Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Grammar of the New Zealand language (2nd edition)
Author: Maunsell, Robert
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Grammar of the New Zealand language (2nd edition)" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



book was produced from scanned images of public domain


Transcriber's Note:

A macron (e. g. "ā") indicates a long vowel and a breve (e. g. "ă")
indicates a short vowel.

The text makes extensive use of italics, which are indicated by
_underscores_. Small capitals have been rendered in upper case.

Various notes and remarks of less importance to a beginner are printed
in smaller type (c. f. last paragraph of the Preface to the First
Edition). In this version they have been indented by one space.

There are minor inconsistencies beween the sections listed in the
Table of Contents and those in the text itself.

Braces extending over more than one line have been replaced by
columns of individual braces.

Inconsistent hyphenation has been retained. Apparent errors of
punctuation, capitals and italics, that are inconsistent with the
sense of the text, have been corrected.

Apparent errors or obscure type affecting Maori or English spelling
have also been corrected. Maori corrections are listed at the end of
the text.



GRAMMAR

OF THE

NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE,

BY

R. MAUNSELL, L. L. D.,

ARCHDEACON OF WAIKATO.


SECOND EDITION.


AUCKLAND:

PUBLISHED BY W. C. WILSON, SHORTLAND-STREET,

1862.


AUCKLAND:

PRINTED BY W. C. WILSON, "NEW ZEALANDER" OFFICE.



PREFACE.


The first edition of this Grammar having been for many years
exhausted, and a considerable demand for some means of acquiring an
accurate knowledge of the Maori language having recently arisen, the
author has been induced to republish the work with such alterations as
the attention which he has in the meantime given to the subject,
during long labours of translation, has caused him to deem advisable.

Amongst the principal of these alterations is the omission of many
passages exhibiting extreme niceties of the language, which, although
useful to the finished scholar, were thought to be scarcely necessary
to the ordinary student, and were complained of as embarrassing to the
beginner.

The author begs to express his acknowledgments to his friend Mr.
Fenton, late Resident Magistrate of Waikato, and one of the few who
have studied the language grammatically, for carrying the present work
through the press.

 Kohanga, Waikato,
   January, 1862.



PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION.


Independently of minute and numerous subdivisions, it may, perhaps, be
correct to state that there are spoken in this the northern island
seven leading dialects, each more or less distinguished from the
other--viz., 1st, the Rarawa, or that spoken to the northward of
Kaitaia; 2nd, the Ngapuhi, or that spoken in that portion of the
island as far south of Kaitaia as Point Rodney on the eastern coast,
and Kaipara on the western; 3rd, the Waikato, or that spoken in the
district lying between Point Rodney and Tauranga on the east, and
Kaipara and Mokau on the west; 4th, that spoken in the Bay of Plenty;
5th, the dialect of the East Cape and its neighbourhood, in which,
perhaps, may be included that of Rotorua, though in these two places
many little differences might be detected; 6th, that spoken in the
line of coast between Port Nicholson and Wanganui, though here, also,
at least four distinct branches might be traced; 7th, and last, that
spoken between Wanganui and Mokau. The dialect of Taupo may be,
perhaps, considered a mixture of those of Rotorua and Waikato.

All these may be stated to bear to each other a remarkable radical
affinity. Many words, it is true, may be found in one which are
unknown in another; but the grammar of _any_ will give a great insight
into the texture of _all_.

The Waikato dialect is very generally known throughout the larger
portion of the island. It has deeply tinctured that of Taupo, is well
known at Tauranga and the Bay of Plenty, and has been carried to the
summits of Taranaki by the multitudes whom its fierce warriors once
dragged from thence in slavery, and whose chains have been since
snapped by the power of the Gospel. Ngapuhi to the northward are well
acquainted with it, from the number of slaves who had been fetched
from thence by the warrior Hongi; and a little before his time it was
carried to the neighbourhood of Port Nicholson by two large and
distinct migrations--one by Ngatitoa, who were the original possessors
of Kawhia, another by Ngatiraukawa, who formerly occupied Maungatautari,
and as far as Taupo.

The four tribes also who now occupy the banks of the Thames resided,
formerly, for a very long period, in Waikato, and, being sprung from
the same stock, speak a language so similar that a critical ear can
scarcely tell the difference between the dialects of the two people.[1]

The origin of this people,--what part of this island was first
occupied,--whether it was not colonized by different migrations from
different islands,--are points as yet buried in darkness.

That it was not occupied by merely one migration has ever been the
opinion of the author since he heard of the different condition and
habits of the people of the East Cape and those of Waikato. A survey
of the different dialects will confirm the conjecture, and nowhere can
we get a better illustration than at Taupo. For that magnificent lake,
in the centre of the island, and the point of meeting for two parties,
as they approach from either coast, presents also a remarkable
diversity in the languages spoken on the eastern and western banks. On
the eastern, the dialect corresponds closely with that of Rotorua,
from which it is distant about a four days' journey; on the
north-western, which is occupied by a remnant left by the Ngatiraukawa
in their great migration to the southward, the dialect is remarkably
similar to that spoken in Waikato.[2]

The points of similarity between the fundamental principles of the
Hebrew language and those of Maori have been occasionally noticed:
not, however, because the author entertains any opinion that the two
languages can claim any direct relationship to each other. Upon this
only would he insist, in reply to those who would bind him down to the
model of some of the European grammars, that Maori, like Hebrew, is
altogether different from those languages in structure; that every
subject of scientific inquiry must have rules and an arrangement
suited to its nature; and that, as it would be absurd to construct the
English on the basis of the Latin, so would it be more out of course
to think of finding in Maori declensions, conjugations, modes of
comparison, &c., &c., as accurately defined, or conducted on the same
principles, as those of languages so polished, and so adapted for
expressing, as well the minutest varieties in thought, as the
tenderest emotions of the feelings.

And here the author would acknowledge his obligations to Professor Lee
for his theory of the Hebrew tenses. On no other hypothesis can a
satisfactory solution be given of the Maori tense.

The student is requested to notice that the remarks that are more
suited to a beginner are printed in large type, and that matters which
are of less importance to him are contained in the smaller. It will
be, perhaps, most advisable for him to omit the perusal of the latter
until he has mastered the former.

 Waikato Heads,
   February, 1842.


[1] Marutuahu, from Kawhia, is the great progenitor of the Thames
tribes, and his name is often used to designate that people. Kawhia,
we may add, is the place at which, according to the accounts of the
people of Waikato, Taranaki, as well as those of Ngatiruanui, the
early immigrants landed.

[2] These remarks might also be extended to Rotorua lakes, on the
north-western extremity also of which are residing another remnant of
Ngatiraukawa, whose dialect is, as far as the author recollects,
different from that spoken by Ngatiwakaane.



EXPLANATION OF ABBREVIATIONS.

  adj.--_adjective_.

  adv.--_adverb_.

  n.--_noun_.

  part. adj.--_participial adjective_.

  v.--_verb_.

  v. a.--_verb active_.

  vid. S.--_denotes that further information will be found in the
  Syntax_.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.


 CHAP. I.
 ORTHOEPY.

 The letters of Maori                                                1
 Of the sound of the Vowels                                        1-4
 Of the Diphthongs                                                 4-7
 Homogeneous sounds, when they meet in a sentence                    7
 Of the Consonants                                                 7-9
 A table of peculiarities of pronunciation in the principal
   dialects                                                          9


 CHAP. II.
 OF THE ARTICLE.

 The Articles                                                       10
 Of the definite article _te_                                    10-12
 Of its plural _nga_                                                12
 Of the indefinite article _he_                                     12
 Of _te tahi_ when used as an article                            12-13
 Of the particle _a_                                             13-15


 CHAP. III.
 OF THE NOUNS.

 Nouns primitive and derivative                                     16
 Compound words                                                     17
 Verbal nouns                                                    17-18
 Proper names                                                    18-19
 Gender of nouns                                                 19-20
 Number of nouns                                                    21
 Of the postfix _ma_                                                21
 Reduplication of nouns                                             21
 Cases of nouns                                                     22


 CHAP. IV.
 OF THE ADJECTIVES.

 Their gender, number, and case                                     23
 Reduplication of                                                   23


 CHAP. V.
 OF THE NUMERALS.

 Of the cardinals                                                   24
 Their prefixes                                                     24
 Their manner of combination, &c.                                   25
 _Prefixes_ for denoting
 ----persons                                                        26
 ----distribution                                                   26
 ----fractions of length                                            26
 _Ordinals._
 Three ways for denoting them                                       26


 CHAP. VI.
 OF THE PRONOUNS.

 Of the personal pronouns                                        27-29
 Of the possessive pronouns                                         29
 Of the relative pronouns                                        29-30
 Of the demonstrative pronouns                                   30-31
 Of _nei_, _na_, and _ra_                                           30
 Of the interrogative pronouns                                      31
 Mode of supplying the defect of distributive pronouns              32
 Of the indefinite pronouns                                      32-33


 CHAP. VII.
 OF THE VERBS.

 _Verbs_ primitive, derivative, and compound                     34-35
 Mood                                                            35-36
 Tense                                                           36-38
 Imperative mood                                                 39-42
 Paradigm of tense in simple sentences                           42-52
 Passive voice (table of examples)                                  48
 ----remarks on                                                     49
 Verbal nouns (their formation)                                  51-52
 Neuter verbs                                                       52
 Participial adjectives                                             53


 CHAP. VIII.
 OF THE PREPOSITIONS.

 List of prepositions                                            55-56
 Remarks on them                                                 56-64
 Proper meaning of _na_, _ma_, &c.                               64-72


 CHAP. IX.
 OF THE ADVERBS.

 Primitive and derivative adverbs                                73-74
 Classification and list of adverbs and adverbial
   expressions                                                   74-86


 CHAP. X.
 OF THE PARTICLES.

 Atu, mai, ake, iho, ai, ano, ra, koa, u, hoki, kau              87-94


 CHAP. XI.

 Of the conjunctions                                             95-98


 CHAP. XII.

 Of the interjections                                           99-101


 CHAP. XIII.
 OF THE SYNTAX.

 _Preliminary Remarks._
 Terms explained                                                   102
 Complex and incomplex propositions                                103
 Remarks on the general features of Maori                      103-104
 Epanorthosis                                                  104-105


 CHAP. XIV.
 SYNTAX OF THE ARTICLE.

 _Ko_ an article                                                   106
 Its peculiar features                                         106-109
 The omission of the article                                       109
 _He_ and _te tahi_                                            109-110
 The particle _a_                                              110-111


 CHAP. XV.
 SYNTAX OF THE NOUN.

 Nouns in apposition                                               112
 Article prefixed to them                                          112
 Preposition                                                       113
 Exceptions                                                    113-114
 Clauses in epanorthosis, irregularity of                          114
 The answer to a question, construction of                     114-115

 _Possessive Case denotes_
 ----Intensity                                                     115
 ----Date of an act                                                115
 ----Useful in predication                                         115
 ----Used instead of other cases                                   116
 ----Position of, when the governing word is twice
   repeated                                                        116
 ----Governing word often omitted                                  116
 Material, or quality, of a thing how denoted by a
   substantive                                                 116-117
 The form of the substantive often used for that of
   the adjective                                                   117

 _Objective Case._
 ----position of                                               117-118
 How compound words govern others                                  118
 _Kai_ prefixed to a verb                                          118
 _Te_ prefixed to proper names                                     118
 _Ngati_ and _rangi_                                               118
 _O_ and _A_, distinction between                              118-120


 CHAP. XVI.
 SYNTAX OF THE ADJECTIVES.

 Position of adjectives                                            121
 Verbal adjectives                                                 121
 Exceptions                                                    121-122
 Many adjectives to one substantive                                122
 One adjective to two or more substantives                     122-123
 Of the forms occasionally assumed by the adjective                123
 Comparison of adjectives                                      123-125


 CHAP. XVII.

 SYNTAX OF NUMERALS.

 Particles prefixed to numerals                                126-127
 Case following                                                    127
 Position of numeral                                               127
 Repetition of numeral                                         127-128
 _Tua_ and _whaka_ as numeral prefixes                         128-129


 CHAP. XVIII.
 SYNTAX OF PRONOUNS.

 Position of pronouns                                              130
 Often omitted                                                 130-131
 Singular and dual often denote a tribe                            131
 ----Other uses of                                                 131
 A Pronoun in the singular will refer to a noun
   in the plural                                                   131
 ----in the third person will refer to the first
   or second person                                            131-132
 ----used for the conjunction _and_                                132
 The noun belonging to the pronoun often omitted                   132
 _Relative Pronouns_, the substitutes for them                 132-133

 _Demonstrative Pronouns._
 ----useful as auxiliaries                                         133
 ----other peculiarities of                                    133-134
 _Nei_, _na_, and _ra_                                             134
 Interrogative Pronouns (strange use of)                       134-135


 CHAP. XIX.
 SYNTAX OF THE VERB.

 _The Verbal Particles._
 _E_                                                           136-137
 _Ana_                                                             137
 _E--ana_                                                          138
 _Ka_                                                          138-139
 _I_                                                               139
 _Kua_                                                         139-142
 _Kia_                                                         143-144
 _Kia_ and _ki te_, distinction between                            144
 Sometimes no verbal particle prefixed                         144-145
 _Ai_, as used in connexion with the verb                      145-147
 _Whaka_, uses of                                              147-149
 Adverbs as auxiliaries                                            149
 Defect of substantive verb, how supplied                      149-150
 Prepositions as auxiliaries                                       150
 Tendency of Maori verb to assume the form of a substantive    150-152
 The finite verb may follow the oblique case                       152
 Predication performed by the possessive case                  152-155
 Compound tenses                                                   155
 Other circumstances which affect the time or voice of a verb  155-159
 Verbs associated to qualify each other                            159
 Repetition of verbs                                               159
 ----of other words                                            159-160
 _Passive verbs_, use of                                           160
 Sometimes supplanted by the active                            160-162
 _Neuter verbs_ which assume the passive form                      162


 CHAP. XX.
 OF THE PREPOSITIONS, ADVERBS, AND CONJUNCTIONS.

                                                               163-167



CHAPTER I.

OF THE PRONUNCIATION OF MAORI.


THE LETTERS OF MAORI ARE AS FOLLOWS:

                                 NAME.
            A.          |    _a_ as in f_a_ll f_a_t.
            E.          |    _e_ as a in _a_corn.
            H.          |    _ha_.
            I.          |    _i_ as i in French or _ee_ in sl_ee_p.
            K.          |    _ka_.
            M.          |    _ma_.
            N.          |    _na_.
            O.          |    _o_.
            P.          |    _pa_.
            R.          |    _ra_.
            T.          |    _ta_.
            U.          |    _u_.
            W.          |    _wa_.
            NG.         |    _nga_.


OF THE SOUNDS OF THE VOWELS.


A.

Has three sounds; the slender, somewhat broader, and the full broad
sound.

1. The slender, as in hat, pat.

2. The somewhat broader; as in mar, far, father.

3. The full broad; as in wall, hall, &c.

The following is a list of words classified under these heads:

            1.            |           2.            |          3.
                          |                         |
 p_a_tu, _to strike_.     | p_a_tu, _partition of a |
                          |   house_.               |
                          |                         |
 m_ă_tu_a_, _a father_.   | m_ā_tua, _fathers_.     | whana, _to kick_.
                          |                         |
 m_ă_r_a_m_a_, _the       | m_ā_rama, _tight_.      | wahi, _a place_.
   moon_.                 |                         |
                          |                         |
 t_a_ki, _to drag a canoe | t_a_ki, _take from the  | whaki, _to confess_.
   in water_.             |   fire_.                |
                          |                         |
 m_a_teng_a_, _death_.    | m_a_tenga, _head_.      | ware, _a plebeian_.
                          |                         |
 t_ă_ringa, _ear_.        | t_ā_ringa, _waiting     |
                          |   for_.                 |
                          |                         |
 p_ă_k_a_ru, _broken_.    | p_ā_karua, v. p.        |
                          |   _broken_.             |
                          |                         |
 p_a_keke, _hard_.        | p_a_keke, _to creak_.   |
                          |                         |
 t_ă_ng_a_t_a_, _a man_.  |     .....     .....     | t_ā_ngata, _men_.
                          |                         |
 t_a_hu, _to burn_.       | tahuhu, _a ridgepole_.  | whare, _a house_.
                          |                         |

The second and third head differ but little from each other, and it
sometimes may be difficult to decide under which of the two the sound
should be classed.

The reader is requested to notice that the distinctions above made,
are not founded so much on the length of the sound, as on the
differences of the sounds themselves. If the length of the sound be
considered, other classes, (at least two,) might easily be
established; but the learner would, we fear, be more perplexed than
benefitted by the addition.

The speaker should remember that in some compound words the last
syllable of the first word, if it end in a, is pronounced strong;
_e. g._

  Patungā-poaka; _place where pigs are killed_. Ma-hingā-kai; _a
    cultivation_. Matā-pu; _the lead of a gun, a bullet_. Ta te
    tutuā tu; _the plebeian's manners_.

 NOTE.--There are exceptions to this rule which it would be well for
 the student of observation to notice.

In pronouncing such words as kata, mata, tata, the speaker must be
careful not to slur over the first _a_, as if it were k_e_ta, m_e_ta,
&c. It should be pronounced clearly and distinctly.


E

Is pronounced as _a_ in bate, hate, &c., only not quite so slow, or so
broad. Perhaps the final _e_ in the French words café, felicité, would
be a closer resemblance; e. g., koe, rea, re, ket_e_, ma_te_, _te_nei,
rer_e_.

(2.) As _e_ in _poe_tical, _th_ere; e. g., _te_na, _ren_ga-_ren_ga,
_ke_te, _re_re.

 Few sounds in Maori are more frequently mis-pronounced by foreigners
 than _e_. To_he_, nga_re_, ku_mea_, ho_ea_ mai _te_ waka, _te_
 reinga, _te_ rangi, rew_er_a, kor_er_o, have been all so carelessly
 pronounced as to sound to the native ear as if spelt, to_hi_, ngari,
 kumia, ho_ia_ mai _ti_ waka, _to_ reinga, _to_ rangi, Rewara, kororo.
 The reader should also be careful not to give _e_ the dipthongal
 sound of ei; as in ne the interrogative particle, &c.


I

I is pronounced like the French _i_; as _ee_ in sleep, green, &c.;
when distinctly and fully pronounced it imparts much melodiousness to
the sentence; e. g. ar_i_k_i_, k_ī_k_i_, _to chatter_, &c.

In the following it has a shorter sound: k_ĭ_ki, _crowded_; m_ĭ_ti,
t_ĭ_ti, &c.

 N. B.--The speaker should be careful not to confound _i_ with the
 Maori _e_; as in such words as wakatoi, hoi, &c.

O

Has a long and a short sound, a long; as toto, _to drag_.

A short; as toto, _blood_.

 N. B.--We have no sound in Maori to correspond to the o in _not_,
 _hot_, _pot_, &c.


U

This sound is also uniform in kind, and always corresponds to _oo_ in
b_oo_k, &c. It sometimes, however, experiences a more quick, sometimes
a more slow pronunciation.

The following table exhibits two variations beginning with the
shorter:--

                 1.                   |                  2.
                                      |
 t_ŭ_ri, _a knee_.                    |  tŭt_ū_, _disobedient_.
                                      |
 tŭtŭ, _same as tupakihi of_ Ngapuhi. |  tūtū (manu), _a birdstand_.
                                      |
 kŭkŭ, _a shell_.                     |  kūkū, _a pigeon_.
                                      |
 kŭhu.                                |  tūtūa.
                                      |
                                      |  h_ū_na.
                                      |
 ŭtŭ, _to pay_.                       |  ūtu, _to draw water_.

 In pronouncing _u_ the speaker will have to guard against the error
 of those who prefix the aspirate when no aspirate is admissible.
 According to them _u_, _utu_, &c., are pronounced as if spelt _hu_,
 _hutu_.

 He will also have to beware of the more common and stubborn error of
 giving _u_ the dipthongal sound of _u_ in _cube_,
 _tube_, _mute_, &c.--tonu, ketu, tonutia, are, in this way,
 pronounced as if spelt ton_iu_, toniutia, ketiu.

 _U_, again, is sometimes, by careless speakers, confounded with _o_,
 and _vice versâ_. Thus ihu, _nose_; niho, _tooth_; have been
 erroneously pronounced as if spelt iho, nihu.


OF THE DIPTHONGS.

This portion of Maori literature has been as yet but little explored;
and as each person's notions will vary with the acuteness of his ear,
and the extent to which his judgment has been exercised, we may be
prepared to expect a considerable discrepancy of opinion.

We shall therefore proceed with caution, and offer only what may be
most useful, and most necessary for the student.

The field of discussion may be much limited if we first define what we
mean by the word "dipthong."

The best definition we can find, and the one most suited to the nature
of the dipthong, is, we think, that of Mr Smith, in Walker. "A
dipthong," he says, "I would define to be two simple vocal sounds
uttered by one and the same emission of breath, and joined in such a
manner that each loses a portion of its natural length; but from the
junction produceth a compound sound equal in the time of pronouncing
to either of them taken separately, and so making still but one
syllable."

Following this definition, three tests for a dipthong suggest
themselves.

1. The emission of the two sounds by the same breath.

2. Their amalgamation, or more correctly, their coalescing; for each
vowel in the Maori dipthong is distinctly heard.

3. The abbreviation of the natural length of each simple sound.

In applying these rules to the dipthongs, it will be perhaps most
prudent to divide them, under the present imperfect state of our
knowledge, into two classes. 1. The certain, or those of the
dipthongal character of which there can be but little question. 2. The
doubtful, or those upon which inquirers may be likely to entertain
different opinions.

The dipthongs which we consider certain, are as follows:

  aa, ae, ai, ao, au, ee, ei, ii, oo, ou, uu.

On these we will offer a few remarks.

Those dipthongs which are formed by a double letter, such as _aa_, are
distinguished by a stronger and fuller sound; as in Wakaaro,
rap_uu_tu, &c.


AE

Is a sound for which it is difficult to find a parallel in English,
and which most speakers confound with _ai_ in such words as waewae,
waeroa, paewae, &c.

The English _aye_ comes perhaps closer to it. It must be pronounced
broad and open, and care must be taken to keep out the squeezed sound
of the i.


AI

May be well represented by the _i_ in shine.


AO

Has no representative in English that we are aware of. In pronouncing
it, the speaker must be careful to let the _o_ be distinctly, but not
too prominently, heard; and considerable care will be required to keep
it distinct from _au_ in the following words, as otawhao, whawhao,
tao, hao, &c.: neither again must the speaker divide the dipthong into
two syllables, as some speakers do in otaota, &c.


AU

May be pronounced like ou in drought, trout, pound, &c.


EI

May be represented by the _ai_ in _hail_, _pail_, &c. Care must be
taken not to suppress altogether the _i_, as is sometimes done in such
words as ten_e_i, penei, &c.


OU

Is a sound of some difficulty. There is no sound that we are aware of
in the English language that exactly corresponds to it. Low, sow, mow,
&c., may be made to resemble it, by pronouncing them slowly, and
letting the sound die away into _u_.

 Most foreigners are apt to pronounce it as a simple _o_. The first
 syllable of _koutou_ is one of very difficult pronunciation. Without
 great care it will be variously pronounced, as if koitou, kotou, or
 kutu.

 By not attending to these distinctions the speaker will often lose
 the benefit of a good thought. A speaker, guarding his hearers
 against spiritual temptations, borrowed his illustration from a
 _poukaka_ (the perch for the parrot by which it is caught,) telling
 them that Satan often presents poukakas to attract them to ruin;
 unfortunately, however, instead of _pou_kaka he used _po_kaka, _a
 squall of wind and rain_, and only expressed his point by exciting
 their risibility.

The doubtful class of dipthongs are au, (as in mau, _for thee_, tau,
_thy_,) ai, (as in maia, _brave_) ea, eo, eu, io, iu.

 On these we do not wish at present to make many observations. We
 believe that there is a considerable difference amongst Maori
 speakers respecting them. Our own idea is, that there may be a few
 occasions on which some might be considered dipthongs; and that those
 occasions are, the position of the syllable, whether at the end of
 the word, or elsewhere, as also whether it come under the influence
 of the accent.

 We cannot dismiss this subject without mentioning two particulars,
 very necessary to be remembered by all who wish to attain to an
 accurate pronunciation of Maori. First, as it is in English, every
 sentence is to be pronounced as if one word. 2. Homogeneous vowels
 will, when they meet, almost always run into a dipthong.

 The following sentence, _koia i whiriwhiria ai e ia to ratou uri_, would
 be thus pronounced by a native, _koiai-whiri-whiriai-eia-to-ratouri_.
 _Koia ia i riri ai_ would run, _koiai-aiririai_.

 This subject of homogeneous vowels coalescing into dipthongs, is one
 which has not received the attention it merits.


OF THE CONSONANTS.


H.

This is the same as the English _h_.

It is not however known on the western coast of New Zealand to the
southward of Mokau, in the district of Taranaki. Its place is supplied
by a curious stammer or jirk of the voice. A gentle sibilancy
accompanies its pronunciation amongst Ngapuhi, which some speakers
erroneously confound with _sh_.


K.

K has the sound of the English _k_; as in kill, &c.


M. N. P.

M, N, P, have the same sound as in English.


R.

R has two sounds: (1) rough; as in _rain_, _river_, &c.; e. g.,
kaho_r_e, _r_o_r_ea, roro, _r_oto.

(2) The second is more soft, and is formed by a gentle jar of the
tongue against the palate; so gentle indeed is the vibration, that
most foreigners pronounce it like _d_ or _l_, as in _r_aro, ru_r_u,
_r_imu, poua_r_u, pa_r_i, mu_r_i, ma_r_i_r_i, koi_r_i, ko_r_iko_r_i,
kou_r_u, ma_r_u.


T.

This is a letter which few Europeans pronounce correctly. It is not
pronounced like the _t_ in temper, tea, &c.; but rather like the sharp
_th_ of apa_th_y, sympa_th_y, A_th_ens, apo_th_ecary. Those who watch
a native's tongue while pronouncing this letter, will find that the
rule for attaining this sound is, to apply the tongue, not to the
root, but to the top of the teeth, and hardly emit _a_.


W.

Has two sounds, one simple, as that in wind, &c., e. g., wai, _water_,
waka, _a canoe_, ware, _a plebeian_.

2. An aspirated _w_, as in when, where, &c.; whai, _follow_, whare, _a
house_, &c.


NG.

The speaker should be careful, in uttering this sound not to separate
the _n_ from the _g_, as is sometimes done by foreigners. The _n_ and
_g_ intimately coalesce, and those who have learned to pronounce the
French _encore_ will find no difficulty in catching it. The following
rule will, we trust, help the beginner.

Press the middle of the tongue to the roof of the mouth, near the
throat, and simultaneously relax the pressure, and pronounce na. Of
course care must be taken that the tip of the tongue does not touch
the palate.[3]

 Following is a table setting forth a few of the variations in
 pronunciation of the leading dialects of New Zealand.

 It will be observed that the name of a place is employed to denote the
 dialect for which that place and its vicinity are remarkable.

 -------------+----------+--------+----------+-----------------+------------
   NGAPUHI.   | WAIKATO. | EAST   | ROTORUA. |    TAUPO.       | TARANAKI.
              |          | CAPE.  |          |                 |
 -------------+----------+--------+----------+-----------------+------------
 Keri         | Keri     |        | Kari     | Kari            | Kari
 Tatou        | Tatou    | Tatau  | Tatau    | Tatou & Tatau   | Tatou
 Matou        | Matou    | Matau  | Matau    | Matou & Matau   | Matou
 Ratou        | Ratou    | Ratau  | Ratau    | Ratou & Ratau   | Ratou
 Koro & Korua | Korua    |        |          |                 |
 Koutou       | Koutou   | Koutau | Koutau   | Koutou & Koutau | Koutou
 Taua or Tao  | Taua     | Taua   | Taua     |                 |
 Maua or Mao  | Maua     | Maua   | Maua     |                 |
 Raua or Rao  | Raua     | Raua   | Roua     |                 |
 Hei          | Hei      | Hai    | Hai      | Hai & Hei       | Ei
 Kei          | Kei      | Kai    | Kai      | Kai & Kei       | Kei
 Tutei        | Tutai    | Tutai  | Tutai    | Tutai           | Tutei
 Wha          |          |        |          |                 | Wa
 Maoa         | Maia     |        |          | Maoa            | Maia & Maoa
 Hohou        | Whawhau  |        |          | Hohou & Whawhua | O-ou
 Teina        | Teina    | Taina  | Taina    | Teina           | Teina
 Tarai        | Tarai    |        | Tarei    | Tarei           | Tarai
 Heoi         | Heoti    |        |          | Heoti           | Eoi & Eoti
 Kua          | Kua      |        | Koua     | Kua & Koua      | Ku
 Kia          | Kia      | Kia    | Kia      | Kia             | Ki
 Horo         | Hohoro   |        |          |                 | O-oro
 Topa         | Tao      |        |          | Tao             | Tao
 Roa          |          |        |          |                 | Ro
 Tonu         | Tonu     | Tou    |          |                 |
 -------------+----------+--------+----------+-----------------+------------

 See also the letters _ng_ and _h_.

[3] This sound is not known in the Bay of Plenty. Its place is
supplied by a simple _n_, further southward by _k_.



CHAPTER II.

OF THE ARTICLE.


§ 1. The articles in Maori are as follows:--

(a.) The definite article _te_ and its plural _nga_; e. g.

  _te_ tangata, _the man_.
  _nga_ tangata, _the men_.

(b.) The indefinite articles _he_, _tetahi_, and its plural _etahi_;
e. g.

  _Sing._ _he_ maripi, _a knife_.
  _Plur._ _he_ maripi ena? _are those knives_?
  _te tahi_ maripi, _a knife_.
  _e tahi_ maripi, _knives_.

(c.) The arthritic particles _a_ and _ko_; e. g.

  a Hone, _John_.
  ko koe, _you_.

§ 2. _Te_ is not so uniformly definite as the English _the_; being
sometimes used;

(a.) Where no article would be employed in English, i. e., in cases
where the noun is taken in its widest sense; e. g.

  I ma _te_ kaipuke, _went by ship_.
  He kino _te_ tutu, _disobedience is sinful_.
  Ko _te_ rangi me _te_ wenua e pahemo, _Heaven and earth shall pass
    away_.

(b.) Sometimes it is employed instead of the English _a_; e. g.

  He mea kaha _te_ hoiho, _a horse is a strong thing_.
  E kore _te_ tangata tika e wehi i _te_ mate, _a virtuous man fears
    not death_.

(c.) Sometimes it is used instead of the pronoun _some_; e. g.

  Kei tahaetia e _te_ tangata, _lest it should be stolen by some
    person_; na _te_ tangata noa atu, _by some person or other_.

(d.) It is employed for many other purposes which the English
_the_ does not recognize. We shall only mention the following;

  _Te_ tini o te kaipuke, _How many ships there are_!

 NOTE.--It has been asserted that _te_ is sometimes used in the plural
 number, as in the preceding example, "_te_ kaipuke," and in the
 following; _te_ tini o te tangata, _many men_; ka reka _te_ pititi,
 _peaches are sweet_.

 We are more inclined to think that we have, in these examples, the
 operation of a figure of frequent occurrence in Maori, viz.,
 synecdoche, and that one of a class is made to represent a whole class.

 Expressions of this kind are common in English, without involving the
 plural number of the article; e. g., _the fruit of the tree_, _a
 great many_, _a few men_, _&c._ Bishop Lowth's remarks on these
 instances are quite to the point.

 "The reason of it, he says, is manifest from the effect which the
 article has in these phrases; it means a small or great number,
 collectively taken, and therefore gives the idea of a whole, that is,
 of unity. Thus likewise, _a hundred_, _a thousand_ is one whole
 number, an aggregate of many collectively taken; and therefore still
 retains the article _a_, though joined as an adjective to a plural
 substantive; as, _a hundred years_."

(e.) Lastly, _te_ is sometimes employed before proper names; e. g.

  _Te Puriri_, _Te Uira_

 NOTE 1.--To define the rule by which the article is prefixed or
 omitted before proper names is a work of some difficulty, usage
 being very irregular.

 NOTE 2.--Sometimes _te_ is blended with _o_ into one word; as in the
 following example: ki _to_ Hone ware, to the house of John, instead
 of ki _te_ whare _o_ Hone.

 NOTE 3.--The student should be careful, in speaking, to distinguish
 between the article _te_, and the negative particle _te_. The latter
 should always be pronounced more distinctly and forcibly than the
 article.

§ 3. _Nga_ may with strict propriety be called the plural of the
definite article. There are a few exceptions, or rather slight
variations, which we do not think it necessary to mention.

§ 4. _He_ varies in some respects in its uses from the English _a_.

(a.) It is used sometimes where no article would be employed in
English; e. g.

  A, ho atu ana e ratou _he_ moni ki a ia, _and they gave him money_.

(b.) It is occasionally used in the same sense as _some_ in English,
e. g.,

  kawea he wai, _fetch some water_.

(c.) It is used in the plural number, e. g.

  He uwha kau aku poaka, _my pigs are all females_.
  _He_ tini oku kainga, _my farms are many_.

§ 5. A great many uses of the indefinite article are shared by _he_
with _te tahi_. We shall mention here a few of them.

  Ho mai _te tahi_ maripi, _give me a knife_.
  Tahuna mai _te tahi_ rama, _kindle a light_.

 N.B.--_Te tahi_ exactly corresponds with the definition given by
 Bishop Lowth of the English article _a_. "It determines it (the thing
 spoken of) to be one single thing of the kind, leaving it still
 uncertain which." A similar use of the numeral _one_ we find in
 French, sometimes in Hebrew, and more than once in the New Testament;
 (vid. Mat. xxi. 19, and Mark xiv. 51.)

 We need not look abroad for parallel instances; our indefinite
 article _an_ being, as every etymologist is aware, the Saxon article,
 which signifies _one_.

(b.) _Etahi_ may be considered as corresponding to the partitive
article _des_ of the French. It determines the things spoken of to be
any number of things of the kind, leaving it uncertain how many, or
which, of the things they are. It closely resembles the adjective
_some_ of English, and we enumerate it here among the articles because
it only differs from _te tahi_ (which is clearly an article) in being
its plural; e. g.

  Maku e tahi ika, _give me some fish_.

§ 6. _A_[4] is a regular attendant on the personal pronouns; e. g.

  a koe, _you_; ki a ia, _to him_.

(b.) It is also the article by which the names of individuals and
tribes are always preceded; e. g.

  a Hone, kei _a_ Hone _with John_; i _a_ Ngapuhi.

 NOTE 1.--When the particle _ko_ is prefixed to either the proper
 name, or the pronoun, _a_ is omitted; e. g.

   _ko_ Hone, _ko_ ia.

 (2) It is also omitted after the prepositions _e_, _ma_, _mo_, _no_,
 _na_, _o_, _a_. The prepositions with which it is retained are _i_,
 _ki_, _kei_, and their compounds--i runga i, &c.; e. g.

   i runga i a Hone, _above John_.

 NOTE 2.--Europeans who have not made the language a study, often very
 incorrectly substitute _e_ for _a_ before a proper name; e. g., they
 will say, _kei hea e_ te Waru, where is _te Waru_, and again kua tae
 mai _e Nanaia_, _Nanaia has arrived_. _E_, as we shall show hereafter,
 is the sign of the vocative case. A is omitted before such words as
 the following, kei nga _Pakeha_, kei nga _Maori_, &c.

 NOTE 3.--_A_ is sometimes in Waikato prefixed to appellatives; e. g.
 ki _a_ tuahangata, _a_ papa, _a_ kara.

(c.) A is also prefixed to the _names of places_, and to _prepositions_,
and _adverbs_ which have assumed the form of substantives, when in the
nominative case; e. g.

  Kua horo _a_ Pukerangiora, _Pukerangiora_ (the fort) _has been
    stormed_. Kua tukua atu e ahau _a_ Whangarei mo Hone, I _have
    given Whangarei to John_. Kua kainga _a_ runga o nga puka nei,
    _the tops of the cabbage have been eaten off_.
  A hea? _what place?_ A Rangitoto.

 NOTE.--Sometimes _a_ is prefixed to the name of the place when the
 people of the place, and not the place itself, are intended; e. g. ka
 mate i a Waikato, _will be killed by Waikato_.

 Some speakers are often guilty of solecisms from not remembering that
 _a_ is not prefixed to any of the _oblique_ cases of the names of
 places. Thus we heard some old residents in the land say, Haere ki
 _a_ Pokuru, _Go to Pokuru_. Haere ki _a_ Waitemata, _Go to
 Waitemata_. According to this form _Pokuru_, and _Waitemata_ are not
 places, but persons.

(d.) A is always prefixed to any _inanimate thing_ to which a name has
been given; i. e. to _trees_, _canoes_, _ships_, _boats_, _meres_,[5]
_guns_, &c.; e. g.

  Kei te tua i _a_ Ruhaia, _he is cutting down (the tree) Ruhaia_. E
    waihape ana a Karapaina, _Columbine is tacking_. Mo to tahaetanga
    i a Pahikoura, _for your having stolen (the mere[5]) Pahikoura_.
  I toa ai a Hongi i whakawirinaki ia ki tana pu ki _a_ Tanumia,
  _Hongi was brave because he trusted in his gun Tanumia_.

 NOTE.--Stars also come under the operation of this rule, e. g.

   Ko wai tena whetu i runga i _a_ Tawera, _what star is that above
     Tawera_?[6]
   Kua ara _a_ Matariki,[7] _Matariki has made his appearance_.

 Houses, Caves, and such like, are regulated by rule (c), e. g.

   Heoi ano nga tangata _kei_ a Puru o Waikato, _all the people have
     mustered off to Puruowaikato--Wherowhero's house on the Waikato
     river_.

