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Title: Cups and their Customs
Author: Roberts, George Edwin, Porter, Henry
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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  [Illustration: SPRIG OF BORAGE IN GLASS CUP OF THE THIRD OR FOURTH CENTURY.
  London Published by John Van Voorst Paternoster Row.]



CUPS AND THEIR CUSTOMS


    "Touch brim! touch foot! the wine is red,
      And leaps to the lips of the free;
    Our wassail true is quickly said,--
      Comrade! I drink to thee!

    "Touch foot! touch brim! who cares? who cares?
      Brothers in sorrow or glee,
    Glory or danger each gallantly shares:
      Comrade! I drink to thee!

    "Touch brim! touch foot! once again, old friend,
      Though the present our last draught be;
    We were boys--we are men--we'll be true to the end:
      Brother! I drink to thee!"


_SECOND EDITION._


LONDON:
JOHN VAN VOORST, PATERNOSTER ROW.

MDCCCLXIX.

PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS,
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET.



PREFACE.


The principal object of these pages is to furnish a collection of
recipes for the brewing of compound drinks, technically called "Cups,"
all of which have been selected with the most scrupulous attention to
the rules of gastronomy, and their virtues tested and approved by
repeated trials. These we are inclined to put into type, from a belief
that, if they were more generally adopted, it would be the means of
getting rid of a great deal of that stereotyped drinking which at
present holds sway at the festive boards of England. In doing this, we
have endeavoured to simplify the matter as much as possible, adding
such hints and remarks as may prove serviceable to the uninitiated,
whilst we have discarded a goodly number of modern compounds as
unpalatable and unscientific. As, in this age of progress, most things
are raised to the position of a science, we see no reason why
Bacchanology, if the term please our readers, should not hold a
respectable place, and be entitled to its due _mead_ of praise; so, by
way of introduction, we have ventured to take a cursory glance at the
customs which have been attached to drinking from the earliest periods
to the present time. This, however, we set forth as no elaborate
history, but only as an arrangement of such scraps as have from time
to time fallen in our way, and have helped us to form ideas of the
social manners of bygone times.

We have selected a sprig of Borage for our frontispiece, by reason
of the usefulness of that pleasant herb in the flavouring of cups.
Elsewhere than in England, plants for flavouring are accounted of rare
virtue. So much are they esteemed in the East, that an anti-Brahminical
writer, showing the worthlessness of Hindu superstitions, says, "They
command you to cut down a living and sweet basil-plant, that you may
crown a lifeless stone." Our use of flavouring-herbs is the reverse of
this justly condemned one; for we crop them that hearts may be warmed
and life lengthened.

And here we would remark that, although our endeavours are directed
towards the resuscitation of better times than those we live in, times
of heartier customs and of more genial ways, we raise no lamentation
for the departure of the golden age, in the spirit of Hoffmann von
Fallersleben, who sings:--

    "Would our bottles but grow deeper,
    Did our wine but once get cheaper,
    Then on earth there might unfold
    The golden times, the age of gold!

    "But not for us; we are commanded
    To go with temperance even-handed.
    The golden age is for the dead:
    We've got the paper age instead!

    "For, ah! our bottles still decline,
    And daily dearer grows our wine,
    And flat and void our pockets fall;
    Faith! soon there'll be no times at all!"

This is rather the cry of those who live that they may drink, than of
our wiser selves, who drink that we may live. In truth, we are not dead
to the charms of other drinks, in moderation. The apple has had a share
of our favour, being recommended to our literary notice by an olden
poet--

    "Praised and caress'd, the tuneful Phillips sung
    Of cyder famed, whence first his laurels sprung;"

and we have looked with a friendly eye upon the wool of a porter-pot,
and involuntarily apostrophized it in the words of the old stanza,

    "Rise then, my Muse, and to the world proclaim
    The mighty charms of porter's potent name,"

without the least jealous feeling being aroused at the employment of a
Muse whose labours ought to be secured solely for humanity; but a
cup-drink, little and good, will, for its social and moral qualities,
ever hold the chief place in our likings.

