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Title: How to Travel - Hints, Advice, and Suggestions to Travelers by Land and - Sea all over the Globe.
Author: Knox, Thomas W.
Language: English
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HOW TO TRAVEL.

HINTS, ADVICE, AND SUGGESTIONS TO TRAVELERS

BY

LAND AND SEA ALL OVER THE GLOBE.


BY

THOMAS W. KNOX,

AUTHOR OF "CAMP-FIRE AND COTTON-FIELD," "OVERLAND THROUGH
ASIA," "UNDERGROUND," "BACKSHEESH," "JOHN," "THE BOY TRAVELERS
IN THE FAR EAST," ETC.


NEW YORK:
CHARLES T. DILLINGHAM.

BOSTON:
LEE AND SHEPARD.

LONDON AND GENEVA
THE AMERICAN EXCHANGE IN EUROPE.

1881.

Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1880, by
THOMAS W. KNOX,
In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

All rights of translation and foreign publication are reserved.



    TO ALL TRAVELERS ON LAND AND SEA,
    THIS VOLUME
    IS SYMPATHETICALLY INSCRIBED.



PREFACE.


In preparing this volume for the press the author of "How to Travel"
has endeavored to supply a want whose existence has long been apparent
to him. Having journeyed somewhat over the earth he is frequently
consulted by friends and acquaintances who are about to travel, and
wish to know what to do before setting out on their undertakings, and
how to meet the various perplexities that are sure to arise. In
preparing this book he has answered a great many interrogatories
that have been addressed to him in person, and if the manner of his
response should be considered didactic, he begs the reader to remember
that the author is endeavoring to meet the questions of the would-be
traveler, and, therefore, addresses him in the second person. As
nearly as possible he has embodied in "How to Travel" as much
information as could be wrung from him by a vigorous and thorough
interrogation of a couple of long winter evenings, conducted by an
inquisitive couple who were about starting on a journey around the
world and up and down its surface.

With the changes that are constantly going on, some of the information
here given may be found slightly inaccurate, but it is hoped that
instances of this sort will be rare. Prices of hotels, steamships,
railroads, and the like are subject to alteration, and consequently no
absolute rule can be laid down. But the author believes that in the
instances where his figures may be found astray they are so near the
mark that they will prove of material assistance to the traveler.

As the author is neither a lady nor a lawyer, he has found it
desirable to invoke the aid of those important members of society in
the preparation of the book. A reference to the table of contents
will show the assistance they have given him, the one in a chapter
of "Special Advice to Ladies" and the other in "Legal Rights of
Travelers." All other parts of the book are of his own production and
the results of his experience in travel, covering a period of more
than 20 years and embracing many lands and seas.

With this explanatory preface, and trusting that the volume will be
a sufficient apology for its existence, the author delivers it to the
hands of the traveling public, and hopes for a verdict in its favor.

T. W. K.

NEW YORK, February, 1881.



CONTENTS.


CHAPTER.                                                        PAGE.

    I. General Advice Applicable to all Kinds of Travel,           9
   II. Railway Travel in the United States and Canadas,           20
  III. American Steamboat Travel,                                 28
   IV. Sea and Ocean Travel,                                      37
    V. Sea Sickness and How to Avoid it,                          48
   VI. Special Advice to Ladies, by a Lady,                       55
  VII. Daily Life at Sea,                                         64
 VIII. Going on Shore--Hotels,                                    76
   IX. The System of Fees,                                        87
    X. English and Continental Money,                            102
   XI. Languages and Couriers,                                   108
  XII. Railway Traveling on the Continent,                       118
 XIII. Steamboat Traveling in Europe,                            133
  XIV. Sea-going Steamers in European Waters,                    139
   XV. Sea and Ocean Steamers in Various Parts of the World,     147
  XVI. Travel by Stage-Coach, Diligence, and Post,               155
 XVII. Traveling with Camels and Elephants,                      167
XVIII. Traveling with Reindeer and Dogs,                         174
  XIX. Traveling with Man-power--Palankeens, Jinrikishas,
         and Sedan Chairs,                                       179
   XX. Pedestrian Traveling--Mountain Climbing,                  186
  XXI. Traveling Without Money--Round the World for $50,         193
 XXII. Skeleton Tours for America and Europe,                    201
XXIII. } General Directions for a Journey Round the
 XXIV. } World, with Routes, Distances, etc., etc.,              207
  XXV. Legal Rights of Travelers, by a Lawyer,                   230
 XXVI. Wilderness and Frontier Travel,                           242



CHAPTER I.

GENERAL ADVICE APPLICABLE TO ALL KINDS OF TRAVEL.


There is an old saying of unknown origin that a light heart and a thin
pair of trowsers are the principal requisites for a journey. The
proper texture of one's garments depends largely on his route of
travel and the difficulties to be encountered; thin ones would be
desirable in hot countries and for lounging on the deck of a ship in
low latitudes, while they would be eminently out of place in the
region of the north pole or in the rough traveling of the wilderness.
But no one will deny that a light heart has much to do with the
pleasure of travel, and the man who can be serene under all
circumstances, who laughs at mishaps, and accepts every situation with
a smile of content, or at least with a feeling of resignation, is the
model voyager. For him the miles go by as on the wings of a bird,
while to the grumbler and misanthrope they are weighted with lead. The
former comes back from his wanderings refreshed and instructed while
the latter is no better in mind and body than when setting out on his
journey. For your own comfort and happiness, and your own mental and
physical advantage, start on your journey with a determination to see
the bright side of everything and to endure as cheerfully as possible
the jolts and buffetings and petty disappointments that are sure to be
your lot. And in the same proportion that a light heart makes you
better for yourself it makes you better and more agreeable for those
who may be traveling with you.

If you have been reared in the belief that your own country, or your
own state, town, or hamlet, contains all that is good in the world,
whether of moral excellence, mental development, or mechanical skill,
you must prepare to eradicate that belief at an early date. That you
and yours have the best and are the best we will not for a moment
deny, but when you attempt to claim everything you claim too much. To
an observant and thoughtful individual the invariable effect of travel
is to teach respect for the opinions, the faith, or the ways of
others, and to convince him that other civilizations than his own are
worthy of consideration. At the same time he will find his love for
his native land as strong as ever and his admiration for his own
institutions as warm as on the day of his departure. An old traveler
once said: "I have found good among every people, and even where there
was much to condemn there was much to admire. I have never returned
from a journey without an increased respect for the countries I have
visited and a greater regard for my own land than ever before. The
intelligent traveler will certainly be a true patriot."

So much for the mental conditions of travel. We will come now to the
practical and tangible needs of locomotion.

Money is the first of these things. It is true that one can travel
without money, and in a later chapter we will see how it may be
accomplished; for the present we will look upon money as a requisite.

Never carry a large amount of cash about your person or in your
baggage. A letter of credit, procurable at any banker's, is far better
than ready money, as its loss causes nothing more than temporary
inconvenience. It is best not to lose it at all; but, in case of its
disappearance, payment may be stopped and the finder or thief can
derive no benefit from its possession. The usual form of a letter of
credit is about as follows:

    "New York, 18  .

    "_To our correspondents:_

    "We have the pleasure of introducing to you * * * * * the bearer
    of this letter, whose signature you will find in the margin. We
    beg you to honor his drafts to the amount of * * * * * pounds
    sterling upon our London house. All deductions and commissions to
    be at the expense of the bearer.

    "We have the honor to remain, gentlemen,

    "Very truly yours,

    "* * * * * *."

Some banking-houses have their letters printed in French instead of
English, but the substance is the same. The amount is usually
expressed in pounds sterling, and drafts are made payable in London;
but if the traveler is going directly to the continent of Europe, some
of the bankers will give him, if he desires it, a letter on Paris and
state the amount in francs. Sterling credits are generally the best to
carry, no matter what country you may be visiting, as London is the
money centre of the world, and there is never any difficulty in
ascertaining the rate of exchange upon that great city. The traveling
letter of credit is printed on the front of a four-page sheet, letter
size; the second page is left blank for the endorsement of the amounts
drawn, and the third and fourth pages contain a list of bankers in all
the principal cities that the voyager is likely to visit. Any
respectable banker, even if not named on the printed list, will
generally cash a letter of credit; but it is advisable to adhere as
much as possible to the correspondents of the establishment that
issued the document.

The traveler should only draw at one time sufficient money to last him
for a few days, or till he reaches a convenient place for making
another draft. A week's supply of cash is usually sufficient for a
single draft; but, of course, no absolute rule can be laid down.

Another form of traveling credit is in the shape of circular notes,
which are issued by some bankers, though not by all. They are for
various amounts--five, ten, twenty, fifty, or a hundred pounds--and
are accompanied by a letter of identification which bears the
signature of the holder. The notes are useless without the letter, and
the letter without the notes, and the traveler is advised to carry
them apart from each other. The advantage of this kind of credit is
that you can have the notes cashed at a hotel or at any large shop
where you may be making purchases, and you may have remittances follow
you from time to time in circular notes, the same letter of
identification answering for all. The disadvantage is that they are
bulky, and consequently inconvenient to carry, and the possession of
two parcels in place of one, in different parts of your baggage,
doubles the chances of loss. For a long journey where a considerable
amount is to be carried, or where remittances are to follow, I would
recommend that part of the funds should be in a letter of credit, and
part in circular notes with an identification.

For domestic traveling, bankers' drafts and credits can always be
procured; but American bankers are much more stringent about
identifications than are those of Europe, and the traveler must be
sure that he can be properly identified wherever he is going, or he
may experience difficulty in obtaining his cash. An obliging banker
has been known to pay a draft to an individual who had no other
identification than his name written on his under-clothing or his
initials tattooed on his arm. But such instances are rare, and the
money-changer is very likely to be obdurate, though polite. It is said
that a Boston banker once cashed a check payable to the order of Peter
Bean, under the following circumstances:--The bearer said he knew
nobody in the city, but he proved his identity by ripping open the
lining of his coat-collar and revealing a pea and a bean, securely
stowed away. "That's my name," said he, "P. Bean; and that's the way I
mark my coats." But all names cannot be written with the products of
the garden, and Mr. Bean is not likely to have many imitators.

Your letters can be sent to the care of any banker on whom your
credits are drawn, and they will be forwarded by him as you may
direct. This is the usual custom with European travelers, and there
is rarely any cause for complaint.

When traveling, always be careful to have plenty of small change in
your pockets, and be prepared to pay all obligations, especially the
smallest, in their exact amount. The vast horde of cabmen, porters,
guides, waiters, and all classes of people who render you services, or
pretend to have done so, are proverbially without change, and if you
cannot tender the exact sum due them you are pretty certain to overpay
them. Even where they admit that they are possessed of small coin,
they generally manage so as to mulct you in something by having their
change give out before the proper return is reached. The New York
hackman to whom you hand a five-dollar bill for him to deduct his fare
of two dollars will usually discover that he has only two dollars, or
perhaps two and a half, in his possession; and the London cabman will
play the same trick when you ask him to take half a crown from a
five-shilling piece. All over the world you will find it the same.
There may be an occasional exception, but it only proves the rule. And
when you enter the great field of gratuities, you will find that the
absence of small change will cost you heavily. Many a man has given a
shilling where a sixpence was quite sufficient, and all that was
expected; but he did not have the sixpence in his pocket, and the
shilling had to go.

Have as little baggage as the circumstances will justify. Don't carry
anything on the principle of Mrs. Toodles, that it may come handy some
time, but take only what you know to be absolutely necessary. No rule
can be laid down, and each person must judge for himself. For a man, a
suit of clothes in addition to the one he wears is sufficient for
outward adornment, unless he is "in society," and expects to dine,
attend parties, or make fashionable visits. In the latter case a
dress-suit is indispensable, and in European travel it is generally
well to have a dress-suit along, since there are many public
ceremonies where the wearer of ordinary clothing is not admitted. For
ladies, a traveling-dress, a walking-dress, and a black silk dress may
be considered the minimum. The black silk garment corresponds to the
masculine dress-suit, but it comes in use on many occasions where the
latter is not demanded. The quantity of under-clothing will depend
largely on personal habits. It should never be less than to cause no
inconvenience in a week's absence of the laundress, and if a long
voyage is to be made by steamship the supply should be proportionally
increased. It is a good rule never to omit an opportunity of giving
your soiled garments to be washed, even if only a day or two has
elapsed since your last employment of the laundress. In all civilized
parts of the world where there is an appreciable volume of travel,
washing is done in from twenty-four to forty-eight hours, but away
from the routes you must count on a week, or four or five days at
least.

A single trunk of moderate size will contain all that is needed for
the actual traveling wants of a reasonable being, of either sex,
except on a long journey. To this add a hand-satchel to hold your
toilet articles, and any little odds and ends of reading matter, or
other personal comforts. Some travelers are content with such toilet
materials as they find in hotels, and do not object to a public comb
or hair-brush; but the majority of individuals are more fastidious. In
most hotels in America, soap is supplied in private rooms; but in
Europe the traveler must provide his own.

Endeavor as much as possible to avoid being in a hurry. Go to your
train, boat, ship, diligence, or other conveyance, in ample season, so
that all needed arrangements can be made without pressure for want of
time. You will save money and temper by adopting this rule.

Respect the rights of other travelers, and by so doing you will lead
them to respect yours. Keep your disposition as unruffled as possible
at all times, and even when angry inside don't let the anger come to
the surface. If you find yourself imposed upon by any official or
employé of railway or steamer, state your views quietly but firmly,
and, if he declines to redress the wrong, ask him to be kind enough to
call his superior. If the latter is inaccessible, ask, in the same
polite tone, for his address, and the chances are ten to one that your
cause of complaint will be removed without more discussion.

Expenses may be roughly set down at five dollars a day, not including
railway or other fares, and not including luxuries of any kind.
Ordinary hotel expenses will be not far from three dollars a day,
leaving two dollars for incidentals. Most persons would be likely to
exceed rather than fall below this figure, and in the United States
they will find that money melts away more rapidly than in Europe.
England is at least twenty-five per cent. dearer than the continental
countries, and only a trifle cheaper than America. The traveler who is
not economical on the one hand and not wasteful on the other can get
along very well on six dollars a day in England or America, and five
dollars on the continent, with the exception of Spain and Russia,
which are dearer than Germany, France, Italy, or Switzerland. The
usual allowance to commercial travelers for their expenses, exclusive
of railway fares, is one pound sterling daily in England, and twenty
francs on the continent; and it is probable that the most of them
manage to keep within their allowances.

A party of two or more will travel somewhat cheaper than the same
number of individuals alone, for the reason that many items are
no more for two than for one. Including all the expenses of
travel--railways, steamships, hotels, carriages, fees, and the
like--an extended journey may be made for ten dollars a day in England
and Europe, and twelve dollars for the United States. This allows for
first-class places on all conveyances, and good rooms at good
hotels--requires no rigid economy, and permits no extravagance. For a
journey around the world, to occupy ten or twelve months, and visiting
Japan, China, Siam, Java, India, Egypt, Italy, France, and England,
together with the run across the American continent, the cost will be
about four or five thousand dollars. But, as before stated, there can
be no fixed rule, and the amount of expenditure depends largely upon
the tastes and habits of the traveler and the amount of money at his
disposal. More will be said on this topic in subsequent pages.

Whenever you go out of your own country carry a passport. It may not
be needed, as passports are now demanded in very few countries, but it
is a good thing to have along, since it serves as an identification in
case of trouble with the authorities, and is useful in civil actions
or where the assistance of your consul may be required. In many
countries the post-office employés refuse to deliver registered
letters to a stranger except on presentation of his passport, and the
document will occasionally be found useful at the banker's. An old
frontiersman once said of the revolver which he habitually carried,
"You don't need it often; perhaps may never need it at all, but when
you do want it you want it awful bad, I tell you." The same may be
said of the passport.

Passports may be procured through a lawyer or notary public, and a
single passport is sufficient for a family. They may also be obtained
at any United States legation abroad on presentation of proofs of
citizenship. The government fee for a passport is five dollars.

At the custom-house, whatever its nationality, be as civil as possible
and anticipate the desires of the officials. They have a duty to
perform, and if you facilitate their labors the chances are they will
appreciate the politeness and let you off as easily as they can
consistently. Unlock your trunk or valise, or offer to do so, before
they ask you, and open the various compartments immediately. Declare
anything that may be liable to duty and call attention to it, and
conduct yourself generally as though it was one of the delights of
your life to pass a custom-house examination. If you are inclined to
defraud the revenue, do it gracefully and conceal your contraband
articles so that it will not be easy to find them yourself after you
are out of reach of the officials. Honesty is, however, the best
policy in this business, and the smuggler is just as much a violator
of the law as a burglar.

The ways of the custom-house may sometimes be smoothed by a numismatic
application to the hand of the inspector, but it is not altogether a
safe operation. In Turkey, Egypt, Syria, and other Moslem countries
bribery is considered a legitimate and honorable transaction, and the
customs officer looks at the outside of your trunk and extends his
open hand for your money with as little attempt at concealment as does
the cabman when he asks for your fare. At the Italian Dogana fees are
taken on the sly, but you may sometimes make a mistake and hit the
wrong man, and the same is the case in Spain and Russia. In the other
continental countries generally, and in England and the United States,
fee-taking at the custom-house is a pretty rare exception, and the
traveler will do far better to avoid crooked ways than to attempt
them. Instances have been known of American inspectors who went
straight to the point and suggested that a five-dollar bill would make
things easy, and when it was not forthcoming they gave all the trouble
in their power. Happily such occurrences are rare, and if customs
officials are occasionally dishonest it should be remembered that they
are no worse than those who encourage them to be so. A bribe, like a
bargain, requires two persons for its consummation, and of this twain
the officer is but one.

Before starting on any journey buy a copy of "How to Travel," and if
you find the book useful be kind enough to recommend it to your
friends and acquaintances. Find the best guide-books for the region
you are to visit and study them carefully; if you make a mistake and
get hold of a poor one, remember that even a poor guide-book is better
than none at all, and you will generally obtain the worth of your
money from it.

For the United States Osgood's and Appleton's guides are to be
recommended, though there are others that contain a great deal of
information. The name of guide-books for the trans-continental journey
is legion; all have their merits and their faults, and as they are to
be found at all the news-stands on the great railway lines the tourist
can choose for himself.

For Europe the principal guide-books are those of Murray and Baedeker.
Baedeker's books are the most convenient, and contain more practical
information than their English rival; and there are probably ten
copies of Baedeker sold to one of Murray. Where a traveler wishes to
learn about the hotels, railways, cabs, roads, and other things of
every-day life, Baedeker is his friend, but where he desires a long
historical sketch, or perhaps a dissertation on art, he will choose
Murray. It is well to have both these guides, as the one supplies
oftentimes what the other lacks. Harper's and Appleton's guide books
to Europe and the East, each in three volumes, are popular with many
Americans, on account of their compactness.

Syria, Palestine, and Egypt are also covered by both Baedeker and
Murray, and the latter has a guide to India, but it has not been
revised for a long time. There are no complete guide-books to China,
Japan, and the Far East generally, and the tourist must rely on
general works of history and travel. In this connection the writer
respectfully calls attention to his volumes, named on the title-page
of this work.



CHAPTER II.

RAILWAY TRAVEL IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADAS.


Travel in the United States and Canada virtually comprises but two
kinds of conveyance, the railway and the steamboat. Once the
stage-coach was an American feature, and it still remains in some
parts of the country, but the rapid advance of the railway has almost
swept it out of existence, and where it still lingers it is but the
shadow of its former self. Long ago we had the canal-boat, a slow but
remarkably safe mode of locomotion; it could not leave the track or be
overturned, nor could it explode; The water beneath it was so shallow
that it could not sink, and in case it took fire you had only to step
ashore and be out of danger. But the canal-boat is a thing of the
past, with here and there an exception still more rare than that of
the stage-coach. We are a progressive people, and when the quicker
mode of travel was developed the old was forgotten and sent into
obscurity.

Until within the last fifteen or twenty years we had but a single
class of passenger cars in America, as the emigrant trains on a few of
the trunk lines were hardly to be considered by travelers, but the
invention of the palace and sleeping-coaches (generally coupled with
the name of Pullman, their inventor), has given us two classes which
are virtually as distinct as are the first and second of a continental
railway. Hardly a train runs on any road of consequence without a
Pullman car attached, and a seat may be had in this vehicle on payment
of an extra fee. There is the parlor car for day use only, but the
"sleeper" is intended for both day and night. By the magic wand of a
colored porter the seats are converted into comfortable beds, and the
traveler may be whirled along at the rate of thirty miles an hour, and
all the while he sleeps as calmly as at home. Toilet-rooms are at the
ends of every carriage, one for gentlemen and the other for ladies,
where you may perform your ablutions and put your hair in shape, so as
to present as creditable an appearance as when starting on your
journey. That "necessity is the mother of invention" is well
exemplified in the history of the Pullman car. The great distances to
be traveled in America called for something which should soften the
asperities of sitting in an ordinary seat by night as well as by day.
Step by step the work went on, till finally we have the perfection of
railway travel.

The expense of a place in a parlor or sleeping-car on American
railways varies from two to three dollars for twenty-four hours, with
the addition of a fee to the porter of 25 cents a day. For this he
looks after your personal needs, polishes your boots, and opens or
closes your bed when you desire it. There has been considerable
mystery relative to the sleeping hours of a porter in a palace car on
long routes, as he appears to be on duty all the time from one day's
beginning to another. It is suspected that he belongs to a race apart
from the rest of humanity, and is so constituted that he never sleeps.
The tickets for the palace car are not usually sold at the same place
as the regular passenger tickets, but at a separate window or in an
office by itself. It is well to secure your place in advance, as the
cars are often crowded and you may arrive at a station to start on a
long journey and find that every bed has been sold. Places may be
secured hours and days ahead, and the earlier you take them the better
choice do you have. The tickets for the car are collected by a
conductor, and if any places are unsecured he can sell them to those
who apply for them.

Never buy your tickets, either for passage or for a place in a palace
car, of strangers in the street or of chance "runners." Such tickets
may be good, but the probabilities are not in their favor, while there
can be no doubt about the tickets at the regular offices. Where there
are rival routes it is often difficult to get the exact facts
concerning them, as the runners are apt to be inexact about the merits
of their own lines or the demerits of others. They have been known to
state that the track of a rival railway had been torn up and sold for
old iron in order that a dividend might be declared to the
stockholders, and the steamboat agent who told a timid old lady that
his company had removed all the boilers from their boats, so as to
destroy the possibility of an explosion, is not without imitators.

Beware of playing cards with strangers who wish to start a friendly
game of euchre which is subsequently changed to draw-poker or some
other seductive and costly amusement. This advice is superfluous in
case you are in the gambling line yourself, and confident that you can
"get away" with any adversary you may be pitted against. Be cautious,
however, about "waking up the wrong passenger," as not unfrequently
happens to skilled performers with cards.

On most of the railways each passenger has an allowance of 100 pounds
of baggage, but it is never weighed unless the amount is greatly in
excess. West of the Missouri river they are more particular, and all
trunks must pass the scales. On the Pacific railways all extra baggage
above the allowance is charged for at a certain rate per pound, but on
the eastern roads the extra charge is generally for the trunk or box
without much regard to its weight. On most of the eastern roads a
passenger can take a single trunk without extra payment, even though
it may rival a square piano in size. Sometimes a question about extra
trunks may be settled by a fee to the man in charge of the
baggage-room of the station or the baggage-car of the train. The
passenger's ticket must be shown at the baggage-room, where a metal
check will be given to the place of destination. The check secured,
the traveler may proceed to the palace or other car of the train and
give his trunk no farther consideration till he nears the place to
which it is checked.

Baggage expresses exist in most of the large cities. They undertake to
deliver your impedimenta on payment of a fee of from 25 to 50 cents
for each parcel, at any hotel or private residence in the place, on
the surrender of your check. If you are in a hurry and must have your
trunk within a few hours after your arrival, it will be unsafe to
trust to the baggage express; the agent who passes through the train
to collect the checks will assure you that your baggage will be
delivered within an hour of arrival, but if you ask a written
guarantee to that effect he will be pretty sure to refuse it, and
admit that he does not know when the delivery will take place. The
writer speaks knowingly and feelingly of his experience with baggage
expresses in New York; in only one instance in a period covering more
than twenty years has a baggage express delivered his trunk or valise
in the time promised by the agent, and he has been compelled to wait
all the way from two to ten hours beyond the time stipulated. On one
occasion a trunk that was promised for 7 A.M. was delivered at 8.30
P.M., and on another a valise promised for 2 P.M. did not reach its
destination till 11 P.M. and the driver of the wagon demanded extra
payment for night delivery.

Carriages from railway stations are always to be had, and in some of
the cities, notably in Boston, the rates are reasonable and honestly
stated, and the service is good and prompt. In New York very little
can be said in praise of the carriage system, as the drivers are
inclined to make as much as possible out of the stranger within the
gates, and are more likely to overcharge him than to state the proper
and legal fare. Most of the large hotels have their own coaches at the
stations on arrival of the principal trains, not only in New York but
in other cities, and by taking one of these coaches the traveler will
greatly lessen the probabilities of being defrauded. If he intends to
take a carriage from the station, and has only ordinary baggage, he
will not give his checks to the express agent, but will hand them over
to the driver whom he engages.

In the western cities there is an omnibus system of a very
satisfactory character. As you approach a city, an agent of the
omnibus company (generally called a Transfer Company) passes through
the train, and interrogates each passenger. You state your
destination--whether hotel, private house, or another railway
station--surrender your baggage check, and with it your transfer
ticket, if you have one; or if not, you pay a fee of from twenty-five
to fifty cents. The agent tells you the number or letter of the
omnibus you are to enter, and when you arrive at the station you find
the vehicles drawn up in a row against the platform. Selecting the one
that is to carry you, you enter it, and in a little while it moves
off, followed by the wagon that holds your trunk. You are taken with
reasonable directness to your destination, the omnibus sometimes
making slight detours to drop passengers along its route. The same
vehicles take passengers to the stations, and, by leaving notice at
the company's office, you can be called for in any part of the city,
at any hour you name.

Most of the American cities are well provided with street railways, or
tramways, and with cheap omnibuses that ply along the principal
streets. To make use of these to advantage, a knowledge of the city is
necessary; but strangers will have little difficulty in securing the
proper directions by applying to a policeman. Professional guides are
unknown in American cities, but the services of a bootblack or other
small and somewhat ragged boy can generally be secured to put the
traveler on the right track.

On all the lines of railway there are eating-stations, where
passengers may save themselves from starvation, and generally do a
good deal more. The time allowed varies greatly, but the usual limit
is twenty minutes; on some lines it is half an hour, while on others a
quarter of an hour is deemed sufficient. The price of a "square meal"
varies from fifty cents to a dollar, and there are a few places where
it is a dollar and a quarter. The square meal is not, as might be
supposed, a dinner, supper, or breakfast in the form of a cube; it
includes the right of eating as much as one pleases from any or all
the dishes on the bill of fare, and if the traveler chooses to repeat,
again and again, any favorite article of food, the proprietor offers
no objection. The service is generally good, and the supply of food
palatable and bountiful. The majority of travelers, are apt to eat
with considerable velocity at these stopping-places, and there are few
spots in the world where one can witness greater dexterity with knife
and fork than where a railway train halts "fifteen minutes for
refreshments." The performances of the East Indian juggler are thrown
in the shade, and the famous swordsman of Runjeet Singh, who could
wield his weapon with such rapidity that it was altogether invisible
while removing the head of an antagonist, might learn something if he
would make a visit to the eating-house of an American railway.

Those who do not wish a full meal will generally find a counter at the
eating-stations where coffee, tea, sandwiches, and cold meats may be
bought cheaply, and on some roads there are stations where the trains
stop for five or ten minutes only, to enable passengers to take a
slight lunch, of a solid or liquid character. On many of the roads the
sale of intoxicating liquors is forbidden; but these are not held to
include beer, cider, and light wines.

It is a good rule for a traveler never to miss the opportunity of
taking a meal. Sometimes the hours are a trifle inconvenient, and he
may not feel hungry when an eating-station is reached; but if he
allows it to pass he will find himself faint with hunger before he
comes to the next. On long journeys it is well to carry a lunch-basket
of such things as may strike the owner's fancy and palate, but care
should be taken to avoid articles that give out disagreeable odors.
Limburger cheese is not to be recommended--nor, in fact, cheese of any
sort; cold tongue is another objectionable article, as it will not
keep many hours, and has a way of smelling badly, or even worse.
Crackers, English biscuit, and fruit, with a bottle of claret or some
similar drink, are the best things for a railway lunch-basket, and
sometimes they tend greatly to preserve the temper unruffled, by
filling an aching void when the train is delayed and the square meal
unattainable.

On several of the great lines running westward, dining and hotel cars
have been established. The latter are both eating and sleeping-coaches
in one, but they are not generally in favor, as it is found in actual
practice that the smell of cookery is disagreeable to the slumberer,
while that of the sleeping-room is not acceptable to the nostrils when
one sits down to breakfast or dinner. The dining-car is kitchen and
dining-room, and nothing more. It is attached to the train at a
convenient time for a meal, and runs with it for a couple of hours or
so, when it is turned to a side track and waits to serve the next
banquet for a train going the other way. The dining-car is a most
admirable institution, as it enables the traveler to take his meals
leisurely while proceeding on his way. It is generally well-managed
and liberally supplied, and one may be fed as bountifully, and on as
well-cooked food, as in the majority of hotels. On some of these
cars meals are served _a la carte_; but the most of them have the
fixed-price system, at the same rates as the stations along the lines
where they run.

In the parlor cars, your seat is designated on a ticket specially
marked and numbered, and no one has any right to occupy it during your
absence. On the ordinary cars, the seats are common property, and
cannot be retained; though it is almost universally recognized that
the deposit of an overcoat, shawl, bag, or some other article of the
travelers equipment in a seat is _prima facie_ evidence that it has
been taken. Impudent persons will sometimes remove the property of one
who is temporarily absent, and appropriate the seat to themselves; but
they generally vacate it on being reasoned with. If they are
obstinate, the conductor may be called, and sometimes the muscular
persuasion of a strong brakeman or two is necessary to convince the
intruder of his mistake.



CHAPTER III.

AMERICAN STEAMBOAT TRAVEL.


The railway system of the United States had its beginning about fifty
years ago, and is consequently a third of a century behind the
adoption of the steamboat. According to the best authorities, the
first American steamboat that carried passengers and made regular
trips was built by John Fitch, at Philadelphia, and was the successor
of two experimental boats by the same inventor. She ran on the
Delaware river during the summer of 1790, and made altogether more
than two thousand miles, at a maximum speed of seven and a half miles
an hour. Fulton built the _Clermont_ in 1806, and her regular trips
began in 1807, seventeen years later than the achievement of Fitch.
From this beginning, river-navigation by steam was spread through the
United States till it reached every stream where boats could ply, and
some where they were of no use. Of late years the steamboat interest
has declined in some parts of the country, owing to the extension of
the railway system; but it is still of great magnitude, and will
doubtless so continue for many years to come.

American steamboats are undisputedly the finest in the world, and
every foreigner who visits the United States looks with wonder at our
floating palaces. Whether on eastern or western waters, the result is
the same. The most ordinary boat surpasses the finest that English or
European rivers or lakes can show.

The largest and most elaborate of the eastern boats are on the Hudson
river and Long Island sound; the finest of the western boats are on
the Mississippi. Some of those that connect New York and Albany and
New York and Boston are capable of carrying six hundred first cabin
passengers with comfort, and they have been known to transport as many
as a thousand. On the night-boats there is a general sleeping-room
below deck, and a bed in this locality is included in the ticket.
Separate rooms on the upper deck must be paid for extra; but they are
worth their cost in the privacy, better ventilation, and superior
accommodations that they afford, besides being easier to escape from
in case of accidents. The saloons are large, and elaborately
furnished; and, if the boat is crowded to repletion, the sofas are
used as sleeping-places by those who were not lucky enough to obtain
rooms or beds below. Sometimes extra beds are put up in the saloon and
lower cabin, so that the place looks not unlike a hospital, or the
dormitory of a charity school.

A crowded steamboat at night is the paradise of the pickpocket, who
frequently manages to reap a rich harvest from the unprotected
slumberers. Even the private rooms are not safe from thieves, as their
occupants are frequently robbed. On one occasion, some thirty or more
rooms on a sound steamer were entered in a single night. The
scoundrels had obtained access to the rooms in the day-time, and
arranged the locks on the doors so that they could not be properly
fastened. The night traveler on the steamboats plying in eastern
waters should be very particular to fasten his door securely, and if
he finds the lock has been tampered with he should report the
circumstance to an officer or to one of the stewards. The windows
should be looked after as well as the doors, and the rules that apply
on railways to social games of cards with polite strangers should be
remembered on steamboats.

Where steamboats are in competition with railways their fares are
generally much cheaper, owing to the longer time consumed on the
route. Where time is not an object the steamboat is the preferable
conveyance, as the traveler is not inconvenienced by dust, the
ventilation is better, means of circulation are far superior, and on
river routes there is a better opportunity to study the scenery.
Tickets may be bought and rooms secured at the offices at the terminal
points in advance, and they may also be had on board the boats at the
time of departure. It is needless to add that the earlier they are
taken the better is the choice of rooms.

Meals are not included in the price of the ticket. They are served on
nearly all boats, sometimes at a fixed price, as at the railway
stations, and sometimes _a la carte_. The latter system appears
to be gaining in popularity, as it is now adopted on many lines that
formerly adhered to the old method.

On the great lakes there are propellors on the general model of the
ocean steamer, and in summer they ply to all the principal ports.
Interesting excursions may be made on these steamers, provided the
traveler is not disturbed by a little roughness of the water now and
then; of late years the voyage around the lakes has become highly
popular, and is very pleasurable in Summer. Paddle steamers also
abound on the lakes, but they do not equal those of the Hudson and
Long Island sound, either in size or in the splendor of their
accommodations.

On the Western rivers the model of the boat differs materially from
the Eastern one. The main saloon is quite above the engine-room, which
is on the lower deck, where the freight is piled and the steerage
passengers are congregated. The Eastern and lake boats are propelled
by low-pressure engines, while the craft of the Mississippi and its
tributaries are generally high-pressure, and sometimes work a hundred
and thirty pounds to the square inch. Explosions are less frequent now
than formerly, but there are still enough of them to make traveling a
trifle hazardous. Not infrequently fifty or a hundred lives will be
lost by a steamboat explosion, and on one occasion the number of
deaths by the blowing up of a steamboat and her consequent destruction
by fire exceeded fifteen hundred.

Steamboat racing was once one of the amusements of the Mississippi and
is not altogether unknown at present, though it has greatly declined.
In the annals of the West there are many famous races recorded, where
large sums of money were risked on the result, and where the
passengers were as much excited over the event as the owners of the
boats. In 1853 there was a race from New Orleans to Louisville,
between the steamers _Eclipse_ and _Shotwell_, on which seventy
thousand dollars were staked by the owners of the rival craft, and
probably the private bets were fully equal to that amount. The two
boats were literally "stripped for the race;" they were loaded to the
depth that would give them the greatest speed, and their arrangements
for taking fuel were as complete as possible. Barges were filled with
wood at stated points on the river and dropped out to mid-stream as
the boats approached; they were taken alongside and their cargoes of
wood transferred without any stoppage of the steamer's engines. At the
end of the first twenty-four hours the _Eclipse_ and _Shotwell_ were
side by side, 360 miles from New Orleans. They continued in almost
this way to Louisville, and, though the race was supposed to have been
won by the _Eclipse_, there was so much dispute about it that the
wager was never paid.

Passenger travel on the Western rivers has been greatly reduced in the
last twenty years, owing to the creation of lines of railway parallel
to the rivers, and the majority of the boats now running are far
behind those of the palmy days between 1850 and 1860. Fares are lower
than on the railways, and they include rooms and meals as of old, but
the table is less bountifully supplied than formerly, and the number
of servants is not so large. There is less competition, and the
schedule of fares is generally adhered to. In the old days there was
comparatively little regularity, and the clerk or captain of each boat
could do pretty much as he liked about terms to passengers. On the Red
river the clerks were accustomed to graduate the fare according to the
locality where the passenger came on board. The more fertile and
wealthy the region, the higher was the price of passage. Travelers
from the cotton districts paid more than those from where tobacco was
the staple product, and those from the sugar country paid more than
any other class. With few exceptions there was no ticket system, every
man paying his fare when it best suited him to do so. At present _on
a changé tout cela_.

The departure of a steamboat from one of the great landings is a
matter of some uncertainty. If she is advertised to leave at a certain
time, those familiar with the business will understand that she will
not leave before that hour, and her departure after it will be guided
by circumstances. She will go when her freight and passenger-list are
sufficiently full to make the trip a profitable one, unless she
belongs to a line performing a regular service, in which case she is
held to her schedule. The writer once took passage on a Mississippi
steamer that remained at the wharf twenty-nine hours after her
advertised time, and all the while she had steam up and her whistle
was blown every half hour or so to indicate that she was "just going."
And a friend of his once took passage on a steamboat from St. Louis to
Cincinnati before the days of the railway. He lived on board for
nearly a week with the boat tied up to the landing. At the end of that
time the trip was abandoned, as the boat could not obtain a cargo for
Cincinnati, and the passage-money was refunded in full.

When you go on board a Western steamboat proceed at once to the office
and pay your fare. The clerk will hand you the key to your room or
assign you to a berth in one that already contains a passenger, and
then you can make yourself at home. You will find the manners of the
Western waters more free than those of the East, and it is quite
possible that your room-mate, if you have one, will commence the
cultivation of your acquaintance with an invitation to drink; the
custom of shooting a man who declines this politeness does not prevail
at present, and the records of its having ever occurred are shrouded
in obscurity. Western and Southwestern passengers are often rude and
uncouth, but the rudeness is almost always unintentional, and the
coarse exterior is very apt to cover a warm heart. The stranger will
find much to amuse and interest him, and there are few places where
human nature can be studied to better advantage than in the saloon of
a Western steamboat.

The gambler once flourished on the Mississippi. He is less abundant
than of yore, but the supply is still quite equal to the demand. He is
generally not so polished as his confrere of the eastern boats and
railway trains, but his ways are no less winning, so far as the taking
of money is concerned, and he goes much further in the science of
cheating. The unsophisticated stranger who takes a fourth hand with a
trio of the light-fingered fraternity, "just to make up a game," might
as well hand over his pocket-book at the start, unless he prefers
going through the form of losing his cash.

Never be in a hurry on a western boat, as the time of arrival at your
destination is a matter of more or less uncertainty. Delays at the
landings, to take or discharge freight, are sometimes vexatious, and
the journey may require double the time that was expected at the
start. In the season of low water the boat is liable to get aground,
and may lie there for hours, days, or even for weeks, before she is
again afloat.

The dangers of the western waters are greater than those of the east.
The boats are more liable to take fire, owing to their form of
construction, and, as their engines are on the high-pressure
principle, the chance of explosion of the boilers is much greater. The
navigation of the rivers is hazardous, as the sand-banks are
constantly shifting, and the course to be followed by the pilots is
rarely the same for three months at a time. Snags and sawyers present
dangers quite unknown to eastern waters, and in the Missouri river
especially they are very numerous. A snag is a log or tree-trunk
imbedded in the bottom of a river, with one end at or near the
surface. The current causes it to incline down stream, and it is more
dangerous to an ascending boat than to a descending one. The flat
bottom of the boat is pierced by it, and sometimes the craft is
impaled as one might impale a fly with a pin. On one occasion, on the
Missouri river, some twenty years ago, a snag pierced the hull of a
steamer, passed through the deck and cabin, and actually killed the
pilot in the wheel-house. The sawyer is a tree that is loosely held by
the roots at the bottom of the river, while its branches are on the
surface; the current causes it to assume a sort of sawing motion, and
hence its name. It is nearly if not quite as dangerous as the snag,
and some of the pilots hold it in greater dread, for the reason that
sawyers frequently change their position, while the snags, being more
firmly imbedded, are less likely to drift away.

The current of the lower Mississippi is very strong, and it is a
common remark that when a man falls into that stream his chances of
escape are small. Many good swimmers have been drowned in it, and the
great majority of those who dwell on its banks have a wholesome dread
of attempting to bathe in its waters.

When we go westward beyond the valley of the Mississippi we find very
few inland lakes and streams that are navigable. Great Salt Lake
maintains a steamer or two for excursion purposes, and the waters of
California had at one time a fair-sized fleet of boats that navigated
San Francisco bay and the streams flowing into it. Their importance
has diminished since the construction of the railway, and at present
the steamboats of the Golden State are of no great consequence. Those
that exist are managed more on the eastern than on the Mississippi
system, but the rates are generally higher than on the Atlantic coast.

The Columbia river and its navigable tributaries have some thirty odd
boats, most of them of small size, and intended to run where there is
little water. The models in use are a modification of those of the
Hudson and Long Island sound, and the rooms on the boats intended for
night travel are generally large and comfortable. In going up the
river from Portland, Oregon, the regular boats leave at five o'clock
in the morning, and travelers making that journey will find it to
their advantage to sleep on board instead of spending the night at the
hotel and rising at an unseasonable hour in the morning.

On all the river steamers of America it is advisable to get a forward
room rather than one near the stern. There is less jarring of the
machinery, less heat from the engines, and, when the water is rough,
there is less "pitching." On the other hand, there is more danger from
collisions, and, on the Mississippi boats, a greater chance of being
blown up. You pay your money, and you take your choice. But don't
trouble yourself about accidents; don't put on your life-preserver
before you go to sleep, as timid persons have been known to do; and if
anything should happen try to face the danger coolly, and do the best
you can. If you have occasion to don a life-preserver, be sure to
fasten it well up under the arms, and not around the waist. In the
proper position it will support the head above water, while, if
fastened around the waist, it is apt to sustain the lower part of the
body and submerge the head. If compelled to take to the water, divest
yourself of the greater part of your clothing, and have your feet
bare, or, at best, only stockinged. Ladies should reject their corsets
under such circumstances, as they are serious hindrances to breathing
in the water, and it is hardly necessary to say that long skirts are
great impediments to swimming, or even to floating. Some persons have
recommended their retention, on account of their buoyancy; but this
only lasts for a few moments. As soon as they become soaked with water
they become heavy, and have a tendency to drag the wearer down, rather
than to support her.



CHAPTER IV.

SEA AND OCEAN TRAVEL.


The landsman who has never been on a sea-voyage looks with more or
less hesitation at the prospect of making one. His thoughts are
occupied with what he has heard or read of the perils of the great
deep, and he regards with a feeling akin to veneration the bronzed
sailor who has plowed every ocean on the globe, and tasted the
delights of every climate. He questions his friends who have been to
sea before him, and from their varied experience lays up a store of
knowledge more or less useful. He wonders how he will enjoy sailing
over the blue waters, how the spectacle will impress him, and more
than all else he wonders whether or no he will be sea-sick. He busies
himself with procuring a suitable outfit for his nautical journeys,
and in nine cases out of ten selects a quantity of articles he never
uses, and which it is not always easy to give away.

Before the days of steamships a sea voyage was an affair of
considerable moment, as it implied an uncertain period on the waters,
and the passenger was obliged to take along a good many articles of
necessity or comfort, or go without them altogether. Nowadays the
principal preparation is to secure your place and pay for your ticket,
and, unless you are very eccentric in your wishes and desires, you
will find everything you want to eat or drink on board the ship that
is to carry you. In selecting your place, if you are inexperienced in
sea travel, try and get as near the middle of the ship as you possibly
can, and if you are forward of "amidships" you are better off than if
the same distance "aft." In the middle of the ship there is less
motion than elsewhere in a pitching sea, and the further you can get
from the screw the less do you feel the jarring of the machinery. The
rolling is the same all over the craft, and there is no position that
will rid you of it. Several devices in the shape of swinging-berths
have been tried, for the benefit of persons with tender heads and
stomachs, and some of them have been quite successful in smoothing the
rough ways of the ocean, but the steamship companies have been slow to
adopt them, and the old salts do not regard them with a friendly eye.

Close all your business and have everything ready the day before your
departure. It is better to sit around and be idle for a few hours than
to have the worry of a lot of things that have been deferred till the
last.

If you are going on a long voyage by sailing ship and expect to pass
through the torrid and both temperate zones, you should provide
yourself with thick and thin clothing suitable to all latitudes. If
you are a society man of course you will carry your dress suit and a
goodly stock of fine linen to match, but if you are "roughing it," and
have no letters of introduction nor social designs, the dress suit
will be superfluous. Take three or four suits of linen for wearing on
shore in hot countries, a medium suit of woolen for temperate lands
and a thick suit of the same material for high latitudes north or
south. The roughest clothing procurable is what you need for wearing
on shipboard, thin for the torrid zone and thicker for the temperate.
Woolen or "hickory" shirts are the proper things for sea wear, and the
only occasion when you need a white shirt is when you go on shore.
Your own judgment must be your guide as to the proper supply of
collars, handkerchiefs, and the like; don't forget to be well provided
with underclothing, and remember that wool is a much safer article to
wear against the skin than cotton or linen. Take plenty of woolen
undershirts of the lightest texture for hot climates, and of course
you will have thick ones for the cold regions. An umbrella and a cane
are desirable for protection against sun and rain, or dogs and
beggars, when going on shore. A sun hat, or _sola topee_, as it is
called in India, is desirable in the tropics, but there is no need of
taking it along at the start. It can be bought in the first tropical
port you visit, and will be found there at a lower price than where it
is not in regular use.

If you are going to China or India from an American port you need take
only enough shore clothing to last you till you arrive there, as the
tailors in those countries can outfit you very expeditiously, and at
lower prices than you have at home. Of course you should have
something to wear during the day or two it will require them to make
up the goods after taking your measure. They will not give you a very
snug fit, and quite possibly your garments may look as if they had
been made on another man's measure, but if they are comfortable and
succeed in touching you here and there they are about all you can
expect. The Chinese tailor generally suggests "no fittee no takee"
when he measures you, but his ideas of a fit are different from those
of the fashionable clothiers of New York and London.

If you carry gloves through the tropics be sure to wrap them well in
oiled silk before starting. It is well to observe this rule with
gloves on all sea voyages, as the marine atmosphere is very injurious
to them.

If you are a smoker carry your own cigars and tobacco. Fine cigars
should be put up in tin or glass, as they are apt to suffer from the
sea air; it is the opinion of many travelers that it is not worth the
trouble to carry good cigars on an ocean voyage, as they are quickly
spoiled, and soon taste no better than common ones. A fine cigar may
be desirable after each meal, but for other times and for "smoking
between smokes" an ordinary one is just as well. The author has tried
all kinds of cigars at sea, and gives his verdict in favor of the
manilla cigar of the quality called "seconds" (understand that the
manilla cheroot is not intended, but only the cigar). Seconds are
preferable to firsts, as they are lighter in size and quality; the
firsts make a very fair after-dinner cigar, and in the Far East many
persons prefer them to choice Havanas. If you smoke a pipe be sure and
have a supply of pipes with perforated covers for use on deck when the
wind is blowing.

For the trans-Atlantic voyage, between America and Europe, there is
very little need of preparation, beyond getting your ticket and
putting affairs in shape for your absence. Take plenty of thick
underclothing, your roughest suit of clothes for wearing on the
voyage, the roughest and heaviest overcoat that you possess for wet
weather, and an equally rough rug or other wrap for keeping you warm
on deck when the north wind blows merrily. If you are of a sedentary
habit buy a steamer chair, and when you buy it make up your mind that
you will occupy it when you want to. A great number of people who say
they "don't want the bother of a chair," or "didn't think to get one,"
are in the habit of helping themselves to the chairs of others without
the least compunction of conscience and without caring a straw as to
the desires of the owners for their property. Women are worse
offenders than men in this matter, and the young and pretty are worse
than the older and plainer. If you have a stony heart you will turn an
intruder out of your chair without ceremony, whatever the age or sex,
but if you cannot muster the courage to do so your best plan is to
send the deck steward to bring the chair, and while he is getting it
you can remain quietly out of sight. When you buy the chair have it
marked with your name or initials, so that it can be easily
distinguished from others of the same shape and color.

You are expected to come to the dinner-table in a black coat on most
of the steamship lines. The rule is not imperative, however, but it is
well to comply with it, as you will encounter many people whose
notions about dressing for dinner are rigid, and, besides, the half
hour spent in arranging the toilet before the bell calls you to the
table is a variation of the monotony of the voyage.

Everything needed for the voyage may be contained in a valise or
"steamer trunk," with a toilet satchel, and all heavy luggage should
be sent below at the dock. A steamer trunk is designed to be stowed
under the berth out of the way; its proper dimensions are 30 inches
long, 15 or 16 wide, and 12 high. Its length or width may be greater,
but its height should not exceed 12 or at most 13 inches, or it will
be often found too large for the space where it is intended to go.

An old valise or sack should be taken along for containing the rough
sea-clothing which may be left with the steamer-chair at the company's
office in Liverpool or whatever port the passenger may land at. There
they remain till his return, in a storeroom specially provided for
them. They should be properly marked, so that the storekeeper will
have no difficulty in selecting them when wanted.

The servants who wait upon you will expect a reward for their
attentions, and you will be flying in the face of a long-established
custom if you fail to give it. On the English steamers half a
sovereign (ten shillings English) is the proper fee for the
room-steward on the voyage either way, and the same to the
table-steward. You will not diminish the attention upon you if you say
to these men at starting that you will remember each of them with a
ten-shilling piece, provided you are satisfied with them; they know
what to expect and will act accordingly. On the French and German
steamers a ten-franc piece is the usual fee to each of the servants
above mentioned. The "boots" expects a five-shilling or a five-franc
piece, according as the steamer is English or French, provided he
polishes your boots during the voyage, and the man in charge of the
bath comes along for a similar amount if you make regular use of his
services. If you frequent the smoking-room the steward in charge of it
expects to be remembered with a half crown, and a similar coin will
not be refused by the deck-steward who looks after your chair. None of
these fees should be paid until the last day of the voyage and the
service of the men has ended. It often happens that the room-steward
is very attentive through the voyage and in every way satisfactory; he
answers your bell promptly and you consider him a model servant, but
if you give him his fee before he has carried your impedimenta on deck
it is quite possible that you will carry them yourself or hire another
man to do it. His interest in you has ceased and he is looking after
somebody who hasn't yet rewarded him. The same thing may happen with
the table-steward, and he cannot hear your summons after he has been
paid off, though before that event he was the very beau ideal of all
you could wish.

It is always well to provide yourself with the money of the country
you are going to, or with that of the nationality of the steamer. On
an English ship, take ten pounds or so of English money, to cover all
your fees and extras, and to have a supply on landing until a visit
can be made to the banker. On the French steamers, take a
proportionate amount in francs, and on the German steamers, a supply
of marks will be quite in order. You can get this cash at a
money-changer's without as much trouble as you will have in case you
find no one on the steamer to make change for you, and the discount
will be less.

The perils of the transatlantic voyage are now practically reduced to
the dangers resulting from fog on and near the banks of Newfoundland.
The ships performing the service of the best of the lines are built so
strong that no wind to which the North Atlantic is accustomed can
injure them, and the captains are men of experience and ability. But
the fog is an evil which will not disappear at our bidding; the most
intelligent commander is helpless in the fog, and he cannot be sure at
any moment that he is not rushing to destruction upon a pitiless
iceberg, or dashing forward to collide with another ship, in which one
or both of the unlucky vessels may be lost. The ice is probably the
greater of the dangers, as the steamers give warning of their presence
to each other by the sound of whistles or fog-horns, and of late years
there has been an attempt to establish steam lanes across the
Atlantic, so that steamers going eastward should be several miles from
the track of those that are westward-bound. The iceberg hangs out no
lights and blows no whistle, and the first warning the captain can
have of its presence is when its white outline looms through the fog
less than a ship's length ahead. Many a steamer has had a narrow
escape from destruction, and not a few have been lost by encounters
with the ice. Of those that have never been heard from it is
conjectured that the majority were lost by collisions with the ice, as
in most instances it was abundant at the time of their disappearance.