 If the above rules be correct--and we are persuaded that the candid
 inquirer will assent to them, the following remarks may, perhaps, be
 worthy the consideration of our Missionary brethren.

 1st. We think that we are distinctly warranted by the analogy of the
 language to treat the books of the Old and New Testaments as proper
 names, and prefix _a_ to them; as in the following examples, kei a
 Kenehi, kei a Roma. Such portions however, as the Psalms, the Law,
 the Acts, the Revelations, &c., might, we think, be most safely
 considered as appellatives. Such an usage has obtained in English,
 and will not, we believe, be thought a novelty in Maori, by any one
 who attends to such sentences as the following:

   Kowai hei whakahua i ta tatou whangai hau?
   I a wai? i _a_ Tu.
   Ko hea te haua mai na? ko Puhimatarenga, &c.

 2. The following sentences are incorrect:

   E haere mai _ana te Mihaia_.
   Kua mate te Karaiti.

 N.B.--The speaker should distinguish between the article, and the
 preposition _a_; as in the following sentence:

   Ekore ahau e kai i _a_ nga taurekareka, _I will not eat (the
     food) of the slaves_.

 The preposition _a_ in these elliptical sentences should always be
 pronounced peculiarly strong.

 He should also note the following;

   kiă mea (with _short a_) is, "_to do_."
   ki ā mea (with _long a_) is, _to such an one_, _to our friend_,
     or in common parlance, (give it) _to what do ye call him_.

[4] Some perhaps may object to our regarding _a_ as an article, and
may remind us of the definition that an article is "a word prefixed to
substantives to point them out, and show how far their signification
extends." This however is to make rules precede investigation, and our
reply is, that if Bishop Lowth, from whom this definition is derived,
had been writing on the Greek article, he would, most probably, have
never given such a definition. Every scholar is aware of the disputes
that have been agitated among the learned respecting the uses of this
article, and that some have even maintained "that its use is guided by
no rule at all." The fact is, every language has its peculiarities,
and it would be absurd to maintain that because any given part of
speech has certain powers in one language, it must have the same in
another.

We denominate this article _arthritic_, because it is, as the Greeks
would say, an _arthron_, a _limb_ of the word to which it is prefixed,
though it in no way defines the extent of its signification; unless
perhaps we consider that, by its denoting the word to be either a
pronoun, a proper name, &c., it thus, in a certain measure, restricts
its application, and thus accords with the definition which some
writers would give of the article; viz., "an index to the noun."

[5] The mere is a native weapon for war made of the axe stone. It is
an article of great value, and descends from father as an _oha_, an
heirloom in the tribe.

[6] Tawera is the morning star.

[7] This star makes his appearance about the month of June, in the
first month of the New Zealander, and creates an important epoch in
his agricultural operations.



CHAPTER III.

OF THE NOUNS.


CLASSES OF NOUNS IN RESPECT TO ORIGIN.

Nouns in Maori may be comprised under three classes, _primitive_ and
_derivative_, and _verbal_.[8]

(a.) _Nouns primitive_ are those which designate _animals_, _plants_,
_numbers_, _members_ of the animal body, some of the _great objects of
the natural world_.

 N.B.--It is often impossible to distinguish between primitive and
 derivative nouns.

(b.) _Nouns derivative_, which are altogether the most numerous,
comprise,

1st. Nouns derived from verbs, i. e., the verb, in its simple form,
used as a noun; e. g.,

  He noho noa iho taku, _it is a simple sitting of mine_; _I have no
    fixed object in stopping_ (here.)
  He haere pai to haere? _Is your going a good going_, i. e., _are you
    going with good intent?_

(2.) Nouns derived from _adjectives_; e. g.,

  He aha te _pai_ o tena mea? _what is the worth of that thing?_
  Keihea te _pakaru_, _where is the broken place_?

(3.) Nouns derived from adverbs and prepositions, e. g.

  He _kore_ rawa, _it is nil_.
  Engari a _reira_ e pai ana, _there_ (or that place) _is better_.
  Kua ki _a roto_, _the inside is full_.
  Parua _a tua_, _coat the other side_ (with raupo.)

(4.) _Compound Words._ These are always formed by two words placed in
immediate juxta-position, without any elision of either; e. g.

  Hia kai, (_desire food_) _hunger_; mate moe, (_craving sleep_),
    _sleepiness_; hoa riri, (_angry friend_), _enemy_; mahi atawhai,
    (_cherishing act_, _&c._) _a cherishing_, _&c._; kai whakaako,
    (_one that teaches_) _a teacher_; kai whakamarie, (_one that
    pacifies_) _a pacifier_; tangata atua, _a man having a God_;
    tangata pakeha, _a man having a European to live with him_; he
    hunga kainga, _a people having a place to reside on_; ahu taonga
    (_bent on gain_) _avariciousness_; ahu whenua, (_having the mind
    occupied with the earth_) _industriousness_, or _peaceableness_;
    whenua rangatira, (_a noble land, not disturbed by invasions_)
    _peace_; houhanga rongo, _making peace_; ngakau whakakake,
    _pride_; he whare kore, (_a no house_) _homelessness_; he horoi
    kore (_a no soap_) _soaplessness_; whakaaro kore,
    _thoughtlessness_, _&c_.

(c.) Verbal nouns are well worthy of the attention of the critical
student. They are of very extensive uses in Maori, and a proper
introduction of them will give animation and elegance to the sentence.
The rules for their formation will be found hereafter. See verbs.

They are generally employed to denote _time_, _place_, _object_,
_means_, or some _accompaniment_ on, or _relation_ of the _act_, or
_quality_ of the ground form.--Other uses of them will be mentioned in
the syntax.

To set forth the various uses of the verbal noun here would
carry us beyond our limits. We shall therefore only give a few
examples;--sufficient, however, we trust to lead the critical student
into more extensive inquiry;

  Ko tona moenga tena, _that is where he slept_.
  Te pumautanga o te Whakaaro, _the full assurance of hope_; te
    whakangarungarunga o te wai, _the troubling of the water_.
  Te peheatenga i meatia ai, _the manner in which it was done_.
  Te patunga poaka, _the place where the pigs are killed_.
  Kahore aku kete kumara hei whakahokinga atu mo to puka, _I have no
    basket of kumara with which to send back_, (_i. e._, _to pay for
    the loan of_) _your spade_.
  I te hanganga o te ao, _when the world was made_.
  I ana inoinga, _in his prayers_, (_i. e._, _when he prayed_.)
  Ko tona kiteatanga tenei, _this is the opportunity for looking for,
    or seeing, it_.
  To tatou nuinga, _the rest of our party_.
  I taku oranga, _while I live_.

 NOTE.--Instances will sometimes occur in which the simple root, or
 the verbal form, may be indifferently used in the sentence. The
 critical student, however, will generally be able to see the reason;
 e. g., te _here_ o tona hu, _the thong of his shoe_; te _herenga_ o
 tona hu, _the holes, &c., by which the thong is fastened_.

PROPER NAMES should, perhaps, have been classed under the head of
_derivative nouns_.

They are epithets arbitrarily assumed, as among the Hebrews, from some
_circumstance, quality, act, or thing_. Sometimes they are simple; e. g.,
ko te Tawa, _Tawa_ (_a tree_). Sometimes compound; e. g.,
Tangikai, _cry for food_. They are generally known by _a_ prefixed;
when _a_ is not prefixed, by the context.

 NOTE.--Sometimes we meet with English appellatives employed as
 appellatives in Maori, but with the form peculiar to proper names; e.
 g., a mata, _the mistress_; a pepi, _the baby_; a tekawana, _the
 governor_. These, however, must be regarded as solecisms, and as in
 no way supported by Maori analogy.[9]

 We sometimes also meet with a Maori proper name employed as an
 appellative; i. e., If an individual of a particular district has
 been remarkable for any quality, his name will often be predicated of
 any other in whom the same feature of character is discernible: thus,
 Ropeti, of Waikato, was remarkable for making a great show of
 hospitality:--hence, to any person else who has been detected acting
 in a similar way, it will be said, Ko Ropeti, There is Ropeti.

 As all these terms are necessarily limited in their use to a
 particular district, we need not notice them further.


OF GENDER, NUMBER, AND CASE.

Maori, we may premise, admits of no such thing as declension by
inflection, i. e., by a variation of the ground form. All the
relations, it is capable of expressing, are denoted by words, or
particles, _pre_fixed or _post_-fixed to the noun.

GENDER OF NOUNS.--Distinctions of gender are but seldom recognized in
Maori. Only two are ever noticed, viz., the _masculine_ and
_feminine_. These are always expressed by different words, e. g.

             MALE.                    |            FEMALE.
 Matua }                              |
   or  } _father_.                    |  Whaea, _mother_.
 Papa  }                              |
 Tamaiti }                            |  Tamahine }
   or    } _son_.                     |    or     } _daughter_.
 Tamaroa }                            |  Kotiro   }
 Tungane, _brother of a female_.      |  Tuahine, _sister of a man_.
 Autane, _brother-in-law of a female_.|  Auwahine, _sister-in-law
                                      |    of the man_.
 Tangata, _man_.                      |  Wahine, _woman_.
 Koroheke, _old man_.                 |  Ruruhi, _old woman_.
 Tourahi and Toa, _male of brute      |  Uwha, _female of brutes_.
   animals_.                          |
 Tane, _a male, mostly of the human   |  Wahine, _female_.
   species_.                          |

In salutation, the sex of the person is almost always denoted by the
address, e. g.,

   _To the man._                      _To the female._
 E hoa, _friend!_                   { E kui }
 E pa,    ----                      {       } _to the married woman_.
 E mara,  ----                      { E tai }
 E koro,  ----
 E kara,  ----                      { E ko   }
 E Ta,    ----                      {        } _to the girl_.
 E Hika,  ----                      { E Hine }

 NOTE 1.--It should, however, be noted that these modes of address
 will vary in different Districts. Thus in Waikato _E Tai_ and _E ko_
 are often addressed to the male, and _E kui_ to the girl--again also,
 _tane_ and _wahine_ will be often found applied to the brute
 creation, and _tourahi_, in Waikato, is most frequently applied to
 the _gelding_.

 NOTE 2.--The speaker should notice that the relationship of
 individuals of the same sex is designated by the same terms as the
 corresponding ones of the opposite sex; e. g.,

         _John's_                 |     _Mary's_
                                  |
  _elder brother_,    is Tuakana. |  _elder sister_,    is Tuakana.
                                  |
  _younger brother_,    teina.    |  _younger sister_,    teina.
                                  |
  _brother-in-law_,    taokete.   |  _sister-in-law_,    taokete.

The distinction of sex in the other branches, is generally designated
by tane and wahine postfixed to the relation; e. g.,

  hunaonga wahine, _daughter-in-law_.
  hungawai tane, _father-in-law_.

NUMBER.--Substantives in Maori have _two_ numbers, singular and plural.

The _singular_ is known by the singular articles _te_, and _tetahi_,
or by one of the singular pronouns connected with the noun; e. g.

  Te whare o Hone, _the house of John_.
  Toku paraikete, _my blanket_.

The _plural_ is known by (1) _nga_, _e tahi_, or (2) one of the plural
or dual pronouns preceding the noun; e. g.

  _nga_ wahine, _the women_.
  _aku_ tupuna, _my forefathers_.

(3.) Sometimes the plural is designated by _o_, without _te_ preceding
the noun; e. g.

  kei _o_ Hone matua pea, _with John's uncles, perhaps_.

(4.) In a few cases we meet with an alteration in the ground form;
e. g.,

  Tamaiti, _son_; Tamariki, _sons, or children_.

(5.) In some trissyllables, the first syllable of the plural is
pronounced long; as in matua, tupuna, wahine, tangata.

 NOTE.--Examples of these two latter heads are not of frequent
 occurrence.

(6.) We frequently meet with _ma_ joined to the proper name, in a
sense corresponding to hoi _amphi_, and hoi _peri_ in Greek, to denote
_the person and his company_: e. g.,

  Kei a Kukutai _ma_, _with Kukutai and his party_.

(7.) Sometimes also _ma_ is in the same sense postfixed to
appellatives; e. g.,

  E mara ma! E hoa ma! E ko ma!

(8.) Sometimes an _act oft repeated_, or many things of the _same
kind_ are denoted by a reduplication of one or more syllables; e. g.,

  Kakata, _a frequent laughing_.
  Mamahi, _over-work_.
  Kimokimo, _a winking of the eyes_.

 CASE.--The distinction of case in Maori is exceedingly simple. As it
 is not the character of the language to decline either nouns or
 adjectives by a variation of the termination, it is evident that, in
 this respect, Maori is altogether different from Greek and Latin. Are
 we then to adopt the cases that those languages so clearly need? We
 are aware that some contend for them. But we are also assured that
 their adoption would be, not only useless but often exceedingly
 perplexing.

 It is true that prepositions may be found in Maori, as well as in
 English, that correspond with the cases that are to be found in those
 languages. But that, we submit, is not the question. Our business, we
 conceive should be, to inquire how the dependence of words on each
 other is denoted in Maori, and then look out for a system that will
 meet, not a few selected cases, but all the various possible
 conditions.

 Now, in Maori, the different connexions and relations of one thing to
 another are denoted by prepositions; there are upwards of twenty
 prepositions; and these are capable of being much increased in number
 by combination with each other; all having distinct meanings,
 different relations, and therefore distinct cases. Are all these then
 to be reduced to the six cases of Latin? Those who please may make
 the experiment with the following; kei runga i te pouaka, kei te
 kainga, ho atu ki a ia, me titiro atu ki a ia, patua ia ki te rakau,
 hei tua i te whare, &c.

 The simple and comprehensive cases of Murray's English Grammar seem
 therefore the best adapted for Maori, though we will confess that our
 own judgment is against allowing any possessive case to Maori.

 In English, it is true, that case may be recognised; because the
 ground form undergoes a change to denote it. Even in Hebrew,
 something analogous also might be admitted. But in Maori the
 possessive case is expressed, like all the other oblique cases, by a
 preposition. It may indeed be said, that in the pronouns we find a
 possessive formed by inflection. But this might justly be questioned:
 for it is very probable that _noku_, and _naku_, are compounds of no
 oku and na aku, and, when a native speaks slowly, it may be observed
 that he pronounces those words as if so spelt.

1. What is called the accusative case in Latin is most frequently
denoted by _i_. This particle is different from the preposition _i_,
and is only employed to denote the passing on of the action of the
verb to the noun; e. g., Ko wai hei keri _i_ te mara? _who is to dig
the field?_ (vid. prepositions _i_.)

2. The vocative case is always denoted by _e_; e. g., E Hone! _O John!_

[8] We are aware that _verbal_ nouns should properly have been classed
under _derivative_; but as we shall often have to speak of them as a
distinct class, and as moreover they closely resemble, in some
respects, the participal form of the verb, and are very frequently
used instead of the finite verb itself, we have consulted our
convenience in thus distinguishing them.

[9] It is true, that we have mentioned (Chap. II. § 6 notes) a few
cases which might seem to warrant such a use. But those clearly belong
to a different class.



CHAPTER IV.

OF THE ADJECTIVE.


Maori adjectives have no peculiar or appropriate form. They know no
distinction of gender, number, case, or comparison.

In common with substantives, adjectives admit often of reduplication
to denote _repetition, or many things the same kind_, &c.--vid. ch. 3,
_number_ § 8., e. g.

  Mahi kakata, _a frequent laughing_.
  He rakau kikino kau, _they are all bad trees_.

 NOTE.--Comparison in Maori is formed by _periphrasis_, for which
 vid. S.



CHAPTER V.

OF THE NUMERALS.


Numerals in Maori abound in distinctions that are not to be met with
in other languages.

Tahi, one, has sometimes a form peculiar to itself, being prefixed by
_ko_. All between _tahi_ and _tekau_ may be prefixed by _e_. All the
simple numbers, i. e. all less than _ten_, will, when preceding the
higher numbers, take their ordinary prefixes; e. g.

  E rua, _two_--e rua rau, _two hundred_.
  Ka toru, _three_--ka toru nga rau, _three hundred, or it is 300_.
  Kia wha, _let it be four_--kia wha mano, _let it be four
    thousand &c._
  Ka rima _five_,--ka rima mano, _five thousand, &c._
  Ka rima tekau, _fifty, &c., &c., &c._

Numbers between ten and twenty are expressed by ten and unit; e. g.

  E ono, _six_,--tekau ma ono (_ten and six_) _sixteen_.
  E whitu, _seven_,--tekau ma whitu, _seventeen_.

Twenty, and all numbers between twenty and a hundred, may be expressed
in two ways:

1st, (which is now the more general,) by a _unit_ preceding ten;
e. g., e _ono_ tekau, (_six tens_) _sixty_; ka _iwa_ tekau, _ninety_,
&c.

2ndly, by _hoko_ prefixed to the _unit_; e. g., hokorua _twenty_.

 NOTE.--The Maori mode of counting has always, heretofore, been by
 pairs: thus _hokorua_, twenty, stands for _twenty pair_, i. e. forty,
 and so on. When they wish it to be understood singly they postfix
 _taki-taki_ to the numeral adjective; e. g., hokorua _taki-taki_,
 _twenty_. Sometimes _topu_, or _pu_, is postfixed to make it more
 clear that the double of the number is intended; e. g., e waru topu,
 (_eight doubled_) _sixteen_.

 Ngahuru, with Ngapuhi, denotes _ten_, and tekau, _eleven_. In this,
 the central part of the island, as far as Taupo, ngahuru and tekau
 represent both of them _ten_.

In expressing a sum of _tens_ and _units_, the smaller number follows
ten or its multiple, and is connected with it by the numeral
conjunction _ma_; e. g., _thirty-four_ is denoted by "e toru tekau ma
wha."

In expressing a sum of _hundreds_, with _tens_ and _units_, the tens
are postfixed to the hundreds without a _ma_ intervening; e. g., 136
is expressed by "ko tahi rau, e toru tekau, ma ono."

A sum of _thousands_, _hundreds_, _tens_ and _units_, is expressed in
the same way, the particle _ma_ only intervening between the _ten_ and
the _unit_; e. g., 1136 is expressed by "ko tahi mano, ko tahi rau, e
toru tekau, ma ono."

 NOTE.--It should be here noticed that this is the new mode of
 reckoning brought in by Europeans, and now fast spreading over the
 land. The old mode is not so convenient in calculation; but it is
 often heard; 240 would according to it, be thus expressed; Ko tahi
 rau ma rua, lit. _one hundred and two_. Two, here, stands for (twice
 ten) twenty doubled.

 250 would run thus, ko tahi rau ma rua pu tautahi, _one hundred and
 two double_, and a tautahi, _an odd one_.

 4900 would run thus; e rua mano ma wha, hokorima te tuma; _two
 thousand, four hundred double, fifty double is the tuma, the excess_.

 For all beyond a thousand there is, we suspect, a considerable
 diversity in the nomenclature of different tribes. In Waikato and
 Taupo 10,000 double, (i. e., 20,000 according to our reckoning,)
 would be a _tini_, ten _tini_, (i. e., 100,000 double) would be
 indifferently called _ngera_, _rea_, _hea_. All beyond that would be
 denominated by a _tini makehua_, a _tuaururi whaioio_, (_or maioio_)
 a _tini whakarere_, _&c._

For denoting a number of persons less than _ten_, _toko_ is generally
prefixed to the numeral; e. g.,

  tokowhitu tatou, _we are seven in number_.

For denoting _distribution_ tātaki is prefixed to the numeral; kia
_tātaki_ rua pu nga utu i te tangata, _let each man have four
payments_.

 NOTE.--Tataki prefixed does not always denote distribution; e. g., Ka
 tataki-hia nga whakato o ta koutou mara? _How many baskets (are
 these) that have been sown in your cultivation?_

In measuring length, a fraction is denoted by huka; e. g.,

  E ono whatianga, huka to te whitu, _It is six whatiangas[10] long,
    not quite seven_.
  E waru maro[10], huka to te iwa, _It is eight maro, not quite nine_.

ORDINALS.--The ordinal numbers are formed:

1. By _tua_ prefixed to the cardinal; e. g., tua toru, _third_, tua
iwa, _ninth_.

2. By _whaka_ prefixed; e. g., whakatekau, _tenth_.

3. By the simple cardinal with the definite article, ko _te wha_ tenei
_o_ aku haerenga mai, _this is the fourth of my comings here_; i. e.,
this is the fourth time I have come here.

[10] _Whatianga_ corresponds to the ancient cubit--_maro_ is what a
man can measure with his extended arms.



CHAPTER VI.

OF THE PRONOUNS.


The personal pronouns of Maori are as follows:

             SINGULAR.        |          DUAL.
                              |
                              |     { Taua, _you and I_.
         Ahau, or au, _I_.    |     { Maua, _he and I_.
         Koe, _thou_.         |       Korua, _you two_.
         Ia, _he_.            |       Raua, _they two_.

                           PLURAL.

                  { Tatou, _you all and myself_.
                  { Matou, _they and myself_.

                    Koutou, _ye_.
                    Ratou, _they_.

The first person dual and plural has, as may be seen in the above
table, two forms, _taua_ and _tatou_, _maua_ and _matou_; the former
class may be denominated _inclusive_, the latter _exclusive_. For
example:

The speaker of a company, who is addressing a person just come in,
uses _matou_; e tatari ana _matou_ ki a koe, _we are, or have been
waiting for you_. If he means that only himself and another have been
waiting, he uses _maua_, e tatari ana maua kia a koe: but when he
addresses the whole company he uses _tatou_; Tatou ki te kai, _let us
go to dinner_. If however he is addressing only another beside
himself, he uses _taua_; Taua ki te kai, let us (two) go to dinner.
Again, if he says, No _matou_ tenei kainga, he tells you, the hearer,
that he and others possess this farm. If he says, No _maua_ tenei
kainga, he tells you that he and some other person already mentioned
possess it. If however he use _tatou_, No tatou tenei kainga, he means
that all that he is addressing have a share in it. If he says, No taua
tenei kainga, he tells you, the hearer, that it belongs to you and
himself.

 NOTE.--The student will find hereafter that the dual number
 is sometimes used for the plural.

 In addressing an individual _ia_ is sometimes used in the second
 person by Ngapuhi; e. g., E ia. It is used in a very strange
 combination also with _wai_ by some tribes; e. g.,

   Ko wai ia? _who said so?_

The PERSONAL PRONOUNS admit, in the singular, of _declension_; e. g.,

                   SINGULAR.

  _Nom._    Ahau or Au, _I_.
  _Poss._   Naku, or Noku, _mine_.
  _Obj._    Ahau, or Au (preceded by some preposition); e. g.,
              _Ki_ a au, or, ki ahau, _to me_,
              _E_ a hau, or, e au, _by me_,
              Maku or Moku, _for me_.

                   SINGULAR.

  _Nom._    Koe, _thou_.
  _Poss._   Nau or Nou, _thine_.
  _Obj._    Koe (preceded by some preposition); e. g., kei a koe,
              _with thee_.
            Mau and Mou, _for you_.

                   SINGULAR.

  _Nom._    Ia, _he_.
  _Poss._   Nona, or Nana, _his_ or _hers_.
  _Obj._    Ia (preceded by some preposition); e. g., I a ia, _from
              him_ or _from her_.
            Mona and Mana, _for him_, or _for her_.

Pronouns, in common with nouns, have no gender. There is no word in
Maori to denote the pronoun _it_ with its dual and plural. Their place
is generally supplied by some artifice of the construction, as will be
shewn in the Syntax.


OF THE POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.

As the _possessive_ pronouns are closely connected with the
_personal_, they may be mentioned next.

They are as follows:

          SINGULAR.                   |           PLURAL.
                                      |
 Toku, or tāku, or tăku, _my_.        |  Oku, āku, or ăku, _my_.
 Tou, to, or tau, _thy_.              |  Ou, o, au, _thy_.
 Tona, tāna, or tăna, _his_.          |  Ona, āna, ăna, _his_.

The other possessive pronouns are formed from the dual and plural of
their respective pronouns by prefixing _o_; e. g.,

 o { taua, } _of us two_.             |  o { tatou, } _our_.
   { maua, }                          |    { matou, }
 o korua, _of you two_.               |  o koutou, _your_.
 o raua, _of them two_.               |  o ratou, _their_.

Such words as _himself_, _his own_, _my own_, &c., are expressed in
Maori by some adverb added in the sentence; e. g., Nona _ake ano_ tona
aroha ki a tatou, _his love to us was his own_; i. e., was
self-derived.

The adverbs most usually employed for this purpose are _ake_, _ano_,
_noa_, _iho_, _tonu_.


RELATIVE PRONOUNS.

The next in order are the relative pronouns. For these there is no
distinct form in Maori. Sometimes they are wholly omitted in the
sentence; e. g.

  Ko te tangata tenei i patua e Hone, _this is the man that was beaten
    by John_.

At other times their place is supplied by some artifice of the
construction. Vid. S.


DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.

The demonstrative pronouns are as follows: _Taua_, _tenei_, _tena_,
_tera_, and their respective plurals, _aua_, _enei_, _ena_, _era_.

_Tenei_ and _aua_ are used for _that_ and _those_. _Tenei_ is applied
to the object nearest at hand, or to the point of discourse to which
the speaker had last alluded; _tena_ to an object near to, or
connected with, you the person spoken to; _tera_ to an object farther
remote; e. g.,

  No Hone tenei ware, _this is John's house_.
  No Penehamine tena, _that one near you_.
  No Kukutai tera, _that one farther off is Kukutai's_.

The same distinction is to be observed in the plural number.

 It may be questioned whether tenei and its branches are not, like
 _to_, (vid. article) compounded of two words, viz. _te_ and _nei_,
 &c. They can always, at least, be resolved into them; e. g., Ho mai
 tena mea, _give me that thing_, is the same as ho mai te mea na.
 There is, however, a little difference in the uses of these two forms
 which the attentive student will discover by observation.

 _Nei_, _na_, and _ra_, are mostly added (like the ci, and lá of
 French) to point at the object more forcibly.

 When the speaker wishes to denote the object with _familiarity_,
 _contempt_, &c., he generally uses the resolved form; e. g., Ka hinga
 ahau i te wakatakariri ki _te_ tangata _nei_, _I fall with anger at
 the fellow here_.

 Sometimes we meet with nei and its branches twice repeated; e. g.,
 tenei na, tera ra.

 Nei, &c., are often used in asking questions; e. g., nei na? _Is this
 it?_ Ra ra? _Is that it?_

 NOTE.--The speaker should be careful in speaking not to confound this
 demi-pronoun with the interrogative particle _Ne_.

Sometimes we meet with _ia_ used as a demonstrative, e. g.,

  Tona wenua kai ha _ia_, _that is the very land of food_.

 NOTE--_Anei_, and _ara_ are often used by Ngapuhi for _enei_ and
 _era_.


THE INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.

The interrogative pronouns are _wai_, _aha_, _tehea_, and its plural
_ehea_, _kohea_, and sometimes, (particularly in Waikato,) _pehea_.

_Wai_ is applied (1) to persons, and (2) to animals or things, as
_canoes_, _ships_, &c., to which the name of a man has been given, and
is always the pronoun used in asking the question, What is his name?
It is sometimes applied to _countries_, &c.; but, in such cases
_kohea_ is the pronoun most frequently used.

The following are examples of the uses of _wai_ and _kohea_:

  Ko wai tena? _Who is that?_
  Na wai tenei? _Whose is this?_
  Ko wai tena kuri? _Who is that dog?_ i. e., what is his name?
  Ko wai tena poti? ko Wikitoria, _what boat is that?_ ans. _Victoria_.
  Ko wai tona ingoa? _What is his name?_
  Ko wai tena whenua? _What country is that?_
  Kohea tenei? _What place is this?_

 NOTE.--Wai will sometimes take the plural form by having _ma_
 postfixed; e. g., Ko wai ma ena? _Who are they?_

_Aha_ is applied to everything in which _kind_ is denoted; so also is
_pehea_ sometimes:

  EXAMPLES.

  He aha tena mea? _what (insect, animal, or thing) is that?_
  Ko Hone aha? _which John was it?--(was it John the Baptist, or John
    the Apostle?)_
  He aha a Erihapeti ki a Hone? _what (relation) is Elizabeth to John?_
  Na te aha? _from what cause? (why?)_
  Pehea ana to whakaaro? _what is your thought?_ i. e., _what do you
    think?_
  E taea te pehea? _what can be done? how can it be helped?_
  He kai pehea tena kai? _what kind of food is that?_

 NOTE.--The above sentence decides the right of _pehea_ to be
 considered a pronoun. Most of the compounds however of _hea_; such
 as, _kohea_, _pehea_, _nohea_, _ihea_, _mohea_, &c., ought most
 probably to be considered as belonging to the class of adverbs.

 The student will find, as we proceed, that the lines of distinction
 between the various classes of pronoun, adverb, preposition, noun,
 verb and adjective, are frequently but faintly marked, and that the
 same word may be often noticed as standing in four or five different
 ranks.

Tehea, and its plural ehea, is applied to _which_ of a number, and is
used to denote _persons_, or _things_; e. g.,

  Ko tehea tau e pai ai? _which do you choose?_
  Ko ehea tangata au e ki nei, _which men do you speak of?_

 NOTE.--Pronouns are sometimes employed to denote the time of the
 sentence, as will be seen hereafter. (vid. verbs.)


THE DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS.

_Each_ and _every one_, are expressed by the demonstrative or
possessive pronoun, and the noun twice or thrice repeated; e. g.,

  Haria mai e tera tangata, e tera tangata, tana kono riwai, _bring
    each man his basket of potatoes_.
  Ia tangata ia tangata, _each man_.
  I tenei ra i tenei ra, _each day_.
  E warea ana ki tana mahi ki tana mahi, _each is engaged with his own
    particular business_.


THE INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

_Some other_ and _any_, are most frequently denoted by _te tahi_, and
its plural _e tahi_; sometimes also by the preposition _i_; (vid.
prepositions.)

  Kua kite ahau i _e tahi_, _I saw some (of them)_.
  Ko _e tahi_ kihai i kitea e ahau, _some I did not see_.
  Kahore kau ahau i kite i _te tahi_, _I did not see any at all_.

_Whatever_, _whatsoever_, &c., are expressed in various ways; as may
be seen in the following examples:

  Ko _nga mea katoa_ e mea ai koutou, _or_ } _whatever ye do_,
  Ko _nga aha noa_ &c. &c.                 }   Col. 3, 17.
  Ko _ta koutou e inoi ai_ i toku ingoa, _whatever ye ask in my name_.
  Kia ho atu ki a ia _tana_ mea _e_ inoi ai ia, _to give her
    whatsoever she would ask_, Mat. 14, 7.
  Ka kai koutou, ka inu, _ka aha_ ranei, _whether ye eat or drink or
    whatever ye do_. 1 Cor. 10, 31.



CHAPTER VII.

OF THE VERBS.[11]


§ 1. CLASSIFICATION.--They may be distributed in

(a) _Primitive_, i. e., underived from other words; e. g.,

  Noho, _to sit_.
  Hopu, _to catch_.

(b) _Derivative_, i. e. such as are derived from words of some other
root; e. g.,

  E _kakahu_ ana i tona, _is putting on his garment_.
  _I ahatia_ koe? _what was done to you?_
  Penatia, _do it in that manner_.
  E hau, _if it blow_.
  Narungatia mai, _push it in from above_.
  E pai ana, _it is good_.

This class is by far the most numerous. Under it also may be comprised

(1) Verbs formed by reduplication; e. g.

  Korerorero, _to hold conversation with, &c._

(2) _Compound_ verbs, i. e. verbs formed from two or more words joined
together; e. g.

  _Ma-te-matapihitia_ mai, _give it me by the window_.
  Whaka-ngoi-koretia, _made weak_.

 NOTE.--As the same word is very frequently used in Maori as verb,
 substantive, adjective, and adverb, it is often impossible to
 determine under which of the above classes it should be ranked;
 neither, indeed, will it be necessary; as the origin of the verb in
 no way affects its grammatical relations.

§. 2. NUMBER, PERSON, and GENDER.--Maori verbs are not declined by
inflection; i. e. by variation of the ground form; and therefore know
nothing of number, person, and gender.

§. 3. MOOD and TENSE.--As neither the ground form, nor the auxiliary
particles experience any variation from change of mood, we cannot
recognize any grammatical form for denoting moods in Maori, and shall
not therefore enter any farther into the subject at present.

 NOTE 1.--The only variations we have been able to discover are

 1st. Those for denoting the imperative mood.

 2nd. The prefixing of the particle waka to the verb, and thus causing
 a Hiphil, or causative, conjugation. The prefixing of a conjunction
 cannot, we think, warrant the creation of a distinct form for the
 subjunctive mood.

 NOTE 2.--As the business of the grammarian lies principally with the
 grammatical form of words, i. e., with those means with which a
 language is supplied for expressing the different varieties of
 thought, it is clear that no form is to be admitted under any head,
 which does not denote a meaning specifically belonging to that head.
 Thus, in the case of the Maori moods, we never, (as we sometimes do
 in English and other languages,) meet with a variation in _form_ from
 the root, either in the case of the verb itself, or its auxiliaries;
 and we therefore consider that, _grammatically_ speaking, we have no
 form for these moods.

 It is true, that in a _logical_ point of view, i. e., when the
 signification alone is considered, a great many varieties both of
 mood and tense might be established. But this can never be admitted
 as the basis on which a grammar should be constructed; neither can
 any maxim be more true than that "equivalence in sense does not imply
 similarity in grammatical nature."

§. 4. TENSE.--Maori abounds in a variety of forms for denoting
modifications of time. They are designated by verbal particles, (vid.
Note,) adverbs, prepositions, pronouns, and the articles _he_ and _te_
placed in connexion with the verb. The force of these, again, is, in a
large majority of cases, determined by the context, and we believe
ourselves to be correct in saying that there are, in this language,
but few _absolute_ forms for determining _tense_; for example:

  E moe _ana_, _he is sleeping_.
  I reira _e_ moe _ana_, _there was he sleeping_, or _there he slept_.
  I riri _au_, _I was angry_.
  _Mo te aha_ koe _i_ riri mai ai ki a au? _why are you angry with me?_
  _Ka_ haere ahau, _I will go_.
  Na _ka_ whaka_tika_ a Hone, _then John rose_.
    (See also preposition _mo_:)

 NOTE.--The verbal particles are words which have no meaning in
 themselves, but which prefixed to a word, endue it with the qualities
 of a verb. They correspond to the auxiliary verbs of English, but do
 not admit of the same varieties of applications: neither can they lay
 claim to the rank of verb substantive. Thus in Maori we have no
 _direct_ form for such phrases as the following, _I am_, _you will_,
 &c.

§. 5. They are as follows: _e_, _ana_, _ha_, _kua_, _i_, _kia_, _hei_,
_me_, _kaua_, _aua_, and _kei_.

Their uses will be best ascertained by examining the paradigm at the
end of this section. A more full consideration of them and of the
other modes of construction, which are therein contained, will be
deferred to the Syntax.

As the voice of the verb but little affects its conjugation, we have
not thought it necessary to make any separate head for the different
voices; but have represented all in the one table.

The student, however, is recommended to read our remarks on the
passive voice before he proceeds to examine into the tenses.

§. 6. It may be naturally expected that, in an unpolished language
like Maori, there should not be much that is artificial, or
complicated, in the arrangement of tenses. Such we believe to be the
case. It is true that some would contend for as many tenses as may be
found in English; but, independently of the improbability of such a
thing, we believe that a careful investigation will lead the inquirer
to the arrangement which we have adopted; viz. the _present_, the
_past_, and the _future_.

It is true that other tenses may sometimes be met with which are
accurately defined; but we cannot admit them a distinct place in the
modifications of the simple verb; because such forms are always
compound, or depend, at least, for their meaning upon the construction,
and belong more properly to the syntax than to this part of the
grammar.

§ 7. In examining into the time of a verb, it will often be very
necessary for the student to notice whether the sentence, in which it
is contained, is _simple_, or _compound_; a _simple_ sentence[12] is
that which consists of only one time; e. g.

  _E_ pai _ana_, _it is good_.
  Kahore ahau _i_ kite, _I did not see (it)_.
  Ko tatou katoa, ano he hipi, _kua_ marara ke, _we all as sheep have
    gone astray_.
  _Kua_ mate to tatou Kai whakaora i runga i te te ripeka, _our
    Saviour died upon the cross_.

A _compound_ sentence is that in which two times are introduced; e. g.

  Me i reira ahau e pai ana, _if I had_ been _there it would_ have
    _been well_.
  Akuanei, tae rawa atu, kua mate, _it will come to pass, that, when
    I_ have got _there_, he will _be dead_.
  Kua mate ahau, e ora ana nga rakau nei, _I shall die before these
    sticks decay_.
  Me i whakararatatia i mua, _kua_ rarata, tenei, _if it had been
  tamed before, it_ would have _been tame now_.

Of this, however, more hereafter.

We may here also mention that it will often be very necessary to
notice the circumstances connected with the uttering of a sentence,
i. e. whether it be emphatic; whether it be the answer to a question;
whether a large measure of certainty is designed to be implied, &c.,
&c. On these particulars we shall remark in the Syntax.

 As it is quite immaterial with which part of the verb we commence, we
 begin with the imperative; simply because our remarks on it will be
 rather extended, and 2ndly, because we wish that our illustrations of
 that mood should appear in an unbroken line with our examples of the
 other parts of the Maori verbs.

§. 8. The imperative mood of Maori abounds in more minute distinctions
than any other part of the verb. We present them all here; chiefly
because the sentences in which they occur are, for the most part,
_simple_.

1. The most common form for expressing the _imperative_ of an active
verb is by its _passive_; e. g.,

             ACTIVE FORM.              IMPERATIVE.

           Patu, _to strike_,        Patua, _strike (it)_.
           Tua, _to fell_,           Tuaina, _fell (it)_.

For the passive voice, see table under that head.