Lastly, although we know many of our friends to be first-rate judges of
pleasant beverages, yet we believe that but few of them are acquainted
with their composition or history in times past. Should, therefore, any
hints we may have thrown out assist in adding to the conviviality of
the festive board, we feel we shall not have scribbled in vain; and we
beg especially to dedicate this bagatelle to all those good souls who
have been taught by experience that a firm adhesion to the "pigskin,"
and a rattling galopade to the music of the twanging horn and the
melody of the merry Pack, is the best incentive to the enjoyment of all
good things, especially good appetite, good fellowship, and

    GOOD HEALTH.

    ...... And, although alone,
    We'll drain one draught in
    Memory of many a joyous
    Banquet past.



PREFACE

TO

THE SECOND EDITION.


The Second Edition of this book contains much additional matter, all of
which has been derived from notes collected by one of the original
authors of the work, whose untimely death is mourned, and whose genial
hospitality is remembered, by very many friends. The compiler believes
that the additions made will greatly increase the usefulness of the
book to all compounders of Cups.



CUPS AND THEIR CUSTOMS.

        .... "Then shall our names,
    Familiar in their mouths as household words,
    Be in their flowing cups freshly remember'd."


As in all countries and in all ages drinking has existed as a necessary
institution, so we find it has been invariably accompanied by its
peculiar forms and ceremonies. But in endeavouring to trace these, we
are at once beset with the difficulty of fixing a starting-point. If we
were inclined to treat the subject in a rollicking fashion, we could
find a high antiquity ready-made to our hands in the apocryphal doings
of mythology, and might quote the nectar of the gods as the first of
all potations; for we are told that

    "When Mars, the God of War, of Venus first did think,
    He laid aside his helm and shield, and mix'd a drop of drink."

But it is our intention, at the risk of being considered pedantic, to
discourse on customs more tangible and real. If we are believers in the
existence of pre-Adamite man, the records he has left us, in the shape
of flint and stone implements, are far too difficult of _solution_
to be rendered available for drinking-purposes, or to assist us in
forming any idea of his inner life: we must therefore commence our
history at the time

    ...... "when God made choice to rear
    His mighty champion, strong above compare,
    Whose drink was only from the limpid brook."

Nor need we pause to dilate on the quality of this primæval draught;
for "Adam's ale" has always been an accepted world-wide beverage, even
before drinking-fountains were invented, and will continue till the
end of time to form the foundation of every other drinkable compound.
Neither was it necessary for the historian to inform us of the vessel
from which our grand progenitor quaffed his limpid potion, since our
common sense would tell us that the hollowed palm of his hand would
serve as the readiest and most probable means. To trace the origin of
drinking-vessels, and apply it to our modern word "cup," we must
introduce a singular historical fact, which, though leading us to it
by rather a circuitous route, it would not be proper to omit. We must
go back to a high antiquity if we would seek the derivation of the
word, inasmuch as its Celtic root is nearly in a mythologic age, so
far as the written history of the Celts is concerned--though the
barbarous custom from which the signification of our cups or goblets
is taken (that of drinking mead from the skull of a slain enemy) is
proved by chronicles to have been in use up to the eleventh century.
From this, a cup or goblet for containing liquor was called the
_Skull_ or _Skoll_, a root-word nearly retained in the Icelandic
_Skal_, _Skaal_, and _Skyllde_, the German _Schale_, the Danish
_Skaal_, and, coming to our own shores, in the Cornish _Skala_. So
ale-goblets in Celtic were termed _Kalt-skaal_; and, though applied in
other ways, the word lingers in the Highland Scotch as _Skiel_ (a
tub), and in the Orkneys the same word does duty for a flagon. From
this root, though more immediately derived from _Scutella_, a concave
vessel, through the Italian _Scodella_ and the French _Ecuelle_ (a
porringer), we have the homestead word Skillet still used in England.
There is no lack, in old chronicles, of examples illustrative of that
most barbarous practice of converting the skull of an enemy into a
drinking-cup. Warnefrid, in his work 'De Gestis Longobard.,' says,
"Albin slew Cuminum, and having carried away his head, converted it
into a drinking-vessel, which kind of cup with us is called Schala."
The same thing is said of the Boii by Livy, of the Scythians by
Herodotus, of the Scordisci by Rufus Festus, of the Gauls by Diodorus
Siculus, and of the Celts by Silius Italicus. Hence it is that Ragnar
Lodbrog, in his death-song, consoles himself with the reflection, "I
shall soon drink beer from hollow cups made of skulls."

