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Title: Abstracts of Papers Read at the First International Eugenics Congress - University of London, July, 1912
Author: Various
Language: English
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FIRST INTERNATIONAL EUGENICS CONGRESS***


available by Preservation Department, Kelvin Smith Library, Case Western
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Transcriber's note:

      Text enclosed by underscores is in italics (_italics_).

      Text enclosed by equal signs is in bold face (=bold=).

      Text enclosed by plus signs is underscored (+underscored+).

      Male and Female symbols are shown as [M] and [F]
      respectively and denoting physical defects as [M-] and
      [F-] respectively.

      Subscripted numbers are enclosed by curly brackets
      following a single underscore (example: F_{2}).



ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS READ AT THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL EUGENICS CONGRESS,

[Illustration]

University of London.
July, 1912.

English.



Charles Knight & Co., Ltd., 227-239, Tooley Street, London, S.E.



CONTENTS.


  Section I.

  Biology and Eugenics.

                                                                      PAGE

    I.    Variation and Heredity in Man                                  5
              G. SERGI.

    II.   On the Increase of Stature in Certain European Populations     6
              SOREN HANSEN.

    III.  The So-called Laws of Inheritance in Man                       7
              V. GUIFFRIDA-RUGGERI.

    IV.   The Inheritance of Fecundity                                   8
              RAYMOND PEARL.

    V.    Ethnic Psychology and the Science of Eugenics                  9
              ENRICO MORSELLI.

    VI.   The Inheritance of Epilepsy                                   10
              DAVID F. WEEKS.

    VII.  The Influence of the Age of Parents on the Psycho-Physical
            Characters of the Offspring                                 12
              ANTONIO MARRO.

    VIII. Genetics and Eugenics                                         15
              R. C. PUNNETT.


  Section II.

  Practical Eugenics.

    I.    General Considerations upon "Education before Procreation"    17
              A. PINARD.

    II.   Practical Organization of Eugenic Action                      18
              LOUIS QUERTON.

    III.  Marriage Laws and Customs                                     19
              C. B. DAVENPORT.

    IV.   Eugenic Selection and the Origin of Defects                   20
              FRÉDÉRIC HOUSSAY.

    V.    Preliminary Report of the Committee of Eugenics Section of
            the American Breeders' Association upon the Best Practical
            Means for Cutting off the Defective Germ Plasm              21
              B. VAN WAGENEN.


  Section IIa.

  Education and Eugenics.

    VI.   Eugenics and the New Social Consciousness                     22
              S. G. SMITH.

    VII.  Practical Eugenics in Education                               23
              F. C. S. SCHILLER.


  Section III.

  Sociology and Eugenics.

    I.    The Psycho-Physical Elite and the Economic Elite              24
              ACHILLE LORIA.

    II.   The Cause of the Inferiority of Physical and Mental
            Characters in the Lower Social Classes                      26
              ALFREDO NICEFORO.

    III.  The Fertility of Marriages according to Profession and
            Social Position                                             27
              LUCIEN MARCH.

    IV.   Eugenics and Militarism                                       28
              VERNON L. KELLOGG.

    V.    Eugenics in Party Organization                                29
              R. MICHELS.

    VI.   The Influence of Race on History                              30
              W. C. D. and C. D. WHETHAM.

    VII.  Some Inter-Relations between Eugenics and Historical Research 31
              F. A. WOODS.

    VIII. Demographical Contributions to the Problems of Eugenics       32
              C. GINI.

    IX.   Maternity Statistics of the State of Rhode Island, State
            Census of 1905                                              34
              F. L. HOFFMANN.


  Section IV.

  Medicine and Eugenics.

    I.    The Prophylaxis of Hereditary Syphilis and its Eugenic Effect 36
              H. HALLOPEAU.

    II.   Alcohol and Eugenics                                          37
              A. MJOËN.

    III.  Alcoholism and Degeneracy                                     38
              M. MAGNAN AND M. FILLASSIER.

    IV.   Eugenics and Obstetrics                                       39
              AGNES BLUHM.

    V.    Heredity and Eugenics in Relation to Insanity                 40
              F. W. MOTT.

    VI.   The Place of Eugenics in the Medical Curriculum               42
              H. E. JORDAN.

    VII.  A Healthy Sane Family showing Longevity in Catalonia          43
              I. VALENTI VIVO.

    VIII. Some Remarks on Backward Children                             43
              RAOUL DUPUY.



Section I.

Biology and Eugenics.



VARIATION AND HEREDITY IN MAN. (Abstract.)

By Professor G. Sergi, _Professor of Anthropology, Rome_.


In his paper Professor G. Sergi wishes to show that in man after his
morphological characteristics are established there occur no profound
variations to change the typical forms which are naturally persistent.

The principal discussion concerns the different forms of the skull
which are important as characteristics of race. Professor Sergi
distinguishes in the human skull two principal and primordial forms:
the dolichomorphic and the brachymorphic are both very ancient, as they
are found contemporaneously in European human fossils. Consequently
he attacks the idea of the transformation of one form into another.
He does not find it demonstrated that the dolichomorphic type is
transformed into the brachymorphic, and considers the causes adduced
for this supposed transformation insufficient. It is neither the
effect of environment of the plains or of the mountains, or the
climatic influence of extreme cold, or the increase of volume of the
brain supposed to be due to greater cerebral activity owing to a more
developed culture, that the form of the skull is transformed into
another type. All these suppositions are contrary to facts, because
dolichomorphic and brachymorphic skulls are found alike in mountain and
plain, in northern and southern regions, among primitive and civilized
populations, in fact without any distinction.

The mutations that are believed to be found in the different
populations are due to the effect of intermixture and penetration of
new demographical elements, and not to the transformation of forms.
That is also proved by the crossing of the two different human types
from which no intermediary forms are derived: but instead there occurs
in the heredity a segregation analagous to that under the Mendelian
theory. If this were not so, to-day after many thousands of years of
intermixture of the most diverse races, there would be but a single
form derived from transformation; the demonstration of the facts proves
that this has not occurred.

There is a great persistence in human physical forms, the variability
is minimum after the formation of the races, and does not effect the
changes of type.

The same fact can be noticed for the external characteristics of man,
such as the colour of the skin, the colour and form of the hair, and
the colour of the iris. It is solely in the crossings that there can be
intermediary formations which have not indefinite heredity, because the
segregation of characteristics takes place also in this case.

But the studies and observations on this matter are still incomplete,
especially according to the Mendelian theory, and there is need of new
and careful observation.

As to the pathological inheritance, there exist facts that confirm it
in a general way, but the laws under which this heredity occurs have
not been fully verified.



ON THE INCREASE OF STATURE IN CERTAIN EUROPEAN POPULATIONS.

(Abstract.)

By Soren Hansen, M.D.,

_Director of the Danish Anthropological Survey, Copenhagen._


The improvement in stature in many European countries during the past
50 years is generally ascribed simply to improved hygienic and economic
conditions, but the question is really very intricate. The presence of
different racial elements, social selection with its tendency to draw
the well-made into towns, and the falling death-rate, etc., complicate
the investigations. In all countries there is a great lack of truly
comparable data from earlier years. The British Inter-Departmental
Committee on Physical Deterioration, for example, though it collected
an enormous amount of material, was unsuccessful in its endeavours to
solve the main question. Single cases, e.g., the comparison of factory
children with the boys of the York Quaker school (Anthropometric
Committee, Brit. Ass. 1883), are certainly of great interest, but how
can such cases be taken to represent the average?

Other countries possess a rich source of information in their
conscription lists. Thus, in Denmark these lists show an unmistakable
increase of 3.7 cm. (1-1/2 inch) in the average height of the adult
Dane during the past 50-60 years. Similar increases are noted from
Norway, Sweden and Holland. This increase suggests that there may have
been more or less periodic waves of increase and decrease in height,
since, on the one hand, we cannot imagine such an increase continuing
indefinitely, and on the other, we know that the men of, say, 1000
years ago were quite as tall as they are at present. What are the
agencies alternately improving or impairing the racial qualities? First
of all, have we sufficiently exact, numerical information regarding the
racial qualities?

A critical examination of all available data is very necessary. For
example, the weight of new-born children is stated to have increased
in England by 59 and 82 grams during the past 20 years, and in Denmark
we can point to an increase of 40 grams in 35 years. But when we
consider all the possible sources of error, it must be admitted that
these statements, and especially the former, require confirmation.
The material is not homogenous. Again, it is stated, that the average
height of adult women in France has increased by 3 cm. in the last 80
years--but when we read that the total number of measurements in the
last period was only 255, we cannot rely very much upon this statement.

On the whole, it may be said, that we have a few cases of definite
increase and a goodly number very doubtful. We really need to have
the first of the principal recommendations of the Inter-Departmental
Committee on Physical Deterioration carried out in all countries,
for, the more we subject the available data to critical scrutiny, the
more we see the hopelessness of attaining to any real and fruitful
conclusions, unless we have an efficient organisation of capable
workers, backed by governmental as well as private support.



THE SO-CALLED LAWS OF INHERITANCE IN MAN.

(Abstract.)

By Professor V. Guiffrida-Ruggeri,

_Professor of Anthropology, Naples._


The Mendelian laws find verification in man. Every race, whether a
sub-species or a variety, has an hereditary possession of certain
characters; a possession which is completely transmitted to the
descendants, in whom is preserved the same germ plasm as in the
progenitors.

The researches of C. B. and G. Davenport seem to have proved the
recessive character of albinism and its obedience to the Mendelian
law. Hurst has presented figures which show that the inheritance of
colour in the iris of the human eye obeys Mendelian laws. Davenport
has established the order of dominance by the form of hair, which also
obeys the Mendelian law.

De Quatrefages, many years before the re-affirmation of Mendel's
discoveries, wrote:--

  "The union of individuals of different races involves a contest
  between their two natures--a contest of which the theatre is the
  field where the new being is organised. Now, this contest does not
  take place _en bloc_, so to speak, as has been generally admitted.
  Each of the characters of the two parents struggles on its own account
  against the corresponding character (its antagonist, as has just
  been said). When the hereditary energy is equal on both sides there
  necessarily ensues a kind of process of which the consequence is the
  fusion of the maternal and paternal characters in an intermediate
  character. If the energies are very unequal the hybrid inherits a
  character borrowed entirely from one of his parents; but this parent,
  conqueror on one point, may be conquered upon another. Hence, there
  results with the hybrid a _juxtaposition_ of characters derived from
  each of the types of which he is the child."

Above all, I have wished to call attention to the so-called laws of
dominance, because of their great importance. We may conclude that in
the case of man the dominant characters are also the original ones.



THE INHERITANCE OF FECUNDITY.

(Abstract.)

By Raymond Pearl,

_Biologist, Maine Agricultural Experiment Station._


The purpose of this paper is to give an account (necessarily
abbreviated, and without presentation of complete evidence) of the
results of an investigation into the mode of inheritance of fecundity
in the domestic fowl, and to point out some of the possible eugenic
bearings of these results.

It is shown that while the continued selection, over a period of years,
of highly fecund females failed to bring about any change in average
fecundity of the strain used, this character must nevertheless be
inherited since pedigree lines have been isolated which uniformly breed
true to definite degrees of fecundity.

It is further shown that observed variations in actually realized
fecundity (number of eggs laid) do not depend upon anatomical
differences in respect to the number of visible oöcytes in the ovary.
The differential factor on which the variations in fecundity depend
must be primarily physiological.

Fecundity in the fowl is shown to be inherited in strict accord with
the following Mendelian plan:--

1. Observed individual variations in fecundity depend essentially upon
two separately inherited physiological factors (designated L_{1}, and
L_{2}).

2. _High_ fecundity is manifested only when both of these factors are
present together in the same individual.

3. Either of these factors when present alone, whether in homozygous or
heterozygous form, causes about the same degree of _low_ fecundity to
be manifested.

4. One of these factors, namely L_{2}, is sex-limited or sex-correlated
in its inheritance, in such way that in gametogenesis any gamete which
bears the female sex-determinant F does not bear L_{2}.

5. There is a definite and clear-cut segregation of high fecundity from
low fecundity, in the manner set forth above.

From the standpoint of eugenics it is pointed out that these results
furnish a new conception of the mode of inheritance of fecundity, and
may be helpful in suggesting a method of attacking the same problem for
man.



ETHNIC PSYCHOLOGY AND THE SCIENCE OF EUGENICS.

(Abstract.)

By Prof. Enrico Morselli,

_Director of the Clinic for Mental and Nervous Diseases, Genoa
University_.


All natural varieties or races of mankind differ, not only by their
physical, but also by their mental, characters. There exists,
therefore, an "Ethnic Psychology" which, along with "Ethnic
Somatology," constitutes the complete Science of Anthropology or the
Natural History of Man. This must describe and classify races and
populations under a double aspect--physical and psychical.

The psychical characters of races are in part _original_, and in part
acquired through _adaptation_. These persist in a race as long as
such mesological adaptation lasts; they vary with modifications of
the conditions of life, including social activities and inter-racial
relations.

In mixed unions, amongst different races, there are always some which
are more vigorous, biologically and mentally, more fully developed,
which impress their characters upon their descendants. For the vitality
and well-being of mixed or metamorphic populations a certain amount
of difference amongst the parent races is necessary, but too great a
difference is injurious to the offspring.

The offspring of mixed unions present in their psychology a _mixture_,
again a _combination_ or fusion of the mental characters of the parent
races: sometimes certain psychical characters of a race become the
_dominant_ characters.

All ethnic groupings have their destiny marked out by the grade
attained in _the human psycho-physical hierarchy_. Nevertheless, it
is necessary that each race or nation, when it knows its contribution
to the development of universal civilisation, should contemplate the
preservation of its own ethnic type. Differentiation amongst peoples is
an indispensable factor in human progress.

The science of eugenics should not look for the realisation of a
uniform type of man, but vary its aims and methods according to the
natural differentiation of races and nations, taking account of ethnic
psychology equally with ethnic somatology.

The humanity of the future will be physically and mentally superior
to the existing humanity, but the _amelioration of the species_ ought
not to aim at the equality of races and populations. These races
and populations ought not to lose their acquisition of particular
adaptations to different conditions of existence.

A science of universal or common eugenics should allow a eugenic
ethnology to exist, which should indicate and facilitate for each race
or nation the defence and propagation of its own _physical type_ and
its own _mentality_. The most vigorous and dominant races will always
be those which know how to create and preserve in sexual unions their
characteristics of structure and culture.



THE INHERITANCE OF EPILEPSY.

(Abstract.)

By David Fairchild Weeks, M.D.,

_Medical Superintendent and Executive Officer, the New Jersey State
Village for Epileptics at Skillman, U.S.A._


In this paper the writer has endeavoured to learn what laws, if
any, epilepsy follows in its return to successive generations, and
the relation it bears to alcoholism, migraine, paralysis, and other
symptoms of lack of neural strength.

The data used in the study was analysed according to the Mendelian
method which assumes that the inheritance of any character is not
from the parents, grandparents, etc., but from the germ plasm out
of which every fraternity and its parents and other relatives have
arisen. If the soma possesses the trait of the recessive to normality
sort, it lacks in its germ plasm the determiner upon which the normal
development depends, and this condition is called nulliplex. If the
soma possesses the trait of the dominant to normality sort, the
determiner was derived from both parents and is double in the germ
plasm, or normal, all of the germ cells have the determiner; or else it
came from one parent only, is single in the germ plasm, or simplex,
and half of the germ cells have and half lack the determiner.

The method of obtaining the data was by means of field workers, who
interviewed in their homes the parents, relatives and all others
interested in the epileptic patient. These visits have established
a friendly feeling toward and an intelligent understanding of the
Institution and its work.

The study is based on the data derived from 397 histories, covering 440
matings.

The matings are classified under the six possible types, of nulliplex ×
nulliplex, nulliplex × simplex, nulliplex × normal, simplex × simplex,
simplex × normal, and normal × normal.

Under the first type all those matings where both parents were
epileptic, one was epileptic and the other feeble-minded, or both
were feeble-minded, are classified. According to Mendel's Law, all of
the children should be nulliplex. The data showed all of the children
defective.

Under the type nulliplex × simplex, all matings where one parent was
epileptic or feeble-minded and the other "tainted," that is, alcoholic,
neurotic, migrainous, or showed some mental weakness, are classified.
From this type of mating, 50% of the offspring are expected to be
nulliplex and 50% simplex. From the matings where one parent was
epileptic or feeble-minded and the other alcoholic, there were 61%
mentally deficient or nulliplex, the remainder simplex. The figures
for the offspring from the other matings showed 47% nulliplex, and 53%
simplex.

For the third type, nulliplex by normal, all those matings where
one parent was epileptic or feeble-minded and the other reported
as mentally normal are classified. From this type of mating, the
expectations are that all of the children would be simplex. A study
of the ancestors of the normal parents showed these parents simplex
rather than normal. The analysis of the offspring showed at least 43%
nulliplex, which is a close fitting to the type of mating nulliplex ×
simplex.

The fourth type of mating is simplex × simplex. Here, all matings where
both of the parents were "tainted" are classified. The expectation is
that 25% of the offspring would be nulliplex, in reality 35% were found
to be mentally deficient.

Simplex × normal is the fifth type of mating considered. The matings
where one parent was tainted and the other supposedly normal, are
classified here. From a study of their ancestors these normal parents
appeared to be simplex, and the classification of the offspring showed
more than 25% nulliplex, which is the expectation from simplex ×
simplex mating.

The sixth type is normal × normal, and the matings where both parents
were reported normal is studied under this heading. Here, as before, a
study of the ancestors of these normal parents indicates that they are
simplex, and not normal. The classification of the children showed a
close fitting to the expectation from a simplex × simplex mating.

A special study of the matings where one or both of the parents was
migrainous or alcoholic, shows a close relationship between these
conditions and epilepsy.

The following conclusions are drawn from the study.

The common types of epileptics lack some element necessary for complete
mental development. This is also true of the feeble-minded.

Two epileptic parents produce only defectives. When both parents are
either epileptic or feeble-minded their offspring are also mentally
defective.

Epilepsy tends in successive generations to form a larger part of the
population.

The normal parents of epileptics are not normal but simplex, and have
descended from tainted ancestors.

Alcohol may be a cause of defect in that more children of alcoholic
parents are defective than where alcoholism is not a factor.

Neurotic and other tainted conditions are closely allied with epilepsy.

In the light of present knowledge, epilepsy, considered by itself,
is not a Mendelian factor, but epilepsy and feeble-mindedness are
Mendelian factors of the recessive type.

Tainted individuals, as neurotics, alcoholics, criminals, sex
offenders, etc., are simplex and normals or simplex and normal in
character.



THE INFLUENCE OF THE AGE OF PARENTS ON THE PSYCHO-PHYSICAL CHARACTERS
OF THE OFFSPRING.

(Abstract.)

By Antonio Marro,

_Director of the Lunatic Asylum, Turin._


The natural law of heredity holds good whether for the physical
characteristics or for those which are biological and moral.

The apparent anomalies which children present in not reproducing the
qualities of the parents, and the unlikeness frequently noted among the
children of the same family, only serve to reveal the presence of the
particular conditions of the parents at the time of begetting which has
influenced the offspring.

We have a proof of this law in the anomalies presented by the children
of parents who, at the time of begetting, were themselves in anomalous
conditions by reason of intoxication or disease.

Among the conditions of parents which are capable of influencing the
characteristics of children must be included the changes which their
organism undergoes by reason of advancing age.

I propose to study the effects of age on the physical and moral
characters of the children. My researches have extended to numerous
criminals and insane persons, as well as to scholars of the public
schools and other normal persons affected or not with special diseases.

Of my studies on criminals, the result is: that the children of
young parents are found in large numbers guilty of offences against
property; and this is natural. The first impulse to that is not due to
wickedness, which impels them to inflict harm on others, but to love of
pleasure, of revel, of idleness--all features of youth, during which
period the passions are very active, and no restraint present with
which to repress and subjugate them.

Swindlers alone are exceptions to this rule, but swindling is a crime
of riper years, according to the dictum of Quetelet.

Among crimes of personal violence, I have found a numerical superiority
in the children of aged parents. Assassins, homicides, those who show
the completest absence of sentiments of affection and often delusions
of persecution more or less pronounced, gave a proportion of children
of aged parents far greater than that furnished by all the other
categories of delinquents; the proportion is as high for fathers as for
mothers of advanced age.

Here, too, we note a certain correlation between the state of
discontent, of suspicion, of frigid egoism, which the decline of
physical energy tends to arouse in the old, and the absence of
affectionate sentiment and a tendency to delusions of persecution which
are usual in murderers. Among the insane, moral idiocy in particular,
and the degenerative forms in general, appeared more frequently in
children of aged parents.

As to schoolboys, I have noticed that the minimum of good conduct
and the maximum of better developed intelligence coincides with the
possession of youth by both parents.

The age of complete development corresponds to a maximum of good
conduct and a minimum of bad conduct, and retains a large proportion of
intelligent children.

In the period of decline of both parents, good conduct of children is
observed in a smaller proportion than in the preceding period, and high
intelligence in a very small proportion.

Among biological qualities I have made observations on longevity; among
persons of 70 and 80 whom I have examined there is a large proportion
of parents who themselves enjoyed remarkably long lives, which proves
the transmissibility from father to son of powers of resistance against
the stresses of life.

Among physical qualities I have made note of the fact that from
alcoholic or aged parents were descended children in whom degenerative
physical characteristics were most frequently apparent, recalling some
features of an inferior human type, such as exaggeration of the frontal
sinuses, the torus occipitalis, ears with the Darwinian tubercles
prominent, the forehead receding, etc. At the same time the ascendants
of those who presented typical and anomalous characters, due to morbid
influences of various kinds and following on faulty development of
the foetus, such as cretinism, congenital goître, nasal deflections,
strabismus, plagio-cephaly, hydrocephaly, dental malformation, etc.,
showed a large number of alcoholics and epileptics.

The explanation of the pernicious consequences to the psycho-physical
characters of the children of parents too young or too advanced in age
does not present much difficulty.

At the younger period the organism is still in process of formation;
the incomplete development of the skeleton, as of all the other organs,
continually absorbs a mass of plastic materials necessary to the
formation of offspring. So we may consider that the faults of children
born of too young parents are due to an incomplete development because
of the insufficiency of plastic material.

We must, on the other hand, seek in the conditions which accompany old
age for the reason why it has a disastrous influence on the vitality of
the germinal elements of the parents and predisposes the descendants to
various forms of physical and moral degeneracy.

During this period we have in the tissues, instead of a development
and renewal of protoplasm, the tendency to an accumulation of fat;
and in the whole organism, chiefly in the tissues of the arterial
system, we find the tendency to a deposit in their structure of an
amorphous substance which converts the supple elastic canals into rigid
tubes; and from this a general slowing up of the organic functions
(circulation, oxidation, secretion) results; the blood, not reaching
the degree of elaboration which it possessed before, acquires a greater
acidity, and cannot by the ordinary excretory channels so quickly get
rid of the catabolic products with which it is charged.

By reason of these conditions the organism of older people undergoes
a sort of slow and gradual intoxication, which, at the same time as
it shows itself in the individual by the gradual languishing of all
his functions, influences in a disastrous manner the germs which
develop within him, and predisposes them to become beings condemned to
degeneracy.

Consequently this cause of degeneracy enters the general category of
intoxications.



GENETICS AND EUGENICS.

(Abstract.)

By R. C. Punnett,

_Professor of Biology, Cambridge_.


To the student of genetics, man, like any other animal, is material for
working out the manner in which characters, whether physical or mental,
are transmitted from one generation to the next. Viewed in this way he
must be regarded as unpromising, not only from the small size of his
families, the time consumed in their production, and the long period of
immaturity, but also because full experimental control is here out of
the question. For these reasons man is of interest to the student of
genetics, chiefly in so far as he presents problems in heredity which
are rarely to be found in other species, and can only be studied at
present in man himself. The aim of the Eugenist, on the other hand, is
to control human mating in order to obtain the largest proportion of
individuals he considers best fitted to the form of society which he
affects. It is evident that to do this effectually he must have precise
knowledge of the manner in which transmission of characters occurs,
and more especially of those with which he particularly wishes to
deal. Precise knowledge is at present available in man for relatively
few characters; and those characters, such as eye-colour, and certain
somewhat rare deformities, are not the kind on which the Eugenist lays
great stress. The one instance of eugenic importance that could be
brought under immediate control is that of feeble-mindedness. Speaking
generally, the available evidence suggests that it is a case of simple
Mendelian inheritance. Occasional exceptions occur, but there is every
reason to expect that a policy of strict segregation would rapidly
bring about the elimination of this character.

There is reason to suppose that many human qualities are more
complicated in their transmission, and it is probable that certain
phenomena now being studied in plants and animals will throw definite
light upon man. Though characters are frequently transmitted on the
Mendelian scheme quite independently of one another, there are cases
known in which they are linked up more or less completely in the germ
cells with the determinant of a particular sex. Sex-limited inheritance
of this nature has been carefully worked out in particular cases in
Lepidoptera and poultry. As yet there is much to be learnt in this
direction, and further progress may be expected to lead eventually to
a precise knowledge of the mode of transmission of many human defects,
such as colour-blindness and hæmophilia. It is not unlikely that a
similar mode of transmission will be found to hold good for many human
characters usually classed as normal.

Another set of phenomena which will probably be found of importance in
the heredity of man are those included under the terms "coupling" and
"repulsion." Characters, each exhibiting simple Mendelian segregation,
may become linked together more or less completely in the process of
heredity, or the reverse may occur. Our knowledge of these phenomena
is at present almost completely confined to cases in plants, but
evidence is beginning to be obtained for their occurrence in animals.
It is not unlikely that they will be found to play a considerable part
in human heredity. For one of the most noticeable things about man
is the frequency with which children resemble one or other parent to
the seemingly almost complete exclusion of the other. In view of the
mongrelisation of the human race, the frequency of these cases is very
remarkable, and can hardly fail to suggest that some sort of coupling
between characters plays a large part in human heredity.

Except in very few cases, our knowledge of heredity in man is at
present far too slight and too uncertain to base legislation upon.
On the other hand, experience derived from plants and animals has
shewn that problems of considerable complexity can be unravelled by
the experimental method, and the characters concerned brought under
control. Though the direct method is hardly feasible in man, much
may yet be learnt by collecting accurate pedigrees and comparing
them with standard cases worked out in other animals. But it must be
clearly recognised that the collection of such pedigrees is an arduous
undertaking demanding high critical ability, and only to be carried out
satisfactorily by those who have been trained in and are alive to the
trend of genetic research.



Section II.

Practical Eugenics.



GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS UPON "EDUCATION BEFORE PROCREATION."

(Abstract.)

By Adolphe Pinard,

_Professor at the Faculty; Member of the Academy of Medicine of Paris._


Sir Francis Galton has entitled Eugenics the new science having for
its object the study of the causes subject to social control which can
improve or impair the racial qualities of future generations, whether
physical or mental.

Eugenics, thus defined, is nothing else but "Education before
Procreation," which has been studied in France for a number of years,
and which constitutes the first part of child-culture, "a science
having for its object the search for information relative to the
reproduction, preservation, and improvement of the human species"([1]).

[Footnote 1: v. De la Puériculture in Revue Scientifique, 1897.]

The Congress ought then to have for its object to work for the
investigation of the conditions necessary to secure a favourable
procreation. Now, it appears that the word "Eugenics," from the
etymological point of view, does not characterise either explicitly
or sufficiently the proposed object, while the word "Eugénique," of
[Greek: gennaô], at once recalls to the mind the idea of a favourable
procreation([2]).

[Footnote 2: Besides, the word "Eugenics" recalls in France a chemical
term: eugenic-acid.]

It is part of the duty of our first principal sitting to lay down a
rule upon this point.

Certainly, biological, sociological, and historical researches, laws
and social customs regarded in their relations with the science of
Eugenics, are necessary and will undoubtedly result in extremely
interesting data, but from now it is above all things urgent to
establish and proclaim eugenic principles.

Researches relating to physiological heredity and pathological heredity
ought to be pursued without interruption, but it is necessary to make
known as soon as possible to the masses of the people the individual
conditions, fully understood, which alone permit a favourable and
healthy procreation. In a word, it is necessary, by every means and
as soon as possible, to organise a great movement in order to show
to the greatest number of human beings the absolute necessity for a
conscientious, _i.e._, an enlightened procreation. We must bravely
approach the civilising of _the reproductive instinct_, which alone
has remained in a barbarous state amongst all the so-called civilised
nations from the earliest times.

Then only, when societies have fulfilled this duty, will they have the
right to investigate what they ought and can effect against those for
whom future offspring would be recognised as fatally disastrous.

Finally, it is fully understood that researches relating to selection
in the human species must be pursued in a parallel manner, as is now
done with such fruitful results for animals and vegetables in Genetics,
and in throwing light upon the constantly increasing conquests of this
other science.



PRACTICAL ORGANIZATION OF EUGENIC ACTION.

(Abstract.)

By Dr. Louis Querton,

_Professor at the University of Brussels._


Now that many studies on the physiology and hygiene of reproduction of
man have been made, and many investigations on degeneration have been
conducted, we may face the problem of the betterment of the race, from
a practical standpoint.

If the eugenic action cannot yet strive directly against hereditary
transmission of anomalies, it can fight successfully against the causes
of degeneration which act during the development of the individual.

Physical and social environment influences these causes, which, on
account of their growing complexity, create more and more obstacles to
the normal evolution of the individual, while at the same time they
force him to acquire greater and more varied aptitudes.

To thwart the prejudicial action of the environment on the development
of the individual, the systematic organization of this development
seems to be of first importance.

The control of the development of the children, at the different phases
of their evolution, is strictly necessary to assure the education of
the individual and to check the degeneration of the race.

The control is already established for certain classes of children,
and during limited periods of their development. Nurslings, school
children, and labourers can already, sometimes compulsorily, be
submitted to control.

But the insufficiency of the actual organization is very evident, and
the results are, from the eugenic standpoint, unsatisfactory.

In order to be really effective and to contribute to the improvement of
the individual and to the betterment of the race, the control of the
development should, as far as possible, be exerted over all children,
and it should last during the whole period of their evolution. This
control should be compulsory, as well as education; it should be
exercised by an institution, the frequentation of which, as well as
that of school, might be forced upon all children whose development
is not submitted to an effective control in their homes. Private
initiative should create such institutions everywhere, and thus prepare
legislative interference.

These methodically organized eugenic institutions should, in the
future, be the development of the administrative institutions, which
actually establish the civil state of individuals. They would tend to
facilitate the education of individuals and public bodies; at the same
time they would assure the strict application of the laws concerning
the protection and education of childhood.

They would collect the documents necessary to the scientific knowledge
of the facts of heredity, and would supply precise information
concerning the effective work of different social institutions on
transformation of the race.



MARRIAGE LAWS AND CUSTOMS.

(Abstract.)

By C. B. Davenport,

_Director, Eugenics Record Office, U.S.A._


Of the various laws limiting freedom of marriage three are of
biological import. First, the limitation of relationship between the
mates; second, the limitations in mental capacity of the mates; and
third, limitations of race.

For the first there is a biological justification in so far as cousin
marriages are apt to bring in from both sides of the house the same
defect. For the second the justification is partial; but there is equal
reason for forbidding the marriage of normal persons both of whom
have mentally defective parents or other close relatives. The denial
of marriage between races has this justification, that most other
races have not, through selection, attained the social status of the
Caucasian. In such cases the socially inadequate should be sterilized
or segregated in other races as well as in the Caucasian.



EUGENIC SELECTION AND THE ORIGIN OF DEFECTS.

(Abstract.)

By Frédéric Houssay,

_Professor of Science, University of Paris._


Eugenics, which is a social application of biological science, cannot
yet be judged by its results; it must be judged by its tendencies. To
determine these, we must adjust them to principles generally admitted.

And inasmuch as it advocates practical rules and seeks to check the
propagation of the unfit, by isolation or sterilization (voluntary or
enforced), it is an artificial selection.

Its justification lies in the fact that, without intervention, the
descendants of defectives or degenerates would, in a few generations,
eliminate themselves by early death of children or by natural
sterility. This would produce a natural selection which Eugenics simply
proposes to anticipate by social economy.

It seems that, by applying Darwinian principles, the group of
defectives, considered at a given moment, could be rapidly
extinguished. But this group is continually reinforced by fresh
degeneration of healthy stocks which become tainted.

Hence the need to keep our eye on the re-formation of the group as well
as its elimination, and to keep in touch with Lamarckian principles.
The study of the origin and hereditary conservation of defects points
already as essential factors, to alcoholism, syphilis, and more
generally every chronic ailment and diathesis, among which gout must be
put in a leading position. Everything which will tend to restrain the
action of these factors is of capital importance from our present point
of view, whether it occurs in the ranks of rich or poor.

The questions, thus, which Eugenics seeks to answer would be on this
view reduced to questions of hygiene and morals.

So that the different biological principles, which sometimes seem in
mutual opposition, would become convergent, and would find in Eugenics
a ready reconciliation and a field of useful co-operation.



PRELIMINARY REPORT TO THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL EUGENICS CONGRESS,

Of the Committee of the Eugenics Section of the American Breeders'
Association to Study and Report on the Best Practical Means for Cutting
Off the Defective Germ Plasm in the Human Population.

(Abstract.)

By Bleecker Van Wagenen, _Chairman_.


1. Brief history of the American Breeders' Association, the Eugenics
Section and the Committee on Elimination of Defective Germ Plasm.

2. Concise statement of the problem before the Committee and reasons
for the investigation.

3. History of legislation in the United States authorising or requiring
the sterilization of certain classes of criminals, defectives and
degenerates who are under the control of the State in institutions.
Digest of the laws now in force. (This may be given as a lantern slide
with greater effect.)

Legal views concerning the constitutionality of these laws.

4. Investigations of vasectomy in Indiana, Illinois, Massachusetts and
elsewhere, with detailed reports of some typical cases. (With lantern
slides.)

5. Reports of sterilization of females, both of normal and abnormal
mentality, with a number of typical cases showing after-effects. (With
lantern slides.)

6. Some observations in thremmatology suggesting important questions
concerning the practical effectiveness of sterilization as a eugenic
measure.

7. Technical description of several kinds of sterilizing operations
as now performed. Vasectomy, ovariotomy and salpingectomy (with and
without complete excision), castration.

8. Reports of several cases of persons, male and female, who having
been completely sterilized for a time, recovered the power of
procreation and actually did procreate thereafter.

9. State of public opinion regarding sterilization in the United States
at the present time. Letters from Governors of States, views of Social
Workers and Institution people. Conflicting views of Roman Catholics
(as such). Digest of arguments set forth in a long controversy carried
on in the American Ecclesiastical Review, chiefly in Latin.

10. Brief report of other data collected by the Committee and programme
for future work, with a call for co-operation in securing further data
pertinent to this inquiry.



EUGENICS AND THE NEW SOCIAL CONSCIOUSNESS.

(Abstract.)

By Samuel George Smith.


The new social consciousness is indicated; first, by the larger
powers and duties assumed by the State: second, by the new sense of
social solidarity affecting persons and groups of persons within the
State. The exclusion from parenthood of such wards of the State as
the feeble-minded, the insane, and the pauper has gone beyond debate;
and for all that are legally excluded from parenthood, custodial care
is required. There is need to develop a new ethical sense of the
individual in regard to his own relations to the social group. We have
not yet sufficient facts to establish a definite relation between
physical fitness and social efficiency. This is the place for caution.

Questions of maternity among the poor: (_a_) Hard labour must be
forbidden to the expectant mother; (_b_) she must have nourishing food;
(_c_) surroundings must be wholesome. The economic problem is solved
in the increased vitality and consequent earning power of the coming
generation.

Problem of the parenthood of the better classes: just as important and
more difficult. The question is not only vital and economic; it is also
ethical.

The ignorance of parents and the defects of children. The State has
invaded the home, and has set standards, both physical and moral, for
the family. It is the duty of the State to secure the proper physical
environment for the home. It is a municipal problem. It is a problem
of public health. The whole movement looks to the triumph of a vital
democracy, which is more important than either political or industrial
democracy.

Relations of alcoholism to neurasthenia, of tuberculosis to
feeble-mindedness, of bad social and labour conditions to both,
indicate cross sections in the problem. Vices of the rich in most
countries are greater than the vices of the poor. A vital democracy
cannot be based upon physical tests and material comfort. Its deepest
foundations are psychical and ethical.



PRACTICABLE EUGENICS IN EDUCATION.

(Abstract.)

By Dr. F. C. S. Schiller.


The danger to mankind arising from the preservation of the unfit under
social conditions. The self-destructiveness of civilization. Its
superiority dependent on the transmission of accumulated knowledge
by education. The danger of failure in educational systems. Is the
education of the rich necessarily a failure? The middle classes as
providers of ability to man the professions; but the price they have to
pay at present is too often racial extinction. The draining of ability
from the lower classes.

The existing educational system and its potential value for eugenics.
Its unintellectual character. The liberal endowment of a "liberal
education." Commercialism and the scholarship system. The athletic
system, the play instincts and moral training. Both systems are
Darwinian and appeal to British character.

Suggested improvements: (1) in the athletic system; "fitness," not
a merely physical ideal; (2) in the scholarship system; "liberal
education" to be conceived as intrinsically useful, and not merely a
game with intrinsically useless subjects.

Should scholarships be restricted to the needy? The educational dangers
of this policy. The eugenical value of the existing system.

The possibility of infusing eugenical spirit into athletics. The appeal
of eugenics to the upper classes. A real versus a sham nobility. The
eugenical ideal essentially a matter of sentiment and not necessarily
anti-democratic.



Section III.

Sociology and Eugenics.



THE PSYCHO-PHYSICAL ELITE AND THE ECONOMIC ELITE.

(Abstract.)

By Professor Achille Loria,

_University of Turin._


Artificial selection could be perfectly applied to the human species,
in which case marriages would be arranged between persons better
endowed, physically and mentally, and the worse endowed would be
excluded from marriage. But this selection encounters the gravest
practical difficulties; because, if it is relatively easy to estimate
the physical qualities of man, nothing on the other hand is harder than
to estimate his mental qualities. A dynamometer of intelligence does
not exist, and Galton's method of observing the points of merit of
University graduates is very insufficient and fallible.

In face of these difficulties there naturally arises the idea of
inferring the psycho-physical aptitudes of individuals from their
social and economic position, or from their income, which is easily
measured. In accord with this idea, it would be a question of acting so
that marriages would be effected exclusively and predominantly amongst
individuals provided with superior incomes, and to prevent, as far
as possible, marriages between persons of inferior incomes, or of no
income at all.