2. (a) If the verb be neuter, and in the second person, the simple
ground form is used; e. g.,

  Haere, _go_.
  Hororo, _make haste_.
  Tena, _be prompt, be quick_.
  Kati, _be quiet_.
  Whetero, _put out your tongue_.[13]

(b) Occasionally, however, we find the passive form used, when the
meaning of the verb is neuter; e. g.

  Hapainga, _let us start_.
  Takiritia, _idem_.
  Kokiritia, _dash forward_ (in pursuit, &c.)
  Hoea tatou, _let us paddle_.

Sometimes both active and neuter verbs will take the verbal prefixes
_e_, _kia_, _hei_, _me_, _kaua_, _aua_, _kei_, before them to denote
the imperative.

(c) _E_ is used sometimes to denote the imperative of active and
neuter verbs. It is chiefly used with the second person singular,
dual, and plural.

It is never found in the first person singular; but is occasionally
used in the first person dual and plural. We know of no instance in
which it is employed in the third person, and we believe the following
sentence to be incorrect: E aroha mai te Atua ki a tatou, _may God
love us_.

 N.B.--Illustrations of these remarks will be given in the table.

(d) _Kia_ is capable of being used in all the persons of the
imperative. It is the particle most frequently used with the first
person. In the second, it is chiefly used with verbalized adjectives;
though occasionally it is prefixed to the verb. In the third, it is
used before either adjective or verb, and by its help we may, perhaps,
make the best approximation to a form of the imperative in which Maori
has been heretofore deficient; viz.--the benedictory; as in such
sentences as the following: _God be merciful to you_.

 N.B.--Another way for rendering the above sentence (and one equally
 deserving of attention) is by the preposition _ma_; as in the
 following; ma te atua koe e atawhai.

 We ourselves much incline to a form which, at first sight, may not
 appear very appropriate; viz., kei te atua te atawhai, or tera kei te
 atua, &c. Though these forms are apparently _indicative_, yet they
 are frequently used in the _imperative_ sense; Kei a koe te whakaaro
 mo tena _the consideration for that is with you_, i. e., _you are to
 attend to that_; kei a koe te tahi kupu ki a tatou, _a word to us is
 with you_, i. e., _give us a word_. Tena ano tetahi taro i a koe ma
 taku tamaiti, _give me some bread for my child_. E kite koe i a Hone
 tena te tahi paraikete, _if you see John, give me a blanket_, i. e.,
 _tell John to &c._

The dehortative and cautionary particles _kaua_, _aua_, _kei_, belong
strictly to the imperative.

(e) Under this head we should perhaps also mention the particle _me_.
As it is occasionally heard instead of the real imperative, we shall
give it a place here. It will be observed that it does not take the
passive after it; e. g.,

  Me patu te te poaka,
  Me hanga te taiepa.

(f) The only particles the imperative of passive verbs will admit
before it are, _kia_, _kaua_, _aua_, and _kei_. Following is a table
of sentences illustrative of the above remarks. We have preferred
placing them all in one list that the student may more easily catch
the various distinctions. Other forms are given by which the
imperative is sometimes denoted.

 1st Form. Whakaakona ahau, _teach me_.

 2nd.  Whakatika, _arise_.
       Noho atu, _remain away_.
       Hoko mai, _come back_.
       Noho puku, _sit quiet_.
       Tupeke, _jump_.
       Pepeke, _draw up your legs_.

 3rd.  E ara, _arise_.
       E noho, _sit down_.
       Haere koe, e hoki, _go, return_.
       E kai, _eat_.
       E ngaki taua, _let us two dig (it)_.

 4th.  Tena koe, kia wakamatu ahau, _give it here let me try it_.
       Kia kaha, _be strong_.
       Kia hohoro, _make haste_.
       Kia ara (te pou), _let (the post) be upright_.
       Ko tena, kia nekehia atu, _as for that, let it be moved away
         (by them)_.
       Kia maia tatou, _let us be courageous, &c._

 5th.  E! kaua ahau e haere ki reira. _Pish! let me not go there._
       Aua e tukua, _do not let it go_.
       Kei ngaro, _take care lest it be lost_.
       Kei whakarongo atu tatou, _let us not listen, &c._

 6th.  Ka oti tena, me ngaki a konei e koe, _when that is finished
         this place must be dug by you_.

 7th.  Maku etahi, _(give) me some_.

 8th.  Hei konei koutou noho ai, _do you stop here_.

 9th.  Kati te tahae i aku merene, _cease stealing my melons_,
         i. e., _do not, &c._

 10th. E tae koe, ka tono mai i a Hone, _when you arrive there,
         send John here_.

 11th. Tatou ki te to, _we to drag_, i. e., _let us go to drag
         (the canoe.)_

 12th. Ko te tangata kua tukua mai, _(before you send the pigs) let
         the messenger be sent here_.

The attention of the reader is also requested to the following
paradigm of the tenses as classified according to our arrangement.

He will observe that, as _number_ and _person_ make no difference in
the form, one example of a kind will be sufficient.

Most of the sentences here inserted are simple. We shall reserve the
consideration of the compound sentences for the Syntax.


    PRESENT SINGULAR.

  1 E patu ana ahau, _I am striking_ or _strike_.
  2 E patu ana koe, _you are striking, &c._
  3 E patu ana ia, _he is striking, &c._

    DUAL AND PLURAL.

  1 E patu ana maua, or matou.
  2 E patu ana korua, or koutou.
  3 E patu ana raua, or ratou.

    OTHER FORMS FOR THE PRESENT.

  1 E kore ahau e pai, _I am not willing_.
  2 Ko au tenei, _here I am_, (lit. this is I).
  3 He tangata kino koe, _you (are) a bad man_.
  4 Ko toku matua ko Kukutai, _Kukutai (is) my father_.
  5 Ka pai, _it is good_.
  6 E haere mai, _she is coming_.
  7 E pai ranei koe? _are you willing?_
  8 E ki nei (or na) koe, _you affirm_.
  9 Kei te patu, _he is killing (it)_, (lit. at the killing).
 10 Noku tenei wahi, _this place is mine_ (lit. mine this place.)

    PAST TENSE.

  1 reira ahau i te ata nei, _I (have been) there this morning_.
  2 Ko Rawiri te matua a Horomona, _David (was) the father of Solomon_.
  3 He tangata mohio a Horomona, _Solomon (was) a wise man_.
  4 I haere ano ahau, _I went_.
  5 Nau i wakaatu, _you disclosed_.
  6 Ka haere a Ihu, _Jesus went_.
  7 E ngari a Hone ka kite, _John rather saw it (not I.)_
  8 Haere ana a Ihu, _Jesus went_.
  9 He ua tena, _that was rain, it rained_ (used chiefly in animated
      description.)
 10 He tini aku korerotanga ki a ia, _many (have been) my
      conversations with him_.
 11 Ko te tangata kua tukua mai, _the messenger had been sent (before
      the other thing was done.)_
 12 Kihai i pai mai, _he was not pleased_.
 13 Ka te tuku tena wahi, (Ngapuhi) _that place has been given to_, &c.
 14 Kua patua te poaka? _has the pig been killed?_
 15 Kua oti noa ake taku mahi, _my work has been finished this some
      time_.
 16 He mea hanga naku te purutangi, _the handle was made by myself_;
      [lit. the handle (was) a thing made of mine, (actively).]

    FUTURE.

  1 Ka haere ahau, _I will go_.
  2 E riri mai koe? _will you be angry?_
  3 Maku e patu, _I will kill (it)_ [lit. the killing (it is to
      be) for me.]
  4 Ko koe te haere? _are you (the person) that is to go?_
  5 Tera e mate, _he will die (perhaps)_, (lit. that will die.)
  6 E kore e tukua, _it will not be let go_.
  7 E tae koe ki Waitemata, _When you go to Waitemata_.
  8 Akuanei ko ia kua tae, _the chances are that he will get there
      first_; (lit. _presently_ it _is_ he that _has_ arrived.)
  9 Kowai hei tiki? _who is to fetch it?_

    INFINITIVE MOOD.

    Haere ki te whiu, _go to drive (it)_, (lit. go to the driving.)
    Pai kia haere, _willing to go_.
    E kore e ahei te tohe, _I cannot press you_; (lit. the pressing
      cannot be effected.)

§. 6. VOICE.--Maori verbs, in respect of voice, may be considered
under the three well known heads of _active_, _passive_ and _neuter_.

§. 7. The _active_ is the simple root modified by one or more of the
words already mentioned, e. g. e patu ana ahau, _I am striking_.

§. 8. The _passive_ is the root varied in its termination; e. g. e
patua ana ahau, _I am struck_.

 NOTE.--The student will find, as we proceed, that the Maori passive
 differs in some respects from that of the English, Latin and Greek.

§. 9. The _neuter_ expresses being, or a state or condition of being;
when the agent and the object acted upon coincide, and the event is
properly neither action nor passion, but rather something between
both: as _I am_, _I sleep_, _I walk_."[14]

 NOTE.--Verbs derived from the simple adjective will generally rank
 under the head of neuter. Under this class also do we reduce a
 species of verbs in the arrangement of which we have felt some
 difficulty; viz.--such words as, pakaru, _broken_; marere,
 _conceded_, &c., _i. e._, words which are neuter in form, but passive
 in meaning; which correspond in meaning to the past participle
 passive of the European languages, but are not traceable to any root.
 After much consideration we are inclined to think that they may most
 satisfactorily be regarded as adjectives, and classified accordingly:
 thus, in the following sentence, "kua pakaru te waka i te ngaru,"
 _the canoe has been broken by the waves_, we should regard _pakaru_
 as an adjective, or rather a verbalized adjective, just as much as we
 should kino in the following, "kua _kino_ te waka i te paru," _the
 canoe is bad, or uncomfortable, through the filth_.

 To any who wishes to regard such a class as passive participles, we
 would reply, that the preposition _i_, (not _e_,) following them
 clearly determines them as belonging to the neuter family; and that
 though their meaning may not coincide with our definition of a neuter
 verb, yet we feel no difficulty on that head; for we only act in
 common with other grammarians, who have laid it down as a useful rule
 "_a potiori nomen fit_."

 As it may be useful to the student to be acquainted with this class
 of words we will supply a table of some of the principal, after we
 have made some farther observations on the voices.[15]

In the passive we meet with variation in the termination of the
ground-form.

     § 10. ACTIVE VOICE.                   PASSIVE VOICE.

     A, _to drive away_, &c.             A_ia_.
     Ka, (v.n.) _to light_ (_as a        Ka_ngia_.
       fire_)
     Maka, _to throw away_,              Makā.
     Wakama, _to make clean_.            Wakama_kia_.
     Hura, _to expose_ (_by taking off   Hura_hia_, or Hura_ngia_.
       the cover_)
     Whakateka, _to denounce as false_,  Wakateka_ina_.
     Aroha, _to love_,                   Aroha_ina_ or Aroha_tia_.
     Tua, _to fell_ (_as a tree_,)       Tua_ina_, or Tua_kina_.
     Raranga, _to knit_ (_a native       Ranga_hia_.
       basket_, &c.)
                                       { Mea_tia_.
     Mea, _to do_,                     { Meinga.
                                       { Meingatia (Ngapuhi).
     He, (part. adj.) _unacquainted      He_ngia_.
       with_, &c.
     Kukume, _to pull_,                  Kume_a_.
     Rere, (v.n.) _sail as a boat_,    { Rei_a_.
       and _to flow as water_,         { Rere_ngia_.
     Whakatete, _to milk_,               Wakatete_kia_.
     Paihere, _to bind in bundles_,      Paihere_tia_,
     Ope, _to gather_ &c. (_in           Ope_hia_.
       handfuls_,)
     Whakapae, _besige_, or _to accuse   Whakapae_a_.
       falsely_,
                                       { Whakaae_ngia_,
     Whakaae, _assent to_,             {   or
                                       { Whakaae_tia_.
     Hi, _to fish with a hook_,          Hi_a_.
     Ririringi, (v.a.) _to spill_,     { Ringi_tia_.
                                       { Ringi_hia_.
     Whaki, _to confess_,                Whaki_na_.
     Arahi, _to guide_,                  Arahi_na_.
     Whawhaki, _to gather_ (_as          Whaki_ia_.
       grapes_, &c.)
     Kikini, _to pinch_,                 Kini_tia_.
     Whangai, _to feed_,               { Whangai_a_.
                                       { Whangai_nga_.
     Pupuhi, _to fire_ (_a gun_), or     Puhi_a_.
       _to blow with the mouth_,
     Pai, (adj.) _good_,                 Pai_ngia_.
     Ho-mai, } _to give_,              { Ho-mai.
     Ho-atu, }                         { Ho-atu.
     Waiho, _leave_,                     Waiho.
     Ko, _to dig_,                     { Ke_ia_.
                                       { Ko_ngia_.
     Mono, _to calk_,                    Mono_a_.
     Aro, _to regard with favour_,       Aro_agia_.
     Horo, (part. adj.) _tumble down,    Horo_ngia_.
       as a land-slip_,
     Horo, _to swallow_,                 Horo_mia_.
     Whakato, _to sow, or plant_,      { Wakato_kia_.
                                       { Wakato_ngia_.
     Takoto, (v.n.) _to lie_,            Takoto_ria_.
     Manako, (_same as aro_)             Manako_hia_.
     Toko, _to propel by poles_,         Toko_na_.
     Rongo, _to hear_,                   Rango_na_.
     Whawhao, _to stow_,               { Whao_whina_.
                                       { Whao_a_.
     Utuutu, _to draw water_,            Utu_hia_.
     Utu, _to pay_,                      Utu_a_.
     Ruku, (v.n.) _to dive_,             Ruku_hia_.
     Tu, (v.n.) _to stand_,              Tu_ria_.
     Whakau, _to kindle_,                Whakau_ngia_.
     Hohou, _to bind fencing_, &c.       Houh_ia_.
     Whawhau, (Waikato) _idem_           Whau_whia_.
     Maumau, (part. a.) _wasted_,        Maumau_ria_.
     Tatau, _to fight against_,          Tau_ria_.
     Hahau, _to seek_,                   Hahau_ria_.
     Whakahou, _to make new_,            Whakahou_tia_.
     Mate-nui, _much coveted_,           Mate-nui_tia_.
     Tangata-whenua, _a denizen_,        Tangata-whenua_tia_, _to be
                                           naturalized_.

(a) It will be seen that the above arrangement is made according to
the final letter of the ground form, and that each division contains
some examples of reduplicated words, and of words ending in diphthongs.

(b) That, in words ending in _a_, the passive is mostly made by adding
to the last syllable _ia_, _ngia_, _kia_, _hia_, _ina_, _atia_, _kina_.

(c) That some verbs receive no additions to the last syllable; as
_maka_, and that the active and passive are, in those cases, alike. On
the Eastern coast _ia_ takes the place of simple _a_ in the passive;
e. g. maka, makaia.

 The speaker should be always careful, in pronouncing passive _a_ to
 throw the emphasis strongly on the last syllable. The following words
 are of this description: panga, _to throw away_; pana, _to shove
 away, &c._; kanga, _to curse_; wakamana, _to ratify, &c._; taunaha,
 _to bespeak_; taka, _to fall from a height_; unga, _to send_; waha,
 _to carry on the back_.

(d) That some verbs have sometimes two or more terminations for the
passive; as arohatia, arohaina, arohangia. We may here remark that
some words have different passives in different districts; e. g.

  Whangainga (Ngapuhi), Whangaia (Waikato.)

(e) That in words, one or more of the syllables of which are repeated,
the reduplication will very frequently be dropped in the passive; e. g.

  Kikini, kinitia; tapatapahi tapahia, &c.

 NOTE.--It must however be noticed that there are many exceptions to
 this rule, and that the omitting or retaining the reduplication is
 often left to the option of the speaker. In those instances, however,
 in which he wishes to denote with peculiar emphasis the
 _distribution_, _repetition_, &c., implied by the reduplication, he
 always, as far as he can, retains it; e. g.

   Titititia, _strike every one of the nails_.
   Patupatua, _strike with many blows_, &c.

(f) In a few instances we meet with a passive formed by a change of
the first syllable; e. g.

  Rongo, _to hear_; rangona (_passive_); wakarongo, wakarangona
    (_passive_).

Examples of this rule are very few.

(g) Of the passives of compound verbs, two examples are given at the
end of the table. The rule for their formation is the same as that for
the passives of simple verbs: the final letters, in both cases, being
the only thing on which they depend. Occasionally, however, we meet
with a word resolved into two parts, and each part put into the
passive voice; e. g.,

  Kaihau, (v. act.) _to sell the property of an individual without
    giving him any part of the payment_, Kai_nga_-hau_tia_, (passive).

There is another form similar to the preceding, which requires to be
mentioned here; viz., when two verbs follow each other in immediate
succession, one of which acts as a kind of adverb, or qualifying word,
to the other, they will both sympathize with each other in voice; will
either be both active or both passive; e. g.,

  Toia haeretia, _dragged along_; lit. _dragged gone_.
  Tukua whakareretia, _let down with a dash_.
  Kai moe, _eat sleeping_, i. e., _while he is eating he is sleeping_.

In such phrases the latter of the two verbs will generally take _tia_
for its passive form.

(h) Occasionally a passive word may be met with which has no active;
as _parangia_ e te moe, _oppressed by sleep_; _rokohina_ and
_rokohanga_, _waiho_, _homai_ and _hoatu_.

(i) Passive verbs are used in a more extended sense in Maori, than
what is commonly met with in other languages, not excepting, perhaps,
even the three passives of Hebrew.

The following are a few illustrations of the various uses:--

  Haere, _to go_, v.n., te huarahi i _haerea e ia_, _the road by which
    he travelled_.
  Neke, _move away (yourself)_ v.n., nekehia atu, imp. _move (the
    thing) away_, kua nekehia, _was moved away_.
  Titore, _diffissus_, part. adj., Titorehia, imp., _Diffinde_, adj.
  Oioi, _contremo_, or _nuto_, v.n. oioia, imp., _agita_, v.a.
  Riri, _angry_, riria, _angered_; (e. g., ka riria ahau e ia.)
  Pai, _good_, kia pai, _let it (the thing) be good_.
  Waka_pai_a, imp., _put it (the place &c.) to rights_.
  Waka_pai_ngia, _to be accepted or approved of_.
  Korero, _to speak_, korerotia, _made the subject of conversation_.
  Whakaaro, v.n., _to think_; whakaarohia, imp., _think (of the
    thing)_; whakaarohia iho, _think (of yourself, &c._)
  Kau, _swim_, v.n., ka kauria (te awa,) _is swum over (the stream)_;
    ka wakakauria (te hoiho), _(the horse) is made to swim over_.
  Kakahu, _a garment_, kakahuria (tou,) _put on your (garment,)_
    wakakahuria, (te tamaiti) _put on the child's clothes_.
  Whangai, _to feed_, whangaia ma te ngohi, _given as food for the
    fishes_.
  Tae, _to arrive at (a place)_, ka taea Waitoke, _Waitoke has been
    arrived at_.
  Taea noatia tenei ra, _until it is arrived (at_ i. e. _up to) this
    day_.
  Huri, _to turn a (grindstone &c.)_, kia hurihia taku toki, _that my
    axe may be turned_, i. e. _ground_.
  Whawhao, _to stow or put into a basket &c._
  Kua whaowhina te kete ki te tupeka, _the basket was stowed (with)
    tobacco_, i. e. _had tobacco put into it_.
  Manene, _to beg_, kei manenetia koe ki te tupeka, _lest you should
    be begged for tobacco_, i. e. _lest tobacco should be begged from
    you_.
  Horihori, _to tell falsehoods_; ko te mea i horihoria e koe he
    tangata, _the thing you erroneously said was a man_, ko te mea i
    whakahorihoria e koe, _the thing you denounced as false_.

For further remarks on this part of the Maori verb, vid. S.

 (k) NOTE.--The student will sometimes find that the simple root is
 used with a similar variation of meaning; e. g.

   Waha, _to carry on the back_; e waha, _get on my back_.
   He paipa hei puru mo taku tupeka, _a pipe to plug my tobacco:
     into which to plug my tobacco_.
   Te waka e to na, _the canoe that is dragged up there_.
   Te rakau e pou na, _the stake that is fixed there_.
   Kei tehea whare nga tangata? Kei te whare e ngiha mai na, _In
     which house are the people? In the house that burns_; i. e. _in
     the house in which the lights burn_.
   Kei te _tao_ te kai, _food is being cooked (in the oven.)_

 Sentences, however, like the last of these are mostly employed when
 emphasis and brevity are desired more than accuracy.

§. 12. The verbal nouns also (for which vid. chap. 3 §. c.) experience
considerable variations in meaning. They are in most cases formed from
the passive voice of the root; and as the rules for their formation
may be easily learned by comparing a few with their respective ground
forms, it may perhaps be sufficient to give the nouns derived from the
verbs of the last mentioned table:

     PASSIVE NOUNS.                       VERBAL NOUNS.
     A_ia_,                              A_nga_.
     Ka_ngia_,                           Kā_nga_.
     Makā,                               Mak_anga_.
     Wakama_kia_,                        Wakama_kanga_.
     Hura_hia_,                          Hura_hanga_.
     Wakateka_ina_,                      Wakateka_nga_.
     Aroha_tia_,                         Aroha_tanga_.
     Tua_kina_,                          Tua_kanga_.
     Mea_tia_,                           Mea_tanga_.
     He_ngia_,                           He_anga_, or He_nga_.
     Kume_a_,                            Kume_nga_.
     Rere_ngia_,                         Rēnga.
     Paihere_tia_,                       Paihere_tanga_.
     Hi_a_,                              Hi_anga_.
     Ringi_hia_,                         Ringi_hanga_.
     Whaki_na_,                          Whaki_nga_.
     Kini_tia_,                          Kini_tanga_.
     Whangai_a_,                         Whangai_nga_.
     Homai,                              Homai_tanga_.
     Waiho,                              Waiho_tanga_.
     Ko_ia_,                             Ko_anga_.
     Horo,                               Horo_nga_.
     Horo_mia_,                          Horo_manga_.
     R_a_ngo_na_,                        R_o_ngo_nga_.
     Whao_whina_,                        Whao_whanga_.
     Utu_hia_,                           Utu_hanga_.
     Ruku_hia_,                          Ruku_hanga_.
     Hou_hia_,                           Hou_hanga_.
     Tau_ria_,                           Tatau_ranga_.
     Hou_tia_,                           Hou_tanga_.

 Sometimes where it is desirable to make a distinction, on account of
 the greatness of the difference between the two branches of the same
 root, a different form will be adopted for each meaning; e. g.

   Wanaunga, _is a relation_: wanautanga, _a birth_: Kiteanga is the
     opportunity in which a thing may be seen; kitenga generally
     denotes _the act of seeing_. Again, wah_anga_ is a _carrying on
     the back_, wah_inga_ a _breaking_.

§. 13. _Neuter verbs._--On these but few remarks are required. For the
distinction between the preposition _i_, by which they are followed,
and the particle _i_, which follows active verbs, vid. _i_
(prepositions, §. 10, note.)

That they sometimes take the passive form may be seen in the
illustrations of the passive voice. In some cases also their passives
change their nature, and become similar in meaning to the passives of
active verbs; e. g.

  Nohoia tou kainga, _dwell, or occupy, your farm_.
  Ka hengia mai ahau e ia, _I shall be (literally) ignored by him_.

§. 14. As the participial adjectives may be most conveniently classed
under this head, we shall insert here a table of the principal of
them:--

  Ea, _paid for_.
  He, _unacquainted with_.
  Hoha, _wearied at_.
  Horo, _stormed_ (as a fort, &c.)
  Mahora, _given_ (as a feast.)
  Makini, _gapped_.
  Mana, _ratified_, &c.
  Mao, _ceased_ (as rain.)
  Maoa, _cooked_ (as food.)
  Marere, _fallen to the ground, &c._
  Maringi, _spilt_.
  Maru, _bruised, beaten, &c._
  Matau, (sometimes with Ngapuhi;) e. g., Pakore e matau i a au,
    _understood_.
  Mate, _dead_.
  Mau, _caught_.
  Mawheto, _loosed_ (as a knot.)
  Mimiti, _dried up_.
  Moti, _destroyed, &c._, (corresponding to the phrase _clean sweep_;
    Waikato.)
  Motu, _cut_.
  Mutu, _ended_.
  Oti, _finished_.
  Ongeonge, (same as Hoha.)
  Pahure, _passed by_.
  Pahemo, idem.
  Pakaru, _broken_. N.B.,--Pākaru, _is active_.
  Pareho, _consumed_.
  Pau, idem.
  Riro, _departed_.
  Rite, _completus, perfectus, (sometimes.)_
  Riwha, _gapped_.
  Tahuri, _overturned_.
  Toremi, _sunk into_ (as into a bog, &c.)
  Tu, _wounded, &c._
  Whanau, used sometimes as v.n., _bring forth_; sometimes as part.
    adj., _brought forth_ or _born_.
  Whara, _hurt_ (by accident.)
  Wera, _burnt_.
  Ngaro, _lost, destroyed, &c._
  Ngenge, _tired_.
  Ngonga, _beaten_ (same as Maru.)

§. 15. That we are correct in denominating such words, as the above,
"participial adjectives," will appear from the consideration that they
will assume the form of an adjective, or participle, according to the
nature of the word by which they may be translated: thus _marie_ may
be translated _quiet_, and be considered an adjective; or _pacified_,
and be considered a participle. Neither indeed will it appear strange
that an adjective should be found, in one language, exactly
corresponding to a participle in another, if we only reflect on the
origin of the following  adjectives of the English; _exact_,
_competent_, _complete_, _perfect_, _correspondent_, _&c._, _&c._

Like adjectives, these words will assume the form of a verb, when in
connexion with the verbal participles. Indeed, (as we have already
observed,) our impression is, that, the more we examine, the more
shall we be led to think that a genuine verb is by no means a common
thing in Maori; and that substantives, adjectives, and other classes,
are the fountains to which most of the verbs of the language may be
traced.

[11] There are many things connected with this subject that will, no
doubt, often appear strange to the European reader; and he will
frequently have to be careful lest he be misled by theories derived
from occidental grammars. In those languages the verb is a leading
word in the sentence, and by it exclusively is the office of
affirmation or predication performed.

In Maori, on the contrary, a pure genuine verb is by no means of
frequent occurrence: almost any word denoting a thing, or quality, is
capable of sustaining that office; and predication is as frequently
implied as expressed. In considering, therefore, the Maori verbs, we
shall have to examine, not only those words which have been invested
with the properties belonging to that class; but also those forms in
which no mark of predication is expressed. The term predication we
have adopted, for want of better, to denote those functions which are
peculiar to the verb, and which are sometimes described by grammarians
under the terms "affirmation" and "assertion."

[12] We have adopted the term "sentence" in preference to
"proposition," lest the student should be led into perplexity by
conceiving that we used the terms _simple_ and _compound_ in the same
senses as those in which they are used by logicians.

From our examples he will see that we should call a sentence simple,
even though the subject and predicate be complex terms.

By noticing whether, when the sentence is translated, one or two verbs
are introduced, and whether either of them is dependent in time on the
other, the student will easily make the distinction that we are
desirous of establishing. The importance of this distinction will be
seen in our examples of a compound sentence. For, in the first
_e-ana_, which is present in a simple sentence, is now past; in the
second, _kua_ is future, though it strictly belongs to the past tense;
in the fourth example this same particle stands for the pluperfect
potential.

[13] We may here mention that, in speaking of actions done by members
of the body, Maori never supposes the individual, but rather the
member, to perform the act. Thus, such expressions as "lift up your
head," "open your mouth," "stretch out your leg," would not be
rendered, as we have heard some speakers express it, by "huaia ake to
matenga," "hamamatia to waha, &c.," but rather "kia ara ake to
matenga," "hamama tou waha," "wharoro tou waewae."

We have, indeed, occasionally heard a native say, wheterongia,
(whaterongia, Ngapuhi) tou arero, titahangia; but these phrases are
very rare.

[14] Lowth.

[15] N.B.--When we have occasion to speak of this class of words by
themselves, as distinct from neuter verbs, we shall denominate them
_participial adjectives_.



CHAPTER VIII.

OF THE PREPOSITIONS.


Scarcely any part of Maori is more worthy of attention than the
prepositions. In no language, that we are acquainted with, are their
powers so extensive. While, in common with those of English and
Hebrew, they serve to express those relations, which in some languages
are chiefly marked by the different endings of the nouns, they extend
their influence still farther, and are, in many instances, of material
importance in determining the time of the sentence in which they are
placed.

They are simple and compound. The simple are those which, in
construction, take no other preposition into union with them. The
principal prepositions of this class are as follows:

  E, _by_.
  I, _by_, _with_, _from_, _to_, _through_, _in_, _at_, _than_.
  Ki, _with_, _to_, _for_, _at_, _according to_, _in_.
  Kei, _at_.
  No, _of_, _from_.
  Na, _of_, _by_, _through_.
  Mo, _for_ (or _because of_), _for_ (possession),
    _at_ &c., &c.
  Ma, _for_, _by_, _concerning_.
  Hei, _at_, _for_.
  O, _of_.
  A, _at_.
  Ko, _at_.
  To, _up to_.

The compound prepositions are those which, like the _composite_ of
Hebrew, require one or more of the simple to set forth their meaning.
They are as follows:

  Runga, _upon or above_.
  Raro, _beneath_.
  Mua, _before_.
  Muri, _behind_.
  Roto, or ro, _inside_.
  Waho, _outside_.
  Tua, _other side_.
  Pahaki, _other side_, or _this side of_, (used in describing the
    position of an object.)
  Tai, idem.
  Waenga, _midst of_.
  Tata, _near_.
  Tawhiti, _far off_.

The meaning and uses, however, of the above, both _simple_, and
_compound_, are exceedingly various; and the attention of the student
is therefore requested to the following notices respecting them.[16]

E, _by_ (applied to the _agent_, not the _instrument_) is always
prefixed to the agent when a passive verb precedes; e. g.,

  Kua kainga _e_ te kuri, _was devoured by the dog_.
  Kua kitea _e_ Hone, _was seen by John_.
  Kua patua te ngaru _e_ te ua, _the waves were beaten down by the
    rain_.

When neuter[17] verbs assume the passive form the agent follows, as in
regular transitive verbs, and is preceded by _e_; e. g.

  Katahi ano a kona ka takotoria _e_ te tupeka, _now for the first
    time has that place been laid upon by tobacco_--now for the first
    time has tobacco lain there.
  Kangia _e_ te ahi, _kindled upon by the fire_, i. e. having a fire
    kindled (there).

Verbal nouns, and verbs preceded by such words as _hohoro_, _oti_,
_ahei_, _hei_, _pau_, _taea_, _taihoa_, _taria_, &c., will take _e_
after them; e. g.

  Ngaunga _e_ te ra, _a scorching by the sun_.
  Kua _oti_ te patu _e_ au, _the killing has been finished by me_;
    i. e. I have killed (it).
  E kore e _ahei_ te hapai _e_ ahau, _the lifting cannot be
    accomplished by me_, i. e., I cannot lift (it).

The following, also, are instances in which _e_ is found after the
active verb--after a verb, at least, active in _form_.

  _Me_ wero _e_ koe, _you must stab it_.
  _Me_ wewete _e_ ia, _he must let it go_.
  He _mea hanga_ e to ringaringa, _a thing made by the hand_.
  _Ka te_ arai mai i taku ahi _e_ koe, (a Waikatocism), _(see!) you
    exclude the fire from me_.

I, BY, (follows a neuter verb, no matter whether the agent be animate
or inanimate):

  Kua mate i a Hone, _killed by John_.
  Pakaru i te hau, _broken by the wind_.
  Ka mate ahau i te wai, _I am dead by water_, i. e., I am thirsty.

2. WITH.

  Kia haere atu ahau i a koe? _Shall I go with you?_
  Ka riro mai i a au, _will depart with me_, i. e., I shall take, or
    obtain it.

 NOTE.--In this latter sentence foreigners often make mistakes, and
 render it, ka riro mai _ki_ a au. Wherever _obtaining_, _receiving_,
 _taking_, for possession, or such like, is intended, _i_ mostly
 signifies the _person_, _ki_ the _place_; as in the following
 examples:

   Ka riro to kotiro _i_ te Kainga maori, _your servant girl will be
     taken away by (the people) of the native place_.
   Ka riro to kotiro _ki_ te kainga maori, _your servant girl will go
     to the native place_.

If the following passage were properly and correctly translated, how
different would its meaning be from that intended by the speaker! kia
riro atu ratou i te hunga nanakia, _rescue them out from the cruel
people_. The true meaning of the passage, as it stands, is, _Let them
depart into the power of the cruel_.

3. FROM,

  _I_hea koe? _From whence do you (come)?_
  Ki tetahi rongoa _i_ a Hone, _for some medicine from John_.
  Inoia he ngakau hou _i_ a Ia, _pray for a new heart from him_.

 NOTE.--For the difference between _i_ and _no_ see the latter
 proposition § 4. Under this head may be mentioned a _partitive sense_
 in which _i_ is sometimes taken; e. g.,

   Tangohia _i_ ā Hone, _take some of John's_.

4. TO, (denoting possession, used somewhat similarly to the dative we
find in Latin when _sum_ is used for _habeo_;) e. g.,

  _I_ a au tenei kainga, _this is my farm (or possession)_.
  Kahore he maripi i a au, _there is no knife to me; I have no knife_.

 NOTE.--Beginners are often misled by natives and each other in the
 use of this preposition. Such sentences as the following are
 incorrect, _I_ a koe haere, _go thou_, _I_ a koe korero, _you said_.
 It should be, Haere koe; and, nau i korero.

5. THROUGH, (or in consequence of),

  E kore e tae mai nga raupo _i_ te ua, _the raupo cannot be brought
    here in consequence of the rain_.

6. IN, or AT.

  To tatou matua _i_ te rangi, _our Father in Heaven_.
  _I_ hea tenei e takoto ana? _Where has this been lying? In the
    cupboard._
  E aha ana kae _i_ kona? _What are you doing there?_

7. AT, (past time),

  _I_ te aonga ake o te ra ka haere mai matou, _on the next day we
    came here_.

8. AT, (future),

  _I_ te ra horoi whare ka haere ake koe ki a matou, _on Saturday you
    will come to us_.

9. THAN, (used in comparison); (vid. S. adjectives),

  E rangi tenei _i_ tena, _this is better than that_.

10. Under this head may be classed some instances that cannot well be
reduced to any of the above rules:

  E hara koe _i_ te rangatira noku, _you are not my master_.
  E hara _i_ a koe, (a kind of jocose phrase corresponding, perhaps,
    to that of some in England, _you are a pretty fellow_.)

The following examples seem to be opposed to rule 1, and are therefore
deserving of notice. They are perhaps confined to Waikato:

  Ka timu te tai _i_ a tatou, _the tide for us (to pull with) will
    ebb_.
  Haere mai ki te wahi ruru _i_ a koe, _come to the spot sheltered for
    you_.
  Kei to moe _i_ ona karu, _he is indulging his eyes with sleep_.

In such instances as these, we should regard _i_ as pleonastic,
somewhat like, perhaps, the prepositions _from_ and _in_ of Hebrew and
Arabic.

The student should ever be mindful of the distinction between the
preposition _i_ and the particle by which the accusative, (as it would
be called in Latin,) is denoted. This particle has, of itself, no
specific meaning. In many instances its use is similar to that of
_êhth_ in Hebrew; e. g.,

  A ka kite te Atua _i_ te maramatanga, _and God saw the light_,
    Gen. i. 4.
  Kua whakarere ratou _i_ a Ihowa, _they have forsaken_ JEHOVAH.

It follows an active verb, whereas the preposition follows the neuter,
and signifies _by_. The uses of the two words are totally opposite, as
may be seen in the following example. A young teacher wishing to say,
_sin produces pain_, thus expressed his sentiment: Ko te kino ka
whanau i te mamae. Now, whanau is not an active verb. It is a
participial adjective. It is used correctly in John iii. 8, Whanau i
te Wairua, _born of the Spirit_. The sentence therefore that we have
adduced, if strictly translated, would run thus, _sin is born of, or
produced by pain_.

KI, WITH, (denotes the instrument); e. g.,

  Patua _ki_ te rakau, _beaten with a stick_.

 NOTE.--When used in this sense it very rarely follows neuter verbs;
 for example it would not be correct to say, Ka _wera_ i a au _ki_ te
 ahi, _it will be burned up by me with fire_. Some passive verb, as
 _tahuna_, _&c._ should, in this case precede instead of _wera_. The
 following form, however, is correct:

   E kore e ora _ki_ tena, _will not be satisfied with that quantity
     (of food)_.
   E kore e oti _ki_ tena, _will not be completed_ with _that_.

 Many speakers confound the instrumental character (if we may so
 speak) of this preposition with another use of the word _with_,
 which, we believe, is seldom denoted by _ki_.

 If, for example, we had to translate into Latin the following
 sentence, "to speak with fear;" (i. e. timidly,) how incorrect would
 it be to render _fear_ into the ablative that is used for denoting an
 instrument! All would see that _dicere metu_ does not express that
 meaning, and that _cum metu dicere_, or something to that effect, was
 the true rendering. So also here, wherever _appendage_, _connexion_
 and such like is intended, _ki_ is, we believe, a preposition that is
 very seldom called into use. We therefore disapprove of such a
 sentence as the following:

   Inoi atu _ki_ te ngakau aroha, _pray with a loving heart_.

 It should however be noticed that _ki_ is sometimes found in other
 uses of the word _with_, in which no instrumentality is designed;
 e. g.,

   Taku mahinga ki a koe, _my working with you_; i. e., my work in
     your service.
   E riri ana ki a koe, _is angry with you_.

 This last example, however, might perhaps be most correctly
 translated _at_; as in the following:

   E titiro mai ana ki a koe, _is looking at you_.

 On this use of _ki_ we shall have to remark in the Syntax.