The ingenuity of man has been taxed to avert the dangers from the ice
and fog, but thus far comparatively little has been accomplished. At
times the density of the fog is so great that the eye cannot penetrate
it more than twenty yards; experiments have been made with the
electric light, but the result has not been favorable to its general
adoption. A careful observation of the thermometer will sometimes show
the proximity of a berg, as the melting ice causes a fall in the
temperature of the water, frequently amounting to ten or twelve
degrees, and sometimes there will be a chilly blast of air, that says
very plainly there is ice in the vicinity. The early summer months are
the most dangerous on the score of ice, but the bergs abound till late
in autumn; they come from the west coast of Greenland, where they are
broken off from the immense glaciers that flow down from the interior
and push out into the sea. The great polar current carries them
southward, past Labrador and Newfoundland, till they are thrown into
the warm waters of the Gulf-stream and there melted away. They rarely
go further south than to the fortieth parallel, but are sometimes
drifted as far east as the Azores.

By taking a course that will carry them to the south of the Grand
Banks the steamers might avoid the fog and its consequent dangers;
some of them do so, and others advertise that they will. After they
get at sea the mind of the captain sometimes undergoes a change, and
the ship is headed so that she passes near Cape Race. The more to the
south a ship is kept the longer will be her course, and in these days
of keen competition to make the shortest passages the temptation is
great to run away to the northward as far as possible. The author was
once a passenger on a steamer that laid her course within fifty miles
of Cape Race, although he had been assured at the office of the
company that she would "take an extreme southerly course," and the
promise to do so had been inserted in the advertisements. A passenger
ventured to say as much to one of the officers and to ask if the
managers of the company had not ordered the southerly route. "The
captain commands here," was the reply, "and the managers have nothing
to do with his course; he can run wherever he pleases, and trust to
Providence for the result."

It is to be hoped that the great companies will some day make an
agreement, and keep it, that they will all take the southerly course
and make an end of a competition that is dangerous in a certain
degree. They would be greatly aided to such an arrangement if the
American government would withdraw its offer to give the carrying of
the mails to the company making the shortest average of passages
across the Atlantic. Public opinion might also do something in this
way, but, unfortunately, public opinion happens to be in favor of the
most rapid transit, and looks upon safety as a minor consideration.
Whenever the majority of travelers shall think more of the pleasure of
staying longer on the earth than of going over its surface at the
greatest speed there will be a move in the right direction.

But do not disturb yourself with unpleasant thoughts of what may
happen in the fog. Remember, rather, that of the thousands of voyages
that have been made across the Atlantic only a few dozens have been
unfortunate, and of all the steamers that have plowed these waters
only the _President_, _City of Glasgow_, _Pacific_, _Tempest_, _United
Kingdom_, _City of Boston_, and _Ismailia_--seven in all--are unheard
from. The chances are thousands to one in your favor, and if this does
not satisfy you, try and recall the philosophy of the man who said it
was none of his business whether the ship was in danger, as he had
paid his fare to the company and they were under obligations to carry
him safely to the other side. If the wind rises to a gale, don't worry
in the least, and if you have any doubt about the matter ask your
room-steward what the appearances of things are to a sea-faring man
like himself. Quite possibly his answer may be in the substance, if
not in the words, of the mariner's song:--

    "A strong nor'-wester's blowing, Bill;
      Hark! don't ye hear it roar now!
    Lord help 'em, how I pities them
      Unhappy folks on shore now!"

When a steamer is in a rough sea, especially if she is lightly laden,
the screw is frequently out of water for several seconds at a time.
Relieved from the resistance of the water, the screw whirls with the
rapidity of lightning and gives the stern of the ship a very lively
shaking. This is called "racing," and it is anything but pleasant, but
there is a comforting assurance when you hear it that everything is
all right and the machinery in order. Whenever you hear the racing of
the screw in rough weather you will hear a welcome sound. If a wave
seems to hit the ship a staggering blow, and send her half over, do
not listen for a commotion and spring from your berth, but bend your
ears to catch the sound of the engine, and when you hear its "choog!
choog!" you may make yourself easy. In rough weather or in smooth, the
first thing to listen for on awaking is the engine, and when you hear
its steady breathing and feel its great heart pulsating, as if it were
the vital force of an animate being, you may turn and sleep again,
satisfied that the ship which carries you "walks the water like a
thing of life" and is bearing you safely onward to your destination.

Inventors have busied themselves to devise something that should put a
stop to the racing of the screw, with its liability to derange the
machinery and its certainty of disturbing the nerves of excitable
passengers. Several plans have been tried, but, up to the date of
writing this volume, none of them have proved successful. Somebody
will doubtless accomplish the desired result before the end of another
decade, and when this is done he should give attention to the jar
caused by the machinery. It is hardly reasonable to expect that a
fast steamer will ever go over the water with the steadiness of a
sailing-ship, and with no perceptible jarring, but so much has been
done in the last twenty-five years in smoothing the ways of the ocean,
and the vessels that plow it, that the scheme here suggested is by no
means impossible.

While sitting on deck some afternoon you may be at a loss for a
subject to think about. Busy yourself with imagining what will be the
style, model, speed, and propelling force of the transatlantic ship of
twenty, fifty, a hundred, and five hundred years hence! Here is enough
to occupy you for many hours, and perhaps you may devise something
that will benefit the human race, and, also, not the least
consideration, put money in your pocket.



CHAPTER V.

SEA-SICKNESS AND HOW TO AVOID IT.


We come now to the momentous question of _mal de mer_. It is a
question that has puzzled the scientific men of all ages since the
departure of the Argonauts in search of the Golden Fleece on the first
ship that ever sailed the sea, and, from present appearances, it will
continue to be a puzzle as long as the waves of the ocean continue
to roll. By some it is claimed to be a nervous disturbance, others
contend that it is purely a stomachic affair and the nerves have
nothing to do with it, and there are others who argue that the brain
is the seat of the disorder and disturbs the stomach by sympathetic
action. There are wise men who charge sea-sickness to the spleen,
the liver, or other internal organs, and it is not impossible that
we may yet hear of a savant who attributes it to corns on the toes.
Sea-sickness is a mystery, and the more we study it the more are we
at sea as to its exact operation.

Some people, who are bundles of nerves, are not affected by the motion
of a ship, while others, who are nerveless as a paper-weight, are
disturbed with the least movement. Weak stomachs escape while strong
ones are upset, and there seems to be no rule that can be laid down
with exactness or anything that approaches it. But on one point there
can be no two opinions, that sea-sickness is a most disagreeable
malady, even in its mildest form, and that any means of relieving it,
or even of mitigating it in a small degree, will be hailed with
delight by all who suffer from it. It will also be a boon to those
who are never sea-sick, as it will relieve them from a companionship
that is not always the most agreeable in the world.

For some persons there is no escape, and they will be prostrate in
their berths during the whole voyage of the ship, or just able to get
around. But, in the majority of cases, sea-sickness may be wholly
prevented by a free use of cathartics or anti-bilious remedies a day
or two before departure on a voyage. In America, the pills of Ayer,
Brandreth, or Wright will serve the purpose; in England, the famous
"Cockle's pills," and in France the _Pilules Duhaut_. The relaxation
of the system should be sustained during the voyage by the same means
or by the use of Seidlitz powders, or similar effervescent substances;
this simple precaution will save most persons from being disturbed by
sea-sickness, no matter how wildly the ship may toss, provided they
combine with it an abundance of air and exercise. As before stated,
there is no relief known at present for the other fourth of humanity,
except to stay at home.

Dr. Fordyce Barker, an eminent physician who has made a careful study
of sea-sickness, opposes the previous use of cathartics, and advises
that a hearty meal be eaten a short time before going on board. Those
who are subject to sea-sickness he enjoins to undress and go to bed
before the vessel moves from her dock or anchorage. He says they
should eat regularly and heartily without raising the head for at
least one or two days, and in this way they will accustom the
digestive organs to the performance of their functions. He advises
the use of laxative pills the first night out and, if necessary,
during the entire voyage. The following is his prescription:--

    LAXATIVE PILLS.

    [Rx]. Pulv. Rhei. (Turk.),     [Dr]ss.
          Ext. Hyoscyami,          [Sc]j.
          Pulv. Aloes Soc.,
          Sapo Cast.,           aa gr. xv.
          Ext. Nux Vomicæ Alchoh., gr. x.
          Podophyllin p.,          gr. v.
          Ipecac.,                 gr. ij.
       M. ft. pil, (argent) No. 20.
       S. Dose--one, two, or three.

Where there is a tendency to diarrhoea, which sometimes happens at
sea, he recommends the following, and he also advises the traveler to
carry it in his journeys over the Continent to counteract the effects
that occasionally come from drinking bad water. The dose is, for an
adult,

    [Rx]. Tinct. Camphoræ,        [Sc]vj.
          Tinct. Capsici,         [Sc]ij.
          Spts. Lavendul. Comp.,
          Tinct. Opii,         aa [Oz]ss.
          Syr. Simp.,             [Oz]ij.

M.S. A small teaspoonful in a wineglass of water after each movement.

Dr. Barker says that in cases where the victim has suffered several
days from sea-sickness, with constant nausea, nervous depression, and
sleeplessness, he has found great benefit in the use of bromide of
potassium. The powders are to be taken in a half-tumbler of plain
soda-water, and, if this cannot be obtained, in cold water sweetened
with sugar. It is to be sipped slowly, so that the stomach may be
persuaded to retain and absorb it. The powders should be kept in a
wide-mouthed vial, or in a tin box, so as to protect them from the
effects of the sea-air. The following is the prescription:

    [Rx]. Potass. Bromide,         [Oz]j.
          Div. in Chart No. 20.
       S. One, two, or three times a day.

He also recommends a person about making a sea-voyage to take a supply
of "mustard leaves," which can be had at the druggist's. They are
useful in allaying the nausea and vomiting by getting up a counter
irritation, and should be applied over the pit of the stomach.

Many individuals, especially those inclined to corpulency, find relief
in wearing a tight belt around the waist. This is so well understood
that some of the makers of surgical appliances advertise "belts for
sea-sickness" as part of their stock in trade. Some persons recommend
a tight-fitting undergarment of strong silk, but, in order to be of
use, it must be altogether too close for comfort, and the wearer is
quite likely to say that he considers it the greater of the evils.

A recumbent position is better than the erect one when a traveler is
suffering from the nautical disturbance, and, in most cases, he is too
weak to take any other. It is better to lie flat on the back than in
any other way, and there are many persons who are well when thus lying
down, but become ill the minute they attempt to rise. A friend of the
writer belongs to this category. His mode of taking his meals when at
sea is to lie flat on his sofa, while the steward cuts his meat into
small pieces and gets everything ready. At a given signal the sufferer
rises to a sitting posture, and swallows a few mouthfuls as rapidly as
possible. Then he drops back, rests a few minutes, and repeats the
feeding operation. In half a dozen performances of this sort he will
take in a creditable dinner; as long as he remains on his back his
digestion goes on all right, but he cannot be five minutes on his feet
without a return of nausea.

A round of heavy dinners and champagne suppers before starting is not
a good preparation for a sea-voyage, neither is a "send-off" on board,
with farewell glasses of inspiriting liquids. Many a man has suffered
at sea from too much conviviality before his departure.

The sufferer on the water is not charmed with the mention of the
table, and even the greatest delicacies fail to arouse his appetite.
Give him anything he wants, it won't make much difference, though it
is well, perhaps, to deter him from ham and eggs, chicken or lobster
salads, and anything, in fact, that contains grease or oil. Tea and
toast are the great articles of diet for the sea-sick, and they may be
safely trusted with baked apples, and with nearly all kinds of fruit.
A cracker or an Albert biscuit will sometimes have charms when nothing
else can be swallowed, and when the victim is convalescent he feels as
though a pickle would do him good. Lemonade is admissible and
soda-water is a safe beverage; brandy and soda may be ordered by those
who do not shine as members of a temperance society, but it should be
taken with caution and the doses must not be repeated too frequently.
All drinks that contain carbonic-acid gas are beneficial, and many
persons find relief in occasional small allowances of champagne. Those
who intend to put any reliance on this wine during sea-sickness should
equip themselves with a "champagne tap" before starting; they can then
draw what they desire from a bottle and keep the rest without fear
that it will become stale through loss of gas.

Hartshorn, cologne, and other substances intended for inhalation are
all good at this time, partly because of their effects on their lungs
and partly by the distraction of taking them. A volatile article used
with great success in sea-sickness is the nitrite of amyl; it is
prepared in the form of a pearl with a thin shell of glass around it
so as to prevent its evaporation. Any reputable druggist can procure
it, and with the pearls it is desirable to have a tube for crushing
them and liberating the liquid. In the absence of the tube they may be
crushed in the handkerchief, but when taken in this way a large part
of the effect is lost.

Always go on deck when you are able to do so, even if you are carried
up by your friends or the stewards and deposited in your chair like an
armful of wet clothing. Wrap yourself well against the cold, and on
the first instant of chillness get more covering or go below. Whenever
you feel the impulse to feed the fishes in the early stages of a fit
of sea-sickness always go to the lee side of the ship (the one the
wind blows from) and never to windward. By so doing you will save a
considerable amount of damage to your clothing, and also to that of
any who may be near you.

Many persons will tell you that it is an excellent thing to be
sea-sick, as you are so much better for it afterwards. If you are a
sufferer you will do well to accept their statements as entirely
correct, since you are thereby consoled and soothed, and the malady
doesn't care what you think about it, one way or the other.

And now comes a bit of advice which might have been given at the
opening of this dissertation on the discomforts of the heaving deep,
but has been reserved to the end in the hope that it will leave a
lasting impression. When the ship casts loose from the dock, or lifts
her anchor and gets under way, you should think of anything and
everything except sea-sickness, and if any one starts the topic in
your hearing leave him and walk away, or ask him to change the
subject. If you cannot be thus abrupt, change it for him by starting a
political discussion or other agreeable wrangle; do anything rather
than allow a continuation of his remarks. Many a man and many a woman
has been talked into being sea-sick, or has meditated and wondered on
the possibility of it till the malady has put in an appearance. We all
know how much the mind dominates the body, how bad news takes away the
appetite and good news increases it, and we have all heard how a well
man was driven to his bed by the concentrated efforts of a dozen
practical jokers who separately informed him that he looked very pale
and something must be the matter with him. Don't talk or think of
sea-sickness; you will know it fast enough when it comes, and till
that time it is the wisest course to assume that you are to be the
healthiest passenger on the ship.

Prof. A. G. Wilkinson, of Washington, D.C., says:

"During Atlantic crossings for four years past I found but one
instance in which from twenty to thirty grains of bromide of soda in
ice-water three times daily for four days, commencing two days before
sailing, failed to prevent loss of a single meal. Get dry powders put
up in foil and enclosed in ground-stoppered bottles, to prevent
deliquescence. I learned this from experimenting for several years
with chloral and the various bromides. Soda alone was never
distasteful. Dr. G. M. Beard, of New York, was independently
experimenting at the same time, and first published his conclusions.
_After vomiting commences_ he recommends,

    Bromide of soda, [Dr]i. Tinct. belladonna, xxx guttæ. Aqua, [Oz]vi.

    Teaspoonful every ten minutes until relieved.

A lady friend had never been able to take a single meal at sea; the
second day out, while she was sick, I gave her the above, and she took
every meal for the rest of the voyage."



CHAPTER VI.

SPECIAL ADVICE TO LADIES.


For the following the author is indebted to a lady who has made
several trans-Atlantic voyages, and is consequently familiar with the
necessities and comforts of ocean travel:

"It is simply preposterous," says a fashionable friend of mine, "Here
you are, going to sail for Europe in three days, to be gone three
months, and you have nothing ready but that same old trunk, plastered
all over with baggage labels, every color of the rainbow." _J'ai
repondu, "C'est assez, mon ami."_ If you wish to examine its
contents I will show it you with great pleasure, and any one else who
may desire to see how I "stow away" my traps can look on at the same
time. But as the steamer-clothing, etc., will be the first to be used,
I'll show you the contents of this little fifteen-inch square box
first. This I call my "steamer-trunk." It is not a steamer-trunk
proper, but I find it much more convenient than a long flat one such
as is used to go under the berth. This will stand on one side of the
wash-stand in the state-room, where a camp-stool is generally found,
and by placing a folded shawl on top it makes a permanent,
comfortable, and firm seat, saves trouble of stooping and dragging it
out, as is the case with an ordinary steamer-trunk, when you want to
open it. The lid has a flat leather loop in the center for a handle
and can be easily lifted when closed. There is a small tray inside
which I use as a "catch-all," and there is plenty of room under the
tray for all the clean linen I shall require on the voyage. This and
my dressing-bag, with one shawl-strap, is all the baggage I put into
my state-room.

Some ladies strew things, "conveniences" they call them, from the top
to the bottom of the state-room; quite regardless are they to the
convenience and comfort of a possible fellow passenger. Do whatever
you please if you can afford a state-room to yourself. But if not,
pray keep your own side of the house. Other folks put a lot of
eatables in their berths and then complain of rats. Don't take
anything in the eating line except a basket of lemons, and if you must
take something to drink let it be Chartreuse. Take a box of cathartic
pills, and if you need a dose make it a little larger than you would
under the same circumstances on shore. Coarse blue flannel or serge is
the best for deck wear. Have the skirt of the dress as short as
possible without looking odd. Attach the skirt to the waist of the
dress and make the front without side forms so that it will look well
without a corset. A blouse waist, if well made, will be suitable for
almost any figure, and is the most comfortable, but it must fit
perfectly round the neck and shoulders.

One flannel skirt, one thin skirt of some bright clean gingham, warm
flannels next the body, one pair of overall flannel drawers, bright
turkey red, to be worn over the ordinary underclothing and slipped off
on going below, two pair stout boots with good square heels, and
buttons or laces to support the ankles properly, warm stockings of
silk or very fine wool. Don't weigh yourself down with a lot of
skirts. Have the limbs well covered and free for walking. No matter
what season of the year, take along a good stout cloth ulster,
reaching to the bottom of your dress and securely buttoned from the
throat to the bottom; no hood nor cape for the wind to make a sail of,
only one good broad collar for turning up to keep your ears and neck
warm while promenading the deck or sitting in your steamer chair; two
or three good outside pockets are indispensable. Never venture on deck
without this coat, and a big shawl to cover your feet while sitting
down.

Wear an ordinary night-dress in your berth, and have a flannel
dressing-gown made without any lining to wear over it when going to or
from the bath-rooms, some of which are very luxurious if you enjoy
bathing in seawater. Don't fail to have gauntlets sewed on to your
gloves to keep your wrists warm. You must make your own selection for
head-wear; soft felt hats are very comfortable, but not always
becoming. One of the prettiest and most comfortable head-coverings for
ladies over 30 is a sort of Normandy cap or bonnet made of silk with
soft crown and the breast of a grebe on one side; it will not spoil or
get out of shape easily. The best way to dress the hair is to make a
smooth coil at the back of the neck and keep the front tidy by
brushing each time you go to the state-room; frizzing and curling are
impossible and ludicrous. A pretty opera-hood will do good service for
a change.

If the weather is very warm on the day you are to sail, carry your
steamer-clothes in your shawl-strap and wear a dress that will do you
service for a change on the journey. On your arrival in Europe put the
same dress on to go ashore and put your steamer-clothes into the
little trunk, taking out the underclothing, which will now be soiled,
and put it into your shawl-strap. Leave your steamer-trunk, chair,
shawls, etc., with the steamship company, subject to your order or
return. Put your name in full, and make all into one package, if
possible.

The large trunk is a Saratoga, 36 inches long, 23 high, and 20 inches
in width. There is only one tray, one end of which has a separated
compartment for bonnets or hats, and it is quite large enough to
contain three without injury if properly packed round with tissue
paper to prevent their falling from side to side. The other two-thirds
of the tray is open and flat. Here are collars, cuffs, gloves,
ribbons, pocket-handkerchiefs, a few bright bows, ready looped or
tied, for hair, neck, and corsage, eight pairs of stockings, such as I
wear ordinarily, four pairs extra thick for cold weather, or for
mountain climbing, one small box in one corner for cuff-buttons and
some inexpensive jewelry which can be worn without constant fear of
losing. One little plump pincushion with plenty of short shawl-pins,
three or four long hat-pins and plenty of black and white, small ones,
some safety-pins, and a few needles on the under side. Make a loop at
one corner to hang it up by.

Into the convex portion of the lid (which has a separate cover with
hook to fasten), are three pairs of boots, one for dress, one for
walking, and one extra stout pair for bad weather. Into the remaining
space I have put a shawl and wrap, which will not spoil by being put
into so small a space; also my bathing-suit of blue flannel, which is
always kept in a rubber water-proof bag, with drawing strings, thereby
making it portable whether wet or dry, which is a great convenience,
both at home and abroad, for the reason that when you take it off you
can immediately put it into the bag, draw the strings together and
carry it back by them to your hotel to be dried by the chambermaid.
Never leave a nice bathing-suit at the bath-house to be dried. If you
do, the probability is that when you need it you will find it wet from
some one else having worn it, and the buttons off at the places where
they are most needed. There is yet space enough left in this little
convexity for a few books, and also for a small bundle of things for a
friend whom I wish to remember.

When all these things are taken out for use on arrival, the space is
very convenient for soiled clothing, it being quite separate and
distinct from any other compartment. Do your own packing if you do not
keep a maid. Have a place for everything, so that when you want
anything in a hurry, or you feel tired, you will not have that
interminable bug-bear of "having to unpack everything to find it."
Many a good manager or housekeeper seems perfectly lost when she
contemplates the possibility of "living in a trunk," as it is vulgarly
called. But if she will bring some of her good common sense to bear
upon these smaller details, she will find it not only adds greatly to
her own comfort, but it will save her friends from the depression of
listening to her uninteresting complainings.

Now we lift out the tray, which has two strong loops for that purpose.
You can do it yourself, for it is not heavy, having no heavy articles
placed in it. Into the body of the trunk put all undergarments first.
Don't roll anything up; lay all as smooth and even as possible. About
twelve of each article will last you twenty days. Whatever the season
of the year, don't fail to take a couple of flannel skirts and some
warm underflannels for extra cold or damp days, and before dressing
each morning take a peep at the sky and ask the weather which kind of
undergarment you shall put on, thick or thin? One of the greatest
comforts for breakfast wear is a wrapper of very dark, soft summer
silk costing about 50 or 60 cents per yard; line it throughout with
unbleached muslin; twelve yards of silk will make it if cut sparingly,
_a la princesse_ robe, loose in front with demi train. Trim the
front from the throat to the bottom of the skirt with some cheap cream
color or black lace, with a few bright bows of your favorite colored
ribbon, about one inch wide, tack some of the lace in pleats round the
neck and fasten securely down the front with buttons concealed under
the lace, put a patch pocket on each side with one bow on each, one
bow and a little of the lace on each sleeve, and you have a dress that
will not spoil if you wish to lie down. It is always tidy with or
without a corset. You can go through the halls of the hotels in it,
and if indisposed you can receive your intimate friends without making
a change. It will do more service than a dozen dressing-sacques, and
it saves washing, which is quite an item to the economical.

One black grenadine walking dress, made fashionably, looks pretty for
evening wear, but it must be lined throughout. No transparent sleeves
and neck for rheumatism and consumption. One black silk made to wear
with or without extra wraps for the street. One black or very dark
green, or smoke-color cashmere for rougher wear, trimmed with satin
bands, will not catch the dust and looks handsome. One India silk and
one alpaca ulster with plenty of pockets, and if you have a couple of
dresses which you wish to finish wearing out, see that the skirt braid
is in good order and take them along to wear under the ulsters, for
railroad traveling, staging, etc. See that the ulsters fit properly.
Don't imagine that because the material is thin it will accommodate
itself to your shape. Have the silk one washed as often as required,
and it will look like new every time. A blue gauze veil worn with
either of these ulsters looks stylish, and a soft felt hat, if
suitable to your face, will be the most comfortable for your head. Put
a wing or bow of ribbon on the left side, but no ostrich feathers. I
would remark that a due regard should be given to the color of the
bonnet or hat, also to bows of ribbon or lace, selected to be worn
with the dresses. The reason is obvious, viz., when traveling from
place to place you have very little time for dressing and arranging
becoming toilets, therefore--don't mix things. Put on each article
which is intended to be worn with its particular dress, and instead of
the fatigue of "changing your dress" every time you go somewhere, you
will have only to put on bonnet, gloves, and wrap, and there you are,
smiling and ready in three minutes. Husbands, brothers, and
fellow-travelers will appreciate this when they find that it is not
necessary to ask you, "How long will it take you to get ready?"

Get a yard and a half of unbleached glazed linen and bind it all round
with wide red worsted braid. Put this into the trunk with a good long
shawl-strap, also your umbrella and parasol. One black parasol with
white lining will do for every dress, and look as if it were made for
each one in particular. You will not _need_ any of these things on the
voyage, so you can put "_Hold_" in large letters on the trunk, and
that will insure you against the temptation of opening it on the
steamer. When you arrive at the end of your ocean journey, you will
appreciate the comfort of having everything to your hand directly you
open your trunk.

Rest for one night (at least) at the place of landing, whether
Queenstown, Liverpool, Havre, or elsewhere, and have your soiled linen
washed. If at an English port, you will probably go on to London for
your first sightseeing; if at Havre, your destination will probably be
Paris. In either case you will find it pleasant to stop over night at
one or other of the most attractive towns on the way, and for your
greater comfort you will take out one complete change of clothes,
viz., a fresh dress and some under-linen, and your lace-trimmed
wrapper. Spread the afore-mentioned "linen wrap" out smooth, lay your
dress lengthwise in the center first, then put the other things on top
(lengthwise also), and lastly your umbrella and parasol. Fold each
side of the linen cover over so as to nearly meet in the center, and
then roll up from end to end, and put your shawl-strap around it.
This, and your dressing-bag, is your baggage when you expect to be
away from your trunk for a few nights. Send the trunk on by _petite
vitesse_, or ordinary freight, to your ultimate destination. It
will make an appreciable difference in your expenses, and like a
thoughtful friend it will be waiting for you on arrival, and will have
secured a room at the hotel to which it has been addressed. By
following this plan you will always have a complete change with you,
and will be relieved from the bother of looking after a trunk while on
your journey. The hotel manager can always tell you about forwarding
your trunk, and the porter of the hotel will attend to the matter. And
now let me tell you about my hand-bag and what it contains.

The best satchels, and the most convenient, are those which open very
wide and display their contents without obliging one to hunt for each
little article needed.

Fold a nice clean night-dress in a piece of paper and place it in the
bottom. It is a great comfort to have such a necessity so handy in
cases of late arrival at hotels, great fatigue, and possible accident.
Don't forget a clean towel. A good-sized sponge, in a water-proof bag
long enough to contain a tooth or nail-brush (some of these bags have
a separate pocket for the brushes), have a piece of soap in a tight
metallic soap-box; one good-sized bottle of cologne-water or bay rum,
well corked; one powder-box, with cover screwed on firmly; one
medium-sized hand-mirror; a small bag (with drawing string), into
which you have put plenty of buttons, spools of silk, thread, needles,
and thimbles.

One thin blotter containing writing-materials, and which is small
enough to lay flat against one side of the hand-bag, and can be
slipped in and out without disarranging the other things, small bottle
of ink, with screw or spring top, a couple of pens, and plenty of
pencils. Comb and brush in a bag made for the purpose out of a dark
silk handkerchief or a piece of chintz. Silk is the best because it
will not so easily catch the dust. There is always a little pocket on
one side of bag for a paper of pins, a button-hook, and hair-pins,
also a pair of scissors.

Put everything back after using, and make your handbag your catch-all
in the state-room, and when the weather is rough you have only to
close it and so keep everything secure and in its right place. When
going a journey by rail put in your guide-book and a magazine. Also, a
common fan on top to be easily reached.

For a becoming head-covering to wear in railroad carriages, and to
keep the dust from your hair when you wish to rest your head, which
often gets tired from wearing a hat for several hours, take a
gentleman's small-sized silk pocket handkerchief, of becoming color,
and trim the edges with some cheap black Spanish lace, gathering it
round the corners so it will lie flat and round. Fold it crosswise,
and lay it with two corners on the top of the head, and tie the other
two together either under the chin or back-hair. Then make two little
pleats on each side of the head near the temples, making it fit the
arch of the head nicely, and you will find that it is very
comfortable, and takes up little room in your bag.



CHAPTER VII.

DAILY LIFE AT SEA.


On shipboard you may rise as early or sleep as late as you choose,
provided you do not extend your slumbers beyond the breakfast-hour;
you are not by any means compelled to get up when the bell rings, but
it is best to do so unless prevented by illness. You will find the
fresh air of the deck invigorating, and a better appetizer than all
the cordials or other stimulants in the possession of the bar-keeper,
and besides, the room-steward desires to put your cabin in order
sometime during the forenoon. Time is kept on shipboard by "bells,"
and those who wish to show their familiarity with the sea are in the
habit of dropping the ordinary nomenclature of the hours and reckoning
by the sound of the bell. The nautical day begins at noon, and all
calculations regarding the movements of the ship are made with 12 M.
as the starting-point. A little practice and observation will accustom
the landsman to "ship's time," and afford him a slight distraction
when inclined to think the voyage a monotonous one.

The bell strikes every half-hour from noon to noon again, the even
strokes representing complete hours, and the odd numbers the
half-hours. The marine day is divided into "watches" of four hours
each, with the exception of the period from 4 P.M. to 8 P.M., which
forms two divisions of two hours each, known as "dog-watches." The
object of this arrangement is to prevent the same men being on duty at
the same time day after day, as they would be if the whole twenty-four
hours were divided into unbroken watches of four hours each. The crew
is divided into "watches" that relieve each other every four hours,
with the exception of the "dog-watch" just described. These divisions
of the men are known as starboard and larboard, or starboard and port,
and each watch has an officer in charge of it. The captain does not
"stand his watch" like the other officers, and when the weather is
fine and everything lovely he has little to do. But when a gale
arises, or the ship is enveloped in fog, it is a time of great anxiety
for him, and sometimes there are days together when he hardly leaves
the bridge for more than a few minutes at a time. The prudent
passenger will avoid speaking to him during this anxious period, and
it is a good rule never to address the captain until he has first
spoken to you. For the most part, the transatlantic captains are
genial and inclined to be sociable, but you will now and then
encounter one who evidently descended from a bear or some other
ill-mannered animal, if the theories of Charles Darwin are correct.

To know the hour at sea by the bell remember the following: At half an
hour past noon there is a single stroke of the bell, and at one
o'clock there are two strokes. At half-past one we have three strokes,
and at two o'clock four strokes. Thus it goes on, adding a single
stroke every half-hour till four o'clock, when "eight bells" are
struck. As before explained, the time from four to eight is divided
into two short watches, and at eight o'clock a full watch begins, in
which the hours are sounded the same as from noon to 4 P.M. This watch
ends at midnight and is followed by another till 4 A.M.; from 4 to 8
A.M. is another, and from 8 A.M. till noon is another. If you happen
to wake in the night and hear five bells you may know that it is
half-past two, unless you have gone to bed very early, and slept
briefly, in which case it may be half-past ten. But as the lights are
not put out till 11 P.M., and on some ships at 11.30, you are not very
liable to mistake the time of one watch for another.

And while we are talking about watches we will consider the one you
have in your pocket. The change of longitude in a transatlantic voyage
implies a corresponding change of time. There is a difference of four
hours and fifty-six minutes between New York and London, _i.e._, when
it is noon in New York it is fifty-six minutes past four in the
afternoon at London. This variation of time is spread over the
transatlantic voyage and amounts to not far from half an hour daily
with the majority of steamers. When going to the east a ship's day is
actually only twenty-three and a half hours long, while it is
twenty-four and a half when she is on her westward course. This may
account for the fact that steamers make their best daily runs when
their prows are pointed towards the setting sun.

If you have a costly watch it is not well to change it daily to
correspond with the ship's time. Let it run without alteration till
you are at the end of the journey, and depend on the bells or the
cabin clock for the actual hours. The writer has found that a cheap
watch--such as can be bought for five or ten dollars--is an excellent
adjunct to a valuable gold one when traveling. It can be altered daily
to correspond with the change of longitude, and if it is left around
carelessly there is little danger that any intelligent thief will care
to steal it. In a journey around the world he changed the hour of his
pocket-chronometer only five times--at San Francisco, Tokio, Calcutta,
Naples, and Paris--and depended upon his "brass" watch for daily
service.

So much for keeping time on shipboard; let us see how we can spend it.
Carry enough books to give you ten or twelve hours reading every day,
and if you get through a quarter of them you will be lucky. You will
find an unaccountable disinclination to read, especially if you have
been very active just previous to departure, and will develop a
decided tendency for sleep. What with sleeping, and eating, and
associating with other passengers, you find no great amount of time
for literature, and unless you devote yourself to a blood-curdling
novel, in which you are constantly on the strain to know how the plot
ended, and whether she married him or the other man, you can only get
through a few pages at a time. If you are going abroad for the first
time it is advisable to confine the reading to descriptions of the
countries you are about to visit, rather than to light literature,
but, if you are determined to stick to fiction, you will find
sea-stories more interesting than land ones, for the reason that you
are on the great deep, and the pictures of the novel will be more
vivid than if the book were read on shore.

A ship is a world, and the ocean is the measureless azure in which it
floats. Sea and sky are your boundaries, and the horizon-line is ever
the same. The weaknesses of human nature, as well as its noble
qualities, are developed here, and sometimes they are limned in
sharper outlines than on land. Persons whom you have known for years
will develop on shipboard qualities that you never suspected them of
possessing. You had always thought your neighbor on the right was a
selfish mortal, but you now find that he is self-sacrificing to the
extreme; on the other hand, the man whom you believed a model of
politeness turns out to be quite the reverse. Never in your life have
you heard as much gossip in a month as you now hear in a single week;
the occupation, character, peculiarities, hopes, desires, and
frailties of everybody are canvassed by a goodly proportion of busy
tongues, and the ship will very likely impress you as a school for
scandal which Sheridan might envy.

Don't take a share in the gossip, and don't concern yourself about the
private affairs of anyone else. Be polite to everybody, but don't be
in a hurry to make acquaintances; by so doing you will stand higher in
their estimation, and will have time to find out those whom you would
like the best. A shipful of passengers is generally broken into
several parties of persons congenial to each other; sometimes the
groups and parties are on the best of terms, and at other times there
is considerable hostility, generally caused by a few turbulent
spirits, not always of the sterner sex. The weather has much to do
with the formation of cliques on an ocean steamer. When the sea is
smooth for a day or two at the start the passengers become generally
acquainted and are agreeable all around. But if the steamer puts her
prow into a rough sea immediately on leaving port those of tender
stomachs disappear before they have had time to exchange a word with a
stranger. The unruffled ones get together, the men in the
smoking-room, and the ladies in the cabin, and companionship begins.
By the time the sea is level again, and the sea-sick ones appear, the
circles have been formed, and some of them closed completely; then the
new-comers form rings of their own, and out of these primary and
secondary formations jealousies often grow.

Join in all the innocent sports that while away the time. By day, in
fine weather, there are quoits, shuffle-board, and other games, for
which the ship furnishes the material, and in the evening there are
impromptu entertainments of a mixed character in the cabin. Contribute
whatever you can to the general fund of amusement, and if you can
neither sing, recite, tell stories, play on an instrument, or do
anything else to please your fellow passengers, try and be a good
integral part of the audience. You can look on and listen at any rate,
and with a little practice you can do it well. Perhaps you can find
diversion by investing in the daily pool on the run of the ship, and,
when coming westward, there is the inevitable speculation as to the
number of the boat from which you take the pilot. But this pool
business is sometimes expensive, and if your purse is thinly lined you
will do well to stay out of it. The smoking-room affords opportunities
for dropping your spare cash to gentlemen of a playful turn of mind,
and there are usually adepts at cards who will accommodate you with
any game you like. The Atlantic is crossed every year by men who boast
that they are always able to cover their expenses, and very often the
boast is far below the reality. The fashionable steamers are sometimes
the scenes of very high play, and gambling at sea seems to be on the
increase in the last few years. They can never be made the field of
operations similar to those of the river and railway gamblers of
America, for the reason that there is no station or landing-place
where a performer on the cards can disappear when he has fleeced his
victim, but, at present, there is good reason to believe that the
business of occasional passengers is less while ashore than when
afloat.

If you have any complaints to make address them to the purser; it is
his business to look after the welfare of the passengers, and he
nearly always does it. Where you desire to make a first-class row you
can appeal from the purser to the captain, and if they are not on the
best of terms, and you lay your schemes carefully, a great deal of bad
blood will be engendered. As a last resort, you can carry the affair
up to the general management of the company, where complaints are
investigated with more or less care, and satisfaction is given or
refused. The great competition between the various lines causes them
to be particularly attentive to the wants of passengers, and it is
very rarely that one hears of a well-founded complaint against the
captain or purser of a transatlantic steamer. If they err at all it is
in paying too much attention to passengers who are often quite willing
to be let alone after they have been comfortably settled on board.

Never attempt to go on the "bridge" which is exclusively reserved for
the officers of the ship, and do not be anxious to penetrate the
mysteries of the engine-room or handle the steering apparatus. On some
of the ships notices are posted requesting passengers not to speak to
the officers when on duty; it is well to heed these, and also well not
to get too near the ropes when sails are being hoisted or taken in.
When the ship is pitching violently in a head sea, avoid going forward
on deck, as you may get a drenching unexpectedly, and possibly may be
washed overboard. Be cautious about leaning over the taffrail or stern
at any time, and especially in rough weather, as the ship may "jump
from under you" without the least warning, and drop you in the sea.
Old sailors as well as landsmen have been lost in this way.

The hours for meals vary on the different lines, but whatever the
arrangement, there is no danger of starvation. Most of the English
lines give you breakfast, lunch, dinner, and supper, four meals
altogether, and all of them pretty "square" ones. The breakfast
consists of fish, ham and eggs, steaks, chops, Irish stew, hot rolls,
and a half dozen, or perhaps a dozen, other things, with all the tea
or coffee you choose to drink. Lunch consists of cold meats and
biscuits, and is not a very heavy affair, but the dinner is of that
solid character which is one of the boasts of British liberty. You can
eat yourself into dyspepsia without making any apparent impression on
the abundance set before you, and if you try to go through the bill of
fare without missing anything, you will wish you hadn't. Of soups,
fish, roasts, boils, stews, and fries, there is apparently no end; the
cooking is generally good, and leads the thoughtful passenger into a
profound admiration of the culinary artists of the sea. And it also
leads him to wonder why so much is prepared when comparatively little
is eaten, especially in the first touch of rough weather, when half
the passengers and more are confined to their rooms, and a goodly
number of the other half display microscopic appetites. This matter
has been discussed by the managers of the lines; it has been proposed
to make the experiment of serving meals on the "European plan," and
ultimately to abandon the old system, if the new one is found
acceptable. Under this scheme the price of passage would be reduced,
and include only the room and transportation; meals would be served as
in a restaurant, and the traveler could spend much money or little,
according to the dictates of his purse and appetite. The cost of
feeding the passengers would be much less than at present, and all the
waste would be borne by the public, instead of the company.

For supper you have toast and cold meats, with Welsh rarebits and
other things, such as dreams are made of, and the strong-hearted
Englishman generally washes it down with a bottle of ale to give him a
good digestion. Some of the companies give an additional meal called
tea, which runs closely into the supper; so close is the connection
that you can go from the one to the other without leaving the table.
In fact, the meals are so numerous that they are crowded against each
other, and you are hardly through with one and settled into your chair
on deck before you are summoned for the next. But if even these are
not sufficient for the keen appetite and hearty digestion you have
acquired at sea, you can get something to eat between times by
application to the steward. Verily, there is little danger of
starvation on a voyage by trans-Atlantic steamer.

On the French line the arrangement differs somewhat from the English.
At seven in the morning, tea or coffee is given, with bread and butter
and a bowl of soup. From half past nine to eleven breakfast is served,
and consists of preliminary appetizers, such as radishes, anchovies,
cold ham, and other trifles, followed by steaks, chops, eggs in every
form, fish, chicken, and similar solids. Then comes a selection of
cheeses and fresh and dry fruits, and the meal ends with a cup of
black coffee. Dinner is at half past four, and resembles the
continental table d'hote; it is served in courses, and is sufficiently
comprehensive to cover the demands of any appetite not altogether
unreasonable. Wine, either white or red, is included for both
breakfast and dinner, and the passenger may drink as freely of it as
he likes. Tea is served at eight in the evening, and there is a light
lunch of cold meats at one o'clock. The writer has fared admirably on
one of the ships of the French line, and on a subsequent voyage by the
same steamer, he fared badly; on the whole, he believes the system a
good one, and acceptable to the majority of the passengers.

The gastronomic service of the German steamers combines certain
features of the French and English lines, and the hours for meals
correspond very nearly to those of the latter. The cooking is
Teutonic, and the bill of fare includes a liberal allowance of the
toothsome sausage and the savory sour-kraut. There is less waste on
the French and German steamers than on the English ones; and it has
been remarked that the sea gulls understand the matter very clearly,
and will always follow an English ship in preference to one of the
others, for the reason that the chance of picking up a delicate morsel
that has been tossed overboard is much greater.

Seats at table are assigned by the chief steward or taken by the
passengers when they go on board. A card with the name of the
individual is placed at the desired seat; the novice might suppose
that this would be sufficient to retain the place, but it is not so by
any means. Other passengers, who desire the same places, will remove
the cards and substitute their own, and sometimes they display great
"cheek" in the transaction. It is best to have the chief steward
approve your selection at the time you make it, and then you will have
an appeal in case of the removal of your card. The captain's table is
the post of honor, and the location of the greatest dignity, but if
you are not specially invited by the commander to a place there, and
have no acquaintance with him, it is best not to seek it. Sometimes
the purser's table is a pleasant one, and sometimes the reverse; and
the same may be said of the doctor's table. Purser and doctor are
proverbially good fellows, with very few exceptions, and wherever you
may be seated, your fortune in eating depends more on the table
steward than on any one of the officers. When you have once occupied a
seat at dinner you retain it through the voyage unless you change with
the approval of the steward. A seat in the middle of the saloon is
preferred by some to one near the side, but there is really very
little difference in the places, so far as the motion of the ship is
concerned. Most of the best steamers have adopted the revolving seat,
so that you may come to or leave your place without disturbing any
one, which is not the case with the old-fashioned bench. Where the
benches remain, the passenger should make an effort to secure an end
seat, especially if he is liable to sea-sickness and may suddenly
discover some day that he doesn't want any more dinner.

If the chief steward assists you to secure a desirable seat, he will
expect a pecuniary compliment for the service; on most ships it is
well to be on the right side of him, but on some it makes no
difference. The first time you go forward beyond a certain line one
of the sailors will chalk your boot, or draw a chalk-mark around
you. This is a time-honored custom of extracting a shilling from the
novice, and the money so obtained is invested in liquid refreshments
for the crew. There is only a single chalking for each passenger on
the voyage; after he has paid the penalty once he may go forward as
much as he pleases without danger of molestation.

The days will run on with more or less monotony, according to
circumstances. You will be interested in trivial matters; a sail that
is a mere speck on the horizon will awaken a lively discussion, and
the appearance of a shark, or a school of porpoises, is sure to draw
at least half the passengers to the side of the ship to watch the
movements of the inhabitants of the sea. The birds will be a source of
amusement, and when a wearied land bird, driven far out to sea by the
wind, and with strength nearly exhausted, lights on the rigging, the
excitement rises to almost fever heat. What he is, and whence he came,
are momentous questions, and if he can be caught and tamed, as
sometimes happens, he becomes a popular pet throughout the ship. Some
years ago, while a steamer was on her way to New York, a crow came on
board a hundred miles or so from the Irish coast. He was caught by the
sailors, and soon became perfectly tame and fearless. He liked his new
home so well that he did not try to leave it when the ship returned to
Ireland; he continued to cross and re-cross for several months, till
he was accidentally killed on the dock in New York, where the ship was
lying.

Land is in sight, and we will prepare for shore. The old clothing is
packed away for deposit in the store-room of the company till our
return, and the steamer chair is folded, tied, and tagged. We don our
good garments and may cause a sensation to those who have seen us only
in the habiliments of the sea, but as every one else will do likewise,
the sensation is doubtful. We are ready for the tender that takes us
to terra firma, where the formalities of the custom-house await us.

As we leave the ship that has brought us safely over the ocean, it
will be no discredit to our manhood if we say good-bye to her, and
wish her many prosperous voyages. A feeling akin to affection is not
unfrequently developed by the traveler for the ship that has carried
him, and ever after he will take a personal interest in her fortunes.
A passenger on one of the transatlantic steamers once gave vent to his
sentiments in some doggerel verses, of which the following was the
concluding one:--

    "Old steamer, good-bye, there's some brine in my eye;
      I can't say where'll be our next meeting,
    But wherever it is I shall welcome your phiz.,
      And give you a right hearty greeting."



CHAPTER VIII.

GOING ON SHORE.--HOTELS.


The English and French custom-houses are not as difficult to pass as
the American, and the examination is generally quite brief. The
traveler should get all his pieces together, so as to facilitate the
labors of the officials, and if he has anything liable to duty it is
best to declare it before any questions are asked. Spirits and tobacco
are the things mainly looked for, and, if any are found that have not
been declared, they are liable to confiscation. Where the passenger
has only a small quantity of luggage it is generally passed without
being opened; and if there are several trunks they investigate every
second or third one, making the selection themselves. It is well not
to have any of your trunks nicely corded and made up for a long
journey, as the officers have learned from long experience that such
packages are more liable to contain contraband goods than any other,
and consequently they are the ones generally chosen to be opened.

Landing in America has more formality than landing in England or
France. The officers come on board at quarantine, and while the ship
is making her way up the harbor the declarations of the passengers are
taken. The number and character of each one's packages is marked on a
blank, to which is appended an oath to the effect that the passenger
has told the truth. He receives a card bearing the number of his
declaration, and when he reaches the dock and has his baggage ready
for examination, he presents his ticket to the officer in charge; the
latter assigns his subordinate who is to conduct the examination, and
hands him the declaration that the passenger has made. If the number
and character of the packages is found to be correct, and no dutiable
goods are discovered that have not been declared, the inspection is
over in a few minutes, the officer puts a cabalistic mark on each
article, and the passenger may then breathe freely. Sometimes the
officials conduct the search with a great deal of rigor, and at others
they are not at all particular. There appears to be no regular system
about the business, and the officials are lax or vigilant, according
to the temper of their chief. A change in the office of collector of
customs at New York is followed by a great deal of energy, but nobody
can tell how long it will last. On some occasions the inspectors have
actually turned the contents of trunks on the dock in order to
facilitate their examinations, and a great deal of needless rudeness
has been displayed by them.

For the information of travelers, the following caution is
published:--

"All articles such as wearing apparel, not having been worn, must be
declared at the custom-house. Travelers not conforming to this
regulation will incur not only the confiscation of the articles not
declared, but also the payment of a fine. Silks, laces, and other
foreign goods, packed with articles of apparel, or otherwise
concealed, are, as well as the articles in which they may be placed,
liable to seizure; and travelers are warned that the seizure is
strictly enforced, unless the examining officer is informed of the
articles being in the package, and the goods duly declared before it
is opened."

Clothing in actual use is admitted free of duty, and those who return
home with a supply of new garments should be particular to wear each
article at least once, in order to be within the regulations. Ladies
are informed that a dress that has simply been "tried on" is
considered liable to duty, but if it has actually been worn once or
twice, it is admissible. Gloves are exempt from this condition, but
the traveler should not expect to import a large quantity. The strict
allowance is one dozen pairs, but in most cases three or four dozen
may be carried without question. The regulations say that each
passenger may bring, free of duty, a fair amount of clothing,
according to his condition in life, a statement that has given rise
to a great deal of dispute. Half a dozen costly silk dresses of the
latest fashion would be manifestly out of place in the baggage of
Bridget Maloney in the steerage, and fresh from the bogs of Ireland,
while they would be regarded as a moderate allowance for Miss Flora
M'Flimsey, whose father is a millionaire.

In the continental ports, generally, there is often considerable delay
in examining baggage, and the following regulations have been made to
facilitate the movements of travelers:--

"Passengers, on landing, are not permitted to take more than one small
bag with them on shore. The custom-house porters, who are responsible
for its safety, convey it direct from the vessel to the custom-house,
where the owner, to save personal attendance, had better send the
hotel commissionaire afterwards with the keys. The landlord of the inn
is responsible for his honesty."

Leaving the custom-house behind you, the way is clear to seek a hotel.
Generally there are plenty of runners at the landing-place, and if you
have chosen the establishment where you are to stop, you have only to
name it, and the runner for that house will step forward to take
charge of yourself and your belongings. Sometimes the baggage is taken
on the cab or carriage which carries you, and at others it is
intrusted to licensed porters, who are responsible for its safe
delivery, and can be trusted without much hesitation. As far as
possible, it is best to keep your baggage always with you when
traveling, but there are many instances where it is not convenient to
do so. Before you leave the custom-house there are some fees to be
paid to the porters who have handled your luggage, but none to the
officers who examined it. You will find, too, that the man who puts it
on the carriage desires to be remembered, and you discover very early
in your travels that you are in the land of fees. If you are in charge
of the hotel runner you can let him settle these matters, or, if you
prefer to attend to them yourself, you can do so, but you run the risk
of giving too much. The runner is not always to be trusted, as he
sometimes has a secret arrangement with the porters to compel
strangers to bleed freely with the understanding that he is to receive
the surplus. For putting the ordinary baggage of a traveler through
the custom-house and on the top of a cab, a shilling is sufficient,
and if it is handled by two persons they should be satisfied with a
sixpence each.

It is best to ask the hotel proprietor to settle for your cab rather
than attempt it yourself. It is next to impossible to ascertain from a
driver how much he is legally entitled to; he either lies about it, or
will not give a direct answer. He will "leave it to the gentleman,"
and the more you persist in knowing, the more he will "leave it to
your honor." And finally when you make a venture, and through fear of
giving too little give too much, the chances are, five to one, he will
declare himself under-paid, and demand more. He promises beforehand to
leave it to you, but rarely does, and therein is the aggravating part
of the business. The only way to do under such circumstances is to
walk off and leave him to shower imprecations on you; if you prefer
peace and quietness you will pay what he demands. This payment will be
followed by a request for an additional something for drinking your
health, and possibly by a hint that the horse is hungry, and a trifle
to buy oats would be appreciated by the beast. Don't expect a driver
in the United Kingdom to change a coin for you; his pockets may be
bulging with shillings and sixpences, but he declares with the most
solemn face that he has no change, and possibly insists that you are
the first patron he has had for two days.

Our copy-books at school generally inform us that the horse is a noble
animal. No one will be likely to dispute the statement, as we all have
a respect for the horse, and many of us are familiar with incidents
that show his excellent character. But, admitting his nobility, it is
a little singular that he should be associated with so much that is
the reverse of noble, or rather that the great majority of those who
associate with him are inclined to rascality. The whole race of
hackmen and cabmen, from one end of the world to the other, are
distinguished for their swindling tendencies; horse-trading and
horse-jockeying are synonyms of cheating, and the race-track is the
resort of scoundrels of all grades and kinds. If the traveler is not
prepared to accept this proposition before landing in the old world,
he will have excellent opportunities to verify it before he has been a
month on the eastern side of the Atlantic.

In the English hotels the traveler will find many things to remind him
that he is not in the United States. Instead of an office with a
marble counter, a heavy register, and a clerk gorgeous as to hair and
sparkling as to breast-pin, he finds a little window opening into a
room only a few feet square, and behind the window a woman. She takes
his application for lodging, and as he peers into the nook where she
sits he wonders how the New York hotel clerk would get along in such
narrow limits. Perhaps he may see a door opening beyond the office
into an equally small apartment, where the book-keeper is stationed,
and, in many instances, he finds that the accounts are kept by one of
the gentler sex.

In many hotels not a man is visible about the office, with the
possible exception of the porter, and the entire management is in
feminine hands. The proprietor is rarely seen, and even the manager,
where there is a masculine one, is a personage who is reached with
more or less difficulty. At a famous hotel in Ireland, which bears the
name of its proprietor, the story goes that a gentleman asked one day
if that individual was in.

"He's in his private office, sir," was the reply.

"Say that I wish to see him a moment," said the gentleman, who was a
London merchant of considerable prominence, and well known as a
frequent patron of the hotel.