But all this would be plausible if there should be a real analogy
between the economic élite, and the psycho-physical élite, or if the
former were really a product of the latter. Now, this is precisely what
I deny. The _economic élite_ is not in the least the product of the
possession of superior qualities, but is simply the result of a blind
struggle between incomes, which carries to the top those who, at the
start, possess a larger income through causes which may be absolutely
independent of the possession of superior endowments. (See my _Sintesi
economica_--Paris, Giard et Briard, 1911.) Hence, nothing makes it
impossible that the wealthier people should be precisely the worst
endowed, physically and mentally, and this as a matter of fact happens
in innumerable cases.

Besides, we have an indirect proof of this in the very results of
selective processes as, until now, they are practised. And, in fact,
conjugal selection to-day takes place precisely amongst individuals of
the same class, or belonging to the same standard of income, so that
persons of the upper classes always marry exclusively amongst each
other. So then these marriages, which, according to the theory, ought
to give more splendid results, give, on the contrary, more wretched
results. Galton's same law of "return to the mean," or the fact that
the descendants of persons of high class sometimes have inferior
endowments as compared with the average of the race, could not be
fulfilled if persons of the upper classes who marry with each other
were really select persons, physically and mentally.

There would also be in this case a falling off from the super-normal
qualities of an exceptionally gifted parent, but in that case the
characters of the children would always be superior to those of the
descendants of the lower classes. If this does not happen, if the
children of the upper classes show qualities inferior to those of the
average of children of the lower classes, this proves conclusively
that married people of the superior classes were not in the least
endowed with specially high aptitudes, but, on the contrary, presented
the opposite characteristics. Thus, the same law of Galton, properly
interpreted, shows the absolute independence of largeness of income and
excellence of individual qualities, hence the absurdity and danger of
Eugenics upon an economic foundation, such as many desire.

The researches of Fahlbeck upon the Swedish nobility, which show the
rapid extinction of the upper classes who practise _Economic Eugenics_,
is a further proof of the absence of any link between economic
superiority and psycho-physical superiority; since if the wealthier
people, who usually intermarry, were really the better endowed, their
descendants would never show those phenomena of extinction which betray
a leaven of inner degeneration.

I conclude that Economic Eugenics is already practised to-day
upon a large scale, and hence it is already possible to form an
accurate judgment upon its results--which are those of return to the
mean--degeneration and extinction of race. Now, these same results show
that the economically superior classes are not at all the best endowed,
and often even degenerate, and that, therefore, the only method
calculated to effect a conjugal selection which would be socially
useful is not to unite in marriage the richer people, but individuals
really possessing superior qualities, and to exclude from marriage
those who do not possess them.



THE CAUSE OF THE INFERIORITY OF PHYSICAL AND MENTAL CHARACTERS IN THE
LOWER SOCIAL CLASSES.

(Abstract.)

By Professor Alfredo Niceforo,

_Of the University of Naples._


The author has compared the physical, demographic, and mental
characters of the upper and leisured classes with the same characters
in individuals of the inferior and poor classes. He has made use of
several methods: (1) A comparison between the well-to-do and the poor
children in schools; (2) a comparison between individuals belonging to
different professions; (3) a comparison between the rich and the poor
quarters of the same city.

He has also studied 4,000 children of the schools of Lausanne; Italian
peasants; conscripts of different countries, classified according to
their occupation; and the rich and the poor quarters of Lausanne,
Paris, etc.

He has found that individuals of the lower classes show a smaller
development of stature, of cranial capacity, of sensibility, of
resistance to mental fatigue, a delay in the period when puberty
makes its appearance, a slackening in growth, a very large number of
anomalies, etc.

The causes of these differences ascertained in comparing the two groups
are of the _mesological_ and _individual order_.

Of the _mesological_ order because the conditions of life where men of
the lower classes are forced to live constitute one of the causes of
the deterioration of their physical and mental characters.

Of the _individual_ order because, thanks to biological variation,
every man is born different from all other men, and men who are born
with superior physical and mental characters tend to rise in the
superior classes, while men who are born with inferior physical and
mental characters tend to fall in the most wretched classes.

However, in studying the catalogues of measurements and observations,
the author has found that in the mass of men belonging to the superior
classes one finds a small number of men with inferior qualities, while
in the mass of men forming the inferior classes one finds a certain
number of men presenting superior characters.

It is between these two _exceptional_ categories that social exchanges
should be made, allowing the best and most capable of the lower stratum
to ascend, and compelling the unadapted who are found above to fall to
the lower stratum.



THE FERTILITY OF MARRIAGES ACCORDING TO PROFESSION AND SOCIAL POSITION.

(Abstract.)

By M. Lucien March,

_Directeur de la Statistique Générale de la France._


Statistics of families furnish, perhaps, the most appropriate data
for the examination of the factors which govern the productiveness of
marriages or their sterility.

Statistics concerning the children born in the eleven and a half
million French families, classed according to occupation, have been
prepared in France for the first time as a result of the census of
1906. These statistics give information as to the number of children
per family, either alive on the day of the census or previously
deceased, in each occupation, for all the families in the whole country
taken together, and for the different provinces. Further, a special
investigation of the 200,000 families of employees and workmen in the
public services has furnished more circumstantial details, which have
enabled the number of children and number of deaths of children in a
family to be brought into relation with the income of the head.

The results obtained by the method described above are the subject of
this report. The effects of occupation, social position and income are
analysed by means of co-efficients expressing the productiveness of
marriages, after eliminating the influence of such factors as duration
of marriage, age, and habitat, all of which may obviously affect the
productiveness of a marriage.

These results confirm what has been learnt from previous researches of
the fertility of different social classes, but they go further in that
they show that the difference is not exclusively dependent on income.

In general there are more children per family in the families of
workmen than in the families of employers, and the latter contain
more than those of employees other than workmen. Further, one finds
industries in which the number of children in the employers' families
is larger than in the families of workmen in other industries. Thus,
differences are introduced by the occupation. Industries employing many
hands seem the more favourable to the production of large families,
both among workmen and among employers. Agriculture, in which a large
number of persons are engaged in France, does not seem to conduce
to fertility. Fishermen and sailors in the merchant service, on the
other hand, appear to form the class in which fertility is the most
considerable.

The importance of the occupational factor is such that we could
place its influence on the same plane as that of "concentration"
of population, with which it is in close relation, since persons
following certain classes of occupation, as, for instance, the members
of the liberal professions, and clerks and other salaried employees are
most numerous in towns.

It does not appear that in France casual and unskilled labourers,
persons in the receipt of Poor Law relief, etc., are specially
prolific. There is not thus in reality too much risk of seeing the
renewal of the population carried out in a dangerous manner by its
least valuable section. However, even among the working classes, the
most highly paid occupations are not those among which one finds the
greatest number of children.

The economic, social, or moral burden of children is a factor bound
up in a complex manner, not only with the individual conditions of
existence, but also with the transformations of society, progress in
manners and customs, and the conception which one forms of life.

It is this burden which must be allieviated where allieviation would be
most effective and produce the best results, in order to put a stop to
a movement which may be dangerous to civilisation.



EUGENICS AND MILITARISM.

(Abstract.)

By Vernon L. Kellogg.

(_Professor in Stanford University, California._)


The claim that war and military service have a directly deteriorating
influence through military selection on a population much given to
militarism, has been clearly stated by von Liebig, Karl Marx, Herbert
Spencer, Tschouriloff, Otto Seeck, David Starr Jordan, and others,
not to mention the ever-anticipating Greeks. Military selection may
be conceived to work disastrously on a population both through the
actual killing during war by wounds and disease of the sturdy young
men selected by conscription or recruiting, and also by the removal
from the reproducing part of the population of much larger numbers of
these selected young men both in war and peace times. Another phase
of the racial danger from military service is the possibility of the
contraction of persistent and heritable disease which may be carried
back from camp and garrison with the return of the soldiers to the
population at home.

As likely as seem all these and certain other anti-eugenic influences
arising from military selection, the substantiation of their actual
results on a basis of observed facts is necessary to give them real
standing as eugenic arguments against militarism.

The writer is engaged at present in an attempt to find and expose
certain actual results of military service and war that have direct
relation to racial modification. His paper presents some pertinent
facts and figures already gained. These facts are examined in the
light of the criticisms of such men as Bischoff and Livi, who have
recognized the weaknesses in military and hygienic statistics, and in
the light of other opportunities for error both in the recording and
the interpretation of the facts, which have suggested themselves to
him. Also there has to be considered the possible reality of eugenic
advantages from military selection. Seeck and Ammon believe they have
discovered some.

The writer, holding in mind both the dangers of error and the
possibility of eugenic advantage, believes himself nevertheless able
to present certain definite facts showing considerable direct eugenic
disadvantage in certain types of militarism.



EUGENICS IN PARTY ORGANIZATION.

(Abstract.)

By Roberto Michels,

_University of Turin, Italy._


An oligarchy is invariably formed in all political parties for reasons
based partly on individual psychology, partly on crowd psychology, and
partly on the social necessity of party organisation. Under the first
head is grouped the individual's consciousness of his own importance,
which with opportunity develops into the natural human lust for power,
and, further, such individual qualities as native tact, editorial
ability, and so on. Crowd psychology is characterised chiefly by the
incompetence of the masses, their dependence upon traditional methods
of party government, and their feeling of gratitude to leaders who have
suffered for the cause. Finally, the necessity for party organisations
grows with every increase of numbers and extension of functions. It
is physically impossible for large party groups to govern themselves
directly. All parties live in a state of perpetual warfare with
opposing parties, and, if they are revolutionary in character, with the
social order itself. Tactical considerations, therefore, and, above
all, the necessity of maintaining a condition of military preparedness,
strengthen the hands of the controlling clique within the party and
render every day more impossible genuine democracy.

The selective or eugenic value of party organization is that it allows
men gifted with certain qualities to rise above their fellows into
positions of superiority, which, for the considerations set forth
above, are more or less permanent. This value is of the greater
importance because the opportunities for able and ambitious workmen
to rise by the economic ladder to the rank of employers are rapidly
disappearing, at any rate, in old countries.

The qualities necessary for a successful party leader are discussed.
Briefly stated, they consist of oratorical ability, which is partly a
psychical and partly a physiological and anatomical character; energy
of will; superiority of intellect and knowledge; a depth of conviction
often bordering on fanaticism and self-confidence, pushed even to the
point of self-conceit. Also in many countries, as for instance Italy,
physical beauty is important in helping a man to rise, while in rarer
cases goodness of heart and disinterestedness influence the crowd by
reawakening religious sentiments.

We have seen that some elements of the crowd are seized by the
selecting-machine of the party organisation that raises them above
their companions, increasing automatically the social distance between
them and their followers. To put this automatical selecting-machine
into action, certain individuals appear, possessing special physical
and intellectual gifts that distinguish them spontaneously from the
mass of the party.



THE INFLUENCE OF RACE ON HISTORY.

(Abstract.)

By W. C. D. and C. D. Whetham.


The history of Europe presents a long series of nations successively
rising and falling in the scale of prosperity and influence. Such
persistent alternations suggest a common cause underlying the
phenomena. All history is the record of change. The outward change as
recorded by the chronicler has probably its counterpart in unnoticed
variations of the internal biological structure of the nation.

Most nations are composite in character. They contain two or more
racial stocks, fulfilling different functions in the national life. It
is probable that the proportion in which these stocks are present is
not always constant. The variation in proportion is possibly the agent
effecting the internal change in structure, which becomes manifest
outwardly in the rise or decline of the nation.

The physical characters of the population of Europe during historic
times indicate three chief races: (1) the Mediterranean, (2) the
Alpine, (3) the Northern. The individuals of these races possess also
distinct mental and intellectual attributes, and the history of Europe
is fundamentally the story of the interaction of the three races.

It is suggested that the supreme power of Greece and Rome, each in
its own direction, was due to the attainment of a fortunate balance
between the social and political functions of the constituents of the
nation, the directing power being supplied chiefly by the invaders
of northern race, who formed the dominant class among the southern
indigenous Mediterranean population. In each case, the northern
elements grew gradually less, through such agencies as losses in war,
the selective action of a differential birth rate, and by racial
merging into the more numerous southern stock.

The outburst of artistic genius and intellectual pre-eminence which
marked the Renaissance in North Italy may perhaps be due to a similar
racial composition, the northern elements being supplied by the
descendants of the barbarian invaders of the later Roman Empire.

Great Britain has also similar racial elements. The Mediterranean
race, spreading up the shores of the Atlantic, enters largely into the
composition of the people of the south-west. The northern element,
immigrant from the shores of the Baltic and North Sea, is strongest in
the east and north.

We know that there are now at work two influences affecting the
average racial character of the English nation; (1) the increase in
the urban population at the expense of the rural, (2) the voluntary
restriction of the birth rate which affects certain sections of all
classes more than others. It is probable that both these changes tend
to favour selectively the southern racial elements at the expense of
the northern. Eventually, the present structure of society may become
unstable in consequence of this racial alteration, and the necessary
readjustment, in its turn, will contribute a chapter to history.



SOME INTER-RELATIONS BETWEEN EUGENICS AND HISTORICAL RESEARCH.

(Abstract.)

By Frederick Adams Woods, M.D.,

_Harvard Medical School._


The relative influence of heredity and environment has long been a
subject for debate, but, for the most part, such debates have not
been profitable. It is true that heredity cannot be separated from
environment if only one individual be considered; but as soon as we
inquire into the causes of the differences between man and man, it is
perfectly possible to gain real light on this subject, so important
to the advocates of eugenics. Everything must be made a problem of
differences. The mathematical measurements of resemblances between
relatives close of kin will sometimes serve. At other times, the
correlation co-efficient is of no avail, and only an intensive study of
detailed pedigrees will bring out such differences as cannot be due to
the action of surroundings.

History and genealogy both speak unmistakably for heredity. Men of
genius have as many eminent relationships as the expectations of
heredity demand. The same is true among the highest aristocratic
classes, and is equally true under democratic government, as is proved
by a study of the family history of those Americans whose names are in
the Hall of Fame. History shows that about half of the early monarchs
were not cruel or were not licentious. Alternative heredity can well
account for that. Virtuous types have only slightly increased in
numerical proportion. Environment cannot be very effective; but there
are biological factors of a more hidden nature which are silently
making for progress. Mental qualities are correlated with moral;
and in the European dynasties the survivors have been generally the
descendants of the morally superior.

Physical differences can also be demonstrated, coming in the course
of generations. A study of the portraits of royal, noble, and other
historical personages shows that the bony framework of the face,
especially about the nose and eyes, has changed rapidly since the
beginning of the sixteenth century.

In explaining the rise and fall of nations, gametic and personal causes
can be measured and marked. All the evidence of history points to the
power and importance of a very few great personalities--they themselves
the product of inborn forces. These have been the chief causes of
political and economic differences, but non-gametic (environmental)
causation can be occasionally detected, and separated out; as, for
instance, the modern scientific productivity in Germany and the
proportionate intellectual activity among women in America. It is
estimated that there are four hundred thousand books on history. These
form an almost unworked mine of information, easily available to every
student of eugenics. It is high time that the human record, so ancient
in its beginnings, should be used to contribute to that most modern of
sciences, the improvement of the human breed.



DEMOGRAPHICAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF EUGENICS.

(Abstract.)

By Dr. Corrado Gini,

_Professor of Statistics in the Royal University of Cagliari, Italy._


Tables of mortality relating to human beings with classification as
to age, when compared with similar statistics relating to the equine
species, show that man during the period of development has a much
heavier death-rate. It is not possible to say whether in their natural
state the higher kinds of animals possess a higher or lower death-rate
during the period of development than when under domestication, but
the second of the alternatives seems more likely. It remains to be
determined whether the heavy death-rate during development which
the human race shows in the comparison is a distinctive natural
characteristic belonging to it, or whether it is rather the result of
the more or less artificial circumstances in which man is born and
reared.

The human race differs as regards reproduction and the rearing of its
offspring from the higher species of animals in their natural state,
chiefly in three ways: (_a_) In the case of the human race reproduction
takes place at all times of the year, whilst the higher animals have
one single period for reproducing, or, in some cases, two or three
periods; (_b_) animals reproduce as soon as the organism becomes
capable of reproduction, whilst in civilised human races as a rule a
longer or shorter period elapses between the time when the individual
becomes capable of reproduction and the time he actually begins to
reproduce; (_c_) in civilised man the development of altruistic
sentiments protects weak and sickly persons from the eliminating action
of natural selection, and often enables them to take part in the
procreation of future generations.

The paper of A. has for its object to examine closely these three
arguments based upon very extensive data taken partly from demographic
statistics and partly from researches made personally by him or which
he caused to be made, especially in the Municipal Statistical Offices
of Rome and Cagliari, and in the Obstetrical Clinic of Bologna. The
principal results are here indicated.

A. The rule of a greater number of conceptions in Spring observed in
temperate regions suffers notable exceptions in tropical and arctic
regions. Hence there is a weakening of the idea that in it one should
recognise the atavistic heritage of a special season for reproduction
which the human race had originally shown, analogous to what one finds
to-day in many species of animals. On the other hand, neither the
frequency of multiple births, of miscarriages, or of stillbirths, nor
the length of life of offspring nor their intellectual capacity show
any correlation whatever with the season of conception. The frequency
of stillbirths, however, and the length of life of the offspring show
a clear correlation with the season of birth, in the sense that those
born in temperate seasons show a lower rate for stillbirths and a
greater length of life.

B. The age of the mother at the time of parturition does not show any
regular influence on the size and weight of the child. It has a very
sensible influence on the frequency of miscarriages and of stillbirths;
this increases with the increase in age. The age of the mother at the
time of marriage exercises a decisive influence upon the vitality
of the offspring: the greater the age of the mother at the time of
marriage the less will be the vitality of the children.

The age of the father at the birth of his child has some influence on
the number of stillbirths among his children. This influence--at any
rate above a given age--increases with the increase in the father's
age. It can neither be disproved nor affirmed that the age of the
father at the time of marriage has an influence upon the vitality of
the children; it is certain, however, that if any influence of that
kind exists it is much less intense than that exercised by the age of
the mother.

There has also been an enquiry as to the effect upon the characters of
the offspring exerted by (1) order of birth; (2) difference in age of
the parents; and (3) the age of the woman at the first menstruation.

C. Persons who die at a more advanced age have children in greater
number and endowed with greater length of life. For some classes of the
unfit (mad, consumptives, suicides) it can be proved beyond question
that the number of children born is less and their mortality greater
than among married people generally. Those who die of heart disease or
of cancer show a number of children slightly higher than the general
average of married persons; but that can be attributed to the fact that
their age at death is greater than the average age at death of married
people.



MATERNITY STATISTICS OF THE STATE OF RHODE ISLAND, STATE CENSUS OF 1905.

(Abstract.)

By Frederick L. Hoffman, LL.D., F.S.S.,

_Statistician of the Prudential Insurance Company of America._


As a contribution to the practical study of eugenics the decennial
maternity statistics of Rhode Island are of exceptional interest and
importance.

In 1905, of 36,766 native-born married women 26,329 (71.6%) were
mothers, and 10,477 (28.4%) childless. Of 32,960 foreign-born married
women 27,207 (82.5%) were mothers, and 5,753 (17.5%) childless.
Contrasting these percentages, the fact requires only to be stated to
emphasize its profound and far-reaching social as well as political
significance.

Considered with reference to religious belief, 72.7% of Protestant and
80.3% of Roman Catholic married women were mothers. Of married women of
Jewish faith 88.0% were mothers.

At ages 25-34, the proportion of native-born mothers having only one
child was 35.1%, against 22.6% for the foreign-born; the proportion of
mothers having from six to ten children was 6.8% for the native-born,
against 12.9% for the foreign-born. At all ages a similar disproportion
is apparent.

Vastly more important than the multitude of general social and economic
facts are these statistics of what, for want of a better term, may be
called _human production_, and which disclose what must be considered
the most alarming tendency in American life. Granting that excessively
large families are not desirable, at least from an economic point of
view, it cannot be questioned that the diminution in the average size
of the family, and the increase in the proportion of childless families
among the native-born stock is evidence of physical deterioration,
and must have a lasting and injurious effect on national life and
character.



Section IV.

Medicine and Eugenics.



THE PROPHYLAXIS OF HEREDITARY SYPHILIS AND ITS EUGENIC EFFECT.

(Abstract.)

By Dr. H. Hallopeau.


Syphilis is strongly _dysgenic_; it causes the production of profoundly
damaged children; in preventing it the physician co-operates
effectively with eugenic action. In order to prevent the propagation
of this disease we must have recourse to _administrative prophylaxis_,
_prophylaxis by persuasion_, and _prophylaxis by medical measures_.

_Administrative prophylaxis_ must act especially by multiplying
gratuitous consultations and in securing, as far as possible, hospital
treatment for persons affected by transmissible lesions, especially for
prostitutes.

To the physician belongs the duty of acting by _persuasion_ in pointing
out to syphilitics that they have no right to have children so long as
they are liable to transmit their disease to their offspring.

We must abort syphilis if it is in the stage of primary invasion:
this invasion is not, as was believed until recently, confined to
the chancre and its accompanying swellings; it includes all the
intermediate stage; in order to destroy the tripanosomes we must use
repeated injections of _benzosulfoneparaminophenylarsinate of soda_,
commonly known as _hectine_ (Mouneyrat), the only specific medicament
which is well borne locally.

Results similar to those we have just shown are obtained by making,
in a given region, two or three injections of salvarsan. However, the
comparison between the two medications is altogether in favour of that
by hectine. Indeed, experience proves that the secondary generalization
is noticeably more frequent after injections of salvarsan, and,
besides, these are far from being always painless. We have made known
to the Académie of Medicine a case in which, within 48 hours, they
caused the death of a young man in good health. Several similar cases
have since been notified, particularly by Dr. Gaucher. Confidently
believing in the axiom "Primo non nocere," we explicitly declare
ourselves adversaries of a practice which brings such accidents in its
train.

In the secondary stage, we must have recourse simultaneously to various
specific agents.

Procreation may be permitted when six months after the abortive
treatment Wasserman's reaction, after several trials, has given
uniformly negative results.

The physician thus accomplishes a profoundly eugenic work in favouring
and accelerating the production of unspoilt children.



THE EFFECT OF ALCOHOL ON THE GERM-PLASM.

(The New Alcohol Legislation in Norway.)

(Abstract.)

By Dr. Alfred Mjoën.


The injurious effect of alcohol depends not only upon the amount
taken, but also upon other factors, as, _e.g._, upon its dilution,
and upon the kind of nourishment taken with it. There can be no doubt
that alcohol under a certain percentage neither injures nor can injure
either the somatic cells, or what is more important for race-hygiene,
the germ cells. And, on the other hand, it must be regarded as proved
that alcohol over a certain percentage is injurious to the quality of
the offspring, not alone where the mother drinks (influence upon the
embryo), but also where the father alone is a drinker (destruction
of the germ). The latest investigations in this field confirm this
assumption.

There is, it is true, a middle class of beverages whose influence
upon the germ-plasm (posterity) has not been established, or can be
established at all. As a general rule, one may lay down the rule: _The
injurious effect of an alcoholic beverage upon individuals or race
increases from a certain percentage progressively with its increasing
contents of alcohol._

Therefore, I propose to divide alcoholic liquors into classes, and to
deal with them according to the amount of their contents of alcohol,
_i.e._, according to their injuriousness.

All casks, bottles, etc., coming into the market are to be furnished
with the class-mark (_e.g._, I., II., III., branded upon the cord).

For example, in the case of beer, the first class (under 2-1/4%), shall
be obtainable everywhere. For this class there will be claimed, besides
a reduction of duty, also a facility for sale and some concessions.
Class I. (up to 2-1/4%) will be charged with 2 ore; Class II.
(2-1/4--3-3/4%) with 8 ore; and Class III. (3-3/4--5%) with 15-16 ore
per litre. Beer over 5% or 5-1/2% will be prohibited([3]).

[Footnote 3: This proposal was favourably received by the Norwegian
minister Knudsen, and brought before the Storthing as a Government
measure. The proposal has been accepted as part of the election
programme of the Radicals, the Socialist Democrats, and all total
abstinence organisations.]

The class system permits of a simple, cheap, and practicable control,
and, indeed, a control which is not confined to the brewery or to
any single stage of preparation, but which follows the article over
the whole country from its origin to its consumption. When alcoholic
drinks are marked with their class and placed under State control, the
consumers will themselves easily exercise the control. And the public
will gradually become accustomed to form an opinion upon the influence
of the various articles upon the working capacity and the health, not
only of the individual, but also of the family and the race. State and
country authorities will, with State-controlled classes, more easily
see justice done on all sides. This last advantage will, naturally,
only avail in those lands where the permission to sell alcoholic
liquors is vested in the local authorities. The progressive class
system will also give the State, the municipalities, and also private
labour organisations an opportunity to support those restaurants
and inns which supply nothing but pure and harmless liquors, and
consumption will undergo a slow and gradual change to the lightest
drinks.

At the present time the lightest kinds of beer are too heavily taxed
in comparison with the heaviest kinds, and the latter in turn are too
heavily taxed in comparison with brandy. From the point of view of
race-hygiene, the fight must be directed especially against the fourth
and most dangerous class, namely, all kinds of brandy (prohibition or
Ivan Bratt's system), as well as against the mixed wines, which are so
often adulterated and injurious.



ALCOHOLISM AND DEGENERACY.

Statistics from the Central Bureau for the Management of the Insane of
Paris and the Department of the Seine from 1867 to 1912.

(Abstract.)

By M. Magnan,

_Chief Physician to the Central Bureau, Member of the Academy of
Medicine_,

And Dr. Fillassier.


From 1869 to 1912 the number of sick persons received at the Central
Bureau of the St. Anne Asylum has gone on steadily increasing:
occasionally signs of a falling off are noticed, quickly compensated by
the number of entries for the following years.

Among these patients a great number are driven to the asylum by the
abuse of alcoholic drinks. Some of these are simple alcoholics, _i.e._,
those who owe their insanity entirely to excessive drinking; the others
make up the numerous group of degenerates, who are for the most part
descendants of alcoholics, and on whom fall all the forms of physical,
intellectual, and moral degradation.

For these last, alcohol has been but the touch of the trigger which has
put in action their disposition towards insanity; the attack of mania,
when past, leaves revealed psychic troubles, which, but for the turning
of the balance by alcohol, would have remained in the latent condition,
but which, once developed, remain often for a much longer time; so
we see the increase in the number of these patients--occasional
drunkards--keeping pace with that of chronic alcoholics.

These will specially call forth the interest of the members of the
Eugenic Congress. From the clinical point of view they exhibit
great importance; for showing as they do all the episodic syndromes
of degeneracy, all the mental forms of it may be seen--maniacal,
melancholic, idiotic: insanities polymorphous or systematic, fixed
ideas, monomanias connected with words or numbers, every sort of
phobia, obsession, impulse, and symptomatic manifestation of great
importance. When their objective lies in sexual perversion, theft,
arson, murder, etc., these various states raise the most delicate
questions whether from the point of view of philosophy, psychology,
sociology, or forensic medicine.

This class of society, in the grip of this poison, is unfortunately
not sterile; their miserable descendants come to dock in the asylum;
so much so that if we mass together the various elements, if we add
the unfortunates permanently disabled, such as epileptics, and the
increasing crowd of feeble-minded, idiotic, tuberculous children, the
mind recoils aghast at the gravity of the danger. The necessity of
an implacable war against alcoholism, which crowds our asylums, our
hospitals, and our homes with insane persons, and sends a constant
stream to our prisons and reformatories--such a war must be the
principal aim of the Eugenics Congress.

For long the evil genius of mankind, alcoholism has to-day laid its
clutch on women, and the admission figures now show their numbers on
the increase every year.

Such are the lessons which may be learnt from the report of Magnan and
Fillassier.



EUGENICS AND OBSTETRICS.

(Abstract.)

By Dr. Agnes Bluhm, _Berlin._


1. Among the agencies under social control which impair the racial
qualities of future generations, an important place is taken by the
Science of Medicine, especially by Obstetrics. For the increase of
obstetrics increases the incapacity for bearing children of future
generations.

2. The great difference in the capacity for bearing children between
the primitive and civilized races depends only in part on the lessened
fitness of the latter due to the increase of skilled assistance.

3. Incapacity for bearing children can be acquired; it develops,
however, abundantly on the grounds of a congenital predisposition.

4. In so far as the latter is the case, obstetrics contributes towards
the diffusion of this incapacity.

5. The most serious obstacles to delivery are effected by deformities
of the pelvis, in at least 90% of which heredity plays a part. In this
connection, rickets, the predisposition to which is inherited, takes
the foremost place.

6. German medical statistics make it appear probable that incapacity to
bear children is on the increase.

7. Medical help in childbirth brings, undoubtedly, numerical advantage
to the race, but it endangers the quality of the race in other ways
than through the fostering of unfitness for bearing.

8. The danger of the increase of incapacity for bearing through the
increase of assistance in childbirth can be combatted:--

(_a_) Through the renunciation of descendants by women unfitted to bear
children.

(_b_) Through an energetic campaign against rickets, to which only the
predisposition can be inherited.

(_c_) Through the permeation of obstetrics with the spirit of eugenics,
so that the obstetrician no longer proceeds according to a settled rule
(living mother and living child), but in each separate case takes into
consideration the interests of the race.



HEREDITY AND EUGENICS IN RELATION TO INSANITY.

(Abstract.)

By F. W. Mott, M.D., F.R.S.,

_Physician to Charing Cross Hospital and Pathologist to the London
County Asylums._


What is insanity? Every case of insanity is a biological problem,
the solution of which depends upon a knowledge of what a man was
born with--Nature--and what has happened after birth--Nurture. The
increase of registered insanity in London; the causes of the increase.
(1) The standard of insanity has been raised. (2) The increase of
accommodation for reception of the insane. The diminishing death rate
in asylums causing a progressive accumulation. The diminished number of
recoveries. (3) The large proportion of old people admitted to asylums
formerly in the infirmaries.

_Nurture._--The correlation of pauperism, insanity and
feeble-mindedness, alcohol, syphilis, and tuberculosis in relation
to insanity and feeble-mindedness. Congenital mental deficiency as
distinguished from hereditary mental deficiency. Chronic poisoning of
the blood by these agencies in relation to a lowered specific vitality
of the germ cells. Environment in relation to mental energy and will
power.

_Nature._--The study of pedigrees in hospital and asylum patients
showing the importance of heredity in nervous and mental diseases.
The nature of the neuropathic tendency; its transmission in different
forms of nervous and mental disease in successive generations. Its
latency and re-appearance in stocks. Relation of neurasthenia to the
neuropathic taint. Conclusions arrived at in relation to heredity
and insanity from a study by a card system of 3,118 related persons
who are at present, or who have been, in the London County asylums.
Among the 20,000 inmates at present resident, 715 are so closely
related as parents and offspring or brothers and sisters. Nature is
always trying to end or mend a degenerate stock if left to itself.
Analysis of data regarding first attack of insanity in 464 parents
and their 508 offspring; the signal tendency to the occurrence of the
disease in a more intense form and at an earlier age in the offspring.
This "antedating" or "anticipation" in relation to Nature's process
of elimination of the unfit. Nearly 50 per cent. of the offspring
affected 20 years earlier than the parent. The same found in uncles
and aunts with nephews and nieces, only not nearly so marked. Seeing
that the unfit are at present able to survive; does nature end or mend
degenerate stocks, or have the lines of neuropathic inheritance only
been partially cut off by this tendency to "anticipation"? What we want
to know is: What is the fate of all the offspring of an insane parent
or parents; for there are a great many facts which show that a disease
may be latent and re-appear in a stock when the conditions of mating
or environment are unfavourable? A collection of pedigrees is required
which will prove conclusively that the offspring of insane parents,
who are free from the insane manifestations during adolescence, will
breed children who will not become insane. Supposing it were shown
that cases discharged as recovered had the seeds of insanity, by the
fact that their progeny were feeble-minded, epileptic, or insane, it
would be a clear indication of taking measures to prevent them handing
on the disease. Recurrent insanity--the birth of children in the sane
intervals. Analysis of pedigrees with a dual neuropathic inheritance
of maternal and paternal stocks compared with single neuropathic
inheritance. Conclusion that a child born of neuropathic inheritance in
both ancestral stocks stands, on an average, the chance of being insane
four times as great as when only one stock is affected. Are there any
types of insanity especially liable to be transmitted in the same form
or another form? The prediction of the racial value of an individual
inheritance can only be predicted by a study of what a man was born
with--Nature, and what happened after birth--Nurture.



THE PLACE OF EUGENICS IN THE MEDICAL CURRICULUM.

(Abstract.)

By H. E. Jordan,


_Chairman of the Eugenics Section of the American Association for the
Study and Prevention of Infant Mortality._



The Science of Eugenics deserves a place in the medical curriculum for
three reasons. Firstly: Medicine is fast becoming a science of the
prevention of weakness and morbidity; their permanent not temporary
cure, their racial eradication rather than their personal palliation.
Eugenic conduct is undeniably a factor in attaining the speedy
achievement of the end of racial health. Eugenics, embracing genetics,
is thus one of the important disciplines among the future medical
sciences. The coming physician must have adequate training in matters
relating to heredity and Eugenics. Secondly: as the general population
becomes better educated in matters of personal and racial health and
hygiene it will more and more demand advice regarding the prevention
of weakness in themselves and their offspring. The physicians are
logically the men who must give it. Thirdly: physicians will be more
efficient public servants if they approach their work with the Eugenic
outlook on life.

Instruction in Eugenics, in the form of a number of special lectures
on the subject, is already given in some of our medical schools. This
indicates at least that the need is felt and the importance of such
knowledge to the best physician recognised. Since not all of the better
medical schools give such courses, however, we may infer that there are
obstacles in the way. What is the nature of these?

One such may be the lack of adequate preparation on the part of the
students in the fundamentals of biology to properly comprehend the
import and application of Eugenic facts. This obstacle is speedily
being removed; for considerable biological training is already a
medical course prerequisite. But there may be a lack of properly
prepared teachers to present this subject to even properly prepared
medical students. This obstacle is also fast disappearing. Once the
demand for this kind of help is voiced, there will appear properly
trained teachers to instruct physicians.

Another obstacle may be raised by short-sighted and self-seeking
physicians, for whom less illness and weakness may mean less work and
a reduced income. But this is, perhaps, only a relatively very small
factor in, and also only a passing phase of, the opposition, and will
soon correct itself.

The most encouraging prospect for this new scheme of activity is the
deep interest shown by young medical students in matters of heredity
and Eugenics.



A HEALTHY SANE FAMILY SHOWING LONGEVITY IN CATALONIA.

(Abstract.)

By Professor I. Valenti Vivo.



I. A healthy family showing longevity in Catalonia: the greater part of
them died over 60 years of age from acute sickness. All belonged to the
districts of Barcelona and Gerona. A record of their ability in medical
science, art and agriculture, their average fertility.

II. Communication on Biometrika: Licentiates in medical science, 50
scholars, 1910: 70 in 1912. Dates: Cephalic index, stature, span,
dynamometer, age, district.



SOME REMARKS ON BACKWARD CHILDREN.

(Abstract.)

By Dr. Raoul Dupuy.



When we speak of a backward child, we mean any subject which is
arrested or retarded more or less completely in its bodily, psychical,
and sensorial evolution, in consequence of congenital and acquired
lesions, or simply in consequence of physiological troubles, which
concern, either at the same or a different time, the brain and
the glands of internal secretion (the thyroid, the hypophysis,
the suprarenals, and the genital glands). The cerebral lesions,
practically incurable in the present state of science, produce "atropic
backwardness" the functional troubles of the brain, or those caused by
the glands of internal secretion, which can be modified by "combined
organotherapy" produce dystrophic backwardness. We also, however, find
mixed types, half of the one and half of the other, which are similarly
susceptible of improvement. The number, and above all the variety of
the types of dystrophic backwardness, makes a general classification
of them impossible. The study of their bodily, psychical and sensorial
anomalies proves that in most of the manifestations of backwardness
and immaturity, these children present perversions of evolution which
have a common bearing on the development of body, mind and spirit.
Although apparently different from one another, these backward persons,
whether the mischief be corporal, psychical or sensorial, show
pathological peculiarities, which prove that the cause of their various
dystrophies have a similar origin, and that they often arise from
defective function of the sympathic system which appears to be brought
into action by the internal glands. The backward children consist
of intoxicated, under-grown or anæmic persons, who, besides, suffer
from retention of substances, which ought normally to be eliminated,
chiefly the chlorides and phosphates (in cases of apathy) or the hyper
excretion of the same substances (in cases of instability). Moreover,
the combined organotherapy ought to be considered as a "perfect
touchstone" of dystrophy, and if applied according to certain rules,
it gives results which are more complete and more certain than thyroid
organotherapy by itself. It goes without saying that a special training
is necessary for the intellectual "backwards"; but before any attempt
at education, it is necessary to treat their bodily deficiencies, and
to place them in the special schools with the boarding system, where
they will be under the eye both of the doctor and of the teacher.



FIRST INTERNATIONAL

EUGENICS CONGRESS,

LONDON,

July 24th to July 30th, 1912,

UNIVERSITY OF LONDON,

SOUTH KENSINGTON.


       *       *       *       *       *


CATALOGUE

OF

THE EXHIBITION.


       *       *       *       *       *


CHARLES KNIGHT & CO., Ltd.,

227-239 Tooley Street, London, S.E.


References in the Index refer to the Alphabetical Enumeration in the
margin of each page of the Catalogue.


       *       *       *       *       *


The Exhibition Committee desire to take this opportunity of expressing
their thanks to the Exhibitors for the loan of their exhibits. They
desire specially to acknowledge the courtesy of Professor von Gruber
for giving permission to make use of Translations from the Catalogue of
the International Congress of Race Hygiene held in Dresden last year.



INDEX TO EXHIBITS.