2. TO,

  Ho mai ki a au, _give it to me_.
  Haere _ki_ Manukau, _go to Manukau_.
  Te rohe _ki_ a koe, _the boundary to you_; i. e., for or of your
    side.

3. FOR,

  Tetahi _ki_ a koe, _(fetch) a (garment) for yourself_.

4. AT (past time),

  I tanumia _ki_ reira, _was buried there_.
  I maku _ki_ runga _ki_ te poti, _was wet on board the boat_.

5. AT (future time),

  _Ki_ te mane ka hoe mai, _on the Monday will pull, or paddle, here_.
  Kei roa _ki_ reira, _be not long there_.

6. ACCORDING TO,

  E ai _ki_ tana, _according to what he says_; i. e., as he would have
    it, &c.
  _Ki_ ta ratou, _ki_ taua taro na, he kikokiko, _according to them,
    as concerning that bread, it is flesh_; i. e., they maintain that
    that bread is flesh.

 We would here suggest by way of corollary that in quoting the
 sentiments of any writer, the most appropriate form for the phrase
 "_according to_" would be _ki ta_, as in the above example. Thus _the
 gospel according to St. Matthew_ might be well rendered by "ko te
 rongo pai _ki ta_ Matiu;" _the rule, according to my opinion_, _is_,
 &c., "ko te tikanga, ki taku whakaaro, ko &c."

It is used also where _if_ would be employed in English:

  _Ki_ te haere ahau, _If I go_.

Sometimes (in Waikato) it is used pleonastically:

  Kahore _ki te_ matara to haere mai, _it was not such a
    distance but he might have come_.

Frequently, in consequence of the elliptical character of the
language, it is found in various other uses, which it is difficult to
reduce to rule. The following are a few examples:

  E noho ana koe _ki te_ kai mau? _are you staying_ from _food?_
  Te tatau _ki_ a au, _the door to me_; i. e., open the door for or to
    me.
  Ka riro te waka _ki_ a koe, _the canoe for you will be gone_; i. e.,
    the canoe that is to take you will, &c.
  Heoi ano _ki_ a tame ko te whare, _let the tent be the only thing_
    for _the bull (to carry)_.
  Taria e hoe _ki_ a au, _delay your pulling (or paddling) for me_;
    i. e., wait for me.
  Tikina atu tetahi kete, _ki te_ kete nui, _ki te_ kete hou, _fetch a
    basket_, let it _be a large basket_, let it _be a new basket_.
  I riri ahau ki reira, _thereupon, or at that thing, was I angry_.
  I haere mai ahau _ki a_ koe _ki te_ waka _ki a_ au, _I have come to
    you_ for the _canoe_ for me; i. e., to get a loan of your canoe.

 From the above sentence the student will form an idea of how much the
 business of language is performed in Maori by prepositions.

KEI, AT.--It denotes chiefly present time; e. g.

  _Kei_hea? _Kei_ te kainga. _Where is it? At the settlement._

2. AT. (future time.) It is not unfrequently found in such
constructions as the following:

  _Kei_ te mane ka haere mai, _on Monday he will come here_.

3. Sometimes, in animated language, it is used instead of _ko_ before
the nominative case; e. g.,

  _Kei_ te ringaringa o Ngakete, aroarohaki kau ana, _the hand of
    Ngakete, it was all a quiver_.

4. Occasionally, in Waikato, it is used in the following construction:
kua riro _kei_ te hoe mai, _he is gone to fetch it (the canoe)_. We
are aware that it has been said that there should be a stop at _riro_,
and that properly the above may be said to consist of two sentences,
as follows: _he is gone, he is fetching it_. We are, however, certain
that many sentences will be heard, in which no stop can be detected in
the native pronunciation.

5. Sometimes it is used in the sense of _like_:

  _Kei_ te ahi e toro, _like fire that burns_.
  Koia ano _kei_ te kowhatu, _exactly as if it were a stone_.

NO, OF, (the sign of the possessive case.) In this signification _he_
is the only article that it will admit before it; e. g.,

  He wanaunga _no_ Hone, _a relation of John's_.

The following construction, however, is an exception:

  Katahi ano te potae pai _no_ Hone, _for the first time the good hat
    of John's_, i. e., _what an excellent hat is that of John's!_

 NOTE.--We may here observe that, in denoting the possessive case,
 _no_ follows _he_, and _o_ follows _te_, or nga. The following
 sentence is incorrect:

   Ano he tamariki _o_ te Atua, _as children of God_.

 The _he_ here requires _no_ after it. We shall have occasion
 hereafter (vid. verbs Syntax) to mention an exception to this rule
 which is sometimes heard among the tribes to the southward of Waikato.

2. FROM, (that time),

  _No_ te mane i haere mai ai, _he came here (last) Monday_.

3. FROM, (that cause),

  _No_ reira i kino ai, _from that cause was he displeased_.

 NOTE.--In all examples of this, and the preceding head, _no_ will
 take a past tense after it.

4. FROM, (that place),

  _No_ Matamata tenei tangata, _this man belongs to Matamata_.

 There is a distinction between this meaning of _no_, and that of _i_,
 (vid. _i_. 3.) which is very useful and important. _No_ signifies the
 place to which you belong, whether it be England, Rotorua, &c. _I_
 signifies the place you have been visiting as a mere sojourner.

 Thus if we were to ask a person, "_No_ hea koe?" he would most
 probably reply, "_No_ Hauraki, _no_ Waikato," or some place of which
 he was a denizen; but if we were to ask "_I_ hea koe?" he would then
 mention some place he had been just visiting. This distinction does
 not seem to be so clearly recognized at the northward as it is in all
 the central parts of the island.

NA, OF, the active form of _no_, (vid. Syntax for the distinction
between _o_ and _a_).

  Na wai tena kuri? _whose is that dog?_

2. BY,

  _Na_ Hone i patu, _was beaten by John_.

 NOTE.--Na does not in this sense take a passive after it. It is not
 quite certain that _na_ does, in such sentences as the above, signify
 _by_. The subject will be more fully considered in the Syntax. (vid.
 verbs).

 Na, in this sense, always takes _i_ after it. The following sentence
 is incorrect: Nana hoki _kua_ tohutohu enei mea, _he also has
 appointed these things_. (For _na_ followed by _ka_ vid. _Ma_. 5.)

3. THROUGH or BY (what cause, instrumentality, &c.)

  _Na_ te aha i mate ai, _from what did he die?_

Sometimes, in this use of it, it is followed by a passive voice, with
_ai_.

  _Na_ te aha i pahuatia ai? _for what cause was he plundered?_
  _Na_ te aha i meinga ai? _why was it done?_

Sometimes (but rarely) it is followed by an active verb:

  _Na_ te mea i tuhituhi atu ai au, _the reason of my writing (is
    because) &c._

4. By (place, conveyance. &c).

  _Na_ uta, _by land_.
  _Na_ te kaipuke, _by ship_.
  _Na_ Hauraki, _(went) by Hauraki_.

 MO.--N.B. _Mo_ and _ma_ seem to be future forms of _no_ and _na_ in
 many particulars.

1. FOR or BECAUSE OF, (followed most frequently by a past tense, even
though the meaning be present); e. g.,

  _Mo_ te aha koe i aroha ai ki a te Karaiti? _why do you love Christ?_
  _Mo_ te aha koe i mauahara tonu ai ki a au? _why do you bear a
    continual grudge to me?_
  _Mo_ te tutu ki te kura i whakatikia ai, _for disobedience in School
    were (they) deprived (of them.)_

Sometimes, however, it is followed by other particles:

  _Mo_ te aha _kia_ riri kau? _why should he be angry?_
  _Mo_ te aha koe ka tutu nei kia au? _why are you thus disobedient to
    me?_

2. FOR, (denoting _appropriation_, _use_, or some action passing on to
the noun or pronoun to which it is prefixed):

  Ho mai _mo_ku, _give to me (for my use)_.
  Hei kainga _mo_u, _as a farm for you (or land to reside upon)_.
  He patu _mo_ku, _a beating for me_, i. e., to beat me.
  He raka _mo_ taku pouaka, _a lock for my box_.
  Murua mai _mo_ku, _take it (from them) for me_, i. e., as a thing
    for me, for my benefit, use, &c.

3. FOR (_in exchange_), he utu _mo_ taku mahi.

Sometimes but rarely it is found in the following construction:

  Me aha te utu mou? _what is the payment for you to be?_

4. FOR.

  Whakawateatia he huarahi mo mea ma, _clear a road for our friends_.

5. AT, (future time),

  _Mo_ amua haere ai, _go at a future period_.

6. CONCERNING.

  Nga kupu i korerotia ki a koe mo Tipene, _the report that was
    related to you concerning Stephen_.

 We have observed _mo_ used by foreigners in sentences in which _for_
 would appear to be pleonastic, as _open the door_ for _me_; _dress
 this wound_ for _me_, &c. We have no hesitation however in affirming
 that _mo_ is never used in such a construction.

7. Used with a verbal noun to denote a _preparedness, &c._, for some
future act; e. g.

  _Mo_ nga haererenga ki reira ko era kai, THAT WHEN _I go there,
    there may be food (ready for me)_; i. e. I cultivate at that place
    that I may have food when I visit it. Vid. S.

MA. The active form of _mo_. (Vid. S.) It implies always future time.

1. FOR.

  _Ma_ wai tena kuri? _for whom is that dog?_

2. BY or more strictly, _for_,

  _Ma_ Hone e patu, _let it be killed by John_; lit. let the killing
    be _for_ John.

3. BY, (_what means, &c._)

  _Ma_ te whakapono ka ora ai, _by faith shall (we) be saved_.

4. Sometimes it is used to denote a simple future:

  _Ma_ku e korero, _I will speak (to him.)_

5. It is very frequently employed in _hypothetic_ and _contingent_
propositions; e. g.

  _Ma_ nga Pakeha e tohe, kaua e noho, _If the Europeans press (to
    stop with them) do not remain_.
  _Ma_u e pai ka haere au, _If you please I will go_.
  Haria atu: _ma_na e whakapai, _ma_na e whakakino, _take it (to him):
    (it will be) for him to be pleased with it, (it will be) for him
    to be displeased (with it)_.

A very common way of denoting contingency is to associate _ma_ or _na_
with a personal pronoun, even though the latter have no direct meaning
in the sentence. We give the following sentence in full, that the
reader may better understand our meaning.

  He tangata Atua, ka puta mai ki a ia te kai, ka whiua te tahi ki
    tahaki, hei whakahere i tona Atua, _mana_ ka pau i te kuri ranei,
    _mana_ ka pau i te poaka ranei. _A man who has a God, if food is
    brought to him_ (to the man), _part (of it) is thrown to one side
    as an offering to his God, (as chance may have it) it may be eaten
    by the dog, or it may be eaten by the pig_.
  _Nana_ ka nui te hau, _nana_ ka iti, _even though the wind be
    strong, even though it be light, (still does he carry on.)_

To this interesting point of Maori criticism we shall return when we
treat on the _tenses_; vid. S.

6. BY, (with reference to place or conveyance) in the same sense as
_na_; vid. _Na_. 4.

RA, BY, same as _Ma_ 6; vid.

HEI, AT,--always future, applied to _place, intention &c._

  _Hei_ kona tatari, _at that place stop_.
  _Hei_ reira korero ai, _there upon speak_.
  _Hei_ konei, _be_ (_you_) here;--a farewell.

2. It is often used to denote _purpose_, _object_, _use_, _&c._, where
in English we should use _as_, _to_, _for_, _instead_, _&c._, e. g.

  Haria etahi kanga _hei_ o mou, _take some corn as viaticum for you_.
  _Hei_ aha tena? hei rewa mo te poti; _what is that for? as a mast
    for the boat_.
  Kowai _hei_ tiki? _who is to fetch (it)?_

 Sometimes we hear the following:

   Aua _hei_ pena: _do not so_.

3. Occasionally, but rarely, it is used to denote _frequent action_;
e. g.

  Ko wai _hei_ ruke tonu i nga riwai nei, _who is this that is_
    continually _throwing about the potatoes?_

 NOTE.--A very strange use of this preposition is to be found in some
 parts of the south-eastern coast; as in the following examples:--

   Haere koe hei rakau, _go fetch a stick_.
   Haere koe hei wai, _go fetch water_.

 On the western coast such an address would be a most offensive curse.

O, OF; e. g.

  Te whare _o_ Hone, _the house of John_.

A, OF; the active form of _o_; vid. S.

  Te mahi _a_ Hone, _John's work_.

 N.B.--We sometimes meet with _to_ and _ta_; e. g.

   Ko _to_ Hone ware, _John's house_.

 Such words however are clearly composed of _to_ and _o_, or _a_.

A. (This seems to be different from the article _a_, as also from the
foregoing.)

  AT.--_A_ te mane, _on_, or _at, the Monday_ (we will go,) &c.

KO. (This seems to be different from the verbal particle _ko_;--vid.
_verbal particles_ Syntax.)

  AT.--_Ko_ reira noho ai, _at that place stop_.
       _Ko_ reira korero ai, _then speak_.

TO, UP TO. The following is the only construction in which we have
heard this preposition.

  _To_ nga hope te wai, _the water is up to the loins_.
  Ka _to_ nga uma te wai nei, _the water is up to the breast_.

 N.B.--_To_ almost always takes a plural number after it.

COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS.--One or two examples will be a sufficient
illustration of all.

_Runga_ is capable of the following combinations: I runga i, ki runga
ki, ki runga i, ki runga o, no runga no, no runga i, o runga o, kei
runga kei, kei runga i, hei runga i, hei runga hei, mo runga mo, &c.,
&c. The first preposition in the combination and the meaning of the
sentence will always determine the last.

Sometimes the adverbs _ake_ and _iho_, (vid. adverbs,) as also the
particles _atu_ and _mai_, are postfixed to the prepositions to
increase its force; e. g.

  E ngari tena i runga _ake_, _that which is above (it) is better_.
  A muri _ake_ nei, _hereafter_.

 A very singular use of _roto_ (or _ro_) may be found in the
 neighbourhood of the East Cape: e. g.

   Kei _ro_ whare, _inside the house_.
   Kei _ro_ pouaka, _in the box_.

 A similar use of _waenga_ may be found in all parts of the island;
e. g.

   Kei _waenga_ riwai, _in the midst of the potatoe (field.)_
   Kei _waenga_ mara, _in the midst of the cultivation_.

 Its use however does not extend much beyond those instances.

A very common and elegant use of _runga_ is, when it is employed in
the sense of _amongst_, _on_, or _with_, to denote _concomitancy_,
&c., &c.; as in the following examples:

  I hokona e koe i _runga_ i te he, _you purchased it on a bad title_.
  Kei _runga_ tenei i to mahi, _we are now on the work_; i. e., are
    busily engaged at work.
  E karakia ana i _runga_ i te he, _he worships on sin_; i. e. while
    he worships God he practices sin.

 The preceding examples suggest a good approximation to a form of
 expression which, we confess, we have been unable to find under the
 preposition _ki_; i. e. _with_ noting concomitancy, (vid. _ki_ (1)),
 as in the following examples: "Pray with faith;" "love God with your
 whole heart." In these sentences we should have no hesitation in
 using _runga_.

 A very common form of, we believe, Maori origin, is,

   Kia haere atu te inoi i _runga_ i a te Karaiti, _let the prayer go
     forth upon Christ_.

The other compound prepositions may often be rendered very useful by
giving them, as in the above, a figurative acceptation according with
the nature of the subject. One or two examples will suffice.

_Tua_ is thus employed:

  He tau ki tua, _a year is on the other side; this day year, what a
    long time_ (you intend to be absent)!
  He mate kei tua, _misfortune is on the other side_, i. e. _awaits
    you_.
  Kei tua o te ra tapu nei, _next week_.

The student should carefully remember that _muri_ and _mua_ do not
exactly correspond with _behind_ and _before_ in English, and that
_tua_ is very frequently employed to denote those words.

We have heard the following very erroneous expressions from some old
settlers:

  Tutakina to tatau o te aroaro, _shut the door of the front_, i. e.
    the front door.
  Kei muri i te whare, _behind the house_.

_Muri_ and _mua_ (as well as the substantive _aroaro_) are chiefly
employed in connexion with living objects. When allusion is made to
the date of events, the student will remember that the prepositions
_a_, _mo_, _mo_, _a_, _hei_, _kei_, _ko_, _hei a_ and _ko a_, denote
future time, and that _no_, _i_, and _o_ will always indicate past
time.

These prepositions will sometimes take verbal particles into connexion
with them, and may be frequently found in other forms to occupy the
place of verbs, substantives, and adverbs; vid. ch. 1, § 6. (c), ch.
7. § 1. (b), and ch. 9.

Sometimes we meet with other forms for denoting what would be
represented by a preposition in English. Though their proper place
belongs to the dictionary, we beg the reader's permission to insert a
few here:

  Puta noa i tera taha, _(make its appearance out at the other
    side)_;--_through_.
  A taea noatia tenei ra, { _arrives on to_   }
           or             {       or          } _this day_.
  A tae noa ki tenei ra   { _till it reaches_ }
  A Mangapouri atu ana, _even to Mangapouri_.
  I te takiwa, _(in the interval);--between_.
  I te ritenga atu, _(in the line or direction of);--ante_ and
    _contra--over against_.
  Ki tona aroaro, _(to his front);--before_.
  I tetahi taha ona i tetahi taha, _(on one side, on one side);--round
    about him_.
  Ki tera taha, _(to the other side);--across (a stream)_.

The prefix _whaka_, when in union with a word, will impart the meaning
of _towards_, and change it into an adverb; e. g.,

  Kumea whakarunga, _pull upwards_.
  Haere whaka tepa, _go towards the pa_.
  I hoatu ai e ahau _i whakaaro ki_ tona matua, _I gave it to him in
    consideration of his father; (propter.)_
  Kihai ahau i whakaae, i whakaaro hoki ki a Hone; _I did not assent
    on account of John_; i. e. _for John's sake_.

 The above form deserves, we think, the notice of our Missionary
 brethren as supplying a good approximation to an use of the word
 _by_, which we have not been able to find under the preposition _ki_
 or _mo_, viz., when it is used in _adjuration_. If, for example, we
 had to translate into prose the following stanza:--

   _By_ thy birth, and early years;
   _By_ thy griefs, and sighs, and tears;
   Jesus look with pitying eye.
   Hear, and spare us when we cry,

 we should feel very reluctant to use either _ki_ or _mo_. For, in
 that case, our Lord's hearing would be represented as a thing _to be_
 accomplished, or purchased by himself _with_ his birth and early
 years--a version quite foreign from the original.

 We should therefore prefer something to this effect:--"Whakarongo
 mai, tohungia hoki matou, &c., wakamaharatia tou whanautanga, &c.,"
 or, "kia mahara hoki ki tou whanautanga ki tou taitamarikitanga, &c.,
 &c."

 Some, perhaps, would prefer--"I whanua nei hoki koe i taitamariki,
 &c.;" neither should we object to such a form. All we contend for is,
 that _ki_ and _mo_ will not answer, and that they would often, in
 such kind of sentences, convey very erroneous doctrines.
 Approximation to such a meaning is all we can hope for; and that is
 the best which differs least in _sense_ from the original.

[16] Many of the following remarks belong properly to the Syntax. The
student however will, we trust, find it advantageous to have the whole
subject placed thus, in one connected view before him.

[17] By neuter verbs, here, are intended also participial adjectives.
(Vid. verbs, note, under head "Neuter.")



CHAPTER IX.

OF THE ADVERBS.


The adverbs of Maori may be considered under two heads, _primitive_
and _derivative_.

The _primitive_ are but few in number.

The _derivative_ are very numerous, and may be thus ranked:

1st. Those which require some preposition to exhibit their
application; e. g.,

  _Ki_ hea, _no_ reira.

2ndly. Those which are derived from words of other parts of speech.

3rdly. Those phrases which supply the place of adverbs.

The last class is very large, Maori being deficient in the variety of
adverbs; and though, strictly speaking, most of them cannot claim a
place in this chapter, we shall mention them:

1stly. Because many foreigners are much perplexed from not being
acquainted with them, and

2ndly. Because, being idiomatic phrases, a knowledge of them is of
great importance to the composition of elegant Maori.

 NOTE 1.--Some of the following adverbs might, it will be seen, have
 been easily classified under other heads. It was necessary, however,
 to have a classification, and it is not of much consequence under
 which head a phrase of equivocal character should be classed.

 NOTE 2.--Some of the adverbial particles are fully considered in the
 next chapter.

Adverbs may be reduced to the following classes:--to those of time,
place, order, quantity, quality, manner, affirmation, negation,
comparison, interrogation, and intensity.


ADVERBS OF TIME.[18]

  Aianei,   }
  Anaianei, } _presently_.
  Akuanei,  }
  Akuaina.  }
  _Mo_anaianei, _for this present occasion_.
  _No_naianei, } _now, just now_.
  _I_naianei,  }
  _I_naianei-nei-ano, _at, or since this present moment_.
  Nonai-akenei, _a few minutes_, days, &c., ago.
  A moroki noa nei,                           }
  A mohoa noa nei,                            }
  A tae noa ki,  } tenei ra (lit. until it is } _down to this
    taea noatia, } arrived to this day),      } present time_.
  A, e noho nei, (Waikato), [lit. down to     }
    this (time) in which (we) are sitting.]   }
  Rapua Te Atua i _tona kitenga ai_, karangatia atu _kei_ tata _ana_
    ia, _seek the Lord_ while _he may be found, call_ upon _him_ while
    _he is near_.

_While he may be found_, might also be rendered by _i tona kiteatanga_.

  Ahea? _at what future time?_
  Apopo, _to-morrow_.
  A tahi ra, _the day after to-morrow_.
  A mua, _hereafter_.
  Wawe,                                  }
  E kore e taro, _it will not be long_,  } _soon_.
  E kore e roa, _idem_,                  }
  E kore e wheau, _idem_,                }
  Tenei ake, _(this afterwards,) by and bye, hereafter_.
  Kei taku kitenga i a ia, _when I see him_.
        { ake nei, }
  Tukua {   or     } _(leave hence forward,) hereafter_.
        { atu,     }
  Apopo ake nei, _idem_.
  A muri ake nei, _henceforth_.
  Mo a mua, _at a future period_.
  E takato ake nei, _(it lies hereafter,) henceforward_.
  A, ake, ake, ake, _for ever_.
  Kia mo--ata te maranga, _rise early_; (lit. let the rising be at
    dawn.)
  Ko reira, _on that occasion, then_ (future.)
  Meake, _or perhaps more correctly_ mea ake, _presently, or, was on
    the point of_.
  Kia mea (ka hoki mai au?) _(shall I return) after a little while_.
  Ka mutu, _when finished, by and bye_.[19]
  Ka mea, _after a little interval_, idem; e. g., ka mea ka haere
    ake, _by and bye you will follow us_.
  Nonahea? _since, or at what time (past)?_
  _No_nanahi } _yesterday_.
  _I_nanahi  }
  _No_ } tahi ra, { _the day before yesterday_; (lit. from
  _I_  }          { or on the other day).
  _No_ } tahi ra atu, { _a short time ago_, (lit. from
  _I_  }              { or on the other day besides, or beyond).
  _No_ } mua, _formerly_.
  _I_  }
  _No_ } nanamata, _a long time ago, or in old times_.
  _I_  }
  _No_-tua-iho, _time out of mind_.
  Inamata (_Waikato_) _immediately, directly_, &c.
  E haere ana _tenei_ au, I will go _immediately_.
  Penei _i_ nanahi ka tae mai a Hone ma, _it was this time yesterday
    when_, &c.
  Kia penei apopo ka u, we shall land _about this time to-morrow_.
  No } muri, _afterwards_.
  I  }
  Muri { iho } _afterwards_.
       { ake }
  I  } te aonga ake, _next day_.
  No }
  No te atatu, _early in the morning_.
  No reira, _from that time, occasion_, &c.
  I tenei ra i tenei ra, (lit. this day, this day), } _continually_.
  I te ao i te po, (lit. day and night),            }
  Tena _ano_, do it _again_.
  Ka { turua  } waenga, _at midnight_.
     { turoto }
  _Kahore_ i puta atu te kupu _kua_ whakatika, _I had not spoken_,
    (i. e., _immediately_, as soon as I had spoken) _he arose_.
  Haere _po_, go _by night_.
  Haere _awatea_, go _by day_.


OF PLACE.

  Ko hea, (whea Waikato), _whither_.
  Hei hea, _at what place_ (future).
  _No_ hea, } from what place, _whence_.
  _I_ hea,  }
  _Ki_ ko, _thither_.
  _No_ { ko_nei_,[20]      } from this (and that) place.
  _I_  { ko_na_, & ko_ra_, }
  Kei reira te pakaru kei reira te paru: lit., _there the broken place
    there the repair, wheresoever it is broken there coat with
    raupo_.[20]
  Kei waho e noho ana, _he is sitting outside_.

 NOTE 2. _Ki reira_, _no reira_, _hei reira_, &c., correspond, in most
 cases, with _ki kona_, _no kona_, _hei kona_, with this difference,
 however, that the _na_ and _ra_ follow the rule already noticed. Vide
 _tena_, Pronouns.

  Haere iho te tokitoki, haere iho te tahutahu, burn off the felled
    timber, and _immediately as soon as_ it has been chopped up,
    (lit. go down the chopping, go down the burning).
  Ko te tahutahu ko te ko, ko te tahutahu ko te ko, _immediately as
    soon as_, &c.
  Tokitoki iho, ko atu, _dig it immediately as soon as it is chopped
    up_, (lit. chop downwards, dig forwards).
  Ora noa,                                }
  Me i kotahi, (lit. if it had been one), } _all but_, &c.
  Wahi iti, _a little bit_,               }
  Whano,                                  }
  _He mea tatau a tau_ te utu, the payment is to be a thing
    counted per year; i. e. it is to be rented _yearly_.
  I tenei tau i tenei tau, _yearly_.
  He tau pea mahi atu, he tau pea mahi atu, this (manuring of the
    tree) is, perhaps, _a work of every year_, done _yearly_; kei te
    hauhake riwai, _tuku iho_ kei te kumara, (we) are now (engaged) at
    digging up potatoes, _afterwards_ (we shall be) at the kumara.
  Ka maha nga haerenga, _many have been his goings_, i. e., _he has
    gone frequently_.
  Hoki ake ko aua kupu, hoki ake ko aua kupu, _he repeats the same
    words over and over again_, (lit. return up, those very words,
    return up, those very words).
  Na wai-a, _at length, so it was, it came to pass_.
  Tatari noa, a, _waited a long time_.
  A oti noa, _until finished_.
  Kia tae mai _ra ano_, _until he arrives_.
  _Ka tahi_ ano, _now for the first time_.
  _Ka tahi_ ano he mea pai, _it is a good thing indeed_.
  _Ka tahi_ au ka mea atu, _then I said_.


OF ORDER.

  I noho ai, he hau _tetahi_, he kai kore _ka rua_, _(we) remained
    away 1st, (because of) the wind; 2ndly, (we) had no food_.
  Ka rua aku haerenga, _I have gone twice_, (lit. my goings have been
    two.)
  _Whakatepea_ te ko, kaua e pokapokaia, _dig in regular progression,
    not here and there_, (lit. _ordina fossionem_.)
  Me haere wakatepe te korero, _relate the matter in order_,
    (lit. the speech must go in order.)
  Hurihia _ko roto_, _turn (it) inside out_.
  Hurihia _kotuatia_ te papa, _turn the board on the other side,
    upside down_.
  Matua, (Ngapuhi) _first_; kia matua keria, _let it be first dug_.
  Mataati (Waikato) hopukia mataatitia, _caught first_.
  Kua huri _koaro_ te tangata wero,[21] _the tangata wero has turned
    adversely_.
  Ho mai ki _raro_ nei, _give it down here_.
  Kei haere ki _tawhiti_, _do not go far_.
  Whiua ki _tua_, _throw it to the other side_.
  Neke atu ki tahaki, _move to one side_.
  Kumea whakarunga, _pull upwards_.
  Whakawaho, _outwards_.
  Whakaroto, _inwards_.
  A, _tae noa ki_ te Pukatea, _even to the Pukatea_.
  Haere _iho_, _come down (to me)_.
  Piki ake, _climb up (to me)_.
  Makā atu, _thrown away_.
  Rukea ake e ahau, _thrown away by me_.
  Makā mai, _throw it here_.
  I te tahi taha i te tahi taha, (lit. on  }
    one side, on one side.)                }
  A karapoi noa, (lit. until it surrounds) } _round about_.
  A porowhawhe noa, id.                    }
  A potaipotai, id.                        }
  _Pehea_ te mataratanga? _how far?_
  A, hea atu ra ano? How far _will you go?_
  A, hea _noa atu_, _one knows not where_.
  _Tautauamoa_ rawa tana kai, tana kai, _each man eats_
    separately (i. e., _by himself_.)
  Riri _tautauamoa_, _fighting_, each by himself.
  Kaua e ururuatia te whangai, _don't feed (the child)_ in
    rapid succession, _without any stop_ (tout de suite.)
  _Me whakahipahipa_ etahi rangi, (lit. let some days be made uneven,)
    i. e., _do it every alternate day, or, at irregular periods_.
  Haere _tahi_, _go_ together.
  A, te tukunga iho, (_well, the letting down, at_ last, finally,)
    _i. e., the issue of such conduct_, &c.
  E kore e _roko_ kainga kua ruaki, _he vomits_ immediately, _as soon
    as he has eaten (it)_.
  I te _oroko_hangaanga o te ao, _when_ first _the world was made_.
  _Kati inanahi_ ka haere mai koe, stop yesterday you came here;
    i. e., you started _about this time yesterday_.


OF QUANTITY.

  Ho mai _kia maha_, _give_ abundantly.
  Ho mai _katoa_ mai, _give_ entirely, _or_ wholly.
  _Tena hoki_ te tahi taro, _give me_ also, _or_ besides, _some bread_.
  Ho mai _kia iti_, _give me (let it be little)_, paululum.
  Kia penei, let it be so much.
  Poto _rawa_, _consumed_ totally.
  Koia ano te pai! _how excellent!_
  Ano! &c., idem.
  _Roa poto_ nei ano, (_long short_,) i. e., moderately _long_.
  Kahore _atu_, _no other_ besides.
  Tikina _atu hoki_, _fetch another_ besides.
  I ki mai _ano hoki_ ia, _he said_ moreover.


OF QUALITY.

  Haere tupato, _go_ cautiously.
  _Kia uaua_ ki te mahi, _be strong to work_, i. e., work
    industriously.
  _Kia kaha_ te hoe, _pull (the oar) strong_.
  Noho _whakaaro kore_, _sit without thought_, i. e., thoughtlessly.
  He aha _i aweke ai_ to mahi? _te tuku noa iho te tuku noa iho_, _why
    is the work done_ neatly _and not (rather)_ heedlessly, (lit. and
    not rather let it down in any way, let it down in any way.)
  Haere _wehi_, _go_ fearfully.
  Kai _haere_, _go_ eating, i. e., _eat as he walks_.
  Tu _tahanga_,[22] _stand_ nakedly, i. e., _naked_.
  -- kau, idem.
  Haere _noa atu_, _go_ without guide, fear, &c., &c.
  Tangohia _huhua koretia iho_, _taken_ without cause, i. e.
    causelessly.
  _Ohia noa iho_ au ki te patu, _I struck (him)_ unintentionally.
  E hara i te mea totika, _not intentionally_.
  Patua _maoritia_, _killed_ intentionally, _in the common way_, &c.
  -- marietia, _intentionally_ (sometimes).
  I tukua whakareretia, _let down_ by a dash, not with care.
  _Te kaha_ te tuku, _don't let it down violently_, i. e. do it gently.
  Tukua _marietia_, _let it down_ gently, peaceably.
  _Kia ata_ tuku,    ----        _gently_.
  Kahore ano _kia ata_ maoa, _not_ quite _done_, (i. e. in cooking).
  _Te ata pai marie_ o te rangi i nanahi! _what an exceedingly fine
    day was yesterday!_
  He pupuhi _noa_, _firing_ without an object.
  Tu _kau_ ana, _stand_ empty, idle, &c.
  _Marie_ ano ahau i haere mai ai i ora ai koe, _I have come_
    fortunately, _by which you were saved_; i. e. I have come _just in
    time_ to save you, or, it is well that I came to, &c.


OF AFFIRMATION.

Maori is very well supplied with affirmative and negative particles,
all of which differ by very slight shades of meaning from each other,
and the uses of which will be best learned by practice.

  Ae,[23] _yes_.
  Ina, idem.
  Aana, idem.
  Koia, idem.
  Ae ra, idem.
  Ae ra hoki, _yes truly_, &c.
  Ae ra pea, idem.
  Koia ha hoki, idem.
  Ae ko, _yes (you are correct)_.
  Koia pea, _yes, perhaps_; (sometimes used ironically for a
    negative) _yes indeed!_


OF NEGATION.

Negative adverbs partake of the nature of verbal particles. We have
given some examples of them in chapter vii., (vid. paradigm of the
tenses,) and we shall have occasion also to notice them in the Syntax.

  Hore, _no_; hore rawa, _by no means_.
  Kahore, _not_ and _no_.
  Kaho, } _no_.
  Kao,  }
  Kihai, _not_.
  Kore, idem.
  Tē, idem; tē whakaaro ia, _who did not remember_.
  Aua,   }
  Auaka, } _do not_.
  Kaua,  }
  Kauaka,}
  Kei, _do_ not, and _take care lest_, or _lest_.
  Aua hoki, (used in some parts of Waikato for) _no, no; not at all_.
  E _hara_ koe _i_ te rangatira noku, _you are not my master_.
  Kiano, (Ngapuhi) _not yet_.

Haunga,[24] _not_, (denoting exclusion, or exception); e. g.,

  _Haunga_ tena, _not that, (but the other.)_
  Aratakina mai te poaka; _haunga_ te mea purepure, _lead the pig
    here_; not _the speckled, (but the other.)_
  Kahore haunga, (Waikato) used sometimes instead of _haunga_.
  Aua, }
   &   } _I do not know_.
  Au,  }
  Meho, (Waikato,) } _not at all_, (used in abrupt replies).
  Hori,            }


OF COMPARISON.

  Meatia, { _peneitia_, _do it_ thus,
    or    { _penatia_, } _do it in that manner_.
          { _peratia_, }
  _Penei_, kua ora, _thus, (in that case, if that had been done) he
    would have been saved_.
  _Koia ano_ tena, _exactly so_.
  Me mahi _motuhake_, _work_ separately.
  Haere ana ia, _ko tona kotahi_, _he went by himself,
    alone_.
  Waihoki, _likewise, also_.
  _Ano_ kua mate, as though _he were dead_.
  Me te mea, &c. (Waikato) idem.
  _Koia ano kei_ te wai, exactly as if _it were water_.
  Haere _a_ parera, _walk_ like _a duck_.[25]
  Kia wakatangata nui, _act manfully_.
  Wakatupu tangata, idem.


OF INTERROGATION.

Maori has many particles which indicate interrogation, and which
correspond, in some particulars, with the enclitic particles _ne_ and
_num_ of Latin; e. g.,

  E pai ana? _ne?_ _are you inclined?_ are you?
  Ine, (Waikato,) differs but little in its use from the above.

_Ranei_, _ianei_, _iana_, and _iara_, are always incorporated into the
sentence, and generally denote a question, e. g.,

  E pai ana _ranei_ koe?
  Koia?[26] _Indeed?_ (when used by itself).
  Oti, _else_.
  Na-te-aha? _why?_
  Me pehea? How _must it be done?_

_Ranei_ is very frequently used in the sense of _whether_.

_Ianei_, _iana_, and _iara_, are sometimes pleonastic in Waikato.


OF INTENSITY.

Pai _rawa_, _tino_ tika, _tino_ pai _rawa_, kino _whakaharahara_, tika
_pu_, he _noa iho_, tini _whakarere_, tika _tonu_; all these adverbs
stand for _very_ or some modification of it; e. g.,

  I hoki _rawa_ mai koe ihea? _what is the exact, or last place from
    which you have returned?_
  Pokuru _iho_, pokuru _iho_ te namu, densely _clustered the
    sandflies_.
  Kahore _kau_, _not at all_.
  Haere _ra pea_, _go_ now, _I_ say, &c.
  Haere _ra_, idem.

 Maori, as might be expected in the language of a rude people, abounds
 in adverbs of intensity. We shall have to mention some of these
 hereafter, (vid. adjective, comparative degree, Syntax.) They
 sometimes elegantly supply the place of verbal particles, as we shall
 have occasion to show when we treat on the Syntax of the verbs.

 From the preceding table the student will see that Maori has the
 power of increasing its adverbs to any extent, and that the chief
 process by which a word may be converted into an adverb, is by
 placing it in immediate connexion with the verb or adjective.

 It should, perhaps, be here noticed, 1st, that Maori inclines to this
 mode of construction. Thus, where we should say, _the women and the
 children must all roll the log_; a native would most probably employ
 the adverb; e. g., Huri _tane_ huri _wahine_. Such a mode of
 construction, though loose, is, however, concise and emphatic.

 2ndly. That the adverb, in this case, admits of the same variations
 as the verb--admits of number, voice, and the form of the verbal
 noun. For this, however, vid. Syntax.

 3rdly. That another process for the creation of adverbs is by
 prefixing _whaka_, or _a_ to the preposition, noun, or adverb.

 4thly. That the compound prepositions, especially when _time_ and
 _place_ are denoted, will very often take the adverbial form.[27]

 5thly and lastly. It would be a very useful exercise for the student
 to examine those sentences, the place of which would be supplied by
 an adverb in English, and notice the nature of their construction.
 Some, for example, he will find rendered by the verb, some by the
 verbal noun, some by the substantive in the possessive case, some by
 the pronoun, &c.

 We have dwelt so long upon this subject, that we are unwilling to
 occupy his attention any further with it.

