucepan, throwing away
the imperfect kernels.

The sugar, water, butter and chocolate were cooked until a little of
the syrup, dropped in cold water, became brittle. It was then poured
slowly over the corn and stirred constantly.

The powdered sugar Betsey shook over the corn in abundance and mixed
until each kernel separated and rattled.

       *       *       *       *       *

At Christmas time Betsey made a number of the different kinds of
frosted popcorn. Some of them she strung for the Christmas Tree and
others she used for filling little net bags.

The little net bags she made of different colors, some red, some green
and others of dark blue and white net.

She put a few silver stars here and there on the outside of each bag
and filled them with the frosted corn.

They were most attractive, and her little friends, to each of whom she
presented one, thought they were wonderful, and marvelled at Betsey's
original ideas.



CHAPTER III

FUDGE


WHEN the Christmas holidays were over and the excitement incident
thereto had abated, Betsey was eager to continue her candy-making, and
when mother suggested fudge Betsey just bobbed and bobbed, but finally
said: "Oh, I know that I will enjoy all of the different fudges, but
are you sure that you have them all, mother?" Mother smiled at her
little pupil's enthusiasm and replied: "Well, Betsey, I may not have
all of the fudge recipes, but I am sure I have a very large number, for
fudge has always been one of my favorite candies, and I have always
enjoyed making it in different ways." And as the weeks went on Betsey
made the following fudges:

First mother explained to Betsey that to have fudge very creamy was
all-important, and instructed her _not_ to beat it until it became
sugary, but only until it looked like thick heavy cream, then it was
ready to pour at once in the buttered pan and mark in squares.


Cocoanut Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),                  2 cups
    Milk,                               3/4 cup
    Butter,                    Size of a walnut
    Cocoanut (prepared),                1/2 cup

All except the cocoanut Betsey let boil ten minutes, took from the
fire, added cocoanut, beat till it thickened and poured into buttered
pan.


Chocolate Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),                  2 cups
    Milk,                               1/2 cup
    Chocolate,                        2 squares
    Butter,                        1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),             1 teaspoon

The sugar, milk and chocolate were dissolved in the saucepan at back of
stove, then brought forward and boiled until Betsey could form a soft
ball between her thumb and fingers when a little was dropped in cold
water; taking the saucepan from the stove, she placed it in a pan of
cold water, added the butter and vanilla, beat until it was like heavy
cream, then poured quickly into the buttered pan and marked in squares.

       *       *       *       *       *

When Betsey found how many different "fudges" could be made she
welcomed each new recipe with glee.


Chocolate Fudge with Molasses

    Sugar (granulated),             2 cups
    Molasses,                      1/4 cup
    Milk,                          1/2 cup
    Chocolate,                   2 squares
    Butter,                   1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),        1 teaspoon

Putting the sugar, molasses, milk, chocolate and butter in the
saucepan, Betsey let them boil until they formed a soft ball when a
little of the syrup was dropped in cold water, then she removed the
saucepan from the fire, added the vanilla and placed the saucepan in a
pan of cold water.

Beating the fudge until it looked about as thick as heavy cream, Betsey
poured it into a buttered pan and marked in squares.


Chocolate Fudge with Brown Sugar

    Sugar (brown),                  2-2/3 cups
    Milk,                              1/2 cup
    Chocolate,                       2 squares
    Butter,                       1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),            1 teaspoon

As before, Betsey put the sugar, milk, chocolate and butter in the
saucepan and on to boil and let them cook until a little of the syrup
dropped in cold water formed a soft ball between the thumb and finger,
then adding the vanilla, she removed the saucepan from the fire and
placed it in a pan of cold water. After beating the fudge until it was
as thick as heavy cream, Betsey poured it into the buttered pan and
marked in squares.

       *       *       *       *       *

If mother happened to be out of chocolate, which sometimes occurred,
Betsey made a fudge with cocoa or coffee.


Fudge with Cocoa

    Sugar (granulated),                    2 cups
    Milk,                                 1/2 cup
    Cocoa,                          4 tablespoons
    Butter,                          1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),               1 teaspoon

Betsey melted the butter in the saucepan first, then added the cocoa
gradually, and when it was very smooth included the sugar and milk.
These she let boil until a little of the syrup dropped in cold water
formed a soft ball, then removing the saucepan from the fire, she
placed it in a pan of cold water, added the vanilla, beat the fudge
until it was thick like heavy cream, and poured it in the buttered pan
and marked in squares.


Fudge with Coffee

    Sugar (granulated),                    2 cups
    Coffee,                                 1 cup

    (Not too strong, and strained through cheesecloth.)

    Butter,                         2 tablespoons

Let sugar, coffee and butter cook until a little dropped in cold
water forms a soft ball, Betsey explained to a friend of mother's who
happened in, remove saucepan from fire and stand in a pan of cold
water, then beat until it looks as thick as nice heavy cream, when you
pour at once into a buttered pan and mark in squares. The friend liked
the coffee flavor so well that she went home and made some for herself.

When Betsey began to add nuts, raisins, figs, dates, marshmallows or
marshmallow cream to the different kinds of fudges, mother at first
thought it unnecessary to re-write the quantities and directions,
but Betsey exclaimed, "Why, mother, it will be so much easier if I
have each recipe written out all by itself, then I won't need to keep
referring back!" and mother found Betsey was right.

It saved all confusion, and, of course, Betsey was only a little girl,
so mother continued to make each recipe complete in itself, regardless
of how little it might vary from one previously given.


Chocolate Walnut Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),             2 cups
    Milk,                          1/2 cup
    Chocolate,                   2 squares
    Butter,                   1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),        1 teaspoon
    Walnut meats (broken),         1/2 cup

The sugar, milk, chocolate and butter Betsey boiled until a little
of the syrup dropped in cold water formed a soft ball. Removing the
saucepan from the fire, she placed it in a pan of cold water, added
the vanilla and nuts, then beat until it was thick like heavy cream.
Pouring quickly into a buttered pan, she marked it into squares.


Chocolate Pecan Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),           2 cups
    Milk,                        1/2 cup
    Chocolate,                 2 squares
    Butter,                 1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),      1 teaspoon
    Pecan meats,                 1/2 cup

When the sugar, milk, chocolate and butter had boiled so that a little
of the syrup dropped in cold water formed a soft ball, Betsey removed
the saucepan from the fire, stood it in a pan of cold water, added the
vanilla and nuts and beat the candy until it was as thick as heavy
cream.

She poured it quickly into a buttered pan and marked in squares.


Chocolate Almond Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),                  2 cups
    Milk,                               1/2 cup
    Chocolate,                        2 squares
    Butter,                        1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),             1 teaspoon
    Almonds (blanched and broken),      1/2 cup

Mother told Betsey to shell the almonds and measure them in the
measuring cup, then put them in a small bowl and cover with _boiling_
water for about a minute. This she did, then drained off the water and
the little brown skins peeled off very easily. Next she cut them into
small pieces and they were ready for the fudge, which she proceeded to
make in the usual manner.

The sugar, milk, chocolate and butter were boiled until they formed
a soft ball, when a little of the syrup was dropped in cold water;
removing the saucepan from the fire, it was placed in a pan of cold
water and the nuts and vanilla added, then Betsey beat it well until
it was thick like rich, heavy cream and poured at once into the
buttered pan and marked in squares.


Chocolate Peanut Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),        2 cups
    Milk,                     1/2 cup
    Chocolate,              2 squares
    Butter,              1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),   1 teaspoon
    Peanuts (shelled),        1/2 cup

Putting the sugar, milk, chocolate and butter into a saucepan, Betsey
let them boil until they reached the "soft ball" stage, then removing
from the fire she placed the saucepan in a pan of cold water, added
the peanuts and vanilla and beat until it was thick like heavy cream.
Pouring at once into a buttered pan, she marked the candy in squares.


Chocolate Raisin Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),         2 cups
    Milk,                      1/2 cup
    Chocolate,               2 squares
    Butter,               1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),    1 teaspoon
    Raisins (seeded),          1/2 cup

After measuring out the sugar, milk, chocolate and butter, Betsey put
them on to boil, and while these were cooking so the syrup formed a
soft ball when a little of it was dropped in cold water, Betsey picked
over the raisins and cut each one in halves. Sometimes she used the
seeded raisins or the small sultana raisins, or again the "Not-a-seed"
raisins. But whichever she used, she first found it necessary to put
them in a bowl and cover with boiling water that she might soften and
separate them easily.

It only took a minute, and after draining them carefully she turned
them out on a towel so that the extra moisture might be absorbed.

Then when the candy was done she added the raisins and vanilla and
placed the saucepan in a pan of cold water. Next she beat the candy
well, and when it was as thick as heavy cream, poured it into the
buttered pan and marked in squares.


Chocolate Fig Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),               2 cups
    Milk,                            1/2 cup
    Chocolate,                     2 squares
    Butter,                     1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),          1 teaspoon
    Figs (cut in small pieces),      1/2 cup

Betsey let the sugar, milk, chocolate and butter cook until a little of
the syrup, dropped in cold water, formed a soft ball; in the meantime
she wiped each fig carefully with a damp cloth and cut out the hard
little stem, then she cut them up into small pieces.

When the candy was sufficiently cooked she removed the saucepan from
the fire and placed it in a pan of cold water, added the figs and
vanilla, beat until it was thick like heavy cream, poured quickly into
buttered pan and marked in squares.


Chocolate Date Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),                  2 cups
    Milk,                               1/2 cup
    Chocolate,                        2 squares
    Butter,                        1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),             1 teaspoon
    Dates (cut in small pieces),        1/2 cup

After the sugar, milk, chocolate and butter were on the stove cooking
Betsey prepared her dates. She removed the large stone and cut each
date into four pieces. By the time the candy had cooked so that a
little of it when dropped in cold water formed a soft ball, Betsey
removed it from the fire and placed the saucepan in a pan of cold
water; then she added the dates and vanilla, beat the candy until it
was thick like heavy cream and poured at once into a buttered pan and
marked in squares.