The clerk disappeared, and shortly returned with the following
message:--

    "Mr. ---- is engaged at present over some papers, and will send
    his secretary out in a few minutes to see what you want."

The American will miss the wide corridors of the hotels of his native
land, and he finds the space usually given up to the public in the
United States is here reserved for the strict use of the house. There
are no broad reading-rooms and parlors, with a plentiful supply of
papers from all parts of the country, as in the great hostelries at
home; the bar is a dingy nook, scarcely larger than the office, and
the most conspicuous ornaments in it are the handles of the
beer-pumps. The bartender is absent, and in his place the bar-maid
presides; those who are bibulously inclined will find comparatively
little to tempt them, as the array of "mixed drinks," so common in
an American bar, is practically unknown in England. A few drinking
establishments in London have sought to attract the patronage of
strangers from the United States by advertising "American drinks,"
but those who have tried them say that the British concoctions are
base counterfeits of the great originals.

In some hotels there is no public bar whatever, and drinks are served
to order in the dining and smoking-rooms, or in the private
apartments. Smoking is usually forbidden in the corridors, and
sometimes the stranger who ventures to light a cigar in his private
room will be told that he is violating the rules, and must go to the
smoking-room.

In the last few years the English appear to have taken a hint from
their transatlantic cousins in the way of hotel-keeping, and several
establishments containing many of the American features have sprung
into existence. The most of them have been successful, and it is
probable that the crop will increase.

Bedrooms in the English hotels are usually larger than in American
houses, and furnished on a more liberal scale. The beds are spacious,
and frequently you find an old-fashioned four-poster of considerable
antiquity, together with others that were fashioned in the present
time. A hotel in Liverpool boasts of a bed in which Oliver Cromwell
once slept, and certainly he could have occupied it without being
cramped for space. Those who are liable to colds and rheumatic pains
should be particular to have the sheets well aired and dried before
retiring; the moist climate of the British Islands is apt to leave a
disagreeable dampness on bed-linen, and make it very detrimental to
the general health. Many a man has taken a severe cold by sleeping in
damp sheets on his arrival in England, and discovered to his sorrow
that his recovery was a thing of several weeks, if not longer. The
prevailing moisture of the United Kingdom is an excellent thing for
the ruddy cheeks of the women, and beneficial to the potato crop, but
the stranger is not usually enamored of it, especially if he comes
from a region where dry atmosphere is the fashion.

There are only a very few hotels where the traveler is received on the
American system, and pays a lump sum per day for everything. The
engagement is nearly always for the room alone, and all meals are
charged extra, and may be taken wherever the customer chooses. There
is an extra item for "attendance," and custom has fixed this at one
shilling and sixpence at the majority of the English hotels. Some
hotels compel you to breakfast in the house, or at all events they
charge you for that meal, whether you take it or not, but the dinner
is quite optional with you. The dining-room is generally known as the
"coffee-room," but in some hotels there is a larger hall in addition
to the coffee-room, where the table d'hote dinner is served. One can
breakfast very comfortably in the coffee-room, as he will find the
morning papers there, and frequently a stock of guide-books and
writing materials, with which he may amuse himself while his chop or
steak is being prepared. Chops, steaks, ham and eggs, and cold meats
are the principal items of an English breakfast, and there is hardly
any variation from day to day.

If the dinner is served in the continental style, the traveler has no
choice, but takes the courses in the order in which they are brought.
A dinner "off the joint" is another thing, and a peculiarly British
institution. Soup is served, and then fish, and then comes the joint,
which is the _piece de resistance_ of the day. A huge round of beef,
smoking hot from the fire, or perhaps an equally huge piece of mutton,
is mounted on a small table whose legs terminate in casters; by means
of this table the joint is wheeled before each customer, who indicates
to the carver the exact morsel he desires. There can be no deception,
and no opportunity to serve up slices that have been warmed over from
a previously cooked joint. The form of service is quite a novelty to
the newly-arrived American, and various opinions have been passed upon
its advantages. Some are loud in its praise while others declare that
the sight of the steaming joints destroys their appetite.

The dinner costs from two shillings, sixpence, to five shillings, and
there is an extra charge of threepence or sixpence for attendance, if
the customer is not stopping in the hotel, and sometimes when he is.
This attendance business is a nuisance, and many a stranger has spoken
his mind freely in denouncing it as a well-regulated swindle. The
theory is that it pays for the service, but it does nothing of the
kind, and every waiter who has done the least thing for you, as well
as others who have not lifted a finger in your aid, expects to receive
a fee before your departure. Some of the hotels have the impertinence
to print on their bill-heads "the service is all included, and nothing
more is expected," a falsehood as glaring as any that has ever been
told in the history of the world. The stranger who takes them at their
word, and leaves the house without distributing sixpences and
shillings to the servants, would be looked upon as little less than a
downright swindler, and be received with coldness and negligence if he
had the temerity to venture there again.

The prices of bedrooms vary according to their location and character;
they are rarely less than two shillings--with the inevitable
attendance--and often as high as five shillings. The following may be
taken as a fair average of charges in an English hotel of medium
pretensions:

    Bedroom,       3 shillings.
    Breakfast,     3 shillings.
    Dinner,        4 shillings.
    Supper,        2 shillings 6 pence.
    Attendance,    1 shillings 6 pence.

If tea is added to this it will cost not less than one shilling, and
generally more. The fees to the servants are not likely to be less
than a shilling a day for each person of the party, and it requires
careful management to bring them down to that figure. The fees should
never be given till the moment of departure, for the reason already
mentioned in our talk about steamships.

At all hotels in the United Kingdom and on the Continent be sure to
have the price of everything distinctly understood at the time the
room is taken. Perhaps it is from a consciousness of the dishonesty of
the charge for attendance, the manager or other person who assigns
your room never mentions that item, and a direct question is needed to
bring it out. The following inquiries will cover the ordinary
circumstances of arrival at a hotel:--

    "What is the price of a bedroom?"

    "What is the charge for attendance?"

    "How much for dinner?"

    "How much for breakfast?"

    "What time must a room be given up?"

The last interrogatory is necessary in consequence of the varying
rules of the hotels. Most of them have their day, like the nautical
one, begin at noon, and a person who remains till one or two P.M.
must pay for an extra day of room and attendance. Some hotels begin
their day at 11 A.M., and some as early as 10; it is a noticeable
fact that in several of these latter instances important trains leave
a couple of hours after the termination of the diurnal reckoning. The
traveler who holds his room till it is time to go to the train finds
to his astonishment that the last hour of his occupation has cost him
the same as an entire day. But the hotel keepers have a living to
make, and must keep an eye to the main chance.

Guides for the city or neighborhood can be had at all hotels, and are
preferable to those picked up the street. Carriages and cabs can also
be ordered at the hotel, but if the traveler can trust himself to make
a bargain it is better to secure them outside, since the house not
infrequently adds a commission for its services. Besides it is well to
learn as much as possible of the people you are among, and there are
no more sharply-defined characters in the world than the professional
drivers of Irish, Scotch, or English cities.



CHAPTER IX.

THE SYSTEM OF FEES.


Allusion has been made in preceding paragraphs to the system of
gratuities that prevails in Great Britain and on the Continent. It is
the greatest of all the annoyances of European travel, not so much for
the money it consumes as for the perplexities it makes, and the
perpetual irritation of being asked at every step to give an
indefinite sum for real or fancied services. It would be a good deal
mitigated if the expectants would name the exact amount they are
entitled to; a regular tariff for gratuities would be a vast relief to
the traveling public, but this boon is emphatically refused. The
amount is always left to the stranger, partly for the reason that
custom has so ordained, and partly because an avenue is thus left open
for an increased demand.

The waiter is much less likely than his friend the cab-man to tell you
he is under-paid, but he vouchsafes that information far more
frequently than is agreeable to the traveler. He rarely speaks when
conveying this reproof, but his manner is unmistakable. Occasionally
he puts the money back in your hand, and declines to accept it; his
manner is as lofty as the summit of Mount Blanc, and quite as cold,
and to judge by his appearance his most tender susceptibilities have
been sorely wounded. The novice generally soothes him by an addition
to the amount of the offer, but the experienced voyager does nothing
of the kind. He drops the returned cash into his pocket and turns
away; the movement brings the offended dignity to his senses, and for
a moment he undergoes a mental struggle over the situation. Shall he
preserve his haughty manner and refuse to pursue the subject, or shall
he accept what he has just declined? These are the questions that flit
through his brain, and he carefully balances the pros and cons. The
usual result is in favor of the last-named course, and he pockets his
fee in silence and thankfulness, not unaccompanied with a sullen air.

Occurrences of this kind are more rare in England than on the
Continent, and the Continent again is freer from them than the
countries farther East. Perhaps the worst of all is Egypt, where
"backsheesh!" ("a present") is dinned into the traveler's ears from
morn till night; it is the word he first hears on his arrival, and the
last at his departure, and in after years it haunts his dreams, and is
by no means banished from his waking hours. Whatever he does or does
not do, he is expected to pay for; services are impudently forced upon
him, and then the demand for compensation is as insolent as it is
exorbitant. The manner of the Egyptian Arab in this matter of
backsheesh is most insulting, and the wonder is he has been allowed to
practice it so long. Give him what you consider a fair return for his
services, either real or fancied, and he pushes the money back into
your hands and lifts his nose into the air; you have been in his
estimation a miser, and your coin is unfit for him to touch. But if
you drop it into your pocket and turn away, his whole attitude
changes; he is no longer the proud descendant of the Mamelukes and the
kings of Egypt, but the most cringing suppliant you can imagine. He
begs you to give again what he has just refused, and if you persist in
keeping it he has resource to tears. Not unfrequently he rolls on the
ground and screams like an angry child, and he will follow you for
hours in the hope that you will relent. Sometimes, instead of
thrusting the money into your hand, he throws it on the ground,
knowing that you will be very unlikely to stoop to pick it up; by so
doing he endeavors to make sure of the original offer, and takes his
chances in shaming or bullying you into giving more.

The question naturally occurs to an American, 'How shall I ascertain
what is proper to give when a service has been rendered to me?' No
general rule can be laid down, and the traveler must depend often on
his judgment. Where it is possible to do so, you can ask any person
who is familiar with the subject, and he will tell you; when this
cannot be done you have only yourself to rely upon. Remember that in
England and on the Continent money has a greater purchasing power than
in America, and gauge your fees accordingly. Where you have engaged
cabmen, guides, or other individuals whose rate of service is
previously arranged, or is regulated by a tariff, you will be about
right if you add ten per cent. for a gratuity. Thus a guide whose
tariff is five francs a day should be satisfied with half a franc,
but, if he has been specially zealous and useful, you can give him a
franc with safety. The Paris cabman expects four sous additional on
the course or six sous an hour; his fee is obligatory in a certain
sense, as his wages are too low for him to live upon without the
_pour boire_. The German cabman expects his _trinkgeld_ as a
matter of course, and you will really under-pay him if you do not give
it. The same is the case with his class in all parts of the Continent,
as well as in Great Britain, and you will fully hit the mark if you
augment the regular tariff by fifteen or twenty per cent.

In the restaurants the waiters generally receive nothing in the form
of wages; they rely entirely on the donations of patrons for their
compensation, and the system is well understood by the public. The
money thus obtained is dropped into a box at the cashier's counter,
and divided among all the waiters of the establishment at the end of
the week. This has been found after long experience the best way to
secure uniform attention to all customers,--better than to allow each
waiter to pocket the money he receives. In the latter case, a patron
known to be liberal would be carefully looked after, while the man who
gave only the regulation fee would be neglected. Under the present
arrangement a waiter can have no great inducement to neglect the
niggardly man to an undue extent, and, on the other hand, he will not
be over-serviceable to the generous one. The box for the money is in
full view of all the waiters, so as to prevent any frauds on the
revenue; it is usually of metal, and a foot or so in height. The shape
and material cause the coin to jingle when it falls, and thus the
waiters can be taught by the ear as well as by the eye that the
donations are properly bestowed.

A French barber shop frequently amuses the stranger on account of the
way the _pour boire_ is received. You have whatever tonsorial
operation you choose, and when the work is finished you pay according
to the tariff. When change has been made you leave a few sous on the
counter for the inevitable extra; the cashier drops them in the metal
box which stands ready for their reception, and the sound of their
fall is followed by a chorus of "Merci, monsieur," from all the
barbers in the place, be they few or many. Half a dozen masculine
voices pronouncing those words in measured cadence have a strange
effect on the ears of a novice.

In many hotels and restaurants in England, and on the Continent, not
only do the servants receive no wages, but they even pay something to
the proprietor for their places. In the restaurants of Vienna there
is a man who is designated the "_zoll-kellner_," (pay-waiter) who
carries a leather sack at his side to hold the coin for making change.
Your accounts are settled with him, and not with the waiter who has
served you, and it is to the zoll-kellner that you give your
gratuities. Out of the gratuities he pays the wages of the waiters,
and reimburses himself for his services, so that the attendance costs
the establishment nothing. Some of the larger bier-halles in Vienna
derive a revenue from the service, as they require the zoll-kellner to
pay some hundreds of dollars annually for his privilege, besides
giving his time and paying the waiters.

The usual fee in a restaurant on the Continent is a sou on each franc
of the bill, or one sou in twenty. Thus, if you have ten francs to pay
for your dinner, you give half a franc, or ten sous, to the waiter,
and if you have expended only five francs you give him five sous. A
sou on a franc is a good general rule; it is followed by the great
majority of Frenchmen and other continental people, but you should not
adhere to it by giving a single sou when you have only a franc to pay.
Never give less than two sous, where you give anything at all, except
to the professional beggar of whom you wish to rid yourself. The
cashiers of the restaurants always arrange the change, so that you
will have the material for the _pour boire_. Suppose your bill is
exactly ten francs, and you put down a twenty-franc piece from which
the amount is to be taken. The cashier sends back, not a ten-franc
piece, but a five-franc piece, four francs, half a franc, and the rest
in copper. Sometimes there is an attempt to cause the stranger to
bleed freely by making change so that he will be compelled to give
more than is necessary. Thus in the instance described above, the
cashier would send back a five-franc piece and five pieces of one
franc each, so as to compel a donation of a franc. Whenever this is
done you can be entirely sure that it is an effort to extract more
than is due; you can meet it by asking change--_la monnaie_--for
one of the franc pieces, or better still, give the exact _pour
boire_ from the reserve you should always have in your pocket.

The regulation of the fees necessary for a hotel is more difficult
than for a restaurant. The amount given should be proportioned to the
time you have been in the house, the services of the waiters, the
demands you have made upon them, and the size of your party. It is
best to let one person of a party pay all the gratuities, and do it in
a systematic way so that each servant receives his or her due. Suppose
you are four in number, and have been a week in the house; you pay the
concierge from five to eight francs, the chambermaid four to six, the
waiter who has brought the coffee in the morning, and otherwise looked
after you, five to eight, and the porter who has handled luggage and
blacked your boots, five to six francs. These figures are for a fair
amount of service, and are liberal enough for most cases. Every
traveler must judge for himself whether he has made an undue demand
upon the servants, and gauge his gratuities accordingly.

So much has been said about the fee system that some of the hotels
have adopted the plan of certain English ones in announcing that the
service is all included and nothing more is expected. But the pretence
is a very thin one, as the departing traveler will surely ascertain.
The servants come to his room while he is putting the finishing touch
to his packing, they lie in wait in the halls and on the stairways,
and they assemble at the door to see him off. There is often a
preconcerted system of signals by which all the servants can be
notified of the approaching departure of a patron of a hotel. Bells
will be rung, or somebody will be called in a loud voice to bring
something either real or imaginary. The writer had the following
experience in a hotel in Paris:

He had been in the house nearly a week, and followed the usual custom
of leaving his key with the concierge whenever he went out. If he came
in in the afternoon he was usually informed that the chambermaid had
the key upstairs, and on proceeding to his hall he summoned that
damsel by touching a bell at the head of the stairway; the concierge
never made any pretence of calling her, but simply indicated that the
key was above. One afternoon he came in, asked for his key, and
received the usual response that the chambermaid had it. As he turned
to go upstairs he asked to have his bill made out, as he was going
away immediately.

The half-asleep concierge seemed to have been struck with a shock from
an electric battery. She protruded her head from the window of her
office, and shouted so that she could have been heard to the uttermost
parts of the house:-

"_Fifine! Fifine! apportez le clef pour numero trente deux; monsieur
va partir--il va partir_" ("Bring the key for number 32; the gentlemen
is going away; he's going away!")

The echoes of the last syllable of the last word of her call followed
number 32 up the stairs to his door. When he had arranged his packing
and descended, he found the servants waiting for him, with the
exception of those he had already encountered on his way down. At
least half of them he had never seen, but all had their hands open for
any tokens of remembrance in the shape of the current coin of the
country.

The custom of assembling all the servants on the departure of a
traveler is descended from the Middle Ages when the retainers of a
castle were summoned by the bell at the portcullis to welcome the
coming and speed the parting guest. Like many another honorable usage
of olden times it has suffered degradation; at present it is simply a
form of extracting money from the traveler, and not one servant in a
hundred is aware of its origin, or thinks of it in any other light
than the practical one. The fee system to the hotel waiter had a
similar origin, and is likewise a relic of feudalism. The guest at the
castle of a baron of the Middle Ages was not expected to pay for his
accommodation; he was in every sense a guest, and like many a guest of
modern days, he often felt that he was causing a good deal of trouble
and extra work on the part of the servants and retainers. Consequently
he opened his purse at his departure and scattered his cash among
those who had cared for him; the shell of the custom has been
retained, but its sentiment is altogether gone. The patron of a hotel
pays his bill, and is in no sense a "guest," as many keepers of
hostelries like to call him, and the excuse for his distribution of
money among the servants has the lightest possible foundation.

In high circles the habits of the olden time remain in all their
purity, and princes and kings and nobles are obliged to pay heavily
for their entertainment. After his sojourn in Paris in 1867, the
Emperor of Russia gave 40,000 francs to be distributed among the
servants of the palace where he was lodged, and the King of Italy gave
10,000 francs under similar circumstances at Vienna in 1873. American
and other foreigners of distinction who visit Egypt are often honored
with lodgings in one of the Khedive's palaces, or with one of his
private steamers to go up the Nile. But it is bad economy to accept
these courtesies, for the reason that the backsheesh to servants and
officers amounts to a large figure, frequently to several hundreds of
dollars. It was said of Ismail Pacha that he paid nothing to the
attaches of his boats and palaces but reimbursed them by giving them
an occasional distinguished visitor to pluck.

The fee system has grown into so many abuses in these latter days that
several governments have passed laws restricting it, and forbidding
its servants to accept fees. This is noticeable in the public
galleries of France, Italy, and other countries, where no fees are
demanded except a slight charge for taking care of a cane or umbrella,
and sometimes an entrance fee, which is bought at a ticket-office, and
must be paid by everybody who enters. At the ruins of Pompeii signs
are posted in all the languages of Europe forbidding the guides to
accept fees in any form under penalty of dismissal; the regulations
are so stringent that no guide dares to accept a piece of money, no
matter how willing you may be to give it. But there is a form of
keeping the word of promise to the ear and breaking it to the hope;
the guides are allowed to sell photographs of the various objects of
interest, and sometimes they pester you with them to an extent far
worse than any direct application for gratuities.

The traveler should be cautious about making a "half-bargain" with
guides, valets, _et id omne genus_, who will be sure to make all
kinds of claim against him. Never accept the services of one of these
men without a positive agreement as to the amount he is to receive,
and if you can have it include his _pour boire_, so much the better.
He always desires to leave something open for a demand, while you
should be equally certain to have no loop-hole in the contract. A
Neapolitan guide will fix his services at five francs a day, "and
something for myself if you are satisfied." Now this something breeds
a great deal of trouble. The writer had one of these fellows to
accompany him up Vesuvius on his first visit to Naples. The
'something' was left undetermined; the guide received five francs at
the end of the day with a franc extra, which was thought to be quite
sufficient. He struck an attitude of astonishment and declared himself
outrageously treated; "gentlemen always gives me five francs extra,"
he remarked, "and some of them gives ten." This was said with an air
of withering contempt, but there was nothing in his neighborhood that
withered immediately. When a guide proposes to hire himself for five
francs and something if you are satisfied, endeavor to fix the amount
of the "satisfaction." If he will not do it he is a good subject to
drop, unless he is the only one of his kind attainable, and you happen
to be in a hurry. Remember always that a half-bargain is a bad
bargain, everywhere, and especially in the countries where the fee
system is in vogue.

Sometimes even a careful bargain will not protect the traveler from
trouble. Italian boatmen will agree for a certain sum, and while on
the way they demand more. If you are going on board a steamer at
Naples they are apt to be extortionate, as they know you are leaving
port and are not likely to give them trouble with the police. A
boatman agrees to carry you and your baggage for two francs; you enter
his boat and off you go. Half way to the ship he stops rowing and
demands four, or perhaps five, francs, and threatens to return to
shore unless you comply. If you are strong, and carry a cane or good
umbrella, a threat to break his head, accompanied with a gesture to
that effect, will generally cause him to proceed. If you are weak and
timid, the best way is to say nothing, and if you are tough in
conscience and don't mind meeting downright rascality with a white
lie, you can nod assent and let him go on. Before he gets to the ship
he will increase his demand, and you may nod again. When you reach the
vessel do not show your money till your baggage is safe on board, the
heavy trunks in the hold, and the lighter things in your cabin. Then
pay the sum you first agreed to give, and not a centime more, and,
having discharged the obligation, descend to the saloon. The boatman
is not allowed to follow you there, but he will give vent to a volley
of imprecations that fall harmless on your devoted head if you happen
to be ignorant of Italian. When these fellows get too noisy they are
ordered away from the ship, and after their departure you may mount
again to the deck and enjoy the wonderfully beautiful panorama of the
bay of Naples.

The boatmen of Alexandria, Egypt, are worse than their Neapolitan
brethren, as they sometimes resort to downright violence. A strong
cane is the best argument for them, and if you are two or three men
against an equal or inferior number, you have a moral force that
stands in good stead. One man alone may face two or three of these
rascals, but he is not altogether safe, as they would have little
hesitation in robbing him and then throwing him overboard, if they
could be sure of escaping undetected. They have been known to pull
around the harbor for an hour or two to compel their victim to come to
terms, and if brought before the police for their misconduct they
generally manage to bribe themselves out of trouble, unless their
prosecutor is able and willing to pay more for their punishment than
they can for their liberty.

The inhabitants of Switzerland have been noted in all ages for their
thrifty habits and their ability to make much of an opportunity. In
former times their genius was displayed in watch-making and other
industries; in these latter days, they have devoted themselves in
great measure to fleecing the tourists that come among them, and some
of their performances in this line border on the wonderful.
Watch-making and wood-carving still exist, and quite probably there
are yet many honest people in the land of the Alps. Down to a recent
period the exploitation of the stranger was left to the hotel-keepers,
guides, porters, and others with whom he came in contact, and if he
felt aggrieved and brought complaint against his swindlers he could
receive redress at the hands of the law. _On a changé tout cela_,
the government has come to the assistance of the exploiting class, and
what was before optional is now official. At every step the tourist
encounters a "tariff," and if he objects to anything his attention is
called to the fact that it is "official." The hotel porter takes your
trunk to the door of the establishment where you have been lodged, and
hands it over to a licensed porter, who carries it to the boat, train,
or diligence. He stops at the dock, or at the front of the station,
where another licensed porter comes forward and bears the trunk to the
baggageman; each of the porters must be paid, and the baggageman
also expects something, and if you object you are shown the official
tariff, from which there is no appeal.

The official tariff is made the scapegoat of a great many extortions
and downright falsehoods; the writer will give a bit of his personal
experience to illustrate this statement. He was in Martigny, on his
way to Chamouny, in the summer of 1880, and wished to hire a carriage
for the journey; he had been told that one could be had for thirty or
forty francs, and asked the proprietor of the hotel Clerc where
carriages were to be had and the price to be paid. The latter answered
that the tariff for a carriage for two persons was fifty francs, and
there was no other price.

"But," said the stranger, "I have been told that a carriage can be had
for thirty or forty francs. Is it not so?"

"Not at all," was the proprietor's answer; "there is only one price,
fifty francs. They will tell you so at the office of the Association
of Drivers." (_Societe des cochers de Martigny._)

He indicated the office, which was close to the hotel, and the
stranger went there. The agent assured him that no carriage could be
had under fifty francs, and he pointed to the official tariff, by
which all drivers were bound. Convinced of the truthfulness of the
landlord's statement, the stranger engaged a carriage and paid
twenty-five francs in advance, the balance being due on arrival at
Chamouny. Then he strolled up the street and came upon an office
bearing the announcement:--

    "Carriages for Chamouny.--Two persons, thirty francs; three
    persons, forty francs; four persons, fifty francs."

Full of wrath at having been swindled, he returned to the hotel and
interviewed the landlord. There was a good deal of frankness to the
square foot of the conversation, and the landlord became very
indignant when told that he had dealt sparingly with the truth. He
defended his action on the ground that the official tariff was fifty
francs, and he did not recognize the existence of the opposition. In
whatever light the case was presented, he responded that the
opposition was not "recognized," and he would not allow his patrons to
travel by it if possible to prevent their doing so. He denied
receiving any commission from the "official" drivers, and waxed wroth
at the intimation of such a thing, but the writer ascertained
afterwards to his full satisfaction that the drivers gave ten per
cent. of their revenues to the hotel-keepers on condition that the
latter would ignore the existence of the opposition, and give all
patronage to the association.

Cases like the foregoing may be found all over Switzerland in one form
or another. Great stress is laid upon the words "official" and
"tariff," and matters are so arranged that the traveler can be bled as
much as possible with the least possible chance of redress. The
authorities connive at the frauds, and the chances are twenty to one
that a tourist who has the temerity to bring his disputes before them
will be required to pay the sum in question, with a heavy addition in
the shape of a fine. As an instance of official connivance, the
following may be cited:--

Tourists going from Zermatt to the railway station at Visp have a
journey of about eight hours, partly by saddle and partly by wagon; it
is customary to forward trunks and valises by the government post,
which is due at Visp at 4 P.M., while the train for Lausanne and
Geneva leaves at five o'clock. The traveler times his movements so as
to get to Visp to claim his baggage and take it to the railway station
in season for the train, but he finds on arrival that the postmaster
is busy with the verification of the lists, copying them, sorting
letters, and arranging parcels in general, so that there is no
delivery till after the departure of the train. This neat arrangement
compels the traveler who wishes to keep with his luggage to spend a
night at Visp, to the profit of one of the two hotels that adorn this
uninteresting place, and, furthermore, they have a habit of closing
the office half an hour before the departure of the forenoon train,
and the hotel-keepers manage to keep you at breakfast until this
half-hour has been reached. In this case you must wait till afternoon,
or go on without your property, either of which is unpleasant, and if
you venture to complain you are told that such is the regulation of
the office, and as the postmaster represents the government the
futility of any opposition is at once apparent.

The Swiss excel even the Chinese in their genius for combinations and
guilds; and the object of these enterprises is not, like those of the
Chinese, altogether in the interest of legitimate labor, but to the
end that the pocket of the stranger can be depleted to the advantage
of the inhabitants of the land of William Tell. Items that were
formerly regarded as gratuities, and therefore optional, are now
obligatory, and they are frequently demanded with an insolence that
rouses the traveler's ire. There are doubtless many honest people in
Switzerland, but it is not easy for the ordinary traveler to find
them, and the difficulty seems to be increasing every year.



CHAPTER X.

ENGLISH AND CONTINENTAL MONEY.


We have already considered the subject of letters of credit and the
uses to be made of them. We will now look at the perplexities of the
English and Continental currencies. The English stand at the head of
the list in having one of the most troublesome monetary systems
imaginable; it is a never-failing source of inconvenience to the
stranger, especially if he has come from a land where the decimal
system in one form or another is in vogue. We all know it from the
school-books:--

     4 farthings make one penny,
    12 pence make one shilling,
    20 shillings make one pound,
    21 shillings make one guinea.

It is easy enough to commit the above to memory, but not at all easy
to put it into practice. The farthing is imaginary, like the American
mill, the smallest coin being two farthings, or half a penny, usually
called a ha'penny, with the accent on the first syllable. This coin is
about equal to the American cent, so that a penny is worth two cents,
or very nearly. The shilling is nearly the equivalent of twenty-five
cents. Four shillings may be reckoned as a dollar, and a pound as five
dollars. The actual value is less than five dollars, but it is near
enough for rough calculations. The guinea is obsolete, and does not
exist in circulation, but the coins can be bought as curiosities, and
may be seen occasionally dangling from the watch-chains of their
possessors. English tradesmen are fond of stating prices in guineas
when dealing with foreigners, as they can thereby add five per cent.
to their revenues; the English customer is on the look-out for this
trick and cannot be caught by it, but the American is very likely to
confound pounds with guineas and not think of the difference. Some
unscrupulous tailors and other tradesmen are in the habit of making
their bills in guineas when only pounds have been mentioned, and not
infrequently the bills are paid without the discovery of the swindle.

The smallest bank-notes in circulation in England are of five pounds
each, though the banks in Ireland and Scotland, and some of the
private banks in England, issue notes of one pound. The gold coins are
twenty shillings and ten shillings each, and known as sovereigns and
half-sovereigns. In common usage the larger is frequently called a
"sov.," and a ten-shilling piece a "half-sov." Silver coins are for
five shillings, two and a half shillings, two shillings, one shilling,
sixpence, fourpence, and threepence. The copper coins of a penny and a
halfpenny complete the list. The two-and-a-half-shilling piece is
called half a crown, the five-shilling piece sometimes a crown and
sometimes, in slang language, "five bob." A shilling is designated as
a "bob" by the lower classes, and a sixpence as a "tanner." "Two bobs
and a tanner," means "two shillings and sixpence."

The two-shilling piece is the newest of the English coins, and is
heartily detested by the cabman, the waiter, and all others whose
existence has any dependence on gratuities. Where half a crown was
formerly given, the two-shilling piece comes in use; the giver saves a
sixpence, and the receiver is "out" just that amount. If a vote of the
fee-taking classes could be had on the subject it would be unanimous
for the abolition of this hated coin. Travelers economically inclined
would do well to consider the advantages of this piece of money, and
govern themselves accordingly.

On the Continent the currency in nearly all countries is far simpler
than in England, for the reason that it is on a decimal basis. The
franc is the acknowledged unit of France, Belgium, Switzerland, and
Italy, and it is divided into a hundred parts, known as _centimes_ in
the three countries first named, and as _centissimi_ in the last of
the list. Reckonings are in francs and centimes; the approximate value
of the franc is twenty cents of American money--though in reality it
is a trifle over eighteen cents. The centime is consequently one-fifth
of a cent, but no coins of that value are stamped except in Italy;
five centimes make a sou in all the countries except Italy, where the
coin is known as a soldi, and it is the smallest of the coins in
general use. The sou is practically the equivalent of the American
cent, and is about as large as the old-fashioned "copper" of twenty
years ago. There is a two-sous piece of copper in all the countries
named, and quite recently some of them have adopted nickel coins of
the value of five, ten, and twenty centimes. There are silver coins of
twenty and fifty centimes (the last being a half-franc), and then come
the pieces of one franc, two francs, and five francs, the last being
about the size of the American dollar. The gold coins are of ten and
twenty francs, and occasionally we encounter pieces of forty francs,
and also some slender ones of five francs. Bank-notes are of 10, 20,
50, 100, 500, and 1000 francs, and rarely smaller except in Italy,
where there is a depreciated paper currency with forced circulation.
Gold and silver are as scarce in Italy as they were in the United
States in the decade following our civil war; the rate of discount for
paper varies according to the condition of the national treasury, and
for other countries, and can always be ascertained at any banker's, or
in the hotels. Where it is not expressly stipulated to the contrary,
all hotel and other bills in Italy are payable in paper at par
whatever may be the rate of discount; if a hotel-keeper attempts to
compel the payment of his bill in gold, without previous notification,
he can be brought to terms by referring him to the police. The franc
is commonly called a _lira_ in Italy, especially among the lower
classes, who have a tendency to stick to their national terms.

The unit of Austria is the florin (about fifty American cents), which
is divided into a hundred kreutzers. The currency is in paper, at a
varying discount, with coins of one, five, ten, and twenty kreutzers,
based on the paper values. There is a ten-florin piece of gold which
is intended to be equal to the twenty-franc piece, but is just a
trifle short of it, and is consequently refused by bankers and others,
except at a discount. The unit of Russia is the rouble (about
seventy-five cents American), and it is divided into one hundred
kopecks; the circulation is in paper, and it fluctuates in value with
the varying conditions of the public treasury, and the alternating
events of war or peace.

The German States had until within a few a years a bewildering array
of currencies that would require whole pages of this book for their
enumeration. Since the unification of the Empire the old currencies
have mostly disappeared, and a uniform system has been adopted. The
unit is the mark (twenty-five cents American, or one shilling
English), and the mark is divided into one hundred pfennings. The
silver coins are five marks, two marks, and one mark, and fifty and
twenty pfennings, the nickel of ten and five pfennings, the copper of
two pfennings and one pfenning; the gold coins are twenty, ten, and
five marks, and the largest of the three is intended to be equal to
the English sovereign.

English sovereigns can be exchanged in any country of Europe for the
local currency, and so can the French, Italian, or other pieces of
twenty francs. The latter are generally called napoleons, but since
the establishment of the French Republic there has been a revival of
the old name _louis_, or _louis d'or_. Some intense Republicans
denominate the coin in question "_une piece de vingt francs_," and do
not seem to mind the loss of time requisite for pronouncing four words
instead of one. The traveler who has a stock of sovereigns or
napoleons, either or both, can always settle his bill at the hotels
with those coins, but he must be careful to have a supply of the money
of the country for paying railway fares. In most countries of Europe
the railways are more or less under government control, and the
ticket-sellers are forbidden to accept foreign money. Sometimes a
ticket-seller will change the traveler's money for him, but he
naturally expects to be paid for his trouble.

At the frontier railway stations there are money-changers who do a
very good business on small capital. Travelers can exchange the money
of the country they are leaving for that of the one they are entering,
and the changer can turn his capital as many times as there are trains
each way daily, and make a small percentage on each operation. He has
a fine profit and no risk, except that he may take an occasional
counterfeit, but in the latter case he will have little difficulty in
passing it on the first verdant customer. Counterfeit coins abound in
Spain, Switzerland, England, and some other countries, but not in
great number. The traveler is sure to be caught by them once in a
while, and also by coins which have been called in and are declared
uncurrent. The latter can be disposed of as gratuities to waiters and
guides, and the former may be kept as curiosities, or dropped into the
hats of importunate beggars.

For a rough calculation you can turn your dollars into pounds by
dividing their amount by five, and into francs by using the same
number as a multiplier. Multiply your dollars by four for German
marks, and by two for Austrian florins; and if you get as far as
Turkey and wish to reckon in piastres, you must multiply by twenty. To
reach the amount in dollars of any values in the above currencies, you
have only to reverse the operation, and after a little practice you
will do it very rapidly.



CHAPTER XI.

LANGUAGES AND COURIERS.


As long as the American is in the United Kingdom he finds no trouble
in making himself understood, but when he crosses the channel and
lands on the Continent, the situation changes. Strange languages
assail his ears, and the farther he goes the more languages he finds.
If he has never studied any tongue save his mother one, he will often
find himself helpless, and he execrates the memory of the man who
first proposed the erection of the tower of Babel, and thereby brought
trouble on the whole human race. He wishes he had studied some of the
foreign lingo before he left home, and vows that before he comes again
he will be able to make himself understood in French and German. An
excellent resolution this is, and, like most good resolves, it is
rarely kept.

An American who is entirely ignorant of any language beyond the
vernacular of his own land may travel from one end of Europe to the
other without any very serious trouble. But he will pay dear for his
lack of lingual accomplishments, as he will be regarded as a fair
subject for exploitation by the inn-keepers, guides, and others with
whom he is brought in contact, and he cannot go out of the beaten
track of tourists. In the principal hotels throughout Europe there are
English-speaking clerks and servants, and it is usually easy to find
guides and valets who are able to get on in the language of the
British Isles. Those with deep and well-lined purses may employ a
courier who will look after everything--engage rooms at hotels, buy
railway tickets, attend to the luggage, and in various ways relieve
the traveler from a great deal of perplexity. But he is a luxury that
only the affluent can afford, as he not only has his wages and
traveling expenses, but he obtains a commission, or "squeeze," on
nearly every disbursement in your behalf. He takes you to the best
hotels and secures the best rooms in them, and he leads you to the
shops where the prices are highest, with correspondingly large
commissions. He is generally honest so far as actual plunder of your
money is concerned, and he takes care that no one but himself fleeces
you, unless he can have a share of the spoil. His operations are
conducted upon well understood principles, and he regards the taking
of a commission as entirely compatible with rigid integrity. Now and
then a courier can be found who disdains commissions, and faithfully
watches the interest of his employer, and when such a man is obtained
he may be regarded as a treasure.

Be very particular in employing a courier, as your happiness or misery
will depend in great measure upon his goodness or badness. Your banker
in London or Paris can generally recommend a trustworthy man, and
there is a couriers' association in London that is well spoken of. The
association is responsible for the honesty of each member, and also
for his sobriety and general good conduct, but in any event the
credentials of the man you are considering should be carefully
examined. Especially should this be done with a courier who seeks you
and offers his services, and if he cannot produce good references he
should be rejected at once. The genuineness of the testimonials should
also be investigated, as there have been instances where these
documents were mostly imaginary, and written to order.

A courier should be familiar with English, French, German, and
Italian, and if you are going to Spain, Russia, or the Scandinavian
countries, you should seek for one who knows the languages along your
intended route of travel. You can hire a good courier for fifty or
sixty dollars a month, though he will frequently ask more, and you
must pay extra for one who speaks Russian, Scandinavian, or Spanish.
Whenever there are second-class carriages on the train he will travel
in them, but it often happens that the express trains have none but
first-class coaches, and in that event you must provide him with a
first-class ticket. He should be called by his surname, without any
preliminary "mister," and, if he understands his business, you can be
perfectly free with him without fear that he will overstep the proper
bounds. Don't invite him to sit with you at table or to ride with you
in a carriage, as he does not expect anything of the sort; if you do,
you will encourage him to undue familiarity, which may result in his
assuming the air of a gentleman who is permitting you to travel with
him for companionship.

In your financial relations with him, do exactly as you would with a
clerk or cashier in business affairs. Have the contract carefully
drawn in writing so as to avoid misunderstandings, and examine his
accounts frequently and thoroughly, going over every item, whether
small or large. It is well to arrange beforehand that he shall bring
the accounts to you every second or third morning, and if he neglects
to do so, and shows a persistence in the neglect, you will have reason
to believe he is not honest. When you start on a journey give him
money enough to pay the various items of expenditure to your first
stopping-place. It is not good policy to be "close " with him, and, on
the other hand, it is very impolitic to be careless of his accounts.

The courier is supposed to pay his own hotel bill, or to be boarded
free of charge by the establishment. The real fact is that your own
bill is sufficiently augmented to cover the courier's expenses, and in
some instances he has been known to receive a commission in money in
addition to his free living. Make it a part of your contract that he
is to act as local guide in the cities you visit; otherwise you will
be compelled to employ a guide in each place in addition to your
courier. Some of the grand ones refuse to do so, and it is for you to
determine whether to engage a man of high notions, or another who is
not so exacting.

If not disposed to incur the expense of a courier you can hire a
traveling servant for about half the price you will pay for the more
distinguished attaché. These servants are not generally satisfactory,
for the reason that they do not claim to understand all about the
cities, routes, etc., and cannot speak the continental languages. Very
often they are quite as helpless as the traveler himself, if not more
so, and some of them are continually getting lost and giving no end of
trouble to their employers to find them.

If you undertake to get along without any assistance, it is advisable
to learn something of the language of the country you are to travel
in. Ever so little is better than none at all, and you will be
surprised to find how much you can accomplish with a very limited
capital of words. Learn to count in French; you can do so in a few
hours if you give your mind to it, and you will never regret the time
you have devoted to the accomplishment of enumeration. Commit to
memory a few phrases, such as "where is?" "how much?" and the like,
and make yourself able to understand the bills of fare in restaurants
and hotels. When you have done this you can look proudly down on the
unfortunate wretch who knows nothing, and cannot help himself. After
being thus perfected in French, you can attack German in the same way,
and afterwards Italian; if you are to be ten days or more in a country
it is worth your while to learn to count in its language, and when you
have acquired the numerals you will want to know something more.

Don't practice your lingual acquirements on your friends if you can
find anybody else to try them on. But don't be afraid to talk when on
shopping excursions, or in other places where your French can be used;
the continental people are polite, and will help you out of difficulty
when you lose your footing, and they never smile at your most awkward
blunders.

Books of the sentences and phrases in most frequent use are abundant
and cheap. They are given in English, French, German, and Italian, in
parallel columns, and are generally divided according to the subjects
of conversation. They are excellent in theory, but it is generally
discovered in practice that you can rarely find the sentence you wish
to use, and may turn the leaves over and over again to no purpose.

If you find that you are not understood in your native language, and
know no other, remember that it will not help the listener's
understanding if you shout into his ear, or repeat a question over and
over again with an increased emphasis each time.

Many laughable mistakes will occur in your efforts to get on in a
country where you do not know the language, but they are part of the
experiences of travel, and a good deal of instruction can be obtained
from them. Sometimes a slight change in the pronunciation of a single
word or syllable, or the incorrect use of an article, causes an
awkward misunderstanding, but all such accidents should be taken
good-humoredly and made the subject of merriment rather than of
vexation. An American one day, in a Paris restaurant, wished to call
for bread, and was astonished when the waiter after some delay brought
him stewed rabbit. He pondered over the subject, and finally
remembered that instead of saying "_du pain_," he had made it "_le
pain_," which was naturally supposed to be "_lapin_," the French word
for rabbit or hare. He ate the stew in silence, and never allowed the
waiter to understand that a mistake had been made.

A story is told of a party of Americans taking a ride in the Bois du
Boulogne, and they wished to induce the driver to go faster, but the
more they urged, the more angry he became, and their attempts at the
French for "go faster, driver," seemed to set him wild. At last he
stopped and wanted to fight, and when they refused to indulge in a
trial of muscular capacity, he called a policeman. Some one happened
along at this juncture who could act as interpreter, and it was
discovered that they had been addressing the jehu as "_cochon_" (pig)
instead of "_cocher_" (driver). An explanation was made, the driver
received a franc as a salve to his wounded dignity, and the drive was
continued at a more satisfactory speed.

Many things may be said in pantomime where you are ignorant of the
words that are needed. If you wish to employ a carriage by the hour,
and cannot grapple with "_a l'heure_," you can show the face of
your watch to the driver and point to the time; he will understand
your meaning at once, and will indicate his comprehension of it by a
nod. If you wish the carriage for only a single course you do not show
your watch at all, but simply give or show the address to which you
want to go. A desire for food or drink may be manifested by the
conveyance of imaginary viands or liquids to the mouth, and following
the said conveyance with equally imaginary mastication or deglutition.
Mistakes will occur in pantomime as well as in spoken words, and the
traveler should be prepared for them. An Englishman at a German inn
endeavored to show that he wished to go to bed, and did it by
commencing the removal of his clothing, and making a motion with his
arms, as if he would spread himself over the invisible couch. The
inn-keeper nodded, and disappeared; and he soon returned, followed by
the servants, bringing a large tub and some water, under the
impression that the stranger wished to take a bath. The latter made
himself understood by resting his head on his hand and closing his
eyes, whereupon there was a laugh all around, and he was shown to his
sleeping-room.

Not infrequently you will throw yourself into a condition of
exhaustion by mustering all your French for an effort; after it is
made, and you are at your wit's end, you are answered in English, and
find that your mental struggle has been thrown away. During the last
Paris exposition one of the hotels imported a lot of waiters from
London for the benefit of their English patrons. A Briton arrived at
this house one morning, unaware of the importation, and after making
himself presentable he proceeded to the breakfast-room. Beckoning to a
waiter, he gave his order.

"_Donnez moi du biftek, du pomme de terre, et du cafe au lait._"
(Give me a beefsteak, potatoes, and coffee with milk.)

He was at the end of his French, and drew a long breath as he finished
the sentence. The waiter listened attentively, with a blank expression
on his face, and replied:--

"If it's all the same, sir, couldn't you just as well do it in
English? I've only been here three days."

Whether you can speak the continental languages or not, you must put
yourself into the hands of a dragoman when you go to the Orient and
endeavor to make a journey into the interior. The dragoman differs
from the courier in being a contractor who undertakes to manage your
journey for a fixed sum per day, or for the entire trip, and he makes
a margin sufficiently large to include the compensation for his own
services. He combines the services of courier, butler, and maitre
d'hotel all in one, and a good dragoman is able to relieve the
traveler of all trouble by attending to every kind of petty detail,
and managing the journey so that the tourist has nothing to think of
beyond enjoying himself.

Dragomen are of all kinds, from the worst to the best; most of them
bring recommendations from former employers, and, while these should
have due weight, it is best not to rely on them implicitly. There are
some of the profession who enjoy a high reputation, and their prices
are fixed accordingly; a cheap dragoman is almost sure to be a poor
one, but not all high-priced ones are necessarily good. If possible,
when starting for a journey in Syria and Egypt, get a friend who has
been there before you to recommend a dragoman, and make a careful note
of the name and address, so that there can be no mistake. Good ones
may also be heard of around the consulate of your country, and in
whatever bargain you make you should have the consular approval. The
dragomen who hang about the hotels are not to be relied on, as they
are often in league with the establishments to make something out of
the stranger, or have agreed to pay a commission to whoever can get
them an engagement.

George William Curtis, in his Nile Notes, says, "The dragoman is of
four species; the Maltese, or able knave; the Greek, or the cunning
knave; the Syrian, or the active knave; and the Egyptian, or the
stupid knave." The description is by no means inaccurate, but it gives
the impression that all are knaves, whatever their race or
nationality. There is little to choose between them, and whatever kind
you employ it is quite possible you may wish you had taken another.
There are honest and efficient ones among all the different races, and
also a liberal allowance of those who are worthless, or even worse.

Detailed directions for engaging dragomen, and the forms of contracts
to be made with them, can be found in the guide-books of Murray and
Baedeker, to which the reader is referred. Never trust yourself to
draw a contract that will be "iron-clad," but go to your consulate and
have the matter attended to there, at a cost of five dollars. Then, in
case of trouble, the consul can be called to arbitrate the matter, and
his decision will be final. As you are required to pay half, or more,
of the engagement-money at the time of making the contract, you thus
place yourself at the mercy of the man you are engaging, and it is
worth while to be cautious.

If a particular dragoman has been recommended to you by some friend at
home, you will very likely be told on enquiring for him that he died a
few months ago. Of course, it is just possible that he is no longer
alive, as drago--like other men--are but mortal, but his death at that
time is by no means a certainty. His rivals have a convenient way of
ridding themselves of his competition by killing him metaphorically,
and they are particular to state time, place, and circumstances with
great minuteness. Bayard Taylor became much attached to his dragoman
in his journey up the Nile in 1852, and recommended him, a few years
afterwards, to some friends. They brought back the information of the
man's death, but on visiting Cairo in 1874 Taylor found his old
companion alive and well, and very much chagrined at the announcement
of his demise. "He is dead," or "He has just left with a party," is
the stereotyped answer of the dragomen you encounter around the hotels
when you ask for one whose name has been given to you by a friend at
home, although it is well known by them that the man in question is
within a dozen blocks of them, and waiting for a job.

It is the custom at the end of a journey in the Holy Land, or on
the Nile, to make a present to the servants in addition to the
contract-price agreed upon with the dragoman or manager of the party.
The dragoman is always ready to attend to the distribution of this
gratuity, and shows great activity in looking after it. Verdant
travelers are apt to place the affair and the money in his hands
with the expectation that he will carry out their wishes; the only
distribution he makes, in nine cases out of ten, is to distribute the
cash around the pockets of his own garments, and leave the other
servants without a penny. Unless you give the money to the waiters
with your own hands the chances are ten to one they will get nothing,
and the whole amount will go to enrich the dragoman; it will not even
answer to allow that worthy to distribute it to them in your presence,
as he will manage by certain dexterous turns of the wrist to retain
the larger portion for himself. Complaints of his misconduct are
unlikely to reach your ears, as the servants are his subordinates, and
liable to lose their places if they incur his displeasure. The writer
was once a member of a party on a Nile steamboat that made up a purse
for the servants; while the money was being raised two or three of the
cabin-waiters intimated privately that if the money was put in the
hands of the dragoman they would get nothing, since he always kept the
whole of it. "Whatever you give us," said they, "please put in our own
hands," and we acted on the hint to the great disgust of the dragoman.



CHAPTER XII.

RAILWAY TRAVELING ON THE CONTINENT.


The American traveler who makes his first tour abroad will come upon
something new as soon as he visits a railway station. The cars are
quite unlike those to which he has been accustomed at home; they have
no passage-way running the whole length of the vehicle, and most of
them present a Lilliputian appearance when compared with the American
passenger car. They are divided into compartments which generally
contain seats for eight persons, and are entered by doors at either
end. The occupants of a compartment face each other, so that when the
place is full half the passengers are riding backwards and the other
half forwards. Some persons are made ill unless they have their faces
in the direction they are traveling; a tourist who belongs to this
category should make sure of his place by the aid of a porter, and
there is generally no trouble about the matter. Those who are not
disturbed by the aforesaid nausea prefer to sit with their backs
toward the locomotive, as they escape a good deal of the dust and
smoke that fall to the lot of those in the "front-face" position.
There is a large window in the upper half of the door, and there are
smaller windows at the ends of the rows of seats; if you have your
back towards the engine, and are in an end seat, the open window in
the door will give you all the air you need, while in the opposite
seat you might find the breeze too strong. A seat on the windward side
of the train is preferable to a leeward one, though much will depend
upon the position of the sun and the scenery along the route.

On the Swiss railways many of the carriages are on the American
system, with doors at the ends and a passageway in the center, but
they still cling to the compartment idea, and have partitions with
doors that permit free circulation. In Italy, and some other
countries, you occasionally find a carriage with a saloon in the
center, capable of seating twelve or sixteen persons, but such cars
are not common, and are considered a luxury to be specially ordered.
Some of the first-class carriages have the compartments arranged for
six passengers--three on a side--but the majority are intended for
eight. On every train you will usually find one or more carriages with
a coupé at the end; it can be made to hold four persons, but there is
no advantage in securing it for more than two. It is considered as a
_place de luxe_, and can only be occupied by payment of an extra
charge, which is usually about one-sixth of the price of the passage
ticket. Two persons in a coupé are tolerably certain not to be
disturbed by the entrance of other passengers, but a single passenger
is not so safe. The coupé may be engaged beforehand on application to
the station-master, but the companies will never guarantee that a
particular train will contain coupé carriages.

The Pullman palace and sleeping-cars have not been introduced in
Europe to any extent, notwithstanding persistent efforts by the
Pullman Company for a decade or more. The Midland Railway Company, of
England, has adopted them, and they are used on two or three smaller
lines in the United Kingdom, but not in any great number. On the
Continent they have found their principal footing in Italy, under the
auspices of the _Strada Ferrata del' Alta Italia_ (Railway of Upper
Italy), which has adopted them for the comfort of passengers on the
Indian mail route between London and Brindisi. On several of the
continental lines the Mann Boudoir sleeping-car has been introduced;
it is the enterprise of an American, and is a very serviceable
vehicle, though less comfortable than the famous Pullman. The Mann car
is the ordinary European railway carriage equipped with sleeping
accommodations, lavatories and the like; the traveler must have a
first-class ticket to be admitted, and he pays in addition about $2.50
per night. There are offices in Paris, Berlin, Vienna, and other large
cities, where places may be secured in the Mann sleeping-cars just as
they are secured in the Pullman cars in America.