  A

  Ability, Administrative, Pedigree shewing Descent of, I. 1

  Inheritance of, as exemplified in the Darwin, Galton, and Wedgwood
      families, O. 5

  Abnormal Germ Production, _see under_ Germ Production

  Abnormalities observed in  Drunkard's Children, C. 92

  Abortions and Premature Births in various Callings, C. 101

  Administrative Ability, Pedigree shewing Descent of, I. 1

  Age-intervals, separating various Generations of Mannheim families, C. 39

  Age of Parents
    Conjointly with Numerical position in Family, in relation
        to Infantile Mortality, C. 51
    at Death, and Marital gross and net Fertility, C. 7
    and Mortality of Children up to 5 years, C. 9-10
    and Mortality of Children up to 20 years, C. 7-8

  AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE OF UTAH
    JOHN A. WIDTSOE, A.M., Ph.D., Chart shewing Inheritance
    of Physical and Mental Qualities and Defects, and of
    Literary Ability, from a Polygamous Family in Utah, N. 1

  Alcohol and Degeneration, C. 91-3
    Effect of, on Human Offspring, C. 96
    Experiments with, on Animals, in Small Quantities, C. 95
    Frequency and Intensity of harmful Influences through, relative,
        Urban and Rural, C. 88
    Injury from, to Reproductive functions, C. 89-90

  Alcoholic, Epileptic, Sexually-immoral Man, and Neurotic and
      Sexually-immoral Woman, Offspring of, D. 9
    Intoxication, Acute, effect of on Origin of Feeble-mindedness, C. 97
    Man, and Feeble-minded Woman, Offspring of, D. 10
    and Migrainous Woman, Offspring of, D. 13

  Alcoholism, Paternal, effect of, on Suckling-capacity of Daughters, C. 93
    Inter-connection with, of Tuberculosis, Nervous Diseases, and Psychoses
        of Offspring, C. 94

  _Alytes obstetricans_, _see_ Midwife Toad

  "All London," Booth's Classification of, Comparison of, with the Normal
      Classes, O. 3

  AMERICAN BREEDERS' ASSOCIATION, EUGENICS SECTION (C. DAVENPORT, ESQ.).
      Charts _re_ Defectives, Classification and Statistics of, P.

  Ancestors, Theoretical Number of, C. 115

  Ancestral Loss, Phenomenon of, C. 96

  Animals, Experiments on, with Small quantities of Alcohol, C. 95

  Arab v. Spaniard, Segregation Inheritance of Eye-colour, K. 4

  Archduchess Maria ... of Tuscany, Pedigree of, C. 112

  Association of Characters in Heredity in Sweet Peas, M. 6 & 7 (_a & b_)

  Atrophy, Progressive Muscular, C. 13

  Australia, Birth and Death Rates in, H. 25


  B

  Bavaria, Breast-feeding in relation to Infant Mortality in, C. 60, 70

  "Belvidere," Pedigree of, C. 110

  Berlin, Birth and Death Rate for, H. 28
    Fertility in, decrease in, _circ._ 1869-1910, C. 126-129

  Birth-curve, general, and that for Feeble-minded Children compared, C. 97

  Birth-frequency in relation to Habit of Breast-feeding, C. 72, 73

  Birth-interval, in relation to
    Breast-feeding, length of, C. 63
      Average length of, C. 63, 64
    Health of Offspring, C. 58
    Infantile Mortality, C. 57, 58
    Vitality of Child, with and without, Breast-feeding, C. 65

  Birth-place, Locality and Size of, in relation to Military Fitness,
      Germany, C. 26-30

  Birth-rate, in relation to
      Breast-feeding, duration of, C. 72, 73
      Wealth, C. 118-122
    Rising, Countries with, H. 21-4
    Stationary, Countries with, H. 17-20

  Birth and Death Rate
    in Australia, H. 25
    in Berlin, H. 28
    in Europe and Western Europe, H. 30-1
    in France, H. 7
    in the Netherlands, H. 10
    of Toronto, City of, H. 27
    of United Kingdom, and of German Empire, H. 5, 6
    of Various Countries, relation between, H. 1-31

  Birth and Death Rates and Infant Mortality, relation between, H. 1-31
    for New Zealand, H. 26
    in Protestant Countries, H. 11-13

  Birth-rates, and _corrected_ Death-rates, relation between, H. 2

  Births _per_ Couple essential to prevent Decay of Nations,
    C. 123 _et præoi_
    Premature in Various Callings, C. 101
    Restriction of, C. 125-128

  Blindness, _see_ Colour-blindness _and_ Night-blindness

  Blood-relationship of Parents and Health of Offspring, C. 108
    Intensification of Characters in, C. 106-7

  Blue Andalusian Fowls, Mendelian Inheritance in
    Gametic Purity in Illustration of Theory of, O. 1 (_f_)
    Without Dominance, O. 1 (_e_)

  Booth, C., Classification by, of "All London," Comparison of, with the
      Normal Classes, O. 3

  Breast-feeding, in relation to
      Birth-intervals, Length of, and average Length of, C. 63, 64
      Cancer, C. 71
      Infant Mortality
        Birth-Interval and, C. 59-62
        Female Labour and, C. 99
    Capacity for, of Daughters as affected by Paternal Alcoholism, C. 93
      as Evidence of Hereditary Constitution in relation to Infant
        Mortality, C. 79-82
      and Number of Children, C. 61
    Duration of, in relation to
      Average number of Carious Teeth, C. 74, 75
      Birth rate, C. 72, 73
      Frequency of Rachitic disturbances of development, C. 78.
      Infant Mortality, C. 74
        in Conjunction with Numerical Position, C. 60
      Physical development, C. 76
      School Reports, average, C. 77
    Habit of, in relation to Birth-frequency, C. 72, 73
      as running in Families, and Infant Mortality, C. 62


  C

  Canada, _see_ Toronto

  Cancer, Breast-feeding in relation to, C. 71

  Cataract, Hereditary, L. 4

  Charts Explaining Method of Collecting and Recording
      Data, D. 15 (_a_ & _b_)

  Childbirth, increasing Frequency of Surgical Operations in connection
      with, Racial significance of, C. 48 (1-6)

  Childless and Fertile Couples, Physical Condition of, contrasted, C. 45

  Children, _see also_ Infant Mortality, Numbers, Numerical Position, &c.
      of Drunkards, Abnormalities observed in, C. 92

    Health of, in connection with Blood-relationship of Parents, C. 108

    Mortality of,
      Death-age of Parents in relation to,
        up to 5 years, C. 9, 10
        up to 20 years, C. 7, 8
      illegitimate, C. 104, 105
      Number of children in relation to, C. 60
    Number of, Average in each Generation, Mannheim, C. 38
      in Paris, in relation to Wealth, C. 119

  Cleopatra, Pedigree of, showing Inbreeding, C. 114

  Colour-Blindness, Congenital, Pedigree with unusual features, L. 1

  Colour-Changes in Skin of Fire-Salamander, according to placing on Yellow
      or Black Earth, C. 1, 2

  Colours, Recombination of in Poultry, Mendelian experiments shewing, M. 3

  Comparison of Mr. Booth's Classification of "All London," with the Normal
      Classes, O. 3

  Conceptions and Conception Losses, Numbers of, and Explanations,
      C. 52 (1-4)

  Congenital Colour-Blindness, Pedigree with unusual features, L. 1
    Hereditary Nystagmus, L. 3 (_a_ & _b_)

  Constitution, _see_ Hereditary _do._

  Consumption in three Generations, Male Infant Mortality, E. 5 (_c_)

  Copenhagen, Fertility of Marriages, Occupation, and Wealth for, C. 122

  Countries with
    Rising Birth-rate, H. 21-4
    Stationary Birth-rate, H. 17-20

  Country, _versus_ Town Fertility, in Prussia, C. 126, 128

  Cross-Fertilization in Maize, C. 111

  Crossing of Races
    Fertility and Health in relation to, C. 117
    Inbreeding and, C. 106, 107


  D

  Darwin, Charles,
    Home of, Down House
      Study-rooms of, at Down
        Etching of Large, by Haig, B. 7
        Photograph of Small, in which "The Origin of Species" was
            written, B. 6
      Water-colour Drawing of, by A. Goodwin, B. 8
    Letters of (Two) on "Worms and their Habits," B. 9
    Portraits of Engraving, by Flameng after Collier, B. 4

    Portraits of
    Painting, by W. W. Ouless, B. 1
    Photograph, by Maull and Polyblank, B. 3
      on his Horse, Tommy, B. 5

  Darwin, Dr. Erasmus, and his son, Erasmus, Portraits of
      (Silhouette), A. 2

  Darwin, Mrs., Portrait of (Silhouette), A. 3

  DARWIN, WILLIAM E., and LEONARD, B. 1 to 9

  Darwin, Galton, and Wedgwood Families, Inheritance of Ability as
      exemplified by, O. 5

  Daughters, Suckling Capacity of, as affected by Paternal
      Alcoholism, C. 93

  DAVENPORT, C. B., P.

  Death-rates, _see also_ Birth-, and Death-rates of Married and Divorced
      Persons, and of Widows, compared, C. 102

  Deaths, in relation to Conception losses, C. 52, 53

  Defect, Transmission of, Pauperism due to, E. 1-6 (_d_)

  Defective and Pauper families, Tendency to Inter-marriage between, E. 2

  Defectives
    Classification of, Charts of, P. 1
    Statistics of Charts, P.

  Degeneration, Alcohol and, C. 91-3

  Delirium tremens, Epilepsy, and General Paralysis, Frequency of, in
      Prussian Lunatic Asylums, C. 38

  Denmark, Fertility in, in relation to Wealth, C. 121, 122
    Number of Children in, in Families of Different Classes, 1901, C. 121

  Descent, _see also_ Heredity, Inheritance, _and_ Mendelism
    of Qualities in a Population (after Galton), O. 4
    Standard Scheme of (after Galton), O. 2

  Development as affected by Duration of Breast-feeding, C. 74-8

  Diseases, Variation of, England and Wales, H. 9

  Down House, Home of Charles Darwin Study-rooms in
    Large, Etched by Haig, B. 7
    Small, Photograph of, B. 6
    Water-colour of, by A. Goodwin, B. 8

  Drunkard's Children, Abnormalities observed in, C. 92

  DRYSDALE, C. V., H. 1-30

  Dutch conditions as to Fertility in relation to Marriage, Wealth and
      Occupation, C. 122

  Dying-out of Higher grades of Society, C. 34
    Large Scale of, C. 36
    Quick process of, Catastrophic changes inaugurating,. C. 38-43


  E

  Earth, Colour of, as affecting Skin-colour in Fire Salamander, C. 1-2

  England and Wales
    Birth- and Death-rate and Infantile Mortality for, H. 9
    Fertility of Married Women in, H. 9
    Illegitimacy in, H. 9

  English _v._ Gipsy, Inheritance of Racial form of Nose, K. 1

  Engraving by Leopold Flameng of Collier's Portrait of C. Darwin, B. 4

  Environment, Colour changes in Skin due to, C. 1-2

  Epilepsy, Frequency of, in Prussian Lunatic Asylums, C. 88

  Epileptic, Alcoholic, Sexually-immoral Man and Sexually-immoral Woman,
   Offspring of, D. 9
      and Feeble-minded Parents, Offspring of, D. 2, 4, 5, 7 (_a_ & _b_)
      Man and Choreic Woman, Offspring of, D. 11
      of Low Grade, condition of Relatives of, D. 13
      and Normal Woman, Offspring of, D. 12
      Parents, Offspring of, D. 1
      Unmarried Mother, Offspring of, D. 6

  Epileptics, Village for, of New Jersey State, at Skillman, D. 1-15

  Etching by Axel Haig of Darwin's large Study at Down, B. 7

  European States, Decrease of Fertility in some, C. 129

  European _v._ American Red Indian, Inheritance of Racial form of
      Nose, K. 2 (_a_ & _b_)
    Segregation Inheritance of Eye-colour, K. 3

  Eye, Lens of, Reconstruction of, out of Iris, C. 49
    of Vertebrate, Development of, C. 49

  Eye-colour in Mankind, Mendelian descent of, Pedigree shewing, I. 3
    Racial Segregation of, K. 3-5

  Eye-disease, Destructive, and Mental Defect in same Stock, E. 1

  Eye-sight, Defects of, L. 1-4


  F

  Families brought back to the Land, North Germany, C. 23-5
    Frequency of Tuberculosis in, C. 15

  Faulty position of Child at Birth, in relation to
      Stillbirth, C. 48 (5 & 6)

  Feeble-minded
    Children, Birth-curve of, compared with general Birth-curve, C. 97
    Parents, Offspring of, D. 8
      Mated with Epileptic, Offspring of, D. 2, 4, 5, 7 (_a_ & _b_)
    Woman, and Alcoholic Man, Offspring of, D. 10.

  Feeble-mindedness, Incest, and Offspring, D. 3
    Origin of, Acute Intoxication in relation to, C. 97

  Female Labour and Infant Mortality, C. 99-101
    as affecting Reproduction, C. 99, 100

  Fertile and Childless Couples, Physical Condition of, contrasted, C. 45

  Fertility, Age of Parents at Death in relation to, C. 7
    and Health in relation to Crossing of Races, C. 117
    in relation to High Mental Endowment
      in France, C. 124
      in Holland, C. 123
    Legitimate, in Berlin, Decrease of: Two-children System, C. 127-9
    of Marriages, Occupation, and Wealth for Copenhagen, and Dutch
        Conditions, C. 122
    of Married Women, England and Wales, H. 9
    Want of, in French and German towns, C. 125-9
    and Wealth, C. 118
      in Denmark, C. 121, 122
      in Munich, C. 120

  Field-workers in America, Charts collected by, P.

  Fire Salamander, Colour-changes in Skin of, when placed on Yellow or on
      Black Earth, C. 1-2

  First-born _see also_ Numeral position alleged Inferiority in, C. 64.
    and Later-Born, Infantile Mortality among, C. 56
    Myopia in high degree and frequency of, C. 54

  Fitness for Military Service in relation to Birth-place, locality and
      size of, and to Parental occupation, C. 26-30

  Foetus, effect on, of Lead poisoning, C. 98

  France, Birth- and Death-rates for, since 1781., H. 8
    Departments of, Fertility in relation to Wealth in, C. 118
    Fertility in, in relation to High Mental Endowment, C. 124
    Total Population and Birth- and Death-rates for, Variation in, H. 7
    Towns of, Want of Fertility in, C. 125


  G

  Galton, Darwin, and Wedgwood Families, Inheritance of Ability as
      exemplified by, O. 5

  Galton, Samuel Tertius, his son Erasmus, and three daughters, Portraits
      of (Silhouette), A. 4

  Galton, Sir Francis, Portrait of, by Charles Furze, A. 1

  Gametic Purity in Mendelian Heredity, Theory of
    Illustrations of in
      Blue Andalusian Fowls, O. 1 (_f_)
      Mice, O. 1 (_d_)

  General Paralysis of the Insane, Frequency of, in Prussian Lunatic
      Asylums, C. 88

  Generations of Mannheim Families
    Age-intervals separating, C. 39
    Average number of Children in each, C. 38
    Number attained by, C. 38

  Germ-cells, effect on, of Lead-poisoning, C. 98

  Germ Production, Abnormal, Disturbance of Normal Sex proportion as
      symptom of, C. 44

  Germany, _see_ Berlin, Munich, & United Kingdom
    Recruits in, cause of Unfitness in those qualified for one year and in
        general, C. 33, 34

  GRUEBER, PROF. von, C. 1-123


  H

  Hæmophylic family, Pedigree of, C. 12

  Hair Peculiarities, Heredity of
    Curled hair, C. 5
    Lock of White hair, C. 6

  Health and Fertility in relation to Crossing of Races, C. 117
    of Married persons, importance to, of Marriage, C. 102
    of Offspring in relation to
      Birth-interval, C. 58
      Blood-relationship of Parents, C. 108

  Heart and Vessels, effect on, of Syphilis, C. 85

  Hereditary Cataract, L. 4
    Changes in _Alytes obstetricans_, C. 3-4
    Congenital Nystagmus, L. 3 (_a_ & _b_)
    Constitution as evidenced by power to Breast-feed, in relation to
        Infant Mortality, C. 79-82
    Night-blindness with Myopia, L. 2

  Heredity, _see also_ Descent, Inheritance & Mendelism
    among Moral Imbeciles, C. 17
    of Hair peculiarities
      Curling, C. 5
      White lock, C. 6
    of Particular Taints, Distribution of amongst nearest
        Relatives, C. 16-19
    Principles of, Charts of, P.

  Higher grades of Society
    Dying out of, C. 34
    Large Scale of, C. 36
      Urban, C. 37
    Quick process, Catastrophic changes inaugurating, C. 38-43

  Holland, _see also_ Dutch, & Netherlands
    Fertility in, in relation to High Mental Endowment, C. 123

  HOPE, E. W., PUBLIC HEALTH DEPARTMENT, CITY OF LIVERPOOL, F. 1-3 (_f_)

  Human Races, _see also_ Races
    Crossing of, Inbreeding and, C. 106-7
    Interbreeding of Different, results of, K. 3

  Hybrids resulting from Cross-fertilization, C. 111

  Hybridization in Maize, C. 111


  I

  Illegitimacy in England and Wales, H. 9

  Illegitimate Children, Mortality of, C. 104, 105

  Imbeciles, Moral, Heredity among, C. 20

  Inbreeding and Crossing of Races, C. 106
    among Pathological, harm of, C. 109
    in Reigning families, C. 112-14

  Incest, and Feeble-mindedness, D. 3

  Infantile Mortality in relation to
    Age of Parents, C. 51
    Birth Interval (_see also_ that head), C. 57, 58, 66
      Long or Short, C. 65
    Breast-feeding, _see under_ Breast-feeding
    Birth- and Death-rates, relation between, H. 1
    Female Labour, C. 99-101
    Hereditary Constitution, C. 79-82
    Marriage of Parents, C. 104, 105
    Numerical position in family, C. 50, 60
      in Princely families, C. 53
      in England and Wales, H. 9
      in the Netherlands, H. 10
      in New Zealand, H. 26
      in Protestant Countries, H. 11-13
      in Roman Catholic Countries, H. 14-16
    Tuberculosis, and Pauperism, relation between, E. 5 (_a-e_)

  Inheritance of Ability, as exemplified in the Darwin, Galton, and
      Wedgwood Families, O. 5
    in Polygamous Utah family, of Physical and Mental Qualities and
        Defects, and of Literary Ability, N. 1
    Segregative of Racial Form of Nose, K. 1-2 (_a_ & _b_)

  Insanitary Property in Liverpool, Model of, F. 1
    Photographs of, and of New Dwellings erected on demolition
        of, F. 3 (_a_ & _b_)

  Insanity (_see also_ Lunatics), Consumption, and Infant
      Mortality, E. 5 (_b_)

  Interbreeding of Different Human Races, results of, K. 3

  Inter-marriage, _see also_ Marriage between Pauper and Defective
      families, Tendency to, E. 2

  Intoxication, Alcoholic, Acute, in relation to Origin of
      Feeble-mindedness, C. 97


  L

  Land, re-settlement of Families dealt with, N. Germany, C. 23-5

  Lead-poisoning as affecting Germ-cells and Foetus, C. 98

  Legitimate and Illegitimate Children, Berlin, 1885, Survival of, C. 105

  Letters (autograph) of Charles Darwin (Two) on "Worms and their
      Habits," B. 9

  LIDBETTER, E. J., E. 1-6 (_d_) Life, Male, Duration of, Urban and Rural,
      in Prussia, C. 22

  LIVERPOOL, CITY OF, PUBLIC HEALTH DEPARTMENT OF, F. 1-3 (_f_)

  London (_see also_ All London), Birth- and Death-rates, relation
      between, H. 3

  Low-type Stock, perpetuation of, Pauperism due to, E. 1-6 (_d_)
    with but little Physical Defect, E. 3

  Lunatic Asylums, Prussian, Frequency in, of Delirium tremens, Epilepsy
      and General Paralysis, C. 88


  M

  Maize, Cross fertilized, Hybridized, Self-fertilized, C. 111

  Male and Female Mortality, Urban and Rural, compared, C. 83-5
   Life, Duration of, Urban and Rural, Prussia, C. 22

  Malthusian theory of Population, H. 1-30

  Mankind, Eye-colour in, Mendelian descent of, Pedigree shewing, I. 3

  Mannheim families, Gradual extinction of, 19th century, C. 37

  Marriage rate, England & Wales, H. 9

  Marriage(s) in relation to Fertility, Occupation and Wealth, Copenhagen
      and Holland, C. 122
    First, Prolificness of, 19th Century, C. 40
    Importance of, to Health of Married persons, C. 102
    and Mortality in Prussia (1894-7), C. 102
    between Peasant and Tramp, Pedigree shewing results, C. 21

  Mendelian descent of Eye-colour in Mankind, Pedigree shewing, I. 3
    Experiments with Fowls, shewing Recombination of Colours, M. 3
    Heredity in Blue Andalusian Fowls,
      Gametic Purity in, Illustration of Theory of, O. 1 (_f_)
      Without Dominance, O. 1 (_e_)
    in Mice, illustration of Theory of Gametic Purity in, O. 1 (_d_)
      With Dominance, Theoretical examples of, O. 1 (_f_)
    in Peas, Theoretical examples of, O. 1 (_a_ & _b_)
    in Rabbits, M. 1, 2

  Mendelism, O. 1

  Mental Defect, _see also_ Defect, Defective, &c.
      Transmission of, through the apparently Normal, E. 6 (_a-d_)
    Disease and Destructive Eye-disease in same Stock, E. 1
    Endowment, High, in relation to Fertility in
      France, C. 124
      Holland, C. 123
    Taint, distribution of, among nearest Relatives, C. 17

  Mice, Mendelian Heredity in, Gametic Purity in, O. 1 (_d_)
    (Theoretical), with Dominance, O. 1 (_c_)

  Midwife Toad, Hereditary changes in Habits of, C. 3-4

  Migrainous Parents, Offspring of, D. 14

  Military Fitness and Unfitness, Germany, in relation to School
      life, C. 31, 32, 33
    Recruits, Frequency among, of Venereal Diseases, C. 87

  Miscarriages in relation to Conception losses, C. 52 (2)

  Moral Imbeciles, Heredity among, C. 20

  Mortality, _see also_ Infant, Male and Female, Phthisis, Syphilitic
    of Children, in relation to Age at Death of Parents, C. 7-10
    of Illegitimate Children, C. 104, 105
    in relation to Marriage, C. 102

  MUDGE, G. P., K. 1-5

  Munich, Fertility in, in relation to Wealth, C. 120

  Munich Regiments, percentage in, of Fitness, C. 34

  Muscular Atrophy, Progressive, C. 13

  Myopia, with Hereditary Night-blindness, L. 2
    High degree of, and frequency of, among First-born, C. 54


  N

  Neomalthusianism, C. 118-29

  Netherlands, _see also_ Holland
    Birth- and Death-rates and Infant Mortality for, H. 10

  New Jersey State Village for Epileptics, at Skillman, Charts of, D. 1-15

  New Zealand, Birth- and Death-rate and Infant Mortality, H. 26

  Night-blindness, Hereditary with Myopia L. 2
    Inherited Stationary, Pedigree of sufferers from, of Nongaret
        family, C. 14

  Nongaret family, sufferers from Inherited Stationary Night-blindness,
      Pedigree of, C. 14

  Normal Classes, Comparison with, of Booth's Classification of "All
      London," O. 3
   Woman, with two Tuberculous husbands, E. 5 (_d_)

  Nose, Racial form of, and its Segregative Inheritance, K. 1-2 (_a_ & _b_)

  Number of Children and
   Capacity for Breast-feeding, C. 61
   Child Mortality, C. 60

  Numerical position in family, _see also_ First-born
    and Duration of Breast-feeding in relation to Infant Mortality, C. 20
    in relation to Infantile Mortality, C. 50, 55
      in Princely families, C. 53

  Nystagmus, Hereditary congenital, L. 3 (_a_ & _b_)


  O

  Occupation in relation to Fertility, Denmark and Holland, C. 122

  Offspring, Human, effects on of Alcohol, Blood relationship of Parents,
  Epileptic and Feeble-minded Parentage, &c., _see_ those heads


  P

  Parental Age at Death, and Child Mortality, C. 7-10

  Occupation in relation to Military Fitness, Germany, C. 26-30

  Parents, Blood-relationship of, and Health of Offspring, C. 108
    Epileptic, Offspring of, D. 1

  Paris, Birth- and Death-rates of, relation between, H. 4
    Number of Children in, in relation to Wealth, C. 119

  Paternal Alcoholism, as affecting Suckling powers of Daughters, C. 93
    with Inter-connection of Tuberculosis, Neuroses and Psychoses of
          Offspring, C. 94
    Lead-poisoning, effect of, on Reproduction of Healthy Offspring, C. 98

  Pathological Interbreeding, harm of C. 109

  Pauper and Defective families, Tendency to Inter-marriage between, E. 2

  Pauperism due to Transmission of Defect, and perpetuation of Low-type
      Stocks, E. 1-6 (_d_)
    Tuberculosis, and Infant Mortality, relation between, E. 5 (_a-e_)

  Peas, _see also_ Sweet Peas
    Mendelian Inheritance in, Theoretical examples of, O. 1 (_a_ & _b_)

  PEARL, DR. RAYMOND, G.

  Peasant and Tramp Intermarriages, Pedigree shewing results, C. 21

  Pedigree Records, System of Making, G. 1

  Pedigrees of
    Archduchess Maria ... of Tuscany, shewing Inbreeding, C. 112
    "Belvidere," C. 100
    Collected by Field-workers in America, P.
    Descent of Administrative Ability, I. 1, _see also_ Darwin, Galton, and
        Wedgwood families
      of Scientific Ability (Wollaston Pedigree), I. 2
    Mendelian descent of Eye-colour in Mankind, I. 3
    Family with peculiarly Curled Hair, C. 5
    Hæmophylic family, C. 12
    Illustrating Royal tendency to Inter-marry, C. 112-14
    Reigning Houses, shewing Ancestral Loss, C. 116
    Zero von Jorger family, C. 21

  Physical condition of Childless and Fertile Couples contrasted, C. 45

  Photographs of Charles Darwin, B. 3, 5,
    of Small Study in which "Origin of Species" was written, B. 6

  Physical Development in relation to Duration of Breast-feeding, C. 7
    Qualities, Heredity of, Tables shewing, C. 7

  Phthisis Mortality, Decline in, for
    England & Wales, F. 2 (_a_)
    England & Ireland, F. 2 (_b_)
    Liverpool, F. 2 (_d_)
    Scotland, F. 2 (_c_)

  Polygamous Utah Family, Inheritance in, of Physical and Mental Qualities
      and Defects, and of Literary Ability, N. 1

  Population
    Births, _per_ Couple, essential to prevent Decay of
        Nation, C. 123 _et proevi_
    Descent of Qualities in (after Galton), O. 4
    Malthusian theory of, H. 1-30
    Neomalthusian theory of, C. 118-29

  Portraits of
    Darwin, Charles
      (Engraving by L. Flameng, after Hon. John Collier's painting), B. 4
      by Maull & Polyblank (Photograph), B. 3
      on his horse Tommy (Photograph), B. 5
      Painting by W. W. Ouless, B. 1
    Darwin, Dr. Erasmus, and his son, Erasmus (Silhouette), A. 2
    Darwin, Mrs. (Silhouette), A. 3
    Galton, Samuel Tertius, his son Erasmus, and three daughters
        (Silhouette), A. 4
    Galton, Sir Francis, by Charles Furze, A. 1

  Poultry, _see_ Blue Andalusian Fowls

  Pregnancy, effect on, of Female Labour, C. 99-101

  Premature Births and Abortion in various Callings, C. 101
    in relation to Conception losses, C. 52(2)

  Princely families, Infantile Mortality in, in relation to Numerical
      position, C. 53

  Principles of Heredity Charts of, P.

  Progeny of the Highly Gifted in France, C. 124

  Progressive Muscular Atrophy, Inheritance of, C. 13

  Prolificness of First Marriages, 19th century, C. 40

  Protestant Countries, Birth- and Death-rates and Infant
      Mortality in, H. 11-13

  Prussia, Fertility (restricted) in, C. 126

  Prussia
    Lunatic Asylums of, Frequency in, of Delirium tremens, Epilepsy, and
        General Paralysis, C. 88
    Male Life-duration in, Urban and Rural, C. 22

  Ptolemäus X., pedigree of, shewing Inbreeding, C. 113

  PUNNETT, PROF. R. C., M. 1-7 (_b_)


  Q

  Qualities, Descent of, in a Population (after Galton), O. 4


  R

  Rabbits, Mendelian Inheritance in, M. 1, 2

  Rachitic disturbances of Development, Frequency of, in relation to
    Duration of Breast-feeding, C. 78

  Race--Hygiene, C. 46-7

  Racial Crossing, C. 106-7
      Fertility and Health in relation to, C. 117
    Eye-colour Segregation of, K.
    Form of Nose and its Segregative Inheritance, K. 1-2 (_a_ & _b_)
    Inbreeding, C. 106-7

  Recombination of Colours in Fowls, Mendelian experiments shewing, M. 3

  Recruits, qualified for one year's service, and Recruits in general,
    Germany, causes of Unfitness in, compared, C. 33, 34

  Reigning families, Inbreeding among, C. 112
    Houses, Pedigrees of, shewing Ancestral Loss, C. 116

  Relations, Nearest, Distribution among, of Particular Taints, C. 16-19

  Reproduction, effect on, of Female Labour, C. 99-101
    of Paternal Lead Poisoning, C. 98

  Reproduction-methods of _Alytes obstetricans_, Hereditary changes
      in, C. 3-4

  Reproductive Functions, Injury to, from Alcohol, C. 89-90

  Restriction of Birth, C. 125-8

  Reversion in Sweet Peas
    on Crossing, followed by appearance in next generation of Numerous
        Types, M. 4
    in Structural characters, M. 5

  Roman Catholic Countries, Birth- and Death-rate and Infant Mortality
      in, H. 14-16

  Rural and Urban Duration of Male Life, Prussia, C. 22


  S

  Self-fertilization in Maize, C. 111

  School Reports, average, in relation to Duration of Breast-feeding, C. 77

  Schools, German, in relation to Military Fitness, C. 31

  Scientific Ability, Descent of, Pedigree shewing I. 2, _and see_ Darwin,
      Galton, Wedgwood families.

  Sexes, Normal proportion of, Disturbance in, as symptom of Abnormal
      germ production, C. 44

  Segregation Inheritance of Racial form of Nose, K., 1-2 (a & b)

  Segregation of Racial Eye-colour, K. (3-5)

  Silhouettes of
    Darwin, Dr. Erasmus, and his son Erasmus, A. 2
    Darwin, Mrs., A. 3
    Galton, Samuel Tertius, his son Erasmus, and three daughters, A. 4.

  Skin-Colour, changes in, in Fire Salamander according to whether kept on
      Yellow or Black Earth, C. 1-2

  Soter II., Pedigree of, shewing Inbreeding, C. 113

  Spaniard _v._ Gipsy Inheritance, Segregation of Eye-colour, K. 3

  Stillbirths, in relation to Conception losses, C. 52-3
    Decrease of Total of, C. 48(4)

  Structural Characters, Reversion in, in Sweet Peas, M. 5

  Students, German, causes of Military Unfitness in, C. 32, 33

  Suicides in Civilised Countries, Increasing numbers of, C. 35-6

  Suckling, _see_ Breast-feeding

  Sucklings, _see_ Infant Mortality

  Surgery in Childbirth, increase in, Racial significance of, C. 48 (1-6)

  Standard Scheme of Descent (after Galton), O. 2

  Sweet Peas
    Association in, of Characters in Heredity, M. 6 & 7 (_a_ & _b_)
    Reversion in, on Crossing, followed by appearance of Numerous Types in
        next generation, M. 4
      in Structural Characters, M. 5

  Syphilitic and Sexually-immoral Couple, Offspring of, D. 15

  Syphilis
    Heart and Vessels as harmed by, C. 85
    Mortality from, at 36 to 50 years, C. 85
    Frequency of, relative, Urban and Rural, C. 86-8


  T

  Taints, particular, distribution of among nearest Relations, C. 16-9

  Teeth, Carious, average of, Breast-feeding in relation to, C. 74, 75

  Toronto, City of, Birth- and Death-rates of, H. 27

  Towns, _see also_ Urban
    French and German, Restriction of Births in, C. 125-9
    Life in, Special effect of, on Male Mortality, C. 83-5

  Tramp and Peasant Inter-marriage, Pedigree showing results, C. 21

  Tuberculosis
    Frequency of, within Families, C. 15
    Infant Mortality, and Pauperism, relation between, E. 5 (_a_ & _e_)
    Mortality from, of Married and Unmarried persons, C. 102

  Tuberculous family with apparently Normal Parents from Tuberculous
      Stocks, E. 5 (_a_)
    Stock, Survival of, by accession of strength from
        Normal, E. 5 (_c_ & _d_)

  Twins, Hereditary tendency to beget, C. 11

  Two-children System in Berlin, C. 127-9


  U

  United Kingdom and Germany, Total Population, and Birth- and Death-rates,
      Variations in, H. 5-6

  Urban Tendency to Extinction of Higher-grade families, C. 37
    and Rural Duration of Male life, Prussia, C. 22
    relative Frequency of Syphilis and other Venereal diseases, C. 86-8


  V

  Vitality of Child, influence on, of Birth-intervals, C. 65

  Venereal Disease, Frequency of
    among Military Recruits, C. 87
    Urban and Rural, relative, C. 86-8


  W

  Wealth, in relation to
    Birth-rate, C. 118-22
    Fertility
      Denmark, C. 121, 122
      France, C. 118, 119

  Wedgwood, Galton, and Darwin Families, Inheritance of Ability as
      exemplified by, O. 5

  WEEKS, DAVID FAIRFIELD, Director of the N. Jersey State Village for
      Epileptics at Skillman, U.S.A. D. 1-15

  WHEELER, E. G., A. (1-4)

  WHETHAM, MR. & MRS. W. C. D., I. 1-3

  Widows and Divorced persons, High Death-rate of, C. 103

  WIDTSOE, JOHN A., A.M., Ph.D., Chart shewing Inheritance of Physical and
      Mental Qualities and Defects, and of Literary Ability, from
      Polygamous family in Utah, N. 1

  Wife, Importance of in raising or lowering Family Status, C. 21

  William II., German Emperor, Pedigree of, showing "Ancestral
      loss," C. 116

  Wollaston Pedigree, shewing descent of Scientific Ability, I. 2

  Woman with two husbands, Defective family by the first, E. 4


  Z

  Zero von Jorger family, Pedigree of, C. 21



First International Eugenics Congress,

London, July, 1912.


LIST OF EXHIBITS.


[Sidenote: A.]

Exhibited by E. G. Wheler, Esq.

[Sidenote: A 1]

Portrait of Sir Francis Galton, by Charles Furze, 1903.

[Sidenote: A 2]

Silhouettes of Dr. Erasmus Darwin and his son Erasmus.

[Sidenote: A 3]

Silhouette of Mrs. Darwin.

[Sidenote: A 4]

Silhouettes of Samuel Tertius Galton, his son Erasmus and three
daughters.

[Sidenote: B.]

Exhibited by William> E. and Leonard Darwin.

[Sidenote: B 1]

Portrait of Charles Darwin, by W. W. Ouless, R A., painted in 1875.

[Sidenote: B 2]

Portrait of Erasmus Darwin (after Wright, of Derby), the common
grandfather of Charles Darwin and Francis Galton.

[Sidenote: B 3]

Photograph of Charles Darwin, by Maull & Polyblank, taken about the
year 1854.

[Sidenote: B 4]

Leopold Flameng's Engraving, after the portrait of Charles Darwin, by
the Hon. John Collier, painted in the year 1881--now in the National
Portrait Gallery.

[Sidenote: B 5]

Photograph of Charles Darwin on his horse Tommy.

[Sidenote: B 6]

Photograph of the small study at Down in which the "Origin of Species"
was written.

[Sidenote: B 7]

Etching by Axel Haig of the large study at Down, which Charles Darwin
occupied from about 1887 onwards.

[Sidenote: B 8]

Water-colour Drawing of Down House, by Albert Goodwin, painted in 1882.

[Sidenote: B 9]

Two letters of Charles Darwin, on "Worms and their Habits,"

[Sidenote: C.]

Exhibited by Professor von Gruber.

[Sidenote: C 1 & 2]

Experiments by P. Kammerer on +changes produced in the colours in
the skin of the Fire Salamander--Salamandra maculosa--by keeping them
on yellow or black earth respectively+.

According as to whether the animals are kept on yellow or black earth
the yellow or black colouring of the skin spreads, and this change
of colour appears in the same way in the offspring, though a direct
influence of the colour of the earth on the germ plasm is absolutely
unthinkable. The two pictures in the lower part of Figure C 1 show
the colouring of that generation to which the animal portrayed above
belongs, according as to whether they have been kept permanently on
yellow soil (right) or returned again to black soil (left). Here,
it is true, it is not a question of a new quality or tendency. The
capacity in the parents to deposit black pigment in their skin has
been increased or decreased according to their surroundings. But the
distinctive point remains, that their offspring is subsequently endowed
with the inherited tendency to produce proportionately more or less
pigment. This may, however, be a direct result of the abnormal life
conditions of the parents, in so far as the depositing of more or less
pigment in the skin of the parents is certainly not a purely local
process, but rather is bound up with other metabolic changes which may
extend to or influence the developing gametes.

[Sidenote: C 3 & 4]

Very remarkable are the +hereditary changes+ which Kammerer
established in +Alytes obstetricans+--the midwife toad.

With them copulation normally takes place on dry land. The male
extricates from the female the string of eggs, winds it round his hind
legs and carries it about until the eggs are ready. Then, and not till
then, he enters the water where the larvæ escape. If, however, one
keeps these toads in a high temperature (25-30 C.) they enter the water
to cool themselves and abandon their normal way of manipulating their
brood because the string of spawn swells in water and does not remain
sufficiently sticky to allow the male to fasten it to his thighs. The
animals become gradually accustomed to live in water, and continue to
carry on the business of reproduction there, even when the temperature
is normal. As soon as the new instinct has become sufficiently
established with the parents they beget offspring, which at a normal
temperature go of their own accord into water to deposit their eggs,
and also produce eggs more numerous than, and somewhat different
from, those of the normal toad. Further, the males of this succeeding
generation develop thumbs and forearms of a character which enables
them to perform the difficult task of holding the females during
copulation in the water.

[Sidenote: C 5 & 6]

The likeness of offspring to their parents is extremely great and goes
into many details; this we frequently overlook because a divergence
strikes us more than a similarity. A similarity becomes striking when
it is a question of familiar peculiarities. These often relate to
exterior unimportant peculiarities. Our collection contains +a
pedigree+ (taken by Dr. Walter Bell from Bateson's "Mendel's
Principles of Heredity"), Figure C 5, +of a family with peculiarly
curled hair+; also in Figure C 6, a +case of heredity of a lock
of white hair+, likewise taken from Bateson's work by Rizzoli.