Chocolate Marshmallow Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),          2 cups
    Milk,                       1/2 cup
    Chocolate,                2 squares
    Butter,                1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),     1 teaspoon
    Marshmallow cream,    2 tablespoons

When Betsey had cooked the sugar, milk, chocolate and butter until a
little of the syrup when dropped in cold water formed a soft ball,
she removed the saucepan from the stove and stood it in a pan of cold
water. The vanilla and marshmallow cream were added and the candy
beaten until it was as thick as heavy cream, then pouring at once into
the buttered pan she marked it into squares.

Sometimes Betsey added a half cup of walnuts or pecans with the
marshmallow cream. This made a very rich and delicious fudge.



Chocolate Molasses Walnut Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),            2 cups
    Molasses,                     1/4 cup
    Milk,                         1/2 cup
    Chocolate,                  2 squares
    Butter,                  1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),       1 teaspoon
    Walnut meats (broken),        1/2 cup

The sugar, molasses, milk, chocolate and butter Betsey measured
carefully into the saucepan, put on the stove and let boil until a
little of the syrup, dropped in cold water, formed a soft ball, then
removing from the fire she placed the saucepan in a pan of cold water,
added the nuts and vanilla and beat the candy until it was thick like
heavy cream. Into the buttered pan she poured it quickly and marked in
squares.


Chocolate Molasses Pecan Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),          2 cups
    Molasses,                   1/4 cup
    Milk,                       1/2 cup
    Chocolate,                2 squares
    Butter,                1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),     1 teaspoon
    Pecan meats,                1/2 cup

The pecan nuts mother usually bought ready shelled so Betsey had only
to measure them out with the other ingredients.

Putting the sugar, molasses, milk, chocolate and butter in the
saucepan, she stirred them well together before cooking. These she
boiled until a little of the syrup formed a soft ball when it was
dropped in cold water.

Removing the saucepan from the fire, she stood it in a pan of cold
water, added the nuts and vanilla and beat the fudge until it was thick
and creamy. Pouring quickly into a buttered pan she marked it into
squares.


Chocolate Molasses Almond Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),           2 cups
    Molasses,                    1/4 cup
    Milk,                        1/2 cup
    Chocolate,                 2 squares
    Butter,                 1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),      1 teaspoon
    Almonds (blanched),          1/2 cup

Betsey blanched the almonds after she had shelled them just as she did
before, by pouring _boiling_ water over them and letting them stand
about a minute, then draining off the water, she slipped off the little
brown skins easily and divided the almonds in halves.

The sugar, molasses, milk, chocolate and butter she cooked to the soft
ball stage, removed from fire, placed saucepan in a pan of cold water,
added nuts and vanilla, then beat till it was thick like heavy cream,
poured quickly into buttered pan and marked in squares.


Chocolate Molasses Peanut Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),            2 cups
    Molasses,                     1/4 cup
    Milk,                         1/2 cup
    Chocolate,                  2 squares
    Butter,                  1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),       1 teaspoon
    Peanuts (shelled),            1/2 cup

When Betsey had cooked the sugar, molasses, milk, chocolate and butter
so that a little of the syrup formed a soft ball when it was dropped
in cold water, she removed the saucepan from the fire, placed it in a
pan of cold water, added the peanuts and vanilla, beat well till it
was thick and creamy, poured quickly into a buttered pan and marked in
squares.


Chocolate Molasses Raisin Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),           2 cups
    Molasses,                    1/4 cup
    Milk,                        1/2 cup
    Chocolate,                 2 squares
    Butter,                 1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),      1 teaspoon
    Raisins (seeded),            1/2 cup

Betsey measured out a half-cup of seeded raisins, put them in a small
bowl and poured over sufficient boiling water to cover. Letting these
stand a minute or two until they were easy to separate, she then
drained off the water and spread the raisins on a towel, gently patting
them, until all the water was absorbed. Next she cut them in halves.

In the meantime the sugar, molasses, milk, chocolate and butter had
been cooking; when a little of the syrup dropped in cold water formed
a soft ball, Betsey removed the saucepan from the fire, placed it in a
pan of cold water, added the raisins and vanilla, beat the fudge till
it was thick, then poured quickly into a buttered pan and marked in
squares.


Chocolate Molasses Fig Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),           2 cups
    Molasses,                    1/4 cup
    Milk,                        1/2 cup
    Chocolate,                 2 squares
    Butter,                 1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),      1 teaspoon
    Figs (cut in pieces),        1/2 cup

In preparing the figs Betsey took a damp cloth and wiped each one
carefully, cut out the hard little stem, then cut each fig into small
pieces.

The sugar, molasses, milk, chocolate and butter were boiled until
a little of the syrup dropped in cold water could be formed into a
soft ball between the thumb and finger; removing it from the fire
Betsey placed the saucepan in a pan of cold water, added the figs and
vanilla, beat till it was thick like heavy cream, poured quickly into
buttered pan and marked in squares.


Chocolate Molasses Date Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),           2 cups
    Molasses,                    1/4 cup
    Milk,                        1/2 cup
    Chocolate,                 2 squares
    Butter,                 1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),      1 teaspoon
    Dates (cut in pieces),       1/2 cup

Removing the large stone from the dates, Betsey cut each one into four
pieces. The sugar, molasses, milk, chocolate and butter she boiled to
the "soft ball" stage. It was then ready to remove from fire and place
the saucepan in a pan of cold water, add the dates and vanilla, beat
till it was thick and pour quickly in buttered pan and mark in squares.


Chocolate Brown Sugar Walnut Fudge

    Sugar (brown),            2-2/3 cups
    Milk,                        1/2 cup
    Chocolate,                 2 squares
    Butter,                 1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),      1 teaspoon
    Walnut meats (broken),       1/2 cup

When Betsey had cooked the sugar, milk, chocolate and butter so that
when she dropped a little of the syrup in cold water she could form
a soft ball between her thumb and finger she removed the saucepan
from the fire, stood it in a pan of cold water, added the vanilla and
walnuts, beat the fudge till it was thick and poured quickly into a
buttered pan and marked in squares.


Chocolate Brown Sugar Pecan Fudge

    Sugar (brown),            2-2/3 cups
    Milk,                        1/2 cup
    Chocolate,                 2 squares
    Butter,                 1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),      1 teaspoon
    Pecan meats,                 1/2 cup

The sugar, milk, chocolate and butter Betsey cooked to the usual "soft
ball" stage, removed the saucepan from the fire, stood it in a pan of
cold water, added the vanilla and pecans, beat till it was thick and
poured quickly into a buttered pan and marked into squares.


Chocolate Brown Sugar Almond Fudge

    Sugar (brown),            2-2/3 cups
    Milk,                        1/2 cup
    Chocolate,                 2 squares
    Butter,                 1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),      1 teaspoon
    Almonds (blanched),          1/2 cup

When the almonds were shelled Betsey liked to blanch them. After they
had been covered with boiling water for about a minute she could remove
the brown skins very easily and divided them in halves.

The sugar, milk, chocolate and butter were all ready to boil. Betsey
let them cook till a little of the syrup dropped in cold water formed a
soft ball, then removed the saucepan from the fire, stood it in a pan
of cold water, added the almonds and vanilla, beat the fudge until it
was thick like heavy cream, poured quickly into the buttered pan and
marked in squares.


Chocolate Brown Sugar Peanut Fudge

    Sugar (brown),            2-2/3 cups
    Milk,                        1/2 cup
    Chocolate,                 2 squares
    Butter,                 1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),      1 teaspoon
    Peanuts (shelled),           1/2 cup

While the sugar, milk, chocolate and butter were cooking, Betsey
shelled the peanuts. When the candy was sufficiently cooked, so that
a little of it, dropped in cold water, formed a soft ball between the
thumb and finger, it was removed from the fire and the saucepan stood
in a pan of cold water. Betsey next added the nuts and vanilla, beat
the fudge till it was thick like heavy cream, poured quickly into the
buttered pan and marked in squares.


Chocolate Brown Sugar Fig Fudge

    Sugar (brown),              2-2/3 cups
    Milk,                          1/2 cup
    Chocolate,                   2 squares
    Butter,                   1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),        1 teaspoon
    Figs (cut in small pieces),    1/2 cup

The sugar, milk, chocolate and butter were cooked until a little of the
syrup dropped in cold water formed a soft ball.

The saucepan was then removed from the fire and stood in a pan of cold
water.

Now Betsey added the vanilla and figs (the figs she had prepared by
wiping each one with a damp cloth, removing the little hard stem and
cutting into small pieces), beat the fudge till it was as thick as
heavy cream, poured quickly into the buttered pan and marked in squares.


Chocolate Brown Sugar Date Fudge

    Sugar (brown),              2-2/3 cups
    Milk,                          1/2 cup
    Chocolate,                   2 squares
    Butter,                   1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),        1 teaspoon
    Dates (cut in four pieces),    1/2 cup

After Betsey had prepared the dates by removing the long stone and
cutting each date in four pieces she put the sugar, milk, chocolate
and butter on to boil. As soon as the syrup formed a soft ball between
the thumb and finger when a little of it was dropped in cold water she
removed the saucepan from the fire, stood it in a pan of cold water,
added the vanilla and dates, beat the fudge till it was as thick as
heavy cream, poured quickly into a buttered pan and marked in squares.


Chocolate Brown Sugar Raisin Fudge

    Sugar (brown),            2-2/3 cups
    Milk,                        1/2 cup
    Chocolate,                 2 squares
    Butter,                 1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),      1 teaspoon
    Raisins (seeded),            1/2 cup

While the sugar, milk, chocolate and butter were boiling Betsey poured
boiling water over the raisins, let them stand a minute or two, then
drained and spread on a towel to absorb all of the moisture. She then
cut them in halves.

When a little of the candy dropped into cold water formed a soft ball
Betsey removed the saucepan from the stove, placed it in a pan of cold
water, added the raisins and vanilla, beat the fudge until it was thick
like heavy cream, poured quickly into a buttered pan and marked in
squares.


Chocolate Brown Sugar Marshmallow Fudge

    Sugar (brown),            2-2/3 cups
    Milk,                        1/2 cup
    Chocolate,                 2 squares
    Butter,                 1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),      1 teaspoon
    Marshmallow cream,     2 tablespoons

The candies in which Betsey put marshmallow cream she considered her
"very choicest" as she expressed it.