Some of the companies have cars fitted up with the "fauteuil-lit," or
bed-chair; it is the ordinary seat so arranged that it may be
converted into a bed, or a poor substitute for one, and the extra cost
is nearly, if not quite, equal to a third of the price of the ticket.
Three fauteuils-lits fill a compartment, and the occupants of those
away from the door must climb over the one nearest to it in getting in
or out after the beds have been opened. Very few of the roads have any
kind of sleeping-carriage whatever, and the night traveler on long
journeys will miss the luxuries that he finds in the United States.
"Bless the name of Pullman," he will often exclaim, as he crawls,
dusty and disjointed, from where he has sat bolt or limply upright for
hours, and contrasts his present feelings with those he would have at
the end of a journey from New York to Chicago. There are no toilet
facilities on the European trains, with the exception of those on the
few sleeping-cars in use, and retiring-closets are by no means
universal. Most of the coupés contain them, and they can generally be
found in the baggage-wagon or under the brake-van. The keys of these
"cabinets" are in charge of the conductor, who will readily open them
on application, but they can only be reached or left while the train
is halted at a station.

The carriages are of three and sometimes four classes, and their
character is indicated in different ways in different countries. In
England they are labelled "first-class," "second-class," or
"third-class," as the case may be; in France they are marked
"premiere," "seconde," "troisieme," or with the abbreviation of those
words into figures and letters, and in Germany and some other
countries by "I," "II," "III." Sometimes you find only the figures
"1," "2," and "3" on the doors of the carriages to indicate the class,
and sometimes the designation is by a number of stars, corresponding
to the class. When you leave a carriage temporarily at a station, be
careful to observe and remember its number, or you may have difficulty
in finding it when you return. If you have the number and class well
in mind, you will not be likely to make a mistake.

Nearly every train will have one or more compartments exclusively for
ladies; they are labelled "Dames Seules" in France, "Damen Coupé," or
"Fur Damen," in Germany, and "Per Signore" in Italy. The sterner sex
is not allowed in these carriages under any pretext whatever; even the
offer of a piece of money, so potent in other matters, will not secure
the violation of the rule. Smoking is forbidden except in compartments
specially designated for that amusement; in France smoking-carriages
are labelled "Pour Fumeurs," and in Italy "Per Fumare." The Germans
get at the subject in the opposite way by allowing smoking in all
carriages save those wherein it is forbidden; these are labelled
"Nicht Rauchen," but if an entire party in one of them chooses to
suspend the rules, it may do so. It is customary in case of doubt to
ask permission to smoke, and if any person objects, the rule must be
obeyed.

In Germany the second-class carriages are quite comfortable, but they
are apt to be crowded, and the traveler who desires plenty of room
will do well to buy a first-class ticket. The first-class vehicles are
upholstered with velvet, and the second with cloth; the former are
often the more uncomfortable in hot weather, as the velvet retains
more heat than the cloth. The third-class carriages have seats of
plain boards, and the fourth-class no seats at all; if you travel
fourth-class in Germany, you must stand and cling to an iron rod, or,
if there are not many passengers, you may sit or lie on the floor.
Fourth-class is rarely found in any other country than Germany, and
only where there is a considerable amount of travel among those who
cannot afford to pay for the higher grades. Second-class in Germany is
nearly if not quite as comfortable as first-class in France or Italy,
and this is so well understood that "mixed" tickets are sold for long
journeys, entitling the holder to first-class in other countries and
second in Germany.

In some countries, but not in all, there is a difference in fares,
according to the speed of the train by which you take passage, so that
a given distance costs less by a way-train than by an express. In
France and Italy the quickest trains are generally made up of
first-class carriages only, so that the economical voyageur must
content himself to move more slowly than his first-class rival. The
fares by mixed trains (freight and passengers) are often only about a
third of those of the first-class expresses. This is particularly the
case in Austria and all the South German States.

The allowance of baggage varies greatly. In England it is one hundred
pounds, but the weight is not always taken, and even if it is
considerably in excess, a shilling in the hand of the man who weighs
it will cause a sudden diminution of its avoirdupois, so as to bring
it within the limit. This is particularly the case on the roads where
notices are posted forbidding the employés of the companies to receive
gratuities, under penalty of dismissal. In France and Spain the
allowance is thirty kilogrammes (about sixty-five pounds). In most
parts of Germany it is fifty pounds, and sometimes sixty, and in
Bavaria, Italy, and most parts of Switzerland there is no allowance,
and every pound of luggage must be paid for. In Austria the traveler,
no matter what class ticket he holds, is allowed fifty-five pounds. In
Russia fifty-five, in Sweden sixty-six pounds to first-class and
forty-seven to second-class, and in Denmark fifty-five pounds. The
rates for excessive luggage are pretty high, and in the countries
where no allowance is made the rate of transportation is worse than in
any other.

The sale of tickets ceases from five to ten minutes before the
departure of a train, and the registration of luggage not less than
fifteen minutes. The traveler first buys his ticket and then goes to
the baggage agent, who stands in a little office close to the
baggage-counter. The baggage is weighed and the weight declared by one
of the attendants; the agent takes the ticket, stamps it to show that
it has received its baggage allowance, then fills out a receipt
stating the number of trunks, their weight, and the amount paid (if
any). Where there is no excess there is usually a charge of ten
centimes (two cents) for the receipt; the paper should be carefully
guarded, as its production is necessary at the destination to secure
the delivery of the baggage. The attentive traveler who closely scans
his receipt will find that there is a column for dogs, and if he
investigates the train he will discover a compartment for those
animals, with grated doors.

On most of the English roads no receipt is given for baggage, and the
traveler must take the chances of its loss. A label showing its
destination is pasted on your trunk, and when you are at the journey's
end you must go to the platform where the contents of the van have
been discharged, and pick out your property. Attempts have been made
to introduce the American checking system in England, but the English
are too conservative to take up with such a Yankee notion.

Ticket and baggage arranged, the traveler is permitted to go to the
waiting-room. There the intending passengers (no others are admitted)
are huddled together till within a few minutes of the departure of
the train, and very often the room is overcrowded, and cheerless
in the extreme. Passengers are not allowed on the platforms till
everything is ready, and sometimes there is hardly time for all to get
comfortably seated before the train moves. Latterly some of the roads
have made a reform in this matter; the _Paris, Lyon & Mediterranee_
was the first to relax the rules and allow passengers to go direct to
the platform, after passing the supervisor of tickets, instead of
shivering or crowding in the waiting-room. On some lines the porters
are not permitted to enter the waiting-rooms, and passengers must
carry their own satchels and other impedimenta, while on others the
porters can go direct to the carriages, and secure desirable seats for
actual or expected return in cash.

On account of the high tariff for extra baggage, travelers on the
Continent usually carry more in their hands than would be the case
with the same people in America. Parcels may be stowed under the seats
or in the racks overhead, but no one is allowed to have anything that
will be an inconvenience to others in the same compartment. This rule
is not rigidly enforced, as will often be seen; the old woman with six
bandboxes and three bundles is as common in Europe as she was
traditionally in America, and very often it is impossible for eight
passengers to dispose of all their "traps" without holding some of
them on their knees.

Railway fares are much higher on the eastern side of the Atlantic than
on the western, and those of England are dearer than the fares on the
Continent. The English fares are threepence, twopence, and one penny a
mile for the respective classes; _i.e._, about six cents, four cents,
and two cents of American currency. In France the rate is calculated
at twelve centimes, the kilometre which is equivalent to very nearly
twenty centimes (four cents), the mile. This is for first-class;
third-class is half the price of first-class, and second-class midway
between the two. Italian fares are a trifle higher than those of
France, while those of Belgium, Bavaria, Sweden, Norway, and Germany
are lower. A rough calculation of the cost of travel by railway may be
made by allowing four cents to the mile for first-class, and the
corresponding rates for the other classes. Another mode of ready
reckoning is to allow five francs (one dollar) per hour for the time
required for transit from one city to another by first-class ordinary
trains, and six francs an hour for the fast expresses. For example,
the fare from Paris to Marseilles is one hundred and six francs,
twenty centimes, and the distance is eight hundred and sixty-three
kilometres, or five hundred and thirty-nine miles. There is a train
called the "Rapide" that runs through in fifteen hours, and makes only
eight stoppages; the ordinary express takes a trifle over twenty hours
for the same journey, and the so-called "Directe" train requires
twenty-three hours. The direct train contains carriages of the three
classes, but the express and "Rapide" are exclusively first-class. Any
one who is curious in arithmetic can apply the rules given above, and
will find that they bring the result near enough for rough estimates.

Return tickets are sold at various discounts from the full rates,
generally about twenty-five per cent. less than the double fare.
They are sometimes good only for the day of issue, but are usually
available for two days, and in some countries for four or five. On
some lines they do not issue return tickets for express trains, or
for trains exclusively first-class. The holder of a return ticket
(first-class) often feels that he is harshly treated when refused a
place on a train of first-class coaches only, and if he cannot speak
the language, it is impossible to make him comprehend the rules of the
company.

Circular tickets are issued at a great reduction from the single
fares, but they are subject to certain restrictions that go far toward
counterbalancing the saving in money. A circular ticket is limited in
time, according to the localities it covers; it may be available for
only one week from the date, or it may be good for three months, or
even longer. The journey can commence at any point of the route, but
once begun it must be continued in the same direction, and on the
route indicated, and if it is not completed within the time specified,
no money will be returned for unused coupons. If the traveler halts at
any intermediate station not indicated on the itinerary, he must pay
his fare to the next indicated station on resuming his journey, and he
is also required to have his ticket stamped by the proper official
when he arrives at a station where he is to stop.

These circular tickets are highly popular, and have been the means of
creating a great deal of travel by reason of their cheapness. A
tourist who selects his route and finds a circular ticket that covers
it will make a large saving over the single fares from one place to
another. To illustrate: the writer once bought for one hundred francs
a circular ticket (first-class) with the following itinerary: Paris,
Vichy, Lyons, Grenoble, Aix-les-Bains, Culoz, Besançon, Dijon, Paris,
with the option of returning from Grenoble by way of Lyons, Macon, and
Dijon to Paris, instead of passing by Besançon and Dijon. The single
fares from place to place would have aggregated something over two
hundred francs for the journey. In many instances the saving by a
circular ticket is considerably more than one-half.

The circular tickets issued by the railway companies should not be
confounded with those sold by private individuals in London, Paris,
New York, and other cities. The railway companies sell their own
tickets at their own offices or agencies; it frequently happens that
the most direct of the lines will have nothing to do with the "tourist
agencies," so that those who patronize the latter establishments find
that they are sent by roundabout ways from one great city to another.

At all the principal ticket-offices on the railway lines there is a
table of fares near the window; it is printed in large letters and
figures so that there is little chance of a mistake. And in most
countries there is an additional security to the traveler; the fare is
printed on the ticket in plain figures, so that the most laudable
intentions of the seller to cheat the stranger may be frustrated,
provided the latter knows enough to count his money.

In Northern Europe, especially in Russia, the carriages are warmed by
stoves, though sometimes the first-class passengers are the only ones
having the benefits of heat. In Central and Southern Europe long
cylinders of sheet iron containing hot water are thrust into the
compartments at intervals more or less regular; by means of these
cylinders the traveler can keep his feet comfortable, and if the
weather is not too frosty, they give all the heat to be desired in the
compartment. In cold weather the railway traveler should be well
provided with wraps, as the night air has a penetrating familiarity,
especially when the wind is blowing.

Eating-rooms, or "buffets," are abundant, and generally good. The best
are on the long lines where there is a large amount of through travel,
so that a good patronage is secured, and the trains halt there at
convenient hours for meals. The table d'hote system prevails, but
there are always plenty of small tables where those who do not want
a "square meal" can be accommodated. The price of a table d'hote
breakfast varies from two francs, fifty centimes, to four francs, and
that of a dinner from three francs to five francs, wine included. On
most of the lines the keepers of the restaurants are required to post
a notice in a conspicuous place, showing the prices of meals, so as
to prevent any possible cheating; any complaint addressed to the
management of the road is pretty certain to receive attention, as the
companies are desirous of having the best possible service.

A table d'hote breakfast or dinner on the great lines, especially on
the Paris, Lyon & Mediterranee, is the perfection of railway feeding,
and the most rapid eater the world ever saw cannot complain of the
dilatoriness of the waiters. The conductor generally telegraphs the
number of passengers on the train, so that the restaurateur knows
pretty nearly how many will patronize him; as the train rolls into the
station, the first dish of the course is placed on the table, and you
have only to drop into a chair and begin eating. Before you are
through with the first course the second is at your side, and the
third is there before you can possibly finish with the second. Thus
the meal is served, and when it is near its end the cashier passes
around and collects the stipulated money. The time allowed is from
fifteen to thirty minutes; five minutes before the moment of starting,
a bell rings or a gong is struck, or perhaps a horn in blown, and the
signal is repeated four minutes later, and when you hear the second
signal there is no more chance for delay, as the train, like time and
tide, will wait for no man. The form of the signal, and also the
period of giving it, are not the same in all countries, and the
verdant traveler will do well to watch the motions of his neighbors,
and be governed accordingly. The buffets are divided into the first,
second, and third class at the great stations, and there are
waiting-rooms with the same distinctions. In France the smaller
stations are known as "stations," and the larger ones, especially at
terminal points, are called "gares." "Bahnhof" in Germany, and
"stazione" in Italy means the same as "station" in England and "depot"
in the United States.

On some of the roads meals are served in baskets, so that they can be
eaten while the train is in motion. An hour or more before you arrive
at the restaurant station, the conductor, or some other employé of the
company, takes your order for a breakfast or dinner according to a
bill of fare which he presents. The order is telegraphed forward, and
you are told to ask for a certain number, by which it has been
indicated. When the train reaches the station a basket containing what
you have ordered is handed in through the door of the compartment, and
the train moves on. The baskets are specially made for the business,
and contain compartments for everything needed in the meal, together
with the inevitable bottle of wine. You eat at your leisure, and at a
stopping place an hour further on the basket is removed and sent back
to the place whence it came. The plan has certain merits, and likewise
certain defects; to eat without hurry and without delay is certainly a
great advantage, but it is not altogether comfortable to breakfast or
dine from a wicker basket that rests on your knees, and it frequently
happens that the pepper, salt, or some other necessary trifle, has
been overlooked.

A private lunch-basket is as desirable on a European railway as on an
American one, and may be stocked to suit the owner's taste. On a long
journey provide yourself with a bottle of water, as there is no
water-cooler on the train, and you might suffer from thirst without
the means of alleviating it. The advocates of principles opposed to
the total abstinence theories of Father Mathew will not forget their
pocket-flasks with stimulating contents.

Measures of distance on the railways in the British Dominions are in
English miles, as in America. In France, Switzerland, Italy, Spain,
and Belgium, they are in kilometres; in Russia, in versts, and in
Germany in German miles. The kilometer is five-eighths of an English
mile, and the verst very nearly the same; the German long mile equals
five and three-fourths English miles, and the German short mile is
about three and a half English. The rapid spread of the metric system
of weights and measures will probably make the kilometer the unit of
all railway distances on the Continent in the next decade. Trains are
run by the time of the capitals of their respective countries, without
regard to the longitude, and you will often find the local clocks a
long way ahead or behind those of the railway station.

On arriving at a continental railway station there will be an
abundance of porters to carry your hand-baggage to the hotel
omnibusses that wait outside for passengers. You have only to indicate
the name of your hotel and the porter who takes charge of you will
lead the way to its carriage. You hand the receipt for your heavy
baggage to the porter, after depositing the light impedimenta in the
omnibus, and follow him to the _salle des bagages_, where you have a
period of waiting, more or less tedious. When the trunks are ready for
delivery you point out the pieces which the porter has gathered
according to the numbers on them, and the formalities of the octroi
begin.

The octroi is a continental institution, distinct from the
custom-house, but greatly resembling it, whereby every article of food
or drink entering a city pays a tax. The officers of the octroi rarely
request a traveler to open his trunks, as they know very well he is
not likely to transport mutton-chops, cheese, or wine, at the high
rates charged for railway luggage. But they are sure to ask whether
you have anything liable to the octroi, and when you answer in the
negative you may depart. The porter mounts your impedimenta to the top
of the omnibus, and receives his fee--five cents for each heavy
parcel, and five or ten for all the light ones together--you take your
seat, and when all is ready you rattle away to the hotel. There are
plenty of cabs and two-horse carriages to be had at the stations, if
you do not wish an omnibus, but they are more troublesome than the
other vehicles in consequence of the acquisitive tendencies of the
drivers, and the stranger ignorant of the language had better reject
them. In some cities, notably in Berlin, you have no choice in the
selection of your carriage, but must take the first that is offered.
As the drivers come to the station before the arrival of the train
each of them hands to an official a metal check bearing his number.
These checks are strung on a cane or rod, and when the train arrives
the rod is reversed, and the numbers come off in the order in which
the cabbies presented themselves. The system is a fair one for the
drivers, but bad for the public, as it often happens that a party of
three or four persons will find themselves assigned to a two-seated
cab; in such case they must keep it, and if they cannot stow
themselves into it somehow they can take an additional vehicle.

In most of the large cities of Europe the railway companies have an
omnibus system not unlike that of the western cities of the United
States. On arriving at the station you can engage an omnibus, if you
happen to be three or more, and it is as much under your control as a
private cab would be. These vehicles are of all sizes, carrying from
four up to thirty-two persons, and there is a gallery on the top for
baggage. You can telegraph ahead if you want to make sure of having an
omnibus at the station; address your despatch to the _Chef de gare_,
and say for how many persons you desire the omnibus.

These omnibusses are specially useful for family and other parties of
three or more who are about leaving a city and are not stopping at a
large hotel. Go to one of the company's agencies the day before, and
say by what train you intend to leave and the number of your party,
and the omnibus will be at your door at the proper time. The cost of a
vehicle of this sort is less than for a carriage of the same capacity,
and the printed tariff leaves no chance for a mistake.



CHAPTER XIII.

STEAMBOAT TRAVEL IN EUROPE.


Compared with the United States the continent of Europe has a small
amount of inland navigation. Russia contains more rivers where
steamers may run than all the rest of Europe, and until within a few
years her steamboat interest was greater than that of her railways.
The Rhine is the most important stream of Western Europe, and the
Danube has the greatest navigable length of any river outside of
Russia. The Danube has a serious impediment at the Iron Gates, where a
succession of rapids and a channel full of rocks prevent the passage
of boats. From the days of the Romans to the present there has been
talk of a canal around the Iron Gates, and there are the remains
to-day of a canal that was begun by one of the Roman emperors, but
never completed. From the head of navigation at Ulm to its entrance
into the Black Sea the Danube has a course of more than seventeen
hundred miles, while the Rhine can only claim a navigable distance of
less than five hundred. The Rhone and its tributary, the Saone, are
classed as navigable streams, but their currents are so swift that
their steamboat interest has never been an important one, on account
of the great cost of making an ascending journey. Many of the smaller
rivers of Europe are navigated by freight-boats only; as a general
statement it is fair to say that the inland navigation available to
the tourist is comprised in the Rhine and Danube rivers, and the Swiss
and Italian lakes. In Russia he will find the Volga, the Don, and the
Dnieper rivers worthy of attention, and, if he is on the lookout for
more streams, he may venture on the Vistula, and one or two others of
lesser consequence.

All the Swiss lakes are well equipped with steamboats, and the service
is prompt enough to suit the most exacting. On the lake of Geneva, for
example, there are half a dozen boats each way, daily, the whole
length of the lake, some of them stopping at every landing, and others
making only two or three halts. The boats are long and narrow, and
present a most insignificant appearance when compared with the
steamers of the Hudson and Mississippi; the after part is reserved for
the first-class passengers, who can sit under an awning on deck, or
retire to a cabin below. The second-class is forward, and in fine
weather is preferable to the first, since the latter has all the
benefit of the smoke and cinders as they blow aft. The boats on the
Swiss lakes are for day service, and contain no sleeping-cabins, but
there are sofas and couches on which an invalid may recline, provided
the craft is not too much crowded. Meals are served _a la carte_,
and sometimes at a fixed price; the latter are not to be recommended
on the majority of the boats, though they are cheaper than meals _a
la carte_.

Tickets are bought at the clerk's office, and the traveler is advised
to visit that locality and settle his fare as soon as he goes on
board. No receipts are given for baggage, and if there is an excessive
amount it is charged for. There is an attaché of the boat who looks
after the baggage--expecting a fee as a matter of course--but even
with his watchfulness it behooves the stranger to keep an eye out for
himself, or he may find on reaching his destination that his trunk has
gone ashore by mistake at some other landing. In selecting a seat on
deck take one on the side of the boat opposite the sun, so at to avoid
the reflection on the water, and whenever you leave your seat for a
moment put a satchel or some other article in it. Fashionable
travelers on the Swiss lakes are not always respectful of the rights
of others, and will drop into an eligible locality the moment it is
vacated, even though they know your absence will be exceedingly brief.

The description of the Swiss steamers will apply in general terms to
those of the Italian lakes. The boats are for day service only, and
their models are very nearly those of the Swiss. Most of the attachés
of the boats, especially the waiters in the cabin, speak French, and
occasionally one may be found who can grapple with English. Some of
the boats are much finer than others, and the traveler will do well
to make enquiries before taking passage. When embarking at an
intermediate landing buy a ticket immediately, or you may be charged
for the whole distance from the steamer's starting point. This custom
is not altogether unknown in other countries; there have even been
occasions when it cost less to go from New York to Albany than to a
point half-way between those cities, as many an individual can
testify.

For a long time the steamers on the Rhine were of the model already
described, and the accommodations for passengers were decidedly
limited. But with the increase of travel there has been a great
improvement, and now there is a line of "American steamboats" plying
the river so famous for its crumbling castles and historic
associations. The steamers of the American rivers have been taken as
models for these boats, and some of them are finely fitted up and
contain many features of real comfort. They are fast winning the favor
of the Germans, and, of course, are patronized by Americans and
English to the neglect of the old boats. The traveler should make
sure of the name and character of a boat before buying his ticket and
embarking, or he may find himself delegated to an antiquated tub, with
limited accommodations and snail-like speed, when he had expected to
be on a floating palace.

The tariff of fares is carefully arranged, and is posted at the window
of each ticket-office, so that there can be no doubt as to the proper
sum to be paid. In most instances tickets are sold at the offices on
the docks, but it is well not to purchase at an intermediate landing
until the boat is in sight; boats are liable to detention from various
causes, and, if a tourist is in a hurry, he can take the railway,
which follows the bank of the Rhine, or very near it, all the way from
Dusseldorf to Mayence.

On the Rhine steamers meals are served _a la carte_ and at fixed
prices, but there has been a tendency of late years to abolish the
fixed-price system and serve only _a la carte_. On most of the
boats there is a table d'hote breakfast or dinner at certain hours,
and a notice thereof is given by the ringing of a bell. The waiters
are fond of delaying the collection of a passenger's bill till just as
he is going on shore; by so doing they have a better chance of
imposing on him than when his memory is quite fresh as to the items
with which he can be properly charged.

Baggage is not checked unless an extra price is paid, but there is a
free allowance of one hundred pounds for each passenger. The charge
for guaranteeing the safety of baggage varies from two to ten cents a
parcel, according to its size and estimated value; when this amount is
paid the company is responsible for loss, and will indemnify the owner
according to a fixed tariff. Everything goes by tariff on the Rhine,
except the fees to the waiters, and the current of the river, and the
wind.

On the Upper Danube, from Ulm to Linz, and from Linz to Vienna, the
steamers are small and the accommodations limited, but on the lower
part of the stream there is a different state of affairs. The Danube
Steam Navigation Company has some large boats elegantly fitted up, and
though they are deficient in several things they remind the American
of home. The sleeping accommodations are rather limited, as there is
only a common cabin with two or three tiers of berths, unless a high
price extra is paid for a private room. The dining-saloon is airy
and well lighted, and the table generally excellent. There are two,
and sometimes three, classes of steamers; the fastest is the
"Accelerated," which makes only the few principal landings, and leaves
the other boats to perform the details of the service. On the
"Accelerated" boats meals are included in the fare, and the payment
for them is compulsory, while on the other steamers the traveler pays
only his passage, and the meals are an extra that he may take or leave
alone. There is a Hungarian line with its headquarters at Pesth, and
on the lower part of the Danube there is a Turkish line that has
periodical fits of suspension, and once in a while disappears for
months at a time. There is a considerable amount of travel between
Central Europe and Constantinople by the Danube route; a traveler from
Vienna goes as far as Rustchuk by the river, and then proceeds (in
about eight hours) to Varna by rail. From Varna is a run of fourteen
hours by steamship through the Black Sea, and down the Bosphorus, till
the domes of Saint Sophia's Mosque rise to view.

The steamers on the Russian inland waters leave much to be desired in
the way of personal comforts, and the most that can be said of them is
that they are better than no steamers at all. On some of the rivers,
especially on the Volga, there are some boats that are fairly
equipped, but the cooking is not the best in the world, and the
passenger must expect to do a good deal of roughing it. The
first-class travel is not sufficient to pay for anything like a good
service and liberal table, and if one is on the hunt for luxuries he
will keep away from the steamboat service in the land of the Czar.

On the Siberian lakes and rivers there is a steamboat service of very
limited character. The great rivers, with the exception of the Amoor,
flow into the Arctic Ocean, and consequently their only business is a
local one. There are only two or three steamers on the Obi, and the
same number on the Yenesei; the commerce of the Amoor maintains from
twenty to twenty-five steamboats, and there are less than half a dozen
on Lake Baikal and its outlet, the Angara. All these steamers are
small, compared with American boats, and their accommodations leave
much to be desired. The first cabin is usually an open room, with wide
sofas running all around it, and on these sofas the traveler makes his
couch with his own bed-clothing, none being provided by the boat. The
ticket does not include food, and the table is supplied by the
captain, at an expense of about a dollar a day for each passenger. A
traveler across Siberia must expect hard fare and poor accommodations,
and find the compensation for his privations in the novel scenes the
journey affords.



CHAPTER XIV.

SEA-GOING STEAMERS IN EUROPEAN WATERS.


The name of steam lines in the waters adjacent to Europe is more than
legion, and the enumeration of them would occupy several pages of this
volume. Bradshaw's Continental Railway and Steamboat Guide contains a
list of these lines, corrected from month to month, according to the
changes that have occurred; the information is conveyed in skeleton
form something like the following:

"Malta to Tripoli.--By a French steamer, three times a month.
Twenty-two hours. First-class (including food), £2, 8s."

"London to Honfleur.--The Villa de Lisbon and the Villa de Paris twice
a week."

All the great steamship companies issue pamphlets (gratuitously)
containing the information needed by travelers. These can be obtained
by writing to the office of the company, or by personal application,
and it is advisable for a traveler who expects to wander away from
_terra firma_ to provide himself with a stock of these documents.
They are of essential advantage in laying out a route, and by a little
study a tourist may often save much time and money. Take the following
as an illustration:--

In 1873 the writer was at Vienna to attend the great exhibition of
that year. At the close of the affair he projected a journey to Syria,
Palestine, and Egypt, and persuaded a friend to accompany him; the
time of each was limited, and it was desirable to make the trip as
expeditiously as possible consistent with doing it thoroughly.
Information concerning the facilities of eastern travel was difficult
to obtain, and it was concluded to postpone final arrangements until
reaching Constantinople. There were three companies engaged in
navigating the waters of the Levant, but no one of them would give the
least information about another. "You can buy a through ticket by our
line," said the agent of each, "and then you may stop over at each
port till the next ship of our company comes along." This seemed fair
enough, and is what is done by the majority of tourists, but it was
thought possible to improve on the plan.

The handbooks of the companies, French, Austrian, and Russian, were
obtained, and with these books before them the twain sat down one
evening in the hotel. It required a couple of hours to arrange a
route, but by dint of hard work it was accomplished. The result was
something like the following:--

Leave Constantinople by Austrian Lloyd steamer of the --th, and go to
Syra, one of the Greek Islands. There connect with a steamer of the
same company for Athens.

Spend eight days in and around Athens, and return to Syra by an
Austrian Lloyd ship.

Spend a day at Syra, and then take the fortnightly French steamer for
Beyrout. It stops two days at Smyrna, and part of a day at each of
half a dozen points including Rhodes, Alexandretta, and Latakieh, so
that a fair view of those places can be had.

Eight days after the arrival of the French steamer at Beyrout, an
Austrian one will touch there. This time will suffice for a journey to
Baalbeck, and Damascus, and the return to Beyrout, so as to catch the
Austrian steamer, and proceed to Jaffa, the port of Jerusalem.

Eleven days later a Russian steamer will touch at Jaffa, on her way to
Egypt. Eleven days will be enough for Jerusalem, Bethlehem, the Dead
Sea, and the river Jordan, together with the return to Jaffa, to catch
this Russian steamer.

The plan was carried out to the letter. There was plenty of time for
seeing everything, and no loss in waiting for ships in the different
ports, save in a single instance that had no serious consequences. The
scheme had a decided advantage over the ordinary plan of buying a
ticket by a single line, and depending only on the ships of that line.
In the latter instance you are compelled to wait for a fixed period,
while by traveling independently, and knowing the movements of all the
ships serving the ports in which you are interested, there is often a
material saving of time.

In addition to the regular lines, there are many independent steamers
trading along the coast of the Mediterranean and through the north
seas, and by scanning the advertisements, or enquiring at the
steamship offices, the traveler will often find something decidedly to
his advantage. For example, the writer was once in Singapore, at the
Straits of Malacca, intending to go to Java. There is a steamer once a
week from Singapore to Batavia, the capital of Java, and the vessel
for that particular week was a French one that had only sixteen berths
in her cabin; it was whispered around the hotel that she would be
terribly overcrowded, as she had nearly fifty passengers booked, and
perhaps more. By enquiring at the shipping offices it was ascertained
that a Dutch steamer had been at Singapore for repair, and would
return the same day and hour as the French one, but she had not been
advertised, and nothing would have been known of her in the ordinary
way. The writer and his friend secured passage on the Dutch steamer,
and had a pleasant voyage; she had the same accommodations as the
French ship, and only seven persons to occupy them, while the latter
had fifty-two! They were packed somewhat after the manner of sardines
in a can, and had a hard time of it, while every passenger on the
Dutch ship had a room to himself, and all the space he wanted at the
dinner table.

The rules and regulations on the steamers in and around European
waters vary somewhat, according to the nationalities of the companies.
The American traveler will run across what will be to him a curious
custom, on some of the Mediterranean lines; the supplying of food, and
the service of the table generally is not undertaken by the company,
but is leased or farmed out, the same as a hotel-keeper in New York
leases the space for a cigar or newspaper stand. The consequence is
that the table will vary considerably on different ships of the same
company, in proportion as the steward is liberal or the reverse. It
also happens frequently that the captain and steward are not on
friendly terms, as the latter does not run the table in accordance
with the ideas of the former; the steward is not responsible to the
captain, and cannot be removed by him, and as long as the contract is
a favorable one for the company, and the passengers make no complaint,
the managers of the concern are likely to uphold the steward as
against the captain. On most of the French and Italian lines it is
useless to make any complaint to the captain concerning the table, and
the steward will laugh at you for so doing. But if you write your
objections in the official complaint book, the situation is changed at
once.

This matter requires a little explanation. On all Italian mail
steamers, and on some of the French and Austrian ones, there is a book
accessible to the passengers for the express purpose of receiving
their complaints. The pages are numbered consecutively, and they are
stamped by the chief maritime officer of the port where the ship is
registered, and at the completion of every voyage the book goes to
that functionary for examination. If there is any complaint it is
investigated, and receives the proper punishment, at least such is the
general belief. The service of the table of an Italian steamer has
been changed from bad to good by the mere threat of writing a
complaint, and on one occasion, when the matter had been written out,
the captain and officers subsequently begged the complaining passenger
to add a postscript to the effect that the cause of his growl had been
removed, and he was willing to withdraw his remarks. They had
bestirred themselves to make things pleasant, and so he complied with
their request, but not till the steamer was in sight of port, lest
their vigilance might relax. It is a pity that the same system is not
in vogue on some of the trans-Atlantic steamers, as it would have a
good effect now and then on the discipline of the servants.

One great inconvenience of travel in the Mediterranean, and also at
many ports on the eastern and northern coast of the Continent of
Europe, is the necessity of landing or embarking in row-boats. The
boats are rarely supplied by the company owning the steamers, but must
be secured by the passenger, and as the boatmen are rapacious, and
more or less dishonest (generally more), the negotiations are not
pleasant. Besides it is no joke when the sea is rough, and the
distance long, to be tossed in a skiff between shore and steamer, or
steamer and shore, especially if one is inclined to sea-sickness, and
not over-confident in the safety of the craft that carries him. The
operation of landing or embarking when the waves are tossing, has an
element of risk about it, and many a person has been dropped into the
water in stepping from a skiff to the gangway stairs, or from stairs
to skiff. The steamship companies shirk the responsibility of
transfers in harbors where they connect with ships of their own lines;
in the voyage just mentioned, from Constantinople to Syra, and from
Syra to Athens, the tickets were purchased through from the Golden
Horn to the Piraeus, but on reaching Syra the party was told it must
pay its own expense for transferring to the branch vessel that was
waiting for them. Gouty, feeble, and timid persons are warned that a
tour of the Mediterranean is not to be undertaken lightly, by reason
of this impossibility of landing directly at a dock. Of all the ports
of the Mediterranean there are not half a dozen where the steamers lie
at docks, so as to render the small boat unnecessary.

For general advice concerning the business of going down to the sea in
ships, the reader is referred to a previous section of this volume.
The precautions against sea-sickness are as good (or as useless) in
the one case as the other, and the stewards and other employés of the
ship are much alike, whatever their nationality. On the French,
Italian, and Austrian steamers, the chief steward has the assignment
of rooms instead of the purser; the latter functionary is rarely seen
by the passenger, and is supposed to be busy with his accounts of the
freight. Consequently the chief steward is the proper personage to
evince any friendly disposition for, and he is generally open to
arguments of a financial character. A five-franc piece will render him
attentive, for ten francs he is obsequious, and for twenty he may
possibly harbor the proposal to throw the captain overboard, and put
you in chief command.

For parties containing ladies it is well to remember that English,
French, or Austrian steamers on the Mediterranean and Black Sea lines,
are preferable to other nationalities, as they generally carry
stewardesses, while the others do not. There are exceptions to this
rule on some of the Italian ships on long voyages, but they are
decidedly rare. In the matter of cleanliness, the various
nationalities may be ranged in the following order:--English, French,
Austrian, Russian, Italian, Spanish, Greek.

The Turkish and Egyptian steamers are hardly worth including in the
list as they have at best very poor accommodations for occidentals of
the sterner sex, while they are totally unfit for ladies to travel on.

In Northern Europe the German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, and Russian
ships are pretty nearly alike, and if there is any difference it is in
the order named. All the northern nations are good sailors, and the
captains are competent navigators; the Latin races are less reliable
in this respect than the Teutons and their kindred, and the Orientals
are the worst of all. Of the Latins the French are the best, and
especially those from Marseilles and its vicinity. The Italians were
once hardy navigators, and the mariners of Genoa, Venice, and other
maritime cities of Italy have a noble record; but in these latter days
they have degenerated very seriously, and their triumphs on the sea
are not of great renown. The best of Italian seamen and sailors come
from Genoa, Sardinia, and Corsica,--the latter, though belonging to
France, may be classed as Italian, since the people are of that
lineage and speak the language of the peninsula. In the same way the
Austrian Lloyd steamers belong properly to the Italian classification,
since Trieste, the headquarters of the company, is essentially
Italian, and it is not unusual to find captains and other officers of
the company who speak no other language, although German is the tongue
of the country under whose flag they sail.

The Spanish sailors are a sad travesty on the men that four hundred
years ago traversed the Atlantic with Columbus, and during the three
following centuries made the Spanish name respected and feared on the
seas all over the globe. A Spanish steamer generally abounds in fleas
and dirt, and the cuisine leaves much to be desired; if you call the
attention of the steward to creeping or jumping things in the berths
he will gravely inform you that such a thing was never known before on
the ship and you must have brought it on board when you embarked.

The Turk is too much a fatalist to be a good sailor. He is not
deficient in bravery or intelligence, but in a place of peril he is
very apt to fold his arms and say "Inshallah" (God wills it), and let
events shape themselves. Therefore it is well to avoid a Turkish or
Egyptian ship whenever another nationality can be found, not only on
the score of cleanliness already mentioned, but on that of safety.



CHAPTER XV.

SEA AND OCEAN STEAMERS IN VARIOUS PARTS OF THE WORLD.


There is now hardly any part of the world touched by salt water that
cannot be reached by steamer; wherever there is sufficient commerce to
give promise of remuneration a steam line is sure to be established.
Most of the European governments support lines of steamers by
subsidies in the shape of mail contracts; in this way they have built
up a mercantile marine, comprising thousands of ships that plow the
waves in all directions and spread their flags wherever the breezes
blow. Commerce has been developed by the steamship, and one after
another the subsidized lines have created a trade that has enabled
them to take care of themselves, or will thus enable them as the years
roll on. The steamer is one of the links to unite the nations, and the
familiar intercourse that it creates is a sure promotor of universal
peace.

Of transatlantic lines there are many; it is impossible to give the
exact number for the reason that new ones may be created or old ones
suspended during the time this volume is passing through the press. On
the American coast the ports of Montreal, Quebec, Halifax, Portland,
Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Charleston, Savannah, and
New Orleans are served by transatlantic steam lines; New York alone
has a dozen (roughly stated) and several of the others have each two
or three. The ports on the other side of the Atlantic that are thus
connected with the United States are Liverpool, London, Glasgow,
Belfast, Bristol, Hull, Southampton, Hamburg, Bremen, Rotterdam,
Antwerp, Havre, and Bordeaux. The Liverpool steamers touch at
Queenstown, both going and returning, so that the latter port has an
almost daily communication with America by steam without herself
owning a single ship. There are lines between New York and the ports
of the Mediterranean, with a service more or less regular. In the
fruit season there is more activity in their movements, and their
numbers are greater than when the oranges have ceased to be gathered
and the lemon has been squeezed. Occasionally there is a steamer for
ports on the Baltic, and not many years ago there was a line to
Stettin and another to Amsterdam. They may be revived any day, and new
lines may come into existence while yet we are talking about them.

Thus far there are no regular lines of steamers between the Atlantic
coast of the United States and the ports of Asia. One of the New York
and Liverpool companies has a line to Bombay and can send passengers
and freight all the way by its own ships, with a transfer in
Liverpool. In the tea season steamers come from China to New York by
way of the Suez Canal, bringing cargoes of the herb that forms our
breakfast beverage, but they do not return by the way they came; from
China to New York they make a direct voyage, but on the return journey
to the Land of the Celestials they take cargoes for Liverpool, London,
or any other port that offers. Most of these ships are specially
designed for freighting purposes, and their passenger accommodations
are limited; some of them are noted for their speed, though they
rarely make as rapid progress as the crack vessels of the
transatlantic lines.

The great majority of the steam lines everywhere are under the English
flag; of the transatlantic companies only one is American, but not all
of its ships are of American build. Of the two great companies that
connect Europe with the far East one is French and the other English;
there are two smaller companies connecting England with China, both of
them English, and there are occasional irregular ships, all of the
same nationality. Without attempting statistical exactness it is safe
to say that of the ocean steamers that link the different parts of the
world together at least nine out of every ten are British.

We have already glanced at the steamship service in waters adjacent to
Europe; let us now look away to the East.

There is an average of fully four steamers a week from Europe to
Alexandria, Egypt, and in the winter season the number is greater. The
lines are English, French, Austrian, and Italian, with a semi-monthly
Russian and an occasional craft of some other nationality. Some of
these steamers end their journey at Alexandria and return thence to
Europe, while others proceed to Asia by way of the Suez Canal. The
steamers touching at Alexandria form but a small part of those that
use the Suez Canal; the traffic through that artificial highway has
steadily increased, from year to year, until it now amounts to 120
ships a month, or four per day. Nearly all the craft that pass through
the Canal are steamers, as it has not been found profitable for
sailing ships to make the voyage up or down the Red Sea, with its
treacherous winds and dangerous navigation. It is probable that within
the next decade the number of steamers passing the Canal will be not
less than 200 per month, and many persons familiar with the subject
predict an increase still greater.

From Suez the steamers follow the narrow track of the Red Sea, where
the sun pours down its pitiless rays and causes the panting traveler
to absorb copiously of beverages that cool if they do not inebriate.
From the Straits of Bab-el-Mandel (Gate of Tears) the routes diverge;
one tends northward and eastward to the Persian Gulf and the rivers
that flow into it, while another heads almost due east to Bombay. The
route of the Persian Gulf is served by an English company, while that
of Bombay can boast of three or four English lines, an Austrian line,
and an Italian one, not to mention the many irregular steamers on the
hunt for chance cargoes and passengers. A hundred miles from the
entrance of the Red Sea is the verdureless Rock of Aden, where British
enterprise has established a port and coaling station. Most of the
regular lines make a halt there, and it has been found in practice
that Aden is an important point of divergence. Some of the English
companies have a service down the east coast of Africa as far as the
Cape of Good Hope, and the French have a line to Seychelles,
Mauritius, and Reunion.

The majority of the steamers going east from Aden head for Pointe de
Galle, at the southern extremity of Ceylon. Here they diverge again,
some going to Calcutta, some to Australia, around its southern coast,
a few to Burmah, and the rest to Singapore, at the Straits of Malacca.

From Singapore there are various routes for the ships that have
followed each other from Pointe de Galle. Northward go some to the
capital of Siam, less northerly others to Cochin China, and others to
Hong Kong, Shanghai, Yokohama, and the different ports of the
Celestial Empire, and the Land of the Mikado. Others turn southward
from Singapore to Java, and there is a line between Singapore and
Australia, by way of Java and Torres Straits, following the northern
coast of the great island instead of its southern one. Irregular ships
go to Borneo and around Sumatra, and there is a Spanish line that
unites Singapore with the Philippine Islands.

From Japan and China to Europe there is a regular mail service each
way once a week, and the arrivals and departures can be relied upon
very nearly like those of railway trains. One week it is performed by
the French steamers, and the next by the English, and so it goes on,
from the year's beginning to the year's ending. The smaller lines of
steamers add materially to the opportunities for a traveler between
Europe and the far East, and it may be fairly stated that at all times
of the year there are two steamers a week each way, while during the
tea season there are double that number. When the new crop of teas
comes in there is generally a race between two or more steamers from
China to London; the shortest passage thus far recorded was made in
thirty-seven days from Shanghai to the docks at London by one of these
tea steamers, and her competitor was only a few hours behind her.

An English company skirts the coast of India and Ceylon from Bombay to
Calcutta with weekly steamers each way; it sends its ships northward
from Bombay to Kurrachee, Bushire, and up the Tigris as far as Bagdad,
and from Calcutta it sends them to Burmah, the Straits of Malacca, and
Singapore. There is a Chinese line from Rangoon to Singapore, touching
the principal ports of Burmah and the Straits, and there is a Chinese
line and a Siamese one also, connecting Singapore with Bangkok every
four or five days. The Dutch owners of Java have a line from Amsterdam
to Batavia twice a month each way, touching Gibraltar, Naples, and
Suez, and they have several lines around the Java seas, to communicate
with the Spice Islands, and enable them to keep a watchful eye over
their possessions. About once a month they send a steamer to Melbourne
and Sidney by way of Torres Straits, and they send a ship every week
around the coast of Sumatra. The coast of China is well served by
English lines, and in the last few years by a Chinese one, composed of
ships purchased of foreigners. In the same way there is a Japanese
company that navigates the waters around the Mikado's Empire, and also
connects the Japanese ports with Shanghai and Hong Kong. The Yang-tse,
the great river of China, is navigated by a Chinese company and an
English one, the former being equipped with steamers built in the
United States, and the latter with boats constructed in England, after
the American model.

The ports of Australia and New Zealand are connected by local lines,
and there are two or more lines of steamers that ply between Australia
and England; from England to Australia the route is by the Cape of
Good Hope, but on the return voyage the ships go through the Suez
Canal, in consequence of the peculiar course of the trade-winds. On
their outward passage they touch at the Cape of Good Hope, and thus
come in competition with the lines that have been established between
England and South Africa. The regular service is weekly, and performed
by two companies, making alternate departures.

Coming back to Europe, we will turn our eyes toward the west once
more. There is an English line running to the West Indies, touching
the principal ports as far as Aspinwall, where they connect with the
steamers of another English line from Panama to the Straits of
Magellan. Three French lines perform nearly a similar service, one
going from Saint Nazaire to Aspinwall, a second from Saint Nazaire to
Vera Cruz, and a third from Havre and Bordeaux to Aspinwall. All these
lines touch at ports on the way, and one of them has a branch to
Cayenne; the departures each way in each direction are monthly, while
that of the English one is fortnightly. Another French line goes to
Brazil and La Plata, touching at the French colony of Senegal, on the
African coast, and there are two Italian lines from Naples and Genoa
that cover the same route, but without visiting Senegal. There are two
other French lines to the east coast of South America, and two or
three English ones, so that the traveler in either direction will have
plenty of ships to choose from. Then there are local lines all along
the coast, and there is an English line through the Straits of
Magellan, and up the west coast of South America as far as Callao, not
to be confounded with the one already mentioned from Panama southward.
Besides these there is a Spanish company plying between Cadiz and
Havana, and a Portuguese one from Lisbon to Brazil.

We have almost girdled the world in our observations of steamships,
and may now return to New York. The advertising columns of the leading
dailies will tell all about the numerous local lines that skirt our
coast as far South as Vera Cruz and Aspinwall, and they may or may not
tell us of a line from New York to Rio de Janeiro flying the American
flag. Several lines of this kind have been established, but they have
never been of long duration, as the cost of maintaining them is
greater than the receipts, and the United States government refuses to
adopt the English policy of sustaining steam lines by permanent mail
contracts. As this page is being written such a line is in full
operation; its permanency is to be most devoutly hoped, but hopes will
not always pay the expense of running a steamship. An English line
connects New York with Brazil, but does it in a roundabout way; the
steamers go from England to Brazil, carrying cargoes of English
manufactures, thence they take cargoes of coffee and other South
American produce to New York, and at the latter port they load for
home with whatever freight is offering.

Between San Francisco and Japan and China there are two lines of
steamers; both are under American management, and the ships of one are
of American build while those of the other are leased from English
owners. The service is semi-monthly, divided between the two
companies, and the broad Pacific is traversed in about twenty days.
There is a coasting line from San Francisco to Panama, and there are
two coast lines going north to Oregon and British Columbia. An
American line runs from San Francisco once a month to the Sandwich
Islands, and the Feejees to New Zealand, and there connects with the
local steamers to Australia.

Here we are at the point we reached by steamer from Europe, and may
pause awhile to consider other matters. We have seen the North Star
and the Southern Cross, the pine and palm; blasts from high latitudes
have chilled our limbs, and we have been faint and suffering under the
terrible heat of the equator. But our tireless steamer bears us on and
on, indifferent whether it breathes the airs of the tropics or the
poles; its pulseless limbs are never wearied so long as we supply its
digestive and respiratory organs with their needed aliments. The
steamer has destroyed the poetry of the ocean, but it has been a
material force in bringing peace on earth and good will to men.



CHAPTER XVI.

BY STAGE-COACH, DILIGENCE, AND POST.


The world moves rapidly, and the greater part of its motion, from a
traveler's point of view, is by steam. On land and on sea the steam
engine is the great propelling force; the railway train has usurped
the place of the stage-coach and diligence, and the white wings of the
sailing ship have been shrouded by the smoke of the steamer's funnel.
The sailing ship and the stage-coach still exist, but their importance
is gone, and, from present indications, there is no likelihood that
they will ever return to their former greatness. On a few routes in
England coaching has been revived, but only as an amusement, and there
is no prospect that it will gain more than a slender patronage. The
sailing ship is not a remunerative possession in competition with the
steamer, and the persons who take passage in it wherever there is
opportunity for the more expeditious form of travel are few and far
between.

Before the general adoption of the railway in the United States, the
mail-coach was in the height of its glory; all over the settled
portion of the country the crack of the driver's whip resounded, and
the vehicle, gaudy with paint, and dusty with what it had gathered
from the road, was the admiration of all who saw it. The veterans who
guided these conveyances were famous in their line as victorious
generals, and it was the proud ambition of many a noble youth to be a
first-class stage-driver on a great route. Early in the century, and
down to 1840, the triumphs of these jehus were mainly in the Atlantic
States and over the Alleghenies, but with the extension of the
railway, the stage-coach became a star of empire, and took its course
westward. The last great route of the stage-coach was covered by the
completion of the Pacific Railway, and now its services are confined
to localities that have not been reached by the iron horse.

The Pacific States have several important stage lines of a local
character, and some of them have acquired a national reputation. Every
visitor to California can tell about the drive to the Geysers, or the
road to the Yosemite Valley, where teams of six and eight horses are
driven at full speed around sharp turns, and a mishap might send coach
and passengers whirling a thousand feet down the mountain side. Those
who have journeyed north from California to Oregon are familiar with
the mountain ride of three hundred miles between the termini of the
railways of the two states, and there are several interior places of
importance where the railway has not yet penetrated. The newer states
and territories have a considerable number of stage routes in
operation, and in the summer season the whip of the stage-driver is
heard among the mountains of the eastern states, and in other
pleasure-resorts where the denizen of the city seeks coolness and
relaxation.

For traveling by stage-coach in America the preparations are not
numerous. If the journey is to be one of several days you will need a
strong constitution, as the luxuries of a palace-car, or an ocean
steamship, are not to be found on the horse-propelled vehicle. Have a
suit of clothes as near the color of dust as possible, and, if your
sex is masculine, cut your hair and beard so that your head will
resemble that of a pugilist, or the back of a bull-dog. Carry very
little baggage, the least you can possibly get along with, and don't
keep it where it will get in your way. Find a rear seat in the coach,
and, if in winter, try to have it on the side favored by the sun. Of
course you will try for a corner seat, and, if you get it, you will be
all right. These things accomplished, resign yourself to fate and the
care of the driver.

On a long ride by stage-coach you will naturally wonder how you are to
sleep. For the first twenty-four hours you have a hard time of it, and
your first night's sleep will be principally made up of wakefulness.
But Nature will assert herself; the second night is quite comfortable,
while on the succeeding nights you find yourself sleeping as well as
in your bed at home, at least so far as obtaining relief from
weariness is concerned. If you have never tried it you will be
astonished to find how little you are fatigued after a ride of five or
ten days.

In regions where there are highwaymen, facetiously termed "road
agents" by the Californians, carry as little money as possible, and
leave your valuable gold watch behind. You may have a revolver if you
like, but it is generally of very little use, as the robbers come on
you in such numbers, or under such circumstances, that your weapons
cannot be employed. Generally the first intimation of their presence
is the protrusion of several rifles or pistols into the windows of the
coach, with a request, more or less polite, for you to hand over your
valuables. When you have no alternative but to hand over, do so with
alacrity, and lead your assailants to think it the happiest moment of
your life. If you are compelled, as often happens, to step outside the
vehicle and hold your hands in the air while standing in line with the
other passengers, try and hold them a little higher, and be more in
line, than anybody else. Where resistance is useless do not make the
least attempt to oppose your uninvited interviewers, as they are a
fastidious set of gentlemen, and regard with suspicion any movement of
your hand towards your hip-pocket. The traveler who accepts the
situation, and conducts himself philosophically under such
circumstances, runs very little risk of bodily harm; the robbers are
after his valuables and not his life, as it is not the least use to
them, and they are unwilling to take it except in self-defense, or to
aid their search for his personal property.

American highwaymen have not yet learned the art of carrying travelers
away and holding them for ransom. This accomplishment is of Italian
origin, and flourishes in Italy, Sicily, and other parts of Southern
Europe. It was introduced into Mexico by the Italian emigrants who
went there with Maximilian, and prevails to some extent in South
America.

Accidents on stage-coaches are much more rare than one might expect
when the occasional badness of the roads and the apparently reckless
driving are considered. The fact is the driving is more reckless in
appearance than in reality; the stage companies generally employ men
who understand their business, though they may not be altogether
Chesterfieldian in their manners. If you have any doubts as to the
merits of the man who is to conduct you they can be generally settled
by consultation with the agents of the company; the story they tell
you may not be true, but there will be a vast amount of comfort in it.