In more modern times, the middle ages for example, we find historic
illustration of a new use of the word, where _Skoll_ was applied in
another though allied sense. Thus it is said of one of the leaders in
the Gowryan conspiracy "that he did drink his _skoll_ to my Lord
Duke," meaning that the health of that nobleman was pledged; and
again, at a festive table, we read that the _scoll_ passed about; and,
as a still better illustration, Calderwood says that drinking the
king's _skole_ meant the drinking of his cup in honour of him, which,
he adds, should always be drank standing. In more modern times,
however, drinking-cups have been formed of various materials, all of
which have, at least in regard to idea, a preferable and more humane
foundation than the one from which we derive the term. Thus, for many
centuries past, gold and silver vessels of every form and pattern have
been introduced, either with or without lids, and with or without
handles.

HANAP is the name of a small drinking-cup of the 15th and 16th
centuries, made usually of silver, gilt, standing upon feet. They were
made at Augsburgh and Nuremberg.

In an old French translation of Genesis, we find at v. 5, c.
xliv.:--"Le Hanap que vous avez amblèe est le Hanap mon Seignor, et
quel il solort deleter, male chose avez fait," relating to the silver
cup Joseph ordered to be put in his brother's sack. In some Scotch
songs a drinking-cup is called cogne or cog: this word is also spelt
in different parts of Scotland cogie, and coig. This word may be
compared with _coculum_ (medical Latin for a hollow wooden vessel),
also with the old German _kouch_, and the Welsh _cawg_, a basin.

The Flemish drinking-cups of the 16th and 17th centuries were called
_vidricomes_, _i.e._ "come-agains."

The bell-shaped drinking-glasses of the sixteenth century are specially
worthy of observation; and there are three very good specimens in the
Bernal Collection at the South-Kensington Museum, one of which is said
to be German, and the others Venetian. The mounting of the German glass
consists of a hollow sphere in silver, which encloses a dice and is
surmounted by a small statuette of Fortune. To the mounting of another
of these glasses is attached a little bell. These glasses will stand in
the reversed position only, and were of course intended to be emptied
at one draught, the dice being shaken or the bell tinkled as a finale
to the proceeding. There is also a curious cup in the possession of the
Vintners' Company, representing a milk-maid carrying a pail on her
head. This pail is set on a swivel, and is so contrived that the
uninitiated, when attempting to drink, invariably receive its contents
on their neck or chest.

In the last century it was very fashionable to convert the egg of the
ostrich or the polished shell of the cocoa-nut, set in silver, into a
drinking-vessel.

Many varieties of tankards were formerly in use, among which we may
mention the Peg-tankard and the Whistle-tankard, the latter of which
was constructed with a whistle attached to the brim, which could be
sounded when the cup required replenishing (from which, in all
probability, originated the saying, "If you want more, you must
whistle for it"); or, in more rare instances, the whistle was so
ingeniously contrived at the bottom of the vessel that it would sound
its own note when the tankard was empty. The Peg-tankard was an
ordinary-shaped mug, having in the inside a row of eight pins, one
above another, from top to bottom: this tankard held two quarts, so
that there was a gill of ale, _i.e._ half a pint, Winchester measure,
between each pin. The first person who drank was to empty the tankard
to the first peg or pin, the second was to empty to the next pin, and
so on; the pins were therefore so many measures to the compotators,
making them all drink alike; and as the space between each pin was
such as to contain a large draught of liquor, the company would be
very liable by this method to get drunk, especially when, if they
drank short of the pin, or beyond it, they were obliged to drink
again. For this reason, in Archbishop Anselm's Canons, made in the
Council in London in 1102, priests are enjoined not to go to
drinking-bouts, nor to drink to pegs. This shows the antiquity of the
invention, which, at least, is as old as the Conquest. There is a cup
now in the possession of Henry Howard, Esq., of Corby Castle, which is
said to have belonged to Thomas à Becket. It is made of ivory, set in
gold, with an inscription round the edge of it, "Drink thy wine with
joy;" and on the lid are engraved the words "Sobrii estote," with the
initials T. B. interlaced with a mitre, from which circumstance it is
attributed to Thomas à Becket, but in reality is a work of the 16th
century.