Cooking the sugar, milk, chocolate and butter until a little of the
syrup, when dropped in cold water, formed a soft ball, then removing
from fire and standing the saucepan in a pan of cold water, she next
added the vanilla and marshmallow cream, beat the fudge till it was
thick like heavy cream, poured quickly into a buttered pan, then marked
in squares.


Cocoa Walnut Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),           2 cups
    Milk,                        1/2 cup
    Cocoa,                 4 tablespoons
    Butter,                 1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),      1 teaspoon
    Walnut meats (broken),       1/2 cup

After the sugar, milk, cocoa and butter were cooked so that a little of
the syrup formed a soft ball when it was dropped in cold water, Betsey
removed the saucepan from the fire, stood it in a pan of cold water,
added the nuts and flavoring, beat till it was thick like cream, poured
quickly into a buttered pan and marked in squares.


Cocoa Pecan Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),           2 cups
    Milk,                        1/2 cup
    Cocoa,                 4 tablespoons
    Butter,                 1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),      1 teaspoon
    Pecan meats,                 1/2 cup

Mother forgot to write out in the previous recipes that it was better
to first melt your butter and add the cocoa and sugar gradually,
then the milk a little at a time, so that it would be smooth, but,
fortunately, Betsey remembered. These she let cook until a little of
the syrup dropped in cold water formed a soft ball, then removing the
saucepan from the fire, Betsey placed it in a pan of cold water, added
the vanilla and pecan meats, beat till it was thick like heavy cream,
poured quickly into a buttered pan and marked in squares.


Cocoa Almond Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),           2 cups
    Milk,                        1/2 cup
    Cocoa,                 4 tablespoons
    Butter,                 1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),      1 teaspoon
    Almonds (blanched),          1/2 cup

Betsey shelled the almonds, covered them with boiling water for about a
minute, then removed the brown skins and divided the almonds in halves.

Melting the butter in the saucepan she added the cocoa and sugar
gradually, then the milk and let them boil until a little of the syrup
dropped in cold water formed a soft ball. Taking the saucepan from
the fire, she stood it in a pan of cold water, added the vanilla and
almonds, beat till it was thick like heavy cream, poured quickly into a
buttered pan and marked in squares.


Cocoa Peanut Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),           2 cups
    Milk,                        1/2 cup
    Cocoa,                 4 tablespoons
    Butter,                 1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),      1 teaspoon
    Peanuts (shelled),           1/2 cup

The butter was melted, the cocoa and sugar added gradually, the milk a
little at a time, then all boiled until a little of the syrup dropped
in cold water formed a soft ball. Taking from the fire, Betsey placed
the saucepan in a pan of cold water, added the vanilla and peanuts,
beat until it was as thick as heavy cream, poured quickly into a
buttered pan and marked in squares.


Cocoa Fig Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),               2 cups
    Milk,                            1/2 cup
    Cocoa,                     4 tablespoons
    Butter,                     1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),          1 teaspoon
    Figs (cut in small pieces),      1/2 cup

When the figs were each wiped with a damp cloth, the hard little stems
removed, and the figs cut into small pieces, Betsey then melted the
butter, added the cocoa and sugar gradually, poured in the milk a
little at a time and boiled until a little of the syrup formed a soft
ball when dropped in cold water.

Removing the saucepan from the fire and standing it in a pan of cold
water, she added the figs and vanilla, beat the fudge till it was as
thick as heavy cream, poured quickly into a buttered pan and marked in
squares.


Cocoa Date Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),           2 cups
    Milk,                        1/2 cup
    Cocoa,                 4 tablespoons
    Butter,                 1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),      1 teaspoon
    Dates (stoned),              1/2 cup

Betsey removed the long stones from the dates, then cut each date into
four pieces. The candy she made by first melting the butter, adding to
that gradually the cocoa and sugar, then the milk a little at a time.
These she let boil until a little of the syrup, when dropped in cold
water, formed a soft ball. It was then ready to remove from the stove
and place the saucepan in a pan of cold water; this Betsey did, then
added the dates and vanilla; beating the fudge until it was as thick
as heavy cream, pouring quickly into a buttered pan and marking it in
squares.


Cocoa Raisin Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),           2 cups
    Milk,                        1/2 cup
    Cocoa,                 4 tablespoons
    Butter,                 1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),      1 teaspoon
    Raisins (sultana),           1/2 cup

This time Betsey thought she would try the small sultana raisins in
place of the regular seeded ones. Covering them with boiling water for
a minute or two to soften, she then drained off the water and spread on
a towel to dry.

These did not need to be cut, but any little stems that might be on
them must be picked off.

After she had melted the butter, added the cocoa and sugar gradually,
then the milk a little at a time, she let the mixture boil until a
little of the syrup dropped in cold water formed a soft ball. Removing
from the fire, she placed the saucepan in a pan of cold water, added
the raisins and vanilla, beat until the fudge was thick like heavy
cream, poured quickly into a buttered pan and marked in squares.


Cocoa Marshmallow Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),            2 cups
    Milk,                         1/2 cup
    Cocoa,                  4 tablespoons
    Butter,                  1 tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),       1 teaspoon
    Marshmallow cream,      2 tablespoons

When the butter was melted, the cocoa and sugar added gradually, the
milk poured in a little at a time, then all cooked until a little of
the syrup, when dropped in cold water, formed a soft ball, Betsey
removed the saucepan from the fire, stood it in a pan of cold water,
added the vanilla and marshmallow cream, beat the fudge until it was
thick like heavy cream, poured it quickly into a buttered pan and
marked in squares.


Coffee Walnut Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),              2 cups
    Coffee,                           1 cup

    (Not too strong, and strain through cheesecloth.)

    Butter,                   2 tablespoons
    Walnut meats (broken),          1/2 cup

The sugar, coffee and butter were cooked until a little of the syrup,
dropped in cold water, formed a soft ball. Betsey then removed the
saucepan from the fire, stood it in a pan of cold water, added the
walnut meats, beat till it was thick like heavy cream, poured quickly
into a buttered pan and marked in squares.


Coffee Pecan Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),              2 cups
    Coffee,                           1 cup

    (Not too strong, and strain through cheesecloth.)

    Butter,                   2 tablespoons
    Pecan meats,              1/2 cup

Betsey boiled the sugar, coffee and butter until a soft ball formed
when she dropped a little of the syrup in cold water.

Removing the saucepan from the fire, she placed it in a pan of cold
water, added the pecan meats, then beat the fudge until it was thick
like heavy cream. Pouring quickly into a buttered pan, she marked the
candy into squares.


Coffee Almond Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),                   2 cups
    Coffee,                                1 cup

    (Not too strong, and strain through cheesecloth.)

    Butter,                        2 tablespoons
    Almonds (blanched),                  1/2 cup

While the sugar, coffee and butter were cooking, Betsey shelled and
blanched the almonds. This was done by covering the almonds with
boiling water for about a minute so that the brown skins might be
easily removed. The almonds were then split in halves.

As soon as the candy formed a soft ball by dropping a little of the
syrup in cold water, Betsey removed it from the fire, placed the
saucepan in a pan of cold water, added the almonds, beat the fudge
until it was thick like heavy cream, poured quickly into the buttered
pan and marked in squares.


Coffee Peanut Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),               2 cups
    Coffee,                            1 cup

    (Not too strong, and strain through cheesecloth.)

    Butter,                    2 tablespoons
    Peanuts (shelled),               1/2 cup

Betsey shelled the peanuts while the sugar, coffee and butter boiled
until a little of the syrup dropped in cold water formed a soft ball.
Then she removed the saucepan from the fire, stood it in a pan of cold
water, added the peanuts, beat the fudge until it became thick, poured
it quickly into the buttered pan and marked in squares.


Coffee Raisin Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),                        2 cups
    Coffee,                                     1 cup

    (Not too strong, and strain through cheesecloth.)

    Butter,                             2 tablespoons
    Raisins (seeded),                         1/2 cup

After measuring the sugar, coffee and butter, they were boiled until a
little of the syrup, dropped in cold water, formed a soft ball.

While these were cooking Betsey poured boiling water over the raisins,
let them stand for a minute or two, then drained off the water and
spread on a towel to dry. When the moisture was all absorbed, Betsey
cut each raisin in halves with the scissors.

As soon as the candy was sufficiently cooked Betsey removed the
saucepan from the fire, stood it in a pan of cold water, added the
raisins, beat the fudge till it was thick like heavy cream, poured into
the buttered pan and marked in squares.


Coffee Fig Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),                   2 cups
    Coffee,                                1 cup

    (Not too strong, and strain through cheesecloth.)

    Butter,                        2 tablespoons
    Figs (cut in small pieces),          1/2 cup

The figs were wiped, stems removed, then each fig was cut in small
pieces.

When the sugar, coffee and butter were cooked so that a little of
the syrup tried in cold water formed a soft ball, Betsey removed the
saucepan from the fire, stood it in a pan of cold water, added the
figs, beat the fudge until it was thick like heavy cream, poured
quickly into a buttered pan and marked in squares.


Coffee Date Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),            2 cups
    Coffee,                         1 cup

    (Not too strong, and strain through cheesecloth.)

    Butter,                 2 tablespoons
    Dates (stoned),               1/2 cup

When the long stones were removed from the dates Betsey cut them each
into four pieces.

The sugar, coffee and butter she cooked until a little of the syrup
tried in cold water formed a soft ball, then removing the saucepan from
the fire she placed it in a pan of cold water, added the dates, beat
the fudge till it was as thick as heavy cream, poured quickly into a
buttered pan and marked in squares.


Coffee Marshmallow Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),            2 cups
    Coffee,                         1 cup

    (Not too strong, and strain through cheesecloth.)

    Butter,                 2 tablespoons
    Marshmallow cream,      2 tablespoons

The sugar, coffee and butter were boiled until a little of the syrup
when tried in cold water formed a soft ball, then removing the saucepan
from the fire, Betsey stood it in a pan of cold water, added the
marshmallow cream, beat the fudge till it was as thick as heavy cream,
poured quickly into a buttered pan and marked in squares.