A great many stories, mostly apocryphal, are told of stage accidents
in the far west. One is to the effect that a driver once informed a
timid traveler that nobody was ever hurt on his stage, though a good
many had been killed. The stranger naturally asked an explanation, and
received the following:

"There used to be a good many accidents," said he, "and lots of people
were killed or wounded. The killed ones didn't make any fuss; the
company just settled with their relatives, and that was the end of it,
but them that was hurt made a good deal of trouble. They were always
bringing suits for damages for large amounts, and generally getting
'em, and so I made up my mind to put a stop to it. When we have an
accident nowadays I just take a linch-pin and go round and finish up
all the wounded ones, and we find things going on much better."

For a short ride in good weather an outside seat is preferable,
especially where there is fine scenery along the route. The place by
the driver is usually the post of honor, and if that worthy is
talkative, as he generally is, a good deal of information can be
gleaned from him. He is usually unaffected by temperance principles,
and a pull at a flask will serve to loosen the cords of his tongue.

The American coaches are of varied size and construction, according to
the character of the roads where they are used. The old-fashioned
stage-coach usually had a capacity for carrying twenty-one passengers,
twelve inside and nine out, and was suspended on leathern braces. The
form is still retained in the so-called Troy coaches and Concord
coaches, but in many vehicles steel springs have taken the place of
leather. A form of coach largely used in the far west is the
"mud-wagon," which can traverse routes impassable for the larger and
heavier carriage, and is specially preferred where the roads are bad.
On some of the California routes, when the roads are moulting in the
spring, there is often a depth of several inches of mud, and only the
lightest vehicles can pass through it.

The diligence in Europe corresponds to the stage-coach in America;
like the latter it has seen its sphere diminished by the construction
of railways, and like it, too, it reflects the institutions of the
countries where it exists. On the American coach there is no
distinction; all seats have an equal price, and the first-comer has
the choice. On the diligence there are grades and classes, and the
seats are numbered and reserved like those of a theatre. The most
costly places are in the _coupé_, which is beneath the driver's seat,
and has windows in front above the level of the horses' backs; then
comes the _banquette_, which is behind the driver, and is an excellent
spot in fine weather, but disagreeable in a storm. The _interieur_, as
its name implies, is an inside affair, and affords very little view of
the road, and the _rotonde_ is at the back of the _banquette_, and
cheapest of all, as it is also the poorest. Particular places may be
secured for days ahead; on some of the Swiss diligences you may take
your place thirty days in advance by payment at the office, or by
enclosing the price of the fare with your card and a memorandum of the
day and hour of departure.

Diligences are in use all over Europe to reach towns and villages that
are not accessible by rail. Their fares are regulated by government,
and the hours of departure and arrival may be relied upon as exactly
as those of railway trains. At present the greatest country of
diligences is Switzerland; they are to be found on many roads of that
mountainous region, and on some routes they have a heavy patronage.
Between Geneva and Chamouny, a distance of about fifty miles, there
are sometimes a dozen diligences each way daily in summer, all of them
filled with passengers. The diligences on this route are a solution of
the problem, often declared impossible by American stage-drivers, of
making a coach where all the seats are outside ones. The body of the
vehicle contains the baggage, and the seats are in rows on the top,
over which an awning is spread. The only exceptions to the rule of
putting all the seats outside is in the _coupé_, which commands a
higher price than the _banquette_, but in fair weather is far less
desirable. The old-fashioned diligence with _coupé_, _interieur_,
_banquette_, and _rotonde_, is not much used on pleasure-routes, as
very few of the seats are desirable for tourists.

For a long journey the _coupé_ is the most comfortable part of
the diligence; it contains three and sometimes four seats, but one or
two persons may secure it by paying for the whole space. The French in
Algeria have introduced the diligence, and the writer has pleasant
recollections of some night rides in a capacious _coupé_, while
journeying with a friend to and from the Desert of Sahara. The
_coupé_ or any other part of the vehicle, once engaged, it cannot
be invaded by any other person, and not even a Prince, Grand Duke, or
any other titled individual would dream of taking it from you.

Posting is still in vogue in some parts of Europe, especially in
Russia. Where the system exists it is under control of government, and
the supervision is usually pretty strict. One may travel by post in
many parts of Switzerland; he may have his own carriage or he can hire
one from the government or from a private individual. One hour's
notice is required for hiring a conveyance of this sort, and the
changes at the relay stations generally take from 15 to 30 minutes. As
in stage coaching, or any other travel by horse-power, the less
baggage you have the better.

The country _par excellence_ of posting is the Asiatic portion of
Russia, commonly called Siberia. European Russia was formerly
traversed by post routes, but the construction of railways has caused
most of them to be discontinued. In Siberia there are as yet no
railways, the country is large and the roads are excellent. All these
conditions are favorable to the posting system, and by means of it you
may travel from the Ural mountains to the Sea of Okhotsk without a
break. The writer once journeyed by post from the head of navigation
on the Amoor River, in Siberia, to Nijne Novgorod, in European Russia,
a distance of nearly five thousand miles. Fourteen hundred miles of
this was accomplished in a wheeled carriage (called a _tarantass_) and
3,600 in a sleigh. A brief account of this journey will describe the
Russian posting system.

The first requisite for the road is a _Padarojnia_, or road pass,
which is issued by the government authorities, and without it no one
can pass a single station of the route or obtain horses. The document
states the name, residence, and destination of the bearer, the number
of horses to which he is entitled, and the grade of his pass. There
are three grades of road passes, the first for government couriers and
high officials, the second for lesser lights in the official
firmament, or for distinguished civilians, and the third for the
common civilian. Horses are kept waiting for the first, and are
generally forthcoming for the second, but the holder of a third class
Padarojnia will often wait for hours before he can be supplied, unless
he is willing to pay an extra fee to the station master for
expeditious service.

Baggage must be in flat and broad valises of soft leather, and all
hard boxes and square parcels should be thrown away at the start.
These broad valises, or _chemidans_, are spread on the bottom of
the vehicle; straw or hay is laid over them and the whole is covered
with a heavy coarse quilt. You sit, recline, or lie at full length on
this soft flooring; no seats are in the vehicle, and one very soon
learns that he is far better off without them. A couple of thick and
strong pillows are necessary to hold you in your corner and save you
from the frequent thumps you would otherwise receive.

You can travel in the vehicle (_telega_) belonging to the government
stations, but in this event you must change at every station, a
performance that speedily becomes a nuisance, especially in a cold
night. It is best to hire a tarantass to be taken through, or, if you
cannot hire one, you had better purchase it outright and sell for what
you can get at the end of the journey. The tarantass is mounted on a
pair of stout and flexible poles that serve as springs, and sometimes
they are so long that the two axles are at least twelve feet apart. It
has a hood like an old-fashioned chaise, and is equipped with a boot
and an apron, so that it can be quite shut in at night or in a storm.

To protect him from the cold the writer had a suit of thick clothing,
covered with a sheepskin coat that buttoned tight around the neck and
descended to the ankles. Over this he had a deerskin coat with the
hair outside; it reached to his heels, trailing like a lady's dress
when he walked, and was large enough inside for a man and a boy. The
collar was a foot wide, and the sleeves were six inches longer than
the wearer's arms; they were very inconvenient when he wanted to pick
up anything, and when the collar was turned up and brought around in
front it suggested the idea of a man without a head. For wraps he had
a robe made of nine sheepskins, sewed together and backed with heavy
felting; the robe was about three yards square and as impervious to
cold as the side of an ordinary house. Then he had a fur cap fitting
close to the head, fur gloves for his hands, and a mitten of sable
skin for his nose. He discarded the ordinary boot of civilization and
wore, over his ordinary socks, a pair of socks of squirrel skin with
the fur inside. Over these he had sheepskin stockings reaching to the
knees, with the wool inside, and over these he had deerskin boots that
rose to the bifurcation of his legs, and were held in place by thongs.
Thus equipped one may bid defiance to the low temperature of a winter
journey across Siberia.

At Irkutsk, the capital of Eastern Siberia, he remained a month, till
the snows fell and the winter roads were good. Then he bought a sleigh
(_kibitka_), constructed after the general pattern of the tarantass,
save that it was on runners instead of wheels. With a slight
expenditure for repairs he carried this sleigh through to Nijne
Novgorod (3,600 miles), or rather was carried by the sleigh. A
Siberian journey may begin at any hour of the day the traveler
chooses, and is continued day and night till it closes. The usual
custom is to order the post horses to be brought around about 10 P.M.;
the day and evening have been spent in feasting and farewells, and
towards midnight the departing traveler nestles down among his
garments and thick wraps, and is ready to go to sleep while the team
dashes over the road at a rattling pace. Sometimes he is escorted to
the first station by a party of friends, and in this case they set off
all together about sunset and make an evening of it.

The horses are changed at distances varying from ten to twenty-five
miles; they are paid for at each change, and the traveler must be
provided with a bag of copper coin, so that he will never be at a loss
to make out the exact amount that may be due. The driver expects a
small gratuity, and he generally earns it by driving at a lively gait;
a placard is hung in every station, showing the distance to the
stations on each side, and the price per horse, so that the best
intentions of the station master to cheat the wayfarer are frustrated.
Everything included, cost of padarojnia, hire of horses, and
gratuities to drivers, the expense of posting in Siberia is about four
cents a mile; two persons may occupy a kibitka, and some of these
vehicles will hold three, and the number of persons makes no
difference in the cost except when it is so large as to call for more
horses.

The station master is required by law to furnish travelers with hot
water and bread, at a fixed price, and he may sell anything else that
he chooses. Eggs can generally be had at the stations, but no other
article of food can be relied on. The traveler will carry his own tea,
coffee, brandy, and edibles generally; in winter the frost preserves
them perfectly, and he is under no apprehension that his perishable
provisions will perish. Soup is carried in cakes like small bricks;
roast beef resembles red granite, and must be carved with an axe.
There is always a fire in the travelers' room at the stations, and no
difficulty in preparing one's dinner, which is seasoned with that best
of all sauces, a keen appetite.

The sleigh glides merrily over the smooth roads and bounds the reverse
of joyously where the way is rough. As long as the harness holds
together and the team is in motion the driver pays no attention to the
passengers, but lets them rattle about as they will. Occasionally
there is a spill, but it rarely amounts to anything more than a
disagreeable shaking up and a scattering of one's property along the
road. To guard against a mishap of this sort it is customary to lash
the baggage into its place by passing a strong cord over it a
half-dozen times or more.

On and on you go, changing horses at the stations, and alighting two
or three times a day for meals. In the cities and large towns you may
halt a day or two for relief from the monotony, and for any repairs
that your sleigh may need. The road is long; there are 209 changes of
horses between Irkutsk and Nijne Novgorod, and some 90 odd between the
head of the Amoor and Irkutsk. It gets tiresome after a while, and you
gladly hear the whistle of the locomotive which tells you that your
long ride is at an end.

The winter is by far the best season of the year for traversing
Siberia. In summer the roads are dusty, the delays at the river
crossings are frequently long and vexatious, mosquitoes and flies fill
the air, provisions will only keep fresh for a day or so, and the
tarantass is a heavy vehicle to draw. The frost seals the rivers,
shuts up the flies and mosquitoes, lays the dust, extinguishes the
malaria of the marshes, and preserves your animal food for an
indefinite period. If you intend taking the longest and most
exhilarating post ride in the world, by all means make up your mind to
try it in winter.

The whole of Asiatic Russia enjoys the benefits of the posting system,
and one may go by the government roads to the shores of the Arctic
ocean in the north, or to the country of the Kirghes and Turcomans on
the south. Whenever a new region in Central Asia is conquered and
brought under the Russian rule, a post route is opened and stations
are established, so as to afford certain and quick communication. The
post route is to Russia what the railway is to the United States in
developing new territory, and carrying to it the blessings, as well as
the curses, of civilization.



CHAPTER XVII.

TRAVELING WITH CAMELS AND ELEPHANTS.


Next to the horse the camel is the beast of burden available for
travelers, and in some parts of the world he is a most important
animal. He has long been known as "The Ship of the Desert," and
without his aid the sandy wastes of Asia and Africa would be well-nigh
impassable.

The regions where the camel is in use are practically comprised in
Persia, Tartary, Arabia, Northern Africa, and portions of China and
India. There are several varieties of camels that differ from each
other, like the various kinds of horses; the finest and best of the
race is the one called the dromedary, which bears the same relation to
the ordinary camel as the carefully-bred trotter does to the common
horse. The pace of the common camel is about three miles an hour, and
his day's journey is from twenty to thirty miles. At this rate he can
carry from five hundred to nine hundred pounds of burden, and for a
short journey a strong camel can be loaded with one thousand pounds.
The swift camel or saddle dromedary has been known to make ten miles
an hour, though his ordinary pace will not exceed seven or eight. He
will travel fifty miles a day for days together, and, on emergencies,
he will accomplish one hundred miles or more without resting. Mohammed
Ali Pasha, who ruled over Egypt in the early part of this century,
once rode on a dromedary from Suez to Cairo, eighty-two miles, in less
than ten hours. He made only a single halt of about half an hour; the
driver of the beast ran at his side for the entire distance, and died
the next day from the exertion.

The stomach of the camel is so arranged that it can hold water enough
for a week's supply; the animal is thus enabled to traverse the desert
where the wells are often several days' journey from each other. His
foot is a spongy mass that flattens to a great breadth when placed on
the ground, and enables him to walk on the yielding sand, and his hump
is a store of fat that sustains him in the privations of the desert.
Attempts have been made to employ the camel on the arid wastes of the
south-western parts of the United States, but none of them have been
more than experimentally successful.

The motion of a camel is far from agreeable to the novice; even the
slow walk is unpleasant and wearying, and when it comes to the
trotting camel, or swift dromedary, the exercise is like being tossed
violently in a wooden blanket, and allowed to fall heavily every other
second. The rider's head and shoulders are thrown forward and then
back with a jerk, and as the jerks average about thirty-eight to the
minute each way, they become monotonous after a while. The novice who
reads this book is advised not to try a trotting camel till he has
become thoroughly accustomed to the dignified walker; the latter will
give him all the amusement he wants for a week or so, and perhaps
longer; and if he accomplishes twenty-five miles a day on his
humpbacked steed he should be satisfied. The first day he will feel
somewhat shaken up, but unable to locate his pains; the next day he
feels as though his backbone had been removed, and the third day he
finds it has returned, but is converted into glass. After that his
pains will subside, and a week will find him acclimated.

The riding saddle for a camel is a sort of dish with a pommel, and the
practiced rider crosses his legs around this pommel, and thus holds
himself in place. Stirrups are sometimes added, but they do not
properly belong to the equipment of a camel. A very good seat may be
arranged by taking the common pack-saddle, slinging the saddle-bags
across, and then piling on rugs and wraps enough to form a soft and
wide seat. The whole should be firmly lashed to prevent slipping;
stirrups may be added either at the pommel or at the side, and when
thus arranged the rider may mount to his place. He may ride in any way
he likes, either astride or sidewise, and he soon finds that he can
change his position without difficulty or danger.

A gentleman who has had much experience in camel riding gives the
following directions:--

"Place a light box or package on either side of the pack-saddle,
sufficiently closely corded to form one wide horizontal surface. On
this lay a carpet, mattress, blanket, and wraps, thus forming a
delicious seat or couch, and giving the option of lying down or
sitting, either sidesaddle or cross-legged. Sheets, pillow, rug, etc.,
may be rolled up and strapped to the back of the saddle, and form an
excellent support to the back or elbow. The object of the light box or
package is to a certain extent answered by a pair of well-stuffed
saddle-bags."

The traveler on a camel in the hot regions of Africa should have a
good supply of white clothing and a pith hat, or _sola topee_, to
protect his head from the broiling sun. But he should always have a
suit of tolerably thick clothing, for the night-air is cold, even in
the tropics, and a heavy overcoat will often prove useful. Water is
carried in barrels, or goat-skins; of late years boxes of galvanized
iron have been used very successfully, the first man to try them being
Dr. Rohlfs, the celebrated explorer of Northern Africa. In addition to
this, every man carries a small water-skin, called a _zemzemeeyah_,
at his saddle-bow, for use during the day, and as a reserve in case
he strays from camp.

The outfit for a journey by camel will depend much on the locality to
be visited, and the time consumed, and consequently no general rules
for it can be laid down. Whether it be the African deserts of Lybia or
Sahara, or the desert of Arabia, the traveler must carry the most of
his provisions with him, and be prepared to rough it a good deal. With
an enormous train of camels it is possible to transport many of the
luxuries of life, including spacious tents, carpets, bedsteads, and
other furniture, but if you cannot be comfortable without all these
things you had better stay at home. The usual allowance for travelers
in the Arabian desert is a tent for every four or five persons, and an
extra tent for a dining and sitting-room. The expense varies from five
to eight dollars a day for each person, and depends a good deal on the
size of the party and the style of traveling. At all the
starting-points it is easy to find a dragoman who will undertake the
whole business, but his recommendations should be critically examined,
and the contract drawn with judicious care. The dragoman is too often
a slippery party, who seeks to enrich himself at the expense of his
employer. A good one is a treasure, but a bad one is a source of
never-ending trouble.

In Northern China the camel is largely used, especially on the desert
of Gobi. Travelers between Pekin and Kiachta, on the frontier of
Siberia, generally ride in camel carts, or at all events have them in
reserve, while they promenade on their saddle ponies. Formerly all the
tea that entered Russia was imported overland, and in the tea season
long files of camels, laden with the delicious herb, could be seen
entering Kiachta at any hour of the day. Since the opening of the
Russian ports to importations by sea the camel traffic has largely
diminished, but there are still a goodly number of these patient
animals traversing the desert of Gobi, and the regions to the west of
it. The camel is an important reliance of Russia in her military
conquests in Central Asia, and the failure of an expedition is often
chargeable to him.

For riding purposes the elephant is preferable to the camel, as the
motion is far less disagreeable, and the broad back of the beast
affords a comfortable seat. The driver sits on the neck of his steed
and manages him with an iron goad that has a hook at the end, as well
as a straight point. The traveler has nothing to do with directing the
elephant beyond giving his instructions to the driver before starting;
if the ground is wooded he must keep a sharp watch for the limbs of
the trees, or run the risk of being brushed from his place. The
writer's first experience with elephant riding was at Benares, in
India; a magnificent elephant, belonging to a native prince, was
furnished to him for an excursion, and he returned from the adventure
without any of the disagreeable aches that accompanied his novitiate
with the camel. The howdah, or saddle, was like a small carriage,
capable of seating four persons; it was held in place by several
thongs and cords, and was reached by means of a ladder placed against
the animal's side. A more primitive equipment is a pad-saddle, which
is described by its name; it is simply a broad pad, like a
well-stuffed mattress, and is held in position the same as the howdah.
An elephant can easily carry all the passengers that can cling to him,
as his ordinary load is anything less than two thousand pounds.

When troops are on the march they have a form of saddle that will
carry eight men, and some of the largest will hold ten. It consists of
two benches or settees placed back to back and resting on a small
platform that gives support to the feet. In riding in this way the
traveler looks to one side, the same as in an Irish jaunting car, and
if he wants to see anything on the opposite side he must give his neck
a twist, more or less inconvenient.

There are two species of elephant, the African and the Asiatic; the
former is much the more fierce and not often domesticated, though it
is pretty clearly demonstrated that the first elephants ever tamed and
used by man were from Africa. The Asiatic elephant is employed in
Siam, Ceylon, Burmah, and India as a beast of burden, and in a few
other countries. The traveler in India will often see dozens of these
beasts at the railway stations waiting to receive their burdens of
bales and boxes, and sometimes he sees them at work on the roads. The
great expense of feeding them makes them an expensive article of
luxury, and it is not likely they will ever come into general use. A
good elephant will carry a ton of cargo and march fifty miles a day
over ordinary roads; he gets along very well on level ground, but
sometimes topples and falls backward when trying to climb a steep hill
with a burden on his back.

One caution the elephant rider should bear in mind. It is a peculiar
trait of this animal to take fright from slight and often absurd
causes, and sometimes he gets beyond the control of his driver. In
such a case do not seek safety by slipping or jumping from his back;
you may escape injury from the fall but will be in danger of being
trampled to death by the elephant or pierced by his tusks. Even while
he is going quietly along the road you should be careful not to fall
by accident to the ground, or attempt to jump there, as he is very apt
to turn and attack you.

The most docile elephants are nearly as dangerous in this respect as
the ferocious ones; while the writer was in India an engineer officer
was one day riding a favorite elephant that had been in his possession
for years and was much attached to him. By some accident he slipped
from the saddle and fell to the ground; the elephant immediately
turned, and in spite of the efforts of the driver to stop him, pierced
his master with his tusks, killing him almost instantly.

Another peculiarity of the elephant is to become suddenly insane from
no apparent cause. The animal may be walking quietly along the road,
or standing in his stable, when, without a moment's warning, he raises
his trunk in the air, bellows loudly, and rushes upon the nearest man
or beast with an effort to annihilate him. The paroxysm may be over in
a few minutes or it may last for hours; while it continues, the beast
is full of malice, and it is dangerous in the extreme to approach him.



CHAPTER XVIII.

TRAVELING WITH REINDEER AND DOGS.


Comparatively few of the readers of this volume are likely to have any
practical use for information concerning the modes of traveling with
reindeer and dogs, and therefore the subject will be treated very
briefly. The use of these animals for riding or driving purposes is
confined to the Arctic Circle, and regions adjacent to it, rarely
going below the fiftieth parallel of north latitude.

In Lapland, and in some portions of Northern Siberia, the reindeer is
employed to the exclusion of the dog, while in Greenland and that part
of North America bordering the Arctic Ocean the dog is the only beast
of burden. The American and Greenland dogs are of the variety known as
Esquimaux, and closely allied to the familiar and treacherous Spitz.
In Kamchatka and Northeastern Siberia both dogs and reindeer are
employed for drawing sledges, and the reindeer for a saddle animal.
The Kamchadale dog is quite like the Esquimaux in appearance,
character, qualities, and uses, and the description of one will answer
in general terms for both.

The sledge used for the reindeer in Lapland is a sort of box, not
unlike a coffin in general appearance, and it has the faculty of
overturning very easily. The animal is harnessed with a broad collar
of deerskin, and a stout thong extends between his legs to the front
of the sledge. A single rein is fastened to one of his horns, and by
means of this he is guided. Sometimes there are two thongs or traces,
one on each side of the deer, and when two deer are employed together
they are harnessed side by side. In that case a rein is fastened to
the horn of each.

In Kamchatka and Siberia the sledge is higher and broader than that of
Lapland; the latter has frequently but a single runner, like a broad
plank turned up at the ends, while the former has a pair of runners,
each about six inches wide. Generally the occupant of the sledge is
his own driver, especially if he has but a single deer, but with a
fine turnout of a pair of trotters the driver sits on the forward part
of the vehicle while the passenger is wrapped in his furs and takes
things comfortably. The ordinary deer is not a fast animal and his
speed does not exceed five or six miles an hour, but the fancy team is
quite another thing. It has been known to make fifteen or sixteen
miles an hour and to travel a hundred and forty miles without any rest
beyond a few brief halts. A ride behind a fast reindeer has the
disadvantage that the driver and passenger are pelted with balls of
snow, thrown by the animals hoofs, unless the weather is so cold that
the snow will not unite.

In Northeastern Siberia the reindeer is much oftener used under the
saddle than with a sledge. The saddle is placed directly over the
animal's withers, as the back is not strong, and will give way under
the weight of an ordinary man; it is nothing but a flat pad without
stirrups, and the rider, who is passing his novitiate, has no easy
task. The first time he gets on he generally tumbles off on the other
side at once, and even after he has succeeded in balancing himself the
first step of the deer is pretty sure to send him to the ground. It is
customary to carry a long stick with which to preserve the balance,
and some riders provide themselves with two sticks, one on each side.
The stick is absolutely necessary in mounting, as the deer is liable
to be thrown down if mounted as one would mount a horse.

A hundred pounds is considered a sufficient load for an ordinary deer,
and it is only the very best of the animals that can sustain the
weight of a good sized man. Nature has made the inhabitants of the
country of small stature and slender figures, probably in an effort to
adapt them to the carrying capacities of their beasts of burden. A
native rides one deer and leads a pack train of any number up to a
dozen, the halter of one being fastened to the tail of his
predecessor. The one that he rides is guided by a halter around the
neck, and a line which is fastened to the nose in case the animal is
without horns.

In Kamchatka and the Arctic Regions generally, where dogs are employed
for drawing sledges, they are broken to their work while quite young.
Their training begins when they are six months old, but they are not
put to actual labor till three years old, unless in times of great
distress and a scarcity of dogs. One mode of training is to fasten
them to posts or trees, with thongs of green skin, and then place
their food just beyond their reach. By reaching for it they stretch
the green thong; in this way they learn to pull steadily for some
minutes at a time, and the muscles of their necks are strengthened.
Occasionally they are harnessed to carts or sledges and made to run
for short distances, and are thus gradually trained to the work they
are to perform.

Dogs are driven without reins and generally without a whip. The driver
has a stick, called an ostoll, with one end pointed with iron; this he
uses for stopping his team when he wishes to bring it to a halt, and
checks its speed when descending hills. Occasionally he punishes a
refractory dog with it, but not often as the hard stick is apt to
inflict permanent injury on the slender bones of the animal. The most
important dog in the team is the leader, whose position is indicated
by his name. He is selected for his superior intelligence and
docility, and his training requires much care and attention. An
ordinary team dog is worth from eight to twelve dollars, while fifty
or even a hundred dollars may be refused for a good leader. The leader
obeys the voice of his driver and turns to the right or left,
according to directions. When the team is weary and moves at a slow
pace, the leader has been known to put fresh life into their movements
by suddenly pretending to have fallen on the track of an animal, by
putting his nose to the ground or snow and barking violently. Away
they go in pursuit, and only the leading dog and the driver are aware
of the ruse that has been played.

A team may consist of any number of dogs up to twenty, but the large
teams are only used for carrying freight, and rarely travel faster
than a walk. A team of running dogs for traveling purposes usually
consists of five or seven; the number is almost always odd, as it
consists of one or more pairs of dogs and a leader. The sledge is long
and narrow, and the size and shape are varied, according to the way it
is to be used. The driver sits sidewise on the sledge and clings to it
with one hand, while he manages his ostoll with the other. The
traveling sledge is as light as possible, and just large enough to
support the driver and a very little cargo. It is made of wood,
fastened together with thongs of deerskin, and the runners are usually
shod with polished bone.

A good team will travel from forty to sixty miles a day with favorable
roads. Sometimes a hundred miles may be made in a single day, but such
performances are rare. The news of the declaration of the Crimean war
was carried from Bolcheretsk to Petropavlovsk, one hundred and
twenty-five miles, in twenty-three hours without change of dogs. A
good team can average forty miles a day, and even fifty miles for a
week or more, but they must be lightly laden, and have favorable
roads.

The comparative merits of dogs and reindeer in the countries where
both are used may be set down as follows:--

The reindeer seeks his own food; he lives on moss that grows beneath
the snow, which he scrapes away to reach it. Thus he may travel any
length of time and be in good condition, provided he has sufficient
time each day for feeding.

The food for dogs must be carried on the sledge, unless the traveler
is certain of finding it along his route. The maximum supply that can
be carried by a team for its sustenance is for one week. Consequently
where dog food cannot be procured every five or six days those animals
are useless.

A forced journey can be made with dogs, but not with reindeer. Dogs
may be driven till utterly exhausted, and they will travel an entire
day, or even more, after their food has given out. But when the
reindeer is weary and hungry he stops and lies down, and no argument
that his driver can use will induce him to move on. He may be pounded
with sticks, or prodded with goads for hours, but all to no purpose.
He wants his food and will have it at whatever risk. When a reindeer
team thus halts there is no alternative but to turn the animals out to
feed, and wait till they have eaten all they wish.



CHAPTER XIX.

TRAVELING WITH MAN-POWER. PALANKEENS, JINRIKISHAS, AND SEDAN-CHAIRS.


To be carried on the shoulders of his fellow-man is not often the lot
of the American; the most frequent form of this species of locomotion
in the United States is decidedly uncomfortable and degrading, and is
known as "riding on a rail." The costume for an expedition of this
sort is inexpensive and ungraceful, though fitting closely; it usually
consists of a veneering of warm tar applied to the skin of the
tourist, and immediately afterwards he is rolled in a bed of feathers.
Thus equipped he is mounted on a pole, generally a fence-rail, without
saddle or bridle, and borne on the shoulders of those who supplied his
wardrobe. There is no mode of traveling known to civilization where
the accommodations are so wretched, and the mental and physical
discomforts so great, as in riding on a rail after the American
system. The only thing in its favor is its cheapness, as it is
generally quite gratuitous.

In Europe, before the adoption of wheeled vehicles, those who could
afford the luxury, were carried in chairs by two or more porters; the
conveyance was said to have originated in Sedan, France, and thus
became known as the sedan chair. It was introduced into England about
the time of King Charles First, and speedily attained great
popularity. It was gradually displaced by the wheeled carriage, and
disappeared from the cities of Continental Europe, one after another;
it lingers in Constantinople with other relics of past ages, and may
be seen occasionally at the European watering-places, where it is used
to convey invalids to and from the baths and springs. Before the
construction of the railway on Mount Vesuvius chairs were employed to
carry visitors up the steep incline, and they can be seen now and then
among the Swiss mountains. To see the _chaise a porteurs_ in all
its glory it is necessary to visit Asia.

The first vehicle of this sort that meets the traveler's gaze as he
journeys eastward from Europe is the palankeen, or _palkee_, as
it is usually called in India. It is a conveyance peculiar to India,
and consists of a box about seven feet long by four wide and three
high. It is entirely of wood, roof and all, and there is a sliding
door in each side, while the interior is equipped with a hard mattress
and bolster. There is a pole three or four feet long at each end,
which rests on the shoulders of the bearers, and is generally made
secure by iron braces. To enter this contrivance you back into it till
you can sit on the mattress, and then by a skilful swing you bring
head and feet inside at the same moment. Then you lie down at full
length and the coolies move off. You are expected to lie still, so as
not to disturb the equilibrium, and in the enervating climate of India
you are quite willing to be motionless. The bearers have a peculiar
swinging step that saves you from any jolts, and the motion is quite
luxurious.

Formerly in the cities of India the foreign residents made great use
of the palankeen, and every person of respectability was supposed to
keep one, together with the appropriate number of bearers. Of late
years it has been largely superceded by the horse carriage, of which
there are two or three varieties, and the palkee-bearers have been
forced to seek other employments. Four bearers are necessary to carry
the palkee, and four more run alongside to take their share of the
burden when the first are weary. At night a torch-bearer is necessary
to light the way, and to do the thing in style, there should be four
torch-bearers, two in front and two in the rear. Formerly the palkee
was the only means of traveling in the interior of India, but the
carriage road, and later the railway, have made the "palkee dawk"
(palankeen express) among the things that were.

For traveling on the high roads through the interior each palankeen
required sixteen bearers, and if the traveler had more than a very
little baggage he was compelled to hire from eight to twelve men to
carry it. The torch-bearers and other attendants generally brought his
retinue up to thirty-five or forty men, and sometimes even more. There
were stations on the road every ten miles where relays were obtained,
and there was always more or less delay at these stations, so that the
palkee was not a rapid means of travel. The "lightning dawk," as the
natives call the locomotive, has beaten it quite out of sight.

A cheaper vehicle for country travel is the dhoolie, a sort of chair
with a covering of canvas or muslin; it is lighter than the palkee,
and requires only twelve bearers instead of sixteen. An English
statesman of considerable renown once spoke in Parliament of the
ferocious dhoolies that carried the wounded from the battle-field on a
certain occasion; he was under the impression that the dhoolie was a
blood-thirsty native rather than an inoffensive chair.

What the palankeen was to India the sedan-chair is to China. As the
traveler finds it at Hong Kong or Canton it is a bamboo chair with a
ventilating top, like a Venetian blind, and it has curtains at the
side that may be rolled up or let down at will. It has a floor for the
feet, and rests for the arms, and altogether the Chinese chair is a
very comfortable vehicle. Long poles are fastened to the sides,
parallel with each other and projecting three or four feet in front
and rear, and by these poles the concern is carried. The chair is
placed on the ground for you to enter it, and you have none of the
difficulty experienced in getting into a palankeen. You simply sit
down as in an arm-chair at home; when you are seated, the bearers
seize the poles, and, at a signal from their leader, swing the burden
to its place on their shoulders. They move at a swinging pace, and
usually, but not always, keep step in unison. Every ten minutes or so
they change the pole from one shoulder to the other, and about every
half hour they halt and put the chair on the ground for a few minutes.
You may retain your place during this halt or get out and stretch your
limbs, just as you please.

In all the cities of China the chair is in use, and in most, if not
all of them, the streets are so narrow that carriages could not
possibly move about. For a short ride two bearers are sufficient, and
the chairs for hire in the streets of Hong Kong rarely have more than
two. But for an excursion into the country, or to the summit of
Victoria peak, overlooking Hong Kong harbor, four bearers are
necessary. There is a regular tariff for chairs, just as there is for
cabs in London or Paris. A short course costs ten cents, and a longer
one in proportion, and a chair with four bearers for an entire day, in
making the circuit of Canton, may be had for a dollar. Labor is cheap
in the far East.

Two-wheeled cabs, drawn by a single horse, take the place of the chair
to some extent in Pekin, but there are many streets where the cabs
cannot circulate. In Shanghai the wheelbarrow is a rival of the chair;
it is cheaper and more uncomfortable, and its use is almost entirely
confined to the natives. It has no springs, the pavement is rough, the
man between the shafts is generally far from strong, and altogether
the wheelbarrow of Northern China is not to be recommended.

The man-power vehicle, par excellence, is the jinrikisha of Japan. It
replaces the _norimon_ and _cango_, peculiar forms of the sedan-chair,
and has only been in use since 1870. It is said to have been invented
by an American, and the first jinrikishas that were used were imported
from San Francisco. Probably not less than a hundred thousand of them
are now in use throughout Japan, and they are said to have penetrated
to the remotest districts.

The jinrikisha is a carriage like a small chaise of the New England
pattern; it is on two wheels, and has shafts like a handcart, and
there is a hood over the top that can be opened or closed at pleasure.
The coolie that draws it places the shafts on the ground to permit you
to enter, and, until he picks them up, you are sitting with your head
bent forward. The cross-piece of the shafts held against his breast
brings the carriage to a level, and then you are ready for a start.
The jinrikisha is intended for one person, but occasionally you see
two Japanese or Chinese of medium size occupying a single vehicle.

For a short ride in a Japanese city one man to pull your carriage is
sufficient, but for a journey into the country, or of several miles,
you need two men, or perhaps three. Where you have but one man you
should not expect to go as rapidly as with two or three, and you must
dismount in sandy places, or when a hill is to be ascended. The speed
and endurance of these men is something wonderful. It is nothing
unusual for three of them to pull a jinrikisha fifty miles in twelve
hours, with only three halts of a quarter of an hour each, and they
have been known to make sixty-five miles between sunrise and sunset of
a long day. The writer, with three men to his carriage, traveled from
Osaka to Nara, a distance of thirty miles, between 10 A.M. and 5 P.M.,
with a halt of an hour for dinner. The next day he continued his
journey to Kioto, thirty miles more, in a pouring rain, with the same
men in the same time. The coolies were as fresh on the second day as
on the first, and as cheerful as one could wish, although their
passenger was not a light weight, and was suffering from a lameness
that prevented his walking up any of the hills.

Riding with a jinrikisha is cheap enough for the most contracted
purse. The tariff in the large cities of Japan is ten cents an hour,
or fifty cents for a day of twelve hours, and if the traveler wishes
to keep his carriage waiting for him, and subject to his call, he can
readily make a bargain for not over three dollars a week. Most of the
foreigners in Japan keep their own carriages by buying a jinrikisha,
and hiring a couple of men for six or seven dollars each per month.
They perform the work of general servants about the house and grounds,
and whenever the master wishes to ride out he orders the jinrikisha
and its accompanying coolies. A carriage of ordinary workmanship costs
about twenty-five dollars, and a "swell" one can be had for fifty or
something less. Its name is compounded of three Japanese words--jin,
man, riki, power, and sha, carriage--jin-riki-sha, man-power-carriage.

The stranger in Japan, China, or India, finds it disagreeable to ride
on men's shoulders, or to be drawn by them in a vehicle. Especially is
this the case in Japan, where you have the struggling and perspiring
man directly before you, and witness the effort he is making to propel
you over the ground. Everybody experiences this feeling, and his first
ride in a man-power carriage is rarely agreeable. But when you
remember that the coolie considers it a favor to be employed, and that
nothing would displease him more than to have the offer of his
services refused, you will change your mind, and take your ease in a
jinrikisha. Regard him as you would the man whom you employ to saw
wood or dig potatoes; he is thankful for the opportunity of working,
and so is the Japanese coolie who exerts his strength to pull you
about. And when you have done with him give a few cents extra, and he
will thank you with an expression so heartfelt that you cannot fail to
be touched by it.

Many of the Japanese still prefer the _cango_ to the jinrikisha,
but it is rapidly going out of use in all the localities where the
miniature chaise can run. The _cango_ is a sort of open-sided
basket slung on a pole, and carried by two men in the same way that a
sedan-chair is carried. The occupant must double his legs beneath him,
and sit perfectly still; this is easy enough for a Japanese, but is
torture to a European. No man from Europe or America will ever find
the _cango_ enjoyable until a system is invented whereby he can
unscrew his legs before starting, and screw them on again when his
journey is completed.



CHAPTER XX.

PEDESTRIAN TRAVELING.--MOUNTAIN CLIMBING.


The earliest form of traveling was on foot; it was in universal use
before the horse and other beasts of burden were subdued to the will
of man, and before the railway and steamship were invented. In spite
of the lapse of ages, and the many improvements in locomotive means,
it continues to be practiced by a great many persons, and will
doubtless so continue as long as men have feet to walk with. The large
majority of pedestrians are such from necessity, but the class that
prefers to walk when it can afford to ride is by no means small.

The railway has been the great destroyer of pedestrian travel, and, at
the present time, very few people, except those absolutely without
money, take to the high-road where there is an iron way to carry them
to their destination. Unless there is some reason for the foot journey
beyond the desire to reach a certain place, the railway affords the
greatest economy of money and time, as the merest glance at the
figures will show. Suppose a man wishes to go from New York to
Philadelphia, a distance of ninety miles; at thirty miles a day he
will be three days on the road if he uses his feet, and three hours if
he takes the railway. The fare by railway will be two dollars, and his
loss of time half a day; reckoning his meals and lodging along the
high-road at one dollar a day his expenses in footing it would be
three dollars, without counting the loss of time, which most Americans
consider equivalent to money. Far greater is the contrast in a long
journey across the Continent, or over a considerable portion of it, so
that the most miserly of men is not likely to put his own feet in
competition with the wheels of the locomotive.

Pedestrian journeys in America are mainly confined to young men in
search of health, who throng the routes of New England and northern
New York in the summer months. In Europe the principal resorts of the
pedestrian are the mountain regions of Switzerland, Italy, and
Germany, and there is a fair amount of the same kind of travel in
Norway, Sweden, and the lake and mountain districts of Scotland.
Workmen going from one town to another in search of employment are
often encountered, and in some countries of the Continent such
journeys are obligatory upon apprentices before they can be allowed to
practice the trades they have learned.

Fifty years or more ago there was a half-pedestrian system in vogue in
the United States, especially on the great roads leading to the west.
It was known by the name of "ride and tie," and many an emigrant of
those days found his way west by this process. It was about as
follows:

Two men, whom we will call Smith and Jones, unite their funds and buy
a horse and saddle. Their baggage is stowed in the saddle-bags, so
that neither of them has anything to carry beyond his strong
walking-stick. On the morning fixed for their departure Smith mounts
the horse and starts at an easy pace along the road, while Jones
follows on foot. It has been arranged that the first "tie" shall be at
a village twenty miles away.

In four hours Smith and the horse have made the twenty miles, and the
horse is put up at a tavern and fed, while Smith proceeds on foot.
When Jones arrives the horse has had a rest of three hours or more,
and is ready for another twenty miles which Jones proceeds to give
him. He passes Smith on the way, and arrives at the next village,
where he orders supper and awaits the arrival of his comrade. They
spend the night in company, and the next morning the journey is
continued in the same way; generally the scheme is reversed on
successive mornings, the one who was first to ride one day being the
last to do so on the next. In this way they make forty miles a day,
and each of them has only a comfortable walk while the horse is kept
in good condition.

For a pedestrian tour among the mountains, either of Europe or
America, the principal requisites are a reasonably strong
constitution, good feet, and good shoes to wear on them. Shoes are
preferable to boots, as the latter are apt to weaken the ankles,
especially if made with elastic at the sides. Besides they are heavier
than shoes, and where we are taking a walk of many miles every
infinitesimal fraction of an ounce added to the weight of our
foot-gear counts against us. Of course there are occasions where boots
are required for protection against mud, snow, or sand, but where
roads are good and smooth shoes should have the preference. They
should be easy without being loose, and sufficiently wide to give
freedom to the toes. The soles should be broad, and the heels low and
wide; all doubts on this score can be settled by ascertaining the kind
of shoes worn by the professional pedestrians in the great
walking-matches that have recently become fashionable.

The author of Baedeker's guide-books is a good adviser in the matter
of pedestrian excursions, as he has tramped over the most of
Switzerland and Germany, and believes that the best way of "doing"
them is on foot. He says as follows:--

    "A light 'gibeciere,' or game-bag, such as may be procured in
    every town, amply suffices to contain all that is necessary for a
    fortnight's excursion. Heavy and complicated knapsacks should be
    avoided; a light pouch, or game-bag, is far less irksome, and its
    position may be shifted at pleasure. A change of flannel shirts
    and worsted stockings, a few pocket-handkerchiefs, a pair of
    slippers, and the articles of the toilet will generally be found
    sufficient, to which a light mackintosh and a stout umbrella
    should be added. A piece of green crape or colored glasses, to
    protect the eyes from the glare of the snow, and a leather
    drinking-cup will be found useful. The traveler should, of course,
    have a more extensive reserve of clothing, especially if he
    expects to visit towns of importance. This can be contained in a
    valise, which he can easily wield when necessary, and may forward
    from town to town by post."

    "The first golden rule of the pedestrian is to start on his way
    betimes in the morning. If strength permit, and a good halting
    place is to be met with, a two hours' walk may be accomplished
    before breakfast. At noon a moderate luncheon is preferable to the
    regular table d'hote dinner. Repose should be taken during the
    hottest hours, and the journey then continued till 5 or 6 P.M.,
    when a substantial meal may be eaten. The traveler's own feelings
    will best dictate the hour for retiring to bed.

    "For wounds and bruises a vial of tincture of arnica should be
    carried, and it has an invigorating effect if rubbed on the limbs
    after fatigue." The traveler should not fail to be provided with a
    few of the simple medicines best adapted to his system, as he may
    often need them when they are quite unattainable. Avoid drinking
    water too freely, especially where it comes directly from the
    melting snows of the mountains. There are many persons who rarely
    drink water, whether on pedestrian excursions or at other times,
    and to them the preceding advice will be superfluous. Cold tea is
    regarded as the best beverage by the majority of pedestrians, and
    its invigorating powers are often remarkable."

When starting on a pedestrian excursion be careful not to overtax your
strength. Five or six hours a day are sufficient to begin with, and
when no fatigue results from a single day's work that of the next may
be increased. By adding half an hour daily to his task, a traveler
will soon be able to devote ten or twelve hours out of the twenty-four
to the use of his feet. The most experienced pedestrians advise that
the limit should be ten hours, except on extraordinary occasions. An
even, steady pace should be adopted, and everything like a "spurt" is
to be avoided. Many a traveler has broken down in the effort to do
more than he ought, either in going too far in a given time, or
walking faster than the accustomed pace to see how many miles he could
cover in an hour.

For climbing high mountains, special practice in walking is a
necessity. There is a great deal of fatigue consequent upon the ascent
of Mont Blanc and his snow-covered brethren of the Alps, partly due to
the exertion of walking through the snow, and over the rough rocks,
and partly to the rarity of the atmosphere in elevated positions. None
but good walkers should attempt these journeys, as it is a serious
matter to break down at a point far from roads, and where assistance
may be a long time coming. The members of the English and other Alpine
clubs generally devote at least a month to the ordinary excursions
among the mountains before venturing on a "course extraordinaire,"
like the ascent of Mont Blanc. The ascent of the Matterhorn is far
more difficult than that of Mont Blanc, and the preliminary practice
proportionally longer.

The equipment for an Alpine ascent above the snow-line is quite
simple, but should be of the very best quality. The traveler will need
an alpenstock, or strong stick, from five to six feet long; it should
be of the best seasoned ash, and one end should be pointed with iron
to give it a firm hold on the ice. It should be as light as possible,
consistent with strength, and the test to be given is to have it
sustain the weight of its owner, when supported at the ends. Ice-axes
and ropes are also needed for the higher mountains, and sometimes it
is necessary to carry a ladder for crossing crevasses.
Mountain-climbing in Switzerland has been reduced to a system, and
there are associations of guides who make it a business to accompany
tourists in ascents more or less difficult. The ascent of Mont Blanc,
formerly so difficult, is now quite easy, as there is a hotel at the
"Grands Mulets" where the night is passed, and though the
accommodations are limited, they are quite sufficient for the robust
traveler. Everything that is needed for the journey can be obtained
from the guides at fixed rates, and the only care of the stranger is
to see that what he orders is of the best quality.

The regulation time at present for the ascent of Mont Blanc from
Chamouny and return is two days. The traveler starts at 7 A.M.
and arrives at the Grands Mulets about 3 or 4 in the afternoon. At 4
the next morning he is called, and after a light breakfast a start is
made for the summit, which should be reached by nine o'clock. The
return to Chamouny is usually accomplished by sunset, but many
travelers who have plenty of time at their disposal prefer to spend
the second night at the Grands Mulets, and return leisurely on the
third day to Chamouny. Each tourist requires a guide and a porter to
accompany him, and sometimes half a dozen guides to each tourist are
taken. Each guide receives one hundred francs (twenty dollars) for his
services, and the porter half that amount, so that the cost of an
ascent of Mont Blanc is by no means small. The dangers are now much
less than formerly, as the crevasses are all well known to the guides,
whose directions should be followed implicitly. The principal peril is
from sudden storms of snow, in which travelers are overwhelmed as in a
sand-storm in the desert. In 1870 a party of eleven persons perished
in a snow-storm; they had been to the summit and were nearly half-way
back to the Grands Mulets when the snow-cloud burst upon them. The
guides can generally foretell the approach of bad weather, and the
cautious tourist will not insist upon making the ascent against their
advice.

It has been said that tourists need only go part of the way up the
mountain to obtain a certificate of having made the entire ascent,
provided they pay for the complete course. It is doubtful if this is
the case; not that the guides would be unwilling to oblige a patron,
but because the summit is in full view of the village of Chamouny, and
parties who make the ascent are watched through powerful telescopes by
loungers on the verandas of the hotels.



CHAPTER XXI.

TRAVELING WITHOUT MONEY.


Anyone can travel who has time and money at his disposal, but it
requires genius, or its first cousin, improvidence, to travel without
it. One who is not a genius, but who possesses common-sense and
prudent habits may see a great deal of the world for a very little
cash. Bayard Taylor made the tour of Europe in his younger days for
less than five hundred dollars, and devoted more than a year to the
journey; how he did it is told in his volume entitled "Views Afoot."
He has had many imitators, and some of them have traveled for less
than he did; of this class was Ralph Keeler, who claimed to have seen
Europe for less than two hundred dollars, but he went through many
hardships that the majority of men would decline to undergo.

In the fall of 1880 an account was published of a printer who made a
tour around the world in four years, and had only fifty dollars in his
pocket when he started. According to his story, he left San Francisco
in 1876 as steward of a sailing-ship, which he quitted at Honolulu for
work in a newspaper office there. After setting type for a month he
arranged to take care of some horses that were being shipped to
Melbourne, and in this way he reached Australia. He remained in that
country nearly a year, tramping through it, and occasionally working
at his trade. He shipped on a coasting-vessel as a sailor in the fall
of 1877, was wrecked on a reef, and picked up by a ship that carried
him to Suez. Through Egypt and the Holy Land he went as servant to
travelers, and as a vagrant, and in this way managed to get to
Constantinople, and thence up the Danube to Vienna. From Vienna he
walked northward to the shores of the Baltic, where he again became a
sailor during the summer of 1878. In the fall of that year he
re-crossed Europe, most of the way on foot, till he reached Rome, and
from there he proceeded to Spain, and thence to Paris. He was in the
French capital till July, 1879, when he had earned money enough to
carry him to London, where he remained some weeks, and then sailed for
Charleston, S.C. From Charleston he walked through most of the coast
States, and when the account was published he had reached Detroit on
his way to San Francisco. When asked if he had experienced any real
hard times, he answered:--

"I suppose you would call it hard to go twenty-four hours without
food, but I have done that many times and it didn't hurt me, and I
have lived for weeks at a time without knowing what a bed was, and
without clean clothes, except as I would wash my own shirt and wear my
coat buttoned closely while it was drying." He said further that such
little conveniences as stockings, collars, cuffs, and handkerchiefs
never entered his thoughts.

Not many would care to travel after the manner of this wandering
printer, but there is a fair number of Americans who set out to see
the world with very little more money than this man had in his pocket
at the commencement of his journey. If the annals of the American
consulates could be published a great many of us would be surprised to
know the number of appeals to the consular pocket for aid. The story
usually told at the consulates is that the traveler's remittances have
failed to reach him, and he desires a loan for a few days till his
letters arrive. They generally do not come, and when the money that
was borrowed is gone another appeal is made and with the same excuse.
When the consul's patience is exhausted (and also his purse), the
adventurer makes a final petition for sufficient money to carry him to
the next city, where the same story is told, and the same process goes
on. In this way a tourist may live comfortably for a couple of weeks
or so in each of the principal cities of Europe, provided he can find
the consuls able and willing to "lend" him what he wants.

The foregoing is intended as a hint to the enterprising American who
has neither conscience nor money and is desirous of traveling abroad.
The best time for him to begin his travels on this plan is just after
a change of the presidential administration has caused a sweeping
removal in the consular offices and the appointment of a new set of
incumbents. A new consul is anxious to be polite and obliging, and
will often prove a rich mine to the adventurer, while the old one has
become case-hardened in the service, and is sceptical about the
stories that the unfortunates tell him, and you should gauge your
appeal according to the time a man has filled a consular office. If he
is newly-arrived you can make three or four loans of ten dollars or so
while waiting for your remittances, and can then borrow more to move
on with. If he has been there a year or two you can hardly expect more
than a couple of preliminaries, or perhaps only one, and if he has
been there three or four years you cannot expect him to do more than
pay your second or third-class passage to the next place.

The adventurer who seeks to travel for nothing sometimes claims to be
the correspondent of a newspaper, and not unfrequently he writes
letters for a daily or weekly journal. If he cannot obtain the loan he
wants he revenges himself by writing an abusive letter about the
consul who has refused him, and sometimes he gets the latter into
trouble. Nine-tenths of the abusive letters about our consuls abroad
come from the fellows who try to borrow money and fail. As a general
thing the American consuls in Europe and Asia are capable men who
render their country good service for inadequate pay; the government
gives them no contingent fund from which to make up their losses from
loans to swindlers, and all these sums must come out of their own
pockets. The evil is so great that there is not a consul who has been
a year in the service who does not tremble when a strange American
presents himself at the consulate and wishes to see the representative
of his country. The chances are three to one that a "loan" is wanted,
and the tale that accompanies the application is so pitiful that it
would melt the heart of a bronze dog. Some of the consuls require
strangers to state their business to the clerk before they can see the
chief, but it needs more courage to demand it than is possessed by the
majority of American officials.

Some of our representatives abroad have painful recollections of
visits from "inspectors of consulates" appointed by the government to
make tours of inspection in various parts of the world. Two at least
of this gentry made it a practice to ask a loan of fifty dollars of
each consul before inspecting his office; if the money was forthcoming
the office was speedily examined and found to be in excellent
condition, but if the consul was not in a lending mood he was reported
to have his books in bad shape, and to be personally unfit for the
position he was filling. It is needless to say that the great majority
of the consuls saw the point, and imitated the example of Captain
Scott's coon by "coming down" before the fire was opened. And no one
of them to this day has been repaid a penny of the borrowed money.