[Sidenote: C 7]

The heredity of physical qualities is strikingly illustrated in
Weinberg's Table C 7, showing the age +at death of the parents
and the marital gross and nett fertility+. It is founded on the
Stuttgart family registers, and comprises about 1,900 non-tubercular
and about 3,000 tubercular families ("Archiv für Rassen and
Gesellschafts Biologie" and Württemberger Jahrbücher für Statistik und
Landeskunde, 1911). W. Weinberg adds:

[Illustration:

Relation of Age at Death of Parents to Gross and Nett Fertility. (After
Weinberg.)

  Age of parents.       Men:           Women:

  Years under 30  A 0.58  C 1.00   A 0.93  C 1.79
                  B 0.62  D 1.34   B 0.82  D 1.72

   30-40          A 1.38  C 2.81   A 1.65  C 3.40
                  B 1.41  D 2.70   B 1.81  D 3.53

   40-50          A 2.31  C 3.94   A 1.88  C 3.34
                  B 1.90  D 3.69   B 2.25  D 4.52

   50-60          A 2.39  C 4.05   A 2.31  C 3.69
                  B 2.21  D 4.04   B 1.92  D 3.42

   60-70          A 3.05  C 4.76   A 2.62  C 4.37
                  B 2.88  D 4.65   B 2.79  D 4.28

   70-100         A 3.38  C 5.50   A 2.76  C 4.34
                  B 3.22  D 5.53   B 2.80  D 4.33

  A - Non-tuberculous families, number of children surviving 20th year.
  B - Tuberculous        "        "          "         "         "
  C - Non-tuberculous families, number of children dying before attaining
        20th year.
  D - Tuberculous        "        "          "         "         "

Number of non-tuberculous families about 1,900 (1876-79-86), of
tuberculous about 3,000 (1873-89); from Stuttgart family registers.

Figure C 7.]

"The gross as well as the nett fertility of those which have died
increases with the age attained, the latter, however, in a greater
degree, because the mortality of children decreases with the greater
age attained at death. With the wife the curve is less steep and less
regular, because in her case mortality is unfavourably influenced by
the birth functions; this is particularly plainly seen in the case of
tuberculous women, when the curve has two peaks."

[Sidenote: C 8]

The same fact of heredity of "constitution" is demonstrated in
Weinberg's Table C 8 showing the +age at death of the parents and
the mortality of the children up to the age of 20.+ It is based on
the same material as Table 7 and proves: "With the increasing age of
the parents child mortality decreases, especially so in the case of the
children of the tuberculous, and the number of children reaching the
age of sexual maturity increases correspondingly."

[Illustration:

Age at Death of Parents and Mortality of the Children up to the Age of
20 (including Still-born).

Deaths per 100 living-born children:

                   Non-tuberculous.       Tuberculous.

  Age at death of father  of mother    of father  of mother

    Under 30       42.1       45.1        52.9       54.8
      30- 40       51.2       51.6        48.6       40.6
      40- 50       38.3       43.8        48.3       50.2
      50- 60       41.5       35.6        45.5       43.7
      60- 70       38.1       40.1        38.1       36.4
      70-100       38.5       36.2        42.4       39.8

Figure C 8.]

[Sidenote: C 9 & 10]

The same is proved by the two Tables C 9 and 10 by Ploëtz referring
to +age at death of fathers and mothers and child mortality up to
the age of five years+. Very striking in both these tables is
the extremely low mortality of the offspring of the parents with the
greatest longevity.

[Sidenote: C 11]

Table C 11 by Weinberg: +Hereditary of the disposition to beget
twins+ (Archiv für Rassen & Gesellschafts Biologie VI. 1909) is
remarkable. "The difference in favour of sisters speaks for Mendel's
law of dominance and recessivity. The more twins a woman has borne,
the more frequently the same phenomena is found in her nearest
female relations." That the mortality among twins is very great is a
well-known fact.

[Illustration:

Inheritance of Tendency to Bear Twins.

About 2,000 families from Würtemberg family registers (after Weinberg).

In every 100,000 Births Twin Births occur in the following numbers:

Total population                              1087

Among daughters                               1394
                         of mothers
  "   maidens                                 1523
                         of twins
  "   sisters                                 2135

Figure C 11.]

[Illustration:

In every 1,000 Births there are the following numbers of Twin Births
among the immediate relatives:

  Of all mothers                             11
  Of women who have had 1 multiple birth     17
       "        "      2    "        "       20
       "        "      3 or more     "       56


Mortality of Twins.

  Percentage of deaths before the age of 20:
                    Single-born Children     39
                    Twins                    61

Figure C 11 (_continued_).]

[Sidenote: C 12]

Figure C 12 the celebrated pedigree of the Hæmophilic +family+
(bleeders) +Mampel+ (by Rüdin after Lossen).

[Sidenote: C 13]

Figure C 13 showing the inheritance of progressive muscular
+atrophy+ (after Eichhorst).

[Sidenote: C 14]

Figure C 14 a partial reproduction of a +pedigree+ comprising
over 2,000 people of the family Nongaret suffering from inherited
stationary night +blindness+ (compiled by Cunier, Truc and
Nettleship). With regard to these figures it is to be noted that only a
fraction of the offspring is affected with the illness, the remainder
being perfectly normal. It is remarkable with the bleeders (Hæmophilic
persons) that the females do not suffer from the disease though they
transfer it to their male offspring; a similar latent disposition is
observable in other hereditary conditions, especially colour-blindness.

[Sidenote: C 15]

W. Weinberg shows in Table C 15 the +frequency of tuberculosis
within families+. He adds: "This is a comparison of the experiences
of married tubercular individuals, regarding the frequency of
tuberculosis among their parents, brothers and sisters, with the
corresponding experiences of their husbands or wives who come on an
average from similar surroundings. The experiences of the latter
represent the normal expectation. It is especially striking that the
family influence tells most with the children of the well-to-do." The
well-known fact that the tuberculous frequently come from tuberculous
stock is clearly demonstrated in the figures of this table.

[Sidenote: C 16]

[Sidenote: C 17]

In Table C 16 Dr. Otto Diem shows the +distribution of particular
taints+ in every hundred of the tainted members +among the
nearest relations+ (parents, grandparents, uncles, aunts, brothers
and sisters) of the entire material he deals with. It is shown for
instance that with the mentally sound, 15% of the tainted relatives
were mentally diseased against 45.9% with the mentally diseased. Figure
C 17 shows the share of this percentage among the parents only. It is
demonstrated that with the mentally diseased a much larger percentage
of the total hereditary taint is traceable to parental madness,
alcoholism, abnormality of character, than with the mentally sound.

[Sidenote: C 18]

Figure C 18 corresponds, with figure C 17, except that not only the
parents are reckoned but the nearest defective relative in any degree.

[Sidenote: C 19]

Figure C 19 teaches that the reckoning of all the taints in the
ancestry taken together with the collaterals fails to give as clear and
convincing a picture of the dissimilarity in the heredity of mentally
sound and diseased, as the reckoning of the taints among the parents
alone. The establishment of the hereditary taint in the direct ancestry
appears therefore by far the more important.

[Sidenote: C 20]

In Figure 144 (Journal f. Psychologie und Neurologie. XIII. Bd.) Drf.
Hans W. Mayer gives a number of examples of +heredity among moral
imbeciles+, and he draws the following conclusions: "Consequently
moral defect in frequent combination with alcoholism is hereditary
in the highest degree. Remedy: Incarceration of these dangerous
individuals, not according to the accidental form of the crime
committed, but as diseased and forming a public danger. If there is a
risk of escape or if liberty is conceded--undoubtedly sterilization
to prevent perpetuation of the defect." This latter course is already
followed in North America, and a start has been made with it in
Switzerland, at least in cases where the consent of the patients is
obtained.

[Sidenote: C 21]

The pedigree of the +family of Zero von Jorger+, figure C 21
(Archiv für Rassen & Gesellschafts biologie I.), shows in a convincing
manner how very important for the protection of society is the
prevention of the reproduction of the degenerate. In the course of time
this family has burdened the sound and fit with taxation amounting to
hundreds of thousands of pounds. The author remarks: "The family Zero
springs from good peasant stock intermarrying with homeless female
tramps. Its history shows how alcohol (especially spirits) and bad
environment (in this case always combined) may create a scourge to
society which continues from generation to generation. The family
has produced many criminals, lunatics and feeble-minded persons. The
offspring of these are destined to die out. Their great fertility at
times is counteracted by great infant mortality."

"In places regeneration is evident which invariably is inaugurated by
marriage with a good woman and the consequent abandonment of the abuse
of alcohol. As with the degeneration so with the regeneration the wife
takes the leading part."

The question whether modern civilized races are degenerate in body and
mind is much disputed. In some respects for instance in the increase
of myopia and caries of the teeth it is generally admitted, but in
others it is doubtful, though it may be considered an established fact
that the general average of health among all civilized nations is
unsatisfactory. We do not know for certain whether the general level of
all or certain qualities is being lowered or not, and still less can we
say what part is played by heredity.

The demand for the systematic collection of data on these points is the
first which Race Hygiene has to make from Governments.

The examinations as to fitness for military service in Germany might
offer an excellent index of the physique of the people, but for this
purpose the physical condition of the conscripts would have to be
recorded in a much more thorough manner than at present (S. Gruber
Concordia, 1916). There appears, however, to be no doubt that in
general the country and agricultural pursuits produce young men of
better average health than do towns and other occupations. This agrees
with the fact that the life of the inhabitants in rural districts and
of those engaged in agriculture is longer than that of town dwellers.

[Sidenote: C 22]

Table C 22 +compares+ the+ duration of life+ of men
living +in towns with+ those living in +rural districts
in Prussia+. Beyond all doubt the peasant population is still
constitutionally the most valuable part of the people, and the
colonisation at home, such as the Prussian Government is pursuing to
an increasing degree, may become of the very highest value for the
improvement of the race.

[Sidenote: C 23, 24 & 25]

Dr. Walter Abelsdorff gives the following explanations to Table C
23, and figures C 24 and C 25. "They endeavour to show the number of
+families brought 'back to the land' in North Germany+ in the
years 1900-1910."

"The Royal Commission for settlement in West Prussia and Posen has
achieved notable results since the beginning of its activity in 1886.
This body has brought about from 1886 to 1910 the settlement in the
country of 18,507 families, 18,127 in leaseholds and 305 in labourers'
dwellings. For 1900 to 1910 the total number of families settled amount
to 14,511."

"The Royal General Commission began its activity later, but since
1906 has been energetically pursuing the settlement of agricultural
labourers. At Münster, in the years 1908 to 1910, 247 leasehold small
holdings for artisans have been created."

"The results of the Royal District Administrations are as yet less
considerable, those of private societies with State subvention, though
irregular, are worthy of note."

"The total work of settlement is almost exclusively effected by the
Commission for settlements and the General Commission."

"Counting five members to each family, 130,000 people have been brought
into economically improved conditions. In how far this may benefit
the second generation--the children of the settlers--cannot as yet be
determined."

"These efforts, however, may be looked upon as a regenerative component
among the measures for the improvement of the people."

[Sidenote: C 26 & 27]

Figure C 26 deals with the +fitness for military service in Germany
in relation to the locality of birth+ and the +occupation+
of the individual or the parents. Table C 27 with +fitness for
military service in town and country+ (both after Wellmann).

[Illustration:

Fitness for Military Service according to Place of Birth and Calling.

German Empire, 1902-08.

Percentage of Recruits examined and found fit:

                 Country born.                   City born.
        Employed in                       Employed in
        Agriculture.        Otherwise.    Agriculture.      Otherwise.

    %   60.5 50.5 58.7   59.7 58.3 57.2   59.3 57.9 56.5  53.8  51.3  49.7

  Years 1902 1904 1907   1902 1904 1907   1902 1904 1907  1902  1904  1907
        -03  -06  -08    -03  -06  -08    -03  -06  -08   -03   -06   -08

Figure C 26.]

[Illustration:

Fitness for Military Service in Town and Country. (After Wellmann.)

                                               Locality of Birth.
  Trade.           Percentage  Of those examined.     Of both parents.
                    of fit.
                               Large city.  Village.  Large city.  Village.
                                    %           %          %           %

  Brewer ...          63.4          3.0        55.3        3.0        55.3

  Cab Driver          63.3          3.2        69.0        1.6        69.8

  Smith               61.2          1.9        71.0        1.2        75.7

  Skilled Mechanic    29.7         44.4        10.9       30.9        30.0

  Implement maker or
  Tool maker ...      28.5         36.3        15.9       24.8        28.3

Figure C 27.]

[Sidenote: C 28]

+Enlistments into the Army+ in Germany in 1907 and 1908, +according
to size+ (number of inhabitants) +of native place+, are shown by Dr.
Walter Abelsdorff in Figure C 28.

[Sidenote: C 29]

Figure C 29 shows +the percentage of those found fit in the final
examination in Bavaria+ and +occupation of the parents+.

[Sidenote: C 30]

Table C 30 shows the total of all the +non-commissioned officers and
privates in the German Army+ on December 1st, 1906, +classed
according as they came from town or country+ and +according to
the occupation or the parents+.

Attention is invited to the fact that according to Figure C 26 the
percentage of those found fit for military service in Germany has
diminished in recent years, but it is doubtful whether this is caused
by a general lowering of physique. It may be due to the application
of a higher standard in consequence of increased supply. The distinct
increase in height, in Germany as well as in many other European
countries, of those obliged to offer themselves for military service
speaks against deterioration in the average of physique. Against the
suggestion that with the increase in height may be coupled a greater
disposition to tuberculosis must be set the fact that amongst the tall
is found a percentage of fit higher than the average.

Abelsdorff remarks of Table C 27: "The results of recruiting for the
years 1907 and 1908 have been grouped according to the size of the
place of birth of the recruits.

The average for the whole empire in 1907 is 54.9, in 1908 54.5, fit in
every 100 finally examined. The percentage of fitness has diminished
0.4% from 1907 to 1908. The numbers for 1904, 1905 and 1906 are
respectively 56.4, 56.3, and 55.9%.

Towns with over 1,000,000 inhabitants show the smallest number of fit:
1907, 31.4%; 1908, 28.2%. The decline is 3.2%. Compared with the figure
for the whole empire it shows 23.5% less fitness in 1907 and 26.3% in
1908.

For towns of 500,000 to 1,000,000 inhabitants the figures are slightly
better; they reach 39.9% in 1907 and 44.0% in 1908; an improvement of
4.9% on the figures of the largest towns. The other three classes,
viz., towns with 200,000 to 500,000; 100,000 to 200,000 and 50,000
to 100,000 inhabitants, show comparatively little variation in their
figures for fitness for military service. They are 50.1% and 48.9%;
47.9 and 48.2%; 51.8 and 51.5%. The differences between the two years
are not material. With the towns of from 200,000 to 500,000 and from
50,000 to 100,000 inhabitants there has been a decrease against an
increase in those of from 100,000 to 200,000 inhabitants. But the
figures for all three classes remain behind the average figure for the
empire and so do those of all towns, they show 50.4 and 50.1%.

The most favourable results are yielded by the country districts. Here
there were fit in 1907 58%, in 1908 57.7%. A trifling decrease is shown
even here. The figures, however, are higher by 3.1% in 1907 and 3.2%
in 1908 than the average for the empire. The conclusion is that the
fitness is highest in the smallest, and lowest in the largest places.

Taking the average for the Empire as 100, those found fit from country
districts number 106, from towns 92, from towns of over 50,000
inhabitants 83, and from towns of over 100,000 only 80."

The tables showing the recruiting results amongst those qualified for
the one year voluntary service are particularly interesting.

[Sidenote: C 31]

In Table C 31 Schwiening (Veröffentlichungen aus dem Militär
Sanitatswesen. 40. Berlin, Hirschwald, 1909) gives the figures
of those finally passed as +fit for military service in the
Mittelschulen+ (secondary schools), +which are classified
according to their nature+. The figures are too optimistic because
no account has been taken of those who were found temporarily unfit.
The Classical Schools (Gymnasium) give the least satisfactory results.

[Illustration:

Fitness for Military Service and Secondary Schools.

Of every 100 of the pupils of the following Schools

  Class of School:    there were found fit for Military Service:

  Classical High Schools (Gymnasium)                       62,2
  Old Scientific & Classical High Schools (Realgymnasium)  64,0
  Lower Grade of Classical High Schools (Progymnasium)     64,5
  Polytechnics                                             64,8
  Lower Grade of Scientific Schools                        66,0
    "    "     "      "  and Classical High Schools        66,9
  Modern Scientific High Schools                           66,9
  Commercial Schools                                       69,4
  Training Colleges                                        73,1
  Private Schools                                          74,9
  Agricultural Schools                                     83,4
  Average                                                  64,7

Figure C 31.]

[Sidenote: C 32]

Table C 32 gives the +principal reasons for which students have been
rejected as unfit for military service+.

[Illustration:

Causes of Unfitness for Military Service in the German Empire, 1904-6.
Of every 100 permanently unfit.

  There were rejected on account of:   [A]     [B]
  ==================================  ======  ======
  General debility--weak chest.        36.4    35.4
  Diseases of the heart and large
      blood-vessels.                   14.7     5.8
  Defects of eyes (error of
      refraction).                     10.9     4.4
  Pulmonary defects.                    4.5     1.9
  Diseases of the nervous system
      (excl. epilepsy).                 1.00    0.33
  Obesity.                              2.2     0.29
  Diseases of the limbs and joints.     5.6     6.1
  Rupture.                              3.1     4.1
  Flat feet.                            2.6     4.9
  Varicose veins.                       1.9     3.9
  Deformities.                          1.4     3.1
  Insanity and Epilepsy.                0.65    2.1

  Key to Table
  ------------
  [A] Entitled to one year's service. (Einjhrign Freiwilligen.)
  [B] Ordinary soldiers subject to full Military Service

Figure C 32.]

[Sidenote: C 33]

Table C 33 is a +comparison of the frequency of the various
causes of unfitness as between those qualified for the one year's
voluntary service and the recruits in general+. This table is very
remarkable, because it shows the preponderance of general weakness,
diseases of the heart and large vessels, and pulmonary defects among
the former.

[Illustration:

Military Fitness and Secondary Schools.

Percentage of unfit to every 100 recruits examined.

  Cause of rejection:              [A]   [B]   [C]   [D]   [E]
  =============================    ============================
  General debility--weak chest.    12.2  14.1  13.6  15.1   9.6
  Diseases of the heart and
      large blood-vessels.          5.6   5.0   4.7   4.9   5.1
  Defects of eyes (errors of
      refraction).                  4.5   3.8   2.7   2.6   2.8
  Disease of the joints or limbs.   2.3   1.9   2.0   1.7   1.1
  Pulmonary defects.                1.8   1.5   1.1   1.3   1.4

  Key to Table
  ------------
  [A] Classical High School.
  [B] Old Science and Classical High School.
  [C] Modern Science High School.
  [D] Lower Grade High School.
  [E] Training College.

Figure C 33.]

[Sidenote: C 34]

It goes without saying that the schools are only responsible to a
lesser degree for this; we have to deal here with a serious symptom
of a bad constitution amongst the higher social grades which betrays
itself also in the dying out of the socially prominent families. How
badly their progeny comes off, in spite of the great care bestowed
on it, is illustrated in Table C 34. In two Munich Regiments the
percentage of fit among all those entitled to offer themselves for the
one year's service from the most varied parts of Germany was only,
according to Dieudonné, 21.6, 20.1, and 16.4.

[Sidenote: C 35 & 36]

Great anxiety is justly caused by the increasing number of those
taken care of in public Lunatic Asylums. It remains doubtful to what
degree this may be due to the greater use made of asylums and the
decrease of the care of the mentally infirm in the family home; the
deterioration of the nervous system nevertheless remains according to
the general impression an incontestable fact. As a symptom of this
may be interpreted the increasing +number of suicides in civilised
countries+, demonstrated in Rüdin's Tables, C 35 and C 36, showing
the number of suicides in every one million of inhabitants.

More serious still than the frequency of mental and nervous diseases
is another phenomenon which demonstrates how unsatisfactory is the
constitutional condition of large circle of our population of to-day.

This phenomenon which as yet has received much too little attention is
+the large scale on which families die out+, at first in the
male line. Apparently (sufficient observations for control are not
available) those families which hold an eminent economical or social
position (aristocracy, old county families, etc., etc.) are mainly
concerned. Because exceptional endowment in one or more respects
(intelligence, talent, will power, etc.) is generally required to
secure or to maintain a leading position, and because such endowment
is given to only a small fraction of the population, but is inherited
largely by the progeny, this dying out of the leading families means a
serious loss to the race.

The deficient fertility of the stock thus endowed results in a lower
average of mental capacity in the population generally, and cannot in
the long run be made up by the constant re-appearance of distinguished
men appearing as variations, the smallest number of whom are
"mutations."

The tendency among town families to die out appears to be wide-spread.
Professor S. Schott in Tables C 37-C 40 adds materially to our
knowledge on this point, Professor Schott makes the following comment
on his Tables:--

  "S. Schott. Old Mannheim families, 4 tables."

  "Source: 'Old Mannheim families. A contribution to the family
  statistics of the 19th Century by Professor Dr. Sigmund Schott,
  Mannheim and Leipzig, 1910. J. Rensheimer.' Statistical demonstration
  of the development, decline, and extinction of about 4,000 families
  which were in existence at Mannheim at the beginning of the 19th
  Century, based on permanently maintained family registers. This
  research, pursued on a basis of population statistics, lends itself
  only to a limited degree to application for biological purposes."

[Sidenote: C 37]

+Gradual extinction of the Mannheim families in the 19th
Century.+ Only extinction by death in Mannheim and in the male
line are taken into account. Families which have disappeared through
emigration have been excluded. Branches of families which have become
extinct at Mannheim may be flourishing elsewhere. Of 3,081 families,
2,538 have become extinct by death at Mannheim itself, 543 survive. The
spiral curve shows the number of survivors in any year as so many per
thousand of the original number.

[Illustration:

Old Mannheim Families.

Gradual extinction of Old Mannheim Families during the 19th century.

Figure C 37.]

[Sidenote: C 38]

+Average number of children in each generation; the families being
grouped according to the number of generations they attained.+
The families of 1807 (original families) and their descendants were
classed into five groups, according to the number of generations they
attained in Mannheim. For each group is calculated the average number
of children within one generation--for each separate family as well as
for the entire family (_i.e._, the total of all the separate families
which have sprung from the same "original family"). For instance:
"Original families" which have lasted into the third generation, 464;
the separate families show in the first generation, 464 families,
2,377 children; in the second generation, 718 families, with 3,645
children; in the third generation, 754 families, with 2,454 children.
Accordingly, the total families show average numbers 5.1, 7.9, 5.3;
the separate families, 5.1, 5.1, 3.3. All these averages are minimum
figures, because it was impossible to eliminate the moderate number
of couples who emigrated before the number of their offspring was
completed.

In the generations up to the third inclusive, reproduction may be
considered as terminated, but in the fourth, and especially the fifth
and sixth, it still is in progress.

[Sidenote: C 39]

+Age intervals separating the various generations.+

Taking into account all the families investigated, the average length
of time between the birth of the originator of the family and his first
born son was 33-1/4 years, his first born grandchild 63-2/3 years,
and his first born great grandchild 95-1/3 years. The curves become
gradually flatter, because the possible difference between minimum
and maximum age distance from one generation to another increases in
arithmetical progression.

[Sidenote: C 40]

+Prolificness of first marriages in the 19th century.+ Taking
the entire period from 1811 to 1890 together the percentage of large
families (six children or more) and of small families (one-two
children) produced by all first marriages, excluding childless ones,
is indicated by the horizontal centreline. The positive or negative
deviations from the average during each decade are entered respectively
above and below this line. The note in Figure C 38 referring to the
families which may have emigrated while still productive applies here
also. The temporary increase in prolific marriages after 1870 may be in
connection with the material decrease in the age of those contracting
marriage for the first time, as compared with the preceding decade.
(Men 28.65 in the earlier period as against 27.41 in the later, and
women 25.92 against 24.68 years.)

The extinction of the families is undoubtedly due partly to other
causes than the voluntary limitation of families--to a process of
degeneration. A very remarkable proof of the degenerative character of
the dying out of families is given by Pontus Fahlbeck in his book, "The
Aristocracy of Sweden" (Fischer, Jena, 1903).

[Sidenote: C 41-43]

The six Figures C 38-43 give what is biologically of greatest interest
in it. Note how the terribly +quick extinction+ of the +families+ of
the nobility is +inaugurated by catastrophic changes+: rapid fall in
the frequency of marriages, in the number of fertile marriages, and
in the number of their progeny. The curves of the surviving families
(red in the original tables) are for comparison. That we have to deal
here with a natural and not a voluntary process is shown by the rapid
increase in the mortality of male youth in the last generations; also
by the extraordinary change in the proportion of the sexes of the
children--which, of course, is beyond any control, marked preponderance
of girls amongst the survivors (possibly also by the frequency of
still-born male children).

+A disturbance in the normal proportion of the sexes as a symptom
of abnormal germ production+ may also assert itself in the opposite
direction. O. Lorenz has pointed out the frequent occurrence of
an extraordinary increase of male children immediately before the
extinction of a family in the male line. One of the most celebrated of
these cases is the one of the family of the Emperor Max II. He had six
sons and two daughters, who all reached the age of maturity, but not a
single male grandchild in the legitimate male line.

[Sidenote: C 44]

Fresh evidence is exhibited by von den Velden in Figure C 44. With the
families described by von Riffel, who have died out in the male line,
there is still a great preponderance of boys in the last generation in
which boys have reached the age of sexual maturity, whereas there is a
preponderance of females amongst the brothers and sisters of the wives
of the last male issue of the family.

[Illustration:

Families in Process of Extinction.

(From Riffel's Tables, after v. d. Velden in the Archiv für Rassen- und
Gesellschafts-Biologie, 1909, No. 6.)

                                                        [A]    [B]
======================================================= ===== =====
  Decrease of frequency of Marriage.           Men:      57    39
    Of 100 adults there marry:                 Women:    61    49

  Decrease of duration of life.                Men:      38.5  24.0
    Average duration of life in years:         Women:    33.5  32.0

  High mortality of offspring.
    Of 100 births there died before the 20th year:
      Fathers, the only members of their  Sons                 45.5
          generation who married.         Grandchildren        55.4
      Mothers, with childless brothers.   Sons                 42.0
                                          Grandchildren        46.1

  Reversal of proportion of sexes born.
    To every 100 girls there are born boys:
                               In normal families:      106
                               In dying-out families:          90

  Disturbance to Proportion of Sexes among the
    Children.
                       Normal:                          106
                       Generation of sonless fathers:         160
                           "      "     "    mothers:          93

  Key to Table
  ------------
  [A] Normal families.
  [B] Families in process of extinction.

Figure C 44.]

[Sidenote: C 45]

In this connection another figure, C 45, by von den Velden ought to
be mentioned. He shows, from investigations made by von Riffel, that
the +physical condition of childless couples is on the average
inferior to that of fertile parents+. This, however, by no means
holds good in every case. Evidence to the contrary is given by the
pedigree of an aristocratic family which has died out in the male line.
It may be looked upon as typical. One generation (the second), with
three times as many grown up men than women, produces only four boys
(44% of the children), of whom two reach maturity. With the fourth
generation the male issue dies out. Though a large majority of the
members of all three generations (2-4th) have good health and attain
to an exceptionally high age, most of the female lines also die out.
Only in two branches, which spring from the marriage of an aristocratic
daughter with a man from the people, there are children in the fifth
generation of whom at least a part promise a healthy progeny. Fahlbeck,
too, has drawn attention to the fact that the dying out Swedish
aristocracy shows no signs of striking degeneracy in the individual.

This fact is of the greatest theoretical and practical importance
because it proves that there exists, up to a certain degree, an
independent degeneration of the germ plasm, even as the germ plasm
may remain unaffected by damage to the soma. That such a one-sided
degeneration of the germ plasm with respect to the power of
reproduction may take place among animals has been known for a long
time.

In particular, Chs. Darwin has collected facts of this kind in his
"Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication." For civilised
peoples it is a matter for reflection that with animals even slight
deviations from their customary "natural" mode of living may lead to
such serious consequences.


RACE-HYGIENE.

[Sidenote: C 46 & 47]

As the +nature and aims of race-hygiene+ are still unknown in
wide circles it will be useful to show in Tables C 46 and C 47, by
A. Ploëtz, what its position is amongst other sciences and what the
various branches of its activity consist in.

Many theoretical workers hold that the most important mission or
race-hygiene is to fight against Therapeutics and Hygiene of the
individual, for about these they have the most serious misgivings.
They consider, that by maintaining inferior variations up to the age
of reproduction, the average quality of the race must suffer and
that to certain defects--which otherwise would rapidly disappear--an
opportunity is given to spread through an entire people. This point
of view, short sighted as it may be, must be examined into. It
appears to be forgotten that on the one hand hygiene is powerless in
cases of a high degree of degeneration and that on the other hand
hygiene, by prevention of illness, does away with a number of causes
of inferiority. Finally it appears to be entirely overlooked that
with the best inherent qualities and unfavourable surroundings the
individual development may be poor and stunted. Of what use are the
highest potentialities if they remain latent? The main point is that
so far convincing proofs of the preponderant harmfulness of hygiene are
entirely absent. (S. Gruber, Heredity, Selection and Hygiene. Deutsche
med. Wochenschr, 1909).

[Sidenote: C 48]

[Illustration:

The Increasing Frequency of Obstetrical Operations and their
Significance to the Race.

(Based on the official statistics of Baden by Dr. Agnes Bluhm.)

Figure C 48.]

Dr. Agnes Bluhm contributes to the question of the deterioration
of the race by therapeutic measures in dealing in Figure C 48 with
"+The increasing frequency of surgical operations in connection
with childbirth and its significance for the race.+" She writes
in explanation "The number of doctors having increased relatively
much more than the number of the population, it follows that for a
growing number of women medical assistance at childbirth is available.
To this must be added that progress in surgical technique, above all
the diminished danger of infection, allows of a much more frequent
operative interference with good results for mother and child.
Both these facts find expression in the reduction of the number
of stillbirths. The purpose of these operations being to assist a
diminished birth capacity in women, and this diminished capacity
arising partly from constitutional and consequently hereditary factors,
this question suggests itself: Is the average birth capacity of women
progressively diminished by the fact that an increasing number of
women, more or less unfit for childbirth, are artificially assisted
in bringing forth living children who inherit this weakness from the
mother?"

"Our table attempts to answer this question on the basis of official
Midwifery Statistics compiled in the Grand Duchy of Baden reaching back
to 1871, that is the beginning of the antiseptic era.

"To avoid the errors, which small figures might lead to, each
calculation has been based on the average figures of a lengthy period.
The material dealt with comprises over two million births."

[Sidenote: C 48-1]

"Figure 1 shows the +increasing frequency of all childbirth
operations taken together+. The period 1871 to 1879 shows an
average of 4.38 operations to every 100 births, the period 1900 to 1907
up to 8.12 operations to every 100 births."

[Sidenote: C 48-2]

"Figure 2 shows the +frequency of each class of operation in every
1,000 births+. Each class of operation shows an increase in number,
but the increase has not been uniform throughout the various classes."

[Sidenote: C 48-3]

"Figure 3, A and B, shows the +share of each class of operation in
the total number for the various periods+. A more leading part is
taken by aftermath operations, by artificially induced premature birth,
by perforation of the head and by Caesarean section on the living.
Aftermath operations depend (like the use of the forceps) to such a
degree on the teachings of the various schools for midwifery (and on
the time at the doctor's disposal) that they can hardly serve as a
standard of birth capacity. The Caesarean section, too, can hardly be
taken as a guide, as a much wider view is taken now of the indications
for this operation. But the equally increasing numbers of perforations
of the head and artificially induced premature birth are well worthy
of attention. For these two operations exclude one another. With the
existing tendency to avoid perforation of the head by artificially
inducing premature birth, a rise in the curve of premature births
should correspond with a sinking of the perforation curve. 1871 to
1879 a maximum of the former actually coincides with a minimum of the
latter; but from there on both curves rise, though not in the same
degree. Premature births have become since then (see Fig. 2) more than
eight times as frequent; perforations of the head have trebled; and
dismemberments of the child have doubled. This fact must be considered
as a sign of lessened birth capacity."

[Sidenote: C 48-4]

"Figure 4 shows the +decrease of the total number of
stillbirths+."

[Sidenote: C 48-5]

"Figure 5 gives the +share which abnormal position of the child has
in this total+, and a comparison of the two shows that whilst the
total has decreased by 1.42% the decrease (1880 to 1889) has been 2.35%
in the case of stillbirth through abnormal position. The conclusion is,
that there is now more opportunity for hereditary transmission of the
tendency to faulty position of the child than three to four decades
ago."

[Sidenote: C 48-6]

"But Figure 6 proves that up to now an +increased inheritance of
this tendency has not taken place+. The curves of these positions
not only show irregularities but (with the exception of cross births) a
tendency to sink."

"Recapitulation. The growing frequency of surgically assisted births
cannot be taken as evidence of a diminished birth capacity, but is
closely connected with the growing number of doctors. Against the
indications of a diminished birth capacity stand at the moment those
which previously could be taken as pointing in the opposite direction.
It would, therefore, appear that medical interference at birth has
brought to the race advantages as to quantity and no drawbacks as
to quality. But it is probable that the picture will change during
the coming decades, because only then will the daughters of mothers
who could not have brought forth living children without surgical
assistance become themselves mothers. The renunciation of motherhood
on the part of the women least suited for this function and the war
against rickets might act as preventatives."

The great anxiety about the elimination of the severest struggle for
existence is based on the undoubtedly erroneous fundamental conception
that the organism is a sorry product of necessity which can barely
manage to maintain a laborious existence by the constant straining
of all its faculties, and that it requires the continuous use of
the whip of necessity to prevent an organism from giving way to its
inherent tendency to degeneration. In fact, however, no organism is
conceivable which has not the "Tendency" to maintain itself and to
react accordingly. There are many facts which prove that a wealth
of capacities and tendencies is dormant in organisms which for
innumerable generations have not been active, or, perhaps, have, never
functioned in every possible way, and that, therefore, if the occasion
arises replacements or accommodations of an unprecedented character
may occur. In an unprejudiced system of race-hygiene these facts must
not be overlooked. The exhibition in this section gives two specially
striking instances; the one from animal the other from plant life.

[Sidenote: C 49]

To begin with Figure C 49 gives a diagrammatic representation of the
+development of the eye of a vertebrate+--after K. Kraepelin
(taken from "Experimentelle Biologie II., T. v. Curt Thesing,
Leipzig, Teubner, 1911")--which shows that the lens is formed out
of an invagination of the cornea and the retina by an extension of
the brain. In the lower part of the plate the various phases of the
+reconstruction of the lens out of the iris+ are shown, after
it had been removed by a cataract operation from the eye of a Triton
larva. (This experiment was carried out by Gustav Wolff.)[A] Thus an
organ which normally is not concerned with the formation of the lens
takes charge of its regeneration.

[Footnote A: Studies in the Physiology of Development II. Archiv. für
Entwicklungs mechanic der Organismen, XII. Vol., 3 Part, 1901.]

A large number of tables deal with the influence of the numerical
position in the progeny, with the number of births and the interval
between births, on the health of the children, partly acting alone,
partly in combination with the influence of the manner of nourishment
during infancy.

[Sidenote: C 50]

+Numerical position in family and infantile mortality+, after
Geissler. According to these statistics, the fifth child of a mother
has materially less vitality than the first four, the second and third
children have the most; but this does not agree with other statistics.

[Sidenote: C 51]

According to Riffel's investigations--+influence of the numerical
position of the child and the age of the parents at the time of
marriage on infant mortality+, after v.d. Velden, a material
difference between the mortality of the three earliest born children
and the three next born is only shown if both parents at the time of
marriage have attained a certain age (man over 28, woman over 25); only
the seventh to ninth show under all circumstances a materially greater
mortality than the earlier children. The children of more aged parents
show a materially greater mortality than those of younger parents.
The number of children in a family up to the eleventh has no material
influence on infant mortality, only in families with twelve children or
more a materially greater number of children perish before the fifth
year.

[Illustration:

Relation of Number of Births to Infant Mortality.

Percentage of Deaths to 100 Births.


Died during the first year of life.

Geissler.

26,429 births to 5,236 marriages of members of Saxon coalminers' funds.
(Some still-born infants, and children of marriages to which there were
only one or two births, are not included).

Died before reaching the age of 0.09 of a year, _i.e._, a little more
than a month.

[Note: under the first graph in figure] The mortality of the 1st, 2nd,
3rd and 4th child is below the average. Greatest vitality shown by 2nd
and 3rd child.

[Note: under the second graph in figure] The mortality of the 2nd, 3rd,
4th and 5th child is below the average. Greatest vitality shown by 2nd,
3rd, and 4th child.

Figure C 50.]

[Illustration:

Influence of the Number of Births and the Age of the Parents at the
Time of Marriage on Infant Mortality.

(From Riffel's Tables, after v. d. Velden).

Key to Table ------------


Percentage of Children Born. 1-3 4-6 7-9 Children
=================================== ==== ==== ==== { Children of all
28.8 30.5 38.5 { parents. { { Husband over 28 or Died before { wife
over 25 years 38.5 41.6 53.4 reaching { old. 6th year. { { Husband over
28 and { wife over 25 years 41.5 51.7 64.7 { old.


Influence of the Number of Children Born to a Family on Infant
Mortality.

3-5 6-8 9-11 12-15 Children ==== ==== ==== ===== Percentage of children
born Died before reaching 5th year 25.5 27.7 22.7 44.3

Figure C 51.]

[Sidenote: C 52]

+Number of conceptions and conception losses+, by Dr. Agnes
Bluhm; the exhibitor gives the following explanation--

  Hamburger's material deals with 1,042 marriages of the labouring
  classes in Berlin, with a total of 7,261 conceptions (an average of
  6.97 conceptions for each woman); the material of Bluhm comprises
  856 marriages of the wealthier and educated German middle and higher
  classes with a total of 3,856 conceptions (averaging 4.50 conceptions
  to each woman). Hamburger has counted as conception losses only
  miscarriages, premature births, stillbirths, or deaths from illness
  before the completion of the sixteenth year. Bluhm has included all
  those up to the twentieth year. Both have only included marriages
  which have been contracted at least twenty years back. As the births
  in these marriages apparently date back to twenty years, all living
  children are reckoned as survivors or conception results, even if they
  have not attained the sixteenth or twentieth year respectively. This
  has influenced the result optimistically, but as it has done so with
  both authors alike, the comparison of their results is admissible.