       *       *       *       *       *

There were still other combinations in the fudges that Betsey could
make, but she herself was satisfied, for the time being, anyway, and as
she told mother, "On extra special occasions I can add nuts to any of
my recipes with marshmallow cream."

Just before she started to make "Pinoche" or "Brown Sugar Nougat," as
her mother's old recipe was called, mother received a letter from a
dear friend, who was much interested in Betsey's candy making, in which
she enclosed a new recipe; strange to say it was another one for fudge.

It was all written out on pretty pink paper. This was it.


Sour Milk Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),                      2 cups
    Cornstarch,                        1 tablespoon
    Sour milk (not too old),             1-1/2 cups
    Chocolate,                             1 square
    Butter,                            1 tablespoon
    Walnut meats (chopped),                 1/2 cup

Betsey first grated the chocolate and mixed it well with the cornstarch
and sugar, then added, gradually, the sour milk.

These she cooked until a little of the syrup tried in cold water formed
a soft ball.

Removing from the fire, Betsey beat the fudge until it began to sugar,
then she added the butter and chopped nuts.

Betsey learned that the longer you beat this fudge the more creamy it
became and it gave a high gloss when cold.

Of course it was poured into a buttered pan and marked in squares as
usual.


Brown Sugar Nougat or Pinoche

    Sugar (brown),                       2-2/3 cups
    Milk,                                   3/4 cup
    Butter,                        Size of a walnut
    Flavoring (vanilla),                 1 teaspoon
    Walnut meats (broken),                  1/2 cup

The sugar and milk Betsey cooked until a little of the syrup tried in
cold water formed a soft ball, then standing the saucepan in cold
water she added the butter, walnut meats and vanilla, beat till it was
thick like heavy cream, poured quickly into a buttered pan and marked
in squares.

This was the candy that Betsey's father liked best of all, and no
matter how many other delicious confections Betsey placed before
him, as she did from time to time, that he might test the result of
her earnest endeavors, he still persisted in preferring "Brown Sugar
Nougat." He even insisted in preferring the old name though, as Betsey
told him, "Pinoche" was more "up to date."

Betsey liked this recipe very much herself, and even more so when she
added two tablespoons of the marshmallow cream, but as father liked it
best without the cream she usually made it plain.

Mother thought she had lost a pet recipe until one day she came upon it
unexpectedly. This was it.


Vassar Divinity Fudge

    Sugar (granulated),                     3 cups
    Maple syrup,                             1 cup
    Water,                              1-1/2 cups
    Vinegar,                          1 tablespoon
    Walnut meats,                           2 cups
    Whites of              2 eggs (beaten stiffly)
    Flavoring (vanilla),                1 teaspoon

For this Betsey needed two saucepans. In one she put _two_ cups of
sugar, _one_ cup of water, the maple syrup and vinegar, boiled these
until they formed a soft ball in cold water, then removed from fire.

In the second pan she had boiling the other cup of sugar and the half
cup of water; when they had boiled so that the syrup formed a thread
from the tip of the spoon she poured it at once on the stiffly beaten
whites of the eggs, beating continually, added _quickly_ all this to
the first mixture, stirred in the nuts and vanilla, beat until it was
like cream and poured in buttered pan. Sometimes Betsey packed it in a
deep, well buttered loaf pan and sliced like cake.



CHAPTER IV

CARAMELS


ONE Friday afternoon, as mother was sitting at the window engaged in
her sewing, Betsey bobbed in and exclaimed: "Mother, I want to make
caramels!"

"Right now?" asked mother, looking up from her sewing with a quizzical
smile.

"Well, no, not just now," replied Betsey, "but I really would like to
make caramels."

Just why Betsey wanted to make caramels puzzled mother, until Betsey
told her of the delicious caramels Dorothy's uncle sent her for a
birthday remembrance and which she had shared with her little friend.
"They were wonderful!" sighed Betsey.

Mother looked at her daughter's wistful little face and said:
"To-morrow, dear, I will start you on caramels, and I hope they will be
just as 'wonderful' as the ones you had to-day; at least some of them."

So here are the different caramels that Betsey made, and some of them
Betsey agreed were quite as "wonderful" as Dorothy's birthday candy.


Vanilla Corn Syrup Caramels

    Sugar (granulated),                       1 cup
    Corn syrup,                               1 cup
    Water,                                  1/4 cup
    Vinegar,                                1/4 cup
    Butter,                           2 tablespoons
    Flavoring (vanilla),                 1 teaspoon

After Betsey put the sugar, corn syrup, water and vinegar in the
saucepan she let them boil six minutes before adding the butter, then
let them continue to boil until they formed a soft ball when tried in
cold water. Taking the candy from the fire, she stirred in the vanilla
and sometimes one half cup of candied cherries cut in halves, reheated
the candy, then turned into a buttered pan.

When the candy was cool Betsey marked it in squares but did not cut it
until it was quite cold. She used a firm, sharp knife, then wrapped
each caramel in waxed paper.


Plain Vanilla Caramels

    Sugar (granulated),                      3 cups
    Condensed milk,                           1 cup
    Water,                                    1 cup
    Butter,                          Size of an egg
    Cream of tartar,                   1/2 teaspoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),                 1 teaspoon

Mother told Betsey she had heard that condensed milk was considered by
some expert candy makers to give better results in caramels than cream.

To the condensed milk Betsey added the water and mixed thoroughly, then
added the sugar. She let these boil, then added the butter and cream of
tartar and continued the boiling until a little of the syrup, dropped
in cold water, cracked between her thumb and finger.

It was then ready to take from the fire, add vanilla, pour in buttered
pan, mark in squares when cool, cut with sharp knife when cold and wrap
in waxed paper.


Rich Walnut Caramels

    Sugar (granulated),                       2 cups
    Corn syrup,                           1-3/4 cups
    Cream,                                   2 cups
    Butter,                                   1 cup
    Flavoring (vanilla),                 1 teaspoon
    Walnut meats cut in pieces,               1 cup

When the sugar, syrup, _one_ cup of cream and butter reached the
boiling point Betsey added the other cup of cream a little at a time so
that the candy did not once stop boiling.

After trying it in cold water, and it formed a firm ball between her
thumb and finger, she added the vanilla and nuts, turned it into a
buttered pan, marked into squares when cool, cut with a sharp knife
when cold and wrapped in waxed paper.

Betsey found that these took a long, long while to make, nearly an
hour, but my! weren't they worth it when she popped one into her mouth!


Plain Chocolate Caramels

    Chocolate,                            4 squares
    Sugar (brown),                            1 cup
    Corn syrup,                               1 cup
    Milk,                                     1 cup
    Butter,                    1 heaping tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),                 1 teaspoon

Betsey let the chocolate, sugar, syrup and milk boil until they formed
a hard ball in cold water, added the butter just before removing from
the fire, then the vanilla, and poured into buttered pan, marked in
squares when sufficiently cool, cut with a sharp knife when cold and
wrapped in waxed paper.


Chocolate Nut Caramels

    Chocolate,                             4 squares
    Sugar (brown),                             1 cup
    Corn syrup,                                1 cup
    Milk,                                      1 cup
    Butter,                     1 heaping tablespoon
    Flavoring (vanilla),                  1 teaspoon
    Walnut meats (cut in pieces),              1 cup

As soon as the chocolate, sugar, corn syrup and milk had cooked long
enough so that a little tried in cold water formed a hard ball, Betsey
added the butter to the mixture before removing from the fire. When
she removed the saucepan she added the vanilla and nuts, poured into
a buttered pan, marked in squares when sufficiently cool, cut with a
sharp knife when cold and wrapped in waxed paper.

Betsey found that all candies worth eating took time, patience and care
to make, yet she never seemed to tire of making them. Her enthusiasm
was just as fresh at each lesson and mother felt well repaid for her
time and trouble.

To be sure, Betsey had some failures, as most little girls do, but she
was never discouraged and kept on practising until she had mastered
every recipe.



CHAPTER V

CREAM CANDIES--UNCOOKED


THE candies that were made without cooking were a constant source of
delight, for Betsey learned so many different ways of combining them.


Foundation Cream

    White of                                  1 egg
    Same amount of liquid.
    Sugar (confectioner's),                 1 pound
    Flavoring.

Betsey put the white of the egg in the glass measuring cup, noticed
carefully just how much it measured and then added the same amount of
water, next she flavored it with a few drops of vanilla or almond or
peppermint or strong coffee or fruit syrup of any kind, and mixed well.

The confectioner's sugar she thoroughly sifted through a hair wire
strainer, then added a little of the liquid mixture at a time until
the cream was sufficiently flexible to be molded with the fingers.
This was then put in a covered bowl and set away in a cool place for
twenty-four hours to harden.

When this was ready to use Betsey made--


Almond Creams

    Foundation cream.
    Blanched almonds.

First Betsey shelled the almonds, then blanched them by covering with
boiling water for about a minute (this made it very easy to slip off
the brown skins), next she split them in two.

Taking some of the cream, she molded it into balls, pressed flat and
put half an almond on each side.


Pecan Creams

    Foundation cream.
    Pecans (in halves).

Betsey's mother bought the pecans already shelled, as it was almost
impossible to shell them without breaking them.

Taking some of the cream, she molded it into balls, pressed flat and
put half a pecan on each side.


Walnut Creams

    Foundation cream.
    Half walnuts.

The cream she molded into small balls, pressed flat and put half a
walnut on each side of the cream.

Another time Betsey tried--


Cherry Creams

    Foundation cream.
    Candied cherries and angelica.

Betsey cut the cherries lengthwise in two, shaped the cream into small
balls and pressed half a cherry on each side.

The angelica she cut into strips to form stalks, then stuck a cherry on
each. Sometimes she simply put the cherry inside the cream balls.

       *       *       *       *       *

The pretty combination that follows was called--


Neapolitan Cream Squares

    Foundation cream.
    Vanilla flavoring and color pastes.

Betsey's mother had a large marble slab which she used for rolling
out pastry, and this slab Betsey sprinkled with confectioner's sugar
that had been thoroughly sifted. To the cream she added a few drops
of vanilla and kneaded it in thoroughly. This she divided into five
portions, leaving one white and coloring the others pink, green, yellow
and chocolate. (Mother always bought the best flavorings and the same
concern which made these also had color pastes which were pure and
harmless and made according to government regulations, so mother bought
some for Betsey with directions for using.) Betsey rolled out each
portion alike, placed one on top of another, pressed the rolling-pin
lightly over them and cut in half-inch squares with a sharp knife, then
placed on waxed paper to dry.