[18] These adverbs of time are arranged according to their times, past
present, and future. For the time of those adverbs which are
compounded with prepositions, vid. the simple prepositions, chapter 8.
The principal compound adverbs are _hea_, _ahea_, _mua_, _muri_,
_amata_, _apopo_, _reira_, _ko_. They are chiefly adverbs of time and
place. As they are of very common use, we shall give examples of their
various combinations. Some of these combinations ought, perhaps, more
properly to be considered as belonging to the class of substantives:

 _A_ hea?
 _Ko_ hea?
 _No_ hea?
 _Na_ hea?
 _I_ hea?
 _Mo_ hea?
 _Ma_ hea?
 _Ki_ hea?
 _Kei_ hea?
 _I_ hea?
 _O_ hea?
 _Hei_ hea?
 _A_ popo.
 _Ko_ apopo.
 _Mo_ apopo.
 _Hei_ apopo.
 _A_ mua.
 _Ko_ amua.
 _Ko_ mua.
 _No_ mua.
 _Na_ mua.
 _I_ mua.
 _Mo_ mua.
 _Mo_ a mua.
 _Ma_ mua.
 _Ki_ mua.
 _Kei_ mua.
 _I_ mua.
 _O_ mua.
 _Hei_ mua.
 _A_ hea?
 _Ko_ ahea?
 _Hei_ ahea?
 _Mo_ ahea?
 _No_ nahea?
 _I_ nahea?
 _A_ muri.
 _Ko_ muri.
 _No_ muri.
 _Na_ muri.
 _I_ muri.
 _Mo_ muri.
 _Ma_ muri.
 _Ki_ muri.
 _Kei_ muri.
 _I_ muri.
 _O_ muri.
 _Ko_ anaianei.
 _Hei_ anaianei.
 _Mo_ anaianei.
 _I_ naianei.
 _O_ naianei.

_Reira_, _ko_ and _konei_, &c., will take the same combination as
_muri_. It will be observed that some of the above adverbs take _n_
between them and the preposition.

[19] _Ka mutu_, and _ka mea_ generally denote future time, and imply a
short interval between the time of speaking and the act. Though the
former _expresses_ an _ending_ of something else, it does not always
_intend_ it; for it is often used when the person addressed is not
engaged at any thing. As there is nothing in Maori corresponding
exactly to the Hebraic mode of phrase which is translated "_it came to
pass_," "_it shall come to pass_," some have adapted _ka mea_ as a
substitute, and in some cases, perhaps, it must stand for want of
better. There are, however, cases in which we think a more correct and
idiomatic form might be adopted; viz.:--a simple _a_, or _nawai a_ or
_tenei ake_, &c. We, for example, should have no scruple in
translating the following sentences "_so it came to pass when all the
men of war were consumed_," &c., nawai a, ka poto nga tangata hapai
patu katoa te mate, &c., "_and it shall come to pass if ye hearken_,"
&c., a tenei ake, ki te whakarongo koutou, &c., "_and it came to pass
when he heard_," &c., a, te rongonga o, &c.

[20] For the difference between _nei_, _na_, and _ra_, vid. pronouns,
page 30.

[21] The _tangata wero_, is the person who advances to meet a party,
and throws a spear at them. If, in turning to retire, he turns to the
side different from that from which the spear was darted, it is a huri
koaro, and a bad omen.

[22] _Tahanga_ is only to be found as adverb.

[23] _Ae_, and _ina_ do not always strictly imply _affirmation_; e. g.,
Kahore he kete? He kete ano; _ae ra_, tikina atu. _Is there no
basket? There is a basket; yes, then, go fetch it._ The word _answer_
in Hebrew, and that corresponding to it in the Greek Testament and
Septuagint, affords, we think, a parallel to this use of _ae_. (vid.
Parkhurst's Greek Lexicon, by Rose.) It is putting a _command_, &c.,
into the form of _an assent_ to some previous sentence.--N.B. _Ina_ is
often used to denote _energy_, _certainty_, &c.; e. g., _ina_ ka riri
au, _certainly_, in that case, I will be angry.

[24] Some, we believe, maintain that the adverb _besides_ should be
always rendered by _haunga_. It is true that, wherever _exclusion_ or
_negation_ is indicated by that word, _haunga_ will generally answer;
e. g., E rua tekau ratou, _haunga_ nga wahine, _they were twenty,
besides (that is not counting) the women_. In the leading sense,
however, of _besides_, viz., that of _moreover_, _addition to_, haunga
will, we are sure, seldom find an use; as in the following examples:
"_Besides_ you know," "nobody thinks so _besides_ yourself," "there is
nothing there _besides_ the box," "_besides_ her he had no child."

[25] Some foreigners, we observe, give this adverb a more extensive
meaning than we have allowed it. In such phrases, for example, as the
following: "Held by the hand," "built by the hand," &c., they would
say "purutia _a_ ringaringatia," "hanga _a_ ringaringa." We are,
however, decidedly of opinion that such expressions are very rare in
genuine Maori. "Purutia ringaringatia, hanga e te ringa," are, we
consider, in every way preferable.

[26] _Koia_, when part of an interrogative sentence, is, as far as we
have observed, (although we are aware that some respectable speakers
of Maori have not followed the rule,) almost always used in
_rejoinder_; e. g., I pehea _koia_ ahau? _what then did I say?_ The
speaker here supposes that the hearer had disputed his statement, and
uses _koia_. _Oti_ is used in a somewhat similar construction with the
meaning of _else_, e. g., He aha oti? _what else then is it?_

[27] It has been objected by a learned friend that the compound
prepositions are more properly adverbs, and that in such a sentence as
"kei roto i te whare," _i_ is the governing preposition, and _roto_ is
an adverb. With all deference, however, to his very superior critical
abilities, we submit, that if a preposition be "a particle denoting
the relation of one substantive to another" then _roto_ is a
preposition; for it clearly indicates a local relation between _roto_
(or _i roto_, if you please,) and the thing spoken of. Those who feel
sceptical on this point, we would beg to examine the composite
prepositions of Hebrew. For example, the Hebrew preposition _under_
(_tahath_) is recognised as a preposition by grammarians, even though
it may require the prepositions _from_ and _to_ in combination with it
to exhibit its meaning. So also, in English, such prepositions as
_according_ to, _out_ at, _out_ of, &c., are not considered as
disfranchised by the supplementary preposition annexed to them. At the
same time it is to be noted, that where there is a break between the
compound preposition and its supplement, then the former must be
considered as an adverb; thus, in the sentence, "Kei raro, kei te
whare," _it is below, it is in the house_; _raro_ is here, as it is in
English, an adverb joined to _is_; the line of connection being broken
by a comma. In such a construction as this, the same preposition that
precedes the compound preposition, (or rather, in this case, the
_adverb_,) must also follow it.



CHAPTER X.

OF THE PARTICLES.


We have thought it better to devote a separate chapter to the
consideration of the following particles of Maori; first, because
those words, though they strongly partake of the nature of adverbs,
are yet sometimes used as conjunctions; secondly, because we are of
opinion that a distinct consideration of them will be the best way to
impart clear and comprehensive views of their nature.

 An accurate acquaintance with these _epea pteroenta_ "winged words"
 of discourse, is in most languages of very difficult attainment: but
 in Maori, particularly, do they require our study; that language not
 conceding to the verb the same prominent place that it occupies in
 other languages, and rather, (as we have already observed,)
 transacting the business of predication by pronouns, particles, &c.

 They are mainly used for embellishing, defining, and impressing a
 sentence, and may, with the prepositions, be justly denominated the
 hinges of Maori.

 To enumerate them all would be an endless task, and perhaps a useless
 one: for, in no part of Maori is there so great a discrepancy in the
 various districts. The following, we think, are the most general in
 use, and most deserving of notice: atu, mai, ake, iho, ai, ano, ra,
 koa, u, hoki, kau.

_Atu_ and _mai_ are, in most respects, exactly opposite; _atu_
indicates an _emanation forth_ of action from--the latter an
_approach_ or _direction_ towards--the speaker.

 E kore ahau e rongo _atu_,     | E kore e rongo _mai_, _will
   _I do not hear_ forth.       |   not hear towards (me or us)_.
                                | E rangona _mai_ ranei tatou?
                                |   _shall we be heard towards (us)?_
 Tu _atu_, _stand out of my     | Kati _mai_ i kona, _stand
   way_.                        |   towards me there_.
 Tikina _atu_, _go there and    | Tikina _mai_, _fetch hence_.
   bring here_, i. e., _fetch   |
   thence_.                     |
 E tatari _atu_ ana matou ki    |
   a koe, _we are waiting       |
   forth to you_.               |
 E kore ahau e kaha _atu_,      | Mau _mai_ ano, _for you truly
   _I shall not be strong       |   hither_, i. e., _it is for you
   forth_, i. e., _shall not    |   to strike the first blow_, &c.
   be able to take it there_.   |

 N.B.--_Atu_ will sometimes lose its peculiar meaning after a verb,
 (vid. verbs, S.) It will also occasionally stand for _other_: Tera
 atu ano, _that is another_; i. e., there are other besides.

_Ake_ and _Iho_. The general uses of _ake_ and _iho_ are, of the
former _up_, and of the latter _down_, to the speaker:

  Haere _ake_, _come up (to us)_.
  Heke _iho_, _come down (to us)_.
  E tu _iho_, _he stands up there_, i. e., _down towards (us)_.
  Te mea e ngangautia _ake_, _the thing about which there is that
    contention below_, (lit. is contended _up towards_ (us)).

Sometimes they will stand, the one for _up_, the other for _down_, to
the object of the action; e. g.,

  E kore ahau e roa _ake_, _I am not tall enough to reach up (to it)_.
  Ho _ake_ ki a ia, _give it up to him_.
  Pataia _iho_ te mate, _ask down (to him) his sickness_.

_Ake_ and _iho_ will sometimes denote _propriety_, _peculiarity_,
_self-existence_, &c.; e. g.,

  Maku _ake_ ano, _for myself alone_.
  Mona _iho_ ano tena, _that is for himself alone_.
  E hara i te toka tu _ake_, _not a rock that has stood of itself_.

_Ake_ will sometimes signify _the other side_ of the speaker, whether
it be _before_, _behind_, _to one side of_, _above_, _below_, &c.; e. g.,
_haere ake_ to a hearer in front will mean come _behind me_: to a
person behind, it will signify come _to my front_.

 N.B.--_Iho_ does not seem to have any corresponding opposite to this
 meaning of _ake_.

Sometimes, also, _ake_ is employed to designate a motion by another
towards some place with which the speaker is in connexion; e. g.,

  Ka mea, ka haere _ake_ ki Waitemata, _follow me by and bye to
    Waitemata_.
  He aha te tikina _ake_ ai he ti ma te turoro nei? _why has not tea
    been fetched (from my residence) for this patient?_
  E puta mai, ka karanga _ake_ ki a au, _when he comes you will call
    to me, (who am now going away)_.

Under these two last rules should, perhaps, be mentioned the following
examples:

  Tangohia _ake_ te ngarara i taku tuara, _take the insect off my
    back_.
  Ma koutou e urunga _ake_, _do you of the bow of the canoe steer_,
    i. e., _so paddle that the stern, where I am, may be directed
    rightly_.

 NOTE 1.--There are other subordinate meanings of _ake_ and _iho_, of
 which examples have been given under the adverbs, and which do not,
 we think, require any further notice.

 NOTE 2.--_Ake_ and _iho_ are often used after verbs, in a manner
 somewhat corresponding to that of the verbal particles. (vid.
 verbs. S.)

_Ai_ is a particle of great use. It is chiefly employed as a
substitute for the relatives _who_, _which_, _what_, and has reference
to the _time_, _place_, _manner_, _cause_, _means_, _intention_, &c.,
of an action; as in the following examples:

  No te ra horoi whare i haere mai _ai_, _started for here on
    Saturday_.
  I tona kitenga _ai_, _when it was seen_.
  Te whare i moe _ai_ ia, _the house in which he slept_.
  Te peheatanga i meatia _ai_, _the way in which it was done_.
  Te take i patua _ai_, _the cause for which he was beaten_.
  Ma te aha e ora _ai_? _by what means be saved?_
  I tuhituhi _ai_ au nau hoki i utu i ena riwai, _I have written to
    you because you paid for the other potatoes_.

Occasionally, however, it is heard as a simple expletive; e. g.,

  I mua _ai_, _formerly_.

2ndly. It is employed with the verbs to denote a _sequence_ and,
occasionally, an _opposition_ of action, and might be translated by
"_and then_," "_to_," and sometimes "_but_."

  Haere, ka hoki mai _ai_, _go, and then return_.
  Haere ki reira noho _ai_, _go there to stop_.
  Kua hereherea, noho _ai_, kawea atu ana ki a te Paki, _she was
    enslaved, and remained such_ for some time, _then was carried to
    Paki_.
  Ko te pa ano tera; noho _ai_ ia ki Horotiu, _that indeed is his
    village; but he dwells at Horotiu_.

 Sometimes, especially at Taupo, and, we understand, at the East Cape,
 _ai_ is often used where the _sequence_ or _opposition_ of action is
 but faintly, if at all, expressed. The following is correct in
 Waikato: E pa, kei hea tetahi wahi mo matou? kokoa kotoatia _ai_ e koe
 te whenua nei, _friend where is there a portion for us? why you have
 monopolized the whole of the land_.

 NOTE 1.--The place of _ai_ may be often supplied by _nei_, _na_, or
 _ra_; e. g., koia ahau i haere mai _nei_.

 NOTE 2.--_Ai_ is often erroneously omitted and erroneously introduced
 by foreigners, and those who wish to propound a statement accurately
 will do well to observe its use.

 For _ai_, as used in connexion with the verbal particles, and the
 verbs. (See Syntax.)

_Ano._ This is a particle much used in assertions and replies. Its
meaning will vary with that of the word to which it is postfixed.

  _Indeed_; Tenei _ano_ nga tangata o toku kainga te mahi nei i te
    kino, Here _truly_ are the people, &c.
  Ko ia _ano_ te tikanga o te aroha, _id_ demum _est firma amicitia_.
  Naku _ano_ taku, _mine is my own_.
  Kati _ano_, _stop I say, (or beg of you)_.
  _Also_; No Waikato ahau, no Rotorua _ano_, _I am from Waikato, from
    Rotorua also_.
  _Only_; Kotahi _ano_ taku, _one only is mine_. (_Anake_ would not
    here be used.)
  _Immediately_, akuanei _nei ano_, now _instantly_.
  _Same_; Ko nga kau _ano_ nga kau, _they are the very same cows_.
  _Different_; He tangata _ano_ tena, _that belongs to another person_.
  _Again_ or _another_; Tikina _ano_, _fetch another_.
  _Same as_; _Ano_ e moe ana, _as if he were sleeping_.
  _Self_; Mana _ano_, _for himself_.
  I whakaae mai ranei? I whakaae _ano_. Was he willing? He was willing.

It is used in combination with other particles, as follows:

  Heoi _ano_, _that is all_.
  _Ano_ hoki, _also_.
  Ra _ano_, _until_.
  Nei _ano_, _this is it, or here it is_, &c.
  Koia _ano_! _how (fine, &c.)!_
  A, e noho nei _ano_? _and is he still here?_
  _Ano ra_, whakarongo mai, _(yes, or no;) but listen to me_; i. e.,
    _I do not deny what you say; only listen to me_.
  Ko tena _ano_ ra, _that one I say, or that also_.

_Ano_, in the beginning of sentences, seems with Ngapuhi to admit of a
wider application than what is generally heard in Waikato; e. g.,
_Ano_ ka tae ki te whare, _and when he came to the house_.

 N.B.--_No_, also, with the same people, seems to admit of a somewhat
 similar application.

_Ra_ is a particle corresponding in its use with _nei_ and _ra_, and
is frequently used to supply the place of the relative _which_; e. g.,

  I kite _ra_ koe, _which you saw_.
  _There_; e takoto mai _ra_, _it lies there_.

It is sometimes used in commands and energetic sentences, for _Then_.

  Haere _ra_, _go then_.
  Heoi ano _ra_, _that is all about it then_.

Often in replies; E pai ana? Ae _ra_.

_Koa_ is a particle used mostly in correcting, &c., another speaker or
oneself:

  E pa, e he ana _koa_ koe, _O my friend you are wrong_.
  Aana _koa_, _yes (you are right)_.

It is difficult to define its meaning in the following phrases:

  Tena }
   &   } _koa_, _shew it here_, or _give it to me_.
  Na   }
  E hara _koa_ (iana or ianei or iara) ra? _what else?_
  E ngaro hoki _koa_ iana, &c., _that, I confess, is_ (_right, wrong_,
    &c.)
  Ra _koa_ ka kai iho ia i te ata o tana kai, _(even though the
    offering be devoured,) still (does the God) eat the shadow of the
    food;--yet, nevertheless_.

_U_ is often used as a mere expletive. Sometimes it has force in
exculpatory sentences; e. g.,

  E taea te aha _u_ ana i te mamae? _how could the poor fellow help it
    from the pain_?

 NOTE.--Though often used as an expletive, _u_ will not, however,
 admit of being thrust into every sentence. Some foreigners seem
 peculiarly fond of using it. The following use of it is, at least in
 Waikato, erroneous: "A he tangata nui hoki a Hone, he rangatira hoki
 _u_ a ratou." We are unable, we confess, to state the meaning of this
 last clause. The speaker, perhaps, intended the preposition _no_ by
 _u a_, "a chief of their party."

_Hoki_; Some of the uses of _hoki_ have been inserted under the
adverbs. We shall give a brief view of the principal of them here. Its
more general uses are, _also_, _for_, _because_:

  _He mea hoki_ ka tae mai ahau, _in consideration of my having come_.
  Koia _hoki_, _yes truly (he is right)_, &c.
  Ina _hoki_, (the same as _mei_ of Waikato,) viz., _as you may judge
    from_.
  Kahore ano i tae mai, _ina hoki_ te pu, te rangona, _he has not
    arrived, as we may judge from the gun, its not being heard_.
  _Nei hoki_, and _na_, or _ra_, hoki; Hopukia te poaka; Kua mau _ra_
    hoki, _oh, it has been caught_.
  Kati te tohe, kua riro atu _nei hoki_ te utu, _cease importuning;
    inasmuch as the payment has been given_.

This form we approve much of for expressing the following: "for the
death of the Lord Jesus Christ," kua mate _nei hoki_, &c., i. e.,
_inasmuch as_, &c.

  Ki te titaha _hoki ra_, _well then, (if you won't give that,)
    give me an axe_.
  Ho mai _hoki_, _give it I say_.

_Kau_; Riri _kau_, _angry without cause_.

  E ngenge ana koe? Ngenge _kau_! _Are you tired? Why should I be
    tired?_ (lit. tired _at nothing_!)
  E mau _kau_ ana te taura, _is_ barely _fastened_, i. e., _it has
    only the name of being fastened_.
  Ka mahi _kau_ ahau, _work_ without nothing.
  Tu _kau_, _stand_ idle, naked, &c.



CHAPTER XI.

OF THE CONJUNCTIONS.


_Me_, _while_; _Me_ te hongi, _me_ te tangi, _and saluting, and
crying_; i. e., _while saluting he is crying_.

 _With_;[28] E mahi ana _me_ te whakaaro ano ki te utu, he is working,
   _and_ is at the same time mindful of payment.

  Inoi atu _me_ te ngakau aroha, pray _with_ a loving heart.
  Haere tahi _me_ ia, went together _with_ him.

 _As_; _Me_ koutou hoki i wakarere i to koutou kainga, _as_ ye also
   left your country.

       { o  }
  _Me_ { &  } mua, _as formerly_.
       { to }
  _Me_ mua,[29] idem.

 _As far as_; _Me_ konei, _me_ Waitemata, _as far as from here to
   Waitemata_.

 _If_; _Me he mea_ e pai ana, _if he is willing_. _Me_ i kahore koe,
   if it had not been for you.

_Ma_, _and_, (a numeral conjunction.) vid. numerals, page 24.

 _Mei_, (Waikato) _inasmuch as, as you may judge from_, (vid. _hoki_.
   Same as _ina hoki_ of Ngapuhi.)

 _Koia_, _therefore_; _koia_ i riri ai, _therefore was he angry_.

_Na_ and _a_. These particles are of very great use in Maori. They
correspond very closely with particle _vāhv_ of Hebrew, and may be
recognised in our translations as occupying the place of _and_,
_then_, _therefore_, _but_, &c. Those who have not access to Professor
Gesenius' Hebrew Lexicon, will, we are sure, read with pleasure his
remarks upon its parallel in Hebrew. "It was a part of the simplicity
of ancient language to mark merely the connexion of ideas, without
expressing those nice distinctions of thought, which are designated by
the use of _causal_, _adversative_, _disjunctive_, and other
conjunctions. The prefix _vahv_ retains this variety of signification,
though other more definite conjunctions are also in use." This is
precisely the case with Maori.

_Ina_, _ua_, (_ana_, Waikato) _when_; _Ina_ korero ahau, _when_ I
speak.

_If_, (occasionally,) chiefly in cases in which contingency is
    attached to _when_:

  Ma wai e whai, _ina_ tere? _who is to follow it, (the canoe) if it
    drifts?_

 _Heoi_ (Ngapuhi), and heoti (Waikato), is a particle which
 corresponds sometimes with _a_, and _na_, in its uses. It generally,
 however, implies opposition, and might be translated by _but_, &c.
 Sometimes also, it has the meaning of _so_, _then_, and sometimes,
 (particularly in Waikato,) it is, in the end of sentences, redundant.

_Ara_, _and then_, &c.; e. g.,

  _Ara_ te meatanga atu a Hone, _and then John replied_.

 NOTE.--This particle is very often used as an adverb for videlicet,
 forsooth, &c.

  Mo, } reira.
  No, } for that cause, therefore.[30]
  Na, }
  Mona i tahae, _because_ he stole.
  Inake ano, _Inake ano_ i kore ai e tupu, _a good reason_ indeed why
    it did not grow (_thence, from that cause_.)
  Ina whai ano (Waikato), idem.
  Otira,           }
  Otiraia,         }
  Ia,              } _but_, and _nevertheless_.
  Raia,            }
  Atiia, (Waikato) }
  Huatu,                   }
  Kaore, and kahore,       }
  Tena ko tenei,           } All these belong to the adversative
  Tena, } (_sometimes_)    } class, and denote _but_ with some
  Ko,   }                  } peculiarity however of the meaning and
  E ngari, } (_sometimes_) } construction which can only be learned
  E rangi, }               } by practice.
  E ngaro,                 }
  E ao ia,                 }
  Ahakoa; _although, ahakoa_ roa noa te tohe e kore e marere,
    _although you importune long it will not be granted_.

 NOTE.--Ahakoa will almost always precede in the sentence, e. g., The
 following "though we were sinners he loved us," should thus be
 rendered _ahakoa_ hara noa tatou arohaina ana tatou e ia.

Following are a few examples of phrases which supply the place of
conjunctions:

  _Ki te_ kahore e pai, _if_ he is not pleased.
  _Ki te wa_ haere, _if_ you go.
  _Ka pa_ nau, _if_ it had been yours.
  _Ka pa tao_ (Ngapuhi) or tau (Waikato) na tatou, _if_ it had been we
    that had done it.
  Patu, ka aha? _If_ I beat him, what better will he be? lit. beat
    him, what is (effected?)
  I tika ano i a au, _titiro ana_ koe wahia iho, _I had put it all to
    rights_, and you go _and break it in pieces_.
  E korerotia atu ana, e whakatika mai ana, _he is spoken to, he rises
    up_, i. e., _when_ I speak to him, he rises up against me.
  _Pera hoki me_ Hana e whakatoi nei, _just as Hana teases_.
  _Mana_ ka tika, _mana_ ka he, _even though_, (no matter whether,)
    _it be right or wrong_.
  Ko reira, _then_.

The particle _ai_ is very useful in supplying the place of
conjunctions. (Vid. our remarks on it.)

[28] This particle will often supply a good substitute for _with_,
when it denotes connexion, &c., a meaning which we believe to be but
seldom expressed by _ki_. (vid. prepositions, page 55.)

[29] Some foreigners, we observe, use _me i mua_; this, however, is
decidedly erroneous.

[30] The learned student will, however, notice that these words, as
well as _keia_, are only prefixed to conclusions which are the
_natural and necessary effect_ of a preceding proposition. For
example, we might use _mo reira_, &c., in such a sentence as the
following: "Men are sinners, _therefore_ men are exposed to the wrath
of God:" because the preceding proposition is clearly a _cause_ of the
latter.

We could not, however, use any of them in such propositions as the
following: "the Tohungas are liars, _therefore_ the New Zealander
listens to liars;" "the Sun shines, _therefore_ the sun is a luminous
body;" "man is an animal, _therefore_ man has sensation;" because it
would not be true to say, that, because the Tohunga is a liar, he is
therefore listened to; because the sun shines it is luminous; or,
because man is an animal he has sensation.

Wherever, then, the connection with the preceding proposition is
either _accidental_ or _abstract_, we must have recourse to other
words, such as _na_, _a_, _ra_, _pea_, &c., and these are largely used
in our translations. (vid. Mat. 5, 37--24--42, and N. T. _passim_.)

The affirmative particles _ina_ and _ae ra_ will often supply a good
substitute, and will perhaps be logically correct. For the conclusion
is the proposition that we _in principio_ affirm to be true, and
having proved it, we then authoritatively pronounce it to be so. (vid.
our remarks on _ae_, &c., note, under adverbs of _affirmation_.)



CHAPTER XII.

OF THE INTERJECTIONS.


Maori abounds in interjections. The following are the most common. It
will be seen in this part of speech that there is a considerable
variation in the different tribes.


INTERJECTIONS.

  _For calling to another person near at hand_, Ou! Ou!
  _For reply to recall_, O, (in a falsetto tone).
  _For drawing attention to statements, things_ &c., &c.
    Inana! irara! ira! (Rotorua).
    Aiaiai! (Taranaki).
    Rere! Ere! nene! re! (Waikato).
    Nana! (Ngapuhi).
  _For exciting attention_, rara! (Waikato).
  _Disapprobatory_, E, e! He! hi! ha! aeha! ārārā.
    Ata! (Ngapuhi) Ae!

Exclamations made when it has been found that the speaker was correct,
(corresponding to _ah_, _you see!_ _yes_, _to be sure_, &c.) Na ra
nei? Arără! haka! (Waikato,) aheiha (Ngapuhi,) ae ra hoki. That
expressive of gratification at some misfortune having befallen
another; Kaitoa!

  _Of salutation to visitors_, Haere mai, haere mai!
    Tauti mai, (Waikato). Nau mai, (Rotorua).
  _Salutation of one meeting another_, Tena ra ko koe! or, Tena koe!
    (lit, _that is you_).
  _In reply to a salutation_, Ko koe ra! It is you!
  _Of farewell_, Hei konei, _stop!_ Haere, go! E noho! ne? _Remain!
    Will you?_
  _Of wonder_, Aue! Eue! (Waikato) Taukiri e! A! He inati! (Waikato).

Besides these there are phrases which are often used as interjections;
e. g.,

  _Ka tae_ taku matua, &c.! _Bravo, my father_, &c., corresponding to
    our _thank you_.
  _Ka tae_ he mamahi mau! _what heavy work for you_.
  _Tauhou_ ki a Hone! (lit. _stranger to John!_) _Oh yes, Mr. John_.
  Ka mahi a Hone, idem.

Maori delights in interjectional and ironical sentences, and the
student who desires to be a good speaker should pay them much
attention, and study also to catch the tone of voice, &c.

Some, who have not noticed them, have turned an exclamation into a
question, and thus altered the meaning of the sentence. "How many pigs
of John have better food than I!" we have heard thus translated, E hia
ranei nga poaka a Hone he pai ke ta ratou kai i taku, &c.? The
translation here obviously differs from the original. It should have
been, _Ano te tini_, or _tini noa iho_, or _ka tae te tini_, or _kia
tini_, _na_, (or _ano_) _te tini_, or _he tini nga poaka_, &c.

And here we may observe that, in translating from another tongue into
Maori, it would be perverting all use of language to render by merely
a verbal correspondence, without any regard to the meaning; and that,
in these idiomatic phrases, it would be best, unless we wish to
establish the maxim of the French statesman,[31] "that language was
merely intended to conceal our feelings," to make our author employ
those corresponding expressions in Maori which he would most probably
have used had he been speaking in that language.

We may observe, in conclusion, that Maori has no good form for such
optative interjections as _would that_, &c. There is, it is true, a
kind of substitute; but it cannot be expressed by our present
alphabet. It is formed by a sharp smack of the tongue against the
palate, and _na_ pronounced after it. The best form, for the present,
is, perhaps, _me i_, with a peculiar tone of voice; e. g., _Me i_ kite
ahau ia ia! If I had but seen him! or would that I had, &c.

[31] The Abbé Talleyrand.



CHAPTER XIII.

OF THE SYNTAX.


PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

Before we proceed to the consideration of the Syntax of Maori, it will
be necessary 1st. to explain some terms which we shall be obliged to
employ, and 2ndly, to make a few remarks on the general features of
Maori sentences. Some further remarks on this subject, we shall
reserve till we come to treat on the verbs.

The _subject_ of a proposition is that concerning which anything is
affirmed or denied. The _predicate_ is that which is so affirmed or
denied of the subject. Thus, in the following sentence, Kua mate a
Hone, _John has died_, _Hone_ is the subject, and _mate_ is the
predicate.

 NOTE.--We can scarcely recognize the verbal particles as copulas. We
 believe that their exclusive use is, to denote time.

Propositions, or sentences, we divided (page 37) into _simple_ and
_compound_. Another division is here necessary; viz., into _complex_
and _incomplex_. An _incomplex proposition_ is that whose subject and
predicate are simple terms; e. g., He hoiho tenei, _this is a horse_.

A complex proposition is that which contains some qualifying, or
otherwise modifying, term in connexion with either _subject_ or
_predicate_; e. g., I mate a Hone _ki reira_. _Ki reira_, here,
qualifies the predicate _mate_. He tokomaha nga Pakeha i Akarana,
_many are the foreigners in Auckland_. Nga Pakeha i Akarana is the
_subject_, and tokomaha the _predicate_.

He aroha no te Atua i ora ai tatou. This placed in due order, is "I
ora ai tatou, he aroha no te Atua," _we having been saved was a love
of God_. Here, _I ora ai tatou_ is the subject.

Ko tou utu tena mo to hanganga i te whare? _Is that your payment for
your having built the house?_ Here, we conceive, _ko tou utu mo to
hanganga i te whare_ is the _subject_, and _tena_ the _predicate_.

 In examining the nature of Maori propositions, the student will soon
 notice that they are characterized by a remarkable _brevity_ and
 _abruptness_, as well as by the frequent occurrence of ellipses. As a
 New Zealander is generally unequal to a train of consecutive thought,
 so also is his language inadequate to exhibit with accuracy the
 various processes of the civilized intellect, such as comparing,
 abstracting, &c., or indeed any ideas beyond the simple and
 monotonous details of his daily life. It is, if we may so speak, an
 animated sketching, intended for general effect, the more delicate
 lines being but faintly touched.

 The student has already seen that Maori is defective in particles of
 _illation_, _comparison_, and _copulation_. The want of a verb
 substantive, which is so useful as a _copula_ in other languages,
 will often, where accuracy is desired, cause both clumsiness and
 obscurity of construction.

 The process by which a New Zealander constructs his sentences, is very
 similar to that of a child who is just beginning to speak. For
 example: if the latter wishes to express, "Is that a horse?" "Give me
 some bread," he will, most probably, say "a horse that?" "me bread."
 He has the ideas of _himself_ and _bread_, and, by pronouncing the one
 in immediate succession after the other, attempts to convey the idea
 of their mutual connexion. So also will Maori, when it wishes to
 express the dependence of two or more ideas on each other, place them
 in close connexion, as distinct existences, and leave the hearer to
 deduce their intended relations. From hence it may, _a priori_, be
 collected. 1st. That Maori inclines to the _substantive form_. 2ndly,
 That it will have a peculiar tendency to the _indicative mode of
 statement_. 3rdly. That it delights in short sentences. 4thly. That it
 will often, in consequence of the frequent occurrence of ellipses,
 present constructions which will appear _strange_ to the student of
 only polished languages, and even occasionally seem to defy analysis.
 5thly, That the clauses of the sentence, will, like its words, be
 often thrown together without any connecting particles, and that we
 shall often notice in their construction a frequent occurrence of
 _epanorthosis_.

 On some of these heads we shall have to remark hereafter. The
 last-mentioned feature is, however, of such importance in the
 investigation of some of the difficult points of Maori, that we must
 beg the student's leave to bring it here prominently before his
 notice.

_Epanorthosis_ is a figure of frequent occurrence in all languages,
but particularly in those of the East. It is "the qualifying a former
clause by the addition of another"[32] e. g., Ka tae te hohoro o ta
tatou kai, _te pau_! what great haste our food has made; (I mean) _the
being consumed_. Here _te pau_, is a clause qualifying the preceding;
e rua tahi enei, _he roa kau_, there are two here, _nothing but long_;
ringihia mai, _kia nohinohi_, pour me out some, _let it be little_,
(i. e., pour me out a little); e rite tahi ana ia kia koe, _te ahua_,
he is like you, (I mean,) _the countenance_; no reira a Ngatihau i
tino mau ai, _te karakia ai_, that was the cause why Ngatihau were
quite established, (I mean,) _the not adopting Christianity_. I riri
au kia ia, _kihai nei i whakaaro_, I was angry with him, (I mean,) _he
did not exercise thought in that matter_. Ko te tangata tenei, nana
nga kakano, this is the man, _his are the seeds_; (i. e., _this is the
person whose are_, &c.) He aha tau e mea, what is yours (actively) (I
mean,) _are doing_? i. e., _what are you doing?_ Haere ana Hone, me
tana hoiho. Ka puta pea tena ki raro, _e tihore ana_. So John started
and his horse. He has perhaps reached to the northward, (I mean,)
_is peeling_, (i. e., going along at a peeling, or rapid rate).

 6thly. The student may be prepared to find the defect of the verb
 substantive supplied in various ways in Maori--by the article, the
 pronoun, the preposition, the adverb, and the verbal particles.
 Instances of ellipsis he will find in almost every page--ellipsis of
 the verb, of the noun, of the pronoun, &c., and, particularly, in our
 illustration of the preposition _ki_.

 As distinctions between gender, number, case, and person, are very
 rare in Maori, and as, moreover, a main business of syntax consists
 in the adjusting of their several claims, we may hope that our work
 here will be neither complicated, nor extended.

[32] "Est sui ipsius quasi revocatio, qua id, quod dictum est, e
vestigio corrigitur."--Glass. edit Dathe, page 1350.



CHAPTER XIV.

SYNTAX OF THE ARTICLE.


1. _Ko_ is never used before appellatives without either _te_, _te
tahi_, and its plural _e tahi_, or one of the possessive pronouns
intervening, and it is almost always found to occupy the first place
in the sentence; e. g.,

  _ko_ taku tamaiti, _this is my child_.
  _ko_ e tahi kua kitea, _some were seen_.

2. In this position a very common use of it is, to imply the verb
substantive.

3. The article _he_, it will be seen, does not require its help for
such a purpose; e. g., _he_ rakau tenei, _this is a tree_; _he_ mate
toku, _a sickness is mine_, i. e., I am sick.

4. All the functions of _a_ (vid. page 13) are performed by _ko_, when
the noun, &c., to which it is prefixed, precede in the sentence; e. g.,

  _Ko_ koe te haere, _you are the person that is to go_.
  _Ko_ runga kau i kainga, _the tops only were eaten_.

5. Sometimes it will be found in other parts of the sentence, (_a_)
when the terms, of which the sentence is composed, are convertible,[33]
or are intended, at least, to be represented as similar; e. g., _ko_
te timunga atu o konei _ko_ te pakeketanga o waho, _the ebbing of the
tide from here is low water outside_.

  Me he mea _ko_ Pahuru _ko_ Ngakete, _if Pahuru had been Ngakete_, &c.
  _Ko_ au ra _ko_ ia, _I and he are (one.)_

(_b_) Sometimes, also, when there are two subjects of which the same
thing is affirmed, _ko_ will be prefixed to both; e. g.,

  _Ko_ Kukutai _ko_ te Wherowhero, rite tahi raua, _Kukutai and
    Wherowhero, they are equal both of them_.

6. It will be seen in the above example that _ko_ will sometimes
represent _and_; e. g., e takoto nei _ko_ te pihi _ko_ te poro, _it
lies here, both the piece, and the end (of the bar of soap.)_

7. Very frequently, also, _ko_ may be denominated "the article of
specification and emphasis;" e. g., _Noku_ tena paraikete, _that
blanket is mine_; _ko_ taku paraikete tena, _that is my blanket_. The
former of these two sentences implies that the blanket is his
property; the latter denotes the same thing, with some further
specification; as being, for example, one that had been previously
_described_, _worn_, &c.

Again, _ko_ Hone i haere, _John went_.

  I haere _a_ Hone, _idem_.

 Here also, there is, we think, a difference. The latter sentence
 merely says that John went; the former that John, as
 _contradistinguished_ from some one else, was the person who went;
 literally, _it was John (who) went_.

8. Sometimes also, in animated description, _ko_ will follow the verb;
e. g., na ka hinga _ko_ Haupokia, na ka hinga _ko_ Ngapaka, _then fell
Haupokia, then fell Ngapaka_.

9. _Ko_ will generally be prefixed to the subject,[34] e. g., _ko_ ta
te tangata kai _he_ poaka, _he_ riwai, _he_ aha, _he_ aha, _the food
for man is pork, potatoes, et cætera, et cætera_; _ko_ Oropi _te_
whenua taonga, _Europe is the land of property_.

 N.B.--There are some exceptions to this rule, especially when tenei,
 &c., are employed. (vid. etiam rule 5.)