Whitaker, in his 'History of Craven', describing a drinking-horn
belonging to the Lister family, says, "Wine in England was first drank
out of the mazer-bowl, afterwards out of the bugle-horn. The
mazer-bowls were made from maple-wood, so named from the German
_Maser_, a spotted wood. Mr. Shirley possesses a very perfect
mazer-bowl of the time of Richard II. (1377-99). The bowl is of light
mottled wood highly polished, with a broad rim of silver gilt, round
the exterior of which are the following lines:--

    "In the name of the Trinite
    Fill the kup and drinke to me."

Mr. Milner, in 'Archeologia,' vol. xi. p. 411, describes a maple-wood
tankard, belonging to Lord Arundel, as of Saxon workmanship coeval
with Edgar, A.D. 800, who also passed a law, on the suggestion of St.
Dunstan, to prevent excessive drinking, by ordering cups to be marked
into spaces by pegs, that the quantity taken might be limited.

A considerable number of these ancient maple-wood tankards also exist
in the Museum at the Castle of Rosenburg. They were formerly made by
the Norwegian peasants during the long winter nights; and their style
of ornament cannot be older than the 16th century.

Contemporaneous with mazer-bowls were others called Piggins, Naggins,
Whiskins, Kannes, Pottles, Jakkes, Pronnet-cups and Beakers.

Silver bowls were next introduced; and about the latter end of
Elizabeth's reign these were superseded, as wine grew dearer and men
were temperate, by glasses. The earliest glasses used at banquets were
Venetian and no mention is made of glasses at state banquets before the
time of Elizabeth.

In the latter half of the last century, beer was usually carried from
the cellar to the table in large tankards made of leather, called
Blackjacks, some of which are still to be found, as also smaller ones
more refined in their workmanship, and having either an entire lining
of silver, or a rim of silver to drink from, on which it was customary
to inscribe the name of the owner, together with his trade or
occupation. "Tygs" were two-handled drinking-cups of the time of
Elizabeth, rudely formed of Staffordshire fire-clay called "Tyg." At
the end of the last century, glasses were manufactured of a taper form,
like a tall champagne-glass, but not less than between two and three
feet in height, from which it was considered a great feat to drain the
contents, generally consisting of strong ale, without removing the
glass from the lips, and without spilling any of the liquor,--a
somewhat difficult task towards the conclusion, on account of the
distance the liquid had to pass along the glass before reaching its
receptacle.