Chocolate Cream Peppermints

    White of                        1 egg
    Water,                   1 tablespoon
    Oil of peppermint,            4 drops
    Sugar (confectioner's).
    Chocolate,                  3 squares

Betsey mixed the egg white, water and oil of peppermint drops in a bowl
and added as much sifted confectioner's sugar as it would absorb.

The board she sprinkled well with the sugar, then rolled out the
mixture to one fourth inch in thickness, and cut out with a small round
cutter.

While she was busy with this the chocolate had melted; this she had
placed in a good-sized breakfast cup, and the cup in a small shallow
pan of hot water on the back of the stove.

Now Betsey took two silver forks and dipped each round of cream in the
chocolate, carefully draining each one before placing on waxed paper.
Sometimes she needed to melt a little more chocolate, as the eggs
varied in size and so made more or less accordingly.

       *       *       *       *       *

One of Betsey's schoolmates gave her a recipe for lemon and orange
creams that her mother often made, so Betsey tried these.


Lemon Creams

    Lemon,                            One
    Tartaric acid,                A pinch
    Sugar (confectioner's).

First Betsey grated the rind of the lemon into a bowl, then added the
lemon juice (strained), the pinch of tartaric acid and sufficient
sifted confectioner's sugar to mold into small balls which she
flattened into cakes. These she covered with waxed paper and put in a
cool place and they were ready the next day to eat.


Orange Creams

    Orange,                          One
    Tartaric acid,               A pinch
    Sugar (confectioner's).

As for "Lemon Creams," Betsey grated the rind of the orange into a
bowl, added the strained orange juice, a pinch of tartaric acid and
sufficient sifted confectioner's sugar to mold into small balls, which
she flattened into cakes. Sometimes Betsey put a half cup of walnut
meats or pecan meats through the meat chopper and molded them into the
cream.

Then she covered with waxed paper, put in a cool place and they were
ready the next day to eat.

She also added the nuts to the "Lemon Creams" when she wanted a change.



CHAPTER VI

STUFFED DAINTIES


ONE day Betsey's mother bought her a pound of nice fresh marshmallows
to make


Stuffed Marshmallow Dainties

    Fresh marshmallows,          1 pound
    Preserved ginger,       or
    Candied cherries,       or
    Candied pineapple,      or
    Pieces of figs,         or
    Pieces of raisins,      or
    Pieces of dates,        or
    Walnut meats,           or
    Pecan meats,            or
    Blanched almonds,       or
    Butternut meats,        or
    Brazil nuts,            or
    Pieces of uncooked      or
    Cooked foundation cream.

Betsey found these were very easy to prepare and most delicious.

All she had to do was to cut the marshmallows in two, with the
scissors, horizontally,--they look better this way when stuffed (Betsey
learned in school about horizontal lines, so that she knew just what
mother meant),--then place a piece of ginger or a candied cherry or a
piece of candied pineapple or a piece of fig or raisin or date or part
of a walnut, pecan, almond, butternut or brazil nut, or small flat
balls of the uncooked or cooked foundation cream on the bottom portion
of the marshmallow and then press the top piece over it.


Fruit Paste

    Dates (stoned),          1 pound
    Raisins (seeded),        1 pound
    Figs,                    1 pound
    Candied cherries,        1 pound
    Nut meats,                2 cups

All these Betsey put through the meat chopper twice, next she put the
mixture on the board and kneaded it well with sifted confectioner's
sugar until she could roll it out to one half inch in thickness, then
she cut in pieces and dipped them in granulated sugar.

Mother also showed Betsey how to stuff raisins and dates, and Betsey
found mother's little sharp-pointed kitchen knife to be just the thing
for this kind of work.


Stuffed Raisins with Walnuts

    Large fancy table raisins.
    Walnut meats.
    Powdered sugar.

Betsey slit the raisins down one side carefully, removed the seeds and
pressed in a piece of walnut cut just the right size, then pressed the
slit together and rolled in powdered sugar.


Stuffed Raisins with Pecans

    Large fancy table raisins.
    Pecan meats.
    Powdered sugar.

Slitting the raisins carefully on one side with a sharp-pointed knife,
Betsey removed the seeds, pressed in a piece of pecan meat, squeezed
the opening together, then rolled in powdered sugar.


Stuffed Raisins with Almonds

    Large fancy table raisins.
    Blanched almonds.
    Powdered sugar.

After Betsey had prepared the raisins by slitting one side carefully
and removing the seeds, she blanched the almonds she had shelled by
covering with boiling water. Letting them stand about a minute, then
draining off the water, she removed the brown skins easily.

The raisins were not always large enough to hold a whole almond so she
cut the nut to fit it, then pressed the opening together and rolled in
powdered sugar.


Stuffed Raisins with Peanuts

    Large fancy table raisins.
    Peanuts (shelled).
    Powdered sugar.

Betsey made a slit in each raisin, carefully, with a sharp knife,
removed the seeds and pressed in a peanut.

After pressing the opening together she rolled the raisin in powdered
sugar.


Stuffed Raisins with Foundation Cream

    Large fancy table raisins.
    Foundation cream.
    Powdered sugar.

Betsey had the foundation cream all made (see page 92). She prepared
the raisins as usual (slitting carefully on one side and removing the
seeds), then made the cream into small balls and pressed into the
opening, which she closed. Next she rolled each raisin in powdered
sugar.


Stuffed Dates with Walnuts

    Best fancy dates.
    Walnut meats.
    Powdered sugar.

Betsey found that these did not take nearly as long to prepare as the
raisins.

With a sharp knife she cut one side of the date, removed the long
stone, filled it with a piece of walnut the right size, then pressed
and rolled in powdered sugar.


Stuffed Dates with Pecans

    Best fancy dates.
    Pecan meats.
    Powdered sugar.

Making an opening into each date with a sharp knife, Betsey removed
the stone and filled with a piece of pecan meat to fit, and rolled in
powdered sugar.


Stuffed Dates with Almonds

    Best fancy dates.
    Blanched almonds.
    Powdered sugar.

It was a quick job for Betsey to prepare the dates by cutting an
opening and removing the long stone, but the almonds took longer. These
she shelled, covered with boiling water a minute, drained them and
removed the brown skins.

In each date she pressed an almond, then rolled in powdered sugar.


Stuffed Dates with Peanuts

    Best fancy dates.
    Peanuts (shelled).
    Powdered sugar.

After Betsey shelled the peanuts she removed the long stone from each
date by cutting an opening with a sharp knife, then she filled each one
with a peanut and rolled it in powdered sugar.


Stuffed Dates with Foundation Cream

    Best fancy dates.
    Foundation cream.
    Powdered sugar.

Taking the foundation cream from the refrigerator, where she had kept
it since making the day before (see page 92 for recipe), Betsey made
it into small balls. These she pressed into the openings of the dates
which she had cut and from which the large stones had been removed,
then she rolled them in powdered sugar.


Stuffed Figs with Walnuts

    Small fancy figs.
    Walnut meats.
    Powdered sugar.

This was the only kind of stuffed figs that Betsey and mother liked.

The figs were prepared by removing the stem and cutting carefully down
the side, then they were pulled apart and a _whole_ walnut inserted.
Next they were pressed together and lightly dusted with powdered sugar.

       *       *       *       *       *

Betsey called these her "convenient sweets" because, as mother said,
you could make the stuffed fruits at any time: winter, summer, spring
or fall.

Betsey's grandmother was keenly interested in everything her little
granddaughter undertook, and this was especially true of the
candy-making. Grandmother admitted that she had a "sweet tooth," and
Betsey often surprised her with delicious dainties.

Betsey learned that grandmother was particularly fond of "Stuffed
Fruits," and a few days before her birthday Betsey prepared some of
each kind, arranged them attractively in a large box, and on the
morning of the eventful day gave them to a delighted grandmother.

Grandmother was very much pleased with the pretty box and its "sweet
contents." She called Betsey's gift, "the sweet surprise," because, as
she said, "I never know just what each dainty contains until I begin to
eat it, and, therefore, I am always being surprised."



CHAPTER VII

CREAM CANDIES--COOKED


BETSEY wanted to learn how to make the cooked foundation cream, or
fondant as it was called, and mother gladly taught her.


Fondant--Plain

    Sugar (granulated),           3 cups
    Cream of tartar,        1/4 teaspoon
    Water (hot),                 3/4 cup
    Vanilla,                1/2 teaspoon

The sugar, cream of tartar and water Betsey stirred thoroughly in the
saucepan and let it slowly come to the boiling point, then she stopped
stirring. After the syrup had been boiling a few minutes the sugar
began to stick to the sides of the saucepan, but Betsey's mother took
a piece of soft muslin, dipped it in cold water and showed Betsey just
how to wash it carefully off so that not one grain, even, should fall
into the syrup.

Then when Betsey tried the syrup by dropping a little in cold water she
was very, _very_ careful not to stir it. When it formed a soft ball
it was ready to be taken off, and then mother told Betsey to add the
vanilla and pour the syrup _slowly_ on a large platter.

As soon as it was cool enough to handle Betsey began to knead it and
work the cream until it was beautifully smooth, then she wrapped it in
waxed paper, put in a covered bowl, in a cool place, for twenty-four
hours.

It was then ready to make into candies just as she did with the
uncooked foundation cream on page 92.


Chocolate Fondant

    Sugar (granulated),                      3 cups
    Cream of tartar,                   1/4 teaspoon
    Water (hot),                            3/4 cup
    Chocolate,                            2 squares
    Flavoring (vanilla),               1/2 teaspoon

Putting the sugar, cream of tartar, water and chocolate into the
saucepan, Betsey stirred them well together, then let slowly come to
the boiling point.

After this she stopped stirring.

When the syrup had been boiling a minute or two and sugar began to
stick to the sides of the saucepan, Betsey took a piece of soft muslin,
dipped it in cold water and very carefully wiped off _every_ grain, as
mother had taught her.