10. _Ko_ is always prefixed to every title or name of men or things
which stands alone without the verb; e. g.,

  "_Ko_ te karere o Nui Tireni," _the (Newspaper) the Karere o Nui
    Tireni_.
  _Ko_ Hone, _here is John, or, John_.

 NOTE.--Occasionally we meet with an exception to this rule, in
 emphatic, elliptical, and complementary clauses; e. g., in taunting;
 tou ngene, _your ngene_[35]; taku tirohanga, _my looking_, i. e.,
 _when I looked_. Ka whati tera, te pa, _that was discomfitted, the
 pa_. Vid. our illustrations of _Epanorthosis_ in _preliminary
 remarks_, page 104.

11. It is sometimes used in elliptical sentences like the following: E
pai ana ano; _ko_ te maeke ra, _we are willing; but the cold_, i. e.,
_we should be glad to go only for the cold_; Haere ana ia, _ko_ tona
ko tahi, _he went by himself alone_.

 NOTE.--It may be seen in the above example that ko is sometimes used
 for _but_; so also in the following: Me he mea ko te Paki, e rongo
 ratou; _ko tenei_ e kore e rongo, _if it had been Paki they would
 have listened_, but _as for this, they will not listen_.

12. In connexion with the two preceding rules, we may observe, that ko
is almost always prefixed to the nominative absolute; e. g., _ko taua
kupu au_, e kore e rangona, _as for that word of yours, it will not be
listened to_.

  _Ko te hunga whakapono_, ka ora ratou, _believers, they will be
    saved_.

 N.B.--In some districts the ko is omitted under this rule.

13. _Nga_ we have designated as the plural of the _definite_ article
page 12. The student will therefore remember that it does not
recognize the rules _a_, _b_, _c_, _d_, _e_, mentioned under
_te_--pages 10 and 11.

14. _The omission of the article._

There are some cases in which no article is prefixed to the noun,
(_a_) when the noun follows immediately after the verb; e. g.,
Whakamate tangata, _murderous_; (vid. compound words page 17.) Haere
po, _go by night_.

(_b_) Nouns preceded by the adverbial particles _a_ and _tua_; e. g.,
tatau _a tangata_, _count man by man_.

(_c_) When a possessive pronoun is associated with the noun; ho mai
toku kakahu, _give me my garment_.

 NOTE.--It is, however, highly probable that the singular possessive
 pronouns, (vid. page 29.) are compounded of the article _te_, and the
 plural form _oku_, &c., and that _oku_, _aku_, _ona_, &c., are
 compounded of _o_ and _a_, and the personal pronouns _ahau_, _koe_,
 _ia_: these pronouns assuming the forms of _oku_, _ou_, _ona_, &c.,
 when in connection with _o_, and _a_; in the same way as they adopt
 the form of _mona_, _nona_, &c., when in combination with the
 prepositions _mo_, _no_, &c., &c. (vid. our remarks on noku and maku
 page 22, and _tenei_, &c., page 31.) Sometimes, indeed, we find the
 singular possessive pronouns thus resolved; e. g., kei _tenei_ taha
 _oku_, on this side _of me_. If it had not been for _nei_ the speaker
 would have said _to_ku taha. The _nei_ however attracts the _te_, and
 thus resolves _toku_ into its component parts.

15. _He_ differs in its uses from _te tahi_ and _e tahi_.

(_a_) _He_, of itself, often implies the verb substantive. (Vid.
  rule 3).

(_b_) _He_ is very seldom found after a preposition. It is almost
always found in the nominative case after the substantive verb; e. g.,
he tangata tenei; he kino kau koutou.


 Thus it would not be correct to say, I kainga, e _he_ kuri, it was
 eaten by a dog; hei tiki i _he_ rakau, _to fetch a stick_. It should
 be e _te_ kuri, i _te tahi_ rakau.

 NOTE.--_He_ is sometimes found after _ma_ and _na_, e. g., nana i
 homai _he_ paraikete i mahana ai au. We believe, however, that this
 exception to rule (_b_) is only apparent, and that _he waka_, here, is
 the nominative case. (Vid. _Verbs_.)

16. _A._ A strange use of _a_ is sometimes met with in Waikato. When
two nouns follow each other in apposition, _a_ is sometimes prefixed
to the latter; e. g., Ka noho atu tera i te kai mana _a_ te kahawai,
_he indeed will remain away from the food for him!--the kahawai!_

E hoe ana ki Akarana, ki te kai mana _a_ te paraoa, _he is paddling to
Auckland for food for himself--flour_.

Sometimes it occurs in sentences like the following, Na wai tenei
haere _a_ te po? _Whose going is this_, (I mean,) _in the night?_
i. e., _who ever goes by night?_

(_b_) A personal pronoun following the verb in the nominative will
very seldom take _a_ before it; e. g., Whakangaromia iho _ratou_. It
would not be correct to say _a_ ratou.

 To this rule there are a few exceptions, e. g., tu ana ratou, _a_ ia
 tangata _a_ ia tangata, _they stood each man_.

(_c_) Proper names are not subject to the above rule; e. g., it would
not be correct to say, Whakangaromia iho _Ngatipaoa_. It should be _a_
Ngatipaoa.

(_d_) When a question is asked in reference to a preceding remark, _a_
will precede the pronoun, e. g., E ki na koe. _A_ wai? A koe ra, _You
assert--who? You, forsooth_.

17. The articles, definite and indefinite, are always repeated in
Maori, as in French, before every substantive in the sentence; e. g.,
Ko _te_ whakapono _te_ take o _te_ aroha, raua ko _te_ pai, _faith is
the root of love, and good works_.

18. Adjectives used substantively require the article; e. g., _He_
tika rawa _te_ he ki a ia, _the wrong is perfectly right in his
opinion_.

19. Frequently, also, the article is prefixed to what would be a
participle in English; e. g., Kei _te noho_, _he is at the sitting_,
i. e., _he is sitting_; ka tata _te maoa_, _the being cooked is near_.

 NOTE.--It is, however, probable that all such words as noho, &c.,
 should, in constructions like the above, be regarded as substantives.
 We shall have to treat on this hereafter. (Vid. _Verbs_.)

 NOTE 2.--Further remarks on the articles we shall reserve to the next
 chapter.

[33] Convertible terms, we need not remind the learned reader, are
those, the meaning of which is so similar, that they may be
substituted one for the other.

[34] The learned student will here see that Maori has, in this
respect, the advantage over Hebrew; confusion often occurring in that
language from the want of some means for determining which is the
subject and which the predicate.

[35] Ngene is a scrofulous tumour.



CHAPTER XV.

SYNTAX OF THE NOUN.


§ 1.--_Nouns in Apposition._--These were partly considered in the last
chapter, and we now proceed to offer further remarks respecting them:--

When one or more nouns follow another in apposition, and are equally
definite in meaning, the same article that is prefixed to the first
will be prefixed to all the rest; e. g., _He_ tangata kino koe, _he_
tangata kohuru, _you are a bad man, a murderer_; _ko_ au tenei, _ko_
tou matua, _this is I, your father_; mau mai _taku_ pu, _tera_ i roto
i te whare, _bring here my gun, that in the house_.

 The following sentences are erroneous:--Tenei ahau, _ko_ to koutou
 hoa, te mea nei, _this is I your friend, who says_, &c.; Tiakina to
 tatou kainga, _ko_ Waikato, _take care of our settlement, Waikato_;
 the _ko_ should have been omitted in the former sentence: instead of
 the _ko_ in the latter, we should have had _a_. Proper names, and
 pronouns, will only take their proper articles; e. g., Nohea tenei
 Kingi _a_ Parao? _whence was this King Pharoah?_

 N.B.--There are exceptions to these rules. Some of them will be
 mentioned under the next head.

§ 2.--The preposition, which is prefixed to the first of two or more
nouns in apposition, will be prefixed to all the rest; e. g., _Naku_
tenei pukapuka, _na_ tou hoa, _na_ Tarapipipi, _this letter is mine_,
(i. e., was written by me,) _your friend's, Tarapipipi's_: kei nga
Pakeha _ta_ matou whakaaro, _ta_ nga tangata Maori, _with the
Europeans are the sentiments of us, of the New Zealanders_.

The same usage holds in the vocative case, _E_ hoa, _E_ Hone, _Friend
John_.

 The following examples will shew that this rule, which seems as yet
 to have escaped the notice of foreigners, is worthy of attention; a
 ka kite i a Hone _te_ tamaiti a Hemi, _and he saw John, the son of
 James_. The meaning of this, as it stands, is, _the son of James saw
 John_. Kei a koutou, _nga_ tangata Maori, _in the opinion of you the
 New Zealanders_. This literally means, _the New Zealanders are with
 you_. In the first of these two sentences it should be, _i_ te
 tamaiti, &c., in the second, _kei_ nga tangata Maori. Again; kua
 kainga e koutou, te kura, _it was eaten by you, the school_. The
 literal meaning of this is, _the school have been eaten by you_. Kua
 kainga e koutou _ko_ te kura, _it has been eaten by you the school_.
 As it stands, it means, _it has been eaten by you and the school_.
 Again, if we were to say, "Na Ihowa to tatou Atua, nana hoki tatou i
 whakaora," we should imply that _our God was made by Jehovah, and
 that it was he who saved us_. It should be, Na _to tatou Atua_.

 There are however occasional exceptions to this rule, which it will
 often be useful to remember; (_a_) when brevity of diction is desired
 both preposition and article will be sometimes omitted before the
 second substantive; e. g., i rokohanga atu e ahau ki _Mangere_,
 _kainga_ o te Tawa, _(he) was overtaken by me at Mangere, (the)
 settlement of Tawa_; i rongo ahau ki a Koiunuunu, _hungawai_ o
 Panaia, _I heard it from Koiunuunu (the) father-in-law of Panaia_; na
 te Riutoto, _whaea_ o Paratene, _it belongs to Riutoto (the) mother
 of Broughton_. When a pause, also, is made between the two
 substantives, the preposition will be _sometimes_ omitted before the
 second; e. g., kei te kainga o te Wherowhero, _te_ rangatira o
 Waikato, _at the Settlement of Wherowhoro, the Chief of Waikato_. E
 pa, kua kite ahau i a koe--_to_ mamingatanga hoki ki a au! _Friend, I
 have found you out, your bamboozling of me forsooth._

 N.B.--This distinction is very similar to that which obtains in
 English for the regulating of the sign of the possessive case. In such
 sentences, for example, as the following, "for David, my servant's
 sake," we should always have the sign of the possessive annexed to the
 latter noun; because it follows the preceding one in close and
 unbroken succession. In the following however--"This is Paul's advice,
 the Christian Hero, and great Apostle of the Gentiles," the sign of
 the possessive is omitted; because the connexion between _Paul and
 hero_, is not so immediate as in the preceding example. So, also, in
 Maori; when the latter noun follows in a complementary clause, as
 descriptive, or explanatory of the former, and has thus a pause, or
 comma, intervening, it may _occasionally_ dispense with the
 preposition by which the former noun is preceded.

§ 3. And we may here state, that clauses in _epanorthosis_ will
frequently reject those rules of government which they, under other
circumstances, would have recognised; and that they will often rather
partake of the nature of an exclamation, (vid. chapter 14, § 10,
_note_.) Thus in the example just adduced, _to mamingatanga_ is not in
the objective case, as is _koe_ in the clause preceding. It would
appear that after the speaker had said, _Kua kite ahau i a koe_, he
recollected himself, and exclaimed, in explanation,--_to mamingatanga
hoki_. In a leisurely constructed sentence he would most probably have
said, "_Kua kite ahau i a koe_, i _to_," &c. Again, in the first
example of _epanorthosis_ (page 104), _Ka tae te hohoro o ta tatou
kai, te pau!_ a native would not say, _o te pau_, as strict grammar
requires; but rather puts _te pau_ in the form of an exclamation.

§ 4. The answer to a question will always, in its construction,
correspond to the question; e. g., _Na_ wai i tango? _Na_ Hone, _Who
took it? John_. _I_ a wai taku pu? _I_ a Hone, _With whom was my gun?
with John_.

§ 5. There is no form in Maori corresponding to that contained in the
following expressions, "Land of Egypt," "River Euphrates." To
translate these by "Whenua _o_ Ihipa," &c., would be to represent
Egypt, and Euphrates, as individuals possessing that land, and that
river. To render them by apposition would we fear not much improve our
Maori diction; (though it would certainly be more in accordance with
Maori analogy.) Here, therefore, necessity must make a law for
herself, and recognize the former mode of construction as legitimate.
At the same time, it is desirable that it should be adopted as seldom
as possible. Thus, in the following: "Mount Horeb," "Mount Sinai,"
&c., we should approve of "Mount" being rendered as a proper name, to
which it closely approximates in English, and for which we think we
may claim the permission of the original. We therefore approve of
those phrases being rendered, "Maunga Horepa," "Maunga Oriwa," &c.
Lastly; such forms as "the book of Genesis," &c., should never we
think, be rendered by te pukapuka o Kenehi, &c.; for a native will,
thereby, be led to believe that Genesis wrote the book. The
difficulty, however, may be here easily obviated: for _book_ may be
altogether omitted, and "ko Kenehi" simply employed--a form, by the
way, which is adopted by the Septuagint.

§ 6. _The possessive case._--This case is much used in Maori. It is
employed often to denote intensity; e. g., Ko _to_ Ngatimaniapoto
tangata nui ha ia! _Oh, he is Ngatimaniapoto's great man_; i. e., _he
is a very great man in that tribe_.

It will, also, in some instances supersede the nominative or objective
of the person; e. g., the following sentence is erroneous: kihai ahau
i pai kia whakakahoretia ia, _I was not willing to refuse him_; this
as it stands, means _to despise or make a cipher of_. It should have
been, kia whakakahoretia _tana_; negative _his_. (request sub.)

§ 7. It is sometimes useful for denoting the time from which an action
has commenced; e. g., kahore i kai, _o_ to matou uranga mai ano, _we
have not eaten_ since _we landed_; Moe rawa atu ki Waitoke. Te
haerenga atu _o_ hea? _We slept at Waitoke. From what place did you
start?_ Te taenga mai o Hone, kihai i rongo. Te tononga iho _o_ te
ata, _when John came here we would not listen to him; (though) he
continued to ask_ from _the break of day_.

_The possessive form is often used in predication; vid. syntax of
verbs._

§ 8. Often the possessive preposition is used where, in English, a
different one would be employed; e. g., _no_ Otahuhu tenei ara, _this
path (leads) to Otahuhu_; kahore he wai _o_ roto, _there is no water
in it_. Ka kainga e to matua tane te roi _o_ te tuatanga[36] ki te
kainga tapu. Apopo ake ka kainga e te Ariki te roi o tana tamaiti,
_the fern root_ OF THE TUATANGA _is eaten by the father. Next day the
fern_ OF HIS CHILD _is eaten by the Ariki (head chief)_.

§ 9. A word in the possessive case occurring with another twice
repeated, will generally follow after the first of such words; e. g.,
ki te tahi taha _ona_, ki te tahi taha, _at either side of him_; lit.
_at one side of him, at one side_. Sometimes other words will be found
to intervene between the possessive case and the word that governs it:
e. g., ko nga tangata _katoa tenei o_ Waimate,--_here are all the men
of Waimate_.

§ 10. The word by which a possessive case is governed, is often not
expressed in Maori; e. g., ka tokowha _o_ matou ka mate, _four of us
have died_; e wha nga rau o te kupenga a Hone, _there were four hundred_
(_fishes_ sub.) _of the net of John_; kei hea to Hone?--_where is
John's?_ (garment sub.)

§ 11. In the northern part of this island when a noun is placed in
immediate connexion with such pronouns as _noku, moku, &c._, it will
sometimes omit the article before it; e. g., no ratou _Atua_ a Ihowa,
_whose God is the Lord_; ka meinga mona _wahi_, appoint _him a
portion_.

 NOTE.--This form is rare in Waikato.

§ 12. When two substantives meet together, one of which denotes the
material of which the other consists, or some quality belonging to it,
the word denoting the material, quality, &c., will simply follow the
other as part of a compound word; e. g., he whare _papa_, _a_ board
_house_; ika _moana_, _a sea fish_; he repo _hurakeke_, _a flax
swamp_; he oranga _patunga_, _the survivors from a slaughter_; he
tangata _kupu rau_, _a man of a hundred words_; i. e., a deceitful
person.

§ 13. Not unfrequently, when some circumstance or quality, is
attributed to a person, it will be simply affirmed to be him; e. g.,
He _uaua kiore koe_, _you are a rat's strength_; _he taringa whiti rua
(or tua,)_ koe, _you are an_ erring _ear_; i. e., _one who does not
hear correctly_; he kaone tenei, _this_ (heap of potatoes) _is a
gown_; i. e., to purchase a gown; he aha koe? _what are you?_ (i. e.,
what are you come for?) Ko _au_ ra ko _ia_, _I am he_; i. e., he and I
are of the same mind, &c.; ko taku iwituaroa tena, _that is my
backbone_; (a form for making a thing sacred.)

 NOTE.--This mode of predication seems to have been much in use
 amongst the Hebrews; vid. Gen. 41, 26. The seven good kine (are)
 seven years, and chap. 46, 34, "Every shepherd is an abomination;"
 "That rock was Christ;" "This is my body;" "Ye were once darkness,"
 &c.

§ 14. Another particular, also, in which Maori will be found to
resemble Hebrew is, the frequent substitution of the substantive for
the adjective. Thus, we frequently hear, _he kakakore_ koe, you are
weakness; _he kino_ te rangi nei, the sky is badness, &c., neither
must the student imagine as have some in the interpretation of the
Scriptures, that this mode of construction is always emphatic.

§ 15. The objective case almost always follows the verb; e. g., ka
ngau _i a au_, _he will bite me_; except sometimes in sentences in
which _na_, _ma_, &c. are used; e. g., _nana_ ahau i tiki ake, _he
fetched me_; _noku_ ka mate.

 NOTE.--This form will be considered hereafter, (vid. _Verbs_).

Sometimes a noun, which is plural in meaning, will take the form of
the singular; e. g., ko nga tamariki a Kaihau hei _tamaiti_ ki a te
Katipa, _the_ children _of Kaihau are a_ child _to Katipa_; i. e.,
stand in the relation of children.

§ 16. _Compound Words._--A word in connection with a compound word
will often be governed by one of the simples of which the latter
consists; e. g. Kai atawhai _i a koe_; _one to take care of you_;
_koe_ here is governed by _atawhai_; ki te whenua kai mau, _to the
land of food for you_; _mau_, here is influenced by _kai_.

§ 17. A verb can always be changed into a personal agent by prefixing
_kai_; e. g., tiaki ia, _to guard_; kai tiaki ia, _a guard_.

§ 18. On the prefixing and omitting of the article _te_ to
_proper names_;

To lay down any exact rules respecting this subject is, we fear,
impossible: neither, indeed, is it very necessary; as genuine Maori
names are being fast exchanged for those of foreigners. There are,
however, a few particulars which deserve notice. (a) A simple
substantive, adopted as a proper name, may, or may not have _te_
prefixed; chiefly as caprice regulates; (b) If, however, the noun be
in the plural number _te_ is never prefixed; e. g. Ngakainga; (c) A
verb and words compounded of verbs, will generally omit it. e. g.
Tangi: (d) Numerals, as far as _ten_, will generally take it: (e) The
proper names which omit _te_ will be found perhaps to be nearly double
in number those which take it.

 NOTE.--The prefixes _rangi_ and _ngati_ belong chiefly, the former to
 the names of females, the latter to the names of tribes.

On the distinction between _o_ and _a_;

§ 19. This very useful feature of Maori does not seem to be clearly
recognized in some parts of New Zealand. It obtains, however, in the
other islands of these seas, and may be satisfactorily shewn, even now
to exist in those parts of this island in which it would be least
expected: for example; all will admit that _na_ku i patu, _mine was
the having struck_; i. e., _I struck (him)_, is different from _no_ku
i patu; _because I struck him_; and that _ma_ te aha? will signify,
_by what means?_ and _mo_ te aha? _for what reason?_

The words in which distinction obtains are _mo_ and _ma_, _no_ and
_na_, _o_ and _a_, and their compounds, _mona_ and _mana_, _nona_ and
_nana_, _toku_ and _taku_: the first and leading distinction between
these two forms is (a) that _o_ implies a passive meaning, _a_ an
active. Thus, he patu _moku_ is, _a striking for me_, i. e., for me to
suffer; he patu _maku_ is _an instrument for me to strike with_, (b)
_o_ also implies the inherency, and propriety of a quality or thing,
as well as the time and moral cause of an action.

Hence it will, almost always, be prefixed to the members of the body,
to land enjoyed by inheritance, to sickness, the productions of
nature, such as fruits, &c., &c. Thus, we seldom hear, āku
ringaringa; nāku tena oneone; he mate nāku; _o_ is almost always
employed. Again, we always hear, _noku_ i haere mai nei, _since I came
here_; _mou_ i tutu, _because you were disobedient_; _nona_ te he,
_his was the error_.

(c.) _O_ is always employed in talking of garments and houses, which
are in wear, use, &c. Thus, _naku_ tena whare means, _I built that
house_, Noku, &c., _I dwell in it_.

§ 20. _A_ is prefixed to the _agent_, and implies that the noun, which
is connected with that agent, is either an act of it, or an instrument
with which, or sometimes a thing upon which the action is performed,
such as tools, cultivations, food, _words_, &c., (as _kupu_, _korero_;
because they are fashioned by the tongue); e. g., _taku_ toki; _naku_
tena mara, _maku_ te kupu ki mua; kai _mau_.

§ 21. When the action is intransitive, _o_ is generally employed; e. g.
te toronga atu _o_ te ringa o Hone; _to_ku haerenga. To this rule,
however, there are many exceptions.

 NOTE.--Visitors, slaves, or servants, children; (i. e. own children;
 or children of whom the individual has the management), husband,
 (tane), wife, (wahine), will take the _a_; when, however, _hoa_,
 _ariki_, _rangatira_, _matua_, _whanaunga_, are used, _o_ will be
 prefixed. _Reo_ also will take _o_; (the voice, being a part of the
 man). Oranga, also though it applies to food, will take _o_ after it;
 e. g. kai hei oranga _mo_ matou, _food to support us_. In the
 following passage "n_o_na te whiunga i mau ai to tatou rongo," _the
 chastisement of our peace was upon him_, the _o_ in the _nona_ has,
 we think, supplied a more concise and clear rendering than could have
 been attained without it.--If it had been, "N_a_na te whiunga, &c.,"
 we should have understood that it was he who _inflicted_, instead of
 _suffered_ the chastisement. It should be remembered that there are
 two pronunciations of _taku_, and _tana_; viz., tăku, and tāku,
 tăna, and tāna; the short _a_ corresponds to the _o_; the long
 _a_ to the _a_ of _ma_ and _na_. Of tou, _yours_, there are also two
 pronunciations; viz., _tou_, and _to_, the former corresponds to the
 _o_ of _mona_; the latter sometimes to the _a_ of _mana_.

 NOTE.--The _to_ is very frequently used instead of the _tou_--chiefly
 in those parts of the sentence in which euphony requires that the
 sound should not be prolonged.

The importance of attending to these distinctions between the _o_ and
the _a_ may be shewn by a few examples; he hangi _mau_, is _an oven
with which you may cook food_; he hangi _mou_, is _an oven in which
you are to be cooked_, and would be a most offensive curse; he taua
_maku_ is a party with which I may attack another; he taua _moku_, is
_a party come to attack me_; te ngutu _o_ Hone, is _John's lip_; te
ngutu _a_ Hone is his _word_, or _report_, &c.

[36] The _tua_ is the religious ceremony performed by the father, or
the _Ariki_ of the tribe, when the child was born, to remove the
_tapu_ from the mother and the settlement.



CHAPTER XVI.

SYNTAX OF THE ADJECTIVES.


§ 1. Adjectives generally follow substantives; e. g., he tangata
kohuru, _a murderer_. Sometimes, however, they will take the form of
an adverb, and precede; e. g., homai _katoa_ mai nga mea, _give (me)
all the things_. Sometimes, also, they will take the form of a verb
and precede; e. g., _nui rawa_ taku riri, _very great is my anger_--or
of a substantive; e. g., he _nui_ taku riri, idem.

§ 2. The pronominal adjectives, _tenei_, &c., and _taua_ will always
precede; e. g., _tena_ mea.

§ 3. Adjectives will generally take the form of the noun with which
they are connected; i. e., if the noun be of the verbal form, so also
will be the adjective; e. g., oranga tonutanga, _eternal life_;
rerenga pukutanga, _sailing hungry_.

 NOTE.--To this rule there are many exceptions. Thus, we have kainga
 _kotahi_, _one eating_; i. e., _one meal_; matenga nui, patunga tapu,
 whakamutunga pai, tikinga hangarau, korerotanga tuatahi. In many
 cases observation can alone determine when such forms are admissible.
 As a general rule, it would perhaps be correct to say that when the
 verbal noun is of very familiar use, so as almost to have its verbal
 character forgotten, or when some _thing_ or _single_ act, is spoken
 of, it will sometimes admit after it an adjective of the simple form.
 It will, we think, also be found that such common adjectives as nui,
 pai, katoa, and also the numerals most frequently follow in the
 simple form.

§ 4. Under other circumstances, the adjective will follow in the
verbal form, especially when diversity or a number of acts of the
same kind, is intended. Thus, oku nohoanga katoa will mean _all my
settlements_; aku nohoanga katoatanga, _all the times in which I sit
down_. The following expressions are objectionable: korerotanga
whakamut_u_, tirohanga ata_whai_, whakinga puk_u_.

§ 5. It should be noticed, perhaps, here, that we sometimes find the
verbal noun used as an adjective or participle, and with a passive
meaning: e. g., he toki tua, is _an axe to fell with_; he toki
_tuakanga_, _an axe which has been used in felling_; he mea
_whakakakuranga_ mai no tawahi, (clothes) _worn abroad and sent here_.
Whakakahu would in this construction be seldom used. On the other hand
we meet with pu whakamoe; _gun taken to bed with you_; poaka whangai,
_fed pig_.

§ 6. _Many adjectives to one substantive._--It is contrary to the
genius of Maori to allow many adjectives to follow one substantive.
When, therefore, it is desired to affirm many qualities of the same
word, the word itself will be repeated before each adjective; e. g.,
_a great and good man_, would be thus rendered: he _tangata_ nui, he
_tangata_ pai; or the adjectives will be converted into substantives,
by taking the article _he_ before them. Thus, the above sentence might
be rendered: _he nui, he pai_ tena tangata, _he was a great_, &c.; a
large red blanket might be thus rendered: he paraikete nui, he _mea_
whero. Sometimes the adjective will be resolved into the verb; "a
great and terrible God," would be thus rendered; he Atua nui, _e
wehingia ana_.

§. 7. The following are instances in which an adjective is made to
qualify two substantives: ko te poaka raua ko te paraoa, _he reka
kau_, _pork and flour (they are both) sweet, or (a sweetness)_; he mea
reka te poaka, he me reka te paraoa, idem. Tena koa etahi hate, etahi
tarau hoki, _kei nga mea pai_: _Shew some shirts and some trousers;
let them be good ones_: _i. e._, _shew some good shirts, &c._

§ 8. Sometimes the adjective will unexpectedly assume the form of a
verb or substantive, e. g., kei ona kainga, _e_ (or _he_,) maha, _he
is at his many settlements_. The following form is heard at Taranaki:
kia toru _he_ ra, _it will take three days_. Sometimes adverbs are
used as adjectives; e. g., he tohunga _rawa_, _a great artist, &c._,
te _tino_ tangata, _the very individual_. The following form in which
the verb supplies the place of the adjective, is, we believe, in
general use: a pouri ana o matou ngakau mo tenei patunga o matou _ka
rua_; _our hearts are dark at this second murder of our friends, lit.,
this murder of our friends, it is two_.

_Comparison of adjectives._--The comparative degree is denoted in
various ways in Maori. (a) The first, and most common, is similar to
that adopted in Hebrew; viz. by putting the preposition _i_ (_from_)
after the adjective; e. g., e kaha ana a Hone _i_ a Pita, _John is
stronger than Peter_. (b) Sometimes there is joined to the adjective
some adverb of intensity; e. g., e kaha _rawa_ ana a Hone _i_ a Pita,
_John is much stronger, &c._ (c) Sometimes it is denoted by the
adjectives ngari, and rangi, the verb following in epanorthosis; e. g.,
e ngari a Hone i a Pita, _e kaha ana_.

(d.) Sometimes the comparative is denoted by some approbatory, and the
positive by some disapprobatory term; e. g., e _pai_ ana tenei
paraikete, e _kino_ ana tera, _this blanket is good, that is bad_.
(e.) Sometimes the positive is put into the negative form, and the
comparative into the affirmative; e. g., e ngari ano te patu i a au;
aua e tangohia oratia taku kainga, _it is better to kill me, do not
take away my settlement while I live_; i. e., I should rather die than
have my possessions taken from me. E nui ana taku hara, e kore e taea
te muru, _my sin is greater than that it can be pardoned_; lit. my sin
is great, it cannot be pardoned. He _hira_ te hunga i a koe nei; _e
kore_ e ho atu e ahau nga Miriani ki a ratou, _the people that are
with thee are too many for me to give the Midianites into their
power_.

(f.) Sometimes the positive is made antecedent, and the comparative
consequent; e. g., me patu ano au ka riro ai toku kainga, _you must
kill me, and_ THEN _take my possessions_.

(g.) Following, are two modes of comparison which are sometimes met
with: _poka ke atu_ te pai o te ra tahi _i_ ou whare i nga ra ko tahi
mano, _one day in thy courts is better than a thousand_. Ma tenei e
whakakoakoa ai a Ihowa _tera atu_ i te koakoatanga ki te okiha, _this
shall please the Lord better than an ox_.

 NOTE.--These two forms are not much used in Waikato. The following is
 sometimes heard, but it is a weak mode of comparison: _rere ke_ ana
 te pai o tenei _i_ tera, _the goodness of this is different from
 that_.

(h.) A very common process for denoting an _inferiority of degree_, is
to associate two contrary qualities: e. g., pai kino, _indifferently
good_; roa poto, (long short,) _of moderate length_; mangu ma nei,
(black white,) _blackish_.

(i.) The adverb _tua_ prefixed to the adjective denotes a similar kind
of comparison: e. g., _tua_ riri, _somewhat angry_; _tua_ pouri,
_rather dark_. (k.) Sometimes comparison is implied by reduplication
of one or more syllables: e. g., pouri_uri_, _darkish_ (as in
twilight). All adjectives which, in English, are preceded by some
qualifying adverb: as _somewhat_, _not very_, _moderately_, _as it
were_, &c., can be rendered into Maori by one, or other, of these
three last methods.

_The Superlative degree._ Maori has no direct form to mark the
superlative, but expresses it by various circumlocutions: (a.) by the
definite article prefixed, with, or without some word of intensity: e. g.,
Ko au _te_ kaumatua, _I am the eldest son_; ko _te tino_ nohinohi
rawa tena, _that is the least_; ko te nui tenei o nga rakau _katoa_,
_this is the largest_ (lit. _the_ large one) _of all the trees_. (b.)
The form for the comparative sometimes necessarily implies the sense
of the superlative: e. g., he _tino_ mohio ia _i_ nga tangata katoa,
_he is the most wise of all men_.

(c.) Following are two other forms for denoting the superlative: e. g.,
e ngari a Hone e mohio ana; a, _waiho ano i_ a Wiremu te tino
mohio, _John is better, he understands; but leave the great knowledge_
with _William_; or, whakarerea rawatia i a Wiremu, &c.

Sometimes a great degree of intensity is denoted by a repetition of
the adjective, with a peculiarly prolonged sound of the first
syllable; e. g., nūi, nui whakaharahara.



CHAPTER XVII.

SYNTAX OF THE NUMERALS.


_The particles prefixed to numbers._

_Ko._ § 1. This word will often, without _te_, precede _tahi_; e. g.,
toku _ko tahi_, _myself alone_; kia _ko tahi_, _be one_; i. e., pull
together. When tahi is used as a substantive, it will generally take
_te_; e. g., ko _te tahi_ tenei, _this is one_ (of them).

§ 2. The numerals between _one_ and a _hundred_ will seldom take any
article; but _rau_ and _mano_ will take either _te_ or _he_; e. g.,
_he_ rau pea, _it is perhaps a hundred_; ko tahi _te_ rau, or _te_
mano. Sometimes the numerals lower than a 100 will take the article
_te_, when the substantive is not expressed but understood; e. g., e
taea e _te tekau_ te whakanehenehe ki _te hokorima_? _can the ten
contend with the fifty?_

§ 3. The simple numeral is mostly used in counting; e. g., tahi, rua,
toru, one, two, three, &c. Often, however, the verbal particle _ka_ is
used in the same sense; ka tahi, ka rua, &c., it is one, there are
two, &c.

§ 4. _Ka_, prefixed to the numeral, generally denotes the _completion_
of a number; e. g., _ka_ toru enei matenga oku i a koe, _this is the
third time I have been ill treated by you_, i. e., this makes up the
third, &c.

§ 5. _E_ is a very frequent prefix of the numbers between _one_ and
_ten_. It differs from _ka_ in that it does not so distinctly imply
the _completion_ of, or the _arriving at_, a number, and that whereas
_ka_ will generally answer to the question, "How many have you
counted, made, &c., _e_ will be used in reply to "How many are there"?
e. g., _e_ hia ena kete? How many baskets are those? It would not
however be generally correct to say, _E_ hia ena kete _ka_ oti? It
should be _ka hia_. Again, ahea koe hoki mai ai? _Ka_ rua aku wiki.
_When will you return? in two weeks' time._ It should be _kia_ rua nga
wiki.

 NOTE.--This distinction, however, does not hold invariably, &c.

§ 6. _Kia._--For its uses _vide verbal particles_.

§ 7. NOTE.--The particles _i_ and _kua_ are occasionally found
prefixed to the numerals. (_Vide those particles_, VERBS.)

§ 8. _The case and number following the numeral._ In most instances,
up to _one hundred_, the numeral will require no possessive case after
it; e. g., a, ho mai ana e ratou, e ono nga kete, _and they gave six
baskets_; lit. they were given by them, they were, (or are), six
baskets.

§ 9. Beyond _one hundred_, however, a possessive case is very
frequently employed; e. g., ko tahi mano _o_ nga tau, one thousand
years.

§ 10. When the noun is in the oblique case, the numeral will generally
_follow_ it; e. g., hei tapiri mo enei kete _e wha_, _as an addition
to these four baskets_. When it is in the nominative the numeral will
most frequently precede; e. g., _e wha_ nga kete, _there were four
baskets_.

§ 11. It will be noticed that _tahi_ is sometimes postfixed to other
numerals, and adjectives, without any variation of meaning; e. g., e
rima _tahi_, five, turituri _tahi_, _what a noise (you are making)_.
_Tahi_ will sometimes take a plural after it; ko tahi _ona_ hoa, _one
were his companions_; i. e., he had one companion.

§ 12. Sometimes, when it is desired emphatically to denote all the
individuals, or items contained in a certain number, the number will
be repeated; e. g., hokorima _hokorima iho_, _fifty fifty down_; i. e.,
the _whole_ fifty were killed; e wha, wha mai ano, _four four to
me_; bring the whole four. In one instance, (viz., that of rua,) we
have the first syllable reduplicated to denote _both_; e. g., e tika
_rurua_ ana ano, _they are both right_.

§ 13. Sometimes, in Waikato, we meet with an ironical use of numerals,
corresponding to that in English, "six of one, and half a dozen of the
other"; e. g., e whitu waru atu! they are seven eight other; e ngari a
Hone, e pai ana--_e wha atu_ i a Pita! _he is four besides Peter_;
i. e., he is not better than Peter.

§ 14. _On the Ordinals._--The student has seen (page 26) the three
ways in which these may be formed.

§ 15. There are, however, some distinctions between _tua_ and _whaka_,
as prefixes, which deserve to be noticed. (1.) _Tua_ is not frequently
found prefixed to numerals beyond _ten_. (2.) Occasionally, also, a
critical inquirer will, we think, detect a difference in the meaning
of the two particles. _Tua_ seems to denote the place, a thing, &c.,
occupies in a series or gradation; _whaka_, a fraction which, being
added, makes the integer. Thus, in announcing a text, we might say
"Kei te ono o nga upoko, kei te _tuawha_ o nga rarangi," _it is in the
sixth chapter and fourth verse_. We could not however, say Kei te
_whakawha o_, &c. Again, a Native will say, Ko te _tua_hia tenei o nga
whakatupuranga ka tae iho ki a koe? Ko te tekau, _What number of
generations is this that reaches down to you?_ answer, _the tenth_.
Here the generations are represented as following in a regular
succession to the tenth. If the reply were "Ko te _whaka_tekau tenei,"
we should understand that it is one, which added to the other nine,
will _make it ten_--a mode of expression which is sometimes
substituted for the following, "ko te whakakapi tenei o te tekau,"
_this is one which fills up the place of the tenth_. The word whakapu
is often also used either to denote a tally, (or surplus one), or the
one which completes the number; hei _whakapu_ tenei mo aku riwai,
_this is a tally for; (or this completes the full number of) my
potatoes_.

 NOTE.--In speaking of a tenth, or tithe, of property, we should
 prefer _whakatekau_ to _tuatekau_; the former being a _fractional_
 tenth, the latter an _ordinal_.



CHAPTER XVIII.

SYNTAX OF THE PRONOUNS.


§ 1. The personal pronouns follow the verb; e. g., e mea ana _ahau_.