Memorandum: If you can add the title of "Inspector of Consulates" to
your other accomplishments you will vastly improve your chances of
swindling your way around the world. The most of these officials are
men of excellent character, and if you try the rôle you must assume
the manners of a gentleman, however much you may be devoid of his
instincts.

There is a fair number of American adventurers in the European cities
who live by searching out their country-men as fast as they arrive and
making loans more or less small. These fellows watch the hotel
registers and the lists of strangers in the newspapers, and their
methods of conducting their operations are numerous and varied. London
and Paris contain more of them than any other cities, and perhaps
London has a greater number than its French rival. One of the most
ingenious devices for fleecing the stranger was adopted by an American
who lived some years in Paris; he had no patent upon it, and as he is
dead now anyone who chooses may take it up. It was as follows:--

He operated around the Grand Hotel, and other resorts of Americans,
and managed to make himself acquainted with as many new-comers as
possible. He was particular in cultivating anyone to give his card and
ask that of the stranger, and to ascertain at what hotel the latter
was stopping. Immediately they separated he called at the hotel in
question and left his card, so that the stranger would be impressed
with his new-found friend. Then the next morning about eight o'clock a
messenger would come in great haste with a note from the swindler,
which ran about like this:--

    "DEAR SIR:--I regret to inform you that I have been run over by an
    omnibus, and while I was insensible my pocket was picked of all
    the money I had about me. You may not be aware that in this
    country a man who gets run over is fined for being in the way; I
    am at the police-station of the 12th arrondisement, and they
    refuse to let me go till I pay fifty francs. As I cannot draw
    money at my banker's at this hour of the morning, I venture to ask
    a favor of you. I beg that you will oblige me by sending fifty
    francs by the bearer, and as soon as the banks open I will go to
    my banker's and get the money to return to you immediately. You
    can expect me a few minutes past ten o'clock, and I shall hope to
    find you in. In case you are gone out I will leave the money with
    the concierge."

The appeal was so reasonable that many a stranger was taken in. The
swindler endeavored to keep out of the way of his victim, but if met
and interrogated he always declared that he left the money with the
concierge, and the latter had doubtless pocketed it. He thrived for a
while, but at length the gentle but firm hand of the police was laid
upon him, and he was forced to emigrate. The Continental police are
apt to interfere with schemes of this sort, and an enterprising man
has little chance among them.

The only successful traveler without money is of the class usually
designated as the "tramp." He has increased in numbers in the last few
years till there is altogether too many of him; so much is this the
case that several of the state legislatures have been compelled to
pass laws for his suppression, and thus his operations have been
greatly curtailed. But in the states where no laws have been made
against him he flourishes in all his glory; he generally lives well by
begging at kitchen doors, or at houses along the country roads, and he
is satisfied with lodgings in a barn or under a haystack. In summer he
traverses the country, and in winter the cold drives him to the city,
where he stays till the trees bud and blossom again, and the robin
sings in the orchards. Then he returns again to the country, and so he
goes on from year to year, unwilling to accept honest employment, and
giving no equivalent for his support. It is his evident impression
that the world owes him a living, and the only duty devolving upon him
is to collect the debt.

During the World's fair at Paris in 1867, one of the London papers
published a scheme whereby a man could spend three days at the
Exposition for 50 francs. It was something like the following:--

                                                          fr. c.

    Lodging three nights at 3 francs per night,            9 00
    Breakfast three days at a Duval restaurant, at 1 fr.
      50 c.,                                               4 50
    Omnibus to Exposition, at 50 c.,                       1 50
    Admission to Exposition, 1 fr. daily,                  3 00
    Lunch and glass of beer, 2 fr. 50 c. daily,            7 50
    Return from Exposition, same as going there,           1 50
    Dinner, with wine, at Duval restaurant or Table d'
      Hote, 4 fr. daily,                                  12 00
    Theatre in the evening (gallery), 3 fr.,               9 00
    Extras,                                                2 00

        Total,                                            50 00

A Paris paper, a few days later, made an improvement on the above,
and showed how a man could spend three days at the Exposition for
nothing. This is the way it was done:--

    Lodging three nights at police stations, 00 per night,   00
    Breakfast at hydrant, three times, 00 each time,         00
    Ride to Exposition by hanging on steps of omnibus,       00
    Admission, make a bundle of your coat and enter as
      an exhibitor,                                          00
    Lunch, similar to breakfast with addition of samples,
      obtained in the alimentary section of the Exposition,  00
    Return same way as going,                                00
    Dinner at hydrant with remains of lunch,                 00
    Theatre in evening, beg a check from somebody
      leaving,                                               00

        Total,                                               00

It would be difficult to find a cheaper system than this, though it
is on record that once during a period of steamship opposition
between San Francisco and Oregon, the Pacific Mail Steamship Company
advertised a free passage and a chromo to anybody who wished to make
the voyage. A hundred or more of the impecunious ones of San Francisco
thought it would be a good opportunity to go to Oregon and back for
nothing, and have a week's board, and so they took passage. Nothing
was said about the return; the opposition company made terms with the
Pacific Mail just as the steamer reached Portland, and the old rates
of fare were at once established. The majority of the tourists had
great difficulty in getting home again, and some of them became
permanent residents of the region to which they had unintentionally
emigrated.



CHAPTER XXII.

SKELETON TOURS FOR AMERICA AND EUROPE.


It is well to have your route laid out beforehand when you start on a
pleasure tour, at least in a general way, so that you can approximate
the necessary time and money for the journey. To facilitate the
traveler's plans a few skeleton routes will be given, together with an
estimate of the time necessary for a rapid journey to cover them. It
should not be understood that the routes given embrace a tenth or a
twentieth of those that exist; any railway or steamship agent can give
you dozens or perhaps hundreds of routes of travel, and after you
think the subject is exhausted you can easily find a rival agent who
can give you a selection from many more. The lines of travel that are
here laid out are intended to embrace the chief cities of Europe and
America, together with the principal pleasure-resorts. The traveler
will pay his money and take his choice, or rather he will take his
choice and then pay his money.

The American tours take New York as a starting and also as a returning
point, for the obvious reason that it is the largest city of America.
For the European tours London or Liverpool will be taken as the
terminal points, since nine-tenths of the Americans who visit Europe
land at Liverpool and proceed thence to London with more or less
directness.

Any one of the American routes can be covered in from one to two
months, with a sufficient amount of time for seeing enough to satisfy
an ordinary tourist. This does not allow for a stay of a week or more
at each of two or three points, but only for a visit of sufficient
length for doing the necessary sight-seeing, and a very little more.
As there are no antiquities in American cities, and comparatively few
stock sights, a tour of a given number of miles or places will take
less time than a similar tour in Europe. A few hundred years hence we
may be able to point to ancient buildings and ruins around which
cluster many historical associations, but at present, to use a
Hibernianism, all our antiquities are modern.

Without further preliminary the following routes are presented:--

New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, Lynchburg, Charlotte,
Atlanta, Montgomery, Mobile, New Orleans. The Mississippi River,
passing Baton Rouge, Port Hudson, Natchez, Vicksburg, Memphis, and
Cairo to St Louis; rail via Springfield to Chicago and back to New
York by Detroit and Niagara Falls.

New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, Lynchburg, Danville,
Charlotte, Atlanta, Montgomery, Mobile, New Orleans. The Mississippi
River, passing Natchez, Vicksburg, Memphis, and Cairo; thence on the
Ohio River, passing Evansville and Louisville to Cincinnati, and back
to New York, by Pittsburg and Altoona.

New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, Norfolk, day steamer on
the James River to Richmond, Gordonsville, Goshen (for Natural
Bridge), White Sulphur Springs, Kanawha Falls, Huntington, steamer on
the Ohio River to Cincinnati, St. Louis, Springfield, Chicago, through
the Lakes to Buffalo, Niagara Falls, Toronto, the Thousand Islands and
Rapids of the St. Lawrence to Montreal, Lake Champlain, Lake George,
Saratoga, Rutland, Boston, Springfield, Hartford, New Haven, and New
York.

New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, Cincinnati, St. Louis,
Springfield, Chicago, rail or steamer through the Lakes to Buffalo,
Niagara Falls, Toronto, the Thousand Islands and Rapids of the St.
Lawrence to Montreal, rail or boat to Quebec, Gorham, stage to Glen
House, Summit of Mount Washington, Crawford House, Fabyan House,
Bethlehem, Profile House, rail to Concord, Nashua, and Boston, and
Sound steamboat to New York.

None of the routes thus given will carry the traveler farther west
than St. Louis. The tourist who wishes to extend his journey to the
Rocky Mountains, to Utah, or to the Pacific Coast will be pretty
certain to make either St. Louis or Chicago his point of departure,
and therefore we will make up our routes from those cities. From St.
Louis we can go as follows:--

St. Louis, Kansas City, Denver, Cheyenne, Ogden, Salt Lake City,
Virginia City, Sacramento, and San Francisco, where we pause to
consider the sights of California. These include the wonderful
Yosemite Valley, the North Pacific Coast Railway through the Redwood
forests, the Geysers, and the wine-growing regions of Sonoma, and
other valleys north of San Francisco Bay.

From San Francisco we can go to Oregon, either overland or by
steamship; in either case we arrive at Portland, whence a journey may
be made up the Columbia River and back again. As this book goes to
press there is no satisfactory route for reaching the East except by
returning to San Francisco, but in a few years it will be possible to
ride in railway carriages from the head of navigation on the Columbia
to St. Paul, in Minnesota, and thence through the states of the
Northwest to Chicago.

Suppose we go back from Oregon to San Francisco and are ready to
return to the East. We may go as we came as far as Cheyenne, and
thence to Omaha, where we have the choice of four routes to Chicago.
Or we may turn to the southward, over the Southern Pacific Railway,
which will carry us to Los Angeles, and thence to Yuma, by way of the
Desert, where at one point we are 266 feet below the level of the sea.
From Yuma the route is eastward over the dry plains of Arizona, and
among the mountains to the Rio Grande, and thence through New Mexico
and along the valley of the Arkansas to Kansas City. From the latter
point there is a bewildering choice of railways to St. Louis or
Chicago.

The majority of tourists would doubtless prefer going by one route and
returning over the other. In case you take the northern route for the
westward journey Chicago would be the best point of departure, while
if the southern route is chosen the start should be made from St.
Louis. In either instance Denver and the mining and grazing regions of
Colorado may be visited by a detour--by the northern route from
Cheyenne, and by the southern from Pueblo.

Let us turn now to Europe. The voyage over the Atlantic will occupy
about ten days each way, and therefore three weeks should be added to
all the estimates of time in the following tours. And as before stated
the time allowed for the tour itself is only what would give a hurried
view of each place, and the objects of interest along the route. If
the tourist wishes to go leisurely he should double the figures, and
he will not be far out of the way. Or he may add 50 per cent. with the
knowledge that he is just avoiding a "rush" through the country.

A tour of twenty days may be made, embracing the following cities:--

Liverpool, Glasgow or London, Antwerp, Rotterdam, The Hague,
Amsterdam, Utrecht, Cologne, The Rhine, Wiesbaden, Brussels, Paris,
Rouen, Dieppe, Brighton, London, Glasgow, Liverpool or London.

One of forty days will include most of the foregoing, and also
Strasburg, Basle, Luzerne, Brunig Pass, Interlaken, Berne, Lausanne,
Villeneuve, Martigny, Chamouny, Geneva, Macon, Dijon, Paris, and back
to point of departure in England.

One of sixty-five days, embracing England, France, Italy, Austria,
Germany, and Belgium, will include Liverpool, Glasgow or London,
Dover, Calais, Paris, Macon, Mt. Cenis Tunnel, Turin, Genoa, Leghorn,
Rome, Naples, Florence, Venice, Verona, the Austrian Tyrol, Innspruck,
Munich, Salzburg, Vienna, Prague, Dresden, Berlin, Hanover, Cologne,
Brussels, Antwerp, London or Liverpool.

One of about the same time, and embracing England, Belgium, the Rhine,
Germany, Bavaria, Italy, Switzerland, and France, will take the
tourist through Antwerp, Brussels, Cologne, the Rhine, Mayence,
Heidelberg, Stuttgart, Munich, Lake Constance, Coire, the Splugen
Pass, Colico, Lake Como, Bergamo, Verona, Venice, Florence, Rome,
Leghorn, Pisa, Genoa, Turin, Milan, Arona, the Simplon Pass, Brieg,
Martigny, Chamouny, Geneva, Lausanne, Berne, Thun, Interlaken, the
Brunig Pass, Lucerne, Basle, Paris, and thence to Great Britain for
the return to America.

One of sixty days will embrace England, France, Italy, and
Switzerland, and will include, London, Paris, Dijon, Macon, the Mt.
Cenis Tunnel, Turin, Genoa, Pisa, Rome, Naples, Florence, Venice,
Verona, Milan, Como, Lugano, St. Gothard Pass, Andermatt, Lucerne,
Interlaken, Berne, Neuchatel, Pontarlier, Paris, London or Liverpool.

Leaving out Italy the tour can be made in thirty days, as
follows:--London, Paris, Troyes, Mulhausen, Basle, Lucerne, the
Bernese Oberland, Interlaken, Berne, Freiburg, Lausanne, Geneva,
Macon, Dijon, Paris, London, Glasgow or Liverpool.

The list may be extended indefinitely; enough has been given to show
the possibilities of travel, so as to visit the most of the countries
of Central and Southern Europe. For the probable cost the reader is
referred to preceding pages of this volume, where the expense of
travel is set down as nearly as it can be estimated. But, as before
stated, no general rule can be made, and the cost of a journey will
depend very largely upon the tastes of the traveler, and his financial
ability to gratify them.

The American who visits Europe for the first time is apt to be in a
hurry, and to endeavor to see too much. He will very likely return
with a confused notion of his experiences, and will be obliged to
refer to his note-book to know what he has done. Instances have
occurred of tourists who could not tell whether St. Paul's Cathedral
was in London or Rome, and who had a vague impression that the tomb of
Napoleon was beneath the Arc de Triomphe. They told of the wonderful
wood-carving to be seen at Venice, and thought that Michael Angelo,
John Titian, and Sir Christopher Wren were among the most famous
painters Switzerland had ever produced. They ascended the Volcano of
Mount Blanc from Vienna, and had a delightful view of the eternal
snows of Vesuvius from their hotel windows at Berlin; where they also
visited Trajan's column, and the Falls of Schaffhausen. In short they
came back with things decidedly mixed, and all from making their
journey too quickly.

Moral--Don't be in a hurry.



CHAPTER XXIII.

GENERAL DIRECTIONS, WITH ROUTES, DISTANCES, ETC., FOR A JOURNEY ROUND
THE WORLD.


If stout old Sir Francis Drake, the first navigator to sail around the
globe, could appear on earth to-day, he would be quite justifiable in
standing transfixed with astonishment. The announcement that he could
encircle our sphere in less than eighty days would be too much for his
equanimity, when he reflected that the voyage in the _Elizabeth_,
from Plymouth back to Plymouth again, consumed nearly two years, and
compelled him to cross the Equator no less than four times. The
performance of the modern steamship would be likely to bewilder him,
and he could scarcely comprehend the transit of the American Continent
in a single week. From New York to Omaha, without change of cars or
clothes, would be beyond his understanding, and from Omaha to San
Francisco in a Pullman car would appear to his old-fashioned mind like
the work of the magician. There is good reason to believe he would not
be thankful that he had been awakened from his sleep of three
centuries. To the question, "What would Admiral Drake say if he were
alive now?" the historic Irishman might respond, "He would say he's
glad he's dead!"

From the two years required for the circumnavigation of the globe in
the time of Sir Francis, the progress down to our day was not very
rapid. For two hundred years after that eventful voyage of the
_Elizabeth_, there was little if any reduction in the time for a
similar cruise, though there was a material diminution in the profits
to be derived from semi-piratical adventures along the route. The
brave old Admiral made his enterprise remunerative in a high degree,
both to his government and himself; the courts are said to be troubled
at the present day about the rightful ownership of some dozens of
millions which belonged originally to the estate of Sir Francis Drake,
and have increased through the operations of time and the tables of
simple and compound interest.

There was a glorious uncertainty about the voyages of Sir Francis
Drake and Captain Cook that exists no longer. It was a problem if ever
those navigators should return; and, in the case of Captain Cook, the
solution was not to the satisfaction of that enterprising explorer and
his friends. But, setting aside the ordinary uncertainty of human
affairs, a voyage of circumnavigation to-day is no more problematic
than a trip from New York to Chicago. A man may start for a journey
around the world, and fix almost to a day the date of his return. On
the third day of July, 1877, the writer sailed from San Francisco for
Japan, China, India, and other Eastern countries, intending to return
by way of Europe. A friend was at the dock to see him off, and, as
they shook hands in farewell, the latter said:

"I am going to Paris next spring; when will you meet me there?"

The outward-bound voyager thought a moment, and then said: "I'll meet
you in Paris on the 15th of April."

And so they separated, one to go west, and the other, a few months
later, to go east.

On the evening of the 14th of April the first-mentioned tourist landed
at Marseilles, and the next day he was at Paris; his friend, who had
been notified by telegraph, was at the station to meet him, and the
meeting, as we see, was exactly on the day appointed. A traveler can
arrange his time with absolute certainty, if he will take the trouble
to study the tables of the steamship and railway lines, and determine
the period of his detention in each city and country along his route.
And this is precisely what was done in the instance above mentioned.

A man in New York thinks nothing of making a business appointment for
a week from to-day; he is going to Chicago in the meantime, but will
be back on the date he names. It is just as feasible for him to say,
"It is now the 13th of June; I must go to Hong Kong for a little
business which will keep me a couple of days, and the movements of the
steamers are such that I shall lose a day and a half waiting there
when my business is ended. If you will call at my office at noon on
the 24th of August, we will go to lunch and talk this matter over; I
really haven't time to attend to it to-day. I may possibly have to go
to Calcutta; if so, I'll telegraph you, and we'll make the appointment
hold over till the 18th of September, as I shall arrive by the steamer
of the 17th. Good-day; I leave by this evening's train."

Year by year the travel around the world increases, and doubtless it
will continue to increase as people become familiar with the
requirements of time and money for the journey.

A ticket around the world can be bought at a price varying from one
thousand to twelve hundred dollars, according to the line of steamers
chosen for certain parts of the route, and whether one passes through
India or adheres to the steamer from Singapore to Suez. The time
required is from three months upward, according to the abilities of
the traveler to spare it, and the amount of money at his disposal. The
old adage, that time is money, is nowhere more applicable than on the
journey around the world. You can't have a good time unless you have
the money to pay for it, and you can't have a good time with your
money unless you have time enough to spend it properly.

"How much does it cost to go around the world?" is as difficult to
answer as "How much does a horse cost?" One man will get along with a
quarter of what another will consider absolutely necessary, and can
live luxuriously on what will starve another. Tastes and ways differ
in travel as in anything else, and an exact rule cannot be set for
everybody. A youth who has not learned by practical experience the
value of a dollar, who indulges in ways of living more or less
riotous, and, above all, who occasionally whiles the weary hours at
the seductive game of poker with chance travelers, will require a
liberal allowance to enable him to make the circuit of the world in
what he would call "style." This allowance might be anywhere from five
or six thousand dollars upward, and would probably leave occasional
souvenirs in the shape of unpaid bills, which are altogether too
numerous at present for the reputation of our countrymen. But to the
man of unwasteful habits, who knows the worth of his money, and
quietly makes up his mind to have it, who uses his eyes and his
brains, finds what is proper to pay in each instance, and then pays
it, the journey can be made in ten months, at an expenditure of about
four thousand dollars. Ten months will allow for sufficient stoppages
along the route, and the sum mentioned will enable him to travel
first-class on all ships, and stop at first-class hotels--if the
majority of the caravansaries in the East can be called first-class.
Generally the only features about them that warrant that name are
their bills. The traveler can also purchase a fair allowance of
inexpensive "curios," as souvenirs of his tour, without going beyond
the last-named figures.

If ladies are of the party the expenses will be a trifle more than
where it consists entirely of the sterner sex. Ladies need have no
hesitation in attempting the tour of the world; they might even go
unaccompanied by gentlemen, but it is not advisable for them to do so.
Hotels are to be found everywhere on the great routes of travel, and
even on some of the by-ways there is passable accommodation. In the
tropics where the heat is so great as to compel passengers to sleep on
deck when going from one port to another, one side of the deck is
reserved for ladies and the other is allotted to the men.

It is not advisable for a traveler to buy his ticket at once for the
entire journey, but to take it in sections as he goes along. From New
York, or any other American city, to Yokohama is enough for the first
section; beyond Yokohama the routes divide, and your movements depend
upon circumstances which generally are not easy to foresee. Therefore,
when you have determined to buy a ticket around the world, buy it as
you go along, and not all in a lump.

The best way of going around the world from America is by going
westward. The seasons can be taken more easily in their natural course
in this way than by going eastward, and each country on the route can
be seen in the best time for seeing it. The monsoons can be taken in a
favoring direction, and the typhoons, those scourges of the Eastern
waters, can be avoided. From May to July is the best time for leaving
San Francisco--not earlier than the first of May, and not later than
the first week of July. This will give the summer months in Japan, the
autumn for China and Siam--if the latter country is included--and the
winter for Java, the Straits, Ceylon, and India. By the end of
February one should leave India, spend a fortnight or three weeks in
Egypt, and then go on to Europe. He can land in Naples late in March
or early in April, and then go north with the season till he reaches
that Mecca of the wanderer--Paris. Thence, if he does not possess the
ingenuity to find his way home, he has traveled to very little
purpose; whether he will be anxious to find his way home from Paris at
an early date depends largely upon circumstances--and upon Paris.

It is advisable for the intending traveler to have his finances so
arranged that he will run no risk of being stranded penniless in some
Eastern port, and compelled to wait till a remittance reaches him. A
letter of credit for the whole amount needed on the journey is the
best thing to have; but if this is not attainable, he should carry a
credit for at least half the amount, and arrange for remittances in
sterling drafts on London to meet him at points previously designated.
These should be forwarded in duplicate in registered letters, and by
different mails, so that a loss of one will not be likely to mean the
loss of both. And in order to take these registered letters from the
post-office, and for other purposes of identification, every traveler
should carry a passport.

In taking out a letter of credit, be sure and have it from a house
that has correspondents in the principal cities and the open ports of
the East. The same precaution should be observed relative to drafts
that may be forwarded to meet the traveler at any of the points he is
to touch; and he should not conclude that because he is personally
cognizant of the high standing of a banking-house, it will be all
right wherever he goes. A draft made by a well-known house in New
York, on the Barings of London, reached the writer in Singapore; when
he proceeded to turn it into cash he was surprised to find that nobody
in Singapore had ever heard of the makers of the draft, and if he had
been without introductions, and had had no letter of credit in
reserve, he would have been in a very awkward predicament. Too much
precaution cannot be observed about one's means of obtaining money in
the far East; and to be stranded on the other side of the world
without cash is very inconvenient.

We will suppose you have equipped yourself with the necessary letter
of credit; the next thing is to have a suitable frame of mind for the
journey, and the next a light and properly garnished trunk. The frame
of mind is an important consideration. If you are a morose,
ill-tempered brute, determined to see nothing good in any country but
your own, you had better stay at home; and if a friend has arranged to
travel with you, it would be an act of kindness to advise him to drop
you and go with some one else, or alone.

Arrange your time-table as nearly as possible before starting, and
then tell your friends where letters will reach you. Have them sent to
the principal post-offices--Yokohama, Hong Kong, Singapore, Calcutta,
Bombay, etc.--according to the dates you expect to be in those cities,
and when you are about leaving those places you can instruct the
post-master as to your subsequent address. If you do so your mail
matter will be forwarded, and with proper care you will be pretty
certain to get all your letters. Do not have newspapers sent after
you, as they are not very likely to turn up on account of the
accumulating postage.

As to baggage, you don't want a large amount to start with. A couple
of ordinary suits of clothing, and a dress-suit for dinners, will be
the basis; remember that the dress-suit is indispensable, as its
absence will sometimes deprive you of the pleasure of attending an
interesting ceremonial, and that a gentlemen in the East, as well as
in Europe, is expected to wear an evening garb when invited to dinner.
A light overcoat should be taken, and a heavy one for rough work; the
latter should be of coarse but strong material, and will often come
handy at sea when storms are blowing, and on land when the owner is
compelled to camp out or travel through severe weather. A rug or shawl
may be taken, if one has a fancy for it, but it is not at all
necessary, as the stout overcoat supplies its place, and serves the
additional purposes of an overcoat. Take the same underclothing that
you would take for a six weeks' trip anywhere in the States; when your
stock is exhausted you can buy a fresh supply in any of the ports or
inland cities of the East, particularly the former. Clothing of all
kinds is as cheap in Hong Kong, Shanghai, Yokohama, Singapore,
Calcutta, Bombay, or the other great ports, as in New York, and in
some of the cities I have mentioned it is cheaper. It would be well to
have your shirt-maker get you up a dozen shirts of a kind specially
adapted to the journey, and if you are inclined to be a "swell," you
might take two or three dozen. Have them made of the strongest muslin
you can find; pay no attention to fineness, but a great deal to
strength. The front, or "bosom," may be as fine as you please, but I
wouldn't be too particular about it; as to the rest, the nearer you
can come to sail-cloth or sheet-iron the better.

The laundress in the far East is invariably a man, and, to judge by
the way he knocks your clothing to pieces, he must be the strongest
man in the community. He is native and to the manner born, and his
manner is not at all pleasing. In Yokohama, and other Japanese cities,
he is, of course, a Jap; in China, he is the "wanchee-washee" man,
with whom San Francisco and New York are familiar; in Java, he is a
Malay, and in India he is a Bengalee. No matter which one you have
first, you will think he is worse than any of the others can possibly
be, and when you try the others you will find that your first love was
the mildest of them all. The Bengalee is the worst of the lot for
destructiveness, but he is only an infinitesimal distance ahead of the
Chinese.

The Eastern way of washing is to pound the garments with a club, when
clubs are handy, but as they are generally out of the way, and
firewood is dear, the artist contents himself with laying your shirts
and other things on a stone, and pounding them with another stone; and
the rougher these two geological products are, the better for his
purpose.

Three or four washings will generally make an end of handkerchiefs;
shirts and other garments may survive a sixth or eighth journey to the
lavatory, but the tenth or twelfth will usually send them to the
rag-bag. Therefore I advise that all underlinen should be of the
strongest material, and fineness a secondary consideration.

When you reach Yokohama you will probably want to buy some clothing
suitable for the warm climate of the East. A _sola topee_, or
sun-hat, is the first requisite; it is made of pith, has a white cover
which can go to the wash every few days, and an internal arrangement
so that the wearer's head is constantly cooled by the air which
circulates around it. Then you will want some suits of white linen,
about ten of them, which will cost you from five to six dollars a
suit; a couple of suits of blue serge, at ten or twelve dollars each.
These, with your ordinary clothing, will be sufficient for your wants,
if you exercise proper care in keeping close at the heels of the
washman; you will generally find that your washing will be promptly
done, but it is always best to have an extra provision laid up for a
rainy day. In the East everybody carries a goodly amount of baggage,
and as there is always a plentiful supply of porters, and the
allowance of the steamship companies is liberal, you need not mind the
addition of a trunk or two.

Well, we are off from New York; we are not in a frightful hurry, and
are determined to see as much as we can for our time and money.

The transcontinental trains between New York and San-Francisco are a
daily affair each way, and the regular time of running through is
seven days. The price of a ticket varies according to the harmony, or
the lack of it, between the Eastern roads; $140 may be taken as a fair
average for the through ticket, with an addition of $25 or $30 for
sleeping-coaches and meals.

From San Francisco, the departures are semi-monthly for Japan and
China; the steamers of the Pacific Mail and Occidental and Oriental
Companies perform the service alternately, so that each line sends a
ship every month. They were formerly in opposition, but are now
working harmoniously; a passage-certificate bought of the one is good
on the ships of the other, and there is nothing to choose between
them, so far as the comfort of the voyage is concerned. The running
time to Yokohama is about twenty days, and no matter what the ship or
which the company that the traveler patronizes, he is pretty certain
to be pleased with his fare and treatment. A ticket from San Francisco
to Yokohama costs $250, and if bought in New York it entitles the
passenger to an allowance of two hundred and fifty pounds of baggage
overland, instead of the ordinary allowance of one hundred pounds.

After the "globe-trotter," as the tourist is called in the East, has
done with Yokohama, Tokio, and the eastern part of the empire, he can
take a steamer any Wednesday afternoon for Hiogo, which is the port of
Osaka and Kioto. This is a voyage of a day and a half; and when the
western part of the empire has been seen, another steamer may be taken
to Shanghai, passing through the famous inland Sea of Japan, and
halting at Simoneseki and Nagasaki. The line is weekly each way, and
is known as the Mitsu Bishi (Three Diamonds); it is a Japanese
organization, sustained by a government subsidy in the shape of a mail
contract, and its ships are mostly of American build. Old travelers on
the line between New York and San Francisco by the Isthmus route will
find an acquaintance in the steamer _New York_, transformed to the
"_Tokio Maru_," and the _Oregonian_ to the "_Nagoya Maru_"; the
_Golden Age_ is the "_Maru_" something or other, and so are several of
the former vessels of the Pacific Mail Company. A ticket from Yokohama
to Shanghai costs $45, and it makes no difference whether you buy it
through or in sections. There are chance steamers at frequent and
irregular intervals, that carry passengers at a reduced rate, but they
are less comfortable than the Mitsu Bishi Company's boats, and more
uncertain. The crews of the Mitsu Bishi steamers are Japanese, the
waiters in the cabin are Chinese, and the captains, officers,
engineers, and stewards, are Americans, English, or some other
Caucasian nationality. When the equipage of one of these steamers is
drawn up for inspection, the affair is emphatically _une revue des
deux mondes_.

From Shanghai one can ascend the Yang-Tse as far as Hankow, a distance
of a trifle over six hundred miles, and there are boats of the China
Merchants' company every three or four days. The price of a ticket
varies; it was once $400 each way, but at the time of my visit to
Shanghai it had fallen to $18, in consequence of an opposition by an
English company. It was the intention, as soon as the opposition
ended, to raise it again to $50, where it probably now is. The
steamers are large and comfortable, and the table is excellent.

The China Merchants' Company has a weekly line to Tien-Tsin, whence
one may go overland to Pekin, a distance of ninety miles. There is
said to be a smooth way of the world and a rough one; where the smooth
one may be I will not attempt to say, but there is little doubt that
the rough one is the stretch of ninety miles between Tien-Tsin and
Pekin. About two thousand years ago the road was built, and it has
never been repaired since the contractors left it; it was made of
large and irregular boulders, badly laid down, with no attempt at
evenness, and has been a good deal damaged by old Tempus Edax Rerum in
the twenty centuries that he has been gnawing at it.

You can make the journey to Pekin on horseback, by cart, or by a
mule-litter, or you can go on foot. For a vigorous man, the saddle is
recommended; for a more luxurious one, the mule-litter; for a brave
and small one, the cart; and a man who has a touch of the walking
mania can try pedestrianism. The mule-litter is a box like a covered
chair, slung on a couple of poles; these poles are long enough, and
just far enough apart, to serve as shafts for two mules--one in front
and the other in the rear--and are suspended over the saddles of the
beasts by stout straps. The pace is not unpleasant, and the movement
would soon become monotonous were it not that the suspensory apparatus
is constantly giving way, and letting the box to the ground with a
general shaking up as the result. Occasionally the mules run away,
indulge in kicking-matches, or otherwise disport themselves in ways
more or less exciting; so that the traveler is in no danger of
perishing with _ennui_.

The Chinese cart is a small box on a single pair of wheels; it is not
long enough for an average man to lie down in, and too low for him to
sit erect. The occupant is doubled up very much as if he were in a
wine-cask; the cart has no springs, but the body rests directly on the
axle, so that every jolt, however small, is felt by him. When all
these facts are considered, in connection with the character of the
road, it will be readily seen that a traveler who journeys from
Tien-Tsin to Pekin in a Chinese cart, feels, on arrival, very much as
though he had been passed through a patent clothes-wringer.

There is another route, via Tung-Chow. A Chinese boat is taken to the
latter point, which is twelve miles from the capital; the usual way is
to go to Pekin by the road, and return by Tung-Chow and the river. In
this way the current favors, and the descent can be made in a couple
of days, while the ascent takes four or five. Few travelers to Pekin
fail to visit the Great Wall, which is about a hundred miles northwest
of the city. Saddle-horses and mule-litters are the modes of
conveyance, and the most of the provisions which you expect to consume
on the journey must be taken along. The journey from Shanghai to Pekin
and back again will require about a month in time, and $400 in money,
including the visit to the Great Wall.

Brief allusion has been made to the steam lines in the far East on
another page. A more detailed account will be given here.

From Shanghai to Hong Kong there is a weekly service, which is
performed alternately by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation
Company (English), and the Compagnie Messageries Maritimes (French).
These lines are usually called the "P. and O.," and the "French Mail,"
and it may be roundly stated that they run from England and France to
China and Japan. One week there comes the P. and O. boat, and the next
the French Mail, and so they go on alternately each way weekly, year
after year. The fares are about the same, but the French line includes
wine in the price of passage, which the English does not. As far as I
could observe, the French steamers are the most comfortable, their
table is better, and there is more civility on the part of the
officers. It is noticeable that the majority of the passengers on the
French steamers are English, and I have known Englishmen who were
intensely patriotic in other matters to delay their departure a week
to go on a French ship instead of an English one.

The itinerary of the P. and O. Line from Shanghai to Southampton
touches the following ports:--Hong Kong, Singapore, Penang, Pointe de
Galle, Aden, Suez, Port Said, Alexandria, Malta, and Gibraltar. There
are branch lines between Hong Kong and Yokohama, Singapore and
Batavia, (Java,) Pointe de Galle and Australia, Pointe de Galle and
Calcutta, Aden and Bombay, and Alexandria and Brindisi. The French
route is from Shanghai to Hong Kong, Saigon, Singapore, Pointe de
Galle, Colombo, Aden, Suez, Port Said, Naples, and Marseilles, with
branches between Hong Kong and Yokohama, Singapore and Batavia, Pointe
de Galle and Calcutta, Aden and the Mauritius. Both lines receive a
heavy subsidy from their respective governments in the form of mail
contracts, and they do a great deal to maintain English and French
prestige throughout the East. For several years the P. and O. had a
virtual monopoly of the business, and looked with disdain upon the
efforts of the French to enter the field. But not only did the French
Line establish itself, but other lines have sprung up, and manage to
flourish without the advantage to be gained from a contract for
carrying the mails. There is one known as the "Holt Line," which
performs a semimonthly service each way between England and China; and
there are numerous irregular steamers in addition, so that there is no
lack of communication between the Occident and the Orient.

The rates of fare in the East are decidedly high, when we compare them
with the price of passage over the Atlantic and on the seaboard lines
of the United States. From Yokohama or Shanghai, by the English line,
to Southampton, or to Marseilles by the French one, the fare is £105,
or $525 in round figures. The local fares are higher than this in
proportion. It is $63 from Shanghai to Hong Kong--a run of three days;
and $108 from Singapore to Pointe de Galle--a voyage of five days. To
Java, by the branch line from Singapore, a voyage of exactly
forty-eight hours, requires a disbursement of $46. You will save about
20 per cent. on your fare by purchasing a through ticket; but, as
already hinted, the saving is accompanied by a restriction of one's
movements that more than balances the advantage in the reduction.

At the agencies in the East they do not assign you to a room on the
steamer when you buy your ticket, but tell you that you will get it
from the steward when you go on board. They give as a reason for this
the impossibility of knowing what rooms are reserved, as the tickets
are generally bought before the ship arrives in port, and before there
is any communication between the purser and the agent. This excuse
will not hold good at the beginning point of the voyage, and so they
plumply tell you that it is not their custom to assign the rooms
except on board, and they can make no deviation from their rules.
Generally the ships are not crowded, and so the custom works well
enough; in case of a rush of passengers it also works admirably--for
the company. The agent can continue to sell tickets to all applicants
and assure them that there is abundance of room, although he knows
that he has sold twice or three times the capacity of the steamer. The
ship that performs the branch service for the French company between
Singapore and Batavia has accommodations in her cabin for sixteen
persons--eight rooms, with two berths in each room. The agent at
Singapore blandly assured the writer that there were very few
passengers engaged, and he would be certain to have a room to
himself--when all the time more than forty passengers were booked, and
the agent had the list in his possession. It may be impolite to say he
lied, but he certainly was not mathematically exact. When the steamer
sailed she had fifty-two passengers, and they were packed like negroes
on a slave-ship. Of course there was much grumbling, but the officers
of the steamer referred the matter to the agent--whose fault it was;
and the agent was safe on shore, and out of reach of the angry
travelers.

Two things are necessary to one's comfort in traveling on steamers in
the tropical East--_pajamas_, and a bamboo chair. A pajama suit
consists of a loose sack and drawers of the Chinese pattern, and
nearly every foreigner in the East adopts them, in place of the
night-shirt of civilization, for sleeping purposes. They may be of
muslin, silk, grass-cloth, or anything else that suits the wearer's
fancy--some prefer one thing and some another, and there is no way of
harmonizing tastes. Any Chinese tailor can make you a pajama suit at a
few hours' notice; and if you would be comfortable, you will order
half a dozen suits at least.

Around the hotels and on board ship it is perfectly _en règle_ to be
in pajamas between the hours of 9 P.M. and 8 A.M.; and on the steamer
it is interesting to observe how universally the passengers avail
themselves of the permission. Through the tropics, it is generally too
hot to sleep below; nearly everybody takes to the deck and makes it
his home by day and by night. The reclining chair comes in play here,
as it can serve as a bed for most persons, and at any rate it is a
capital lounge. It can be bought very cheaply in all the Eastern
ports, and no traveler's equipment is complete without it. And the man
who neglects to provide himself with pajamas in the first port he
reaches will have reason to regret his action. He might even do a more
unwise thing than purchase a supply before he leaves San Francisco,
provided the Chinese have not all gone thence before he reaches the
Pacific coast.

The hours for meals vary somewhat on the different lines, but may be
taken as resembling in general the hours on the transatlantic ships,
with the exception that they are fewer. As soon as you rise you can
have a preliminary coffee or tea, or you may have it before you rise,
if it so please you. Then from eight to ten you have breakfast, which
consists of omelets, meat of two or three kinds, and curry, the latter
being universal and perennial. Somewhere between noon and 1 P.M.
there is a cold lunch with fruit, and at 5 P.M. comes dinner. This is
not much unlike the steamship dinner of other parts of the world,
except that the curry comes up warm and smiling on every occasion, and
is eaten by nearly everybody. Few people like it when they first eat
it, and few people eat it half a dozen times without acquiring a taste
for it that is akin to love. It is conceded that curry is necessary to
keep the liver in a proper condition of activity, and the man who does
not eat it is very liable to find himself out of order internally in a
very short time. It is surprising that such a warm substance as curry
should be the proper thing in a hot climate; but the weight of
testimony is emphatically in its favor, and we should respect the
verdict of time and experience.

There is no pleasanter steamship life anywhere than in the East, so
far as the associations are concerned. The brainless idiots that add a
pang to existence on the transatlantic voyage are rarely seen so far
away from home as the coast of China; the majority of the people you
meet there are the possessors of at least a fair amount of
intelligence, and know how to use it. Among twenty passengers on a
steamer, you will find three or four globe-trotters, like yourself; as
many merchants; as many clerks and other employés of Eastern houses;
two or three men who have been or still are in the consular or
diplomatic service; a banker or two; two or three soldiers of fortune
who have been serving one of the Oriental governments in one way or
another; and the balance will be made up of nondescripts, who cannot
be classed in any regular list. If there are any of the gentler sex,
they will be the wives, widows, sisters, or daughters of men who have
been making a home in the East; and you will occasionally encounter
some of them who have made a dozen voyages back and forth, and know
every wave of the sea along the route. The great majority of the
passengers are sure to have had sufficient attrition against the world
to wear away their rough corners; you will find them social without
forwardness, and communicative without being garrulous.

If the traveler is limited in time and money, he will avoid the north
of China, and also the western part of Japan; he will proceed direct
from Yokohama to Hong Kong, and can take for this purpose a ship of
either of the transpacific lines or of the English or French mail
companies. The former are preferable, as the fare, when combined with
that from San Francisco, is lower, and the steamers are larger and
better than the English or French mail-packets. From Hong Kong one can
go daily to Canton (ninety miles) in about eight hours; and by no
means should a tourist omit seeing this most interesting of the cities
of China. From Hong Kong, when Canton has been finished, the regular
route leads to Singapore--the English steamers going direct, and the
French ones touching at Saigon. Those who wish to leave the regular
track may go to Siam by steamers that leave every week or ten days,
and, though of English build and ownership, are managed by a Chinese
agency, and carry their cargoes on Chinese account. They are nominally
freight-steamers, but have accommodations for a few passengers; and
the same is the case with the steamers that will take the tourist from
Bangkok to Singapore when his visit to Siam is concluded.

From Singapore you may make a detour to Java or Manila, but eventually
you will find your way back again, since all the routes of the East
lead by this point, as, anciently, all roads led to Rome. If you have
a month to spare when south of the equator, you may make a circular
trip on a Dutch steamer that goes to all the principal ports of Java
and the Spice Islands, and comes around in the end to her
starting-point. When back in Singapore, and ready to go on to the
westward, you have choice of two, or, rather, of three routes: you can
go by mail-steamer to Ceylon, and stop at Galle, whence you proceed by
land to Colombo, and Kandy; you can go to Calcutta direct; or you may
go to Calcutta by a steamer that halts at Malacca, Penang, and
Moulmein a day each, and two days at Rangoon. This indirect voyage
consumes seventeen days, but it is full of interest. The direct voyage
to Calcutta requires six days.

If you do India by way of Ceylon, you will finish the land of spicy
breezes, where only man is vile, and then cross from Colombo to
Tuticorin, whence you can go by rail to the uttermost parts of the
great Indian peninsula; or you may take, once a week, a ship of the
British India Steam Navigation Company, which makes the voyage to
Calcutta in fourteen days, touching at Madras and a dozen other ports.
As the ship is usually halted in the daytime and moving at night, this
mode of traveling is not at all unpleasant. From Calcutta the railway
will bear us to the north, and we can see Benares, Agra, Cawnpore,
Lucknow, Allahabad, Delhi, Jeypoor, and other cities, arriving
eventually at Bombay.

Six weeks will serve for seeing India, or, rather, that part of it in
the Bengal and Bombay presidencies, and very few who have done the
country will care to return.

The distance from Bombay to Calcutta, by the direct route, is 1,409
miles, and the fare (first-class) about $60. Benares and Allahabad are
the only cities of importance that lie on the direct line; the others
are reached by branches, and it will require another thousand miles of
travel to take them in.

We will suppose we have finished with India, and are ready to leave
Bombay for Egypt and Europe. The P. & O. Company sends a weekly
steamer, and its departure is fixed for Saturday during the prevalence
of the southwest monsoon, and for Monday when the monsoon is not
blowing. There is another weekly service, formed by the Hall Line and
the Anchor Line, making fortnightly departures alternately. There is
an Italian line and an Austrian line, each monthly, and there are
numerous irregular steamers, so that four departures a week may be
fairly counted upon. The fares vary considerably; the P. & O. charges
$250 to carry you to Suez, 3,000 miles: the Italian line will take
you there for $160; the Anchor and Hall lines for $155, and the
Austrian for $150. Patronage appears to be fairly divided among
the lines; those who have plenty of money, together with a great
many who have not, go by the P. & O. ships, while others who are
more matter-of-fact, and do not care to keep up appearances, select
the cheaper lines.

To irascible bachelors, the voyage from Bombay westward has a lively
terror. From February to May the steamers are crowded with children
and their nurses on their way to England, and, no matter what ship you
take, you cannot avoid them. Like the poor, they are always with you,
and cannot be shaken off; very often the number of juvenile passengers
equals that of the adults, and on occasions painfully frequent it is
greater. From rosy morn till dewy eve, and from eve till morn again,
they make things the reverse of monotonous, and a passionate lover of
infantile ways has all the entertainment he desires. Selfish and
irreverent travelers are apt to think affectionately of King Herod,
and wonder if his like will ever be seen again.

This migration of children is for the reason that they lose health,
and generally their lives, if kept in India beyond the age of four or
five years. The spring and early summer are considered the best time
for them to arrive in Europe, and consequently the traveler at this
season finds the steamers filled with them. They are mostly of the
spoiled class, accustomed to have their own way, to receive the
attentions of a multitude of servants, and to resent with anger the
least attempt to thwart them. The companies would doubtless find it to
their profit to send an occasional steamer at higher rates, from which
children should be excluded, just as our transatlantic lines advertise
ships carrying no steerage passengers, and charge more for places
thereon.

In Egypt, one can go directly through the canal, and thence to Europe,
or he may land at Suez, go by rail to Cairo (eight hours), and when he
has done with Cairo he may go in four hours to Alexandria, where he
will find three or four steamers a week for Brindisi, Naples,
Marseilles, and England, and steamers at least once a week for Syria,
Palestine, Asia Minor, Constantinople, the Black Sea, and also for
Greece and the Adriatic. He may take his time in Europe, and get home
the best way he can.

Following is a table of distances of a journey around the world,
without taking into account the numerous detours, which will vary
according to the tastes and means of each traveler, and the time he
has allotted to himself for his personal gratification, either in the
pursuit of pleasure, science and art, or commerce:--

    _New York to San Francisco_, 3,450 miles; San Francisco to
    Yokohama, 4,764; Yokohama to Hong Kong, 1,620; Hong Kong to
    Singapore, 1,150; Singapore to Calcutta, 1,200; _Calcutta to
    Bombay_, 1,409; Bombay to Aden, 1,664; Aden to Suez, 1,308; _Suez
    to Alexandria_, 250; Alexandria to Marseilles, 1,300; _Marseilles
    to Paris_, 536; _Paris to London_, 316; London to Liverpool, 205;
    Liverpool to New York, 3,000. Total, 22,172 miles.

(Distances by rail are in italics; by sea in roman.)

Separating the above distance into land and sea travel, we have 6,166
miles of railway, and a trifle over 16,000 miles of water. Allowing
continuous progress at the rate of twenty-five miles an hour on land
and twelve miles on the water we could swing around the great circle
inside of sixty-seven days. And if we take the quickest journeys that
have been made over the different portions of the route--the special
trains that have passed across the Continent on two or three
occasions, and the extraordinary runs of steamers on the Atlantic,
Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and in the China and Mediterranean
Seas--add them together, and make no deductions for delays in port, we
can have a theoretical journey around the world in less than sixty
days. Phileas Fogg is left far in the rear, and Jules Verne must
resume his pen and make another trial, if he would really astonish us.
Give us the highest recorded speed upon railways and ocean steamers,
and apply it to the route in question, and we will put a girdle around
the earth in the half of eighty days, with several hours to spare.



CHAPTER XXV.

LEGAL RIGHTS OF TRAVELERS.


For the information contained in this chapter the author is indebted
to a well-known lawyer of New York, who has had considerable
experience in suits of individuals against railway and steamship
companies, and is therefore thoroughly competent to write on the
subject.

"In considering the legal rights of travelers it is necessary to
remember that they are not the same in all countries, nor even in
different states of one country. Legal right in England may not be
legal right in France or the United States, and a decision of a court
in New York may be quite opposed to one in a case exactly similar in
Ohio or California. I will endeavor to give a summary of decisions
embodying the most important relations of the traveler to the carrying
companies, and where there are two cases of similar character, that
have been differently decided, I shall prefer the one from the higher
court.

"One of the most frequent causes of dispute in the United States is
the time for which a ticket is valid. It has been generally held that
a ticket for a single trip over a railway is good for any length of
time, with the understanding that when the journey begins it shall be
completed in a continuous ride. This applies only to single tickets
over the road of one company; when the ticket has one or more coupons
attached, and is sold at a lower rate than the single fares would
amount to if added together, it is liable to be refused on the ground
that it is in the form of a contract that expired a certain number of
days after the ticket was issued. There have been many decisions on
this subject, the majority of them favoring the claims of the company
against the passenger.

"An excursion or round trip ticket, sold at a reduced rate, is held to
be a contract, and is worthless if not used in the time specified. It
is also non-transferable, if so printed on the face, and the conductor
may refuse it when offered, on the return trip, by any person other
than the one who used the first half. The theory is that in
consideration of the reduced rate the company should have the benefit
of any chance that the original purchaser does not return within the
specified time. The courts of most of the United States, and also
those of England and the Continental countries, are in accord on this
subject.

"A ticket marked 'good for this day only,' or 'for this train only,'
was formerly held to be good for any day till used, but of late years
the majority of decisions are in favor of the printed limitation, on
the ground that the companies have a right to regulate their business,
and that they must know how many people are to travel by a train in
order to make it up properly. But in this case the purchaser of a
ticket may have his money returned provided he asks for it before the
departure of the train, or can show that it is the fault of the
company that he has not used it.

"In regard to the validity of a ticket in the reverse direction from
what it reads, there have been several decisions both ways, the
passenger claiming that he had paid to be carried a given number of
miles over the road and he had a right to travel either way, as he
chose. A passenger on the New York and New Haven railway recovered
damages for injuries received while being ejected from the cars, but
it required a law-suit of five years, and repeated trials, to obtain
them. He had offered a ticket from New Haven to New York while riding
in the reverse direction, and was put off in consequence. In another
instance a passenger from Boston to Portland sued for damages, for
ejection from the train when he offered a ticket 'from Portland to
Boston,' and lost his case; and the majority of the decisions in
England and the United States favor this view of the subject.

"It has been held repeatedly that a passenger is entitled to a seat,
and cannot be required to give up his ticket until a seat is provided,
though he must show it if asked. A passenger on a New York railway
found no seats in the ordinary coaches and went into the drawing-room
car that formed part of the train. When called on for the extra charge
for the seat he refused it, but announced his readiness to return to
the ordinary coaches as soon as a place was provided for him there.
Thereupon he was ejected by the porter, and he brought suit against
the railway company for damages. The latter claimed it was not
responsible, as the drawing-room car was the property of a private
individual, and not of the railway, but the courts rejected this claim
and gave damages to the passenger. Similar decisions have been made in
several cases where railway and sleeping-car companies were concerned,
the courts holding that the railways are responsible for the
management of the cars that compose their trains, although they may
not own them. This principle has been affirmed by the Court of Appeals
of New York, and by the Supreme Court of the United States.

"It was formerly held that a conductor must allow a passenger to ride
when he had lost his ticket, providing he gave reasonable proof of
having purchased one before entering the train, but of late years the
courts are inclined to the opinion that it is the passenger's place to
take care of his ticket, and it is unfair to ask the conductor to hold
a court of inquiry concerning it. Besides, the company has no
protection against carrying the person who finds the ticket. In
Illinois a passenger in a Pullman car lost his ticket after showing it
to the porter; the conductor came around before the train started and
demanded the ticket, or its equivalent, and refused to take the
porter's word about it, whereupon the passenger went to the
ticket-office and procured a certificate to the effect that he had
bought a ticket. This the conductor refused, and compelled the
passenger to ride in the ordinary coach all night. A jury gave $3,000
damages to the passenger, but a higher court said this amount was
excessive, and the man was only entitled to what he had paid for the
ticket, and moderate compensation for the inconvenience of being
deprived of a place in the sleeping-car.

"There have been frequent lawsuits involving the rights of persons
traveling on free passes; the railway pass usually bears on its back a
printed notice that 'the person accepting this free pass thereby
assumes all risk of accidents,' etc., etc. The courts have generally
held that this notice is of no consequence, and the holders of free
passes have collected damages for injury to their persons, or loss of
property, while using said tickets. The theory is that the pass is
granted for some consideration which is the equivalent of the money
that would be required to purchase a ticket at the office, and
therefore the company is liable, and it has been affirmed by the
Supreme Court. Since these decisions, some of the railways print the
notice in the form of a contract or agreement, which the passenger
signs before delivering the pass to the conductor; no suit under this
form of pass has been reported, and the companies think they could not
be mulcted under it, as they could show a specific agreement on the
part of the passenger not to ask for damages in any event. A tramp, or
other person, stealing a ride on a train has no redress for damages,
nor any other rights which the company is bound to respect.