Even when Betsey tried the syrup in cold water she took particular
pains not to stir it; when it reached the soft ball stage she removed
the saucepan from the fire, added the vanilla and poured slowly on to a
large platter.

This she let cool, sufficiently to handle, then kneaded and worked the
cream until it was very smooth.

Next she wrapped it in waxed paper, put in a covered bowl in a cool
place for twenty-four hours, when it was ready to use for making
candies.


Coffee Fondant

    Sugar (granulated),                       3 cups
    Cream of tartar,                    1/4 teaspoon
    Strong coffee (hot and strained),        3/4 cup

Betsey strained the coffee through a double thickness of cheesecloth,
added the sugar and cream of tartar and let them slowly come to the
boiling point; when the syrup had been boiling a few minutes the sugar
began to stick to the sides of the saucepan. As this had to be removed
very carefully so that not even a grain should fall back into the syrup
Betsey took a soft piece of muslin, dipped it in cold water and with
great care removed every bit.

Even when she tried the syrup to see if it had reached the soft ball
stage Betsey was very particular not to stir it.

When the candy was cooked Betsey poured it slowly into a large smooth
platter, waited until it was cool enough to handle, then kneaded the
cream until it was very smooth. Wrapping the fondant in waxed paper,
Betsey put it in a covered bowl in a cool place for twenty-four hours.
It was then ready to make into candies.


Maple Sugar Fondant

    Maple sugar (broken small),              2 cups
    Sugar (granulated),                       1 cup
    Cream of tartar,                   1/4 teaspoon
    Water (hot),                              1 cup

The maple sugar, granulated sugar, cream of tartar and hot water were
all stirred well until they began to boil, then Betsey had to watch
carefully, for sugar began to stick to the sides of the saucepan.
This she had to remove, which she did by following mother's careful
instructions. She was very particular not to let one grain fall into
the syrup and when she tried the syrup to see if it would form a soft
ball if a little were dropped in cold water she took care not to stir
it.

Then pouring slowly on to a large platter, Betsey let it cool until she
could handle the cream, when she kneaded it till it was very smooth.

The fondant was wrapped in waxed paper, put in a covered bowl in a cool
place for twenty-four hours and then made into candies.


Corn Syrup Fondant

    Sugar (granulated),                  1-1/2 cups
    Corn syrup,                             1/2 cup
    Cream of tartar,                   1/4 teaspoon
    Water (hot),                            1/3 cup

Betsey put all the ingredients in the saucepan and let them come to the
boiling point, stirring all the while, then she stopped stirring.

After the syrup had boiled a few minutes, Betsey noticed that the sugar
began to stick to the sides of the saucepan. So taking a piece of soft
muslin she dipped it in cold water and wiped all this sugar away so
carefully that not a grain fell in the syrup.

When Betsey tried a little of the candy in cold water she was again
careful not to stir the syrup, and as soon as it reached the soft ball
stage she removed the saucepan from the fire and poured the candy
slowly into a large platter.

Then when it was cool enough to handle Betsey kneaded till it was very
smooth and creamy, wrapped in waxed paper, and put in a covered bowl in
a cool place for twenty-four hours.

Betsey found that the cooked fondant would keep a long while and she
liked to have some on hand so that she could make a dish of dainty
candies at any time.

The following are some of the candies made with the different flavored
fondants.


Plain Fondant Almond Creams


Plain Fondant Pecan Creams


Plain Fondant Walnut Creams


Plain Fondant Cherry Creams

In each case Betsey made the small balls of the plain fondant, then
pressed half an almond on each side, or half a pecan, or half a walnut
or half of a candied cherry.

Sometimes she put the nut or cherry inside and wrapped the fondant
around it.

With the chocolate fondant she followed the same idea, making


Chocolate Fondant Almond Creams


Chocolate Fondant Pecan Creams


Chocolate Fondant Walnut Creams


Chocolate Fondant Cherry Creams

With the coffee fondant she made


Coffee Fondant Almond Creams


Coffee Fondant Pecan Creams


Coffee Fondant Walnut Creams


Coffee Fondant Cherry Creams

With the maple sugar fondant she made


Maple Sugar Fondant Almond Creams


Maple Sugar Fondant Pecan Creams


Maple Sugar Fondant Walnut Creams


Maple Sugar Fondant Cherry Creams

It was with the plain fondant that Betsey could make the greatest
variety of candies. Every combination that she had made with the
uncooked foundation cream (see pages 92-94) Betsey made with the plain
fondant.

When she had made Neapolitan Cream Squares (see page 95) Betsey's
mother had bought some of the color pastes which came from an old
established firm, were quite pure and harmless, and made according to
government regulations.

So Betsey had these to use, and again she used the pretty harmless
colorings as told on page 95.

These color pastes last for a very long time, since very small
quantities are used, just a drop or two being sufficient.

Before Betsey finished her lessons in candy making, especially when
she made the fondants, mother's stock of flavorings had very much
increased, for Betsey used vanilla, orange, lemon, almond, oil of
peppermint, wintergreen, violet, rose and peach.

In fact Betsey became such a little expert in her candy making that
Betsey's father said it seemed a foolish waste of money for him to buy
the usual box of Saturday candy when he much preferred his own little
daughter's concoctions.

Mother thought this too good an opportunity to let pass and suggested
that he give the amount he usually spent each week to Betsey, and leave
his order with her.

Father was glad to agree and Betsey was delighted and proud to think he
thought her capable enough.

This enabled Betsey to form a general supply fund with which to
purchase extras in the way of different kinds of nuts, candied
cherries, dates, figs, raisins, etc.


Cinnamon Cream Balls

    Plain fondant.
    Ground cinnamon.

Betsey made the fondant into small balls, then rolled them lightly in
the cinnamon. She was careful not to have very much as it made the
cinnamon taste too strong.

Sometimes she would put a candied cherry inside the cream ball, or a
piece of a walnut, or pecan or almond.


Cocoa Cream Balls

    Plain fondant.
    Cocoa.

These Betsey made like the Cinnamon Cream Balls by forming the fondant
into small balls and rolling in cocoa or first putting a piece of any
kind of nut or candied cherry inside the cream.


Cream Mints

    Plain fondant.
    Color pastes.

The plain fondant she divided into as many portions as she desired
colors or flavors.

After coloring and flavoring to her liking she rolled them out on
mother's marble slab until they were about a quarter of an inch
thick--of course she first sprinkled the slab with sifted powdered
sugar--then with a little round cutter Betsey would cut out the mints
and place on waxed paper to dry.

Sometimes she would use the different nuts, candied cherries, etc.,
with these by placing a piece on the top of each round.


Cream Chocolate Mints

Chocolate fondant, page 108.


Cream Coffee Mints

Coffee fondant, page 109.


Cream Maple Sugar Mints

Maple sugar fondant, page 110.


Cream Corn Syrup Mints

Corn syrup fondant, page 111.

Betsey made all of the different kinds of fondants into mints by simply
rolling a portion of each to one fourth inch in thickness, then cutting
them out with her little round cutter.

When she wanted them to be extra nice she added the candied cherries or
any kind of nut by placing a piece on top.

       *       *       *       *       *

Betsey enjoyed celebrating any and every occasion. The days devoted to
St. Valentine and St. Patrick were hailed with delight. For these gala
days Betsey found the "Cream Mints" to be the very best candies to make.

A tiny heart-shaped cutter, and another cutter in the shape of a
shamrock, mother found one day while shopping and these she brought
home to Betsey.

You may be sure that Betsey "bobbed" more than ever when mother gave
them to her.

On St. Valentine's Day Betsey remembered each member of the family,
also each of her little friends, with a "sweetheart" for a Valentine.
These she made from the "Cream Mints" of different colors and cut with
the heart-shaped cutter.

The little cutter in the shape of the shamrock Betsey used on St.
Patrick's Day to cut the "Cream Mints," which she colored a pretty
green.


Bon Bons

    Fondant of any kind.
    Color pastes.
    Flavorings.
    Nuts, candied cherries, etc., etc.

Here was another way in which Betsey used the fondants.

One portion of plain fondant she put on one side while the remainder
was divided into as many different portions as she desired different
colors or flavors. When these were shaped into balls, some plain and
some with pieces of nuts or candied cherries inside, she placed them on
waxed paper while she put the other portions of fondant in the small
double boiler over hot water to melt.

Betsey did not let the fondant get hot, but _just warm_, then taking
the candies she had prepared she dipped each one carefully into the
melted fondant (using two silver forks) and re-placed on the waxed
paper to dry.

In the same manner Betsey used the "Chocolate Fondant," the "Coffee
Fondant," the "Maple Sugar Fondant" and the "Corn Syrup Fondant."


Chocolate Creams

    Fondant of any kind.
    Color pastes.
    Flavorings.
    Nuts, candied cherries, etc., etc.
    Chocolate.

Sometimes Betsey liked the chocolate in which she dipped her creams
left unsweetened, then again she would add a little of the plain
fondant to the melted chocolate to take away the bitter taste. Betsey
melted the chocolate by placing it in the double boiler over hot water.
The number of squares she melted depended upon the number of creams she
intended dipping. Usually she started by melting two squares.

The creams she prepared exactly as she did for "Bon Bons," coloring and
flavoring as her fancy dictated, shaping into balls with or without the
addition of nuts and candied fruits.

With two silver forks Betsey found she could handle the creams nicely,
drain off all the extra chocolate and place on waxed paper to dry.


Chocolate Cream Mints

    Fondant of any kind.
    Color pastes.
    Flavorings.
    Nuts, candied cherries, etc., etc.
    Chocolate.

These Betsey made like the plain cream mints and other cream mints.

She rolled out the fondant so that it was about a quarter of an inch
in thickness, cut with the little round cutter, then dipped each round
in the melted chocolate, with two silver forks, drained off as much
chocolate as possible, then placed on waxed paper to dry.

One of the neighbors, hearing of Betsey's candy making lessons, sent
over a recipe for "Cocoanut Cakes," and while they were not exactly
candy, Betsey tried them and found them to be delicious.