[Sidenote: C 52-1]

  Figure 1 shows the +conception losses in marriages of varying
  conception numbers+ (Curve A, Hamburger's working-men's families;
  Curve B, Bluhm's well-to-do families); both curves confirm Hamburger's
  words that "the percentage of the survivors gets smaller in proportion
  as the conception number increases." The mounting of Curve B in the
  families with ten births is probably a delusion brought about by a
  very small number. In the marriages with eleven or more births there
  are lost with the well-to-do one quarter and with the working-classes
  nearly two-thirds of the conceptions up to the twentieth or sixteenth
  year respectively.

[Sidenote: C 52-2]

  Figure 2 represents the +share which miscarriages and premature
  births have in the conception losses in marriages of different degrees
  of productiveness+ (Curve A, Hamburger; Curve B, Bluhm). Amongst
  the Berlin labouring classes on the average 17.89 per cent. of all
  conceptions are lost through miscarriage and premature birth; for the
  wealthier German families the figure is 7.59 per cent.

[Sidenote: C 52-3]

  Figure 3 shows the +share which deaths and stillbirths have in
  conception losses+. With the labouring classes it amounts on the
  average to 32.75 per cent. (Curve A), and in the wealthier families to
  10.55 per cent. (Curve B).

[Sidenote: C 52-4]

  Figure 4. To investigate whether the continuous decrease in the
  percentage of the survivors, going hand in hand with the increase of
  maternal conceptions, is caused by the constitutional inferiority
  of the offspring as the numerical position increases, Bluhm has
  established, in dealing with her material, the loss for each numerical
  position (first, second, third, etc., conceptions respectively). If
  this were the case, Curve A, which gives the loss according to the
  frequency of conception in each marriage, would have to be identical
  with Curve B, which gives the loss of first, second, and third, etc.,
  conceptions, but this is by no means the case, for only at a very high
  numerical position of the conception the curves begin to be parallel.
  This proves that Hamburger's "the percentage of the survivors gets
  smaller in proportion as the conception number increases" is not
  a biological law but only expresses a social phenomenon. With the
  increasing number of children there is a decrease in the value of
  each individual childlife. The mother is less careful about avoiding
  miscarriages; she devotes, and must necessarily devote, less care to
  each child; and the risk of infectious diseases which are a frequent
  cause of death during infancy increases.

[Sidenote: C 53]

How little the increasing mortality of the later born children up to
the tenth child is based on a biological law is shown in Figure C 53.
+Numerical position of birth and infant mortality up to the age
of five in princely families+, by Ploëtz; 463 seventh to ninth
children show the same mortality as the 614 first born.

Pearson endeavored to prove a high degree of inferiority in the first
born, physically and intellectually as well as morally. But his
results are very open to attack, as Weinberg has recently shown; one
is reminded of Pearson's results in Crzellitzer's Figure C 54--first
and later born. Crzellitzer writes thus about this--"A +high degree
of myopia+ is +more frequent amongst first born+ than among
later children. The disadvantage of the first born in respect of
myopia is based on a greater hereditary taint and on no other factor.
Where there is no hereditary taint about one quarter to one-third
are affected, no matter whether first, second, third, etc., born.
Also in well-to-do families, where the age of fathers at the time of
procreation is materially higher, the first born are more frequently
myopic than their brothers or sisters."

[Illustration:

First and Later-Born.

Percentage of Frequency of Extreme Short-sightedness.

(After Dr. Crzellitzer.)

                                                  Child
                                   1st  2nd  3rd  4th  5th  6th  7th  8th
  ==============================   ==== ==== ==== ==== ==== ==== ==== ====
  1,246 children from 216
      working-class families.      46.4 33.7 31.4 26.6 26.5 26.0 15.5 18.7

  1,246 children from 216
    working-class families,
    classified according to
    presence or absence of
    inherited tendency to
    short-sightedness.

      With inherited tendency      61.6 34.9 27.7 25.5 31.5 32.0 10.5  6.7
      Without inherited tendency   35.9 33.7 34.3 24.6 25.0 22.2 19.0 23.3

  206 children from 45 well-to-do
      families.                    63.1 36.1 36.0 36.0 20.0

Figure C 54.]

A large amount of material has been treated by W. Weinberg, in which
tuberculous and non-tuberculous families are compared.

[Sidenote: C 55 & 56]

Figure C 55--+influence of numerical position of birth on infant
mortality+ and Figure C 56--+mortality of the first and later
born+. Weinberg writes concerning these: "The parallelograms in
the first row indicate for each position in order of birth how many
children out of every hundred die before the age of 20. On this,
however, the difference in the mortality in families with different
numbers of children has an influence. To counteract this, it has been
calculated how many children in each position would die if within each
family the number of children had no influence, and the actual number
of deaths expressed as a percentage of the expectation calculated in
this way gives parallelograms to the second row. After eliminating the
influence exercised by the size of the family, the increase of the
mortality with the higher birth number appears considerably smaller.
Figure C 56, which compares the mortality of the first and last born
children, is to a certain extent a test of this. This shows clearly a
considerably higher death rate in the last born. Both figures indicate
that children of the same numerical position of birth show a higher
mortality, if from tuberculous families."

[Illustration:

Mortality of Children According to Sequence of Birth.

3,129 Tuberculous and 1,830 Non-Tuberculous Families of Stuttgart,
1873-1889 (after Weinberg).


  Key to Tables
  -------------
  [N] - non-tuberculous
  [T] - tuberculous

                                  Paternal family.

  No. of child  Percentage of children      Death rates expressed in
  according to  born alive who died before  relative figures corrected for
  sequence of   reaching their 20th year.   differences in the death rates
  birth.                                    in families differing in size.
  ============  ==========================  ==============================
                   [N]       [T]                 [N]       [T]
                  =====     =====               =====     =====
      1            33.9      40.6                90.5      91.3
      2            37.4      44.4               101.0      99.5
      3            49.4      45.4               109.0     103.5
      4            40.1      47.9               105.0     103.0
      5            39.5      49.7               101.0     104.0
      6            43.5      52.5               103.0     107.0
      7            39.0      51.2                92.0     105.0
      8            43.2      54.1                96.0     111.5
      9            50.8      59.1               101.0     115.0
     10            40.2      60.2               101.0     113.5
  11-12            50.0      51.7               101.0      97.0
  13-18            64.4      52.8               111.0     107.0


                                 Maternal family.

  No. of child  Percentage of children      Death rates expressed in
  according to  born alive who died before  relative figures corrected for
  sequence of   reaching their 20th year.   differences in the death rates
  birth.                                    in families differing in size.
  ============  ==========================  ==============================
                   [N]       [T]                 [N]       [T]
                  =====     =====               =====     =====
      1           34.6      40.0                92.0      87.0
      2           36.5      46.6                96.0      97.0
      3           40.6      49.0               107.0     104.0
      4           41.7      57.1               107.0     111.0
      5           37.6      50.3                91.0     104.0
      6           41.8      53.8                97.5     108.0
      7           51.3      52.5               116.0     107.0
      8           45.9      54.0               102.0     111.0
      9           51.1      52.5               100.0     103.0
     10           47.6      53.8               100.0     103.0
  11-12           47.1      60.0               103.0     130.0
  13-18           68.8      62.5               121.0     104.0

Figure C 55.]

[Illustration:

Relative Mortality of the First and Last-born.

3,129 Tuberculous and 1,830 Non-Tuberculous Families of Stuttgart,
1873-1889 (after Weinberg)

  Of each 100 living-born there died before reaching their 20th year:

                         Non-tuberculous            Tuberculous
                    =======================    =======================
                    FIRST-BORN    LAST-BORN    FIRST-BORN    LAST-BORN
                    ==========    =========    ==========    =========
  Paternal Family     33.9          37.2         40.6          49.9
  Maternal Family     34.6          37.5         40.0          53.4


  Comparison of the mortality of the First and Last-born,
  The mortality of the First-born = 100.

                         Non-tuberculous            Tuberculous
                    =======================    =======================
                    FIRST-BORN    LAST-BORN    FIRST-BORN    LAST-BORN
                    ==========    =========    ==========    =========
  Paternal Family      100           108          100          128
  Maternal Family      100           108          100          134


Figure C 56.]

[Sidenote: C 57]

Of a materially greater influence than the numerical position of birth
or the number of children in each family is the length of interval
between births. We point at first to Figure C 57--+interval between
births and child mortality+, after Ansell and Westergaard, by Dr.
A. Bluhm. She writes in reference to it: "Ansell has demonstrated,
from the material of the National Life Assurance Society of London,
that a child has an increasingly better chance to survive his first
year, the greater the interval between his own birth and that of the
child born before him. If this interval is less than a year, the infant
mortality is double what it is when there is an interval of two years
(15.75% against 7.33%). This influence makes itself felt beyond the
age of infancy up to five years but not in so striking a manner. The
proportion becomes modified to 20% against 12%. As the influence of
the birth interval on child mortality is still very perceptible after
the tenth or later children, it may be assumed that it is not caused
exclusively by the exhaustion of the maternal organism produced by the
rapid sequence of births. The varying length of breast-feeding of the
children has probably also its influence. Though these statistics give
no data about the mode of infant feeding, it is nevertheless probable
that in those families in which there are longer intervals between
consecutive births each child is suckled for a longer period.

[Sidenote: C 58]

+Birth interval and health of the offspring+, after Riffel--v.
d. Velden.

[Sidenote: C 59]

+Influence of the length of the birth interval and the duration of
breast-feeding on infant mortality+, exhibited by Weinberg. The
author writes regarding the latter table "in proportion to the length
of the interval between two births, the mortality of the children
following decreases materially, but this relation only becomes clearly
apparent in families in which several of the children have been suckled
for more than six months."

[Sidenote: C 60, 61 62]

The intimate connection which exists between birth interval and
suckling and the great importance which suckling has under the
favourable influence of a long birth interval is shown in Dr. Agnes
Bluhm's Figures C 60, C 61, and C 62--+infant nutrition (breast
feeding), number of children and infant mortality+, after Dr.
Marie Baum. "The material is taken from the towns of Gladbach, Rheydt,
Odenkirchen and, Rheindalen, and comprises 1,495, mostly poor families,
with 9,393 cases in which the mother survived childbirth and 9,487
children born alive. In this table only 7,983 children were counted,
because the remainder had not reached the age of one year on the day of
counting. Of these 7,983, there died before the completion of the first
year 1,276, or 15.98%."

+Number of children and child mortality+: Bluhm adds:--"Figure
1 shows in Curve A the +influence of the duration of breast
feeding+; in Curve B +influence of numerical position of birth
on the mortality of the infant+. The very divergent course of
the two curves expresses the very different influence of both these
factors on mortality; the latter is almost exclusively dependent upon
the length of suckling, and shows corresponding with its increase a
continuous and steep decline down to 1.46% from a maximum number of
35%. The very slight increase of the mortality of children suckled for
six weeks compared with those who have not been breast fed at all
is immaterial (35.55% against 35.28%). These figures prove only that
breast feeding up to six weeks does not give the child any protection
against fatal diseases. The influence of the birth number hardly makes
itself felt up to the seventh child, only from the eighth onwards the
power of resistance decreases continuously but not nearly to the same
degree in which it grows with the length of breast-feeding (greatest
difference only 21%). Curve B shows a materially different course from
that of similar curves by other authors, for instance--from Geissler's
well-known curve, dealing with Saxon miners, in which not only the
first born show up less favourably than the second and third born, but
in which, from the fourth child on, the mortality increases rapidly.
The economical condition of both groups being similar (85% of Baum's
families had a maximum yearly income of £75), it is highly probable
that the difference in the curves arises from different methods of
infant feeding. In the Rhine provinces, as is also proved by Baum's
figures, the feeding is good; in Saxony, however, it is notoriously
bad. The co-relation of infant mortality with infant feeding is
very clearly illustrated in Figures 2 and 3, the former shows the
+influence of the length of suckling on the mortality of the
children classed in order of birth+, the latter +the influence
of the order of birth in connection with different lengthed periods
of suckling+. The extraordinarily regular course of all the nine
curves in Figure 2 and the extremely irregular course of the six top
curves in Figure 3 are very striking. From these figures it is shown
that the first, second and third born if breast-fed for a short time
only, or not at all, are subjected to much greater risks than the
eighth, ninth, tenth or later children, suckled for a sufficient length
of time (maximum difference 1 to 42). In the curve showing the children
who were breast fed for 39 weeks (Figure 3), the influence of the high
birth number shows only to a very small degree."

[Sidenote: C 61]

+Number of children and capacity for breast-feeding.+ Concerning
this it is remarked: "The upper curve shows what percentage of children
had to do without breast feeding, and the lower one how many enjoyed
the sufficient period of 39 weeks of breast-feeding. Though Baum's
figures are only intended to deal with the number of cases of breast
feeding and not with its duration, and though no difference is made
between exclusive and partial breast feeding, yet some conclusions
may be drawn with regard to suckling capacity. In a district where
breast feeding is as general as it is in the one examined into here,
the number of women who voluntarily renounce every attempt at suckling
must necessarily be small. The curve dealing with the children who
had no breast feeding at all is therefore likely to give a fairly
correct picture of the absolute or primary incapacity for suckling on
the mother's part; absolute incapacity does not of course mean that
the mother could not produce a single drop of milk, but that she does
not produce enough to satisfy the child, and therefore must resort to
artificial feeding. As a period of 39 weeks' feeding, even if only
partial, points to a good capacity, the lower curve may also be taken
as an expression of feeding ability. A comparison of both figures
illustrates that the milk production after the first birth is smaller
than after the following ones, and that beyond the eighth birth, it
decreases materially and continuously, probably in consequence of the
exhaustion of the maternal organism."

[Sidenote: C 62]

+The habit of breast-feeding as running in families and infant
mortality.+ With this goes the following explanation: "The two
figures illustrate the proportion of mortality of the infants in 143
bottle-feeding families and 376 breast-feeding families of the first
order. As the line could not be drawn very sharply, and as in the
bottle-feeding families there had to be included those in which as an
exception one or other child was suckled for a few days or perhaps for
a week, one can see in these groups only the expression of the habit,
but not the power of suckling. Both figures illustrate the largely
avoidable sacrifice in young lives which still goes on through a want
of knowledge and of feeling of responsibility towards the coming race.
With the absence of breast-feeding the unfavourable influence of a
very large number of children becomes much more apparent; whereas
in breast-feeding families the difference in the mortality between
medium-sized families (four to six children) and very large families
(above ten children) amounts to only 1.39%, it reaches 12.90% with
the non-suckling families. Here, if the number of children surpasses
ten, nearly every second child dies in the suckling age, and amongst
thirteen families there is not a single one which has not lost a child
in that period, whereas in breast-feeding families of the first order,
with the same large number of children, only every thirteenth child
died in infancy, and of sixteen families seven (= 43.75%) lost no
infant." The same material is treated in a different way by Dr. Marie
Baum, of Dusseldorf, in Figures C 63-66.

[Sidenote: C 63]

  +As the length of the period of suckling of the preceding child
  increases, there is a constant and rapid decrease in the number of
  children who are born at intervals of less than one year.+ If the
  preceding child was not breast-fed a new birth occurred before the
  expiration of one year in 9.6 cases out of 100. With a suckling period
  of one-half to three-quarters of a year of the preceding child, this
  figure is reduced to 1.8 per cent., and after a still longer suckling
  period to 1 per cent. Out of one hundred mothers who have only partly
  or not at all suckled the preceding child, seventy must count on a
  fresh birth within a period of 1-3/4 years. If the preceding child
  was suckled for at least 39 weeks, only thirty-eight, and with a
  suckling period of more than a year only twenty mothers have to reckon
  on a fresh birth within 1-3/4 years.

Dependence of Infant Mortality on the Duration of Breast-Feeding and
the Length of Time Intervening Between Successive Births.

[Illustration: Figure C 63.]

[Sidenote: C 64]

Figure C 64 shows the +parallelism between+ the +average
length of breast-feeding and the average time between births+
within the families. A half to three-quarters of the mothers who
suckled either long enough or very long show an interval between births
of from 1-1/4 to 3 years, whereas of those who did not suckle at all,
or only did so insufficiently, only one-third belong to this group, and
figure largely in the column of lower birth intervals.

Dependence of Infant Mortality on the Average Duration of
Breast-Feeding and the Average Length of Time Intervening between the
Successive Births of the Children in a Family.

[Illustration: Figure C 64.]

[Sidenote: C 65]

  Figure C 65 enables us to examine into the +influence exercised by
  a longer or shorter interval after the preceding birth on the vitality
  of a child+, according as to whether the child was not breast-fed
  at all or only moderately or amply so. The black oblongs demonstrate
  that the average infant mortality falls regularly and decisively
  according to the length of time between the birth of the children
  considered and their predecessors. The average mortality of infants
  who are born in rapid succession--under one year, one to one and a
  quarter years, amounts to over 25 and to 22 per cent. respectively,
  whereas the average mortality of children with at least two years'
  interval amounts only to 11 per cent. "At the same time, however, it
  is observed that the influence of the length of suckling is still
  greater than that of the length of time elapsing between births. Even
  with an interval of three or more years, the mortality of children who
  were insufficiently or not at all breast-fed was above 20 per cent.
  The children who had been suckled for at least three-quarters of a
  year were only very slightly influenced by this factor in all groups,
  except that with a birth interval of less than one year, where the
  influence of short birth intervals is not counterbalanced even by long
  extended breast-feeding."

[Sidenote: C 66]

  Figure C 66. "The +infant mortality within the families+ dealt
  with +falls materially and evenly as the average birth intervals
  lengthen+. With an average birth interval of less than one year,
  one-third of the children die in the first year, but only 7 per cent.
  where the average birth interval was over three years; but here also
  the influence is strongly modified by the mode of feeding. With the
  non-suckling families the mortality is almost 25 per cent., even
  with a birth interval of more than two years. On the other hand,
  when the duration of suckling is sufficient, short birth intervals
  almost disappear (see Table 2), and with an average birth interval of
  1-1/4 to 2 years and a suckling duration of at least half a year the
  mortality remains on an extremely small scale."

[Sidenote: C 67-73]

Groth and Hahn have exhibited two large tables C 67 and C 68 and a
similar one C 69, the results of their important investigations about
+breast-feeding and mortality in the administrative districts of
Bavaria+. Groth shows in Table C 70 "+mortality of sucklings in
Bavaria+," and in Table C 71 "+breast-feeding and cancer+."
In Tables C 72 and C 73 the Groth and Hahn statistics are treated by
Dr. A. Bluhm from the point of view of the +influence of the habit
of breast-feeding on the frequency of births+. In connection with
Figure C 73 she remarks: "This diagram shows the number of bottle-fed
babies in the various Bavarian districts counted at the time of
vaccination. To give as correct a picture as possible of the probable
influence which the habit of breast-feeding has on the birth-rate
(annual number of births per 1,000 of the whole population) there are
represented on this figure by green and yellow columns the average
birth-rate for the five years, 1875 to 1879, because in that period a
record birth-rate was established, so that it may be assumed that there
was then no intentional restriction of births. We see within the four
'old Bavarian' districts, where on the average 64.1% of the babies were
not breast-fed at all, the number of births is about 4 per 1,000 of
the population higher than in the Palatinate and the three 'Frankish'
districts, which together only show 18% of non-breast-fed children."

[Sidenote: C 72 & 73]

"These two figures deal with the +influence of the length of
suckling on the birth-rate+, the longer the duration of the
suckling period, _i.e._, the higher the number of children breast-fed
for six months or more, the lower the birth-rate. This only holds good
for the country (Curve B) not for towns (Curve A). This circumstance
is explained by the fact that the voluntary restriction of births is
much more frequent in towns than in the country, where consequently
the influence of the length of the period of suckling on the birth
frequency can find much stronger expression than in towns, where,
as Curve A shows, it is entirely extinguished by artificial birth
preventatives. From both tables it results that, to prevent the
senseless waste of human life, the interval between every two births
must be more than two years; further, that it is possible to increase
it by breast-feeding; the number of births in a district is based in
the main on the larger or smaller intervals at which the women of
reproductive age have children, and it may, therefore, at the same
time, be taken as an expression of these intervals. Keeping these
two facts in view, and considering the influence of the mode of
infant feeding on infant mortality, it appears to be in the interest
of the race that by means of the long duration of breast-feeding,
the birth intervals should be extended to at least two years. The
facts established in these two tables have a considerable bearing on
race-hygiene, especially in reference to the Neomalthusian contentions
of the necessary inferiority of the later born, and as a confirmation
of the utility of breast-feeding for the reduction of birth frequency.
Extremely great appears the influence of breast-feeding on infant
mortality."

[Sidenote: C 74-78]

This importance of breast-feeding is further illustrated by Figure C
74--+duration of breast-feeding and infant mortality+, after
Dietrich; by Figure C 75--+average number of carious teeth+,
after Bunge; and by the three figures, C 76, 77, and 78--"+average
duration of breast-feeding and physical development, duration of
breast-feeding and average school reports+, and +duration
of breast-feeding and frequency of rachitic disturbances of
development+," after the extensive and valuable researches by Röse.

It must be pointed out that a far more direct connection exists between
breast-feeding, duration of suckling, infant mortality and physical
development than through the mere provision of suitable nourishment
for the child. A good suckling capacity is a symptom of a strong
constitution which is transmitted from mother to child. Examination of
Röse's table offers this suggestion.

[Sidenote: C 79-82]

+The importance of the hereditary constitution+ (which he
considers is dependent on soil and climate) +as regards infant
mortality+ v. Vogel expresses in four maps of Bavaria (Figures
79-82), so which he has furnished the following comments (contained in
the pamphlet, "Der Örtliche Stand der Säuglingsterblichkeit in Bayern,"
Munich, Piloty and Loehle, 1911): "The district of the highest infant
mortality in Bavaria is inhabited by a population of small height,
small fitness for military service, and high tuberculous mortality. The
reverse holds good on the whole for the district with a low mortality.

[Illustration: Map of Bavaria

Infant mortality in 1901.

Figure C 79.]

I cannot suppress another objection to the usual way of proving the--to
my mind undoubted--influence of breast-feeding on the duration of life
in infancy. Why is the mortality of those children who have not been
suckled for a week so large? Is it because they have not been suckled,
or because they have only lived altogether for less than a week? Or,
again, to be able to be suckled for 40 or 50 weeks, one must have lived
for 40 or 50 weeks, but a child who has lived for 40 or 50 weeks,
whether it has been suckled or not, has passed over the worst period.
It is well-known that the mortality in the first days of life is the
highest in the second week, much higher than in the third week, and so
on. In short, the mortality changes in such an extremely high degree
in the course of the first year of life that this period is much too
long for the comparison between mortality of suckled and non-suckled
children. One ought to calculate how many of those who have been
suckled for 0 weeks, one week, two weeks, one month, three months, six
months, and so on, have survived the first week, the second week, the
first month, and so on. Only in this manner can be established what is
the share of the absence of breast-feeding and what is the share of
the innate weakness and tendency to disease in the degree of infant
mortality."

[Illustration: Map of Bavaria

Percentage of under-sized Bavarian recruits (below 1.62 metres in
height) in 1875.

After Professor Ranke.

Figure C 80.]

Exhibit C 81-82.

[Illustration: Map of Bavaria.

Fitness for Military Service in Bavaria, 1902.

Figure C 81.]


[Illustration: Map of Bavaria

Mortality from Pulmonary Consumption in 1901.

Figure C 82.]

[Sidenote: C 83]

A striking peculiarity of cities, especially large cities, is, as
pointed out before, the high mortality amongst men; for this general
observation Figure C 83, +male and female mortality in town and
country+, offers an example. Whereas the female mortality in
Berlin, in the higher age groups, is even lower than in Mecklenburg
with its preponderantly country population--which is evidence that in
town life there are no inherent circumstances adversely affecting all
persons in a high degree--the male mortality in all the age groups
is higher, and in some much higher. The special adverse influence on
men of town life is also apparent in the upper part of the figure
(+comparison of male and female mortality)+. In Mecklenburg the
mortality among men is at most 25% higher than among women, and during
the period of most intense child production, as well as in the highest
age group, it is even smaller, whereas in Berlin the differences
are much more accentuated. It may be remarked that the higher male
death-rate in Mecklenburg between the ages of 40 to 75 years can only
to a small degree be explained by physiological reasons. This is shown
for example by the fact that in the provinces of Schleswig-Holstein,
Pomerania, Hanover, Hessen-Nassau, and the Rhein Provinces in the
country, the expectation of life for men aged 25 years is about equal
to that of women.

[Sidenote: C 84 & 85]

The higher male mortality in cities is only partially explained by
the specific harmfulness peculiar to men's town occupations, though
the mortality of peasants and agricultural labourers ranks amongst
the lowest. A very important part in this connection may be played
by syphilis. How terribly syphilis injures the body, though it is
seldom directly fatal, is shown by the experiences of life insurance
companies, of which examples are given in Tables C 84 and C 85. With
the Gotha Life Insurance Bank, for instance, +the mortality of the
syphilitic at the ages of 36 to 50 years+ was found to be nearly
double as high (186%) as that of the non-syphilitic.

[Sidenote: C 85]

Table C 85 shows to what a high degree +the heart and vessels
especially are harmed by syphilis+. At this point it is to be
noted that it may now be considered as proved that the statement that
general paralysis causes death in 2.9% cases among the non-syphilitic
is erroneous, because general paralysis only occurs among persons who
have been affected with syphilis. There is no doubt that the poison
of syphilis is also most injurious to the germs and the progeny; the
foetus is sometimes infected in the mother's womb, and sometimes
suffers by the general debility of the maternal body. A large
proportion also of those children who attain a higher age are either
enfeebled or damaged in many ways, and this inferiority is often
passed down to the grandchildren. The most recent Serum investigations
(the Wasserman reaction) are the first to throw full light on this.
In Germany syphilis occurs much more frequently in town than in the
country; this no doubt dependent on prostitution and on a much greater
degree of promiscuity of sexual intercourse in cities. In the country
couples keep together with greater constancy, even in the case of
cohabitation without marriage.

[Sidenote: C 86-88]

+The frequency of syphilis and other venereal diseases in town and
country+ is illustrated in Table C 86, which gives the result of
the enquiries of the Prussian Government on the 30th April, 1900,
and Table C 87 after Schwiening, on +the frequency of sexual
diseases among military recruits+. Also Table C 88 which gives the
+frequency of delirium tremens, epilepsy, and general paralysis+
in the +Prussian lunatic asylums+, points in the same direction
by the great differences shown in the frequency of general paralysis
in the different institutions. This table, at the same time, indicates
what is also supported by other observations, that the +frequency
and intensity of harmful influences through alcohol+ are much
+greater in towns than in the country+; this may be partly
because in cities there is a greater and more regular abuse of
alcoholic beverages than in the country, partly because town-life
induces a greater susceptibility to alcoholic poisoning than country
life (less intense metabolism with sedentary occupations).

[Sidenote: C 89-90]

+Injury to the reproductive function through alcohol+. It has
been known for a long time that drunkards are frequently sterile. This
must be attributed to the fact that the testicles of drunkards become
to a great extent atrophied. The condition is shown in Figure C 89 by
R. Weichselbaum,[B] representing a section through the testicle of a
drunkard. Figure C 90 which shows a section through a normal testicle,
enables even the layman to observe the atrophy of the characteristic
glandular tissue of the testicle. Weichselbaum has up to now found that
in fifty-four cases, without exception, in which alcoholism had been
proved, this atrophy could be demonstrated to a greater or less degree.
In thirty of these cases the subject was so young that senile atrophy
was out of the question. The abuse of alcohol is not the only harmful
influence which is able to induce such atrophy of the testicles, but
chronic alcoholism acts with special intensity. Very similar results
to those of Weichselbaum have been obtained by Bertholet (Zentralbl.
f. allg. Pathologie 20 Bd. 1909) in 37 out of 39 habitual drunkards.
They agree with observations on the vesiculae seminales of drunkards by
Simmonds, who found that in 61% of the cases examined the spermatozoa
were absent or dead. It is a permissible assumption that a poison which
can cause the total atrophy of the sexual glands may, in an earlier
stage, have adversely influenced in respect to quality the function of
those organs.

[Footnote B: Verhandlungen der Deutschen Patholog: Gesellschaft, 14th
day, Jena, Fischer, 1910, page 234.]

[Sidenote: C 91]

[Sidenote: C 92]

+Alcohol and Degeneration+, from the tables on the alcohol question
by Gruber and Kraepelin, Munich; Lehmann; contains the well-known
statistics of Demme, Bunge, and Arrivée. Table C 92 adds to the summary
of the statistical observations of Demme, further details of the +kind
of abnormalities+ which were +observed in children of drunkards+.
Representing, as they do, exceptionally bad cases with a high degree
of degeneration, one may doubt whether and in how far congenital
hereditary inferiority of the parents may have had its influence.

[Sidenote: C 93]

Figure C 93 contains the well-known result of v. Bunge's investigations
on the +influence of paternal alcoholism on the suckling capacity of
the daughters+. The varying frequency of the habitual consumption
of alcohol and of drunkenness proper of the father in the two groups of
families is most striking. Official investigations of this question on
a large scale are urgently called for.

[Sidenote: C 94]

Figure C 94 dealing with the +interconnection of tuberculosis,
nervous diseases and psychoses of the progeny and the alcohol
consumption of the father+, is derived from Bunge's investigations.
It is worthy of notice that he endeavoured to eliminate from his
statistics all families in whom hereditary diseases could be traced
previously.

[Sidenote: C 95]

Table C 95 contains a summary of T. Laitinen's +experiments on
animals with small quantities of alcohol+. The degree of injury
to the progeny supposed to be produced by even a minimum quantity of
alcohol (corresponding to about one-third of pint of beer for a man) is
astounding. Repetition of these experiments on a large scale and with
the strictest care would be most desirable here also.

[Sidenote: C 96]

Table C 96 also refers to reports by T. Laitinen.[C] +It deals
with the effect of alcohol on the progeny in man+. Unfortunately
Laitinen's paper is so confused and inexact that it is impossible
for the reader safely to draw conclusions from it. His personal
observations are mixed up with those gathered by means of inquiry
sheets circulated by him in such a way that one cannot make out how
he has arrived at his weights at birth and mortality. Information is
lacking with regard to the nutrition of the children, their age at the
conclusion of the investigations, the length of marriage, the rapidity
of birth sequence and so on. It is, therefore, indispensable to await
the more detailed report before Laitinen's information can be made use
of.

[Footnote C: Internat. Monatschrift z. Erforschung des Alkoholismus,
Juli, 1910.]

[Sidenote: C 97]

Bezzola has sent in in a modified form the data which he presented
to the Eighth International Congress against Alcoholism in Vienna
in 1901, on the +effect of acute intoxication on the origin of
feeble-mindedness+. With their help the curve on Figure C 97 has
been constructed, showing the distribution of illegitimate births in
Switzerland during the different months of the year from Bezzola's
data and the corresponding curve of the births of mentally eminent
individuals (taken from Brockhaus' encyclopædia.) The author supplies
the following comments:--

"+Comparison between the general birth curve and the corresponding
one for the birth of feeble-minded children+."

  The casual observation at the registration of the personal history
  of feeble-minded individuals that 50 per cent. of the birth dates
  fall within only fourteen weeks of the year (New Year, carnival,
  and wine harvest) has aroused the desire to deal with the seasonal
  incidence of the begetting of the feeble-minded on the basis of as
  much material as possible. For this purpose the author's census of
  feeble-minded school children, which took place in the year 1897, and
  referred to the years 1886-90 inclusive, seemed specially suited.
  Originally (in 1901) a curve was plotted in which all the 8,186
  feeble-minded and idiotic children were included whose exact birthdays
  were known, and this curve was compared with the total curve for that
  period. (Schweiz. Statistik 112 Liefg.) The latter was constructed
  in the following manner from the whole number of births (934,619)
  which occurred in these eleven years:--The general daily average was
  taken as 100, and the daily average for each month was expressed
  proportionately. Thus numbers above 100 show a daily birth frequency
  above the average, while for numbers below 100 the reverse is the
  case. The curve for the 8,136 feeble-minded persons was constructed
  in a similar way, and thus a comparison with the general population
  producing them was made possible. Subsequently (1910-11), in order to
  secure homogeneous material, the first and last years were left out,
  since by including them, owing to the non-agreement of the school
  year and the astronomical year, the earlier months (January-April)
  were much weighted. By this restriction of the material dealt with
  the number of feeble-minded is reduced to 7,759, but the material for
  each separate year is more homogeneous. Distributed between 2,922 days
  (eight years), the daily production of the feeble-minded is 2.648,
  the corresponding total number of births of the years 1882-89 ls
  677,083, or 231.7 per day. 1.14 per cent. of all births are included
  in the figure for the feeble-minded. If one treats the total number of
  births for each month as well as the number of births of feeble-minded
  according to the method described above, and used by the Federal
  Statistical Bureau, two curves are produced which diverge considerably
  from each other in particular months. On the whole the curve for the
  feeble-minded (thick line) is flatter than the curve for the total.
  Especially striking are the drop in May and June (corresponding to
  the procreation period from the 25th July to the 23rd September) and
  two peaks rising above the "total" curve. One of these is slight,
  yet distinct. It refers to the months of birth, July and August,
  corresponding with the procreation period from the 24th September to
  the 24th November. More conspicuous is the second peak of the curve
  for the feeble-minded from October to December, otherwise a time poor
  in births. The centre of the corresponding period of procreation
  (25th December to 26th March) is in February (carnival). This seems
  to confirm the suspicion that during the wine harvest and carnival
  an increased procreation of feeble-minded occurs (procreation during
  drunkenness?).

We cannot suppress the remark that the fluctuations of the curve for
the feeble-minded are much too small to admit of the drawing of an
ætiological conclusion, but the fluctuations of the intelligence curve
and the illegitimate curve partly exceed the limits of probable error.
The peaks of both birth curves in February, correspond to a peak in
the procreation curve in May. Perhaps one may attribute them to the
existence of a remnant of a period of "heat" (or a rutting season) in
man.

[Sidenote: C 98]

+Lead.+ Whereas the +germ cells+ are well protected against many
harmful influences from without which affect the soma of the mother,
they +and the foetus produced from them suffer considerably from+
some. Amongst their deadliest enemies are +certain poisons+, and
+notorious in this respect is lead+. Table C 98 gives two sets of
statistics on this point, they justify the law in Germany, and in other
States, forbidding female labour to deal with lead and lead-containing
materials. Paul's figures, showing that lead poisoning of the father
is also extremely adverse to the production of a healthy progeny, are
remarkable.

[Sidenote: C 99]

+Female Labour.+ A baneful influence on reproduction is brought
to bear by the growing quantity of professional female labour away from
home and by the economic emancipation of women. Evidence of this is
given in Table C 99--"+female labour and child mortality+"--the
data of which are taken from Prinzing's work. Infant mortality is
higher the larger the percentage of females employed in factories
during the child-bearing period. This is partly due to interference
with breast-feeding and partly to the unfavourable influence on
pregnancy.

[Sidenote: C 100]

Dr. Agnes Bluhm has given in Figure C 100 "+Female Labour and
Reproductive Activity+," the statistics of Roger and Thiraux, as
well as the results of the investigation of the Imperial Statistical
Office on the "Relationship of illness and deaths in the Local
Invalidity Fund for Leipzig and surroundings." Dr. Bluhm gives the
following explanation: "The top figure on the left is based on material
of the Local Invalidity Fund for Leipzig and surroundings, dealing
with over a quarter of a million of women of child-bearing age. The
distinction between obligatory and voluntary members makes possible
the estimate of the +influence of work continued up to the time of
confinement+, because the voluntary members receive the same weekly
payments during confinement as the obligatory ones, and, consequently,
a woman has no object in joining the voluntary insurance scheme except
in order to secure rest before confinement, which they procure for
themselves at their own expense and with the loss of their wages. (At
that time the compulsory support during time of pregnancy did not
exist.) It is to be noted that the voluntary members show ten times as
many confinements as the obligatory ones."

"The left hand figure at the top shows that the women who work up to
the time of confinement fall ill during their pregnancy twice as often,
and have six or seven times as many miscarriages and premature births
and 1.28 times as many cases of death in child-bed, as those who stop
work for a more or less extended period previous to their delivery."

"The frequency of illness after childbirth is in both categories of
women almost the same; but the duration of the illness beyond the
period for which the legal subvention provides (13, 26, or 34 weeks
respectively) is much greater in the case of the obligatory members who
do not spare themselves before their delivery."

"Left hand figure at the bottom--the researches were made by Roger and
Thiraux in a maternity home. A comparison is made between the women
who entered the home only at the beginning of childbirth and those who
entered during the last month of pregnancy or sooner. Premature birth
occurs in nearly one-third of the cases among the former, but among the
latter only one-eighth.

"Right hand figure at the bottom--dealing with the same material as
the left hand figure below compares the weight at birth of the first,
second and later born. The average weight of the former is 300 g.
and that of the latter 341 g. higher with mothers who cease work two
or three months before delivery, than with those who worked up to
the last. Possibly this expresses in the main the different duration
of pregnancy. The importance of the birth weight of a child for its
further development is not to be underrated."

"The top figure on the right shows that the importance of the adverse
influence of female labour on the race, shown in the above figures, is
growing, because there is an increase of employment amongst married
women. Simon's figures show that the manufacturing industries, which
in 1907 employed by themselves two million female hands, the number of
married women has increased by almost 200,000 during the last twelve
years. In agriculture, in which four and a half million females find
their main occupation, the share of the married women is much greater
still."

"The increase of married female labour being intimately connected with
the development of our economic life, which cannot be deliberately
influenced, the demand for a Motherhood Insurance for all female
labourers of any kind, and for the extension of the legal time of
stoppage of work before childbirth to at least four weeks, follows as a
practical result of the facts stated above."

Dr. Bluhm's repeated assertion, which is regarded by many as a
dogma, that economic conditions cannot be deliberately influenced
(+i.e.+, that they are of the character of a law of nature) must
not remain uncontradicted as a principal. It is absolutely unproved,
though the difficulty of influencing our economic life cannot be
denied; the economic order has been created by man and +must+ be
altered if it proves harmful for the race.