"Damages have been recovered in several instances for injuries
received in railway stations before the intending passenger had
entered the train, or even purchased a ticket, and they have also been
recovered for injuries received in the station after the completion of
the journey. In all these cases it was shown that the person was in
the station either for the intention of traveling, or after the
completion of the journey, and in one case where the plaintiff could
not establish this fact he lost his case.

"In a case where a passenger in an omnibus was injured by the
upsetting of the vehicle, through the driver's carelessness, damages
were given by a jury. The omnibus belonged to the railway company, and
was run by them between the station and neighboring village. The
passenger had no ticket, as tickets were only sold at the station,
whither he was going, but it was held that his journey began when he
entered the company's omnibus with the intention of traveling by the
railway.

"The right of a passenger to protection from drunken and disorderly
persons, and from ruffians in general, has been established. The
courts have decided that the company through its agents must use 'due
diligence' for the protection of peaceable passengers, and unless it
does so it is liable. A good illustration is that of a railway in
Mississippi where some rowdies beat a passenger severely, and the
latter sued the company for negligence. It was shown that the
conductor simply asked the rowdies not to get him into trouble, and
then left the car; the court held that the company was liable for his
failure to use due diligence in protecting the passenger, and gave the
latter $6,000 damages, but if the conductor had stopped the train, and
called the brakemen and passengers to assist him, the damages would
not have been allowed, even if the conductor had failed in his effort
at protection.

"Suits have arisen out of the loss of property by passengers in
sleeping-cars, and in most instances the company is not held
responsible, as it is not a common carrier, and the court rules that
it is the passenger's duty to take care of his own personal valuables.
The same rulings have been made in several cases where property has
been lost in an ordinary passenger-car and suit brought against the
company, the courts holding that when a man chooses to take care of
his valise or hand-bag it is not in the care of the company. So, also,
in instances where passengers have been robbed while on railway
trains, the courts have exonerated the companies, except where
absolute negligence has been shown. In one case some ruffians entered
a car and robbed a passenger of $15,000 in U.S. bonds; the courts held
that the company was not responsible, since $15,000 was altogether too
large an amount of valuables to be carried about one's person, and
before the company was to be held liable it should have been notified,
and the property intrusted to its care.

"Responsibility for baggage has given rise to a great many suits on
the part of passengers, and the decisions are numerous and varied. In
general it is held that a passenger can recover for the loss of
personal property such as he wishes to use and actually needs on his
journey, 'in reasonable amount.' Most of the railway companies in
America stipulate on their tickets that the passenger is limited to
one hundred dollars in value and one hundred pounds in weight of
baggage, and if he has more than one hundred dollars' worth he must
declare it, and pay in addition at the rate of a single fare for every
five hundred dollars in value. Extra trunks are usually paid for by
the piece, rather than by the weight or value, and checks given
accordingly.

"In a suit growing out of the loss of baggage the passenger is
required to tell the contents of his trunk, and the jury must decide
whether the missing articles belonged properly to the traveler's
outfit. In one case a man lost a trunk which contained his 'wardrobe.'
When he stated, which he did very reluctantly, that the trunk
contained sixteen coats of different sizes, and no other garments, the
jury thought it a remarkable wardrobe for a traveler, and he lost his
case. Money, watches, and jewelry are admitted to be a part of one's
baggage, but they must be carefully packed, and not excessive in
amount. Discrimination is made in favor of money, as most civilized
nations have recognized this article as a requisite of travel.
Surgeons' instruments, law books, and papers for a lawyer going to
attend court, dresses of actors and actresses, uniforms of soldiers,
and in general anything that may be classed under the head of 'tools
of a trade or profession' are legitimate baggage, and form a good
basis of a suit for damages in case of loss. A gambler once brought
suit for the loss of his trunk, which contained a roulette table and
other paraphernalia of his 'profession,' together with two revolvers
and a bowie-knife. The court decided against him on the ground that
his occupation was _contra bonos mores_, and the railway company
could not be held to a responsibility for anything intended to
demoralize the community.

"Where there is clear proof of the loss of a trunk a railway company
will generally pay without litigation, if the claimant is a person of
respectability, and there is reason to believe that the statement of
contents is correct, provided also that the amount claimed is not
enormous. It is better for the company to pay one or two hundred
dollars in a genuine case than to go to the courts, where it would be
pretty sure to be defeated, but there are some companies that make it
a rule never to pay until sued, on the ground that they frighten away
a great many timid persons, as well as others who cannot afford the
time for a lawsuit.

"A famous case, involving the question of what is necessary to one's
personal comfort on a journey, is that of a Russian countess against
the New York Central railway. One of her trunks, containing laces to
the value of $200,000, was opened while she was traveling from New
York to Niagara Falls, and about 200 yards of lace were stolen. It was
antique and costly, and valued at $80,000; the trunk was old and worn,
and its exterior gave no indication of the wealth within. The Countess
sued for the value of the lace, and the company defended the suit on
the ground that the lady had no right to carry such property in a
common trunk, and that it was her duty to inform the company, through
its agent, the baggage-master, of the value of the trunk, and pay the
proper price for its insurance. The court held that she was not bound
to volunteer information, but it was her duty to answer all proper
questions concerning her baggage, and to pay whatever was demanded as
extra freight. But as nobody had questioned her she was not in the
wrong; considering her station in life the laces were necessary to her
comfort, and she was awarded $30,000 in compensation for her loss.

"Suits for lost baggage are far less common in Europe than in America.
They generally result in favor of the companies, especially where two
or more are concerned. Between Paris and London losses occur from time
to time, and when the passenger seeks redress he is told that he must
show whether the loss took place in France, England, or on the
channel, so that the responsibility can be fixed. Of course he can
rarely do so; all he knows is that his trunk started from one end of
the route and failed to arrive at the other; the company that took it
swears it delivered it safely to the other, while the latter swears
that it never received it. The unlucky passenger gets the worst of it,
and the matter is complicated by having different languages, laws, and
customs to contend with. The courts generally take the side of the
companies by throwing the burden of proof on the loser; a similar
juggle is not unknown in America, as the patrons of freight, express,
and transportation lines in general can testify. A parcel or a box
will be lost between New York and San Francisco; the shipper holds a
receipt or a bill of lading from the company to whom he delivered it
in New York, and it is clearly evident that he can know nothing about
the movements of his property after it left his hands. But when he
asks for redress he is told to 'prove where the loss occurred and let
us know who is responsible.'

"Most of the Continental lines of railway have a fixed tariff for
payment for lost baggage, and on proof of disappearance of a trunk or
a satchel they pay with reasonable promptness. Baggage is so well
cared for on the Continent that losses are rare, but the complaints
are not infrequent of robberies from trunks while in transit.
Travelers on their way from Italy to England sometimes find that their
baggage, which was booked through, has been opened while on the road,
and valuables abstracted; suspicion points directly to the railway
servants, but when a sufferer asks the railway companies to pay him he
is met with the response that he must prove on what road the theft
occurred, and must also name the man or men concerned in it. As he is
unable to do this he loses his time as well as his property, and his
principal consolation is to write an account of the affair to the
_London Times_ or some other English newspaper.

"The laws regarding common carriers apply to steamships and steamboats
the same as to railways, and the decisions in cases arising from loss
of the property of passengers are of the general character already
described.

"Many suits have arisen consequent upon the failure of railway
companies to run their trains at the advertised time, missing
connections, or otherwise causing loss to the passenger. The courts
have generally held that the advertised time-table of a company has
the validity of a contract with the public, and unless it can show
that the failure to keep the agreement was quite beyond its control,
the passenger must be paid for any immediate loss resulting therefrom.
But the allowances are confined to 'direct' rather than to 'indirect'
damages, and include extra expense for hotel bills or for special
conveyances, and sometimes compensation for injury to health by
exposure. A merchant may be able to show that by missing a connection
he lost the opportunity to make a valuable contract; a lawyer may
prove that a case went against him because the delay on the railway
prevented his reaching court till after the judge had rendered his
decision; or an actor may show that he disappointed an audience and
lost the profits of a performance for the same reason. In all these
instances the courts will not hold the companies responsible, as the
loss is constructive and not actual. On the other hand the passenger
is held guiltless for a free ventilation of his opinions to the
conductor or other representative of the company, and he may even
indulge in profane expressions, if he is unrestrained by moral
training.

"There is a case on record in which a railway train that was running
behind time was struck by a tornado, whereby a passenger was injured.
A suit was brought for damages on the ground that if the train had
been on time it would not have encountered the storm, but the court
held that the delay was not in any way the cause of the tornado, and
therefore the company had no responsibility in the matter. Accidents
from floods, snow-storms, and similar causes are regarded by the
courts as 'the act of God,' and if a company can show that it used all
diligence to avert disaster, and made every reasonable effort to get
the train through on time, it is exonerated.

"Delays on steamships are regarded in the same light. If a steamer
meets with an accident at sea, or is detained by storms, the
occurrence is treated as a case of _force majeure_, for which the
owners of the ship are not responsible, unless negligence or
incapacity of the officers can be clearly shown. If a steamer breaks
down after starting on a voyage, and returns to the port of departure,
her passengers are entitled to be conveyed on the vessel as soon as
the necessary repairs are effected, or on some other vessel of the
same company, but the company is not required to return the money paid
for the passenger's fare unless it has no vessel to start on the
voyage 'within a reasonable time.' It generally does so by courtesy,
to avoid making enemies, and not infrequently the company pays the
hotel bills of delayed passengers for the same reason. In the
Mediterranean and the far East a passenger delayed by the failure of a
ship to make a connection, or from any other cause, must pay his own
hotel bills, and if he lives on board the ship while waiting in port
he must pay for his meals, but not for his lodging.

"When a ship is detained in quarantine the passengers must pay for
their meals, at a reasonable price, which is usually fixed beforehand.
Several suits, growing out of delays in quarantine, have arisen, and
almost invariably the decisions have been in favor of the steamship
companies. In one instance a steamer touched at an infected port on
her way, and thereby subjected herself to be quarantined on arriving
at her destination. It was shown that she was not advertised to touch
at the port in question, and her agents, at the point of departure,
had distinctly stated she would not stop there; the court compelled
the refunding of the money paid for board during the ten days'
quarantine, and also other expenses caused by the delay, on the ground
that there had been a clear violation of agreement with the public.

"The reader who desires fuller information on this subject will do
well to consult 'Judge and Jury,' by Benjamin Vaughan Abbott, and 'The
Law of the Road, or Wrongs and Rights of a Traveler,' by R. Vashon
Rogers. 'Judge and Jury' endeavors to show the law of the land on
topics of general public interest, and about sixty pages of the book
are devoted to travel and transportation. 'The Law of the Road' is in
the form of a story, introducing all the incidents and accidents of
travel, and their legal aspects. In both books the decisions of the
courts are cited, so that they can be readily found. 'Lawson on Common
Carriers' is also recommended as an excellent authority on matters
indicated by its title."



CHAPTER XXVI.

WILDERNESS AND FRONTIER TRAVEL.


The rapid extension of the railway across the American Continent, and
the construction of lateral lines, have greatly diminished the volume
of travel with wagons, and other primitive modes, but have by no means
made an end of them. There is yet a large area without settlements,
and unprovided with the iron road, and for many years to come the
wagon of the emigrant and explorer will wend its way through the
wilderness. For those who contemplate pushing beyond the borders of
civilization, the writer presents this chapter.

The means of transportation available in frontier or wilderness
regions are wagons and pack-animals; the former are adapted to most
open and prairie countries, but in mountain regions it often happens
that the wagon cannot be used. The pack-animals in general use are
horses and mules; the latter are the surest of foot, especially the
Mexican variety, which is smaller than the American mule, and can live
where the latter would starve. Where snow is to be encountered horses
are to be preferred, as the horse will plod on through the drifts long
after the mule has given up in despair. The writer of "How to Travel"
has an unhappy recollection of crossing the divide between the
Arkansas and Platte rivers in the winter of 1860, when paths had to be
trodden in the snow for the mules before they would consent to go
ahead. Our horses kept on through snow that was nearly thirty inches
deep, but even when they had made a very good path it was difficult to
urge the mules forward.

The best pack-saddles for either horses or mules are of the "Grimsley"
pattern; they are open at the top, and covered with rawhide that
shrinks while drying, and is thus drawn straight. The Grimsley fits
well on the animal's back, and saves it from soreness longer than any
other form of saddle in use. The Indians have pack-saddles in the form
of "saw-horses," and the Mexicans use a leather sack like a mattress,
which is stuffed with hay, and has no projections for fastening the
load in place. In putting it on a mule they draw the belt so tight
that it seems to threaten to cut the poor brute in two, and certainly
must give him great pain. All the forms of pack-saddles, as well as
the best riding-saddles for frontier use, have broad girths of braided
horse-hair, that are far less likely to slip than any girth of
leather.

The proper adjustment of a load on a pack-saddle is a work of art that
can only be accomplished after long experience. In the first place,
the load must be accurately balanced, so that it will not have a
tendency to turn over, and, secondly, it must be lashed to prevent its
working 'loose, and scattering' itself along the trail. It is not
agreeable to find soon after leaving camp that your lashings have
loosened, and the load, which was your pride at starting, is being
distributed by the wayside. To add to the perplexity, the mule
invariably helps the business along by executing a waltz, and kicking
at imaginary dogs above the tree-tops. Men have been known to use
profane language on such occasions, but a mule never does.

At night the packs should be placed in a row and covered with the
saddles and saddle-blankets, to protect them from possible dew or
rain, and have them convenient for loading up in the morning. Great
care should be exercised to prevent the backs of the animals from
getting sore; the best preventive is a well-fitting saddle, but in any
case the backs of the beasts should be closely watched. If a horse or
mule is found to be sweating when unsaddled, it is well to allow the
saddle-blanket to remain until the skin is dry. Grease can be applied
to a spot that shows a tendency to soreness, and a piece of bacon-rind
may be tied on and left over night. It is not a good plan to wash an
animal's back immediately after unsaddling, and while he is hot and
sweating; the back should be allowed to cool completely before water
is applied.

A very important member of a pack-train, especially when it is
composed of mules, is the _madrina_, or bell-mare. She must be
chosen for her dignity and docility, and be ornamented with a bell
like the ordinary cow-bell of the eastern States. Its tinkle is a
great attraction to the mules, and wherever she goes they are sure to
follow. When the train is on the march she should be kept in front,
and when rivers are to be crossed she must be sent over first. The
affection shown by mules for the bell-mare is often very touching;
they will crowd around her and struggle for the privilege of rubbing
their noses against her sides, and, if she is accompanied by a colt,
they show as much fondness for it as girls do for a baby. Many are the
stories told by old plainsmen about the bell-mare, and the devotion of
the rest of the animals to her; she saves a vast deal of trouble, both
in camp and on the march, as she keeps the herd together when all
other means would fail.

For wagon travel on long and rough roads, where grain cannot be
obtained, oxen are preferable to mules or horses, as they have more
endurance, though they move more slowly. They keep in good condition
where horses and mules would give out, and in cases of emergency,
where the animals must be slaughtered for food, they make orthodox and
more attractive beef. Fifteen to twenty miles is a good day's journey
for an ox-team, while horses and mules can make from twenty to thirty,
if the roads are fairly good. Oxen are less liable to be stampeded by
Indians, and are easier to keep from straying; with a few days'
training they can be made to work under the pack-saddle if necessary,
and in South Africa pack-oxen are in general use. Anderson, who
traveled in South Africa, said he had an ox named 'Spring' that he
rode for two thousand miles, and found him an excellent beast under
the saddle. It is well for a long journey to have some cows along, as
they find their own food, and give milk, and, in emergencies, they may
be worked in the teams like oxen.

Wagons should be as light as possible, consistent with strength, and
the wood should be perfectly seasoned, in order to resist the effects
of the changes of the atmosphere. The wagon-body should be
water-tight, so that it will preserve its contents when fording
streams, and it can also be used as a boat where a river is too deep
to be forded. There should be a joint in the pole where it enters the
hounds, and the coupling pole should be movable; the joint will often
prevent the breaking of the hounds, and the movable perch enables a
part of the wagon to be converted into a cart, when a broken wheel or
axle prevents the further use of the entire vehicle. Every wagon
should have strong bows and a double cover of thick osnaburg to
protect the contents from the rain and dew. The bolts that connect the
running-gear should be riveted at the ends to prevent the nuts from
falling off, as the loss of a nut in the wilderness often leads to the
loss of the entire wagon.

The load of the wagon should be closely and securely packed, and
everything arranged to prevent chafing in the many jolts of the road.
Provisions for the journey should be in the most compact form, and not
a superfluous ounce of stuff should be taken along. Bacon and flour
are best carried in strong sacks, and all boxes and barrels must be
rejected, except one or two light flour barrels for getting water.
Sugar and salt must be in canvas bags with an outer covering of
India-rubber or oil-cloth, to prevent the moisture reaching the
contents, and tea and coffee require air-tight cans for their
preservation. Desiccated and canned vegetables are excellent; the
former deserve the preference on account of their more condensed form.
Citric acid and the essence of lemons should be taken on long journeys
where fresh vegetables cannot be obtained, as they are an efficient
anti-scorbutic, and it is well to have a few simple medicines in a
small box that ought to be kept in a corner of one of the wagons,
where it can be easily reached.

The personal outfit of a campaigner in the wilderness is not very
elaborate. White shirts should be discarded, and blue or red flannel
worn instead. The coat should be short and of some strong woolen
material, and the overcoat heavy without being stiff. The trowsers
should be thick and soft, and if the wearer intends to do any
saddle-riding he should have his nether garments "half-soled," or
reënforced with buckskin where they touch the saddle, and thus
preserve them from wear. An outfit for a campaign of a hundred days
might be about as follows:--

Overcoat, coat, and soft hat, one each, two flannel over-shirts, two
woolen undershirts, two pairs thick cotton drawers, four pairs woolen
socks, two pairs cotton socks, three pairs shoes, one pair strong
and high boots, one India-rubber poncho, and six colored silk
handkerchiefs. Then add castile soap for toilet purposes, and three
pounds bar soap for clothes, comb and brush, and tooth-brushes, and a
quantity of needles, thread, pins, buttons, beeswax, etc., in a small
bag of buckskin. By the way, don't forget a good quantity of buckskin
and an awl; they come handy in many ways for repairing harness,
clothing, saddles, shoes, and the like, and you will greatly miss them
if you forget them till too late.

For bed and bedding you want two blankets, a quilt, and a pillow,
the whole wrapped in a cover of India-rubber or painted canvas, which
can be spread on the ground at night to keep out the moisture. For
dining-room and kitchen you want for every six persons a camp-kettle,
a coffee-pot, a mess, a frying, and a bake-pan, all of wrought-iron.
Have an extra camp-kettle for accidents, and a bucket of
galvanized-iron for bringing water; don't trust to wood, as it is
liable to many accidents from which iron is secure. Your judgment will
tell you about knives, forks, and spoons; cups and plates should be of
strong tin, and the handles of the former riveted on, never soldered.
Pepper and matches should be in glass bottles, with close corks, and
kept in the safest place. Every horse and mule should have at least
two lariats, or picket-ropes, and every wagon needs an axe, and a
spade, and some S's, and extra chain-links for repairs.

So much for the outfit, to which you will add the firearms that suit
your fancy and the requirements of the region you are about to visit.
Those that use fixed ammunition are undoubtedly to be preferred, if
you can be sure of a sufficient supply of cartridges at all times, but
where this is not the case, it is best to adhere to the old-fashioned
Colt's revolver, loading with loose powder and ball. A Remington,
Winchester, or other cartridge rifle may be carried for rapid work in
fighting Indians, or killing large game, and a Colt's revolver, with
loose ammunition, will be a convenient thing for every day use and
ornament.

Now we are off, and must look out for ourselves. Provisions for our
sustenance are in the wagons, and we must think of food and water for
our riding and team animals. Make short and easy drives for the first
few days, till the teams get accustomed to their work, and then we
will increase the distance; we will not make more than half a dozen
miles the first day, and even if we only go a mile or two, and camp
just outside the town, we shall have gained so much. We will make our
marches in the early part of the day, have a long rest at noon,
especially if we are using oxen, and then go on again till sunset. We
must always camp near grass and water, and it is better to make a very
long drive than not to do so; if possible, we should have grass and
water at the noon halt, but, in case of necessity, we can do without
water, and then lengthen the afternoon march so as to reach it.

An old traveler will find water where the novice declares it does not
exist; none of the rules are absolutely infallible, and the shrewdest
will sometimes be disappointed. Observe the fresh tracks of animals,
and the flight of birds, and they will frequently lead to water,
especially the tracks of deer and mustangs. Examine the dry beds of
streams, and if they are sandy push a long stick or cane as far into
the sand as it will go; if you find it moist when you withdraw it, you
can be certain of water. Then dig a hole with your spade, and use an
empty flour-barrel for a curb, and if the hole is deep you can place
one barrel above another. In a little while the water will enter the
barrel, and you may draw from this improvised well all you need for
your party and your stock.

In countries where streams and springs are scarce, water may be caught
during showers by means of tents, awnings, wagon-covers, and even by
rubber overcoats. Drinking-water may be obtained where there are heavy
dews by dragging a blanket over the grass, and then wringing it out;
it is hardly necessary to add that the blanket should be a clean one.
Water from stagnant pools may be purified by thorough boiling, and
then mixing with powdered charcoal; in a muddy pond, it may be
partially cleansed by boring small holes in the lower half of a
barrel, filling it two-thirds full with layers of moss or grass, with
alternate layers of clean sand, if the latter can be had. Then place
the barrel in the pond till the top is nearly level with the surface;
as the water enters the barrel it will pass through the improvised
filter; and be found far purer than in its original state.

Always form your camp by the side of a river or stream of some kind,
if it is possible to do so, as you thereby make sure of plenty of
water for your stock; if in a hostile country, where attacks from
Indians are possible, have an eye to the defences of the position. A
peninsula in a river is the best place, as the water forms a natural
fortification, and you have only the neck of the peninsula to look
after; if you cannot find such a spot, take the place that most nearly
resembles it, and if you cannot do better, have the river or stream on
one side of you. If you camp away from water, select a spot so as to
have the crest of a hill on one side of you, where a lookout can be
stationed.

It is the custom for large parties traveling on the western plains of
the United States to arrange their wagons in a circle, or an oval,
with an opening at each end, at every halt. A yard is thus formed,
into which the stock may be driven to be harnessed or yoked. It may be
enclosed at night, or when hostile attacks are made, and, finally, the
yard, or corral, is an excellent redoubt from which to make a defense
against Indians. Many a train has been captured by neglecting this
precaution, and many another saved by observing it. No good captain of
a train will ever allow it to go into camp even for an hour without
forming the wagons into a corral. When the stock is driven in, the
openings at the ends of the corral may be closed by the simple
operation of stretching a chain across.

Where there is a scarcity of water, you will find you can get along
without it for many purposes for which at home it is considered
absolutely necessary. All your cooking and dining utensils can be
cleansed thoroughly without it; knives and forks by thrusting them
several times into the ground till every vestige of their recent use
is removed, and plates and pans by means of wisps of grass and dry
earth, joined to what is known in the Eastern States as
"elbow-grease." Great care should be exercised in regions where water
contains alkaline matter, as it induces diseases that require a long
time for curing.

Fuel is the great need of a traveler next to water. In a wooded
country he has no trouble in finding it, but he should never waste it,
no matter how plentiful. Never build a fire in a hollow log, or one
that is partially decayed, but clear a space of ground, and roll or
carry your fuel to it. When you move on in the morning put out the
fire, or encircle it, so that it cannot by any possibility spread and
cause damage. The danger of a hollow log is that the fire may smolder
there for days, or even weeks, and then break out; if the season is
dry, and the forests extensive, many acres and miles of country may be
burned over, and perhaps human lives may fall victims to your
carelessness.

In the open and treeless country the wilderness-traveler is often hard
pressed for the material for a fire. The most commonly used article is
the dry dung of buffaloes, known to the Canadian voyageurs as _bois
de vache_. It makes a hot fire, with very little smoke, and as the
animals haunt the valleys of the streams in search of the best grass,
they leave this material in the region of the camping grounds where it
is most needed. It is excellent for tinder, and with a burning-glass
and a piece of buffalo-chip you can get a fire in a few moments,
provided the sun is shining. In many parts of the world the dried
excrement of grass-feeding animals forms the only fuel of the
inhabitants or of travelers.

If you sleep near a fire at night, and the weather is so cold as to
render the heat desirable, always lie with your feet towards it; as
long as the feet are kept warm the rest of the body is likely to be
so, and with cold feet no one can be comfortable. Unless the
surrounding circumstances compel you to sleep with your boots or shoes
on be sure to remove them before you go to bed, as their absence makes
your sleep far more refreshing than it is with them.

When you arrive at a stream, on whose banks you intend to camp, but
which you must cross before proceeding on your journey, make the
crossing before you halt for the night. Streams rise suddenly, and it
often happens that what was a tiny rivulet at sunset is a roaring
torrent on the following morning, and it may be a day, or several
days, before it subsides. The rule here given is followed by all
experienced travelers on the plains of the great west.

When you break camp in the morning one of the party should remain
behind, after the wagons have moved away, and carefully examine the
ground to see that nothing has been forgotten. The members of the
party may take turns in this duty, or it may be assigned to one person
who should be held responsible for whatever may be lost by
forgetfulness. It will often happen that some article of camp equipage
has been left behind, and its absence is unknown until camp is formed,
at the end of the day's march. A thought B had put it in the wagon,
and B was certain that A had attended to it, or at least he should
have done so. Many a quarrel has been saved by this simple precaution,
and also many a deprivation, as the loss of a camp-kettle or
frying-pan, when it cannot be replaced, is a very serious matter.
Since the writer gave up the wilderness for civilized travel it has
always been his custom, after his trunks have been packed and locked
at a hotel, to renew his practice of olden times and go through his
room with the utmost care, examining every drawer of bureau or
washstand, and looking into every closet. Candor compels him to say
that once in a while he finds articles of greater or less value that
but for this rule he would have left behind.

One of the perplexities of travel in wild countries is the passage of
rivers. Shallow streams can be forded, and if the current is not
strong a depth of five feet may be passed without serious difficulty.
Many streams are full of quicksand, and in such case the rule is to
keep your team in constant motion after it enters the water. As long
as a man keeps moving on quicksand there is no danger, but whenever he
stops his feet begin to sink, and if he remains stationary he will
speedily find himself beyond his depth. The same conditions are true
of saddle or draught animals, and of the wheels of wagons. Where there
are quicksands horses should be led across, and to insure their going
steadily forward they should be allowed to drink all they wish before
entering the stream. Horses and oxen are more certain to go ahead
without halting than mules; the latter are apt to lie down and refuse
to move, exactly as they do in deep snow.

In a difficult ford the teams had better be doubled. The driver should
stand on the front of the wagon with a reliable whip in his hand, and
be assisted by one or more mounted men on each side of the team. It is
well also to have a mounted man ride ahead with a long lariat on
picket rope attached to the forward leaders of the team, so as to
direct their course. In a swift current the ford should be made
obliquely downwards if possible, so that the current can assist the
progress of the wagons.

In crossing a stream too deep for fording, boats or rafts may be
improvised from wagon beds, or they may be built on the spot. If the
current is swift a ferry must be made, and for this purpose (after the
spot for crossing has been selected) an expert swimmer goes over with
a fish-line or other slender cord in his mouth. By means of this cord
a strong lariat can be drawn over; it should be twice as long as the
width of the river, and fastened on each shore to a tree, or a wagon
tongue set in the ground if there are no trees. To make a ferry-boat
from a wagon-bed put it in the center of a wagon-cover or other strong
canvas, and then bring the edges up over the sides to the top; the
leakage will then be so slight that a man with a cup can easily keep
it free from water. The contents of the wagons can be passed in this
boat by means of the ferry rope, the animals can swim over, and the
empty wagons may be passed by fastening them down to the axles, and
attaching ropes to the tongue and also to the rear. They are then
drawn over by the men on the farther bank, and kept from drifting by
means of the rear rope.

If you are about to swim a stream with a horse it is not a good plan
to remain in the saddle, as your weight presses heavily on the animal
and restricts his movements. It is better to dismount, tie a cord
eight or ten feet long to his bridle, drive him into the stream, and
then grasp his tail and be towed over. If he tries to turn back you
can direct him with the cord or by splashing water towards his head.
If you do remain in the saddle give him a free rein, and do not pull
in the least, except when it is necessary to guide him. Horses and
oxen are better swimmers than mules; the latter are easily frightened
and may suddenly turn down stream, refusing all attempts to bring them
to land. They are also more liable to be drowned, and great care
should be taken that they do not get water in their ears; as soon as
you see a mule droop his ears you may know that he is in danger, and
the water should be removed immediately on reaching land, if you are
so fortunate as to get him there. For this reason never splash water
towards a mule's head, and do not make him jump into the water if
possible to avoid doing so.

An excellent ferry-boat may be made from a green or soaked hide of
ox or buffalo, or better still, from two or more hides. You will
generally find willows growing on the banks of the streams; gather
some of the smaller ones, sharpen the butts and drive them into the
ground, so as to form an oval figure of the size of your intended
boat. Then bring the tops together, weave slender willow rods among
the larger ones till the structure resembles a basket with a round
bottom, and have a specially strong willow running around all of them
near the ground, and firmly fastened, to make the gunwale of your
boat. If your boat is made of one hide stretch it over the basket and
sew it to the large rod around the top, and let the whole thing stand
a few hours in the sun to get dry; then cut off the rods where they
enter the ground and you have a boat that will carry four or five
hundred pounds with ease. For a larger boat, with two or more hides,
you want a more pretentious frame, a stout pole for a keel, and two
smaller poles for gunwales. This water vehicle is known on the plains
as a _bull-boat_, and can be easily constructed, provided the
traveler has a supply of willows, some green or soaked hides, and a
fair amount of common sense. Where a traveler expects to encounter
streams that cannot be forded he would do well to carry two or three
dried hides, and then he will have the material for covering a
bull-boat always at hand.

While we are speaking of hides, another use of them may be mentioned.
It often happens that emigrants, or settlers in a new country, wish to
salt a quantity of beef or other meat but have no cask or other
receptacle in which to place it. In this emergency dig a hole in the
ground, of such dimensions that the hide of the slaughtered animal
will just line it; then place the hide in the hole, with the flesh
side up, fasten the edges to the ground with wooden pegs, and you have
a salting cask that you may use, _sans peur et sans reproache_.
An animal's hide is also useful to bake him in, and in this way: Skin
and dress your game and then sew what you intend to bake into the
hide. Build a good fire in a hole in the ground with a sort of rude
oven of stones around it, and keep it going till the ground and stones
are hot. Now sweep out the ashes, throw in your roasting piece, cover
it with dry or green leaves, put back the hot embers as quickly as
possible, and then continue the fire long enough to cook the meat
beneath it. The writer has practiced this form of cookery on several
occasions and found the result very satisfactory.

If your supply of fuel is limited, and you have much cooking to do,
dig a narrow trench for the fire and place your kettles and pots above
it; make the trench with one end towards the wind, and build a small
chimney of stones or earth at the other end. Another way is to dig a
round hole a foot deep, and place the kettles in a circle on its
border, half of each kettle being on the ground and half over the
fire. If you lose all your kettles and frying-pans it is well to know
that you can improvise a frying-pan by taking two large flat stones
and laying one above another, with a few pebbles between to keep them
apart. Build a fire around them, and when they are well heated sweep
away all the ashes and put your slices of meat between the stones; you
will be well satisfied with the frying process that ensues.

But space is limited and we must pause. The writer could go on for
many more pages, giving advice to travelers in the wilderness, of
varying degrees of usefulness, and mainly drawn from his own
experience as a frontier campaigner years and years ago. But the
demands of the printer, and the interests of the non-migrating reader,
forbid an extension of the chapter. If more on the same subject is
desired it will be found in an eminently practical little volume
entitled "The Prairie Traveler," by Captain (since General) R. B.
Marcy; the author is thoroughly familiar with the subject, as any old
officer of the army can testify.



HANOVER FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY,

No. 181 Broadway, New York.

    CASH CAPITAL,                       $1,000,000.00
    RESERVE FOR RE-INSURANCE,              475,262.37
    RESERVE FOR ALL OTHER LIABILITIES,      94,193.32
    NET SURPLUS,                           830,626.59
                                         ------------
        TOTAL ASSETS, January, 1881,    $2,400,082.28

    BENJAMIN S. WALCOTT, PRESIDENT.
    I. REMSEN LANE, Vice-President and Secretary.
    CHARLES L. ROE, Assistant Secretary.


Chesapeake & Ohio Railway.

LAID WITH STEEL RAIL.

_The only route between the East and West via White Sulphur_ and
various other Springs and _Pleasure Resorts_ in the beautiful and
picturesque mountains of _Virginia_ and _West Virginia_.

_Regular and Excursion Tickets_ on sale at all principal Ticket
Offices throughout the United States at _lowest rates_. _Sleeping
Cars and all modern improvements._

[Pointing finger] See Circulars of the Grand Centennial Celebration
at Yorktown, Va., in October, 1881.

    H. W. CARR, _Gen'l Eastern Agent_,
    229 BROADWAY, NEW YORK.

    CONWAY R. HOWARD, _Gen'l Pass. and Ticket Agent_,
    RICHMOND, VA.



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BANKERS

AND

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And other desirable Investment Securities,

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Buy and sell all issues of Government Bonds, in large or small
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Buy and sell all marketable Stocks and Bonds on commission at the
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Receive accounts of Banks, Bankers, Merchants, and others, and allow
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NATIONAL LINE.

PASSENGER STEAMSHIPS.

[Illustration: Sailing ships]

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THE STEAMSHIPS  of this line are amongst the largest in the Atlantic
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of Passengers heretofore unattained at sea.

One of the Steamers will sail from New York every Saturday for
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RATES OF PASSAGE, in currency:--To Queenstown and Liverpool, $50 to
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Tickets, $28, being $2 lower than most other lines.

For passage, Bank Drafts, Sovereigns, etc., apply to

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United States Mail Steamers

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AND

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THE ANCHOR LINE STEAMERS are first-class in every respect, built
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RATES OF PASSAGE FROM NEW YORK

To Glasgow, Liverpool, Londonderry, or Belfast.

    Aft Outside Berth, $80 { FIRST }     Excursion         $140
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TO LONDON DIRECT.--First Cabin, $55 and $65; Excursion, $100 and $120,
according to location of Stateroom.

For Books of Information for Passengers, Rates of Passage, Cabin
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    _Commission and Shipping Departments,_    } _3 ADELAIDE ST.,_
    _Emigration and Land Branches,_           } _CHARING CROSS,_
    _Express and Storage Divisions,_          }

LONDON, ENGLAND.


NEW YORK BRANCH OFFICE, 102 Broadway.

General Agent, W. C. BOONE.

Fiscal Agents, DONNELL, LAWSON & SIMPSON.

    _Branch Office of Commission and Shipping Departments_,
    50 BROADWAY, NEW YORK.

THE GENERAL OBJECT OF THIS COMPANY IS TO ADVANCE AND PROTECT
AMERICAN INTERESTS IN EUROPE:

1st.--By establishing direct Business and Financial Relations between
every important business centre of the United States and the great
commercial and money centres of Europe.

2d.--By opening up and extending new markets in Europe for American
Manufactures and other Products, and Railroad, Mining, Landed, and
other Properties.

3d.--By promoting Emigration from England and other European countries
to the United States.

4th.--By aiding and protecting American Travel in Europe through the
extension of Financial Facilities to Travelers, and rendering other
necessary services.

5th.--By promoting European Travel to the United States, and through
the United States to Japan, China, Australia, etc.


TRAVELERS' CIRCULAR NOTES, available throughout the world, issued
without charge, for actual value in cash.

N.B. The Circular Notes issued by this corporation are secured by
deposit of United States Government Bonds.

LETTERS OF CREDIT issued either against deposit of cash, or
satisfactory guarantee of payment.

MONEY TRANSMITTED BY TELEGRAPH to all points.

DRAFTS issued at current rates on all principal cities of the world.

HENRY F. GILLIG, _General Manager._



PARTIES GOING ABROAD SHOULD LEAVE THEIR PROPERTY SAFELY INSURED.

  CONDITION JANUARY 1, 1881, OF
  CONTINENTAL INSURANCE COMPANY,
  100 Broadway, New York.

    Reserve for re-insurance of outstanding risks, $1,346,195.69
    Reserve ample for all other claims,               286,387.95
    Capital paid in cash,                           1,000,000.00
    Unallotted Surplus [reserved for contingencies],  306,135.77
    Net Surplus,                                    1,000,000.00
                                                    ------------
                                                   $3,938,719.41

    Deduct for future decline [if any,] in market
      values,                                          50,000.00
                                                    ------------
    Total cash assets, January 1, 1881             $3,888,719.41

This Company conducts its business under the restrictions of the New
York Safety Fund Law. The two Safety Funds together equal $1,000,000.

    H. H. LAMPORT,
    Vice-President.

    GEORGE T. HOPE,
    President.

    B. C. TOWNSEND, Sec'y Agency Dep't.
    C. H. DUTCHER. Sec'y Brooklyn Dep't.
    J. K. OAKLEY, Gen'l Agent.
    CYRUS PECK, Sec'y.
    A. M. KIRBY, Sec'y Local Dep't.
    F. C. MOORE, Agency Manager.



MALLORY LINES.

BRAZIL, TEXAS, FLORIDA,

NASSAU, N.P., AND MATANZAS, CUBA.

The ONLY Direct Lines of Passenger Steamships from New York to TEXAS
and FLORIDA, and the only Steamship Lines to BRAZIL, NASSAU, N.P., and
MATANZAS, CUBA.

Brazil Steamers Sail 5th of Every Month

For St Thomas, Para, Pernambuco, Bahia, and Rio de Janeiro, connecting
at St. Thomas with Steamers for Porto Rico, Jamaica, and the Spanish
Main. Through rates and Bills of Lading given to Paranagua, Santa
Catherina, Rio Grande do Sul, Pelotas, and Porto Alegre.

THROUGH TICKETS ISSUED TO ALL POINTS

reached by the Royal Mail Packet Company's Intercolonial Steamers, and
to Monte Video, and Buenos Ayres.


Texas Steamers Sail Every Saturday

For GALVESTON, giving through Freight and Passage Rates to all points
in Texas.


Florida Steamers Sail Every Friday

For JACKSONVILLE and FERNANDINA, FLA.

Pamphlets and Schedules mailed, and all information given upon
application to


C. H. MALLORY & CO., Agents,

Pier 20 East River, near Fulton Ferry, New York.



BEFORE LEAVING HOME

PROVIDE YOURSELF WITH A SUPPLY OF

PARKER'S GINGER TONIC.

The occasional use of this delicious medicine will prevent any
dangerous consequences from changing diet or water, and travelers will
find it an unequalled appetizer and an invigorant to the highest
degree, without intoxicating properties. It strengthens the Stomach,
Bowels, and Digestive Organs, builds up the system, is a sure remedy
for Sea Sickness, Dyspepsia, Dysentery, etc., and is the

BEST MEDICINE YOU CAN USE FOR

RESTORING HEALTH AND STRENGTH.

A bottle of this Tonic by keeping you in good health and spirits will
greatly increase the pleasure of any journey.

~Sold by all Druggists at 50 Cents, and $1.00.~

LARGE SAVING IN BUYING THE DOLLAR SIZE.

HISCOX & CO., PROPRIETORS,

~163 WILLIAM STREET, N.Y.~


FLORESTON COLOGNE,

Is the most lasting, delicate, and fragrant of perfumes. As it
relieves Headache, Prostration, and Nervousness, often induced by the
fatigue of travel, it will be found an exceedingly refreshing and
delightful toilet companion.

~Price, 25 Cents; Large Bottles, 75 Cents.~

Manufactured only by HISCOX & CO., Chemists, New York.


PARKER'S HAIR BALSAM,

THE BEST, CLEANEST, AND MOST ECONOMICAL HAIR DRESSING.

Elegantly perfumed and made from materials that are beneficial to the
hair and scalp. Parker's Hair Balsam is far more satisfactory than any
other hair preparation. It

~Never Fails to Restore Gray Hair~

to the youthful color and beauty and is warranted to prevent baldness,
falling of the hair, and dandruff.

~50 Cent and $1.00 Sizes at all Druggists.~

HISCOX & CO., NEW YORK.



ENOCH MORGAN'S SONS

[Illustration: Hand]

HAND SAPOLIO,

Is far preferable to the best brands of Soap.

It is a perfect emollient, keeping the skin smooth and soft under all
climatic changes and exposure.

It is delightfully Scented, and wears away slowly.

Its frequent use will remove tan, stains of all kinds, ink, and other
blemishes from the skin.

It will also completely remove grease and stains from garments, and
rust from metal.

~EVERY TRAVELER SHOULD CARRY IT.~

_Each cake is wrapped in tinfoil, and a year's supply occupies but
small space._

Sold by all Grocers and Fancy Goods Dealers throughout America.

MANUFACTURED ONLY BY

Enoch Morgan's Sons Co.,

22 PARK PLACE, NEW YORK.



FOR TRAVEL,

_Nothing is so Refreshing and Invigorating_

AS

[Illustration:

  NON ALCOHOLIC
  SPARKLING PHOSPHATED IRON BEVERAGE
  MANFTRS THE ZOEDONE CO. LTD. WREXHAM.

  _Zoedone_

  EVERY BOTTLE PREPARED FOR AMERICA HAS OVER
  THE CORK SIGNATURE OF

  [Signature] Hugh Hamilton.

  U.S. REGISTERED TRADE MARK NO. 3055.]

NO NEW UNTRIED BEVERAGE, BUT HAVING AN ESTABLISHED PRESTIGE

CONFERRED BY THE

~ROYAL FAMILY, NOBILITY, GENTRY, AND PEOPLE OF GREAT BRITAIN,~

Consuming Annually Over Ten Million Bottles,

AND THE

INDORSEMENT OF HIGH MEDICAL AUTHORITY.

"The use of Zoedone is followed by all the refreshing and stimulating
effects of champagne without fear of intoxication or after injurious
reactionary effects. On the contrary the iron and phosphorus in
Zoedone combine to convert what would otherwise be an agreeable but
ephemeral stimulant into a valuable tonic."

PACKED WITHOUT STRAW.

~$15 per case, Six Dozen Pints; $8 Three Dozen Pints.~

SUPPLIED BY WINE MERCHANTS, GROCERS, DRUGGISTS.

ZOEDONE BUREAU, 27 PARK PLACE



THE MOST RELIABLE

TRUNKS, BAGS, VALISES, &C.,

ARE MADE BY

CROUCH & FITZGERALD,

NEW YORK.

[Illustration: Shipping trunk]

TRUNKS

FOR AMERICAN STEAMER AND EUROPEAN TRAVEL.

EXTRA FINE QUALITY OF TRAVELING BAGS, &C., &C.

Stores:

    ~1~ CORTLAND STREET.
    ~556~ BROADWAY.

    (New Store,)
    ~723~ SIXTH AVENUE,
    Below Forty-Second Street.

[Pointing finger] SEND FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE.



BOOKS

_FOR TRAVELERS._

AMERICAN PUBLISHING CO.,

HARTFORD, CONN.

PUBLISHERS OF MARK TWAIN'S WORKS:


"INNOCENTS ABROAD," "TRAMP ABROAD,"

AND OTHERS.

JOSIAH ALLEN'S WIFE'S BOOKS:

"BETSEY BOBBETT," "MY WAYWARD PARDNER," ETC.

BOOKS OF TRAVEL IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES,

MAKING VALUABLE GUIDE BOOKS,

By THOS. W. KNOX, BRET HARTE, and other Popular Authors.

[Decoration] Send for Catalogue. [Decoration]

Books sent to any part of the World on receipt of price.

Address,

AMERICAN PUBLISHING COMPANY,

~Agents Wanted.~    HARTFORD, CONN.



[Illustration:

  ~·GET·THE·BEST·~
  ~·MISS·PARLOA'S~
  ·NEW·
  ·COOK·BOOK·
  ·AND·
  ~MARKETING·GUIDE·~]

MILLIONS OF DOLLARS SAVED

TO THE WASTEFUL PEOPLE IN THIS COUNTRY

BY THE USE OF THIS SAFE GUIDE.

THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE says: "For comprehensiveness and precision, this
book may be said to be unique."

THE BOSTON TRAVELLER says: "In her New Cook-Book, Miss Parloa has
rendered a good service to humanity."

THE NEW YORK TIMES says: "It has no nonsense in it, and can be
recommended for general use."

THE NEW HAVEN JOURNAL says: "It is in many respects the best book of
its kind ever printed."

1 vol., 12mo, cloth, 430 pages, and 89 illustrations, $1.50.

Published by ESTES & LAURIAT, BOSTON.

For sale by all Booksellers.    Sent postpaid on receipt of price.



TRAVELING COMPANIONS.

BEFORE STARTING ON A JOURNEY, STOW AWAY SOME PLEASANT NOVEL IN
YOUR SATCHEL.

We invite attention to the following choice selection of Novels:

THE NO NAME SERIES.

Mercy Philbrick's Choice; Afterglow; Deirdrè; Hetty's Strange History;
Is that All? Will Denbigh, Nobleman; Kismet; The Wolf at the Door; The
Great Match; Marmorne; Mirage; A Modern Mephistopheles; Gemini; A
Masque of Poets. 16mo, Cloth, Black and Gold, price $1.00 each.

THE NO NAME (SECOND) SERIES.

Signor Monaldini's Niece; The Colonel's Opera Cloak; His Majesty,
Myself; Mrs. Beauchamp Brown; Salvage; Don John. Manuela Parédes (in
preparation). 16mo, Cloth, Green and Gold, price $1.00 each.

BY THE TIBER; a novel, by the author of "Signor Monaldini's Niece."

THE HEAD OF MEDUSA; a novel, by the author of "Kismet" and "Mirage."

BLESSED SAINT CERTAINTY; by the author of "His Majesty, Myself."

Uniform volumes, 16mo, Cloth, Black and Gold, price $1.50 each.

MY MARRIAGE; a novel, 16mo, cloth, price $1.00.

IRENE THE MISSIONARY; a novel, 16mo, cloth, price $1.25.

MOONDYNE; a story of the Under-World, by John Boyle O'Reilly; 16mo,
cloth, price $1.50.

SARAH DE BERENGER; a novel, by Jean Ingelow; uniform with "Off the
Skelligs" and "Fated to be Free"; 16mo, cloth, price $1.50.

These books can be procured of any Bookseller, or the Publishers will
mail them, post-paid, on receipt of price.

ROBERTS BROTHERS, BOSTON.



Books for European Tourists.


A SATCHEL GUIDE FOR THE VACATION TOURIST IN EUROPE. A compact
itinerary of the British Isles, Belgium and Holland, Germany and the
Rhine, Switzerland, France, Austria, and Italy. With Maps, Appendix,
and Memoranda pages. Revised every year. 16mo, roan, flexible, $2.00.

    "The book is indeed a model of perspicacity and brevity; all the
    advice it gives will be found of immediate service. The 'Satchel
    Guide' tells the reader _how to travel cheaply without a sacrifice
    of comfort_, and this feature of the book will recommend it to
    many Tourists."--PALL MALL GAZETTE.

SAUNTERINGS. By CHARLES DUDLEY WARNER. $1.25.

    "The book contains a little about England and France, more about
    Switzerland and Holland, and a great deal concerning South Germany
    and Italy. There is not a dull page in it."--SPRINGFIELD
    REPUBLICAN.

CASTILIAN DAYS. A very attractive book by JOHN HAY, treating the
history, country, cities, people, and politics of Spain. $2.00.

THE LANDS OF SCOTT. By JAMES F. HUNNEWELL. $2.50.

    "It is a delightful epitome of the great author's life and works;
    the reader being introduced to a detailed acquaintance with these,
    while he is led through the localities which the genius of Scott
    has celebrated."--BUFFALO COURIER.

OLD ENGLAND: ITS SCENERY, ART, AND PEOPLE. By Prof. JAMES M. HOPPIN,
of Yale College. 16mo, $1.75. Includes descriptions of Derbyshire,
Devonshire, the Lake Country, Cornwall, the Old Cathedral Towns, and
those Historic Scenes which most interest Tourists.

[Asterism] For sale by Booksellers. Sent postpaid on receipt of price
by the Publishers,

HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN & CO., BOSTON, MASS.



PEOPLE WHO KNOW "HOW TO TRAVEL,"

GO TO EUROPE BY

THE STATE LINE,

Composed of new and powerful first-class Passenger Steamers sailing
weekly between

_NEW YORK, GLASGOW, AND LIVERPOOL_.

EVERY THURSDAY FROM NEW YORK.    SAFETY AND SPEED COMBINED.

By taking this route, excursionists will economize in expenditures and
yet enjoy all the comforts and luxuries of an ocean voyage, and a trip
through Scotland via rail to Liverpool free of cost.

No live stock carried on these steamers.

Passage and State-Rooms can be secured in advance by communicating by
letter or telegraph with Agents, or to

AUSTIN, BALDWIN & CO.,

164 Randolph St., CHICAGO.

GEN'L AGENTS,

53 Broadway, NEW YORK.

EXCURSIONISTS WHO MAKE PURCHASES ABROAD CAN SAVE TROUBLE AND EXPENSE
BY PLACING THEM IN CHARGE OF

THE AMERICAN-EUROPEAN EXPRESS.

(Established 1848.)

    BALDWIN BROS. & CO., PROPRIETORS,
    53 BROADWAY, NEW YORK.

Parcels, packages, statuary, paintings, and valuables taken charge of
and forwarded to America with care and at very moderate charges.
Custom-house business attended to and goods delivered to any address
in Europe or America.

PRINCIPAL AGENCIES.--H. Starr & Co., 19 Australian Avenue, Jewin
Crescent, London; J. & R. McCracken, 38 Queen Street, London;
Lherbette, Kane & Co., 19 Rue Scribe, Paris; Staveley & Co., 1 The
Temple, Dale Street, Liverpool; Lherbette, Kane & Co., 9 Rue de la
Bourse, Havre; Matthias Rohde & Co., Hamburg; J. H. Bachmann, Bremen;
A. Warmuth, Berlin; Maquay, Hooker & Co., Rome; Maquay. Hooker & Co.,
Florence; W. J. Turner & Co., Naples; Guiseppe Scala, Naples; Carlo
Ponti, Venice; E. Ramirez, 16 Mercaderes, Havana; John Wallis, Cork;
John Wallis, 33 Bachelors' Walk, Dublin.



WHITE STAR LINE

UNITED STATES AND ROYAL

MAIL STEAMERS

BETWEEN

New York, Queenstown, and Liverpool.

    BRITANNIC, CELTIC, GERMANIC,
    BALTIC, ADRIATIC, REPUBLIC.

Sail from New York every alternate THURSDAY and SATURDAY.

They are all of them, without exception, among the largest and finest
of ocean steamers, and were constructed with special reference to the
conveyance of passengers.

The saloon and staterooms are located in the midship section, where
but little motion is felt.

No Cattle, Sheep, or Pigs carried.

Rates of Passage as low as by any first-class line.

For inspection of plans, rates of passage, etc., apply at the
COMPANY'S OFFICES, 37 BROADWAY, NEW YORK.

R. J. CORTIS, AGENT.


C. L. BARTLETT & CO., AGENTS FOR BOSTON.

BARRITT & CATTELL, AGENTS FOR PHILADELPHIA.

A. LAGERGREN, General Western Agent, CHICAGO.



Fine Art in Jewelry.