§ 2. They are often also omitted after it; e. g., Ka tukua atu te
purahorua, ka tae ki te pa, korerotia atu, Kia mohio i te taua e haere
mai nei----na ka te whai e te pa. Na wai i haere, a; ka tae ki nga
whakatakoto; ka pau te huaki, ka tangi te patu, ka whati tera, te pa;
_the messenger is sent_ (he) _arrives at the pa_ (it) _is told_
(them,) _be on_ (your) _guard against the hostile party_ (which) _is
approaching, so the pa then pursued_. _On then_ (they) _proceeded,
till_ (they) _came to the ambush, the assault is made, the blow
resounds, that flies, the pa_. Sometimes, in Waikato, they are
redundant; e. g., kei te kai taro _mana_, _he is eating bread for
himself_. Examples however of this construction are not varied or
frequent.

In Waikato the personal and possessive pronouns will frequently take
the particle _nge_ before them, but without any variation of meaning.

§ 3. It was observed (page 29) that there is no word in Maori to
denote the pronoun _it_. Occasionally, however, that word will be
designated by _ia_ and its branches; e. g., waiho _mana_ e rapu atu te
tahi huarahi _mona_, _let it (the axe,) search out a path for itself_.
This perhaps should be explained by prosopopœia. Sometimes also we
hear the following: te paraoa _raua_ ko te poaka, _flour and pork_;
nga toki ki a _ratou_ whakatoki, nga kakahu ki a _ratou_ whakakakahu,
_axes by themselves, garments by themselves_.

§ 4. Often the singular and dual of the personal pronouns will be
employed to denote a whole tribe, or company; e. g., _naku_ tena, na
te Urioteoro, _that is mine, the Urioteoro's_; i. e., the property of
my tribe. Keihea taua? _where are we two?_ i. e., where is our party,
ko ta _maua_ ki tena, ta te tangata Maori, _that is a phrase of us
(two) of the New Zealander_, i. e., of the New Zealanders.

 NOTE.--This form is often also used when the speaker wishes to
 propound some remark which would appear harsh if too personal; e. g.,
 he aha kei _a maua ko Hone_, _what is with me and John_; i. e., oh,
 never mind John: of what importance is he?

 Connected with this is a mode of phrase which we have been surprised
 to hear questioned by some who claim a high character as Maori
 scholars.

§ 5. A pronoun in the singular will often be made to refer to a noun
in the plural; ko nga tangata _tenei_, _nana_ nga tikaokao, _this are
persons_, HIS _are the fowls_; nga tangata _nona_ te kainga, _the men_
HIS _is the settlement_, i. e., whose is, &c.; nga tangata _nana_ i
patu, _the men_ HIS _was the having struck_; i. e., who struck. _Tenei
matou te_ noho atu nei, _this is we_, who _am sitting towards you_.

§ 6. It is a very common thing in Maori to put into the third person a
pronoun which has reference to either the first or second; e. g., hei
rama aha? _tana_ koke noa atu,--_nana tana_ rakau, _a light for what
purpose?_--_his_ stumbling away--_his_ is _his_ own _stick_, i. e.,
"What do I want of light?--I can stumble out my way--I am accustomed
to that kind of work;" ko te rangi mahi kai tenei ma _tona_ tinana,
_this is the day for procuring food for_ his _body_; i. e., for
ourselves; kei _tena_ tangata pea, _it rests perhaps with that
individual_; i. e., with you; _tona_ tangata kaha ko koe, _you are his
strong man_; i. e., what a very strong man you are! (ironically);
haere korua, e Hone, _raua_ ko Hemi, _go you (two) John, they two and
James_; i. e., go you and James.

 This last form is, perhaps, peculiar to the Waikato District.

§ 7. When two or more individuals are connected in English by the
conjunction _and_, they will very frequently be denoted by the dual or
plural, of the personal pronoun of the more worthy person. For
example, _he_ and _I_ are denoted by _maua_, John and James by Hone
_raua_ ko Hemi, John, James, and Luke, by Hone, _ratou_ ko Hemi, ko
Ruka.

 In this construction the latter noun will be in the nominative, even
 though the preceding be in an oblique case; e. g., te atawhai o te
 Atua, _raua ko tana tamaiti, ko Ihu Karaiti_, the mercy of God and
 His Son Jesus Christ. Here, though _Atua_ is in the possessive case,
 _raua_ and tamaiti, and Ihu Karaiti are in the nominative.

 This strange, though in Maori very common, mode of construction
 cannot, we believe, be explained in any other way than by an
 epanorthosis. (Vide page 114, § 3.)

§ 8. The noun belonging to the pronoun is often omitted, especially in
talking of garments; e. g., keihea toku? _Where is mine_; i. e., my
garment. Tikina atu te tahi ki a koe, _fetch some for you_; i. e.,
fetch some garment. Ko wai toku?--_Who is mine?_--i. e., my helper.

§ 9. _The relative pronouns._--Following are some of the ways in which
the defect of the relative pronoun is supplied in Maori:--(1) Te
tangata _nana_ nga kakano _the man whose are the seeds_; (2) te
tangata _i_ nga kakano, _idem_; (3) te tangata i patu _nei_ i a Hone,
the man (_who_) struck John; _or_ (4) te tangata i patua _ai_ (_by
whom, on account of whom_), _he was beaten_; (5) Keihea, he poraka
_hei to_ i te rakau? _Where is there a block (with which) to drag the
log?_ (6) Keihea he haer_enga_? _where is there a place on which
(they, the cows) may run?_ (7) Ko tenei _taku_ i mate nui _ai_, _this
is_ MINE _desired_, i. e., this is _what_ I wished for; (8) te poaka i
patua e koe, the _pig (which) was killed by you_; (9) _kei reira_ te
pakaru, _kei reira_ te paru, _you must coat_ (with raupo) _all parts
of the house that are broken_.

It will be seen in the preceding examples that the most common means
by which the want of the relative is supplied are by the preposition,
as in example 2; (2) by the particles _nei_, &c., and _ai_, as in
examples 3 and 4; (3) by the verbal noun, as in examples 5 and 6; (4)
by the possessive case with _ai_, as in example 7; (5) by the passive
voice, as in example 8. Occasionally, also, the personal pronouns, as
in example 1, or the adverb _reira_, as in example 9, &c., are used
for the same purpose.

§ 10. _Demonstrative Pronouns._--(1) These, like the primitive
pronouns of Hebrew, are often used for the verb of existence; (2) and
the time will frequently be denoted by the pronoun used; i. e., Tenei
will mostly be used for the present tense; tena, (and most frequently)
tera, for the future, or past, and sometimes for the imperative mood;
e. g., e haere ana _tenei_ ahau, THIS _I am going_; i. e., I am going;
_tenei_ au, _here I am_; _tera_ e mate, _that will die_, i. e., he
will die; _tena_ taku pu maua mai, _that my gun bring here_; i. e.,
bring my gun.

The leading distinctions between tenei, tena, and tera, and also the
distinction between them and their resolved forms te--nei, &c., have
been mentioned, page 30. Instances, however, are not rare, in which
those distinctions seem to be disregarded; and others will occur which
it will require some experience and ingenuity to classify; e. g., I
_te_ po _nei_ implies that it has been already dark for some time; i
_tenei_ po may mean The night of this day. In the following, Kei hea
_te_ awa _nei_? (_where is the channel that we are seeking for?_) it
is clear _tenei_ could not be employed.

(2.) Sometimes only _nei_ will be admitted into connexion with the
first person; (i. e., when the speaker is denoted as the person
looking at the object spoken of;) and _na_ into connexion with the
second. _Ra_ has for the most part a vague or general application.[37]
Thus a person, calling to a settlement, will say, Kahore he tangata i
te kainga nei? _Is there no one at that settlement?_ (at which I am
looking.) If addressing another who belongs to, or has seen, the
settlement, he will say, i te kainga _na_, (or _ra_) _at the
settlement which you see there, or to which you belong_, &c. Again.
Keihea nga kau? where are the cows? Kei _kona_ ano, _They are there
near you_. If he had said, Kei ko, we should have understood him to
mean, "They are off, away, in that direction;" na _kona_ mai, _come by
that direct path, in which you are_; na _ko_ mai, _come by that
circuitous one away there_.

(3.) Nei, &c., in composition will frequently supply the place of the
relative; e. g., te taua i muru NEI i a Hone.

(4.) Sometimes they will imply a conjunction, or will otherwise limit
the sentence in which they occur, by implying a connection with a
previous sentence or thing. Thus, kahore au i pai, means _I am not
willing_; kahore _nei_ ahau i pai will mean, _the reason was because I
was not willing_; or, _you know I was not_, &c., &c. Again, I a koutou
_e_ tatari _ana_ will denote a mere general remark, _while you are
waiting_, I a koutou e tatari _nei_ denotes _while you are_ THUS
_continuing to wait_; te wahine i whakarerea, _the woman who was
divorced_; te wahine i whakarerea _nei_, (or _ra_), _the woman who was
divorced under these_ (or _those_) _particular circumstances_, or, _on
that particular occasion_, &c., &c.

_The Interrogative Pronouns._--_Wai_ and _aha_ are often used to add
intensity; _ma wai_ e noho, e au? _that I should remain is for whom?_
i. e., I won't remain. _Ko wai_ hoki ka kite i te hoenga o tenei taua,
_maua nei_? _who saw the departure of this hostile party, we two?_ i. e.,
we did not at all see this party's departure to fight with you;
hei _aha_ ma _wai_? _For what purpose is it, for whom?_ i. e., what
good at all is that for? kahore i rongo, kahore i aha, _he did not
attend, he did not what_; i. e., he did not at all listen; kahore aku
kupu, _me he aha, me he aha_, _I did not utter a word, if a what, if a
what_; i. e., I did not at all speak; ka hua ahau _he aha_, _I thought
it was a what_; i. e., I imagined it was something very important you
were going to talk about. Sometimes a personal pronoun will be
associated with an interrogative; e. g., ko _wai_ hoki _taua_ ka kite
atu? _Who, we two, can see it?_ i. e., who knows?

[37] For _ra_ as an adverbial particle, vide page 92.



CHAPTER XIX.

SYNTAX OF THE VERB.


_Of the Verbal Particles._--The consideration of the verbal particles,
and of the other means by which a verb is modified in Maori, has been
reserved for the Syntax; chiefly because the investigation of those
subjects will involve also that of compound propositions, and of other
constructions which belong to this part of Grammar.

_E_ (a) is sometimes used for the present, e. g., _e_ noho mai, _he is
sitting there close at hand_. (b) Most frequently it is joined with
_nei_, &c.; e. g., _e_ riri _nei_, _who is angry with me_, &c. (c) It
is sometimes used to denote the future; e. g., ko wai ma _e_ haere?
_who will_ go? He tokomaha _e_ mate, _many will die_. (d) It is
chiefly employed to denote contingency, or some future act on which
something else depends; e. g., _E_ riri ia, _if he be angry_; _E_ tae
mai a Hone tonoa ake, _If John comes here send him after me_; _E_ hau,
_if there be a wind_.

 NOTE.--(1.) In such constructions as the last, it will be found that
 the latter verb will generally, except when it is in the imperative
 mood, be in the second person. In the following sentence, for
 example, _E_ muri ka puta mai nga kuri ka puhia, _henceforward if
 dogs come here they will be shot_, _e_ is wrongly used; puhia being
 in the third person. To this rule, however, there are exceptions.

 (2.) There is a difference between _e_ and _ka_, as particles of the
 future; _ka_ being of much more extensive use; i. e., being used with
 all persons, and in all senses, whether absolute or contingent; vid.
 _ka_.

 (3.) There are, however, some constructions in which _e_ is always
 preferred; chiefly, we believe, when the verb is preceded by some
 word with which it is in connexion; i. e., when it is preceded by the
 negative adverb _kore_, and sometimes _kahore_; e. g., ka _kore_ e
 pai, _if he is not willing_; _kahore e_ tangi _she did not at all
 cry_,--by the preposition _ma_; e. g., _ma_ wai _e_ hanga? _who is to
 build it?_--and by _no_ (sometimes), _nohea e wera?_ _Whence_, i. e.,
 _why should it take fire?_--by the pronouns _tera_ and _ehea_; e. g.,
 _tera e_ mate, he will die perhaps, ko _ehea e_ patua, _which are to
 be killed?_--by the noun or pronoun in the possessive case
 (sometimes); e. g., _taku e_ pai ai _that which I like_, he aha tau e
 tohe? what are you importuning about?--by _taihoa_ and _taria_; e.
 g., _taihoa e_ haere _wait going_; i. e., _don't go for a while_.

 N.B.--For the distinction between _e_ and _ka_, when prefixed to
 numerals; vid., numerals, chap. 17, sec. 5.

(e.) For _e_ as prefixed to the imperative mood, vid. page 40 (c). It
is generally omitted in that mood, when the verb is followed by _atu_,
_mai_, _ake_, _iho_, _&c._

_Ana_ is a particle corresponding, in many particulars, with _ka_. It
is most frequently employed, however, in the continuation of a
narrative, and does not often except in abrupt and animated discourse,
occupy a place in the leading clause of the sentence.

The following examples illustrate this last remark. Ki te kahore e
homai, ina _haere ana_ ahau, ka riro. _If it is not given, certainly
going I will depart_; ko nga tangata o Taranaki, _aia ana_ e matou ki
te maunga, _the men of Taranaki, driven were they by us to the
mountain_. It will be seen that the verb preceding in the above
clauses gives a larger measure of emphasis than if another word had
gone before it. In such animated sentences, as the above, the speaker
will generally prefer _ana_ to any other verbal particle. But another
leading use of _ana_ is to denote a continuance of action. The
following extract from a translation of the first eight chapters of
Genesis, made some years since by the Church Missionaries, will serve
as an illustration of this, and our other remarks on this particle.
We may add that, though we suggest a few trifling alterations in the
part quoted, yet, considering the time in which it was made, it is
very creditable to the Maori knowledge of the translators.

 Ch. 1, v. i. I te orokomeatanga i hanga e te Atua te rangi me te
 whenua.

 2. A kihai whai ahua te whenua, i takoto kau; a ngaro ana i te pouri
 te mata o te hohonu. Haerere ana te Wairua o te Atua ki runga ki te
 mata o nga wai.

 3. Mea ana te Atua, Kia marama; a kua marama.

 4. A kite ana te Atua i te marama, pai ana; wehea ana e te Atua te
 marama i te pouri.

 5. A huaina ana e te Atua te marama, hei ao.

In the first verse _ana_ can have no place, it would give an
unpleasant jerk, as well as the appearance of levity, to a
commencement so methodical and dignified. Our translators, therefore,
with good taste, employed _i_; I te timatanga _i_ hanga, &c. In the
second verse, however, in the clause commencing _a ngaro ana, &c._, it
is very correctly used; because there is a close connection between
_that clause_ and the one preceding. In the third verse it is, we
think, injudiciously used, because a new subject is now commenced. We
should, therefore, have preferred _na_ KA _mea_ te Atua. So also in
the commencement of the fourth verse, _A kite ana te Atua_ i te
marama, pai ana. We should prefer, a _ka_ kite, &c. Pai _ana_ is, we
think, objectionable. It is too abrupt, and unconnected, and makes the
_pai_ refer to the _atua_, rather than to _marama_. _E_ pai _ana_,
perhaps, or _he mea pai_, would be preferable. _E--ana_ is strictly
the sign of the present tense; e. g., _e_ kai _ana_, _he is eating_.
Sometimes when it follows a past time its meaning will also be past;
as may be seen in our remarks on _ana_ (vid. also page 38, and our
remarks on compound times).

_Ka_ is a particle of very extensive use. It is sometimes employed to
denote the present tense; e. g., ka pai, _it is good_. It is the
particle most frequently used in historic presents (vid. John iv., 1,
3, and N. T. _passim_). It is very frequently used to denote future
events, and is often employed in hypothetic, or contingent
propositions; e. g., _ka_ mate koe i a au; _you will be killed by me_,
_ka_ haere ahau _ka_ riri a Hone, IF _I go, John will be angry_.

 NOTE.--_Ka_, as a particle of the present, will often differ in
 meaning from _e--ana_. For example, ka tere te waka may signify _the
 canoe will drift_, or _that it_ DRIFTS; _e_ tere _ana_, that _it is
 drifting_.

For the distinctions between _ka_ and _e_ vid. _e_. Occasionally _ka_
is followed by _te_. Vid. two examples page 57.

_I_, a particle of the past time; vid. _kua_.

(a.) Sometimes, however, it is employed to denote the present; e. g.,
_koia_ i riri _ai_, _for that cause is he angry?_ _na_ te aha koe _i_
tohe _ai_ kia haere, _why do you persist in going?_ Ka tahi ano to
hanganga _i_ pai, _this house (which I am now roofing) is now, for the
first time, properly done_.

(b.) Sometimes _i_ is employed where contingency is designed;
e. g., he aha koa i pono he titaha, he titaha; i pono he hate, he hate
_well, it won't signify_. _If an axe happens to be (my payment)
let it so happen_ (lit. let it be an axe). _If a shirt, &c._

Ka whiua to tahi wahi ki tahaki, hei whakahere i tona Atua. _I_ whiua
ranei ki te wahi tapu ranei; _i_ whiua ranei ki te wahi noa ranei, _he
throws a portion to one side as an offering to his God_. _It may have
been thrown_ (i. e., it matters not whether it is thrown) _upon a
sacred spot, or upon a spot not sacred_.

_Kua_, the sign of the past tense; e. g., _kua_ korero atu ahau ki a
ia, _I have spoken to him_.

(a.) The leading distinction between _kua_ and _i_ is, we believe,
that _kua_ is unlimited (i. e., will not admit of limitation), and _i_
limited in construction; and that the former, when it precedes in the
sentence, will be often found to correspond to the perfect, the
latter to the imperfect of English; e. g., _kua_ kitea te mea _i_
kimihia e koe? HAS _the thing been found that_ WAS _sought for by
you?_ _Kua_ ora koe? Kahore, I ora ano au; a, hoki mai ana te mate;
_have you recovered? No, I did recover, but the sickness has
returned_.

 N.B.--It would, however, be very incorrect to affirm, as have some
 good Maori scholars, that _kua_ always corresponds to the perfect,
 and _i_ to the imperfect.

In accordance with the preceding remarks, it may be observed, 1st,
that _kua_ is seldom used when the verb is preceded by the _cause_,
_time_, or other qualifying circumstance of the action; i. e., when
the verb is followed by _ai_. For example, we might say _kua_ patua,
_he was killed_; but we could not say, te take _kua_ patua _ai_, _the
cause for which he was killed_; neither would it be correct to say,
koia _kua_ riri _ai_ ia, _for that cause was he angry_. 2dly. It will
also, we believe, be found that, in secondary clauses, in which the
relative is understood, _i_ obtains a much more general use than
_kua_. For example, in the following sentence,--"enei mea _kua_
korerotia e koutou," we should prefer _i_ korerotia. 3dly. _Kua_ will
seldom, when denoting the perfect or imperfect tenses, be found
associated with the particle _ko_; e. g., we very seldom hear _ko_
Hone _kua_ haere, _it was John who went_. In the following sentence,
we disapprove of the use of both of these particles:--e pai ana matou
ki a ia, no te mea _ko_ ia _kua_ atawhai mai ki a matou, _we love him,
because he was kind to us_. We should have preferred _mona i_ atawhai,
&c.[38] (4.) When a preposition immediately precedes, _kua_ will
seldom be employed to denote the tenses; e. g., nonahea _i_ mate ai;
_Since what time_, or, _at what time did he die?_ Nana ano _i_ haere
noa mai, _he came of himself_.

(5.) _Kua_ is never used after the negative adverbs kahore, kihai, and
kiano; e. g., kahore ahau i rongo, _I have not heard_; kiano _i_ mate
noa, _he has not yet died_.

(6.) The following, also, are constructions in which _kua_ will be
found to give place to _i_: _Me_ koutou hoki i whakarere _i_ to koutou
kainga, _as ye also left your country_; _me i_ kahore koe, _if it had
not been for you_, _&c._

In the following constructions, however, _kua_ is prefixed: _penei
kua_ ora, _in that case he would have lived_; _ano kua_ mate, _as if
he were dead_; _me te_ mea _kua_ waruhia, _as if it had been planed_;
_Me_ i kahore koe _kua_ mate au, _if it had not been for you, I should
have died_. In the following, however, _i_ is preferred: _me_ i kahore
koe _i_ ora ai ahau, _If it had not been for you, (the cause) why I
was saved_; i. e., I should have been lost, but for you.

(b.) _Kua_ is sometimes employed where a present would be used in
English; e. g., _kua_ mate, _he is dead_; _kua_ po, _it is dark_, or,
is past sunset; _kua_ riro, _he is gone_.

(c.) In animated narrations of past events, _kua_ is sometimes
employed to give variety; e. g., te taenga atu o Hone, _kua_ mau ki te
hamanu, e tatua ana, te tino haerenga, _so John goes, he_ HAS _taken
(his) cartouch box, (he) is girding it on; the instant marching_.

(d.) Sometimes, also, when the speaker wishes to convey the idea of a
certain, and speedy accomplishment, he will (as did the Hebrews)
employ the past tense; e. g., E pa, he aha i kaiponuhia ai to waru?
_kua_ whakahokia mai apopo, _Father why do you withhold your plane? It
will_ SURELY _be returned to you to-morrow_; E hoa, reia atu; _kua_
hoki mai koe, _Friend, run (and tell them) you will be back (in quite
time enough)_; e noho ana tenei; _kua_ pata iho te ua, e rere ana ki
rote ki te whare, _we are sitting here, but, immediately as soon as it
rains, we run into the house_.

(e.) Kua is often prefixed to denote an action which is to take place,
or has taken place previous to something else--in which latter use it
will sometimes correspond to the pluperfect of English; e. g., _I_ a
koe _kua_ riro, _after you had gone_. Mo te ara rawa ake _kua_ maoa,
_that, exactly as he awakes, it may have been cooked_; i. e., _it may
be cooked against he awakes_. Me i noho _kua_ wha na rakau e toia, _if
I had remained, four logs would have been dragged_. Akuanei mau nga
riwai _kua_ kainga, _presently, the potatoes that have been first
eaten will be yours_; i. e., your crop will be the soonest ripe. Huatu
_ko_ tena _kua_ ngakia, _no, but let that be first dug_.

Vid. our remarks on _ko_, when associated with _kua_ (note to _a_) (3).

 NOTE.--The student will see, in the above examples, that _kua_, when
 employed in this sense, will often enter into combinations which
 would not be admitted under other tenses.

KIA.--This particle has been already considered, as far as it is
connected with the imperative mood (vid. page 40). There are, however,
other uses of it, which are both varied and important.

(a.) It may, in asking a question, be used for the future; e. g., Kia
haere ahau? Ne? Shall I go? shall I?

(b.) It may, also, be found where an hypothetic statement is made, or
an expectation, or other reference to some future event, is implied--a
use in which it will sometimes be found to correspond to the second
future indicative and perfect potential of English; e. g., E noho ki
konei; _kia_ hoki mai ra ano ahau, _stop here until I shall have
returned_; _Kia_ titiro atu matou, ka patua to matou hoa, hei reira ka
whakatika atu matou, _let us have seen_ (i. e., if we had but seen)
_him strike our friend, we should then have risen_; me noho _kia_ ora,
ka haere, _you had better remain, and when you are well, depart_; e
hoe katoa ana ratou, _kia_ oti te waka o Nini, _they are all going
when Nini's canoe is finished_; I raro ahau e whakarongo mai ana, _kia
mate, kia_ mate; a ka ora noa ano, _I was at the northward waiting for
news from here of his death; but he has recovered_.

(c.) Often, when intensity of _negation_, _doubt_, _&c._, is intended,
it will be used instead of the proper particles of the present, past,
and future; e. g., hore rawa _kia_ tika, _by no means is it correct_;
kahore _kia_ kotahi, _not even one_; Ko au _kia_ mate, ko ia _kia_
ora? _must I (by feeding this pig) starve, while he has food?_ Kahore
ano _kia_ haere noa! _not yet gone!_

(2.) It is often found, also, in exclamations of wonder; e. g., _Kia_
nui! _How large!_

(3.) In the same sense, also, it is used where an infinitive would be
employed in the learned languages; particularly where _contempt_,
_disregard_, &c., are denoted; e. g., Kia whakarongo atu ahau ki o
korero hei aha? why should I listen to your talk? lit. _that I should
listen to your talk is for what?_ _Kia_ ho atu taku poaka mo tena!
_that I should give my pig for that!_ i. e., I will not give it.

(d.) _Kia_ is frequently employed to denote the infinitive; e. g.,
haere _kia_ kite, _go to see_.

(e.) It will also be employed when the latter verb is an amplification
of the meaning of a preceding one; e. g., ahea hanga ai tou whare,
_kia oti_? _When will your house be built, that it may be finished?_
Te tangata e whiuwhiu ana i ana tikaokao, _kia wawe te mate_! _The man
who is pelting his fowls that they may be soon dead!_ Tanutanu rawa
_kia_ ngaro, _bury, bury deep, that it may be concealed_; (a song.)
Whiua, _kia_ mamae, _beat it that it may be pained_; na koutou _i_ aki
mai _kia_ tata, _it was you who pressed forward so as to be near_.

 NOTE.--There is a distinction between _kia_ and _ki te_, when
 prefixed to a verb in the infinitive, which should be noticed. KIA is
 very seldom prefixed to a verb in the active voice,--_ki te_ almost
 always; e. g., Haere _ki te_ to i te waka. We could not say _kia to_.

(2.) _Kia_ is almost always prefixed to the passive verb; _ki te_ very
seldom; e. g., Tikina atu _kia_ tirohia is _fetch it to be seen_.
Tikina atu _ki te_ titiro is _fetch him to look at it_. The following
sentence is erroneous:--arahina _ki te_ patu, led to be killed. It
should be _kia_ patua, or e arahina e patua ana.

Sometimes, before neuter verbs, either _kia_ or _ki te_ will be
employed; e. g., I mea ahau kia, (or ki te) haere.

Kia will most frequently be used when the former of the two verbs is
in the passive voice. Verbs following adjectives, by which _ability_,
_habit_, _&c._, are denoted, will take _ki te_; e. g., uaua _ki te_
mahi, _strong to work_; e kino _ki te_ tahae, _is displeased at
thieving_.

Between the uses of _kia_ and _ki te_ there may be often a very
material difference; e. g., e riri ana _ki te ata noho_ means _that
he is angry at the stopping quiet_,--i. e., that he wishes for war; e
riri ana _kia_ ata noho, means that _he is repressing (them) that they
may stop quiet_; ka tohe ki a maua _kia_ waru i te kai i te ra tapu,
_they pressed us to scrape food on the Sunday_. If it had been, Ka
tohe ki _te_ waru, &c., the speaker would have implied _that they_
(the persons toheing) _persisted in scraping, &c._

Some foreigners seem remarkably careless in the use of this particle.
We subjoin a few instances in which it has been omitted, or introduced
erroneously. Ko tana hanga _kia_ korero, _his custom was to speak,
&c._; it should be, _he_ korero. E kore ahau e ahei _kia_ mea atu; it
should be, ahei _te_ mea atu. Ko te aroha e whakahauhau ana i te
tangata _hei_ mahi; it should be, _ki te_ mahi. Whakatika _hei_ patu;
it should be, whakatika _ki te_ patu, or whakatika atu, _patua_.

It may be here observed that (1) some verbs have a partiality for
certain particles; e. g., hua _noa_ ahau, or, _ka_ hua ahau, _I
thought_; e kore _e_ ahei _te_ patu. (2.) Some verbs very rarely take
any verbal particle into connexion with them. Of this sort are heoi,
or heoti, kati, taihoa, penei (_in that case_), and, sometimes,
rokohanga, or rokohina.

(3.) Many constructions will be met with in which the verbal particle
is omitted. (a.) A common adverb of quantity or quality following the
verb will often cause the verbal particle to be dispensed with. (b.)
It is also omitted in constructions like the following:--_meake_
haere; whano mate; kei te ata haere ai; taihoa maua haere atu; &c.
(c.) In animated discourse, the common verb will sometimes be used
without any kind of auxiliary; e. g., kaiponu noa ia, kaiponu noa,
_tangohia_ e au. _Withhold it, withhold it as he might, yet I took it
away._

AI.--The Aborigines sometimes appear to vary in their use of this
particle; some introducing it into sentences in which others would
omit it. These instances, however, may, we believe, be reduced to one
class:--viz., to that in which _ai_ is used in connexion with _kia_.

When _kia_ is prefixed to a verb which is merely an explanation, or
some other enlargement of the meaning of a preceding one, it will
seldom take _ai_ after it; as may be seen in our examples of _kia_,
(rules _d_ and _e_). But when the _intention_, _cause_, _&c._, are to
be specifically denoted, then _ai_ will be used. Thus, in the
following sentence, haere kia kite, _go to see_, _kite_ is a plainly
natural effect of _haere_, and _ai_, therefore, is omitted. If,
however, some unusual act is to be done that he might see, then _ai_,
most probably, would be employed; thus, e piki ki runga ki te rakau
kia kite _ai_ koe, _climb up the tree_ THAT _you_ MAY _see_. The
distinction is the same as that between the two following in
English:--_go_ AND _see_; _climb_ THAT _you may see_. Again, in the
last example of kia (rule _e_), na koutou i aki mai kia tata,
"nearness" is a natural effect of "pressing forward," even though they
had no specific intention of being near: _ai_, therefore, is not used.
If, however, the speaker wished to say _ye pressed forward_ THAT _I
might be angry_, he would employ _ai_; kia riri _ai_ ahau; because
here we have two acts, not necessarily connected, and one specifically
performed to produce the other.

The following are a few out of the many instances that might be
adduced of the erroneous introduction, and erroneous omission, of this
particle:--e kore koe e pohehe me ratou, _kia_ roa _ai_ taku
korerotanga, _you are not ignorant (as they are), that I should be
long explaining it to you_; it should be, _e roa ai_. As it stands it
means, YOU WILL NOT MAKE YOURSELF "POHEHE," IN ORDER THAT, &c. Aua e
whakaara ake i tetahi rakau _kia_ tu _ai_, _erect not any stick that
it may stand_; it should be rakau, _tu ai_. Kihai i tonoa kia uia
_ai_ matou, _he was not sent to question us_; it should be, _ki te_ ui
i a matou. Ko nga mutunga o ia waiata, o ia waiata, kia whakahuatia
_ai_ tenei waiata, _at the end of each song let this chant be
repeated_. As this stands, its meaning is, _in order that this chant
may be repeated_; it should be, _kia_ whakahuatia tenei, &c., or _ka_
whakahua _ai_. Ka puta te kupu o Hone _kia_ haere atu _ai_ ratou, when
John speaks, let them proceed; it should be, me haere, &c., or ka
haere. A wrong use of this particle may often seriously misrepresent
the meaning of the speaker. For example, if we were to say, e inoi ana
ahau _kia_ murua _ai_ oku hara, we should mean, _I pray that (in
consideration of my prayer) my sins may be forgiven_. Prayer, here, is
made the immediate and effective means by which this end is obtained.
If a Native were to say, "E inoi ana ahau kia homai _ai_ tetahi
paraikete," absurd as would be the remark, it would mean that the
blanket is to be given to him, not as a favor, or as due on other
grounds, but simply as a _reward_ for _his asking_. The Bible tells us
of another consideration, by which pardon is obtained, and prayer
answered; and, therefore, in such passages as the above, we must
carefully abstain from _ai_. Koia nga tamariki a Hone i haere tahi me
ratou; it should be, i haere tahi _ai_. E kore ia e poka ke i tana i
mea; it should be, i mea _ai_; te tangata _i_ he _ai_, the man who had
committed the offence. In Waikato this will mean, _the man through
whom they had erred_; it should have been, _te tangata nona te he_.

(a.) _Whaka._--The leading property of this particle is _causative_;
e. g., _tu_ is _to stand_, whakatu is _to cause to stand_ (vid. etiam,
page 50, under pai, kau, and kakahu, and Syntax of Numbers, under
Ordinals).

 NOTE.--In this use of it, adjectives, and neuter verbs, will be
 converted into active verbs; e. g., toe, _to be left_; whakatoe, _to
 put by, as a leaving_; e. g., _whaka_toea etahi ma mea ma, _put by
 some for our friends_.

 In the following example, the adjective is made improperly to retain
 the form of a neuter verb, he mea _whakapirau i te_ hau, _a thing
 blasted by the wind_. Its meaning, as its stands, is, _a thing that
 destroys the wind_.

 Considerable variety may sometimes be found in the nature of the
 causation implied by this prefix. Thus, puru, _to cork (a bottle,
 &c.)_. Whakapurua nga pounamu, _to stow, or pack (with straw, &c.,
 between) them_. Waha, _to carry on the back_; whakawaha, _to take up
 the load on the back_; e. g., waiho atu e au e whakawaha ana, _as I
 came away they were loading themselves with their burdens_.

(b.) Sometimes it will imply the _becoming_, or the _being like to_,
or the _feigning_, or _exhibiting the_ root to which it is prefixed.
Frequently, also, it will indicate an _origin_ or _propriety_ in the
root; e. g., Kei te _whaka_riwai a Hone i roto i te rua, _John is
making himself potatoes_, i. e., (is occupying the place of) _in the
rua_ (or potatoe house); ka po, ka _whaka_ahi; ka awatea, ka
_whaka_kapua, _at night it became a fire, by day it became a cloud_;
kia _whaka_tangata, _to act like a man_; ka riro, ka _whaka_-Hone ki
te wai, _he will be off, and become like John in the water_; i. e.,
will be drowned as John was; he kupu _whaka_-te-Kanaua, _a speech made
by Kanaua_; i. e., any promise, &c., made by him; he tangata
_whaka_-Ngapuhi, _a person belonging to, or that frequently visits_
Ngapuhi; he aha kei to tatou hoa? Kahore pea. E _whaka_matemate noa
iho ana, kia kiia e mate ana, _What is the matter with our friend?
Nothing at all. He is feigning sickness, that he may be regarded as
unwell._

(c.) Sometimes it will denote _reciprocity_; e. g., ko ratou
_whaka_ratou hoki, _he is one of themselves_! (d.) Sometimes it will
denote an action either _inceptive_ or _gradually declining_; e. g., e
_whaka_tutuki ana te tai, _the tide is beginning to get full_; e
_whaka_hemohemo ana, _he is sinking_; i. e., is on the point of death.
(e.) Sometimes it will denote _towards_; vide page 71. (f.)
Occasionally it will indicate some action corresponding to the sense
of the root; e. g., ka _whaka_-ahiahi ratou, _they act at sunset_; i. e.,
they wait for sunset to make their assault.

_The other auxiliaries of the verb._--These, it has been already
observed, are adverbs, prepositions, pronouns, and the articles _he_
and _te_, placed in connection with the verb. We proceed to make a few
remarks upon them, and some other forms which the Maori verb
occasionally assumes:--

_On the adverbs as auxiliaries._--These chiefly are the adverbs of
intensity and negation; we may add, also, the particles atu, mai, ake,
iho.

The adverbs of intensity, as well as the last mentioned particles,
will frequently lose their distinctive force, and either in some way
modify the meaning; i. e., denote _rapidity_ and _certainty_ of
_effect_, _succession_ or _connection_ of events, &c., or be
redundant. The following examples will, it is hoped, sufficiently
illustrate their use:--te whakaarahanga ake o te ra, tahuri _tonu
iho_, the putting up of the sail _forthwith_ was it upset; akuanei,
_ahiahi noa_, ka tata ta maua te oti, _presently_ BY SUNSET _ours will
be near being finished_; mo te ara _rawa ake_ o nga tamariki kua maoa,
THAT EXACTLY _as_ THE _children awake it may have been cooked_; i. e.,
_it may be cooked before they awake_; kahore, ha, he kainga;
_kainga[39] rawa atu_ ki Waitoke, _oh, there is no settlement_ (in the
interval); _the nearest settlement is Waitoke_; tia _rawa_ ki te
raukura, pani _rawa_ ki te kokowai, _he braided his hair with
feathers, and besmeared himself with red ochre_; _te tino_ haerenga,
so on _they started_.

 N.B.--Between _noa ake_ and _noa atu_ a distinction will sometimes be
 found not unlike that which obtains between the perfect and imperfect
 of English. _Noa ake_ will generally convey an allusion to some date,
 either present or past; _noa atu_ will most frequently refer to the
 past, without any such allusion; e. g., kua mate, _noa ake_, _he has
 been dead this some time_; kua mate _noa atu_, _he died a long time
 ago_; kua maoa, _noa ake_ te kai, _the food has been this long time
 cooked_; kua maoa _noa atu_, _it was cooked a long time ago_; kua mate
 _noa ake_ i reira, _he had been dead then some time_; kua mate _noa
 atu_ i reira, _he had been dead a long time previous to that date_.

For further illustrations of the adverbs as auxiliaries the student is
referred to chapter 9, pages 78, 79, &c. For the negative adverbs, as
employed with the verb, vid. next chapter.

_Of the Prepositions._--The use of these as auxiliaries is to supply
the place of the verb substantive when no verb is expressed in the
sentence; e. g., _naku_ tenei, _this is mine_; _kei_ hea? _where is
it?_ _I_ a au i runga, _when I was at the Southward_. The tenses they
denote, and those also which they admit after them, have been
mentioned, chapter 8. Other notices respecting them will be found in
the next chapter. For the pronouns as auxiliaries, vid. page 35.[40]

_Verbs which assume the form of a noun._--It has been already observed
that Maori inclines to the substantive form; and that such is only
natural will be obvious to anyone who will reflect that it is more
easy for an unpolished mind to conceive of things as existences, than
to trace them through the various modifications of act denoted in a
verb. In many instances, indeed, a New Zealander is compelled to adopt
this form, in consequence of the Maori verb not supplying any
satisfactory form for the infinitive mood, and the participles. That
these two parts of speech strongly partake of the nature of a noun is
well known; and we may therefore be prepared to find the forms for
denoting them in Maori exhibit a mixed character; i. e., to be a kind
of compound of the verb and the noun. It may be added, also, that, as
in some Latin authors, the infinitive mood is often used for the
finite verb;[41] so also, in Maori, will the verbal noun, especially
when a brief and animated mode of diction is desired, be found very
frequently to occupy the place of the verb.