[Sidenote: C 101]

The adverse influence of female labour on the progeny is shown from
a somewhat different point of view in Table C 101--"+premature
births and abortions in different callings+." The most serious
fact shown here is that a low birth rate may frequently be found in
conjunction with a high rate for miscarriage and premature birth;
as the compiler of these statistics points out, this conjunction is
most apparent in those callings which demand frequent intercourse
with the public, such as domestic service, that is to say in cases
where pregnancy is particularly inconvenient. Probably in these cases
artificial prevention of pregnancy goes hand in hand with the procuring
of abortion!

Race-hygiene does not aim at an indiscriminate motherhood insurance of
married and unmarried mothers, but it aims at the economic subvention
and encouragement of legitimate fertility of healthy and able parents,
connected with, and rendered possible by, a reduction of female labour
away from the home. Marriage is one of the most important hygienic
institutions for the individual as well as for the race, and it is
folly to allow its decay and to replace it by substitutes.

[Sidenote: C 102]

+The importance of marriage for the health to married persons+
is shown by figure C 102--"+condition with regard to marriage and
mortality in Prussia, 1894-97+," as given in Prinzing's book. That
we have to deal here with an actual favourable influence of marriage,
and not with a selection of the healthy at the time of marriage, is
proved by the fact that the low death rate of the married is maintained
through all age classes and that the widowed and divorced show
throughout the highest death rate.

[Sidenote: C 103]

"+Condition with regard to marriage and mortality, cases of death
from tuberculosis+," after Weinberg, also confirms with regard to
tuberculosis the favourable influence of marriage on the health of
men. With women the mortality from tuberculosis up to the age of 60 is
lowest among the unmarried. Pregnancy and suckling act here adversely,
but by far the worst position is also held here by widows and divorced
women.

[Sidenote: C 104-105]

The advantage of marriage for the progeny is made evident in Figure
C 104--"+mortality of illegitimate children in different European
states+", and in Figure C 105 dealing with the "+survival of the
legitimate and illegitimate children in Berlin in 1885+." After
five years there are still alive more than 60% of the legitimate,
but only 40% of the illegitimate children. The higher mortality of
the latter is by no means a purifying process of weeding, but the
expression of greater sickliness which permanently harms the surviving
also. The division of labour between man and wife, with reference to
the care of the offspring, is one of Nature's institutions which is of
the greatest advantage for parents as well as children.

[Sidenote: C 106-107]

+Inbreeding and the Crossing of Races.+ On the whole with
mankind inbreeding is viewed with fear, and justly so, in view of
our customary carelessness with regard to the physical and mental
conditions of those who contract marriage. +If blood relations have
similar pathological conditions or pre-dispositions to illness or
degeneracy, the progeny which results from their union is endangered to
a particularly high degree.+ Our collection brings as an example
of this in Table C 106--the pedigree of the celebrated Don Carlos. The
bad inheritance of Johanna the Mad asserts itself to a lesser degree
yet quite perceptibly also in the children of Max. II. Table C 107--the
children of Maximilian and his cousin Maria of Spain; undoubtedly the
Emperor Rudolf II. was mentally diseased. Also Charles V. and his son
Philip II. were abnormal characters.

[Sidenote: C 108]

+Blood relationship of the parents and health of the children+,
which v. d. Velden has prepared from Riffel's family tables, also
speaks for the harmfulness of inbreeding. The offspring of blood
relations are emphatically weaker and sicklier than those of persons
related distantly or not at all.

[Sidenote: C 109]

The harm of inbreeding amongst the pathological is also illustrated by
the large Table 222 (exhibited by Schüle). Pedigrees from wine-growing
districts in the centre of Baden; against this it may be taken as
proved that inbreeding in itself between the healthy and fit is
not harmful. Animal breeders (as well as plant cultivators) make
an extensive use of it with the view to the cultivation of certain
hereditary characteristics.

[Sidenote: C 110]

We show in Table C 110, after de Chapeaurouge, the +pedigree of
Belvidere+, an animal which, in spite of close inbreeding, was
distinguished by excellent qualities, and by whom, out of his own
daughter, another sire of the highest rank was produced.

[Sidenote: C 111]

After long-continued and very close inbreeding, even with a faultless
condition of the germ plasm, the decrease of vitality and fertility
of the progeny asserts itself. Important evidence for this is given
by Georg. H. Shull in his exhibition of +cross-fertilized,
self-fertilized and hybridized maize+ (Exhibit No. C 111).
Shull makes the following comments: "Results of inbreeding with
maize--crossing between different races or genotypes, if not too
distantly related, results in a progeny which excels its parents in
vitality, whereas crosses between individuals belonging to the same
genotype engender no increase of vitality as compared with the parents."

In maize, and presumably in most other plants and animals in which
cross-fertilization is the rule, all individuals are usually
complicated hybrids between different varieties of genotype. They owe
their vigorous constitution to this hybrid nature.

"The result of self-fertilization or of close inbreeding is that
the hybrid nature diminishes in degree. The stock is reduced to a
homozygotic condition, and is thus deprived of the stimulus which lies
in the hybrid condition."

"When two given genotypes are crossed, the first hybrid generation is
possessed of the greatest vigour. Even the second generation shows
much less vitality, and this decrease continues with the third and
later generations. But each succeeding generation differs less from
its predecessor than the latter differed from its own parents. As soon
as the stock has become a pure line, inbreeding produces no further
weakening."

"The top row of the exhibited collection of maize cobs (large cobs with
many grains) is derived from a family in which for five generations
self-fertilization has been prevented by using mixed pollen. These
conditions approach those prevailing in an ordinary field."

"The middle row of maize cobs (small cobs with few grains) comes
from families of the same derivation as the first row; but for five
generations they have been self-fertilized. Each one has characters
which the others do not possess. They are almost pure bred, and
continued self-fertilization produces no further adverse influence. The
cob, quite to the right, without grains, has pistils so short that
they do not project from the husks. This genotype must, therefore, be
fertilized artificially."

"The lowest row (the largest cobs with the most grains) comes from
families which have been created by the crossing of plants belonging to
different genotypes, the relationship in which case is indicated by the
lines which connect this row with the middle row."

"The following harvests of grain were made in the year 1910:--

  Self-fertilization prevented (average of nine
      families)                                    53.5 hi pro ha.
  Self-fertilized (average of ten families)        25.3  "  "   "
  F1 hybrid (average of six families)              59.2  "  "   "
  F2 hybrid (average of seven families)            38.8  "  "   "

[Sidenote: C 112-114]

It is well-known to what degree +inbreeding+ is practised in
+reigning families+. We show as an example for this, Chart
C 112, the +pedigree of the Archduchess Maria de los Dolores of
Tuscany+, exhibited by Dr. Stephan Kekule von Stradonitz, and
Chart C 113 of the same exhibitor, +pedigree of Ptolemäus X+.
Soter II. (Lathros), and Chart C 114, +pedigree of the celebrated
Cleopatra+. Though with Ptolemäus X. the effect of sexual
reproduction in bringing about new combinations of hereditary units was
very limited, since the couple, Ptolemäus V. Epiphanes and Cleopatra
Syra having produced all the germ cells from which he developed, he
appears, nevertheless, to have been a perfectly normal being. In his
granddaughter Cleopatra certainly much "extraneous blood" circulated.

[Sidenote: C 115]

Even where there is no high degree of inbreeding, the individuals of a
people are much more closely related to each other than is generally
assumed. Table C 115, "+theoretical number of ancestors+," shows
that, assuming the duration of one generation to be 35 years, and that
no marriages between relations have taken place, the number of the
ancestors of a man living now would have been eighteen billions in the
year 0 a.d. In reality the germanic race, wandering west, probably
only numbered hundreds of thousands. This phenomenon of "+ancestral
loss+," as Ottokar Lorenz calls it (that the number of real
ancestors is much smaller than those theoretically possible), can be
illustrated in the pedigrees of the reigning houses.

[Sidenote: C 116]

We have in Table C 116 an +analysis of pedigree of Emperor William
II.+, after Ottokar Lorenz. Investigations show that twelve
generations back the real number of his ancestors amounts to only
one-eighth of the possible figure. Only 275 persons have actually been
found because in the older lines, the bourgeois element, of which no
record can be found, has had a very large share.

[Sidenote: C 117]

Very little knowledge exists concerning the effect of the crossing of
races in man. On the whole it appears not to be favourable, if it is a
question of crossing of races from far apart, even in purely physical
respects. An example of harmful influence is given in v. d. Velden's
Table C 117--"+Fertility and Health in relation to the crossings of
races+."



NEOMALTHUSIANISM.


[Sidenote: C 118-122]

The next and the greatest concern of race-hygiene--much greater than
the relative increase of inferiority--is, to-day, neomalthusianism,
the intentional restriction of the number of births in varying degrees
up to complete unproductiveness. Though conscious regulation of the
production of children is absolutely necessary, it becomes fatal to
a nation if under no control but the egotism of the individual. For
its permanent prosperity a nation requires, in order merely to hold
its own, a sufficient number of "hands" and a sufficient number of
"heads" to guide those "hands." We referred to this when mention was
made of sterility as a phenomenon of degeneration, but this cause of
sterility during the last decades only takes a second place compared
to deliberate intention. The wealthy and higher social classes were
first attacked by neomalthusianism. Their progeny is becoming more and
more utterly insufficient, so that under our present social conditions,
particularly which give mind and talent better openings, and thereby
more and more take out of the mass of the people the better elements,
make the strongest demand for them and use them up, the danger of an
increasing deterioration of the average quality of its progeny grows
greater and greater. The baneful influence of wealth on fertility is
shown by several tables. Figure C 118 "+Fertility and Wealth+,"
after Goldstein and Tallquist, gives the condition in the French
Departments; Figure C 119, "+Number of Children and Wealth+,"
after Bertillon, for the Arrondissements of Paris; Figure C 120,
"+Fertility and Wealth+," after Mombert, for Münich, 1901, Table
C 121, "+The Number of Children in Families of Different Classes in
Denmark+, 1901," after Westergaard; Table C 122, "+Fertility
of Marriages, Occupation, and Wealth for Copenhagen, and Dutch
Conditions+," after Rubin, Westergaard, and Verrijn Stuart.

[Sidenote: C 123]

The worst condition with regard to the fertility prevails among
those with the highest mental endowment. Evidence of this is given
in Figure C 123, "+Insufficient Fertility of the Highly Endowed
in Holland+," after J. R. Steinmetz. It shows the rapidity with
which the number of children decreases. In order to estimate the
significance of these statistics, it must be noted that after taking
into account the mortality among children and young persons, and the
unfitness for parenthood of an appreciable fraction of the adults,
a fully capable couple would have to produce at least four children
to assure the necessary moderate increase in the population which
is required to prevent a people from sinking into stagnation and
deterioration.

[Sidenote: C 124]

The dying out of highly gifted families is shown to be more accentuated
in Figure 255, after Bertillon, "+Progeny of the Highly Gifted in
France+." Four hundred and forty-five of the best known Frenchmen,
with their wives, have not even reproduced that number of individuals,
and this in spite of the fact that repeated marriages of the same
individuals have not been taken into account.

[Sidenote: C 125-126]

Even if one has been able, up to the present, to live in the hope
that the number of persons of more than average ability produced by
the mass of the people is always sufficient to replace those that are
used up, at the present time anxiety about the "heads" is replaced
by anxiety about the "hands." The knowledge of means of preventing
fertilization spreads incessantly, and is recklessly promulgated by
the neomalthusians and by a shameless industry. We point to Figure C
125, "+Want of Fertility in French Towns+," after Jayle, and to
Figure C 126, "+Fertility in Prussia+." In Berlin fertility is
decreasing most rapidly; at the end of the sixties it still amounted
to 200 in every 1,000 women of child-bearing age. In the five years,
1905-1910, only to 84; in the year 1910 only to 74. This state of
things is shown also in the relative increase in numbers of the first
born.

[Sidenote: C 127, 128 & 129]

Figure C 127, "+Decrease of Legitimate Fertility in Berlin--the
two-children system+." The other German towns follow the example
of Berlin. Berlin to-day produces 20% less children than are required
to maintain its own population without immigration, and the same
conditions will soon prevail in other towns. Up to now the country
districts in general maintain their fertility (West Prussia on Figure
C 128), but there, too, modern practices begin to make themselves
felt. The town and industrial population increases so rapidly that the
conditions prevailing among them have an ever increasing effect on the
people as a whole. Thus we see, even at the present time, a serious
decline in fertility among an overwhelming majority of European States:
Figure C 129, "+Decrease of Fertility in Some European States+."

[Sidenote: D]

Exhibited by David Fairchild Weeks, M.D.,

+Director of the New Jersey State Village for Epileptics at
Skillman, U.S.A.+


Explanation of Symbols used in the Charts.

Male individuals are indicated by squares and females by circles. The
members of each fraternity are connected by the same horizontal line.
The fraternity line is connected by a vertical line to the line joining
the symbols representing the father and mother. Illegal unions and
illegitimate children are shown by dotted lines. As an aid in tracing
the patient's immediate family, a green line is used to connect the
direct ancestors on the paternal side, and a red line on the maternal
side. The red squares and circles indicate epileptics, the green the
insane, the black the feeble-minded, and purple the criminalistic. The
figures directly above the fraternity line indicate the rank in birth,
a figure inside a square or circle shows the number of individuals of
that sex. A black dot suspended from the fraternity line stands for a
miscarriage or a stillbirth. A line underneath a square or circle shows
that institutional care has been received. The hand points out our
patient.

The following letters indicate the different conditions: A, alcoholic;
B, blind; C, criminalistic; D, deaf; E, epileptic; F, feeble-minded;
I, insane; M, migrainous; N, normal; P, paralytic; S, syphilitic; T,
tubercular; W, wanderer, tramp; d, died; b, born; inf, infancy; Sx,
unchaste.

[Sidenote: D 1]

This chart shows very clearly the dangerous results of a marriage in
which both of the +parents are epileptic+. Of the four children
the first three were epileptic, and the fourth, a boy, who died at the
age of nine, was feeble-minded. All four of these children were cared
for at public expense, two are patients at the New Jersey State Village
for Epileptics, and the other two were wards of the Children's Home
Finding Society. The epileptic father is dead, and the mother married
again to an alcoholic man. When last heard of she had another child.

[Sidenote: D 2]

An +epileptic+ woman, married to a +feeble-minded man+,
is responsible for the large number of defectives shown on this chart.
The principal mating is that of one of the epileptic daughters of
this woman, who, like her mother, married a feeble-minded man. Eight
children resulted from this marriage; one died before two years of age,
the other seven were epileptic, the five who are living are patients
at the New Jersey State Village. Two of the girls in this fraternity
had illegitimate children before receiving proper care. This family is
undoubtedly a branch of a family of defectives, most of whom live in an
adjoining State.

[Sidenote: D 3]

This is a case of +incest+, and shows plainly that the "empty
germ plasm can yield only emptiness." These people lived in a hut
in the woods. The feeble-minded man had by his defective sister an
epileptic daughter, then by this daughter he had four children, one an
epileptic, one a feeble-minded woman of the streets, who spends much
of her time in jail, one an anencephalic monster who died soon after
birth, and one a feeble-minded boy, who did not grow to manhood. Since
the hut in the woods burned down, the epileptic woman and feeble-minded
daughter live in a cellar in town, though much of their time is spent
in jail.

[Sidenote: D 4]

This chart shows a +feeble-minded+ man, who came from a
feeble-minded family, married to an +epileptic+ woman, who
descended from a tubercular epileptic father and a mother who is
described as "flighty," "not too bright." This couple had six children,
three feeble-minded, two epileptic, and one still-born. Since the death
of the epileptic mother, the father has secured homes in institutions
for all of his children except one, and then married again. As yet he
has no children by the second wife.

[Sidenote: D 5]

The wife in the central mating in this case is a low grade
+epileptic+, who can scarcely recognize her own children. The
father is a +feeble-minded alcoholic+, who works hard, but who
spends all his money for drink. There were six children; one died at
the age of four, and all of the others except one six-year-old boy are
epileptic. All are being cared for by the public. Before the mother and
three of the epileptic children were brought to the State Village for
Epileptics the family lived in a cellar, slept on rags, and depended on
the neighbours for food.

[Sidenote: D 6]

This is a history which illustrates very well the source of a
large number of the almshouse inmates. The central figure is an
+epileptic+ woman, who spent most of her life in the poor house.
No two of her seven children are by the same father. The epileptic
daughter, whose father was feeble-minded, had started to lead the same
kind of life as her mother; in the almshouse she gave birth to one
illegitimate child before she was put under State care. The mother,
when she last left the almshouse, went to live in a hut in the woods
with a feeble-minded man, who had three feeble-minded sons; one of
these sons married the feeble-minded sister of one of the epileptic
patients at the New Jersey State Village.

[Sidenote: D 7a]

[Sidenote: D 7b]

This is the history of two patients who have been found to be related,
the great grandfather of the one was the brother of the grandmother of
the other. The principal mating under D 7a is that of a +feeble-minded+
man married to an +epileptic+ woman, whose mother died in the insane
asylum. They had six children, the first died when only a few months
old, the next and the fourth were not bright and died young, the third
is an epileptic, the fifth is feeble-minded and criminalistic and he
is now at the State Home for Boys, the sixth is also feeble-minded and
cared for at an industrial home for children. The mother and father,
at one time inmates of the almshouse, are now supported by the town.
Under D 7b the father, who died of spinal meningitis, was migrainous
and had many epileptic relatives, the mother is neurotic. There were
four children, the first an epileptic, the second died at 20 of spinal
meningitis, the third is of a very nervous temperament, the last, a
girl of 16, seems to be normal.

[Sidenote: D 8]

Both of the parents in this case are +feeble-minded+. The
father was the black sheep of his family, his brothers are intelligent
men, and for the most part good citizens; the mother, however, was
the illegitimate child of a feeble-minded woman. There were seven
children, one an epileptic, the others all feeble-minded with the
exception of the sixth, who is now about 11 years old; she was taken
from her home and put with a very good family; she shows the effect
of the changed environment, and though not up to her grade in school,
is only slightly backward. There is some doubt about the parentage of
the child, and it is very probable that she is by a different father.
Since the father's death the mother has had one illegitimate child; her
children were taken away from her except the two oldest because of the
immoral conditions in the home, and she now claims to be married to
a feeble-minded man, who is the younger feeble-minded brother of her
imbecile daughter's husband.

[Sidenote: D 9]

The central mating in this case is that of an +epileptic, alcoholic,
sexually immoral+ man, married to a +neurotic and sexually
immoral+ woman, who has many insane and feeble-minded relatives.
They had in all ten children; two were epileptic, three, feeble-minded,
one criminalistic and sexually immoral, the sixth is the only one who
has a good reputation, the last was a stillbirth. The father and mother
are no longer living together.

[Sidenote: D 10]

The case illustrated on this chart is of a +feeble-minded+
woman married to an +alcoholic+ man. The wife descended from an
alcoholic father, who had several epileptic relatives. The husband also
descended from an alcoholic father, and had an epileptic nephew. Of
their nine children, the first three died young of scarlet fever, the
fourth was epileptic, and the other five are feeble-minded.

[Sidenote: D 11]

On this chart we have the history of an +epileptic+ man whose
attacks were of the petit-mal type. He married a choreic woman. They
had four children, the eldest a man who developed epilepsy after
his second marriage. His first wife was insane; by her he had two
daughters, one of whom is now an inmate in an insane asylum, the other
is neurotic and has been treated in a sanatorium. Of the other children
two are apparently normal and one migrainous.

[Sidenote: D 12]

This chart shows an +epileptic+ man married to a normal woman;
he had both epileptic and insane relatives, while she had epileptic,
alcoholic, and tubercular relatives. Their first child was an
epileptic, the next were twins, one of these appears to be normal while
the other is of a very nervous temperament, the fourth died in infancy,
and the last three were stillbirths. The mother married the second
time, this time to a man who drank to excess after their marriage; by
him she had two children, both of whom seem to be normal. They are both
in school.

[Sidenote: D 13]

This is the history of a low grade +epileptic+. His oldest
sister is normal; she was brought up by strangers after her mother's
death, and is now earning her living as a saleslady. The second was a
boy, who was thought to be normal until he was about sixteen, when he
displayed criminalistic tendencies, and for the crime of rape was put
in the Reform School. The youngest is a girl, who is of a very nervous
temperament. The father was an alcoholic, and went on long sprees; he
deserted his wife and family to live with a woman who also deserted a
family. His brother is an alcoholic, and married the patient's mother's
sister; they are now divorced. The mother was migrainous, she died of
tuberculosis; her family shows a neurotic taint, while the father has
several epileptic relatives.

[Sidenote: D 14]

In the central mating the father and mother are both
+migrainous+. They both belong to families prominent in the
community in which they reside; their homes are among the best, and
they are counted as leading citizens. There were nine children;
three died before four years of age, one is epileptic, one seems to
be normal, and the others all show some nervous taint, though not
migrainous.

[Sidenote: D 15]

This is the history of a +syphilitic and a sexually immoral
couple+. They were never married, and the woman for many years
supported the man, who was never sober and frequently had attacks of
delirium tremens. She finally deserted him. Of their eight children two
were stillbirths, three were epileptic, and the other syphilitic. One
of the epileptics in a jealous rage shot the woman whom he loved, and
when he found that escape was impossible, killed himself.

[Sidenote: D 15a-b]

Charts explaining the method of collecting and recording data.

       *       *       *       *       *



[Sidenote: E]

Exhibited by Mr E. J. Lidbetter.


A selection by Mr. E. J. Lidbetter, from his collection of pedigrees,
showing pauperism in association with mental and physical defect,
justifying the inference that a high proportion of +pauperism is to
be attributed to the transmission of defect+ and the perpetuation
of stocks of a low type:--

[Sidenote: E 1]

Pedigree showing +mental disease and destructive eye-disease+
in the same stock. Insanity, epilepsy, feeble-mindedness and idiocy in
various degrees in twelve members, several of them being also blind;
partial or total blindness from detachment of the retina without mental
defect in several others. Tendency to "anti-dating" or "anticipation"
of the mental disease in succeeding generations or younger born
offspring. The printed numbers on the diagram indicate the age of the
individual on 1st attack. Prevalence of tuberculosis (three members).
Neither mental nor ocular conditions attributable to syphilis. Of the
49 individuals whose history is known 26 have been, or are being,
maintained in public institutions (Asylums, Workhouses, Blind Schools,
or Poor Law Schools), 29 have been paupers at intervals, and two
are known to have been in prison. Several marriages between mental
defectives yielding large but inferior families. (Exhibited by Mr. E.
T. Lidbetter. The eye-disease reported upon by Mr. E. Nettleship.)

[Sidenote: E 2]

Pedigree showing the tendency to +intermarry among pauper and
defective families+. On the left "able-bodied" pauperism and on
the right sickness. One hundred and fifty-seven units shown in five
generations; 76 paupers shown, including 38 classed as chronic, 32
occasional and six medical only. Twenty-eight died in infancy, nine
tuberculous, six insane, two epileptics, and one blind. Shows also
pauper children born in lucid intervals of parent suffering from
periodic insanity.

[Sidenote: E 3]

Pedigree illustrating stock of a +low type in which very little
physical defect appears+. The total includes 61 individuals, of
whom 42 are or have been paupers, eight have died in workhouse or
infirmary, and two in asylums for lunatics; one child is an imbecile.
On the whole the stock may be described as mentally sub-normal (not
strongly so), but with a marked non-moral tendency. Of the 34 children
in the last generation, ten are certainly illegitimate; 15 were, or
are, being brought up in Poor Law Institutions, and nine received
out-door relief with their parents. The collective period of pauperism
in this case exceeds 115 years and the cost to the ratepayers is
estimated at about £2,400.

[Sidenote: E 4]

Showing the case of a woman who had two husbands. With the first her
children were consistently defective (deaf and dumb). With the second,
one died in infancy and three are doing well. All the children of the
first are, or have been, paupers.

[Sidenote: E 5]

A series showing the intimate +relation between tuberculosis infant
mortality and pauperism+:--

[Sidenote: E 5a]

Showing a +tuberculous family with apparently normal parents+,
both of whom come from tuberculous stocks. Of their 14 children only
two are normal; six are consumptive; four died in infancy. The father
was one of a family of 8 of whom only he and one other survived--and
that other became insane, and his wife and children became paupers in
consequence.

[Sidenote: E 5b]

Showing +insanity, consumption and infant mortality+; also the
transmission of insanity through the apparently normal.

[Sidenote: E 5c]

Showing the +survival of tuberculous+ stock by accession of
strength from the normal. Only the illegitimate children and their
non-sick father survive in this group.

[Sidenote: E 5d]

Showing the case of a +normal woman who had two consumptive
husbands+. Survival of defective strain by accession of strength
from the normal.

[Sidenote: E 5e]

+Consumption+ in three generations. +Male infant
mortality+. Query, transmission (?) through the normal.

[Sidenote: E 6]

A series showing +transmission of mental defect through the
apparently normal+.

[Sidenote: E 6a]

Insanity, blindness, epilepsy and feeble-mindedness.

[Sidenote: E 6b]

Insanity in three generations. Transmission through the normal in each
case.

[Sidenote: E 6c]

Insanity through the normal twice removed.

[Sidenote: E 6d]

Insanity, epilepsy, and infant mortality--a Mendelian suggestion.


[Sidenote: F]

EXHIBITED BY PUBLIC HEALTH DEPARTMENT, CITY OF LIVERPOOL.

E. W. Hope, M.D., M.O.H.

[Sidenote: F 1]

One large model of +insanitary property+ dealt with in
Liverpool, built to scale, etc., with glass cover.

[Sidenote: F 2]

Charts showing the +decline in mortality from phthisis+:--

[Sidenote: F 2a]

One showing rate for England and Wales.

[Sidenote: F 2b]

One " " England and Ireland.

[Sidenote: F 2c]

One " " Scotland.

[Sidenote: F 2d]

One " " Liverpool.

[Sidenote: F 3 b c d e f]

Six framed and glazed photographs illustrating insanitary property
which has been demolished in Liverpool, and the new dwellings which
have been erected to house the dispossessed tenants.

       *       *       *       *       *



[Sidenote: G]

AN EXHIBIT OF A SYSTEM OF MAKING PEDIGREE RECORDS.

Exhibited by Dr. Raymond Pearl,

+Biologist of the Maine Agricultural Experiment Station, Orono,
Maine.+


This exhibit consists of a series of blank record forms designed to
+illustrate the method of keeping pedigree records+ which has
been in use at the Maine Agricultural Experiment Station for a period
of five years, in connection with its work in the experimental study of
inheritance in poultry and in various plants. The advantages which have
been found by experience to inhere in this system of pedigree record
keeping are (_a_) simplicity; (_b_) ease of operation; (_c_) small
chance for error in the keeping of large masses of pedigree records;
(_d_) uniformity of the system, such that records of all kinds, in any
way pertaining to the work, may be brought together with great ease for
consultation or study.

In addition to the record blanks there are exhibited also various
marking devices and other apparatus connected with the proper working
of the plan.

It should be noted that while the blanks here exhibited are devised
particularly for work with poultry and plants, the same system, with
slight modifications, may be successfully applied to the keeping of
human pedigree records; indeed it is a pleasure to state that the
system here exhibited is an outgrowth and development of a scheme for
the keeping of pedigree data in general and particularly human pedigree
records suggested many years ago by the late Sir Francis Galton.

       *       *       *       *       *



[Sidenote: H]

Exhibited by C. V. Drysdale, Esq., D. Sc.


The +Malthusian theory of population+ leads to the conclusion
that the population of the majority of countries is held in check by
lack of food. Therefore, there should be a correspondence between the
birth and death rates, high birth rates producing high death rates and
high infantile mortality, and the death rate should rise or fall with a
rise or fall of the birth rate.

In the accompanying diagrams, white strips imply birth rates, shaded
strips death rates, and black strips infantile mortality, or deaths of
children under one year.

[Sidenote: H 1]

Shows the relation between +birth and death rates and infantile
mortality+ in various countries in 1901-1905.

[Illustration: VARIOUS COUNTRIES 1901-05

Figure H 1.]

[Sidenote: H 2]

Relation between _birth rate and +corrected+ death rates_ in
various countries. (This shows that France is healthier than appears in
H 1.)

[Sidenote: H 3]

Shows relation between +birth and death rates+ from various
causes in five districts of +London+.

[Sidenote: H 4]

Relation between the +birth rate and death rate+ for various
arrondissements of +Paris+ in 1906. (Note that the increase in
the Elysée quarter is as high as the average in the quarters of high
birth rate.)

[Sidenote: H 5-6]

Variation of the +total population and birth and death rates+ in
the +United Kingdom+ and the +German Empire+. (Note that the fall
in the death rate corresponds fairly closely to that in the birth
rate.)

[Sidenote: H 7]

Id. for +France+. (Note that the population is still increasing
although slowly.)

[Sidenote: H 8]

=Birth and death rates for France= since 1781. (Note that the rate of
increase of population in 1781 was no higher with a birth rate of 39
per 1,000 than in 1901-6 with a birth rate of only 21 per 1,000. A fall
of 17.8 per 1,000 in the birth rate has resulted in a fall of 17.5 per
1,000 in the death rate.)

[Sidenote: H 9]

+Birth and death rates and infantile mortality for England and
Wales+. Also +marriage rate, fertility of married women,
illegitimacy+ and +variation of diseases+. (Note that the
illegitimate birth rate has fallen to half since the fall of the birth
rate set in.)

[Sidenote: H 10]

+Birth and death rates and infantile mortality+ in the
+Netherlands+ (Notice the rapid increase of population as the
death rate falls, and the great fall of infantile mortality, probably
due to the practical work of the Dutch Neo-Malthusian League among the
poor.)

[Sidenote: H 11-13]

+_Protestant Countries._+ (Notice the correspondence between the
birth and death rates and infantile mortality in all.)

[Sidenote: H 14-16]

+_Roman Catholic Countries._+ (Note that the fall of the birth
rate has taken place almost equally with that in the Protestant
Countries, and with the same result.)

[Sidenote: H 17-20]

The only +four countries in which the birth rate is approximately
_stationary_+. (Notice that the death rate has not fallen--except,
perhaps in Russia--and that the infantile mortality has not fallen.
Also that the highest birth rate produces the highest death rate and
infantile mortality, and the lowest birth rate the lowest mortality.)

[Sidenote: H 21-24]

The only +four countries with _rising_ birth rates.+ _The death
rate and the infantile mortality have increased in every one._

[Sidenote: H 25]

+_Australia._+ The death rate has fallen with the birth rate,
and is now only about 10 per 1,000.

[Sidenote: H 26]

+_New Zealand._+ The only country in which the fall in the
birth rate has not produced a fall in the death rate, and which is not
therefore over-populated. The infantile mortality is the lowest in the
world, and the death rate less than 10 per 1,000, which gives us an
ideal which we can reach in all countries by lowering the birth rate
sufficiently.

[Sidenote: H 27]

+_The City of Toronto._+ The birth rate has fallen and
afterwards risen. The death rate has fallen with the birth rate, and
afterwards risen, showing that the improvements in sanitation have not
been the cause of the falling death rate in other countries.

[Sidenote: H 28]

+_Berlin._+ The birth rate rose rapidly from 1841 to 1876, and
afterwards fell even more rapidly. The death rate, except for epidemics
and wars, rose and fell in almost precise correspondence with the birth
rate.

[Sidenote: H 29-30]

+_Europe and Western Europe._+ These show that the total
population of Europe is increasing faster, the more the birth rate
falls, while in Western Europe the birth and death rates correspond
almost exactly. Calculations made from this show that about 25,000,000
fewer deaths have occurred in Europe since 1876, due to the fall in
the birth rate caused by the Knowlton Trial and the Neo-Malthusian
movement. It should be noted that in the great majority of cases the
decline of the birth rate commenced in 1877, the year of the Knowlton
Trial.

[Illustration:

EUROPE.

WESTERN EUROPE. (COMPRISING THE UNITED KINGDOM, NORWAY, SWEDEN,
FINLAND, DENMARK, HOLLAND, BELGIUM, FRANCE, GERMANY, AUSTRIA,
SWITZERLAND, ITALY, SPAIN, & PORTUGAL.)

(SEE SUNDBARG'S APERÇUS STATISTIQUES INT'ONAUX 1905. pp. 76 & 80.)

Figures H 29-30]


[Sidenote: I]

Exhibits lent by Mr. and Mrs. W. C. D. Whetham.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: I 1]

1. Pedigree showing the descent of Administrative Ability.

[Sidenote: I 2]

2. Wollaston Pedigree, showing the descent of Scientific Ability.

[Sidenote: I 3]

3. Pedigree showing the Mendelian descent of Eye-colour in mankind.



[Sidenote: K]

THE RACIAL FORM OF NOSE AND ITS SEGREGATIVE INHERITANCE.

By Geo. P. Mudge.

The +form of a nose+ doubtless depends upon many factors. But
chief among them we may suppose are the length, breadth, and angle
of inclination of the nasal bones; the form, length, breadth, and
thickness of the nasal septum, and the degree of development of the
turbinal bones. The segregation and persistence in families of a
definite type of nose-form is a subject well worth further study. The
inheritance of this character from the Mendelian standpoint has not yet
been adequately studied. But as with eye-colour, so with nose-form,
we desire to know not only how alternative characters are inherited
among individuals of the same race, but how they are +transmitted
among+ the offspring of mixed races.


ENGLISH V. GIPSY.

[Sidenote: K 1]

I am able in the photograph exhibited to show what appears to be
an undoubted transmission of a very prominent form of nose from a
grandmother to a grandson. The grandmother (on the right of the
photograph, who is now over 80 years of age) was the wife of a gipsy
and she herself came of gipsy stock. She and her husband eventually
settled in a small village in the West of England. They had six
children, namely, two sons and four daughters. Of the two sons, one was
fair in complexion and had the "wild ways and habits of the gipsy." The
other was dark in complexion and married an English countrywoman of the
district in which his parents had settled. She was of fair complexion.
They are shown, as husband and wife, in the left-hand corner of the
central photograph. They have had four children, namely, three girls
(shown in the centre of the photograph) and one son (shown standing
by the right of his gipsy grandmother in the right corner of the
photograph).

The gipsy grandmother has a very prominent type of nose. It is
characterised by three chief features: First, the broad base on
which the external narial apertures are lodged; second, the marked
convexity of the contour of the bridge; third, the well-defined or
sharp angularity of the general form. Her son's nose differs from hers
in all three of these points. His wife's nose is of the more rounded
type and differs very widely from that of the gipsy grandmother (her
mother-in-law). The three girl children of these two parents clearly
do not possess a nose like that of their grandmother. The two younger
daughters appear to resemble their mother, while the oldest appears to
be an intermediate between her mother and father. So far then there is
no feature of any special interest.

But it is otherwise when we come to deal with the nose of the son
(grandson of the old gipsy woman). For it resembles hers in all three
of the marked features which give to her nose its distinctive and
prominent form. The convexity of the bridge is, perhaps, not quite so
pronounced, but then he is still young, and this is a feature likely to
become accentuated with age.

Two features of Mendelian interest are shown in this group of a
grandmother, two parents and four grandchildren. First, there is a
hereditary transmission of nose type from grandmother to grandson.
Second, there is a clean segregation of the nose type manifested by
the brother, from the contrasted nose type or types exemplified by his
three sisters. In addition, the case is interesting since it manifests
segregation of characters in the offspring of parents of different
races, _i.e._, a gipsy and a native of the West of England.

In the absence of precise information concerning the form of nose of
the gipsy grandmother's husband, and of their five other children, and
of the brothers and sisters of the grandmother, it is difficult to
formulate a scheme showing a definite Mendelian inheritance in this
case. But the two features alluded to in the preceding paragraph are
strongly suggestive of inheritance according to Mendelian principles.

We are indebted to Mrs. Rose Haig Thomas for the general facts of this
case and for the photograph of the group.


+EUROPEAN V. AMERICAN RED INDIAN.+

[Sidenote: K 2]

A few years ago I had an opportunity of meeting two friends who had
spent many years in different parts of Canada and were acquainted with
families who were derived from an ancestry partly European and partly
North American Indian. I gathered from my friends, in virtue of much
kindness and patience upon their part, some valuable facts concerning
the nature of various facial features in the offspring of the two
mixed races--European and Red Indian. I purpose here to deal with two
families and with only one character, _i.e._, the type of nose. The
Red Indian and European type of nose are easily distinguishable. In the
Red Indian the nose is prominent and its frontal profile is formed by
two lines which diverge from the bridge towards the base. The latter
is, in consequence, very broad. The form of nose is sometimes known as
the _busqué_ or curved type, since its lateral profile is in outline
markedly aquiline. But examination of a series of photographs of Red
Indians shows some variation in the lateral profile, since some are
decidedly concave. But the broadness at the base is apparently never
diminished; it is always marked and unmistakable. The well-pronounced
Indian nose can always be easily distinguished from the European nose
by persons who have had a long acquaintance with both races. But cases
do occur where even an experienced observer would feel some doubt in
expressing an opinion as to which type a given nose belonged. Such
cases are, however, not common.

[Sidenote: K 2a]

From the pedigrees of families derived from a mixed racial parentage
in my possession, I select two for exhibition at this Congress. The
first is that known as "Family 5" in my list. In this case a Scotchman
(Generation A, S) married a full-blood Indian woman. They had a son and
daughter (Generation B, 2 and 3). The half-breed son had the Indian
type of nose. The daughter had a small and well-shaped European nose.

The son married a full-blood Indian woman (Generation B, 1) and had
four children. Two of these were infants at the time my informant knew
them, and though they were described as being generally of the Indian
type, they were too young to give any reliable details concerning the
form of the nose. The two elder children (Generation C, 1 and 2) were a
daughter and a son, and both had the Indian type of nose.

The half-breed daughter (Generation B, 4) married twice. Her first
husband was a half-breed Indian (B 3). He was not seen by my informant.
They had a son and a daughter (Generation C, 5 and 6). The former
was Indian in type of nose as well as in other facial characters.
The daughter, though she had very decided Indian cheek bones, had
the European type of nose. She is of further interest, inasmuch
as while her eye-colour was European the shape of her eyes was
characteristically Indian.