The earliest record we have of wine is in the Book of Genesis, where we
are told, "Noah began to be an husbandman, and he planted a vineyard,"
from which it is evident he knew the use that might be made of the
fruit by pressing the juice from it and preserving it: he was, however,
deceived in its strength by its sweetness; for, we are told, "he drank
of the wine, and was drunken." When the offspring of Noah dispersed
into the different countries of the world, they carried the vine with
them, and taught the use which might be made of it. Asia was the first
country to which the gift was imparted; and thence it quickly spread to
Europe and Africa, as we learn from the Iliad of Homer; from which book
we also learn that, at the time of the Trojan war, part of the commerce
consisted in the freight of wines. In order to arrive at customs and
historical evidence less remote, we must take refuge, as historians
have done before us, in the inner life of the two great empires of
Greece and Rome, among whom we find the ceremonies attached to drinking
were by no means sparse; and as the Romans copied most of their social
manners from the Greeks, the formalities observed among the two nations
in drinking differ but little. In public assemblies the wine-cup was
never raised to the lips without previously invoking a blessing from
a supposed good deity, from which custom it is probable that the
grace-cup of later days took its origin; and at the conclusion of their
feast, a cup was quaffed to their good genius, termed "poculum boni
Dei," which corresponds in the present day with the "coup d'étrier"
of the French, the "dock un dorish" of the Highland Scotch, and the
"parting-pot" of our own country. The Romans also frequently drank the
healths of their Emperors; and among other toasts they seldom forgot
"absent friends," though we have no record of their drinking to "all
friends round St. Peter's." It was customary at their entertainments to
elect, by throwing the dice, a person termed "arbiter bibendi," to act
much in the same way as our modern toast-master, his business being to
lay down to the company the rules to be observed in drinking, with the
power to punish such as did not conform to them. The gods having been
propitiated, the master of the feast drank his first cup to the most
distinguished guest, and then handed a full cup to him, in which he
acknowledged the compliment; the cup was then passed round by the
company, invariably from left to right, and always presented with the
right hand: on some occasions each person had his own cup, which a
servant replenished as soon as it was emptied, as described in the
feast of Homer's heroes. The vessels from which they drank were
generally made of wood, decorated with gold and silver, and crowned
with garlands, as also were their heads, particular flowers and herbs
being selected, which were supposed to keep all noxious vapours from
the brain. In some cases their cups were formed entirely of gold,
silver, or bronze. A beautiful example of a bronze cup was found in
Wiltshire, having the names of five Roman towns as an inscription, and
richly decorated with scenes of the chase, from which it has been
imagined that it belonged to a club or society of persons, probably
hunters, and may have been one of their prizes: they also used cups
made from the horns of animals. The wines were commonly drunk out of
small glasses called "cyaths," which held just the twelfth of a pint.
The chief beverage among the Greeks and Romans was the fermented juice
of the grape; but the particular form of it is a matter of some
uncertainty. The "vinum Albanum" was probably a kind of Frontignac, and
of all wines was most esteemed by the Romans,--though Horace speaks in
such glowing terms of Falernian, which was a strong and rough wine, and
was not fit for drinking till it had been kept ten years; and even then
it was customary to mix honey with it to soften it. Homer speaks of a
famous wine of Maronea in Thrace, which would bear mixing with twenty
times the quantity of water, although it was a common practice among
the natives to drink it in its pure state. Salt water was commonly used
by the Romans to dilute their wine, which they considered improved its
flavour, having previously boiled it. This custom is said to have
originated in the efforts of a slave to prevent detection, who, having
robbed his master's wine-cask, filled it up with salt water.

The Romans also mixed with their wine assafoetida, tar, myrrh, aloes,
pepper, spikenard, poppies, worm-wood, cassia, milk, chalk, bitter
almonds, and cypress; and they also exposed their wines to the action
of smoke in a sort of kiln, which thickened and matured it. These mixed
wines were taken in a peculiar kind of vessel called a "murrhine cup,"
which was said to impart a peculiar flavour to them; and though the
substance of which these cups were made is not known, it is fair to
surmise they were made of some aromatic wood similar to the "bitter
cup" of the present day, which is made from the wood of quassia tree.

The customary dilution among the Greeks appears to have consisted of
one part of wine to three parts of water,--the word "nympha" being used
in many classical passages for water, as for example in a Greek epigram
the literal translation of which is, "He delights in mingling with
three Nymphs, making himself the fourth;" this alludes to the custom of
mixing three parts of water with one of wine. In Greece, the wines of
Cyprus, Lesbos, and Chio were much esteemed; those of Lesbos are
especially mentioned by Horace as being wholesome and agreeable, as in
Ode 17, Book I.:--

      "Hîc innocentis pocula Lesbii
    Duces sub umbra."

    "Beneath the shade you here may dine,
    And quaff the harmless Lesbian wine."

The origin of wine-making is also claimed by the Persians, who have a
tradition of its accidental discovery by their king Jemsheed. The
monarch being fond of grapes had placed a quantity in a large vessel
in his cellar for future use. Some time afterwards the vessel was
opened, and the grapes were found in a state of fermentation, and,
being very acid, were believed by the king to be poisonous, and marked
accordingly. A lady of his harem being racked by pain, determined to
poison herself, for which purpose she drank some of the grape-juice--in
fact, got very drunk. After sleeping a considerable time, she awoke
perfectly well, and, being pleased with the result, managed in time to
finish all the poison. The monarch discovered what she had done, and
thence took the hint for his own advantage.