The following examples illustrate the various modes in which the Maori
verb adopts the substantive form.

The student will observe that even passive verbs will submit to the
same operation, and receive the sign of the substantive, (viz. the
article) before them; e. g., Tenei au _te tu_ atu nei, _here am I_ THE
_standing towards (you)_; he kainga hou _te rapua_ nei, _a new country
is the being sought_, i. e., is what we are seeking for; ko koe _te_
korerotia nei, it is _you who are the being talked about_; _he noho_
aha tau? _what are you sitting for?_ kua oti _te keri_, _it is
finished, the being dug_; ka tata ahau _te patua_ e koe, _I am near,
the being beaten by you_; he mohio koe? _are you a knowing?_ i. e., do
you know anything about it?

The following are examples of _the verbal noun as used for the finite
verb_:--me he mea _ko te mahuetanga_ o to matou waka, _if it had been
the leaving of our canoe_, i. e., if our canoe had been left to us;
kei riri mai ia ki te kai; _te taunga_ iho--ko ia, ko tana waka, _lest
he (the God) be angry at the food (not having been given)--the
alighting (upon him, the priest), &c._, i. e., and should then alight
upon him, &c.; haere atu ana a Rona ki _te kawe_ wai, Ka pouri. _Te
kanganga_ ki te marama. Te _tino tikinga_ iho nei, ka tae ki a Rona,
_Rona_ (the man in the moon) _goes to fetch water. It is dark. The
cursing at the moon. The instant coming down to him, &c._, i. e., he
cursed at the moon, and she in anger came down to him.

 NOTE.--More examples of this very animated mode of narration might be
 easily adduced. The student will find several others scattered
 throughout this work. We may observe, also, that the very frequent
 use of this form by the natives constitutes one remarkable feature by
 which the language, as spoken by him, differs from that spoken by the
 foreigner.

As a further illustration of the way in which predication in Maori is
sometimes performed by the substantive, the following forms may be
mentioned:--_he mea whakamaori_ no te reo pakeha, _a thing translated
from the foreigner's tongue_, i. e., it was translated from, &c. Na
Hone tenei, _he mea ho atu na_ Pita,--_this is John's, it was
presented to him by Pita_: lit. it was a thing presented, &c. Akuanei,
he _noho atu te otinga_, _presently a remaining away will be the end_,
i. e., (we shall find that) he will remain away.

It should be also noted that the following verbs always take the
substantive form after them, viz., hohoro, oti, hei, and ahei, pau,
taea, tau, timata, heoi ano, kati, poto; e. g., timata _te mahi_,
_commence to work_; kati _te tahae_, _stop thieving, &c._

 NOTE.--These verbs, it would appear, deserve most justly the
 appellation of "auxiliaries," 1st, as they are real verbs; and 2ndly,
 as by their help we can approximate to many forms of the verb in
 other languages. For example, kua _oti te tiki_, mai, _has been_
 fetched hence; e kore e _ahei te korero_, cannot _divulge_.

The use of the verbal noun, it would appear, is very prevalent in
Oriental languages (vid. Lee Heb. Gram., second edition, p.p. 75 and
76, and Carey's Gram. of the Burman, also Humboldt on the Chinese, as
there quoted.) The following form, however, will often be found in
Maori to supersede it.

A noun, or pronoun, in the oblique case, will, frequently, in Maori,
take the finite verb after it;[42] e. g., e whakapono ana ahau ki a
_ia i mate_ i a _Ponotio Pirato_.

The expression "ki tana hekenga atu ki te reinga" is precisely the
same as "ki a ia i heke atu ki, &c." Again, _Noku i haere_ mai nei,
_since I arrived here_: lit., _from or of me_ (I mean) _came here_; ko
te rua tenei o nga wiki _o Hone, i hoki ai_, _this is the second week
since John returned_: lit., _this is the second week of John_ (I mean)
_returned_; _i a ia e ngaro ana_, _whilst he is hid_; _mo ratou_
kahore _i rongo_, _because they would not obey_: lit., _for them_ (I
mean) _their not having obeyed_.

Often, also, a noun, which, in English, would be in the nominative,
will, in Maori, be converted into the possessive; the verb following
as in the preceding rule; e. g., _naku i patu_, _I struck_: lit., _it
was mine_ (I mean) _the having struck it_; _maku e korero_, _I will
speak_: lit., _it will be for me_ (I mean) _the speaking_.

 It was most probably, through ignorance of this, and the preceding
 rule, that some good Maori speakers adopted the following very
 unsatisfactory analysis of the two examples first adduced:--"Naku i
 patu," they would translate, _it was struck by me_; "maku e korero,"
 _it shall be spoken by me_; and they thus explain them: _Na_ and _ma_
 mean _by_; and _patu_ and _korero_, though active in _form_, are
 passive in _meaning_. To this theory, however, there are strong
 objections. (1.) It cannot be shewn, except by examples derived from
 this class, that _na_ and _ma_ ever signify _by_; these words all must
 admit are the active form of _no_ and _mo_--the prepositions which
 denote the possessive case. (2.) It will altogether fail in those
 instances in which other prepositions, besides _na_ and _ma_ are
 found. In the following, for example:--"i a au e noho ana i reira,"
 _whilst I was sitting there_; nona i tango, _because he took it_, it
 will be seen that it is as difficult to determine the nominatives of
 "noho" and "tango" as it was to determine those of patu and korero in
 the other examples. Those who attend to the genius of the language
 (vid. preliminary remarks, pages 102 and 103, and Syntax of Nouns,
 sec. 3, page 114) will, we think, find but little difficulty in the
 question. They will see that there are no participles, adverbs, or
 relative pronouns, in Maori, and that, therefore, we must not be
 surprised at a construction which, though loose, is admirably adapted
 to supply the defect. That Maori has a peculiar love for the
 possessive form in predication, especially when a relative pronoun is
 understood, may be seen in the following examples[43]:--ko Tiaki anake
 _ta matou i kite_, _Tiaki was the only person that we saw_: lit.,
 Tiaki was our only one (actively) (I mean) saw; ka tohe ki _tana i pai
 ai_, _he holds out for what he desired_: lit., he holds out for his (I
 mean) desired; he mate _toku_, _I am sick_: lit., a sickness is mine;
 ka tika _tau_, you are right: lit., yours is right; _koe_ would not be
 here used; ko _taku noho_ tenei, a, po noa, _I will sit here till
 night_: lit., this is my sitting until night.

The leading meaning of _na_, and _ma_, and their corresponding
passives _no_, and _mo_, seems to be, of the one class, _present_, or
_past_, of the other _future possession_. And most of the examples
given in p.p. 63-67, of their various uses might be reduced to those
heads. Thus, "_no_ te mane i haere mai ai," means, literally, _it was
of the Monday_, (I mean,) _having come_. "_No_ reira i riri," it was
_of that cause_ (I mean,) _the having been angry_; _mo_ a mua haere
ai, _let it be for a future period_, (I mean,) _the going_, &c.

_Compound tenses._[44]--A compound tense is one whose time and
quality are modified by some other time or circumstance with which it
is connected.

Thus in the examples in page 38 _me i reira_ ahau _e_ pai _ana_,
_e_--_ana_, which taken _absolutely_, is present, now represents the
pluperfect potential; because it has a reference to _i reira_, a past
time, and to _me_, a particle denoting contingency. Again, in the
example, "akuanei tae rawa atu _kua_ mate; _kua_, taken absolutely,
refers to past time; but, here, it is taken _relatively_, and refers
to a future; i. e. to the time in which I may arrive; the sentence
meaning, literally, "presently, exactly as I shall have arrived, he is
dead." The expression _shall have been dead_, in English, all will
see, is a compound tense of a similar character, for it is compounded
of a future, and a past tense, and thus represents a _second future_.

We proceed to lay before the student some examples of the most
important combinations of time and mood. To exhibit all that are
possible would extend our work beyond its prescribed limits. Some
remarks on this subject have been already made in treating on the
verbal particles.


INDICATIVE MOOD.

_Present._--_Ka_ taka ki hea, _e_ haere mai _ana_? _they have reached
what place as they come along?_

_Imperfect tense._--_Rokahanga_ atu e au, _i re_ira _e_ noho _ana_,
_when I arrived he was sitting there_: lit., he is sitting, &c. _I_
mua _e_ pai _ana_, _formerly I liked_ (it): lit., I like, &c. _E_ pai
_ana i_ mua--id. _I_ pai ano _i_ mua--id. _Na_ reira _i_ kore ai ahau
_e_ pai, _that was the cause why I did not assent_: lit., thence _was_
I not, (I mean) _am_ pleased. _I_ ki hoki ia, a _kua_ oti; _i_ mea atu
ia, a, tu _tonu iho_, _he spake, and it was done; he commanded and it
stood fast_. _Heoi_ ahau me tenei tamaiti, _ka_ haere mai; _I was the
size of this child when I came here_.

_I hea_ koe i mua, _ka_ kimi? _where were you before that you did not
look for it?_

Nei hoki, _kua_ ora, haere _ana_ ki Taranaki, _but he recovered, and
went to Taranaki_; _kua_ mea atu ra hoki; _e_ ki mai _ana_, _why I
said so, he replies_, i. e., _replied_.

_Perfect tense._--_Ka_ wha nga wiki _e_ ngaro _ana_, (or _ka_ ngaro
_nei_;) _it has been lost these last four weeks_: lit., _these_ ARE
_four weeks_ IT IS _lost_.

_I_ konei te kuri _e_ kai _ana_, mei te huruhuru, _a dog has been
eating a fowl here, as we may judge from the feathers_. _No_ku _ka_
mate, _since I have been poorly_.

_Pluperfect tense._--_Kihai_ i hinga _ka_ waiho e korua, _it had not
fallen when you left it_, lit., it did not fall, you leave it. _I_ a
koe _kua_ riro, _after you had gone_, (vid. our remarks on _kua_,
page 153 for other examples.)

_First future tense._--_Ma_ Ngatiwhatua _e_ takitaki to maua mate, ka
ea, _Ngatiwhatua will avenge our murder, (and) a satisfaction will be
obtained_.

_Akuanei_, rangona _rawatia_ mai, _e_ hoko _ana_ ano koe, _presently,
I_ SHALL _hear that you_ ARE STILL _purchasing_: lit., presently,
exactly as it has been heard, you are, &c.

_Kua_ mate ahau, _e_ ora _ana_ ano nga rakau nei, _these trees will
live longer than I_: lit., I died, these trees are still alive.

_Second future tense._--Vid. pag. 37.


POTENTIAL AND SUBJUNCTIVE MOODS.

_Present and imperfect._--(For examples of these vid. on _e_ page 136,
on _ka_ 138, and on _ai_ 146), _ko_ ahau _kia_ mate, ko ia _kia_ ora;
vid. on _kia_ (§. c. 1,) also our remarks on ahei, taea, &c., as
auxiliaries.

_Pluperfect._--_Kua_ riro au, na te mate o taku kotiro _i_ noho ai, _I
would have gone; but I remained in consequence of the sickness of my
daughter_: lit., I departed, my daughter's sickness was the cause of
my having remained; _e_ noho _ana_, _na_ Hone _i_ ngare, _he would
have stopped, but John sent him_: lit., he is remaining, John sent
him; _E_ murua a Hone, _naku i_ ora ai, _John would have been
plundered, but I saved him_; _me i_ kahore ahau _kua_ mate, _if it had
not been for me, he would have died_; _kua_ hemo ke ahau, _me_ i
_kaua_ ahau te whakapono, _I should have fainted if I had not
believed_; penei _kua_ ora, _in that case he would have been saved_;
_ka_ hua ahau, _i_ haere _ai_, _e_ rongo; _I thought that they would
have listened (which) was the cause of (my) having gone_; _ma_ku i
runga _e_ kore e marere, _when I am at the Southward (it) is never
granted_; ma raua e rere e kore e hohoro a Raiana, _when they both
run, Lion does not make haste_; me i maku e keri, keihea? _if it had
not been for me to dig it where (should I have been now)?_ i. e., I
should have dug to a vast distance.[45]

The following combinations of times are incorrect: _i_ te mea _i_
arahina nga Hurai, _while the Jews were being led_; it should be _e_
arahina _ana_. _I_ kite hoki ratou i a ia, a, _i_ rere, _for they saw
him and fled_; it should be, _a_, rere _ana_. To ratou taenga atu ki
te pa, i reira ano mahara ana ratou ki a ia, _and when they had
reached the pa, they then recognised him_; it should be na, _ka_
mahara, &c. Ma Hone _e_ whakaki o koutou peke, _pera_ hoki me o matou,
_John will fill your bags as full as ours_; it should be, _kia penei
me o matou_. It may be here noted that when two tenses are connected
together, not in the way of government, but are rather in apposition
with each other, the latter will generally be the same as, or at least
correspond to, the former; e. g., the following constructions are
erroneous:--_Korerotia_ atu, _mea ana_, _speak, saying_; it should be,
_meatia_. A ki atu _ana_ a Hone, ka _mea_; it should be, mea _ana_. Ka
tahi ahau _i_ kite, _now for the first time have I seen_; it should be
_ka_ kite.

 NOTE.--Sometimes, however, we meet with exceptions to this rule: (1)
 when there is a clear case for the operation of epanorthosis; (2)
 when the particles _a_ or _na_ intervene.

The character of the sentence will sometimes be found to affect the
time of the verb; as, for example, in animated narration, where a
large measure of certainty, or when contingency is to be denoted, &c.;
e. g., Kihai i u ki uta, _kua_ tae ki te whare, _kua_ totoro ki te
maripi, ki te paoka, _E_ kai _ana_, _he had not landed, before he_ HAD
_reached the house_, HAD _stretched out (his hand) to the knife and
fork, (he) is eating_, i. e., immediately as soon as he landed he
began to eat; E pa ma, kia kaha, Kahore kua u, _My friends be strong,
(in pulling the oar), O no, we have landed_, i. e., we are close to
shore. A request or command, given to be conveyed to another, will
often be put into the imperative, just as if the individual, to whom
the request, &c., is to be delivered, were really present; e. g., Mea
atu ki a Hone, _Taihoa e haere_, _say to John, Don't go for a while_.
E kite koe i a te Keha, _Haere mai_, _if you see Keha_ (say to him),
_Come here_.

 NOTE.--This form is generally adopted when the speaker wishes to be
 animated and abrupt. Sometimes, as in the first example, it is the
 only form admissible.

_Verbs associated to qualify each other._--It should here also be
noted that when two verbs are associated together, the latter of which
is modified in meaning by the former, in a way somewhat similar to
that in which the infinitive in Latin is modified by its governing
verb, the two verbs will, generally, be in the same tense and voice;
e. g., _Kua_ haere, _kua_ koroheke hoki, _he has begun to get old_,
lit., he is gone, he is old; _kei_ anga koe, _kei_ korero, _don't you
go and say, &c._; _e_ aratakina _ana_, e patua _ana_, _it is led to be
killed_.

_Repetition of Verbs._--The same verb will frequently be repeated in
Maori when _contingency_, _intensity_, _distribution_, _diversity_,
_&c._, are intended, and, particularly, when the speaker desires to be
impressive and emphatic; e. g., Ko te mea i tupono i tupono: ko te mea
i kahore i kahore, _(the karakia Maori) is all a work of chance:
sometimes there is a successful hit, sometimes a failure_, lit., that
which hit the mark hit it, that which did not did not; e pakaru ana, e
pakaru ana ki tana mahi _(it does not much signify) if it breaks, it
is broken in his service_; okioki, okioki atu ki a i a, _trust, trust
in him_, i. e., place your whole trust in, &c.; haere ka haere, kai ka
kai, _in all his goings, in all his eatings_, i. e., whenever he
walks, or eats, (_he retains the same practice_); heoi ano ra, heoi
ano, _that is all about it, that is all about it_; hapai ana, hapai
ana, _raise both ends at the same time_; i. e., _while you raise, I
raise_.

 NOTE.--A similar usage obtains in other parts of the language; e. g.,
 ko wai, ko wai te haere? _who, who is to go?_ ko tera tera, _that is
 another_, or _a different one_; he kanohi he kanohi, _face to face_;
 ko Roka ano Roka, ko ahau ano ahau? _are Roka_ (my wife) _and I
 different persons?_ lit., Is Roka Roka, and (am) I I?

Sometimes the former verb will assume the form of the verbal noun; e. g.,
te haerenga i haere ai, _the going with which he went_, i. e., so
on he proceeded; na, ko te tino riringa i riri ai, _so he was very
angry_.

 NOTE.--The learned student need not be reminded of the remarkable
 parallel which Maori finds to the four last rules in Hebrew. From
 this cause it will be sometimes found that an exactly literal
 translation will be more idiomatic than another. Thus Gen. 1, 7,
 "dying thou shalt die" could not be rendered more idiomatic than if
 it be done literally: "na, ko te matenga e mate ai koe."

_Of the Passive Verbs._--It has been already observed (p.p. 49, 56)
that passive verbs are often used in Maori in a somewhat more extended
sense than is met with in most languages. It may naturally, therefore,
be expected that their use should be more frequent than that of active
verbs: and such we believe to be the case,--Maori seeming to incline
peculiarly to the passive mode or form of statement, especially in the
secondary clauses of a sentence. Independently of other uses which
they subserve, (such as often supplying a more animated style of
narration, being sometimes the more convenient--as being the more
loose or general--mode in which to advance a sentiment, &c.), there
are two of considerable importance which may be here noticed. 1st.
They are most frequently employed when the relative pronoun is
understood, and are generally equivalent to the active verb with _ai_
or _nei_, _&c._, after it; e. g., nga mahi i wakahaua e ia, _the works
which were ordered by him_. The active form here, without _ai_ after
it, would be seldom used. Vid. also, the examples p.p. 49, 51. 2ndly.
They sometimes supply the place of a preposition; e. g., he aha te mea
e _omakia_ nei? _what is the matter_ ABOUT WHICH _it is being run?_ Te
tangata i _korerotia_ nei, _the man about whom we were talking_. The
following sentence, ka korero ahau ki te whakapakoko, literally means,
_I will talk to the image_; it should have been, ka korero_tia_ te
whakapakoko. This usage, however, does not extend to all the
prepositions; and, when some of them are understood, the verb will
require _ai_ after it. The following sentence, for example, is
erroneous: te tangata e kainga ana te poaka,_the man by whom the pig
is eaten_; it should be _e_ kai _ana_, or _e_ kai _nei_, or _e_ kainga
_ai_.

Constructions will not unfrequently be found in which the active form
usurps the place of the passive, and vice versa; e. g., Ko tena kua
hohoro te _horoi_, _let that be first washed_; kua _tahu_ te kai o te
kainga nei, _the food of the settlement has been kindled_, i. e., the
oven is kindled for cooking; Kei te _uta_ to matou waka, _our canoe is
loading_; Ko tehea te _patu_? _which is to be killed?_ ko tera kua
_panga_ noa ake, _that has been much longer on the fire_: lit., has
been thrown; taria e _kawhaki_ te poti, _let not the boat be taken
away (by you) for a while_; he mea _tiki_, _a thing fetched_; kua oti
te _keri_, _it is finished, the being dug_; me _wero_ e koe, _it must
be_ (or, _let it be_) _stabbed by you_; ka timata tena whenua, te
_tua_, _that land has commenced_ (I mean) _the being felled_; kei
reira, a Hone e _tanu_ ana, _there John (lies) buried_; _Ka te arai_
taku ahi e koe, _my fire is being stopped up by you_, i. e., you are
intercepting the communication, &c.; kia rua nga waka e _hoe_ mai e
koe, _let there be two canoes that will be paddled here by you_. The
following form is not frequent:--kei te atawhaitia, _it the (pig) is
being taken care of_; kei te takina te kai, _the food is being taken
off (the fire)_. When ambiguity might arise from the object of the
action being considered as the _agent_, the passive form is almost
always used; e. g., ka poto nga tangata o reira _te kitea_, _when all
the men of that place have been seen_; ka tata tena tangata te nehua,
_that man is near being buried_.

_Neuter Verbs which assume the passive form._--Some neuter verbs
assume the passive form (1) without any material alteration of
meaning; e. g., ka _hokia_ he huanga, _if it is come backwards and
forwards to you, it is because I am a relation_.[46] (2.) Most
frequently, however, they derive a transitive meaning from the change.
Thus, in the example already adduced, page 50, horihori, _to tell
falsehoods_; te mea i horihoria e koe he tangata, _the thing which you
erroneously said was a man_. Again,--Tangi, _to cry_: te tupapaku e
_tangihia_ nei, _the corpse which is being cried_, i. e., which is the
subject of the crying; he tangata haurangi, _a mad person_; te tangata
i haurangitia nei, _a person for whom another is bewildered_.

[38] It is true that when _kua_ represents the pluperfect, or the
priority of one action to another, it may be frequently found in
connexion with _ko_. But this, we think, is a further confirmation of
the distinction for which we contend. For the expression "_he had
loved us_" is clearly more definite than "_he loved us_,"--the former
implying that that affection had been entertained _before some past
act_,--the latter simply affirming that it was entertained, without
reference to any date. _Ko_ we defined, page 106, as the article of
specification and emphasis, and it is quite natural that it should be
associated with a perfect to denote a pluperfect,--its office, in such
a construction, being to point out the individual who may be
emphatically said to _have_ performed the act--whose was the act which
was antecedent, or past. The sentence "ko ia kua atawhai," means _he
is the person who was first kind_. This emphatic use of the word _ko_
has been already illustrated under the head of _comparison,
adjectives_; the sentence "_ko_ tenei te nui o nga rakau" meaning
_this is the large one of the trees_; i. e., this is the one of which
we may (emphatically) say, _It is large_. So, also, in the
following,--"akuanei _ko_ Hone _kua_ tae," the meaning is _presently_,
it will be John who (emphatically) HAS GOT _there_; i. e., John will
have got there first.

[39] The student will see in this, and the other examples, that the
noun, as is very usual in Maori, assumes the form of a verb. To
translate literally such verbs into English is often impossible.

[40] Following is a connected view of some of the principal means by
which the defect of the substantive verb is _sup_plied or _im_plied,
in Maori: he kuri tenei _this_ is _a dog_. Tenei a Hone, _This is
John_. Tika rawa, _it is very correct_. Ki te _whai_ hau i te po nei,
_if there be wind in the night_, _&c._ Ki te _wa_ hau, &c., _idem_. Ka
_ai_ au hei kianga mai mau, I _am for an ordering for you_, i. e., You
find in me one that will obey, &c. _Waiho_, and sometimes _meinga_,
are often used instead of _ai_. E _ai_ ki tana, _it is according to
his_, i. e., as he affirms.

The following form is worthy of notice, Rokohanga rawatanga atu e
ahau, _ko_ Raiana! _on my reaching (that place)_ there WAS _Lion_;
rokohanga atu, _ko_ te tahi tangata o Taupo i Maungatautari e noho
ana, _when I got (there) there was a man of, &c._ Taku hoenga ki roto
_ko_ te waka o Hone, _as I was paddling up the river, lo, there was
the canoe of John, &c._ Some foreigners, we observe, use tera taua for
this form. We have never heard anything like it in Waikato. _Hei te_
and _ki te_ (vid. page 62) will often, also, seem to lose their
distinctive meaning in that of the verb substantive; e. g., _hei te_
pera me tou, _let it be like yours_.

[41] It will also be recollected that the gerunds and participles
will, in that language, often subserve the same office. Thus we have,
ante domandum, _before they are tamed_; urit videndo, _he burns when
he looks_; cum Epicurus voluptate metiens summum bonum, _whereas
Epicurus who measures the chief good by pleasure_.

[42] This is an exception to what we find in English, and other
languages, the finite verb in them being very seldom found after an
oblique case; i. e., after any case beside the nominative, unless the
relative, or the personal pronoun with some conjunction, intervene. We
may observe, also, that the verbal particles will be often prefixed to
other words beside the verb; e. g., e kore koe e pai _kia mau_ e
hanga? _Are you not willing that you should do it?_ _kia mou_ ai te
kainga, _that the land should be yours_.

[43] That the English language had once a similar tendency might, we
think, be shewn by many examples. Thus we hear, "_have_ pity on me,"
"_have_ her forth," "I _have_ remembrance of thee in my prayer." Many
of our tenses, also, are formed by this auxiliary; e. g., "_I have
seen_," "he _had_ gone," "I would _have_ loved, &c." The frequent use,
also, of this form in the Greek may be seen in Donnegan's Greek
Lexicon, under "_echo_," to hold.

[44] As the English language supplies but few illustrations of this
mode of construction, we will here lay before the student some
extracts from Professor Lee's Hebrew Grammar, as well to shew how much
this usage obtains in Oriental languages, as to enable him to enter
more readily into the subject. Professor L. says, page 328, "any
writer commencing his narrative, will necessarily speak of past,
present, or future events with reference to the period in which his
statement is made." This, he says, is the "_absolute_ use of the
tense." Again, "A person may speak of those events with reference to
some other period, or event, already introduced into the context. This
is the _relative_ use--Hence, a preterite connected with another
preterite will be equivalent to our pluperfect; a present following a
preterite to our imperfect, and so on." Again, page 330, "They, the
Arabians, consider the present tense as of two kinds; one they term
the _real present_, which is what our grammarians always understand by
the _present tense_. The other they term _the present as to the
narration_; by which they mean the time contemporary with any event,
and which may therefore be considered as present _with it_, although
past, present, or future with regard to the _real_ or _absolute_
present tense." In page 334 is a good illustration from the Persian:
"last night I _go_ to the house of a friend, and there _see_ a
delightful assembly, and _enjoy_ a most pleasing spectacle." The
student will see in the above example that _go_, _see_, and _enjoy_,
are _relative presents_, being presents to _last night_, the time in
which the speaker, in his imagination, now places himself. This mode
of construction abounds in the O. and N. T., vid., for example, Mark
xiv., _he saw Levi and says to him_. _Says_, here, is present to
_saw_, though past to the time of the narration.

[45] NOTE.--The student is recommended to notice the various forms
contained in the preceding table, and to endeavour to add to them from
his own observation. It would also be most useful to throw into one
form all the various examples of simple and compound times that he
will find in pages 37, 41, to 44, as well also as those contained in
the preceding part of this chapter.

[46] The passive verbs wheterongia, titahangia, &c., to which we
allude, page 39, note, may, we think, on reflection, be most correctly
reduced to this head.



CHAPTER XX.

OF THE PREPOSITIONS, ADVERBS, AND CONJUNCTIONS.


These have been considered at large in chapters 8, 9, 10, 11, and
require now but little notice. We proceed to consider the prepositions
which follow the verbs, and to offer a few other remarks respecting
them.

_Verbal postfixes._--An active verb will (as was observed page 60)
take _i_ after it, to denote the object of the action. Sometimes,
however, _ki_ will be found to supply its place; e. g., mohio _ki_ a
ia, matau _ki_ a ia, wehi _ki_ a ia, whakaaro _ki_ tena mea, karanga
_ki_ a ia, kua mau _ki_ te pu, _seized his gun_. Whiwhi _ki_ te toki,
_obtain an axe_, _&c._

Between these two prepositions, however, as verbal postfixes, there is
often a very important difference; e. g., na ka whakatiki ahau _i_ a
ia _ki_ te kai, _so I deprived him of food_, i. e., I withheld food
from him; na te aha koe i kaiponu ai _i_ to paraikete _ki_ a au? _why
did you withhold your blanket_ FROM _me?_ he pakeha hei whakawhiwhi
_i_ a matou _ki_ te kakahu, _an European to make us possess clothes_;
ki te hoko atu _i_ taku poaka _ki_ te tahi paraikete moku, _to sell my
pig for a blanket for myself_. Europeans generally employ _mo_, but
erroneously. Sometimes other prepositions will occupy the place of
_i_; ka haere ahau ki te whangai i taku kete riwai _ma_ taku poaka, _I
will go feed my basket of potatoes for my pig_, i. e., I will feed my
pigs with my basket of potatoes; hei patu moku, _to strike me
with_,--a form similar to hei patu _i_ a au.

 NOTE.--Verbal nouns will take the same case as their roots.
 Occasionally no sign of case will follow the active verb, (1) when
 the verb is preceded by such auxiliaries as taea, pau, taihoa, &c.,
 e. g., e kore e taea e ahau te hopu tena poaka, _it cannot be
 accomplished by me (I mean) the catching that pig_; or, e kore e taea
 tena _poaka_ e au, te _hopu_. (2.) When the verb is preceded by the
 particle _me_, or by the prepositions _na_ and _ma_; e. g., _me_ hopu
 _te poaka_ e koe, _the pig must be caught by you_; _na_ku i hopu
 _tena_, _the having caught that (pig) was mine_. To this rule,
 exceptions are sometimes heard.

_Neuter Verbs_ will sometimes take an accusative case of the noun
proper to their own signification; e. g., e karakia ana _i tana
karakia_, _he is praying his prayers_; e kakahu ana i ona, _he is
garmenting his clothes_; i. e., is putting them on.

 NOTE.--Considerable variation will be found in the
 prepositions which follow such verbs as heoi, ka tahi, &c.; e. g.,
 heoi ano te koti pai _nou_, _the only good coat is yours_; ka tahi
 ano te koti pai, _nou_, _idem_; manawa te tangata korero teka, _he_
 pakeha (Taranaki), _a European is the greatest person for telling
 falsehoods_; ka tahi ano taku tangata kino, _ko koe_ (or _ki_ a koe,
 or _kei_ a koe); ka tahi ano tenei huarahi ka takahia _ki_ a koe,
 _you are the first person who has trodden this path_; if it had been
 _e_ koe, the meaning would have been _you now for the first TIME walk
 this road_; often, also, the preposition will be omitted, and the
 noun put into the nominative; e. g., noho rawa atu _he_ whenua ke,
 _settled in a foreign land_; ka whakamoea atu _he_ tangata ke, _given
 in marriage to another man_; te huihuinga mai o Mokau, o whea, o
 whea, _ko_ te Wherowhero, _the musterings of Mokau, &c., &c., are to
 Wherowhero_, i. e., Wherowhero is the grand object of interest.

Between _i_ and _ki_ when following neuter verbs, or adjectives, there
is often a considerable difference; e. g., mate _ki_, _desirous of_;
mate _i_, _killed by_; kaha i te kino, _stronger_ THAN _sin_, i. e.,
overcoming it; kaha _ki_ te kino, _strong_ IN _sinning_; ngakau kore
_ki_ tana kupu, _disinclined to, &c._; ngakau kore _i_, _discouraged
by_.

Foreigners often err in the use of these, and other prepositions; e. g.,
i a ia _ki_ reira, _while he was there_; it should be, _i_ reira.
E aha ana ia _ki_ reira? What is he doing there? it should be _i_
reira. Kati _ki_ kona; it should be _i_ kona. E mea ana ahau kia kai
_i_ te Onewhero, _I am thinking of taking a meal at Onewhero_; it
should be, _ki_ te Onewhero. Hei a wai ranei te pono? hei a Maihi
ranei, hei a Pita ranei? _with whom is the truth? with Marsh or with
Peter?_ it should be, _I_ a wai, &c. He aha te tikanga o taua kupu nei
kei a Matiu? _what is the meaning of that expression in Matthew?_ it
should be _i_ a Matiu. Again,--kahore he mea _no_ te kainga nei hei
kai, _there is nothing in this settlement for food_; it should be, _o_
te kainga nei. Enei kupu _no_ te pukapuka, _these words of the book_;
it should be, _o_ te pukapuka. Ko nga mea katoa _no_ waho, _all the
things outside_; it should be _o_ waho. He kahore urupa _o_ Kawhia i
kawea mai ai ki konei? _Was there no grave in Kawhia that you brought
him here?_ it should be, _no_ Kawhia. Again,--he mea tiki _i_ toku
whare, _a thing fetched from my house_. The meaning of this, as it
stands, is "a thing to fetch my house;" it should be, _no_ toku whare,
as in the following proverb: "he toka hapai mai _no_ nga whenua." In
constructions like these, the agent will take either _e_ or _na_
before it, but most frequently the latter. In some tribes to the
Southward of Waikato, the following form is in common use:--he pakeke
ou, _yours are hardnesses_, i. e., you are a hard person; he makariri
oku i te anu, _I have colds from the cold (air)_. The singular forms
_tou_ and _toku_ are mostly used in Waikato, or the preposition _no_;
e. g., he pakeke _nou_, and makariri _noku_, or TOKU.

Prepositions are sometimes used where a foreigner would expect a
verbal particle; e. g., _Kei_ te takoto a Hone, _John is lying down_;
_i te_ mate ahau, _I was poorly_; _No_ te tarai ahau i tena wahi, _I
have been hoeing that place_. This form belongs chiefly to Ngapuhi. Ka
tae te pakeke o te oneone nei! kahore _i te_ kohatu! How hard this
soil is! it is not at a stone, i. e., it is like a stone. Kahore ahau
_i te_ kite, _I don't see_. This last form is used chiefly in the
districts Southward of Waikato.

_Adverbs._--Most of the adverbs will (as was observed, page 85) assume
the form of the word with which they are connected; e. g., rap_u_
mar_ie_, rap_ua_ marie_tia_, rapu_nga_ marie_tanga_, _&c._ In some
districts, however, they will assume the form of the verbal noun,
after the passive voice; e. g., rapua marie_tanga_. Instances will,
also, occasionally be found in all parts of the island in which they
undergo no change; e. g., whiua _pena_, _throw it in that direction_.
Whiua _penatia_ is, _throw it in that manner_.

_Negative Adverbs._--Most of these will, when in connexion with the
verb, take a verbal particle before, or after, them; e. g., _hore_
rawa _kia_ pai; kahore i pai, or (sometimes), kahore _e_ pai; kihai
_i_[47] pai; _e_ kore _e_ pai; aua _e_ haere, kiano _i_ haere noa, _e_
hara i a au, _it is not mine_, or, _it is different from me_ (i. e.,
it was not I), &c.

_Kihai i_ and _kahore i_ are most frequently used indifferently one
for the other. An experienced speaker will, however, we think,
sometimes notice points of difference, and particularly that _kihai i_
is most frequently employed when reference is made to an act previous
to a past act, and _kahore i_ when some allusion is made to the
present time. Thus, in the following sentence, nau i kai nga kai
_kihai nei i_ tika kia kainga e te mea noa, we should prefer _kahore
nei i_ to denote _which_ WAS _not, and_ IS _not, lawful to be eaten by
a person not tapu_. In Waikato, haunga with kahore sometimes governs a
genitive case; e. g., _Kahore haunga o_ tena. Kahore, when it takes a
possessive case after it, will require it to be in the plural number;
e. g., Kahore _aku_ moni, _I have no money_, lit., there is a
negativeness of my monies. So also the particle _u_, vid. page 93.

In answering a question, the answer will always be regulated by the
way in which the question is put, e. g., Kahore i pai? _ae_; _Was he
not willing? Yes_; i. e., Yes, he was not willing. If the answer was
intended to be affirmative, the speaker would have said "I pai ano."

[47] Some foreigners, we observe, omit the _i_ after _kihai_, when it
immediately follows it. That this error, however, arises from the _I_
being blended into the ai of _kihai_ in the pronunciation is clear
from its being distinctly heard when a word intervenes to prevent
elision, as in the following example:--_kihai_ ahau _i_ pai.



TESTIMONIALS TO THE FIRST EDITION.


The author cannot conclude without returning many acknowledgments to
those kind friends who have encouraged and assisted him in the
prosecution of this work. The following favorable notices from some of
their communications are here submitted to the reader's inspection.

 "For the purpose of advancing towards a more correct and idiomatic
 knowledge of the Maori, I have found, and do daily find, its
 assistance quite invaluable. Your exertions to supply a deficiency
 which was keenly felt by every student of the Maori tongue cannot
 fail to be highly appreciated, both here and at home."--_W. Martin,
 Esq., Chief Justice of New Zealand._

 "It is the only work that has ever been published that is calculated
 to give a sound and critical knowledge of Maori. I have constant
 reference to it in the publication of the Maori _Gazette_, and at all
 times find it an invaluable assistant."--_George Clarke, Esq.,
 Aboriginal Protector._

 "To allow you to suffer loss by the publication of your valuable
 grammar, would be to suffer our justice to be called in
 question."--_Rev. A. N. Brown, sen., Church Missionary of the
 Southern District._

 "I wish you could afford to carry on your work to another part, and
 take in prosody, the native waiatas, proverbs, &c.; but I must not
 dictate. You have done well, and your work deserves the praise and
 encouragement of every one who feels an interest in the natives and
 their language."--_Rev. J. Whiteley, sen. Wesleyan Missionary of the
 Southern District._

 "I think you deserve great credit for your performance, and am sure
 that when the language is more known you will hear it. May I thank
 you to set my name down as a subscriber for twenty copies of the
 whole work."--_Rev. O. Hadfield, Senior Church Missionary of the Port
 Nicholson District._


FINIS.


Transcriber's Note (continued):

Page 9, "Matou & Tatau" changed to "Matou & Matau" and "Ratou & Tatau"
to "Ratou & Ratau".

Page 15, "kĭa" changed to "kiă"; footnote 5, "oho" changed to
"oha".

Page 19, "ko'iro" changed to "kotiro".

Page 24, "K" changed to "Ka".

Page 32, "taegata" changed to "tangata".

Page 53, "?kore" transcribed as "Pakore".

Page 54 footnote 13, "a?ero" transcribed as "arero".

Page 61, "mal" changed to "mai".

Page 64, "nohea" changed to "no hea".

Page 109, "i?" transcribed as "ia".

Page 113, "Wherowhoro" changed to "Wherowhero".

Page 118, "is" changed to "ia" (twice).





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Grammar of the New Zealand language (2nd edition)" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home