The second husband of the half-breed daughter was a Welshman
(Generation B, W). By him she had seven children. The last was a baby
at the time my informant saw it, and we may leave it out of account.
The penultimate child was a son (Generation C, 12), and his nose was
sunken, and my informant found it difficult to say whether it was
European or Indian in type. I rather suspect from an inspection of some
photographs of Indians which I have seen that it resembles a very
concave flattened Indian type. Of the remaining five children, four had
an European type and one an Indian type of nose.

Assuming that my informant's observations and memory are accurate--and
I feel sure they are quite reliable since he spent many years among
the Indians and half-breeds of North America in company with other
Europeans, and he is a man of naturally sharp discernment--this family
shows clear evidence of the segregation of nose type. It is shown more
particularly in the children of the half-breed daughter who married
twice, since among her offspring (Generation C, 5-13) both types of
nose appeared. The re-appearance of the European nose was manifested,
not only when she was mated back to an European in her second marriage,
but when she married a half-breed like herself. This latter marriage,
however, did not constitute, as we might at first sight regard it, an
experimental mating in every way analogous to a Mendelian cross of DR
x DR; because although she was a half-breed her nose was not like her
brother's of the Indian type, but European.

It thus appears as though the Indian nose was dominant in one case,
and the European in the other. Too much stress must not be laid on
this point. So many half-breeds are indistinguishable from full-blood
Indians, that the possibility is to be borne in mind that this woman's
mother, who was married to the Scotchman, was not really a full-blood
Indian, and that tradition was in error. I am, however, making further
inquiries.

But Mendelian segregation is shown in this pedigree in another way. The
granddaughter (Generation C, 6), by the first husband, manifested, as
already indicated, an European type of nose and European eye-colour.
She also manifested other European characters, with which I do not
now purpose dealing. But her cheek bones were decidedly Indian and
the shape of her eyes were also Indian. Thus we have the segregation
in the same individual of the characters of two distinct races of
men. In other words, there has been segregation of racial characters
followed by their recombination in a hybrid race. That is a fact of
some importance, in what we may designate as anthropological Eugenics,
or, if we prefer it, as the Eugenics of Anthropology. For it turns our
thoughts to the possibility of calling into being a more perfect type
of men by the recombination of the better alternative qualities of two
less perfect races.

[Sidenote: K 2b]

The second pedigree exhibited is that of "Family 4" in my list. I am
indebted to another informant for the facts of this pedigree, and they
relate to another part of North America. In this case a Frenchman
(Generation A, F) married a full-blood Indian Princess, namely, a
daughter of a Chief. She had one only daughter (Generation B, 2) whose
nose was of the Indian type, but rather flat.

The daughter married an Irishman (Generation B, 1), and they had six
children. Of these three had European types of nose and three the
Indian type (Generation C, 1-6).

This family shows again an apparently clean segregation of Indian
and European types of nose. The two types appear, side by side, in
different individuals of the same fraternity.

THE SEGREGATION OF RACIAL EYE-COLOUR.

By Geo. P. Mudge.

It is a matter of importance to know the exact influence which a
mixture of races exerts upon the hereditary transmission of characters.
For instance, do the alternative characters of two races of men, when
they are related by marriage, segregate in inheritance in accordance
with Mendelian principles? Is the term "blending or fusion of races
misleading, and only accurate when employed in a qualified sense"?

It has been shown by Mr. Hurst's very careful investigations in a
Leicestershire village that certain types of human eye-colour, which
he designates as "Simplex" and "Duplex," are inherited in complete
accord with Mendelian principles of inheritance. The two types not
only segregate from each other in the course of transmission, but they
do so in practically exact Mendelian proportions. And the "Simplex"
type, which is the recessive form of eye-colour, breeds true. It begets
nothing but the Simplex eye. These results have been confirmed by
Professor and Mrs. Davenport in America. In this and similar cases we
are merely dealing with the transmission of alternative characters in
individuals of the same race.[D]

[Footnote D: Of course, the "English" race is really a community of
many commingled races. But from our present standpoint that matters
little. It is rather confirmatory of the further facts and conclusions
I am about to describe.]

But one of the interesting problems of the future is concerned with the
transmission of characters when human races of diverse characteristics
breed together. We are not concerned to discuss now whether the races
of mankind are varieties or species.

[Sidenote: K 3]

SPANIARD _v._ GIPSY.

The records of travellers provide certain information which helps
us to form reliable though limited conclusions as to the results of
the +interbreeding of different human races+. Mrs. Rose Haig
Thomas, to whom we are indebted for the exhibit of a photograph,
taken during a journey through Spain a few years ago, of a Spanish
gipsy woman with her three children, has made several observations
of some interest. She became acquainted with a family in which "the
mother was a dark-skinned, black-haired, black-eyed gipsy woman. (See
photograph, Exhibit No. K 3.) The husband was a Spaniard with blue
eyes. There were three children. Of these, the eldest had flaxen hair
and blue eyes. The second was a boy with black eyes, black hair, and an
olive skin as dark as the mother's. The third child was too young to
justify any conclusion being based on its characteristics. It was only
18 months old; but was flaxen-haired, blue-eyed, and fair skinned."
This observation of Mrs. Haig Thomas, in Granada, affords then a clear
example of the segregation of blue-eye and flaxen-hair characters among
the gametes of the black-eyed, black-haired, and olive-complexioned
mother. For, in the light of Mendelian researches, it is obvious she
was carrying these characters recessive, and that some of her gametes
were pure in respect of them.


ARAB _v._ SPANIARD.

[Sidenote: K 4]

The second photograph, exhibited by Mrs. Haig Thomas (Exhibit No. K 4),
is of three sisters who were also photographed in Granada. The eldest
is of the dark, typical "Arab type," so well recognised by Spaniards
wherever it is seen in Spain. The second sister is clearly much lighter
in hair and fairer in complexion than her sister. The nose, too, is
very distinct in both. The baby is fair. It is impossible, of course,
to trace the remote ancestry of these sisters, and Mrs. Haig Thomas
obtained no information as to their parents, but from what we know of
Spanish history the case suggests a +possible segregation of Moorish
from Gothic features+ after the intermixture of the two races,
by marriage, had occurred. But the question is extremely complex. It
is impossible to say to what extent the inhabitants of modern Spain
represent in varying degrees a commingled race of Phoenicians and
Iberians, of these with Romans and Goths, and of all with Moors,
themselves at the time of the conquest of Spain a mixed race. All that
can be said with any degree of probability is that these various races
have more or less intermingled[E] during the long history of Spain,
and that the flaxen hair and blue eyes among its inhabitants are the
heritage which the Goths have left them.

[Footnote E: I advisedly use the word intermingled and not blended.]


EUROPEAN _v._ AMERICAN RED INDIAN.

For the facts of the segregation of European and Indian eye-colour,
I am indebted to two friends who resided for many years in different
parts of Canada, and who do not desire their names published.

[Sidenote: K 5]

The first case of this kind (Pedigree Chart, No. K 5) of
+segregation of racial eye-colour+ is that of the offspring
from a marriage between a blue-eyed Scotchman and a black-eyed, full
blood American Red Indian woman.[F] They had a son and a daughter, and
the eyes of both were Indian brown. This brown differs from that of
European eyes, and can usually be distinguished by observers who know
the two races well. The half-breed son (No. 2, Generation B) married a
full blood Indian woman (No. 1), who also had Indian brown eyes, and by
her had four children. Two of them were babies at the time my informant
knew them, and we may leave them out of account. The other two, a son
and daughter (Nos. 2 and 1, Generation C), had Indian brown eyes. This
result is in accord with Mendelian expectations.

[Footnote F: This is the same family as Family 5 described in
connection with Segregation of Nose Form in exhibit K 2a.]

The half-breed Indian daughter (No. 4, Generation B) of the blue-eyed
Scotchman and Indian mother married a Welshman (No. 5, B) with hazel
eyes. They had seven children. Of these, two--a son and daughter (No.
7 and 11, Generation C)--had blue eyes. The remaining children--with
the exception of a baby, whom my informant had seldom seen--had eyes of
varying shades of brown. Two (Nos. 9 and 12, C) had European brown, one
dark Indian brown, and one Indian brown eyes (Nos. 8 and 10, C).

The re-appearance of blue eyes among two of the Scotchman's
grandchildren is a clear example of the Mendelian segregation among the
gametes of the half-breed Indian mother of the factors which produce
blue eyes. The Welsh father, with the hazel eyes, must, of course, as
we deduce from other cases, have carried the blue-eye factors recessive.

The black-eyed full blood Indian grandmother also carried various
shades of Indian brown, recessive to the Indian black which she herself
manifested, since her daughter and two granddaughters exhibited Indian
brown and dark Indian brown coloured eyes. The two European brown-eyed
grandsons were probably in eye-colour hybrids between the hazel colour
of the Welsh father and the Indian brown of the half-breed Indian
mother.

The pedigree is thus, in respect of eye-colour--and of other
characters also which are not here described--clearly Mendelian in its
manifestations. It shows that the offspring of two very different types
of human races exhibit the same mode of Mendelian inheritance as do the
descendants of two contrasted parents of the same race.

[Sidenote: K 6]

Family 4 (Pedigree Chart, No. K 6) illustrates the same kind of facts
and conclusions. In the A Generation a Frenchman, whose eye-colour
was unknown to my informant, married a full blood Indian princess who
had Indian brown eyes. There was one daughter only (Generation B) by
this marriage, and she had Indian brown eyes. She married an Irishman,
who had red hair, grey eyes, and a freckled complexion (Generation
B). From this marriage there came six children (Generation C). Two of
these had "grey eyes like their father." Three had dark brown eyes of
European tint. My informant had some doubt as to the European tint of
two of these three (Nos. 3 and 4, C Generation); their eye-colour was
very dark brown, and possibly it may have been the Indian tint. The
remaining member of this generation had Indian brown eyes of a very
dark shade.

It may be desirable to state that Families 4 and 5 come from different
parts of Canada.

The chief feature of interest in this family is the segregation of the
grey eye-colour of the Irishman among his offspring. It appears in
two daughters. From what we know of analogous cases, there is little
doubt that the gametes of his half-breed Indian wife carried the blue
or grey factors derived from her French father. The appearance of an
European brown eye-colour in Generation C, No. 6, suggests that the
French grandfather had brown eyes, and that, therefore, this colour has
segregated out among the gametes of the half-breed Indian mother.



Exhibited by Mr. E. Nettleship.

[Sidenote: L]

[Sidenote: L 1]

+Congenital Colour-blindness+. Pedigree showing unusual
features, viz.: (_a_) females affected; (_b_) twins, of whom one
is affected, the other not; (_c_) marriage between two unrelated
colour-blind stocks. Except that two females are affected the
inheritance, so far as can be traced, has followed the rule for
colour-blindness; viz., limitation to males and transmission through
unaffected females.

_Key to Signs_.

  [M]   normal male;         [F]   normal female.
  [M-]  colour-blind male;   [F-]  colour-blind female.
  [circle]  batch of whom there are no particulars.
  [OO with over bar] twins.  [Greek: ph] died in infancy.  [ob]: dead.
  [×]   seen and examined.
  [× ×] reported normal, but not seen.

[Sidenote: L 2]

+Hereditary night-blindness with myopia+ (short sight) affecting
21 males and only 1 female in a large pedigree. The night-blindness
congenital and stationary. Descent always through mothers themselves
unaffected. Mental defects in several of the night-blind stock. Other
pedigrees of this male-limited night-blindness are on record.

_Key_.

  [M-] and [F-] night-blind male and female.
  Otherwise the same as for L 1.

[Sidenote: L 3]

Pedigrees of +hereditary congenital Nystagmus+ (involuntary
rhythmical movements of the eyes) showing two different modes of
descent.

[Sidenote: L 3a]

In Figure L 3a the nystagmus occurs only in males and descends through
unaffected females.

[Sidenote: L 3b]

In Fig. L 3b both males and females are liable to the disease, and
either parent may transmit it, although descent is more often through
mother than father.

The movements of the eyes are very often accompanied by rhythmical
movements of the head in the non-sex-limited type (Fig. L 3b), but head
movements very seldom occur in the male-limited type (Fig. L 3a).

In both types many of those affected have also optical defects of the
eyes, especially astigmatism. No mental or nerve complications in
either kind.

_Key_.

  [M-] and [F-] male and female with Nystagmus.
  Otherwise as for L 1.

[Sidenote: L 4]

Pedigree of +hereditary Cataract+. The cataract in this
genealogy begins in childhood, and usually progresses so as to require
operation by the time its subject is grown up; results of operation
usually good and lasting. Most of the affected members still living; of
the four dead, none died before 54, and two of them lived to 78 and 83
respectively. Both sexes affected and either sex may transmit. No other
eye disease and no prevalent constitutional diseases or degeneracies in
the cataractous stock.

Many similar pedigrees are known.

_Key_.

  [M-] and [F-] male and female with cataract.
  Otherwise as for L 1.



[Sidenote: M]

Exhibited by Professor R. C. Punnett, F.R.S.

Mendelian Inheritance in Rabbits.

[Sidenote: M 1.]

                          Yellow      Himalayan
                           Dutch   ×   (Black)
                                   |
                             F_{1} Agouti
                        (reversion to wild colour).
                                   |
  F                                |
             ______________________|__________________________
             |         |         |            |               |
           Agouti    Black     Yellow     Tortoise       Himalayan
  +Ratio.+  27         9         9            3              16

Factors concerned:--

+A+. the factor for agouti which turns a black into an agouti,
or a tortoise into a yellow.

+E+. the factor for extension of pigment which when present
turns a yellow into an agouti, or a tortoise into a black.

+S+. the factor for self colour which turns a Himalayan into a
self coloured animal.

All the rabbits in this experiment contain the factor for black (B).

[Sidenote: M 2.]

The Himalayan pattern can occur in all four colour classes. Thus the
agouti Himalayan has lighter points than the black Himalayan. (cf. 2
specimens shown.)

Experiments to demonstrate that +black rabbits may be of different
constitution genetically+.

Factors concerned in these experiments are:--

+A+. the agouti factor.

+E+. the factor for extension of pigment.

+D+. a factor for density of pigmentation.

All the rabbits are homozygous for the black factor +B+.

Homozygous agouti = +AA BB EE+.

Black rabbits may be either:--

(1) Rabbits of the constitution +aa BB EE+. These breed true and
behave as simple recessive to agouti.

(2) Rabbits of the constitution +AA BB EE DD+., _i.e._,
agoutis to which a double dose of D has been added are pure blacks in
appearance, when only a single dose of D is added the animal shows some
agouti markings and is an agouti-black. Such rabbits have always proved
to be heterozygous, and when mated together give blacks, agouti-blacks,
and agoutis in the ratio 7:6:3.

(3) Rabbits of the constitution +AA BB Ee Dd+. An agouti-black
(AA BB EE Dd) becomes a pure black when heterozygous for E. Such blacks
when mated with blacks of constitution +aa BB EE dd+ throw some
agoutis and also some agouti-blacks.

Further, the experiments have shewn that the factor +D+ is coupled with
+E+ in the gametogenesis of rabbits of the constitution +AA BB Ee Dd+.
The gametes produced by such animals are of two kinds only viz--+A B
E D+ and +A B e d+. When mated with a tortoise aa BB ee dd they give
blacks and yellows only--+and no agoutis+. So far as is known, the
coupling between E and D is complete. At present this is the only case
of coupling between characters yet worked out in a mammal.

[Sidenote: M 3]

Experiments with +Poultry+, illustrating the +recombination
of characters+.

                        Brown
                        Leghorn [F-]   ×  Silky [M-]
                                      |
  (_a_) Coloured (chiefly brown)      |   (_a_) White plumage (with or
  plumage                             |   without slight buff tinge)
                                      |
  (_b_) Normal feathers               |   (_b_) Silky feathers
                                      |
             _________________________|__________________________
            |                                                    |
           F_1 [F-] (_a_) Coloured            F_1 [M-]
                                 (_b_) Normal feathers
            --------________                     ________---------
                            --------- × ---------
                                      |
                                      |
                                      |
                                F_2 Generation
           ________________________________________________________
          |                  |                  |                  |
   /------+------\    /------+------\    /------+------\    /------+------\

   Coloured plumage   Coloured plumage   White plumage      White plumage
   Normal feathers    Silky feathers     Normal feathers    Silky feathers

[Sidenote: M 4]

Experiment with +Sweet Peas, illustrating reversion on crossing,
followed by the appearance of numerous types in next generation+.

                          White  ×  White
                                 |
                             F_1 Purple
                                 |
           +---------------------+-------------------+
           |                     |                   |
  F_2 3 types of purple  3 corresponding figures  Whites
  viz.:--                of reds, viz.:--

  (_a_) Purple            (_a_) Painted Lady

  (_b_) Deep Purple       (_b_) Miss Hunt

  (_c_) Picotee           (_c_) Tinged White

The varied forms in the F_2 generation appear in definite proportions
and a certain number of plants of each variety are already "fixed," and
have been shewn, by further experiment, to breed true to type.

[Sidenote: M 5]

Experiment with Sweet Peas, illustrating reversion in structural
characters.

A cross between the ordinary "Cupid" dwarfs and the half-dwarf "Bush"
form results in a complete reversion to the normal tall habit such as
occurs in the wild sweet pea. A further generation raised from these
reversionary talls consists of talls, Bush, Cupids, and a new form, the
"Bush-Cupid." These last combine the erect bush-like habit of growth
with the dwarfness of the Cupid.

                  Bush  ×  Cupid
                        |
                     F_1 Tall
                        |
        +----------+----+----+------------+
        |          |         |            |
    F_2 Tall     Bush      Cupid      Bush-Cupid

  In the
  ratio  9        3          3            1

[Sidenote: M 6a]

Example of +association of characters in heredity+.

In the sweet pea the dark reddish purple axil is dominant to the light
green one. Also the fertile condition of the anthers is dominant to
the contabescent sterile condition. In families which involve these
characters, the nature of the F_2 generation depends upon the way in
which the original cross was made. (A) When each parent has one of the
dominant characters.

                    Dark axil}      {Light axil
                      Sterile}  ×   {Fertile
                                |
                            F_{1} Dark axil
                              Fertile
                                |
               +------------+---+---------+----------------+
               |            |             |                |
       F_{2} Dark axil   Dark axil      Light axil     {[*]Light axil}
             Fertile      Sterile         Fertile      {  Sterile    }

  Approximate   2             1              1
  ratio

  * Not yet found, but probably occurs very rarely.]

[Sidenote: M 6b]

(B) If, however, both of the dominant characters go in with one parent,
and neither with the other parent, they tend to remain associated in
F_{2}; thus:--

                             Light}    {Dark
                           Sterile} ×  {Fertile
                                    |
                           F_{1} Dark Fertile
                                      |
                     +-----------+----------+-----------+
                     |           |          |           |
                  F_{2} Dark    Dark       Light      Light
                    Fertile    Sterile    Fertile    Sterile
  +Ratio.+      737       31         31         225

In such a cross the classes resembling the two original parents tend to
be produced in excess, while the other two combinations are produced
much more rarely. Nevertheless, the ratio of dark to light axil, and of
fertile to sterile anthers, is, in each case, a simple 3:1 ratio.


[Sidenote: M 7a]

Example of association of +characters in heredity+.

Purple flower colour is dominant to red in the sweet pea, and the
old-fashioned erect form of standard with the central notch is dominant
to the hooded. In families where these characters are involved, the
nature of the F_{2} generation depends upon the manner in which the
cross was made.

(A) When one dominant character goes in with each parent.

                        Purple}   {Red
                          hood} × {erect
                                |
                           Purple erect
                    +--------+-------+-------+
                    |        |       |       |
                 Purple    Purple   Red    [*]Red
                  erect     hood   erect    hood
  Approximate
  ratio             2          1     1

  * Not yet found in this mating, but probably occurs very rarely.

[Sidenote: M 7b]

(B) When the two dominants enter, from one parent, they tend to remain
associated in the F_{2} generation.

                          Purple}   {Red
                           erect} × {hood
                                  |
                    +--------+----+------+--------+
                    |        |           |        |
                  Purple    Purple      Red      Red
                   erect     hood       erect    hood
  Approximate               \-------+--------/
  ratio             3               |              1
                           These two classes are
                           only found very rarely
                         _i.e._, about once in
                            each 300 plants of the
                            F_{2} generation.



[Sidenote: N & N 1]

Exhibited by the Utah Agricultural College.

       *       *       *       *       *

Mr. E. G. Titus.

       *       *       *       *       *

The chart is 147 feet long, 54 inches wide, exclusive of the important
data condensed on a separate 8-foot sheet. This is only a preliminary
chart, as may be seen from the condensed data attached, which shows
that of the 822 persons represented on the chart 539 are of mature
age. The unknown persons represent 303, unknown ability; 336, unknown
height; 339, unknown weight; 348, unknown health. The family is
remarkable for the health of its members, having so far only 97 deaths.
The oldest child, Generation II-1, was born in 1827. There are, of
course, a large number of persons on the chart who are rather young.
Where a person has more than one ability well marked, such as music and
literary ability, or music and business ability, or constructive and
business ability, the chart shows only one ability. There are several
cases where persons have three well marked abilities. In all cases, the
following is the rank on the chart:--

Literary ability is always charted. Following this, music and then art,
and then constructive. Constructive ability represents those persons
who have a decided mathematical and mechanical turn of mind, who are
builders, contractors, carpenters of advanced standing, architects
and men of these classes. Under "Various" abilities are classified
business, agricultural and domestic abilities. These are not marked on
the chart.

It will be noticed under "Diseases" that a majority of the persons
who have died were infants, and even among infants the deaths are
remarkable for their small number considering the conditions under
which the people of the third generation of this family had to live.
The paternal ancestor, Generation I., came to America in 1842, dying
two years later, and his children came to Utah among the early
settlers, 1847-52. Many of the third generation were born in this State
under conditions that are not by any means comparable to those existing
in communities that have been settled for many years. The opportunity
to care for children was very limited. Physicians were not as easily
reached, and the methods and appliances of modern times were not at
hand. Yet, even under these circumstances, it will be noticed of the
822 persons listed on the chart, that only 68 deaths were those of
persons under 25 years.


                                         GENERATIONS
                        I  IC  II  IIC  III  IIIC  IV   IVC   V  TOTALS
  PERSONS CHARTED       1   1   7   18  125   82   384   68  136  822
    " OF MATURE AGE     1   1   6   18  118   82   237   68    8  539
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
  ABILITY--LITERARY     1       5   5   30     6    31    2    1   81
      MUSICAL               1   1   9   14    27     1    4        57
      ARTISTIC              1       4    2     7     1             15
      CONSTRUCTIVE      1       2   2   16     3    15    3    2   44
      VARIOUS               1   2   3   36    10     9             61
    TOTALS              2   1  11  11   95    35    89    7    7  258
  NO SPECIAL ABILITY                3     8    1     2             14
  ABILITY UNKNOWN                   4    26   65   146   61    1  303
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
  HEIGHT 5 FT. OR LESS                         1     2              3
      5-1 TO 5-2                1   3     2    1     2              9
      5-3 TO 5-4            1   2   3     8   10    16             40
      5-5 TO 5-6                    2    14    9    12    2        39
      5-7 TO 5-8                2   2    19    4    14    1        42
      5-9 TO 5-10       1       1   1     9    2    10         1   25
      5-11 TO 6-0                   2    16    3    11    3        35
      6-1 TO 6-2                          3    1     4    1         9
      6-3 TO 6-4                          1                         1
    TOTALS              1  1    6  13    72   31    71    7    1  203
    UNKNOWN                         5    46   51   166   61    7  336
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
  WEIGHT 100 LBS. OR LESS           2     1    2     2         1    8
      101 TO 120                    1    10   10    11         1   33
      121 TO 150           1    1   6    28   10    27    4    1   78
      151 TO 170        1       3   4    23    5    11    6        47
      171 TO 200                2   4     7    3     5    6        27
      201 TO 220                          3    1                    4
      221 TO 250                          1          2              3
    TOTALS              1  1    6  17    73   31    58   10    3  200
    UNKNOWN                         1    45   51   179   58    5  339

                                      GENERATIONS
                        I  IC  II  IIC  III  IIIC  IV   IVC   V  TOTALS
  HEALTH--EXCELLENT     1  1    6   3    34    15   131    6  44  241
      GOOD                          7    42    16    54    4  18  141
      FAIR                          3     3     4     8            18
      DELICATE                      1     2           4             7
      POOR                          1     7     2    11            21
    TOTALS              1  1    6  15    88    37   208   10  62  428
    UNKNOWN                         3    24    45   147   58  71  348
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
  DIED UNDER ONE YEAR                     8          16        2   26
      1 TO 5 YEARS              1         5          13        1   20
      6 TO 25 YEARS                      11          11            22
      26 TO 40 YEARS                      3                         3
      41 TO 70 YEARS       1        2     5     2                  10
      PAST 70 YEARS             1   3                               4
    AGE UNKNOWN            1    2   5     2     1     1            12
    TOTALS              1  1    2   7    37     4    41    1   3   97
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
  CAUSE OF DEATH
      PREMATURE BIRTH                     1           5             6
      INFANTILE COMPLAINTS      1        11          13        3   28
      DIPHTHERIA                          3           5             8
      SCARLET FEVER                                   2             2
      MEASLES                             1                         1
      TYPHOID FEVER                       2           2             4
      PNEUMONIA                     1     6     1     1             9
      CONSUMPTION                         2                         2
      OPERATIONS                          1                         1
      CHILD BIRTH                         1           1             2

      VARIOUS              1    1   6     6           9            23
      UNKNOWN           1                 3     3     3    1       11
    TOTALS              1  1    2   7    37     4    41    1   3   97


[Sidenote: O]

Exhibited by the Eugenics Education Society.

O 1 Mendelism.


[Sidenote: O 1a]

Theoretical Example of Mendelian Inheritance in Peas. (After _Thomson_.)

[Sidenote: O 1b]

Theoretical Example of Mendelian Inheritance in Peas. (After _Laurie_.)

[Sidenote: O 1c]

Theoretical Example of Mendelian Inheritance, with Dominance, in Mice.
(After _Laurie_.)

[Sidenote: O 1d]

Illustration of the Theory of Gametic Purity in Mendelian Heredity in
Mice. (After _Laurie_.)

[Sidenote: O 1e]

Example of Mendelian Inheritance, without Dominance, in Blue Andalusian
Fowls. (After _Laurie_.)

[Sidenote: O 1f]

Illustration of the Theory of Gametic Purity in Mendelian Heredity, in
Blue Andalusian Fowls. (After _Laurie_.)

[Sidenote: O 2]

Standard Scheme of Descent. (After _Galton_.)

[Sidenote: O 3]

Comparison of Mr. Booth's Classification of All London with the Normal
Classes. (After _Galton_.)

[Sidenote: O 4]

Descent of Qualities in a Population. (After _Galton_.)

[Sidenote: O 5]

Inheritance of Ability, as exemplified in the Darwin, Galton, and
Wedgwood Families. (After _Whetham_ and _Marshall_.)



[Sidenote: P]

Exhibited by the American Breeders' Association--Eugenics Section.

C. B. Davenport, Esq.

[Sidenote: P 1-16]

Charts of Statistics of Defectives.

Charts of Classification of Defectives.

Charts of Principles of Heredity.

Pedigrees collected by field-workers in America.



[Sidenote: Q]

Exhibited by Cyril Burt, Esq.

Description of Diagrams illustrating the use of experimental Tests of
Mental Capacities.

1. "Experimental Tests of General Intelligence."

[Sidenote: Q 1]

A List of twelve tests applied to two schools at Oxford. The first
two columns of figures indicate the "reliability" or self-consistency
of the tests as compared with that of examinations and master's
general impression. The second two columns give the correlations of
the results of the tests with the children's "general intelligence."
It will be seen that several of the tests of higher mental processes
are as reliable as the scholastic tests at present in vogue, and that
they correlate quite as highly with intelligence. Further experiments
show that while examinations and master's estimates measure knowledge
and skill acquired by memory and training, the tests seems to provide
measurements rather of innate capacities; and that children of
superior parentage (_e.g._ the preparatory school boys) are themselves
superior at tests, which show an appreciable positive correlation
with intelligence (_i.e_. all except tests of touch and weight). The
tests thus provide an experimental demonstration of the inheritance of
mental ability and a means of measuring the same. (References:--Burt,
Experimental Tests of General Intelligence, British Journal of
Psychology, Vol. III., Pts. 1 and 2.) Burt, Inheritance of Mental
Characteristics, Eugenics Review, 1912, July.

[Sidenote: Q 2]

2. Sex-differences in mental tests.

A list of experimental tests applied to children of both sexes with
a view to measuring their innate capacities for performing mental
processes of different levels of complexity. The amount of divergence
between the sexes, is indicated by the column in red. It will be seen
that the sex-differences become smaller, the higher the level tested.
There is some evidence to show that these differences are the result
of inheritance and are not the result of difference of tradition or
environment. (References: Burt and Moore, the Mental Differences
between the sexes. Journal of Experimental Pedagogy, 1912, June. Burt,
Inheritance of Mental Characteristics, Eugenics Review, 1912, July.)



[Sidenote: R]

Exhibit by Dr. George Papillault.

Four sets of questions drawn up by Dr. George Papillault, Professor of
Sociology in the Paris School of Anthropology, with a view to noting
and comparing the +bio-social characteristics+ of individuals
belonging to different groups of population.

[Sidenote: R 1]

Set of questions +adopted by the Commission of Criminology+
instituted and presided over by Mr. ---- Keeper of the Seals;
Vice-presidents, Messrs. Léon Bourgeois, senator, and Dr. Dron,
Vice-president of the Chamber of Deputies and Reporter to the
Commission; Scientific Secretary, Dr. G. Papillault.

This set of questions comprises:

1st. An individual criminological chart for the purpose of showing 271
biological and social characteristics of the prisoners.

2nd. Family Charts for each of the ancestors, descendants or collateral
relatives of the prisoner and more particularly intended to note
hereditary characteristics.

These Charts have been issued with a view to a methodical enquiry on
the criminal, under the direction of the Scientific and Criminological
Department.

[Sidenote: R 2]

Set of questions of the French Lay Mission, designed to note the
characteristics of the young natives and of their relatives in the
French Colonies. The teachers will have to return them filled up with
the greatest care to the Lay Mission, where Dr. Papillault, before
their departure, delivered a series of lectures to teach them how to
proceed.

[Sidenote: R 3]

Questions on the half-breeds, adopted by the Paris Society of
Anthropology, and designed to show the bio-social characteristics of
the half-breeds proceeding from cross-breeding between different races.

[Sidenote: R 4]

Questions asked by the General Psychological Institute for the purpose
of undertaking a vast enquiry on the value taxonomic, organic,
bio-social, and selective of the different human races which actually
exist in the French Colonies, and particularly in North Africa.

A like spirit and method governs these four sets of questions; to
discard the verbalism which obstructs and imperils Sociology; to study
characteristics precise, objective, easily controllable and comparable,
and likely consequently to form statistics, which alone, are capable
of revealing characteristics of groups; to establish the correlations
which these characteristics may present among themselves, and to arrive
at last at the discovery of positive sociological laws.



[Sidenote: S]

Exhibited by Frederick Adams Woods, M.D.

Thirteen photographic copies of authentic portraits of distinguished
historical personages of the sixteenth century, showing that the bony
framework of the face, especially about the nose and eyes, was not
commonly the same as it is to-day.

These are samples of a much larger collection.

[Sidenote: S 1]

Charles VII., XV Century, eye-brows very high above the eyes.

[Sidenote: S 2]

Mary of Lorraine, Queen of James of Scotland (National Portrait
Gallery). Eyes far apart, and eye-brows high.

[Sidenote: S 3]

Francis I. of France, French School, XVI. Century. (Louvre.) Eyes
small, upper eye-lids peculiar, and typical of the period.

[Sidenote: S 4]

Louse de Rieux; Marquise d'Elboef, XVI. Century. (Louvre.) Naso-orbital
region typical, eyes small far apart, upper part of the nose broad and
flat, upper eye-lids long (vertical distance between eye and eye brow
considerable.)

[Sidenote: S 5]

Dr. Stokesley, Bishop of London (Holbein.) Eyes far apart upper part of
nose broad.

[Sidenote: S 6]

Jane Seymour (Holbein). Eyes far apart, upper eye lids characteristic.

[Sidenote: S 7]

Jean de Bourbon, Comte d'Enghien. XVI Century. Eyes far apart, upper
eye-lids vertically prominent.

[Sidenote: S 8]

Portrait of a young German gentleman.

The eye-lids are modern, that is the eyes are set in deeply under the
arch, but the eyes themselves are far apart, and the upper part of the
nose is broad.

[Sidenote: S 9]

Mary Queen of England. (National Portrait Gallery).

It would seem that allowance might be made for the crudity of the
portrait, but the naso-orbital region is typical of the northern races
during the XVI century.

[Sidenote: S 10]

Holbein's Duke of Norfolk. In the Royal Gallery at Windsor Castle.

Eyes are more deep-set under the superorbital arch than is usual in
portraits of the period, but the upper part of the nose is broad, and
eyes are far apart.

[Sidenote: S 11]

Henry VIII., attributed to Holbein but on doubtful authority.

Broad flat nose, small eyes set far apart, eye-brows arching upward
and outward. Observe the upper eye-lids in contrast to the Italian by
Lorenzo Lotto, which shows the usual modern type of eye-lid.

[Sidenote: S 12]

Portrait of the Prothonotary Apostolic Juliano. (Lorenzo Lotto.)

Modern type of face. Eyes deep set in under the superorbital arch and
eye-brow. Upper part of the nose delicate and projecting. This type of
face is occasionally, but only rarely met with north of the Alps during
the early period. It is common enough in portraits of Italians.

[Sidenote: S 13]

Portrait of a German scholar, by Holbein. Modern type, very rarely
found.



                  First

       International Eugenics Congress,

              LONDON, 1912.

                =========

                PROGRAMME.

  ===============================================


                 Contents.

                                             Page

  Accommodation                                 5

  Application Forms                        23, 25

  Arrival                                       7

  Badges                                        8

  Banquet                                       5

  Business Meetings                         9, 14

  Consultative Committees                       3

  Correspondence                                4

  Daily Time-Table                           9-18

  Delegates                                11, 21

  Entertainments             7, 9, 11, 13, 14, 16

  Exhibition                                   19

  General Arrangements                          1

  Hospitality Bureau                        7, 11

  Languages                                     4

  Lunches and Refreshments                 10, 27

  Meetings                                  10-18

  Membership                                    5

  Offices of Congress                           1

  Officers                                  11-20

  Place of Meeting                              1

  Railway Arrangements                    5, 6, 7

  Receptions                        9, 11, 13, 16

  Rules of Procedure                            8

  Stewards                                      5

  Vice-Presidents                               2

  ===============================================

  _All Communications should be addressed to the Secretaries._

                --------><--------

  Offices of the Congress: "The Eugenics Education Society,"
  6, York Buildings, Adelphi, London.

  (=Office Hours, 10-30 a.m. to 5 p.m.=)


PRESIDENT *MAJOR LEONARD DARWIN, D.Sc.


Vice-Presidents.

Sir Clifford Allbutt, K.C.B., F.R.S., M.D., Regius Professor of Physic,
Cambridge.

The Right Hon. Lord Alverstone, G.C.M.G., LL.D., Lord Chief Justice.

The Right Hon. Lord Avebury, F.R.S.

Sir Thomas Barlow, Bart., K.C.V.O., F.R.S., President of the Royal
College of Physicians.

Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, Founder of the Volta Bureau, Washington.

Sir William Church, K.C.B., D.Sc., lately President of the Royal
College of Physicians.

The Right Hon. Winston Churchill, M.P., First Lord of the Admiralty.

Sir William Collins, F.R.C.S., Vice-Chancellor of the University of
London.

Dr. C. B. Davenport, Secretary of the American Breeders' Association.

Dr. J. Déjérine, Clinical Professor of Nervous Diseases, Salpêtrière.

Dr. Charles W. Eliot, President Emeritus of Harvard University.

Dr. Auguste Forel, Lately Professor of Psychiatry, University of Zurich.

Sir Archibald Geikie, President of the Royal Society.

Sir Rickman J. Godlee, F.R.C.S., President of the Royal College of
Surgeons.

Professor M. von Gruber, Professor of Hygiene, Munich, President of the
German Society for Race Hygiene.

Dr. David Starr Jordan, Principal, Leland Stanford University.
President of the Eugenic Section, American Breeders' Association.

Monsieur L. March, Director, Statistique Générale de la France.

The Right Hon. Reginald McKenna, M.P., Secretary of State for Home
Affairs.

The Right Hon. The Lord Mayor of London.

Dr. Magnan, l'Asile Sainte-Anne, Paris.

Dr. L. Manouvrier, Professor of Anthropology, Paris.

Dr. A. Marie, Asiles de la Seine.

Sir Henry Alexander Miers, D.Sc., F.R.S., Principal of the University
of London.

Professor Alfredo Niceforo, Professor of Statistics, Naples.

Sir William Osler, M.D., F.R.S., Regius Professor of Medicine, Oxford.

The Right Rev. The Lord Bishop of Oxford, D.D.

Dr. E. Perrier, Director, Natural History Museum, Paris.

Gifford Pinchot, Washington.

Dr. Alfred Ploëtz, President of the International Society for Race
Hygiene, Germany.

Sir William Ramsay, F.R.S., Professor of Chemistry, University of
London.

The Right Rev. The Lord Bishop of Ripon, D.D.

Professor G. J. Sergi, Professor of Anthropology, Rome.

Dr. E. E. Southard, Neuro-Pathologist, Harvard University, and Director
of the State Psychopathological Hospital.

The Right Hon. Sir T. Vezey Strong, K.C.V.O.

Bleecker van Wagenen, of the Board of Trustees, Vineland Training
School, New Jersey, U.S.A.

Professor August Weismann, Professor of Zoology, Freiburg.


Honorary Members.

Monsieur Henri Jaspar, Avocat à la Cour D'Appel, Président de la
Société Protectrice de l'Enfance Anormale; Secrétaire de la Commission
Royale des Patronages, Brussels.

Monsieur Adolph Prins, Inspecteur Générale des Prisons, Brussels.

Professor Ludwig Schemann, President of the Gobineau-Vereinigung,
Germany.

His Excellency the General von Bardeleben, President of the _Verein
Herold_, Berlin.


AMERICAN CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE.

=President=--Dr. David Starr Jordan.


Committee.

Dr. C. B. Davenport, Alexander Graham Bell, Professors W. E. Castle,
Charles R. Henderson, Adolph Meyer, A. Hrdlicka, Vernon L. Kellogg, J.
Webber, W. L. Tower, Dr. Frederick Adams Woods.