Three centuries ago the Jewelers of Europe were Artists in every
sense of the word, and Artists of such taste and skill that their
works which have come down to us now command prices as utterly
disproportionate to the intrinsic value of the precious substances of
which they are made as the prices paid for the best works of the
Sculptor in bronze and marble are to the intrinsic value of the
materials out of which those works are hewn or moulded. Many such
Artists bequeathed legacies, since enormously increased in value, to
the Goldsmiths' Company for the purpose of keeping alive their art,
and the enlightened public of London are now beginning to insist that
these endowments shall be put to their legitimate use. We have no
Goldsmiths' Company in New York, but an hour spent in such an
establishment as that of Mr. THEODORE B. STARR, 206 Fifth Avenue, in
this city, will throw a great deal of light, for those who have eyes
to see, on the possible importance, hitherto almost unappreciated
among ourselves, of the æsthetic aspects of the beautiful industry by
which that great corporation has been built up in the mother country.
Mr. Starr has devoted himself steadily and successfully now for nearly
twenty years to artistic work in Jewelry, and the display which he
now makes of such work really deserves to rank among the most
interesting and instructive of our existing art collections. In the
choice and conservation of the more brilliant gems--for there is an
art in conserving as well as detecting the special perfection of
special gems as respects alike their surfaces, their crystallization,
and their color--Mr. Starr shows the taste and training of an Artist,
not less than in the skill and judgment with which he combines and
sets such gems.--NEW YORK WORLD.



COLUMBIA BICYCLE.

[Illustration: A man riding a bicycle]

The permanence of the Bicycle as a practical road-vehicle is an
established fact, and thousands of riders are daily enjoying the
delightful and health-giving exercise. The beautiful model and elegant
appearance of the "COLUMBIA" excite universal admiration; it is
carefully finished in every particular, and is confidently guaranteed
as the best value for the money attained in a Bicycle.

FROM THE PRESIDENT OF THE LOCAL TELEGRAPH CO., PHILADELPHIA, PA.

"I am familiar with the various methods adopted by enlightened nations
for healthful sports, agreeable pastime, and exercise, and I must say
that, in my opinion, a consistent use of the wheel far surpasses them
all, both for body and mind. The very marked improvements made by
yourselves and our English friends, in Bicycles, within the past year
or so, convince me that they will soon be no longer a luxury, but a
necessity." (Signed,) HENRY BENTLEY.

Send 3-cent stamp for 24-page catalogue, with price-lists and full
information.

THE POPE MFG. CO., 597 Washington St., Boston, Mass.



ESTABLISHED 1850.

INMAN LINE

United States and Royal Mail Steamers.

CITY OF ROME, 8,300 Tons.

                        Tons.
    CITY OF BERLIN,     5,491.
    CITY OF RICHMOND,   4,607.
    CITY OF CHESTER,    4,566.
    CITY OF MONTREAL,   4,490.
    CITY OF BRUSSELS,   3,775.
    CITY OF NEW YORK,   3,500.

    NEW YORK TO LIVERPOOL,--THURSDAYS OR SATURDAYS.
    LIVERPOOL TO NEW YORK,--TUESDAYS OR THURSDAYS.

RATES OF PASSAGE, $80 and $100, according to accommodation, all having
equal saloon privileges. Children between two and twelve years of age,
half fare. Servants, $50.

ROUND TRIP TICKETS, $144 and $180.

TICKETS TO LONDON, $7, and to PARIS $15 and $20 additional, according
to the route selected.

THE STEAMERS of this Line, built in watertight compartments, are among
the strongest, largest, and fastest on the Atlantic.

THE SALOONS are luxuriously furnished, have revolving chairs, are
especially well lighted and ventilated, and take up the whole width of
the ship.

THE PRINCIPAL STATEROOMS are amidships, forward of the engines, where
least noise and motion is felt, and all replete with every comfort,
having double berths, electric bells, and all latest improvements.

LADIES' CABINS and bath-rooms, Gentlemen's smoking and bath-rooms,
Barbers' shops, pianos, libraries, etc., provided.

MEALS SERVED _a la carte_.

_These Steamers do not carry Horses, Cattle, Sheep, or Pigs._

For further particulars apply to

    JOHN G. DALE, Agent, 31 and 33 Broadway, New York.
    GEO. A. FAULK, Agent, 105 South Fourth St., Philadelphia.
    L. H. PALMER, Agent, 3 Old State House, Boston.
    F. C. BROWN, Agent, 32 South Clark Street, Chicago.



WM. KNABE & CO.,

112 FIFTH AVENUE,

NEW YORK.

[Illustration: Grand piano]

204 AND 206 W. BALTIMORE STREET,

BALTIMORE, MD.

MANUFACTURERS OF PIANOS.



"GUION LINE."

United States Mail Steamers

SAILING WEEKLY

BETWEEN NEW YORK AND LIVERPOOL.

(CALLING AT QUEENSTOWN.)

THESE STEAMERS are built of Iron, in watertight compartments, and are
furnished with every requisite to make the passage across the Atlantic
both safe and agreeable, having bath-room, smoking-room, drawing-room,
piano, and library; also experienced Surgeon, Stewardess, and Caterer
on each Steamer. The staterooms are all upper deck, thus insuring
those greatest of all luxuries at sea, perfect ventilation and light.

CABIN PASSAGE, $60, $80, and $100, according to Location, etc.

INTERMEDIATE.--This is a class that affords people of moderate means
a respectable way of traveling. Beds, bedding, wash-basins, etc.,
together with good food, separate dining-room from either cabin or
steerage being provided. Passage, $40 single; $80 round trip.

STEERAGE PASSAGE at Low Rates.

DRAFTS payable in Ireland, England, and Scotland at low rates.

APPLY TO

WILLIAMS & GUION,

29 BROADWAY, N.Y.



BROWN BROTHERS & CO.,

    59 Wall Street, NEW YORK,
    209 Chestnut Street, PHILADELPHIA,
    66 State Street, BOSTON,

AND

ALEXANDER BROWN & SONS,

COR. BALTIMORE AND CALVERT STREETS,

BALTIMORE.


BUY AND SELL BILLS OF EXCHANGE

ON

GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND, FRANCE, GERMANY, BELGIUM, AND HOLLAND.


ISSUE COMMERCIAL AND TRAVELERS' CREDITS

IN STERLING, available in any part of the world, and IN FRANCS, for
use in MARTINIQUE and GUADALOUPE.


MAKE TELEGRAPHIC TRANSFERS OF MONEY

BETWEEN THIS AND OTHER COUNTRIES,

THROUGH LONDON AND PARIS.

TO TRAVELERS.--Travelers Credits issued either against cash deposited
or satisfactory guarantee of repayment. In Dollars, for use in the
United States and adjacent countries; or in Pounds Sterling, for use
in any part of the world. Application for Credits may be addressed to
either of the _above houses_ direct, or through any first-class Bank
or Banker.


HOUSES IN LONDON AND LIVERPOOL.

MESSRS. BROWN, SHIPLEY & CO.



HATCH & FOOTE,

BANKERS,

No. 12 WALL STREET,

NEW YORK.

We buy and sell U.S. Bonds, execute orders in Stocks, Bonds, and
Miscellaneous Securities, and transact a general Banking Business.
Interest allowed on deposits.



OREGON

Railway and Navigation Co.,

OWNING AND OPERATING THE

WALLA WALLA & COLUMBIA RIVER R.R.

OCEAN DIVISION.

_The only direct Mail Line from_

San Francisco to Portland, Oregon.

Carrying WELLS, FARGO & CO'S EXPRESS.

"GEORGE W. ELDER."      "OREGON."      "COLUMBIA."

Regular Steamships from Portland to San Francisco and return, every
Five Days until further notice.

Connections made at Portland, Oregon, for all points in Oregon,
Washington and Idaho Territories, British Columbia, and Alaska.

K. VAN OTERENDORF, Superintendent.


Columbia & Willamette Division.

Connecting with Northern Pacific R.R. at Kalama and Ainsworth; and
with Walla Walla and Columbia River R.R. at Wallula.

GEO. J. AINSWORTH, Superintendent.


Walla Walla & Columbia River Railroad.

Connects at Wallula (on Columbia River) with Steamboats of O. R. & N.
Co. This Line, being rapidly constructed, is now open to Weston,
Oregon.


CONSIGN ALL FREIGHT "VIA OREGON RAILWAY & NAVIGATION CO."

    H. VILLARD,
    President.

    T. F. OAKES,
    Vice-Pres't and Gen'l Manager.

    A. L. STOKES, General Eastern Passenger Agent,
    52 Clark Street, CHICAGO.



To Travellers Visiting New York.

THE INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE

AND READING ROOMS,

MADISON SQUARE, NEW YORK.

(Entrances 953 Broadway, and 185 Fifth Avenue, corner of 23d Street.)

C. A. O'ROURKE & CO., PROPRIETORS.

_Strangers to the United States, or to New York, can find at this
institution the information and facilities most useful to them. Among
the features of the establishment are:_

1. The leading newspapers of the principal cities of the world are
kept on file. The latest issues of these journals are received by
every mail.

2. Information for travellers as to the places of interest in the
city, and how to visit them. Also in regard to travel, routes, cost,
etc., to all points of the United States, Canada, Mexico, the West
Indies, and South America. Accommodations secured in advance at
leading hotels in all cities. Interpreters and guides furnished.

3. Theatre, Railroad, and Steamship Tickets can be purchased at
regular rates. Diagrams of the seats, and Telephonic communications
with leading Theatres.

4. Foreign Money Exchanged.

5. Direct Telegraphic communication at regular rates with all parts of
the world.

6. The important news of the world, especially if of financial or
commercial interest, received at the Exchange and Bulletined.

7. Notification of Steamship arrivals, and of arrivals and departures
of Mails. Subscribers can receive their Letters at the Exchange.

8. Quotations of Railroad, Mining, Produce, and other Stocks, received
at the Exchange by telegraph.

Americans sojourning in New York _en route_ to Europe can avail
themselves not only of the general advantages of the Exchange, but can
obtain information in regard to routes of travel, principal places of
resort, cost, etc., on the other side of the Atlantic.

The International Exchange counts among its annual subscribers a very
large number of the leading business and public men of New York.

_Subscription price $25.00 per year, $10.00 per quarter, $5.00 per
month, payable in advance._

~The Traveller~, published weekly by the International Exchange
contains, besides matters of general interest, information in a
concise form most useful for travellers.



AMERICAN EXCHANGE IN EUROPE,

(LIMITED.)

HEADQUARTERS FOR AMERICANS IN EUROPE,

AND

Post-Office Address for Travelers' Correspondence,

449 STRAND, LONDON, ENGLAND.

    PRESIDENT,                     GEN'L MANAGER,
      JOSEPH R. HAWLEY.              HENRY F. GILLIG.

_The following Particular Advantages for Travelers:_

 1st.--The largest number of American newspapers on file in Europe.

 2d.--The only place in Europe where the directories of American cities
and towns can be found.

 3d.--The only place where arrivals are published weekly, and
circulated throughout the world.

 4th.--The only place where TRAVELERS CAN OBTAIN THEIR LETTERS
EVERY DAY in the year, and offering facilities to travelers for
correspondence with their friends.

 5th.--The only place where the arrival of Steamers on both sides
of the Atlantic is made known by telegraph immediately on being
signaled.

 6th.--The only channel for economical telegraphic communication
between America and Europe by a code containing innumerable phrases
specially compiled for travelers, and relating to domestic as well
as business matters.

 7th.--The only place in Europe where all the leading American
newspapers are kept on sale.

 8th.--The only place where there is a separate reading and writing
room for ladies.

 9th.--The only place where all the lines of Steamers and Routes of
 European travel are _impartially_ represented; where _impartial_
 information and advice on all subjects relating to travel can be
 obtained; and where every requirement of the traveler is supplied.

10th.--The only place of the kind in Europe managed exclusively by
Americans.

Over six hundred Newspapers, two hundred city and state Directories,
three hundred official State and Municipal Reports regularly filed in
the Reading Rooms of the Exchange.

Travelers' Branch open daily from 9 A.M. to midnight.

Passage Tickets issued available by any line of Steamers.

Freight and Parcels booked at through rates to all parts of the world.

BAGGAGE AND GOODS STORED.

~N.B.--Printed Addressed Envelopes can be obtained Free of Cost at
the Branch Office, 102 Broadway, New York, and at Hotels, Railroad and
Steamship Ticket Offices throughout the United States, Canada, and
Europe.~

HENRY F. GILLIG, _General Manager_.



E. REMINGTON & SONS,

MANUFACTURERS OF THEIR CELEBRATED

MILITARY BREECH-LOADING RIFLES,

CARBINES and PISTOLS,

of which more than 1,500,000 have been sold to nearly every Government
in the World.

_ALSO_,

Long, Mid, Short-Range and Sporting

BREECH-LOADING RIFLES,

Which have won for themselves world-renowned reputation for accurate
shooting at Creedmoor, New York; Dollymount, Ireland; Wimbledon,
England; Ontario, Canada, and many other ranges throughout the
civilized world.

_LIKEWISE_

Double and Single-Barreled Shot Guns

Equaled by few and inferior to none extant.

Revolving, Repeating and Single Shot Pistols;

ARMY, NAVY, POLICE, HOUSE AND POCKET SIZES,

ONE TO SIX SHOTS.

CARTRIDGES, LOADING IMPLEMENTS, SHOOTING CANES, BULLETS, PRIMERS,
SHELLS, ETC., ETC.

MANUFACTORY:

ILION, HERKIMER COUNTY, N.Y., U.S.A.

SALESROOMS:

283 Broadway, New York,

71 State Street, Chicago, Ill.,

21 So. Howard Street, Baltimore, Md.



LIGHTEN YOUR LABOR

BY USING

THE PERFECTED TYPE-WRITER.

SEE WHAT IT WILL DO.


FROM THE AUTHOR OF "HOW TO TRAVEL."

    NEW YORK, MARCH 4, 1881.

    E. REMINGTON & SONS:--Gentlemen:

    In reply to your inquiry of yesterday I beg to say that I consider
    the Type-Writer invaluable to any one who has a large amount of
    writing to do. For clearing off an accumulation of correspondence
    on returning from a journey it is admirable, and for preparing
    printer's "copy" it is unrivaled. If I could not get another
    Type-Writer I would not willingly take ten thousand dollars for
    the one I now have. It is little more than two years since I
    bought it, and in all that time its repairs have cost exactly
    fifty cents. Besides all my private correspondence, magazine
    articles, and newspaper matter, I have written four books with
    this machine and shall complete a fifth in a few days. The saving
    of time to me is not far from 25 per cent., and in this one item
    the Type-Writer has paid for itself several times over.

    Very truly yours,

    THOS. W. KNOX.


MANUFACTURED AND SOLD ONLY BY

E. REMINGTON & SONS,

PRINCIPAL OFFICES:

281 and 283 Broadway, New York.

BRANCH OFFICES:

    38 Madison St., Chicago.
    124 So. 7th St., Philadelphia.



_LINDO BROS._

_DIAMONDS, FINE WATCHES, RICH JEWELRY, SILVERWARE, ETC._

PURCHASES AT HIGHEST PRICES.

1205 BROADWAY, OPPOSITE GILSEY HOUSE.

Dessins et évaluations faite pour la monture de Diamants.



M. Crane,

53, 55, and 57 Park Place,

New York.


Electrotyping and Stereotyping

In all its Branches.

Fine Electrotypes from Engravings

a

Specialty.

Specimens of work sent on application,

and

Satisfaction Guaranteed.



THE PERMANENT CURE OF CATARRH.

Rev. T. P. Childs' Treatment the Only Effectual Way.

CHILDS' CATARRH SPECIFIC

Is no new untried cure, but a Positive and Certain Remedy.

WE, ABOVE ALL THINGS, DESIRE TO ESTABLISH CONFIDENCE IN OUR TREATMENT,
SO THAT EVERY SUFFERER FROM CATARRH AND BRONCHITIS MAY FEEL CERTAIN OF
SUCCESS IN ITS USE.

    193 E. Fayette St., Baltimore, Md., Dec. 20, 1879.

    REV. T. P. CHILDS.--I have the pleasure of informing you that
    after a faithful use of your remedy for eight weeks ending March
    28, 1879, I am completely rid of a stubborn case of catarrh of
    three years' standing--breathing tubes clear as a whistle,
    appetite good, and digestion good.

    Yours,

    THOMAS B. HAND.

    REV. T. P. CHILDS: Dear Sir--I think you have the true theory and
    practice for cure of nasal catarrh, and also for the treatment of
    respiratory organs. My throat is now so well restored that I can
    lecture daily without any difficulty, and find no difficulty
    whatever in preaching. You are at full liberty to use my name for
    the benefit of others.

    Yours very truly,

    E. B. FAIRCHILD, D.D., LL.D.,

    Chancellor of the University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb.


WHAT THE EDITORS SAY.

"While not supposing that all cases of catarrh will be cured by the
prescription advertised, the publishers of the Illustrated Christian
Weekly, after diligent inquiry, have reason to believe that it has in
many cases proved effectual."--_Illustrated Christian Weekly_, New
York.

"The publishers of the Congregationalist, with multitudes of other
people, are somewhat suspicious of patent medicines as a rule, and
when we received the advertisement of Mr. Childs we at first declined
its insertion; but, on making inquiry, we received such satisfactory
replies, and one especially from a well-known Congregational pastor
not far from Rev. Mr. Childs, the proprietor of the medicine, that we
withdrew our objections."--_Congregationalist_, Boston.

~CHILDS' CATARRH SPECIFIC will effectually and permanently cure any
case of catarrh, no matter how desperate. It can only be obtained at
Troy, Ohio. The treatment is local as well as constitutional, and
cannot be obtained at the drug stores. We especially desire to treat
those who have tried other remedies without success.~

~Child's Treatment of Catarrh, and for diseases of the Bronchial Tubes,
can be taken at home, with perfect ease and safety, by the patient. No
expense need be entailed beyond the cost of the medicine.~

REV. T. P. CHILDS, TROY, OHIO.



THE POLAND SPRING WATER

Has cured numerous cases of BRIGHT'S DISEASE OF THE KIDNEYS, as well
as other forms of disease resulting from BLOOD POISON, such as
MALARIAL FEVER, RHEUMATIC FEVER, DYSPEPSIA, CONSTIPATION, GRAVEL,
DIABETES, SCROFULA, DROPSY, ETC.

Although an exceedingly pleasant water to drink, it possesses those
peculiar properties that restore to action the Kidneys, Liver, and
other Internal Organs that may have become sluggish in their
movements. Thus by cleansing the blood the body is restored to its
original vigor, and the complexion to its original freshness and
beauty. Were it more generally used there would be far less demand for
drugs and cosmetics.

The following gentlemen of this city will cheerfully bear testimony to
its remarkable curative qualities:

J. W. Pottle; S. Jacoby, 103 Broad Street; J. M. Schuyler, 114 Wall
Street; C. E. Blumenthal, M.D., 54 West 45th Street; W. G. Tuller and
Ira Thorn, Fifth Avenue Hotel; J. Munroe Taylor, 113 Water Street; C.
Y. Wemple, Vice-Pres't Manhattan Life Insurance Company; Root &
Childs, 87 Worth Street; J. B. Libby, of H. J. Libby & Co., White
Street; Deering & Milliken, 79 and 81 Leonard Street; G. N. Dickinson,
of Lee, Tweedy & Co.; A. A. Vantine, 827, 829, and 831 Broadway;
Edward Carroll, of Falconer, Carroll & Co.; C. P. Tooker, of Kiggins,
Tooker & Co., 125 William Street; John R. Ames, Board of Education;
George A. Dresser and Wm. Silver, Queens Insurance Company; W. H.
Scott, M.D., 8 East 41st Street; Henry C. Houghton, M.D., 44 West 35th
Street; H. K. White, 548 Broadway; Wm. H. Lindsley, 279 Broadway; M.
M. Stanfield, Victoria Hotel; Wm. B. Bogle, of Bogle & Lyles; I. F.
Slader, Brandreth House; F. J. Allen, Astor House; J. H. Small, 111
Front Street.

The undersigned have within their personal knowledge cases in which
POLAND SPRING WATER has proved highly beneficial.

      H. L. BRIDGMAN.    THOS. W. KNOX

[Pointing finger] For sale in large or small quantities by

O. HUTCHINSON, the Authorized Agent,

145 NASSAU ST., NEW YORK



J. H. JOHNSTON,

150 Bowery, New York,

Duplicate Wedding Presents,

SURPLUS SILVERWARE, DIAMONDS, WATCHES, JEWELRY, BRONZES, AND
PAINTINGS.

Inscriptions erased and Silverware refinished and sold

50 PER CENT. BELOW MANUFACTURERS' COST.

Constant Bargains in New and Second-hand

WATCHES.

FINE DIAMONDS BELOW PARIS PRICES.

_ESTABLISHED OVER 30 YEARS_,

Dealing only in Fine Goods. A visit to 150 Bowery will well repay the
curious, or those who want the best Goods at surprisingly low prices.



[Illustration: J.H. JOHNSTON DEALER IN DUPLICATE WEDDING GIFTS.

150 BOWERY. N.Y.

MRS. POTIPHAR. "SEE HUSBAND. SHE HAS SIX PICKLE CASTORS, AND FIVE
COFFEE URNS, HOW FUNNY!"

MR. P. "OH! SHE'S ALL RIGHT. JOHNSTON IN THE BOWERY WILL BUY ALL THE
DUPLICATES. HE MAKES A BUSINESS OF IT."]



TOURJEE'S TOURS,

FOURTH SEASON,

The most enjoyable, economical and successful excursion tours ever
planned to the

OLD WORLD.

ALL TRAVEL AND HOTELS FIRST-CLASS.

COMPANY SELECT.

Important additions to our former tours. Extra inducements without
extra charge. Early registration important. Parties contemplating a
visit to Europe should send for circular giving full particulars.

    E. TOURJEE,
    MUSIC HALL, BOSTON.


The following is from the Physicians' Pocket Manual and Year Book.

"Three years ago, he planned a new way of seeing the wonders of the
Old World, and what have now become famous as the Tourjee Excursions
are such as every intelligent person will heartily endorse.

The cost to each excursionist varies from $175 to $700, and these
figures include first-class transportation, hotel accommodations,
carriage drives, lunches and all incidentals. From the time he embarks
to the day he returns to New York, the tourist is not obliged to take
out an additional cent from his purse. We heartily endorse these
pleasant trips, and believe that they merit the appreciation of the
medical profession. In the previous excursions, quite a number of
eastern medical men participated, and several will have gone over the
ground again the present year. The advantages which they offer for
recuperation, both to physicians and patients, are unsurpassed, and
we hope that many a year will have passed before they shall be
discontinued. The old way of seeing the Old World has always had
many drawbacks; the new way affords thrice the benefit for less
than one-half the expenditure."



_FRANK LESLIE'S ILLUSTRATED PUBLICATIONS._

RATES OF SUBSCRIPTION, POSTAGE PAID.


WEEKLIES.

FRANK LESLIE'S ILLUSTRATED NEWSPAPER--The only pictorial record of
current events, devoted to news, literature, art, and science,   4.00

FRANK LESLIE'S CHIMNEY CORNER--The best American family journal,
story paper, and home friend,                                    4.00

FRANK LESLIE'S LADY'S JOURNAL--The highest exponent of fashion and
taste,                                                           4.00

FRANK LESLIE'S ILLUSTRIRTE ZEITUNG--In the German language. A weekly
compendium of news and literature,                               4.00

FRANK LESLIE'S BOYS' AND GIRLS' WEEKLY--An illustrated journal of
amusement, adventure, and instruction,                           2.50


MONTHLIES.

FRANK LESLIE'S POPULAR MONTHLY--The cheapest and most attractive
monthly magazine,                                                3.00

FRANK LESLIE'S SUNDAY MAGAZINE--The best pictorial religious
periodical,                                                      3.00

FRANK LESLIE'S LADY'S MAGAZINE--Regarded universally as a fashion
standard,                                                        3.50

FRANK LESLIE'S PLEASANT HOURS--Cheap and entertaining. Devoted to
fiction. Every article complete,                                 1.50

FRANK LESLIE'S BUDGET OF WIT--Filled with intelligent humor,     1.50


ANNUALS.

FRANK LESLIE'S ILLUSTRATED ALMANAC FOR 1881--A charming annual,
with colored Plates,                                              .25

FRANK LESLIE'S COMIC ALMANAC--A racy annual compendium of fun,
 humor, and information,                                          .10

The various publications of this house embrace a wide range of
popular reading. The illustrations are of the highest order, by
the most skilful artists. The literary matter is contributed by
authors and writers of great reputation and acknowledged popularity.
Most liberal outlays are made to secure the best talent in the
market, both instructive and amusing.

No "traveling agent" is authorized to collect money for our
publications. Remit by money-order, draft on New York, or registered
letter, at our risk. Address

    FRANK LESLIE'S PUBLISHING HOUSE,
    53, 55, and 57 PARK PLACE, NEW YORK.



THE ASSOCIATED LINES

OF

Southern Railway Travel,

COMPRISING

    PIEDMONT AIR LINE,
    CENTRAL SHORT LINE,
    ATLANTIC COAST LINE,
    THE BAY LINE.

_Concentration of control under ONE MANAGEMENT._

_Special U.S. FAST MAIL, and Double Daily PASSENGER ROUTE._

_SHORTEST LINES BETWEEN NORTH AND SOUTH._

_Extended Pullman Sleeping-Car Service._

_First-class equipment and all standard appliances._


New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, AND Washington

TO

New Orleans, Mobile, Montgomery, Atlanta,

AND INTERMEDIATE POINTS; ALSO,

Charleston, Macon, Savannah, all points in Southwest Georgia, and
Florida.


IMMIGRATION.

Arrangements have been perfected by which a complete system of
settlers' and immigrants' fares from leading Eastern cities exist to
each station upon the lines of railways of this organization, and the
attention of immigrants and all persons seeking investments in the
Southern States is invited to exhibits soon to be published concerning
unimproved lands, improved farms, sites for manufacturing purposes,
supplies and location of growing hard woods, deposits of minerals,
metals, and building materials, together with facts of physical
attractions, accessibility to railway or water transportation, or
desirable markets.

Full information concerning the Lines, points reached, matters of
tickets, schedules, sleeping car reservations, etc., etc., to be had
on application to

    _306 Washington St., Boston.
    838 Chestnut St., Philadelphia.
    229 Broadway, New York.
    511 Pennsylvania Ave., Washington._

AND ALL LEADING TICKET OFFICES EAST.

A. Pope, General Passenger and Ticket Agent.



"WING & SON"

PIANO-FORTES

Possess all the delicate tone and action qualities claimed by the
leading makers. An inspection will surely prove the fact. The new

_TREBLE REFLECTOR_

(Wing & Son's invention,) gives a remarkable bird-like quality to the
HIGH TREBLE NOTES.


AS TO PRICES.

This establishment can furnish a remarkable instrument in its musical
qualities and encased after a new and unconventional design for the
sum of ~$400~.


Send for the reports of HOFFMAN and other celebrated Pianists
to the office of

_Wing & Son_,

1298 and 1300 BROADWAY, N.Y.



FOR MAGAZINES AND NEWSPAPERS,

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN.

SEND FOR OUR CATALOGUE,

NOW READY FOR DISTRIBUTION.

_It gives CLUB RATES for all the prominent Publications, American
and English._

[Pointing finger] We make the import of Foreign Periodicals, by mail
or otherwise, a specialty. The following are samples of our prices per
year, post-paid:


    ENGLISH.

    Academy,                             $ 4.15
    Athenæum,                              4.30
    Agricultural Gazette,                  5.50
    Architect,                             6.00
    Boy's Own Paper,                       2.00
    Building News,                         6.50
    British Architect,                     5.75
    Chamber's Journal,                     2.50
    Chemical News,                         4.75
    Engineering,                           8.80
    English Mechanic,                      3.25
    Graphic,                               8.75
    Illustrated News,                      8.75
    London Times (Weekly),                 3.25
    Pall Mall Budget,                      7.40
    Punch,                                 3.75
    Queen,                                 9.25
    Saturday Review,                       7.40
    Spectator,                             7.40
    Art Journal,                           8.50
    Cornhill,                              3.60
    Fraser,                                8.00
    Hamerton's Portfolio,                  8.50
    London Society,                        3.60
    Contemporary Review,                   7.25
    Nineteenth Century,                    7.25
    Fortnightly,                           6.50
    Revue des Deux Mondes,                14.25

    AMERICAN.

    Harper's Magazine,                   $ 3.45
    Harper's Bazaar,                       3.45
    Harper's Weekly,                       3.45
    Harper's Young People,                 1.35
    American Architect,                    5.50
    American Journal of Science and Art,   5.00
    Blackwood,                             3.45
    Contemporary Review (_reprint_),       2.15
    Literary World,                        1.80
    Lippincott's Magazine,                 2.65
    Popular Science Monthly,               4.35
    Appleton's Journal,                    2.65
    Sunday Magazine,                       2.65
    American Law Review,                   3.45
    New Englander,                         3.87
    Atlantic Monthly,                      3.45
    Scribner's Monthly,                    3.45
    St. Nicholas,                          2.65

[Pointing finger] LIBRARIANS AND MANAGERS OF BOOK CLUBS AND READING
ASSOCIATIONS are especially requested to notice this. TIME, LABOR,
and MONEY are saved by ordering through our agency.

[Pointing finger] Send for our Catalogue, giving prices of nearly
Two Thousand Periodicals, AMERICAN, ENGLISH, FRENCH, and GERMAN, at
club-rates. Free to any address upon request.

    ALBERT H. ROFFE & CO.,
    _11_ BROMFIELD STREET,
    BOSTON, MASS.



[Illustration: Steam ship]

DAILY OCEAN EXCURSIONS TO

ROCKAWAY BEACH,

BY THE ENTIRELY NEW PALATIAL STEAMERS,

GRAND REPUBLIC AND COLUMBIA.

Universally conceded to be the largest, finest, and best adapted
Excursion Steamers in the world, combining everything that contributes
to the safety, comfort, and luxury of pleasure seekers.

THE GRAND REPUBLIC,

With Band and the Columbia Glee Club,

    LEAVES:
    22d Street, North River,  at 10.00 A.M.
    Pier 6, North River,      at 10.20 A.M.
    Jewell's Wharf, Brooklyn, at 10.40 A.M.

    LEAVING
    ROCKAWAY, Upper Landings, at 4.00 P.M.
              Lower Landings, at 4.30 P.M.

THE COLUMBIA,

With Deverell's 13th Reg't Band and Concordia Glee Club, Cornet
Soloist, Xylophone, etc.,

    LEAVES:
    West 22d Street,          at 9.00 A.M. and 2.00 P.M.
    Pier 6, North River,      at 9.15 A.M. and 2.15 P.M.
    Jewell's Wharf, Brooklyn, at 9.30 A.M. and 2.30 P.M.

DIRECT FOR ROCKAWAY BEACH.

    LEAVING
    ROCKAWAY, Upper Landings, at 5.30 P.M.
              Lower Landings, at 6.00 P.M.

The best order and discipline maintained. Ladies with Children are
perfectly safe in traveling under the care of the Captains, aided by
efficient Officers and a platoon of Police.


Passage Cards, 35 cents. Excursion Tickets, 50 cents.

Children from 5 to 12 years, Half-price; Under 5, Free.



THE MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, OF NEW YORK.

NOS. 144 AND 146 BROADWAY.

F. S. WINSTON, PRESIDENT.

R. A. McCURDY, VICE-PRESIDENT.

_Assets, January 1, 1881_,

_OVER_

_NINETY-ONE MILLIONS_

_OF DOLLARS._



COLONEL KNOX'S BOOKS OF TRAVEL.


THE BOY TRAVELERS IN THE FAR EAST. PART I.

    Adventures of Two Youths in a Journey to Japan and China. By
    THOMAS W. KNOX. Illustrated. 8vo, Illuminated Cloth, $3.00.

THE BOY TRAVELERS IN THE FAR EAST. PART II.

    Adventures of Two Youths in a Journey to Siam and Java. With
    descriptions of Cochin-China, Cambodia, Sumatra, and the Malay
    Archipelago. By THOMAS W. KNOX. Illustrated. 8vo, Illuminated
    Cloth, $3.00.


These volumes will serve an admirable purpose in the education of our
young people.--N.Y. HERALD.

That which Mayne Reid did for a past generation Col. Knox is doing for
readers of to-day. He is producing books of travel fascinating alike
for old and young.--N.Y. JOURNAL OF COMMERCE.

Great favorites with youthful readers.--CHRISTIAN-AT-WORK, N.Y.

The best, most instructive, and pleasing books for boys ever
issued.--BOSTON POST.


PUBLISHED BY HARPER & BROTHERS, FRANKLIN SQUARE, NEW YORK.

[Pointing finger] HARPER & BROTHERS will send any of the above works
by mail, postage prepaid, to any part of the United States, on receipt
of price.



"_Whoever would derive the most information, enjoyment, and
satisfaction from travel, should always use the best Guide-Books._"


OSGOOD'S AMERICAN GUIDE-BOOKS.

    "These books contain everything which the traveler wants to know,
    in precisely the shape he wants to have it."--BOSTON JOURNAL.

Arranged on the celebrated Baedeker plan, indorsed by all European
travelers.

The history, poetry, and legends of each locality, tersely and clearly
given.

Scores of maps, city plans, and panoramas.

Giving prices and locations of all hotels and boarding-houses, summer
resorts, and routes.

There are FOUR VOLUMES, bound in flexible cloth, and each of about 500
pages, with many maps and plans.

    NEW ENGLAND,
    THE MARITIME PROVINCES,
    THE MIDDLE STATES,
    THE WHITE MOUNTAINS.

    "They are simply indispensable to tourists in the regions named;
    and those who have sallied forth without them have omitted the
    really most important part of their equipment."--LITERARY
    WORLD.

    "As for accuracy, the amount of work done by the editor has been
    enormous. To say that the books are better than any American books
    of the sort that have hitherto appeared would be superfluous;
    there is no comparison to be made between them and their
    predecessors."--THE INDEPENDENT.


REVISED ANNUALLY. PRICE $1.50 EACH.

[Asterism] For sale by all Booksellers, or sent postpaid on receipt of
price, by the Publishers,

JAMES R. OSGOOD & CO., BOSTON.



ESTABLISHED 1801.

The Evening Post.

BROADWAY AND FULTON ST., NEW YORK.


NEVER was this paper more able, bright, and newsy than at
present.--_St. Paul Press._

YOUNGER, fresher, and altogether a better newspaper than
ever.--_Trenton Gazette._

EXCEEDINGLY welcome visitor to the evening companionship of reading
people.--_Philadelphia Ledger._

VERY few American journals equal the EVENING POST for reputation and
influence among thinking people.--_Newspaper Directory._

EVEN its advertising columns are jealously guarded against
questionable or objectionable advertisements.--_Newspaper Guide._

NOW the ablest evening paper in the world. Faithful and accurate as a
newspaper.--_Mohawk Valley Democrat._

ITS readers include a large proportion, if not a majority, of the
literary and business world.--_N.Y. Daily Bulletin._

NOTHING is to be found in its columns which would exclude it from the
most refined family circle.--_Pittsburgh Post._

GENERALLY acknowledged to be the door by which access is to be gained
to the New York homes.--_Rowell's Newspaper Guide._

POLITICALLY it is the ablest and most independent journal of
republican proclivities in New York.--_Philadelphia Times._

OUR contemporary's prosperity speaks well for its management, and for
the moral tone of its readers.--_Newburgh Journal._

SUITED for the family circle as well as for the office of the man
interested in politics and news.--_Pittsburgh Post._

THE EVENING POST has a very large circulation among the respectable
reading public of this city.--_New York World._


DAILY, $9; SEMI-WEEKLY, $3; WEEKLY, $1.50.

    _Favorable Terms to Clubs.    Specimen Copy Free._

THE W. C. BRYANT CO., PUBLISHERS,

BROADWAY AND FULTON ST., NEW YORK.



THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE.


THE TRIBUNE is now spending more labor and money than ever before to
maintain the distinction it has long enjoyed of having the largest
circulation among the best people. It secured, and means to retain it,
by becoming the medium of the best thought and the voice of the best
conscience of the time, by keeping abreast of the highest progress,
favoring the freest discussion, hearing all sides, appealing always to
the best intelligence and the purest morality, and refusing to cater
to the tastes of the vile or the prejudices of the ignorant.

THE LIBRARY OF UNIVERSAL KNOWLEDGE, embracing Chambers' Encyclopædia
complete, omitting only some of the cuts, with extensive additions by
an able corps of American editors, treating about 15,000 additional
topics, thoroughly Americanizing the entire work, adding to it over 25
per cent. of the latest, freshest, and most valuable matter, the whole
making 15 handsome Octavo Volumes of 6 by 9-1/2 inches in size,
printed in large type on good strong calendered paper, and neatly and
substantially bound in cloth.

We can offer this valuable work in connection with THE TRIBUNE as
follows:

        {THE LIBRARY OF UNIVERSAL KNOWLEDGE
    FOR {complete in 15 octavo volumes, substantially
    $15.{bound in cloth as above described, and THE
        {WEEKLY TRIBUNE 5 years to one subscriber.

    FOR {THE LIBRARY OF UNIVERSAL KNOWLEDGE
    $20.{as above described, and THE SEMI-WEEKLY
        {TRIBUNE 5 years to one subscriber.

    FOR {THE LIBRARY OF UNIVERSAL KNOWLEDGE
    $19.{as above described, and ten copies of THE
        {WEEKLY TRIBUNE one year.

    FOR {THE LIBRARY OF UNIVERSAL KNOWLEDGE
    $28.{as above described, and twenty copies of THE
        {WEEKLY TRIBUNE one year.

For further particulars concerning this and other valuable premiums,
address

THE TRIBUNE, NEW YORK.



The Hartford (CONN.) Courant.

_THE OLDEST NEWSPAPER IN AMERICA._

_A REPRESENTATIVE JOURNAL OF NEW ENGLAND._

ESTABLISHED: WEEKLY, 1764; DAILY, 1836.

                            { JOSEPH R. HAWLEY,
    Hawley, Goodrich & Co., { WM. H. GOODRICH,
    PUBLISHERS.             { CHAS. DUDLEY WARNER,
                            { STEPHEN A. HUBBARD.

NEW COURANT BUILDING, STATE ST.

THE COURANT is the Oldest Newspaper in the United States, and, with
less than half a dozen exceptions, the oldest print in the English
language. It was founded in October, 1764, and has been published
uninterruptedly, under the same title, ever since.

TERMS: WEEKLY, $1.50 A YEAR; DAILY, $8.00.

    _THE BEST_
    _ADVERTISING MEDIUM_
    _IN THE STATE_.

[Pointing finger] Send for sample copies, which will be sent
FREE.



INSURE YOUR LIFE

IN AN

OLD AND STRONG COMPANY.


THE ÆTNA LIFE OF HARTFORD, CONN.,

Issues Policies upon all Desirable Plans at Rates Lower than those of
most Companies.


THE ÆTNA LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY.--In mentioning this Company we must
reiterate the well-known fact that it stands at the very head of the
list of life insurance companies. For thirty years it has stood the
storms of financial fluctuation, and now remains the strongest life
insurance company in the country. Its management is in the hands of
experienced and trustworthy men, as is shown by referring to the
condition of the Company shown by their statement of
affairs.--HARTFORD JOURNAL.



STATUARY IN

    GRANITE,
    MARBLE; AND
    BRONZE,

Artistic Memorials, AND BUILDING WORK

IN ALL KINDS OF GRANITE.

Original Designs and Estimates furnished Free on application.

WORK DELIVERED IN ALL PARTS OF THE COUNTRY.

ADDRESS

THE NEW ENGLAND GRANITE WORKS,

HARTFORD, CONN.

QUARRIES AT WESTERLY, R.I.



BUY THE

"HARTFORD"

WOVEN WIRE MATTRESS

[Illustration: Wire mattress]

FOR DURABILITY, COMFORT, AND ECONOMY.

    WARRANTED NEVER TO SAG.
    NEVER TO LOSE ITS SHAPE.
    NEVER TO MAKE A NOISE.
    NEVER TO NEED A REPAIR.

The "_HARTFORD_" Mattress is _durable_. It will last a _life-time_.
One-third of every person's life ought to be spent in sleep, hence the
necessity for a _perfect sleeping arrangement_. The "_HARTFORD_"
Mattress affords the greatest comfort; _conforming to the body_, it
makes a _most delightful bed_. The "_HARTFORD_" Mattress will never
wear out or need a repair. Requiring over the Mattress only a
_blanket_ or a _very light mattress_, much is saved in the way of
expense in not being obliged to purchase heavy hair mattresses or
other over-bedding. The "_HARTFORD_" Woven Wire Mattress is free from
the disagreeable noises so annoying in the upright spiral spring. The
"_HARTFORD_" Mattress always keeps its shape, being as elastic and
flexible after fifteen years use as when first manufactured.
Investigate its merits. Buy only the genuine "_HARTFORD_." Take no
other. Beware of imitations and infringements. Every Mattress marked
"_HARTFORD_." For prices, catalogues, or any desired information,

ADDRESS

Hartford Woven Wire Mattress Co.,

BOX 148, HARTFORD, CONN., U.S.A.

HENRY ROBERTS, SECRETARY.



"THE HARTFORD" SEWING MACHINE.

THE LATEST PRODUCTION,

Combining all the BEST POINTS of former models of Machines
with new excellencies of its own.

_The lightest running Machine ever made._

_SIMPLE, STRONG, DURABLE._

_The only High-Arm Machine making the "Pearl Stitch."_

_All Bearings of Steel or Forgings._

_Self-Adjusting Tensions._

_The Original and Simplest Cylinder Shuttle._

_Elegant Ornamentation._


"THE GENERAL FAVORITE,"

FOR SHOEMAKERS, SADDLERS, TAILORS, ETC.,

IS THE

_STANDARD AMONG AMERICAN MANUFACTURERS_.


Weed Sewing Machine Company,

HARTFORD, CONN., U.S.A.



ESTERBROOK'S

Steel Pens.

[Illustration: Pen nib]

    The Most Popular Pens in Use.
    For sale by all Stationers.

Leading Nos. 048, 14, 130, 333, 161.

_Samples and Catalogue on Application._

THE ESTERBROOK STEEL PEN CO.,

Works, Camden, N.J.       26 John St., New York.


N. P. FLETCHER & CO.,

Hartford, Conn.,

PUBLISHERS, AND MANUFACTURERS OF THE CELEBRATED

Fletcher Ink Extracts.


These preparations are soluble concentrated compounds, containing the
coloring matters and mordants used in the best Inks. By the addition
of water only, an Ink of beautiful color and fine quality is at once
produced. _Invaluable for Travelers_, as the dry and powdered
Extracts can be carried in small space and used at convenience. Used
for the last six years in the best Banks, Insurance Offices, and
Counting Rooms of the United States.

_COLORS: Rose-Scarlet, Brilliant Green, Blue, Violet, and Black._

Full descriptive circulars mailed on application.



_FAIRBANKS' SCALES._

THE WORLDS' STANDARD.

HIGHEST AWARDS, WORLD'S FAIRS.

    LONDON, 1851.
    NEW YORK, 1853.
    PARIS, 1867.
    VIENNA, 1873.
    SANTIAGO, CHILI, 1875.
    PHILADELPHIA, 1876.
    SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA, 1877.
    PARIS, 1878.
    SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA, 1880.
    MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA, 1881.

At the World's Fair in Paris, in 1878, Fairbanks & Co. received _seven
medals_, more than were awarded any other American exhibitors; at
the Sydney, Australia, World's Fair, in 1881, in competition with
manufacturers from the United States, Great Britain, and France, they
received _a special award above all others_; and at Melbourne,
Australia, World's Fair, in 1881, also in competition with American,
English, and French manufacturers, Fairbanks' scales received _the
four highest awards_.

THE CHEAPEST SCALE MANUFACTURED!

QUALITY CONSIDERED.

Correspondence solicited. Price list furnished upon application.

OVER ONE MILLION OF THESE SCALES IN USE.

PRINCIPAL WAREHOUSE,

FAIRBANKS & CO., NEW YORK.

    FAIRBANKS & CO., BALTIMORE, MD.
    FAIRBANKS & CO., NEW ORLEANS.
    FAIRBANKS & CO., BUFFALO, N.Y.
    FAIRBANKS & CO., ALBANY, N.Y.
    FAIRBANKS & CO., MONTREAL.
    FAIRBANKS & CO., LONDON, ENG.
    FAIRBANKS, BROWN & CO., BOSTON, MASS.
    FAIRBANKS & CO., PHILADELPHIA, PA.
    FAIRBANKS, MORSE & CO., CHICAGO.
    FAIRBANKS, MORSE & CO., CINCINNATI, O.
    FAIRBANKS, MORSE & CO., CLEVELAND, O.
    FAIRBANKS, MORSE & CO., PITTSBURG, PA.
    FAIRBANKS, MORSE & CO., LOUISVILLE, KY.
    FAIRBANKS & CO., ST. LOUIS.
    FAIRBANKS & HUTCHINSON, SAN FRANCISCO.

  Agent for Fairbanks' Scales } J. BLOCK, { MOSCOW AND
  in the RUSSIAN EMPIRE,      }           { ST. PETERSBURG



LIBERAL AND IMPORTANT CONCESSIONS IN LIFE INSURANCE CONTRACTS.

EXAMINE THE NEW FORM OF POLICY

ISSUED BY

The United States Life Insurance Company,

BEFORE INSURING ELSEWHERE.


NOTE THE LIBERALITY OF ITS TERMS.

After the premiums for three or more years have been paid, upon
receiving the required notice from the assured, the Company will
continue the Policy in force without further payments, for its
FULL FACE, for such a period as the ENTIRE RESERVE will carry it.

Should the death of the insured take place during the continued term
of insurance as provided for above, the full face of the Policy will
be paid--no deduction being made for forborne or unpaid premiums,
excepting in the event of the death occurring within three years after
the default.

The new form of ENDOWMENT Policy provides: That if the ENTIRE RESERVE
is a greater sum than the single premium required to carry the full
amount of insurance to the end of the Endowment term, the EXCESS shall
be issued as a single premium to purchase a pure Endowment, payable at
the end of the term, thus guaranteeing to the Policy-holder in every
event the full value of his RESERVE.

NO SURRENDER of the Policy is required--only a notice from the
Policy-holder, on blanks furnished by the Company.

ALL RESTRICTIONS, ALL RESTRICTIONS and CONDITIONS in regard to travel,
residence, occupation, and cause of death are removed, thus making the
Policies after three years INCONTESTABLE FOR ANY CAUSE EXCEPTING
FRAUD.

_All Forms of Life and Endowment Policies Issued._



THE UNITED STATES Life Insurance Company in the City of New York,

261 BROADWAY.

OFFICERS.

    T. H. BROSNAN, PRESIDENT.
    C. P. FRALEIGH, SECRETARY.
    A. WHEELWRIGHT, ASSISTANT SECRETARY.
    CHAS. H. MILLER, CASHIER.
    GEO. H. BURFORD, ACTUARY.
    A. H. BUCK, MEDICAL DIRECTOR.
    JOHN P. MUNN, MEDICAL EXAMINER.
    HEGEMAN & BUEL, COUNSEL.

BOARD OF DIRECTORS.

    CHARLES E. BILL, Banker, 13 Broad Street.
    ISAAC N. PHELPS, Banker, 45 Wall Street.
    CLINTON GILBERT, Treasurer Greenwich Savings Bank.
    WM. H. BOLLES, Retired Merchant, Garden City, L.I.
    HENRY W. FORD, Pres. Bank of the Republic.
    EDGAR S. VAN WINKLE, Counsellor, 48 Wall Street.
    W. A. OGDEN HEGEMAN, Counsellor, 261 Broadway.
    THOMAS GARDINER, Retired, 13 East 62d Street.
    N. F. GRAVES, Pres. N.Y. State Bkg. Co., Syracuse, N.Y.
    D. KELLOGG BAKER, Provisions, 335 Greenwich Street.
    JAMES BUELL, Banker.
    H. K. THURBER, Wholesale Grocer, 116 Reade Street.
    P. VAN VOLKENBURGH, Dry Goods, 62 Worth Street.
    EDWARD H. AMMIDOWN, Dry Goods, 87 Leonard Street.
    JULIUS CATLIN, JR., Dry Goods, 132 Church Street.
    JNO. A. LIVINGSTON, Sugar Refiner, 91 Wall Street.
    HENRY C. HULBERT, Paper, 13 Beekman Street.
    JAMES R. PLUM, Leather, 42 Spruce Street.
    GEORGE G. WILLIAMS, Pres. Chemical National Bank.
    ANTONY WALLACH, Mfg. Jeweler, 11 Maiden Lane.
    OLIVER P. BUEL, Counsellor, 261 Broadway.
    GEO. W. PERKINS, President Mercantile National Bank.
    TIMOTHY H. BROSNAN, President.
    HENRY L. CLAPP, Scales, 311 Broadway.
    RAPHAEL BUCHMAN, Clothing, 465 Broome Street.
    EDWARD VAN VOLKENBURGH, Dry Goods, 62 Worth St.
    CHARLES P. FRALEIGH, Secretary, 261 Broadway.
    JOHN P. MUNN, M.D., 50 East 31st Street.



THE UNITED STATES MUTUAL ACCIDENT ASSOCIATION.

Office, 409 Broadway, New York.

INCORPORATED OCT. 11, 1877.

$3.00 will procure a certificate of membership entitling the member to
$5,000.00 in the event of death by accident, and $25.00 weekly
indemnity for totally disabling injury. Over 4,000 Business Men now
members.

    CHARLES B. PEET, PRESIDENT.
    JAMES R. PITCHER, SECRETARY.

_BOARD OF DIRECTORS._

    CHAS. B. PEET, of Rogers, Peet & Co.
    WM. BRINCKERHOFF, of Wm. Brinckerhoff & Co.
    E. E. PERRY, with Wheeler & Wilson Manufacturing Co.
    WILLIAM E. TEFFT, of Tefft, Weller & Co.
    FERDINAND P. EARLE, of Earle's Hotel.
    DECATUR M. SAWYER, of Gowing, Grew & Co.
    WM. BRO. SMITH, 229 Broadway, New York.
    W. S. GILMORE, Crouch & Fitzgerald.
    WM. GIBSON, with Morrison, Herriman & Co.
    LEOPOLD WORMSER, with L. Levenson & Co.
    JAMES S. LEEDS, of Wm. T. Lloyd & Co.
    GEORGE C. CLARKE, of Tefft, Weller & Co.

PORTABILITY COMBINED WITH GREAT POWER IN GLASSES

FIELD, MARINE, TOURIST, OPERA, AND GENERAL OUT-DOOR DAY AND NIGHT
DOUBLE PERSPECTIVE

[Illustration: Opera glasses]

_Will show Objects Distinctly Two to Six Miles._

SPECTACLES AND EYE-GLASSES,

TO STRENGTHEN AND IMPROVE THE SIGHT, ADJUSTED TO ALL DEFECTS OF
VISION.

Catalogues sent by enclosing stamp.

  SEMMONS,
  OCULIST AND OPTICIAN,
  687 Broadway, New York.



ACCIDENT DEPARTMENT.

MUTUAL BENEFIT LIFE CO.

118 Asylum Street,

HARTFORD, CONN.


Accident Protection at Actual Cost!

_ADMISSION_:

_$3 for any Amount up to $5000_.

Future Expenses 25 cents per month as long as continued, and
assessments to cover losses only, at table rates.


ANY MAN HIS OWN AGENT.


Send for Application, which anyone may fill out, and return to Company
with fee.


_WEEKLY INDEMNITY, $5 to $25._

[Pointing finger] AGENTS WANTED EVERYWHERE.



THE TRAVELERS Life and Accident Insurance Co.,

HARTFORD, CONN.

OLDEST AND LARGEST IN AMERICA.

    JAS. G. BATTERSON, PRESIDENT.
    RODNEY DENNIS, SECRETARY.

    CASH ASSETS,  $5,519,000
    SURPLUS,       1,467,000
    BENEFITS PAID, 5,650,000

GENERAL ACCIDENT POLICIES, by the year or month, written by Agents.

REGISTERED ACCIDENT TICKETS, one to thirty days, at Agencies and
Railroad Stations.

PERMIT FOR FOREIGN VOYAGE at slight addition to cost of ordinary
Policy.

    Accident Policies Written,         650,000
    Accident Claims Paid,               55,000
    Amount Paid for Accidents,      $4,000,000

REGULAR LIFE INSURANCE, all best forms, with ample security, at Low
Cash Rates.





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