Cocoanut Cakes

    Cocoanut (grated),                   1/2 pound
    Sugar (granulated),                    1/2 cup
    Whites of              2 large or 3 small eggs
    Flavoring (vanilla),              1/2 teaspoon

Betsey beat the egg whites until very stiff, added the sugar and
vanilla, then stirred in the cocoanut gradually.

Mother had a large tin sheet upon which Betsey placed waxed paper.
Taking a teaspoon she dropped a spoonful of the mixture at a time,
shaping each cake with the spoon to a point at the top, then baked in
a moderate oven until they were a golden brown. This made about three
dozen tiny cocoanut cakes.

It happened to be along the latter part of March when Betsey was making
the "Cocoanut Cakes" and her "dearest friend" Dorothy was helping too.

Just as Betsey was taking the large tin sheet full from the oven, the
door-bell rang.

Mother had a caller, and as she came in, she exclaimed, "My, what is it
that smells _so good_!"

Mother, with a twinkle in her eye, escorted her caller to the kitchen,
where Betsey and Dorothy, all flushed and excited, were in the act of
piling the cocoanut cakes on a pretty dish covered with a piece of
waxed paper.

Mother's caller could hardly believe it was possible for little girls
of such tender years to be capable of making the delicious confections.

When she was told of the many kinds that they really and truly could
make, she remarked, "Well, I certainly have come to just the right
place."

Then mother's caller explained that she belonged to a patriotic society
that was planning to have a sale in a few weeks. If Betsey and Dorothy
would make her some candy she would be very grateful.

The little girls were only too delighted and mother promised to furnish
the materials if they would do the work.

To this they readily agreed and many happy, busy spare moments they
spent in preparing for (to them) the great occasion.

It would take too long to tell you about the different candies they
made, but every bit was sold, and when, one morning, they received
a _written_ "vote of thanks" from the patriotic society, Betsey and
Dorothy felt fully repaid for all their efforts.



CHAPTER VIII

SALTED NUTS


ONE day Betsey said, "Mother, I should like to know how to prepare
salted peanuts and salted almonds," and, as usual, mother was glad to
comply with her request and teach her.


Salted Peanuts

    Peanuts (shelled),                    1 cup
    Butter, or
    Olive oil.
    Salt.

Betsey bought the peanuts that were not cooked. These she shelled, then
covered with boiling water for a minute or two. Draining off the water,
she removed the little brown skins easily.

Using a shallow cake tin, Betsey poured in a little olive oil (for
those who do not like olive oil, a small piece of butter may be used),
added the peanuts, put in a hot oven and cooked to a light golden
brown.

When done she emptied the peanuts on to a piece of brown paper (this
soaked up the extra oil or butter) and sprinkled lightly with salt.


Salted Almonds

    Almonds (shelled),                 1 cup
    Butter, or
    Olive oil.
    Salt.

These Betsey blanched as she did the peanuts by pouring boiling water
over the almonds for at least a minute.

Draining off the water, she was able to remove the brown skins very
easily.

The almonds were then placed in a shallow pan in which a little olive
oil or butter had been melted, then baked in a hot oven to a light
golden brown.

Betsey needed to watch these constantly and shake the tin occasionally
that the almonds might be evenly browned.

The next step was to pour them on brown paper and sprinkle lightly with
salt.

The brown paper soaked up all the extra oil or butter and made them
much nicer.

       *       *       *       *       *

Next Betsey tried


Glacé Nuts and Fruits

    Sugar (granulated),                 1 cup
    Corn syrup,                         1 cup
    Water,                            1/3 cup
    Walnut meats.
    Pecan meats.
    Butternut meats.
    Brazil nuts.
    Filberts.
    Almonds.
    Peanuts.
    White grapes.
    Raisins.
    Pieces of orange.
    Pieces of grapefruit.
    Prunes.

The sugar, corn syrup and water Betsey boiled until the syrup became
brittle the minute she dropped a little in cold water. Lifting the
saucepan from the fire, she placed it in a larger pan of cold water to
stop the boiling immediately, then she placed it in another pan of hot
water and dipped the nuts and fruits one at a time.

Betsey used a long hat pin to pick them out with, then placed on
buttered plates or waxed paper.

These were always made in cold weather and eaten while crisp. If they
were kept any length of time they became sticky. This, however, never
happened in Betsey's home, for they went too quickly.

       *       *       *       *       *

It took Betsey a long time, months in fact, to learn all these
different ways of making candy, but she was so earnest in her work that
the results were better than many "grown ups" obtained.

Mother felt fully repaid for the time and care it had required to teach
Betsey and father was a much "puffed up" man.

He never failed to tell any guests that might be present when a dish of
the home made confections were being passed that "Betsey made these"
and his pride and pleasure were doubly increased when they invariably
exclaimed, "Impossible! Surely a little girl so young as Betsey could
never have made them."

Naturally, Betsey felt glad to have these nice things said about her
candies, and mother felt still more glad that in spite of all praise
Betsey was not spoiled.



CHAPTER IX

BETSEY'S PARTY


WHEN Betsey learned to make Cherry Creams (on page 94) she said,
"Mother, do you suppose I could have a Washington's Birthday Party? I
could make such pretty things with these cherries." And mother was so
pleased with her little pupil that of course she said "Yes."

So Betsey invited five of her little friends: Dorothy, her very special
friend, and Christina, Isabella, Amy and Adelaide, making six in all,
counting herself.

It was to be very simple; mother made the cake and ice cream and peanut
butter sandwiches, while Betsey made the candies.

For some days before, Betsey was very busy making little paper hatchets
for favors. On each of these she wrote one of her little friends' names.

She made a number of Cherry Creams like those on page 94 with the
angelica, and on the day of the party she tied three cherries to the
handle of each hatchet with narrow red, white and blue ribbon.

Mother made a delicious cake in the large angel cake tin and covered
it with a thick white frosting; before it hardened Betsey pressed half
cherries here and there all over it. Then Betsey had secured a piece of
a fir tree and placed it in the centre of the cake. On this she hung
little bunches of cherries.

It made a most attractive decoration for the centre of the table.

Betsey also made "Brown Sugar Nougat" or "Pinoche" with nuts (see page
83) and "Chocolate Fudge with Marshmallow Cream" as on page 58; she
also had a dish of the Cherry Creams on the table.

The six little girls had a very happy time, but they did wish they
could learn how to make candies, too, so Betsey's mother wrote this
little book in order that other little girls might learn the easiest
and best ways of making candies.


THE END.



APPENDIX

Recipes endorsed by the UNITED STATES FOOD ADMINISTRATION


Chocolate Dainties

PUT through the meat chopper one-half cup each of dates, figs, and nut
meats. Add one tablespoon orange juice, a little grated orange peel,
and one square of melted unsweetened chocolate. Mold into balls and
roll in chopped nuts or granulated sugar. This mixture may be packed
in an oiled tin, put under a weight until firm, then cut in any shape
desired.


Old-Fashioned Molasses Candy No. 1

Boil down molasses until it reaches the hard crack stage. Pour on oiled
plates and cool. Oil the hands and pull portions of the candy until it
becomes light colored.


Old-Fashioned Molasses Candy No. 2

    Molasses,                       2 cups (1 pint)
    Vinegar,                           1 tablespoon
    Butter substitute,      2 tablespoons (1 ounce)
    Baking powder,               1/2 level teaspoon
    Vanilla or Ginger extract,           1 teaspoon

Put molasses, vinegar and butter into a saucepan. Bring to a boiling
point, and boil, stirring all the time until the mixture is brittle
when dropped into cold water. Stir in baking powder and extract and
pour into a buttered tin. When nearly cold pull until glossy. Cut
into small pieces and lay on a buttered plate or wrap in wax paper.
Sufficient for one pound of candy.


Popcorn Candy

    Syrup,                                   1 cup
    Vinegar,                          1 tablespoon
    Popped corn,                     2 or 3 quarts

Boil together the syrup and vinegar until syrup hardens when dropped
in cold water. Pour over freshly popped corn and mold into balls or
fancy shapes for the Christmas tree. Little popcorn men will please the
children. Mark in the features and outlines with melted chocolate.

Either honey, maple syrup, molasses, white cane syrup or corn syrup may
be used.


Crystallized Fruits

Use your own preserves. Peach, pear, apple, quince or watermelon rind
will do. Drain from the fruit all syrup possible. Cut any size desired,
sprinkle with sugar, and dry in the warmer or a very slow oven. It may
be necessary to sprinkle the fruit again with sugar during the drying.
When dry enough not to be at all sticky, sprinkle with sugar and pack
in layers with wax papers between. This fruit may be used for dipping
in bitter chocolate for bitter-sweets.


Fruit Paste

Put through the meat chopper enough cherry, peach, or quince preserves
to make a half-pint with the juice. Heat fruit and add two tablespoons
of gelatine, previously softened in a very little cold water. Stir
well, and continue stirring until it begins to cool and thicken, then
pour into oiled dish to make a layer one inch thick. Let dry slowly,
sprinkle with sugar and place in box with wax paper between the layers.
A mixture of dried apricots and dates may be used for this paste.
Wash apricots and soak over night in enough water to cover. Pour off
water, bring it to a boil, pour over apricots, and let stand until
cool. Put apricots and dates through meat chopper and proceed with the
proportions as given.


Fruit Butter

Chop together equal parts of stoned raisins, dates and figs and add
(after weighing) nuts equal in weight to the whole. The nuts may be
mixed according to convenience and taste, as one part of black and
white walnuts, pecans, almonds, peanuts, hazel or Brazil nuts. In
general nuts grown in the locality should be used. Mix thoroughly and
pack in a mold for slicing.


Bitter-Sweets

An attractive variety of candies may be made by dipping sweet fruits in
bitter chocolate. Use for this purpose dates, citron, candied orange
peel or crystallized fruits. Melt unsweetened chocolate in a double
boiler. Keep the chocolate just warm enough to prevent solidifying.
With a silver fork drop pieces of fruit in chocolate. See that each
piece is completely coated, then remove to wax paper to harden.