=Secretary and Treasurer=--Dr. C. B. Davenport, Eugenics Record Office,
Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *

BELGIAN CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE.

=Secretary=--Dr. Louis Querton, Boulevard de Grande Ceinture, 77,
Brussels.


Committee.

MM. Dr. Boulenger, Dr. Bordet, Dr. Caty, Dr. Decroly, Dr. Gengou, Dr.
Herman, Dr. L. MM. Gaspart, Gheude, Jacquart, Marc de Sélys Longchamps,
Nyns, E. Waxweiler, Professor Marchal.

       *       *       *       *       *

FRENCH CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE.

Hon. Presidents.

MM. Bouchard, Henry Chéron, Yves Delage, Paul Doumer, A. de Foville,
Landouzy, Paul Strauss.

=President=--M. Edward Perrier.


Committee.

M. M. Déjérine, Gide, March, Magnan, Manouvrier, Marie, Pinard, Variot.
=Secretary and Treasurer=--M. Huber, Statistique Générale de la France,
Paris, 97, Quai D'Orsay.

       *       *       *       *       *

GERMAN CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE.

=President=--Dr. Alfred Ploëtz, Gundelinden Str., 5, Munchen.


Committee.

The Committee of the International Society for Race Hygiene.

       *       *       *       *       *

ITALIAN CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE.

=President=--Professor Alfredo Niceforo, 54, Via Ara Coeli, Rome.


Committee.

Professors Corrado Gini, Achille Loria, Roberto Michels, Enrico
Morselli, Sante de Sanctis, Giuseppe Sergi, V. Ginffrida-Ruggeri.



First International Eugenics Congress

LONDON.

Wednesday, July 24th, to Tuesday, July 30th, 1912.



=General Arrangements for the Meeting.=

An invitation circular has been widely circulated to all members of
Eugenic and Heredity Societies in Europe and America, and to many
other persons likely to be interested in the approaching Congress.
Through that circular the objects and general plan of the Congress have
been made widely known. Copies may still be had on application to the
Secretary.

The following arrangements have now been definitely made.

=Place of Meeting.= The Meetings of the Congress will be held in the
Great Hall of the University of London, Imperial Institute Road, South
Kensington, London, S.W., which is easily reached from South Kensington
Station on the Underground Railway, and by omnibus from all parts of
London. (In wet weather those travelling by rail can avail themselves
of the subway).

=Headquarters of the Congress.= Until Tuesday, July 23rd, the
headquarters and offices of the Congress will remain at 6, York
Buildings, Adelphi, W.C. (close to Charing Cross Station), where all
information will be supplied and tickets issued. Office hours 10-30
a.m. to 5 p.m. On and after Wednesday, July 24th, the headquarters
will be transferred to the University of London, South Kensington. If
arrangements for hotels or for lodgings have not been made previously,
members arriving on and after July 24th are recommended to leave their
luggage in the "Cloak Room" at the railway station and come to the
office of the Congress, at London University, South Kensington, for
information.

=Correspondence.= From July 24th to 30th, Members and Associates of
the Congress may have their letters addressed to them at the First
International Eugenics Congress, c/o The University of London, South
Kensington, S.W., where special postal facilities will be provided. All
invitations to Receptions, etc., will be distributed in this way.

=Languages.= It has been decided that in the Meetings and Discussions
the English, French, German, and Italian languages shall be on an
equal footing. At the same time it is right to point out that in all
Congresses the number of Members speaking and understanding only the
language of the country in which they are held has been far in excess
of those conversant with several languages; therefore those who speak
in English on the present occasion will be most widely understood. The
abstract of every paper which is received in time by the Secretary will
be translated into English, French, and German. Pamphlets containing
the abstracts in these languages will be available on July 24th at the
University Buildings. Members wishing for advance copies should notify
the fact to the Secretaries, and state clearly in what language they
are required, and to what address they should be sent.

=Stewards.= A number of Stewards acting as interpreters will be in
attendance; the languages spoken being indicated by rosettes of the
following colours:--Red, French; Blue, German; Green, Italian.

=Hotels, etc.= The Organising Committee is prepared to book rooms in
advance for intending Members. Lists of hotels and the accommodation
vouchers have been sent out to all Members with their membership
cards. Any Member wishing to pay his membership fee on arrival can on
application obtain an accommodation voucher in advance.

=To make certain of securing the accommodation desired, it is essential
that accommodation vouchers duly filled in should reach the office not
later than July 10th.=

=Tickets of Membership.= In order to take advantage of the reduced
fares offered by the railway companies (see below), the official
Congress ticket must be produced when paying the fare. The subscription
entitling to membership of the Congress is £1 sterling; for an
Associate it is 10/-. Members may obtain additional tickets for
ladies at the cost of 10/- each. These additional ladies' tickets are
transferable to ladies. Associates are entitled to all the privileges
of Members, except that they have no vote in the meetings and will
not receive a copy of the Report when published. The tickets of all
Members and Associates who pay in advance will be forwarded to their
addresses before the commencement of the Congress. A limited number
of Day Membership Cards at 5/- each will be obtainable from the
Secretary's Office in the Marble Hall during the Congress. These cards
admit to both the morning and afternoon sessions, but do not carry the
privileges of voting and hospitality.

=Inaugural Banquet.= An Inaugural Banquet will be held at the Hotel
Cecil on Wednesday, July 24th, at 7 p.m., at which all the officials
of the Congress and readers of papers will be the guests of the
Entertainments Committee. Members of the Congress can obtain tickets at
7/6 each, from the Hon. Secretary, Entertainments Committee, 30, York
Terrace, Harley Street, London, W. Speeches of welcome will be made by
the President, the Lord Mayor of London, the Rt. Hon. A. J. Balfour,
and others. The Banquet will be followed by a Reception to which all
Members and Associates of the Congress will be invited.

=Railway Arrangements.= Important concessions have been made by a
number of Railway Companies to Members and Associates of the Congress.
On the railways of Russia, Austria-Hungary, Germany, Switzerland and
Holland, no reductions will be allowed; but by taking tickets to a
station in Belgium or France, near the frontier, reductions may be
secured by groups of not less than 20 visitors travelling together
from those countries for the rest of their journey. =In all cases
it is necessary to produce the Congress Membership Ticket before
receiving railway tickets at reduced rates; and arrangements MUST be
made in advance, 14 days' notice being required. Persons desiring
to take advantage of these concessions must therefore forward their
subscriptions at once; and immediately on receipt of their membership
ticket should communicate with the Secretary of their country= (see
page 3). In the following list the countries most distant from London
are mentioned first:--

=Italy.= The P.L.M. Company will grant a reduction of 50% to Members
coming from Italy via Modane.

At the time of issuing this notice definite information regarding
reduced rates on the Italian State Railways is not to hand.

=Germany.= Members from Germany desiring to obtain reduced rates are
requested to communicate, through their Secretary, with the General
Agent of the South Eastern and Chatham Railway Office in Cologne (6
Domhof). Provided at least 20 Members travel together on the journey
to London, arrangements can be made for reduced fares at 50% reduction
from the Belgian or from the Dutch Frontier to London and back. At
least 14 days' notice must be given to secure these facilities.

=Belgium.= If at least 20 members travel together, a reduction of about
50% is granted. Members are requested to communicate, through the
Secretary of their country, with the General Agent of the South Eastern
and Chatham Railway in Brussels (19, rue de la Regence).

=France.= On presentation of their Congress Cards, members attending
the Congress will be able to obtain at Paris (Gare du Nord) special 15
day return tickets to London via Calais-Dover or Boulogne-Folkestone at
the following fares:--

  1st Class.--72f. 85c.    2nd Class.--46f. 85c.    3rd Class.--37f. 50c.
  available from July 22nd.

These tickets are available by the following trains:--

  Paris (Nord)           dep.     8-25 a.m.      3-05 p.m.     9-20 p.m.
  London (Charing Cross) arr.     3-25 p.m.     10-45 p.m.     5-43 a.m.
                                     (B)           (B)          (C)

                         (B) via Boulogne-Folkestone.
                         (C) via Calais-Dover.

Special arrangements can be made for reserved accommodation to be
provided for groups. The above-mentioned tickets can also be obtained
at the Paris Office of the South Eastern and Chatham Railway (14 Rue du
4 Septembre), but the Congress vouchers must be presented at the time
in either case.

_Another Route_--From Paris (St. Lazare) special 15 day return tickets
to London via Dieppe-Newhaven at the following fares:--

  1st Class.--47f. 20c.           2nd Class.--36f. 40c.

  These tickets are available for the following trains:--
  Paris (St. Lazare)     dep.     10-20 a.m.     9-00 p.m.
  London (Victoria)      arr.      7-40 p.m.     7-50 a.m.

=Great Britain.= All the British Railways have very kindly granted
exceptional facilities to members of the Congress. Return tickets for
the price of a single fare and a third, lasting from July 23rd to 30th,
will be issued from all stations in the United Kingdom on presentation
of the Congress voucher at the Booking Office.

       *       *       *       *       *

  Members wishing to return to their homes outside London daily, must
  apply for separate vouchers for each day if the distance is more than
  50 miles. If however the member resides within that distance, the
  usual sleeping-out arrangements will apply, _i.e._, that tickets at
  a single fare and a third for the double journey may be issued (upon
  production of cards of membership or letters of invitation), from the
  town where the Conference is being held to places where the delegates
  reside. The minimum fare will be 1/-.

=Stations Of Arrival.= Passengers travelling from the Continent by the
South Eastern and Chatham Railway, arrive at Victoria or Charing Cross
Stations according to the train service selected. Passengers by the
Great Eastern Railway arrive at Liverpool Street Station; and those
by the London, Brighton, and South Coast Railway arrive at Victoria
Station.

=Hospitality Bureau.= During the meeting of the Congress there will be
many entertainments in the form of receptions, dinners, afternoon and
evening parties, for which there will be invitations to Members and
Associates of the Congress. In most cases the number to be entertained
is limited, and it is desirable that the Secretaries should have as
complete a list of members as possible to submit to the hosts.

All =Officials of the Congress=, and =Readers of Papers=,
and =Delegates=, will shortly receive invitations to the various
entertainments mentioned in the programme.

_Members should apply at the Hospitality Bureau in the Marble Hall on
arrival_, as the number that can attend each function is limited, and
cards will be issued to members in order of application.

A limited number of Tickets for the Zoological Gardens, tickets to hear
debates in the House of Commons, and invitations to tea on the Terrace
of the House of Commons, etc., will also be available.

The German Athenæum Club has very kindly signified its willingness to
accord the privilege of Hon. Membership of the Club to German Readers
of Papers and Members of the German Consultative Committee, and to a
limited number of German Members of the Congress.



RULES OF PROCEDURE.


The Organising Committee feel that the interest and usefulness of the
Congress will be greatly increased by the usual sectional plan being
departed from, so that all papers can be discussed in general sittings.
This plan will necessarily limit the time available for papers, but, on
the other hand, it will allow the interest of all members to be focused
on each question to be considered. To enable the maximum amount of work
to be done in the time available, the following arrangements have been
made:--

=Papers.= The reader of each paper will be allowed 25 minutes in which
to give a summary of his paper and to reply to criticisms. A certain
time, limited at the discretion of the Chairman, will then be allowed
for discussion (maximum time--20 minutes).

Should the reader of a paper not desire to exercise his right of reply
he may devote the whole 25 minutes to his opening summary.

If, on the other hand, he prefers to reserve a longer time for reply he
must reduce the length of his opening remarks, bearing in mind that the
whole time at his disposal for the two speeches will be 25 minutes.

=Discussions.= All discussions are under the absolute control of
the Chairman, who will regulate the length of time allotted to each
discussion, and to each speaker in that discussion. The Chairman will
ring a bell one minute before each speech must end. After the bell is
rung a second time the next speaker will be called. The maximum time
allotted to the discussion on each single paper is twenty minutes,--to
each single speaker, seven minutes.

The names of persons wishing to speak must be handed up to the Chairman
before the conclusion of the speech opening the Discussion.

=Badges.= A button badge, consisting of a reproduction of the head of
Sir Francis Galton, will be presented to every Member and Associate.

A silvered medal with ribbon and clasp will be presented to members
of the Consultative Committees, Readers of Papers and Government
Delegates. Distinctive colours will be as follows:--

  _Organizing and Consultative Committees_    Medal and Red Ribbon.
  _Readers of Papers_                           "    "  White  "
  _Stewards_                                    "    "  Yellow "
  _Executive Committee_                         "    "  Blue   "

The medals with green ribbons will be on sale, price 1/- each, to all
Members and Associates.



DAILY PROGRAMME.


This programme will be adhered to as closely as possible, but the
Executive Committee reserve the power to make any alterations which
circumstances may render necessary.


WEDNESDAY, JULY 24th.


[Sidenote: 10 a.m.]

The Offices of the Congress will be opened at the University of London,
South Kensington.

Members and Delegates are requested to call during the day, to sign
the register and enter their address, and to obtain invitations to the
Receptions, Dinners, etc.

[Sidenote: 3 p.m.]

A Meeting of the Congress Executive Committee will be held in the
Senate Room. The Congress Executive consists of the President,
Secretary, and two members of each of the Consultative Committees,
and the President, Secretary and two members of the British Executive
Committee.


Business:--

The arrangement of the agenda for the Business Meeting on the 27th.


[Sidenote: 7 p.m.]

=Reception bu the President= of the guests to the =Inaugural Banquet=
at the Hotel Cecil, Strand. The Banquet commences at 7-30 p.m.
punctually. Speeches will be made by the President, The Lord Mayor of
London, Mr. A. J. Balfour and others.

All Officers of the Congress, Readers of Papers, Presidents and
Secretaries of Branches of the Eugenics Education Society, are the
_guests of the Hospitality Committee_. Ordinary Members of the Congress
may attend (tickets, 7s. 6d. each, exclusive of wine) and may take one
friend on the same terms. The maximum seating capacity of the hall
is 400 and only a limited number of seats are available. =To prevent
disappointment early application for tickets should be made on the form
on page 25, to the Hon. Secretary, Mrs. Alec Tweedie, Entertainments
Committee, 30, York Terrace, Harley Street, W.=

[Sidenote: 9-45 p.m.]

Reception of welcome to all Members and Associates of the Congress at
the Hotel Cecil to meet the delegates and others who have attended the
Inaugural Banquet.



_SECTION I._

Biology and Eugenics.


THURSDAY. JULY 25th.

MORNING SESSION.

[Sidenote: 10 a.m.]

Opening of the Congress.

Presidential Address.

[Sidenote: 10-30 a.m.]

"Le Cosidette Leggi Dell 'Ereditarieta Nell' Uomo." (The So-called Laws
of Heredity in Man.)

V. Guiffrida-Ruggeri, Professor of Anthropology, Naples. Speakers in
discussion Professor J. A. Thomson, Dr. Apert.

[Sidenote: 11-15 a.m.]

"The Inheritance of Fecundity."

Raymond Pearl, Ph. D. Biologist of the Maine Experiment Station, Orono,
U.S.A.

Discussion.

[Sidenote: 12 noon.]

"Variation and Heredity in Man."

L. Sergi, Professor of Anthropology, Rome. Discussion opened by Dr.
Seligmann.

[Sidenote: 12-45 p.m.]

"On the Increase of Stature in certain European Populations."

Soren Hansen, M.D., Director of the Danish Anthropological Committee,
Copenhagen.


Luncheon Interval.

[Sidenote: 1-15 p.m.]

Cold Lunch will be provided at the University for all Readers of
Papers and Members of the Congress Executive Committee who give in
their names at the Secretary's table before 11-30 a.m. A few places
will be available (Lunch, 2/-) for ordinary members of the Congress.
Application for seats should be made at the Secretary's table before
noon. (A list of neighbouring restaurants will be found on page 27).



SECTION I.


AFTERNOON SESSION.

[Sidenote: 2-30 p.m.]

"Eugenics and Genetics."

R. C. Punnett, F.R.S., Professor of Biology, Cambridge University.

Discussion opened by Professor W. Bateson.

[Sidenote: 3-15 p.m.]

"The Inheritance of Epilepsy."

David F. Weeks, M.D.,

Medical Superintendent and Executive Officer of the New Jersey State
Village for Epileptics, U.S.A.

(_These papers will be illustrated by Lantern Slides_).

[Sidenote: 4 p.m.]

"La Psicologia Etrica e la Scienca Eugenistica."

(Ethnic Psychology and the Science of Eugenics).

Professor Enrico Morselli, Director of the Clinic for Mental and
Nervous Diseases, Royal University, Genoa.

Discussion.

[Sidenote: 4-45 p.m.]

"Influence de l'age des Parents sur les Caractères Psycho-Physique des
Enfants."

(The Influence of Parental Age on the Psycho-Physiological Characters
of Children).

Professor Antonio Marro,

Director of the Lunatic Asylum, Turin.

Discussion opened by Dr. Ewart.


ENTERTAINMENTS.

[Sidenote: 9-30 p.m.= ]

Her Grace the Duchess of Marlborough will hold a Reception at
Sunderland House, Curzon Street. (The card of invitation should be
given up at the door).

=Officials= and =Delegates=, _who receive their cards in advance_, are
requested to return them at once to the Hon. Secretary, Entertainments
Committee, 30, York Terrace, Harley Street, W., _if they do not intend
to be present_.

=Ordinary Members= of the Congress are requested on their arrival
in London to _apply at the Hospitality Bureau_, at the University for
the invitation card.



SECTION II.


Practical Eugenics.


FRIDAY, JULY 26th.


MORNING SESSION.

[Sidenote: 10 a.m.]

Considérations Générales sur "La Puériculture avant la Procreation."

(General Considerations on "Education before Procreation.")

Professor Adolphe Pinard, Member of the Paris Medical Academy.

Discussion.


[Sidenote: 10-45 p.m.]

"The Bearing of Neo-Malthusianism upon Race Hygiene."

Dr. Alfred Ploëtz, President, International Society for Race Hygiene.

Discussion opened by Dr. Drysdale.


[Sidenote: 11-30 a.m.]

"Rapport sur l'organisation Pratique de l'Action Eugénique."

(Report on the Practical Organisation of Eugenic Action).

Dr. Louis Querton, Professor of the "Université Libre," Brussels.


[Sidenote: 11-50 a.m.]

Discussion opened by Dr. C. W. Saleeby.


[Sidenote: 12-35 p.m.]

"Marriage and Eugenics."

Dr. C. B. Davenport, Director Eugenics Record Office, U.S.A.


[Sidenote: 1-15 p.m.]

LUNCHEON INTERVAL.[G]

[Footnote G: For arrangements see pages 10 and 27.]


SECTION II.


AFTERNOON SESSION.

[Sidenote: 2-30 p.m.]

"Preliminary Report to the First International Eugenics Congress of
the Committee of the Eugenics Section American Breeders' Association
to Study and Report as to the Best Practical Means for cutting off the
Defective Germ Plasm in the Human Population."

Mr. Bleecker van Wagenen, Chairman of Committee.

(_This paper will be illustrated by Lantern Slides_).

Discussion to be opened by Sir John Macdonnell.

[Sidenote: 3-45 p.m.]

"Eugénique Sélection et Déterminisme des Tarés."

(Eugenic Selection and Elimination of Defectives).

Frederic Houssay, Professor of Science, University, Paris.

Discussion.

[Sidenote: 4-30 p.m.]

CLOSE OF MEETING.


ENTERTAINMENTS.

[Sidenote: 5 p.m.]

The Lord Mayor of London will receive the Members of the Congress at
the Mansion House, between the hours of 5 and 7 p.m., when the suites
of rooms will be on view.

[Sidenote: 10 p.m.]

The American Ambassador and Mrs. Whitelaw Reid are giving a Reception
to the Members of the Congress at Dorchester House, Park Lane, at 10
p.m.

(_For directions as to invitation cards see page 11, at foot_).


SECTION IIa.

Education and Eugenics.

SATURDAY, JULY 27TH.


MORNING SESSION.

[Sidenote: 10 a.m.]

"Eugenics and the New Social Consciousness."

G. Smith, Professor of Sociology, Minnesota University, U.S.A.

Discussion to be opened by Mrs. MacCoy Irwin.

[Sidenote: 10-45 a.m.]

"Practicable Eugenics in Education."

Dr. F. C. S. Schiller, Oxford University.

A Discussion will be arranged in which it is hoped several well-known
Educationalists, including Professor Sadler and Dr. Georges Schreiber
will participate.


[Sidenote: 1 p.m.]

LUNCHEON INTERVAL.[H]

[Footnote H: For arrangements see pages 10 and 27.]

[Sidenote: 3 p.m.]

GENERAL MEETING OF CONGRESS.

=Business Agenda.=

To be issued after the Meeting of the Congress Executive Committee on
July 24th, and circulated to all members on the 26th.

[Sidenote: 4 p.m.]

CLOSE OF MEETING.


ENTERTAINMENTS.

The Co-Partnership Tenants have invited Members to visit the =Hampstead
Garden Suburb=, where they will be entertained to tea. The party leaves
South Kensington Station at 2-30 p.m.

Several Luncheon and Tea Parties are also being arranged for this day.
Will any Members wishing to enjoy this hospitality give in their names
not later than the afternoon of Thursday, July 25th, at the Hospitality
Bureau in the Hall of the University?


SUNDAY, JULY 28th.

A Lunch and Garden Party will be given by Mr. Robert Mond to the
Members of the Congress in the Grounds of Combe Park, Sevenoaks (near
London). Guests will be conveyed there and back by special train.
Invitations and all particulars will be issued in the same way as for
the Duchess of Marlborough's reception. (See page 11, at foot).

The Proprietors of the =London Aerodrome= have kindly issued a limited
number of invitations to witness exhibition flights during the
afternoon (weather permitting).


SECTION III.

Sociology and Eugenics.


MONDAY, JULY 29th.


MORNING SESSION.

[Sidenote: 10 a.m.]

"Elite Fisio--Psichica ed Elite Economica."

("The Psycho Physical Elite, and the Economic Elite.")

Achille Loria, Professor of Political Economy, University of Turin.

[Sidenote: 10-25 a.m.]

"The Cause of the Inferiority of Physical and Mental Characters in the
Lower Social Classes."

Alfredo Niceforo, Professor of Statistics at the University of Naples.

(_As these two papers treat of similar subjects, they will be grouped
for discussion_.)

[Sidenote: 11 a.m.]

"La Fertilité des Marriages suivant la Profession et la Situation
Sociale."

(The Fertility of Marriages according to Profession and Social
Position).

Monsieur Lucien March,

Directeur de la Statistique Générale de la France.

Discussion opened by Mr. Bernard Mallett.

[Sidenote: 11-45 a.m.]

"Eugenics and Militarism."

Vernon L. Kellogg, Professor of Entomology, Stanford University.

[Sidenote: 12-30 p.m.]

"Eugenics in Party Organisation."

Roberto Michels, Professor of Political Economy, University of Turin.


[Sidenote: 1 p.m.]

LUNCHEON INTERVAL.[I]

[Footnote I: For Arrangements see pages 10 and 27.]


SECTION IIIa. (Continued).

Sociology and Eugenics.

MONDAY, JULY 29th.


AFTERNOON SESSION.

[Sidenote: 2-30 p.m.]

"The Influence of Race on History."

W. C. D. and Mrs. W. C. D. Whetham, Cambridge.

[Sidenote: 2-55 p.m.]

"Some Interrelations between Eugenics and Historical Research."

Dr. Adams Woods, Harvard Medical School.

(_As these two papers are on similar subjects they will be grouped and
discussed together_).

[Sidenote: 4 p.m.]

"Contributi Demografici ai Problemi dell' Eugenica."

(The Contributions of Demography to Eugenics).

Corrado Gini,

Professor of Statistics, University of Cagliari, Italy.

[Sidenote: 4-45 p.m.]

CLOSE OF SESSION.


ENTERTAINMENTS.

[Sidenote: 9-30 p.m.]

A Reception will be given at the University of London by the President
and Mrs. Leonard Darwin. (Invitations to this reception will be
forwarded to all Members and Associates on their joining the Congress.
Those Members who join on or after Wednesday, 24th, should apply for
their cards at the Hospitality Bureau at the Congress.)


SECTION IV.

Medicine and Eugenics.


TUESDAY, JULY 30th.

MORNING SESSION.

[Sidenote: 10 a.m.]

"Sur la prophylaxie de la Syphilis Héréditaire et son action Eugénique."

(On the Prophylaxis of Hereditary Syphilis and its Eugenic Effect).

Dr. Hallopeau, Professeur à la Faculté de Médecine.

Discussion.

[Sidenote: 10-45 a.m.]

"Alkohol und Eugenik."

(Alcohol and Eugenics).

Dr. Alfred Mjoën, Kristiania, Norway.

[Sidenote: 11-10 a.m.]

"Alcoholisme et Dégénérescence."

Statistiques du Bureau central d'Administration des aliénés de Paris et
du department de la Seine de 1867 à 1912.

(Alcoholism and Degeneracy).

(Statistics from the central office for the management of the insane of
Paris and the Department of the Seine from 1867 to 1912).

Dr. Magnan, of the Asile Saint Anne, Membre de l'Academie de Médecine

Dr. Fillassier, Membre de l'Academie de Médecine.

(_As these two papers are on similar subjects they will be grouped and
discussed together_).

Discussion opened by Dr. Archdall Reid.

[Sidenote: 12-15 p.m.]

"Rassenhygiene und Arztliche Gebürtshilfe."

(Eugenics and Obstetrics).

Dr. Agnes Bluhm, Berlin.

[Sidenote: 1 p.m.]

LUNCHEON INTERVAL.[J]

[Footnote J: For arrangements see pages 10 and 27.]


SECTION IV.

Medicine and Eugenics.


TUESDAY, JULY 30th.

AFTERNOON SESSION.

[Sidenote: 2-30 p.m.]

"Heredity and Eugenics in Relation to Insanity."

Dr. F. W. Mott, F.R.S., Pathologist to the London County Asylums.

(_This paper will be illustrated by Lantern Slides_.)

Discussion.

[Sidenote: 3-15 p.m.]

"The Place of Eugenics in the Medical Curriculum."

H. E. Jordan,

Professor of Histology and Embryology, University of Virginia, and
Chairman Eugenics Section American Breeders' Association for the Study
and Prevention of Infant Mortality.

Discussion.

[Sidenote: 4 p.m.]

"The History of a Healthy, Sane Family showing Longevity, in Catalonia."

Valenti y Vivo,

Professor of Medicine and Toxicology, University of Barcelona Spain.


FAREWELL ADDRESS.

By the President.



THE EXHIBITION.


The Exhibition in connection with the First International Eugenics
Congress will include--(1) Charts, pedigrees, photographs, and
specimens illustrative of Heredity, especially in man. (2) Relics of
Charles Darwin, Sir Francis Galton and Gregor Mendel. (3) Portraits of
Notable Workers.

The Committee desires to make the Exhibition as fully representative
as possible of the past history and present state of the sciences of
Heredity and Eugenics.

Many interesting exhibits have been received from America, France,
Germany and all parts of the United Kingdom.

Professor von Gruber has sent over from the International Race
Hygiene Congress, held in Dresden, in 1911, a collection of exhibits
representative of German work.

The American Eugenics Record Office is sending an important exhibit, as
are also the State Epileptic Colony of New Jersey, and Dr. Goddard, of
Vineland.

Among the British Exhibitors are Major Leonard Darwin, Professor
Punnett, Mr. Wheler, Mr. Whetham, Mr. Nettleship, Mr. E. J. Lidbetter
and many others.

An Illustrated Catalogue is in preparation, and will be on sale at the
Book Stall.

Many of the Exhibitors have signified their intention of attending the
Congress, and their willingness to explain their exhibits to enquirers.



MEMBERS OF GENERAL COMMITTEE.


  Sir James Barr, M.D., F.R.C.P., F.R.S.E.
  Sir Edward Brabrook, C.B.
  Sir James Crichton-Browne, F.R.S.
  Rev. R. J. Campbell, M.A.
  The Hon. Sir John Cockburn, K.C.M.G., M.D.
  Montague Crackanthorpe, K.C.
  R. Newton Crane, M.A.
  A. E. Crawley, M.A.
  Sir Henry Cunningham, K.C.I.E.
  Francis Darwin, Sc.D., M.B., F.R.S.
  Dr. C. B. Davenport.
  Dr. Langdon Down.
  Havelock Ellis.
  The Hon. Sir John Findlay, K.C.M.G., LL.D.
  Professor J. J. Findlay, M.A.
  Dr. Wilfred Hadley.
  Mrs. H. N. C. Heath.
  Admiral W. H. Henderson.
  Monsieur Huber.
  The Very Rev. The Dean of St. Paul's, D.D.
  Dr. David Starr Jordan.
  R. Dixon Kingham, B.A.
  Miss Kirby.
  J. Ernest Lane, F.R.C.S.
  The Rev. Hon. Edward Lyttelton, M.A.
  Lady Owen Mackenzie.
  W. C. Marshall, M.A.
  Colonel Melville, R.A.M.C.
  Lady Ottoline Morrell.
  F. W. Mott, M.D., F.R.C.P., F.R.S.
  G. P. Mudge, F.Z.S.
  Professor A. Niceforo.
  Mrs. J. Penrose.
  Mrs. E. F. Pinsent.
  Dr. A. Ploëtz.
  Mrs. G. Pooley.
  Professor E. B. Poulton, LL. D., D.Sc. F.R.S.
  Professor R. C. Punnett, M.A.
  Walter Rea, M.P.
  G. Archdall Reid, M.B., F.R.S.E.
  John Russell, M.A.
  Ettie Sayer, M.D.
  C. G. Seligmann, M.D.
  Professor Arthur Schuster, Ph.D., D.Sc. F.R.S.
  Edgar Schuster, M.A., D.Sc.
  F. C. S. Schiller, M.A., D.Sc.
  Lady Henry Somerset.
  Dr. J. W. Slaughter.
  W. C. Sullivan, M.D.
  Professor J. A. Thomson, M.A.
  A. F. Tredgold, L.R.C.P.
  Mrs. Alec Tweedie.
  W. C. D. Whetham, M.A., F.R.S.
  Arnold White.
  A. Gordon Wilson, M.D., F.R.C.S.
  P. von Fleischl, Hon. Treasurer.
  Mrs. Gotto, Hon. Secretary.


EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE.

  Major L. Darwin, _President_.
  Paul Von Fleischl, _Hon. Treasurer_.
  Mrs. Gotto, _Hon. Secretary_.
  H. B. Grylls, _Secretary of the Exhibition_.
  Professor Punnett.
  Dr. E. Schuster.
  Dr. Tredgold.


RECEPTION COMMITTEE.

  Her Grace the Duchess of Marlborough.
  The Rt. Hon. the Lord Mayor of London.
  Lady Aberconway.
  Mr. Newton Crane.
  Mrs. Leonard Darwin.
  Mrs. A. C. Gotto.
  Mrs. Whitelaw Reid.
  Mrs. Alec-Tweedie, _Hon. Secretary_.


DELEGATES.[K]

[Footnote K: _As Delegates are daily being appointed this list is
necessarily quite incomplete, only those appointments made before June
15th being included._]

  American Breeders' Association           Professor V. L. Kellogg.
                                           Bleecker van Wagenen.
  Assistance Nationale aux Tuberculeux     Monsieur Cassiano Veves.
  Board of Education                       Sir George Newman, M.D.
  Borough of Holborn                       Councillor A. Chapman.
  Borough of Ealing                        Councillor Farr.
  Borough of Shoreditch                    Councillor J. Timmins, M.W.B.
  British Womens' Emigration Association   Mrs. Ross
  British Constitution Association         Mr. W. H. Southon.
  British Academy                          Rt. Hon. A. J. Balfour.
  Cheltenham Ladies' College               Dr. Eveline Cargill.
  Commonwealth of Australia                Sir John Cockburn, K.C.M.G.
  Education Department, Wakefield          Alderman Hinchliffe.
  Entomological Society of London          Professor W. Bateson.
  Eugenics Education Society of New
    Zealand                                Dr. Emily Siedeberg.
  Folk-Lore Society                        Sir Edward Brabrook.
  French Republic                          Monsieur Lucien March,
                                               Directeur Statistique
                                               Générale de la France.
  Incorporated Association of Assistant
      Masters in Secondary Schools         Mr. F. Charles.
  L'Académie de Médecine                   M. le Prof. Pinard.
  Linnean Society                          Professor W. Bateson.
  Liverpool Biological Society             Mr. R. D. Laurie.
  Local Government Board                   Dr. Arthur Newsholme.
  London County Council                    Mr. A. O. Goodrich.
                                           Sir John McDougall.
  Metropolitan Asylums Board               Mr. Walter Dennis.
  Metropolitan Borough of Finsbury         Dr Lauzun-Brown.
  Metropolitan Borough of Wandsworth       Alderman Major M.
                                               Robinson, L.M.D.
  National League for Physical Education
      and Improvement                      Colonel T. H. Hendley,
                                               C.I.E.
  National Hospital for the Paralysed and
      Epileptic                            Dr. Risien-Russell.
  National Service League
  National Society for Epileptics          Mr. G. Penn Gaskell.
  National Union of Teachers               Mr. C. W. Crook.
  Newport Elementary Education Committee   Dr. J. Lloyd Davies.
                                           Councillor Peter Wright.

  North London or University College Hospital
  Nurses' Social Union                        Mrs. Barnes.
  Parents' National Education Union           Miss E. Parish.
                                              Miss M. Franklin.
  Prudential Insurance Co., of America        Mr. Frederick Hoffman.
  Ranyard Nurses                              Miss Zoë L. Puxley.
  Royal Anthropological Institute             Dr. Seligmann.
  Royal University of Athens                  Professor André Andreadis.
  Royal College of Surgeons                   Mr. G. H. Makins, C.B.
  Royal Society of Medicine                   Sir George Savage, M.D.
  Royal Statistical Society                   Dr. Dudfield.
  Royal Surgical Aid Society                  Mr. Henry Allhusen.
                                              Rev. Professor Green.
  Société Nationale des Professeurs de
      Français en Angleterre                  Monsieur A. Perret.
  Society of Women Journalists                Mrs. Bedford Fenwick.
  Society of Medical Officers of Health       Dr. A. Bustock-Hill.
  St. Pancras School for Mothers              Lady Meyer,
                                              Mr. Warden.
  Union des Associations Internationales,
      Brussels                                Madame van Schelle.
  University of Barcelona                     Professor I. Valenti Vivo.
  University of Bristol                       Professor C. Lloyd Morgan,
                                                  F.R.S.
  University of Edinburgh                     Rt. Hon. A. J. Balfour.
  University of Glasgow                       Dr. W. E. Agor.
  University of Minnesota                     Professor S. G. Smith.
  University of Oxford                        Dr. Edgar Schuster, M.A.
  University of St. Andrews                   Professor Edgar
                                              (or) Dr. Heron.
  University of Sydney                        Professor A. Stuart, M.D.
  Urban District of Finchley                  Councillor Royston.
  Willesden Urban District Council            Councillor Riley.
  Women's Freedom League                      Mrs. Clarke.



First

International Eugenics Congress

LONDON, WEDNESDAY, JULY 24th--TUESDAY, 30th, 1912.

  _To_ THE SECRETARY, EUGENICS EDUCATION SOCIETY,

  6, York Buildings, Adelphi, London, W.C.

                          a  MEMBER[L]
  Kindly enrol my name as an ASSOCIATE[M] of the First International

  Eugenics Congress  for which I herewith enclose my fee.
                     for which I will pay on arrival.
                     (_Cross out one of these lines_).

Name _______________________________________________________________

Profession _________________________________________________________

Address in full ____________________________________________________

                ____________________________________________________
                              (_Kindly write clearly._)

The foregoing data are requested at your earliest convenience, so that
they may be included in the official list of the Congress.

Fees may be paid either by cash, postal money order or cheque, to the
Assistant Treasurer--

Miss E. Sellar,
    6, York Buildings,
        Adelphi, London, W.C.

=N.B.--Only Members paying in advance will be able to avail themselves
of the reduced Railway fares, as in all cases the Congress Voucher must
be produced before the ticket will be issued.=

[Footnote L: The Membership fee is one pound sterling, equivalent to
twenty-five francs, twenty marks, twenty-eight pesetas, or ten dollars
Mexican currency.]

[Footnote M: The Associate Membership fee is ten shillings, equivalent
to thirteen francs, ten marks, fourteen pesetas, or five dollars
Mexican currency.]



INAUGURAL BANQUET.


APPLICATION FORM.


_To the Hon. Secretary, Entertainments Committee._

  Please send me one Ticket for my own use (and one for a guest[N]), Seven
  Shillings and Sixpence (10 frcs.) each, for the Inaugural Banquet of the
  First International Eugenics Congress to be held at the Hotel Cecil,
  Strand, at 7 p.m., July 24th. I enclose £     s.     d.

_Name_ _____________________________________________________________
                           (Member of the Congress).

_Address_ __________________________________________________________

        __________________________________________________________

N.B.--This form should be sent immediately to the Hon. Secretary,
Entertainments Committee, 30, York Terrace, Harley Street.

[Footnote N: _Strike out if not wanted._]



LUNCHEONS.


A List of some Restaurants within easy reach of the University.


Open-Air Café,                                          à la Carte
      Kensington Gardens   5 minutes walk.    (Reasonable Charges).

Imperial Restaurant,
      24, Alfred Place     5       "          1/6 Table d'Hôte.

A.B.C. Depôt,
      32, Alfred Place     5       "          à la Carte
  (Adjoining South Kensington                 (Popular Prices).
      Tube Station).

Lyon's Depôt,
      Gloucester Road      7       "          "

Royal Palace Hotel,
      Kensington Gardens   8       "          Special 2/6 Table d'Hôte
                                                to Members of Congress
                                                or à la Carte.

Lyon's Depôt,
      Brompton Road        8       "          à la Carte.
                                                (Popular Prices).

Harrods' Stores,
      Brompton Road       12       "          2/- Table d'Hôte or
                                                à la Carte.



      *      *      *      *      *      *



Transcriber's note:

Minor typographical errors were corrected. Some unmatched double
quotation marks were left unchanged because it was not clear
where the missing quotation marks should be.

The following changes were made:

  Abstracts of Papers
      p.  5:  dolicomorphic => dolichomorphic

  Programme
      p. 16:  Handwritten correction of a.m. to p.m. under Entertainments
      P. 17:  [Greek: geêêaô] not a word! => [Greek: gennaô] = birth





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