Maple Sugar Candy

    Soft maple sugar,                    1 pound
    Top milk,                            3/4 cup
    Boiling water,                       1/4 cup
    Nut meats cut in pieces,             2/3 cup

Boil together until soft ball forms in water. Remove from fire, beat
until creamy, add nut meats and pour into greased tin. Cool slightly,
mark into squares.


Quick Nougatines

    Marshmallows,                         1 cup
    Almond paste,                       1/2 cup
    Nuts,                               1/4 cup
    Candied cherries,                   1/4 cup

Put marshmallows and almond paste in double boiler and stir until
melted and well blended. Add nuts and cherries cut in small pieces
and spread half an inch thick on a pan or slab sprinkled with
confectioner's sugar. When firm, cut in bars 1-1/2 inches long and 1/2
inch wide. If desired, dip in melted chocolate.


Substitutes for Christmas Candies

"What would Christmas be without Christmas candies!" Can't you hear
that wail going up from children all over the land? And from many a
grown-up, too.

A Christmas shorn of all its sweets isn't necessary at all. But with
a little forethought and some substitutes in the way of fruit and nut
sweetmeats, we can do much to lessen the pull on sugar at just this
time.

A decrease in our annual Christmas candy consumption of, say, even
one-tenth (and that isn't asking very much of the "home fighter"), when
multiplied by 100,000,000 of us will provide much energy-giving food to
our army boys and our needy allies.

And what more acceptable Christmas gift could we make to those "over
there?" Remember this when you are planning for their Christmas and
your own. It is splendid to make comfort kits and pack hampers of gifts
for the soldier-boys, but saving the sugar used to make your Christmas
candies and in your own home is not only making them a Christmas gift
but is putting punch into the right arm of your country's defenders.
And their right arm is of more importance just now than your sweet
tooth.

There are all sorts of substitutes such as stuffed dates, candied
ginger, fruit pastes and salted nuts. Not only dates, but prunes,
stuffed, are delicious. Wash them thoroughly, take out the seed and
slip in a big, fat, sweet almond, and see how eagerly the children
eat it. It is a food as well as a sweetmeat. Dried fruits like dates,
figs, prunes and raisins have not only sugar but are highly nourishing.
Raisins with nuts will delight any child and if given with moderation
will not prove indigestible.

A combination of dates, figs and English walnuts, run through a
grinder, softened with lemon juice, and cut into cakes like caramels,
makes both a wholesome and a toothsome substitute for candy.

Use more home salted nuts this Christmas than in previous years.
Peanuts, pecans or almonds, if prepared in olive oil, will not go
begging.

To candy orange or grape-fruit peel means the use of some sugar, it is
true, but less than for its equivalent in candy, and you are using up
what would otherwise be thrown away.

A wider use of maple sugar as a sweet this fall and winter will be a
helpful conservation measure. Every one with even one maple tree in his
yard should tap it and boil his own syrup. Every little bit helps.

Any of these substitutes, if arranged in fancy box or dainty basket,
will serve the same purpose as candy for gifts; left on table or
tabourette they will give the same festive Christmas air and fill the
munching needs of a holiday gathering; and best of all, their use will
insure more sugar and therefore more power to those fighting our war.



INDEX


    PAGE
    Betsey's Party, 129


CARAMELS

    Chocolate Nut Caramels, 90
    Plain Chocolate Caramels, 89
    Plain Vanilla Caramels, 88
    Rich Walnut Caramels, 88
    Vanilla Corn Syrup Caramels, 87


COOL WEATHER CANDIES

    Betsey's Orange Cream Candy, 22
    Brown Sugar Candy (Pulled), 31
    Butter Scotch, 16, 17, 18
    Butter Taffy, 19
    Chocolate, 14
    Chocolate Taffy, 27
    Cocoanut Drops, 36
    Corn Syrup, 14
    Cream of Tartar Candy, 26
    Lemon Butternut Candy, 32
    Lemon Cream Candy, 19
    Lemon Cream Taffy, 23
    Molasses Candy, 28
    Molasses Kisses, 30
    Orange Butternut Candy, 32
    Orange Cream Taffy, 25
    Peanut Brittle, 34
    Peanut Candy, 34
    Peanut Molasses Candy (not Pulled), 28
    Peppermint Cream Candy, 21
    Plain Peppermints, 35
    Rules for Measuring and Weighing, 14
    Sugar, brown, 14
    Sugar, confectioner's, 14
    Sugar, granulated, 14
    Sugar, powdered, 14
    Vanilla Butternut Candy, 33
    Vanilla Cream Candy, 20
    Vanilla Cream Taffy, 25
    Vinegar Candy, 26


CREAM CANDIES--COOKED

    Bon Bons, 119
    Chocolate Cream Mints, 120
    Chocolate Creams, 120
    Chocolate Fondant, 108
    Chocolate Fondant Almond Creams, 113
    Chocolate Fondant Cherry Creams, 113
    Chocolate Fondant Pecan Creams, 113
    Chocolate Fondant Walnut Creams, 113
    Cinnamon Cream Balls, 115
    Cocoa Cream Balls, 116
    Cocoanut Cakes, 121
    Coffee Fondant, 109
    Coffee Fondant Almond Creams, 113
    Coffee Fondant Cherry Creams, 113
    Coffee Fondant Pecan Creams, 113
    Coffee Fondant Walnut Creams, 113
    Corn Syrup Fondant, 111
    Cream Chocolate Mints, 117
    Cream Coffee Mints, 117
    Cream Corn Syrup Mints, 117
    Cream Maple Sugar Mints, 117
    Cream Mints, 116
    Maple Sugar Fondant, 110
    Maple Sugar Fondant Almond Creams, 114
    Maple Sugar Fondant Cherry Creams, 114
    Maple Sugar Fondant Pecan Creams, 114
    Maple Sugar Fondant Walnut Creams, 114
    Plain Fondant, 107
    Plain Fondant Almond Creams, 112
    Plain Fondant Cherry Creams, 113
    Plain Fondant Pecan Creams, 112
    Plain Fondant Walnut Creams, 113


CREAM CANDIES--UNCOOKED

    Almond Creams, 93
    Cherry Creams, 94
    Chocolate Cream Peppermints, 95
    Foundation Cream, 92
    Lemon Creams, 97
    Neapolitan Cream Squares, 95
    Orange Creams, 97
    Pecan Creams, 93
    Walnut Creams, 94


FUDGE

    Brown Sugar Nougat or Pinoche, 83
    Chocolate Almond Fudge, 54
    Chocolate Brown Sugar Almond Fudge, 66
    Chocolate Brown Sugar Date Fudge, 68
    Chocolate Brown Sugar Fig Fudge, 67
    Chocolate Brown Sugar Marshmallow Fudge, 69
    Chocolate Brown Sugar Peanut Fudge, 66
    Chocolate Brown Sugar Pecan Fudge, 65
    Chocolate Brown Sugar Raisin Fudge, 69
    Chocolate Brown Sugar Walnut Fudge, 64
    Chocolate Date Fudge, 57
    Chocolate Fig Fudge, 56
    Chocolate Fudge, 48
    Chocolate Fudge with Brown Sugar, 50
    Chocolate Fudge with Molasses, 49
    Chocolate Marshmallow Fudge, 58
    Chocolate Molasses Almond Fudge, 60
    Chocolate Molasses Date Fudge, 64
    Chocolate Molasses Fig Fudge, 63
    Chocolate Molasses Peanut Fudge, 61
    Chocolate Molasses Pecan Fudge, 60
    Chocolate Molasses Raisin Fudge, 62
    Chocolate Molasses Walnut Fudge, 59
    Chocolate Peanut Fudge, 55
    Chocolate Pecan Fudge, 53
    Chocolate Raisin Fudge, 55
    Chocolate Walnut Fudge, 52
    Cocoa Almond Fudge, 72
    Cocoa Date Fudge, 74
    Cocoa Fig Fudge, 73
    Cocoa Marshmallow Fudge, 76
    Cocoanut Fudge, 48
    Cocoa Peanut Fudge, 72
    Cocoa Pecan Fudge, 71
    Cocoa Raisin Fudge, 75
    Cocoa Walnut Fudge, 70
    Coffee Almond Fudge, 78
    Coffee Date Fudge, 81
    Coffee Fig Fudge, 80
    Coffee Marshmallow Fudge, 81
    Coffee Peanut Fudge, 78
    Coffee Pecan Fudge, 77
    Coffee Raisin Fudge, 79
    Coffee Walnut Fudge, 76
    Fudge with Cocoa, 50
    Fudge with Coffee, 51
    Glacé Nuts and Fruits, 126
    Sour Milk Fudge, 82
    Vassar Divinity Fudge, 84


POPCORN GOODIES

    Brown Sugar Popcorn Candy, 39
    Chocolate Frosted Popcorn, 45
    Frosted Popcorn, 43
    Hot Buttered Corn, 38
    How to Sugar Popcorn, 42
    Maple Sugar Popcorn Balls, 41
    Pink Frosted Popcorn, 43
    Popcorn Balls, 41
    Popcorn Candy, 40
    Red Frosted Popcorn, 44


SALTED NUTS

    Salted Almonds, 125
    Salted Peanuts, 124


STUFFED DAINTIES

    Fruit Paste, 100
    Stuffed Dates with Almonds, 104
    Stuffed Dates with Foundation Cream, 105
    Stuffed Dates with Peanuts, 104
    Stuffed Dates with Pecans, 104
    Stuffed Dates with Walnuts, 103
    Stuffed Figs with Walnuts, 105
    Stuffed Marshmallow Dainties, 99
    Stuffed Raisins with Almonds, 102
    Stuffed Raisins with Foundation Cream, 103
    Stuffed Raisins with Peanuts, 102
    Stuffed Raisins with Pecans, 101
    Stuffed Raisins with Walnuts, 101


UNITED STATES FOOD ADMINISTRATION RECIPES

    Bitter-Sweets, 134
    Chocolate Dainties, 131
    Christmas Substitutes, 136
    Crystallized Fruits, 133
    Fruit Butter, 134
    Fruit Paste, 133
    Maple Sugar Candy, 135
    Old-Fashioned Molasses Candy, 131
    Popcorn Candy, 132
    Quick Nougatines, 135

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes:

Page 12, "or" changed to "for" (for when she really)





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