The Armenians claim the origin of wine because Noah planted his first
vineyard near Erivan, upon the spot where Noah and his family resided
before the Deluge.

The wines of Chio, however, held the greatest reputation, which was
such that the inhabitants of that island were thought to have been the
first who planted the vine and taught the use of it to other nations.
These wines were held in such esteem and were of so high a value at
Rome, that in the time of Lucullus, at their greatest entertainments,
they drank only one cup of them, at the end of the feast; but as
sweetness and delicacy of flavour were their prevailing qualities, this
final cup may have been taken as a liqueur. Both the Greeks and the
Romans kept their wine in large earthenware jars, made with narrow
necks, swollen bodies, and pointed at the bottom, by which they were
fixed into the earth; these vessels, called Amphoræ, though generally
of earthenware, are mentioned by Homer as being constructed of gold and
of stone. Among the Romans it was customary, at the time of filling
their wine-vessels, to inscribe upon them the name of the consul under
whose office they were filled, thus supplying them with a good means of
distinguishing their vintages and pointing out the excellence of
particular ones, much in the same way as we now speak of the vintages
of '20, '34, or '41. Thus, Pliny mentions a celebrated wine which took
its name from Opimius, in whose consulate it was made, and was
preserved good to his time (a period of nearly 200 years). The vessel
used for carrying the wine to the table was called Ampulla, being a
small bulging bottle covered with leather and having two handles, which
it would be fair to consider the original type of the famous "leathern
bottel," the inventor of which is so highly eulogized in the old song,--

    "I wish that his soul in heaven may dwell,
    Who first invented the leathern bottel."

The wine was frequently cooled by keeping the vessels in snow; and it
was brought to the table in flasks, which, instead of being corked, had
a little fine oil poured into the necks to exclude the air.

Although the ancients were well acquainted with the excellence of wine,
they were not ignorant of the dangers attending the abuse of it.
Salencus passed a law forbidding the use of wine, upon pain of death,
except in case of sickness; and the inhabitants of Marseilles and
Miletus prohibited the use of it to women. At Rome, in the early ages,
young persons of high birth were not permitted to drink wine till they
attained the age of thirty, and to women the use of it was absolutely
forbidden; but Seneca complains of the violation of this law, and says
that in his day the women valued themselves upon carrying excess of
wine to as great a height as the most robust men. "Like them," says he,
"they pass whole nights at tables, and, with a full glass of unmixed
wine in their hands, they glory in vying with them, and, if they can,
in overcoming them." This worthy philosopher, however, appears not to
have considered excess of drinking in men a vice; for he goes so far as
to advise men of high-strained minds to get intoxicated now and then.
"Not," says he, "that it may over-power us, but only relax our
overstrained faculties." Soon afterwards he adds, "Do you call Cato's
excess in wine a vice? Much sooner may you be able to prove drunkenness
to be a virtue, than Cato to be vicious."

The first history of wine was written in Latin by Bacci in the 16th
century; and in 1775 Sir Edward Barry composed his observations on
"Wines of the Ancients," whose authority, though not reliable, is
curious. After him came Dr. Henderson on Wines; and the best treatise
of the present day is the History of Wine by Cyrus Redding. To all
wine-keepers and consumers I would recommend a perusal of a little work
called 'The Wine Guide,' by Frederick C. Mills (1861).

Let us, with these casual remarks, leave the Greeks and Romans, with
jovial old Horace at their head, quaffing his cup of rosy Falernian,
his brow smothered in evergreens (as was his wont), and pass on to our
immediate ancestry, the Anglo-Saxon race--not forgetting, however, that
the ancient Britons had their veritable cup of honeyed drink, called
Metheglin, though this may be said indeed to have had a still greater
antiquity, if Ben Johnson is right in pronouncing it to have been the
favourite drink of Demosthenes while composing his excellent and
mellifluous orations. The Anglo-Saxons not only enjoyed their
potations, but conducted them with considerable pomp and ceremony,
although, as may readily be conceived, from want of civilization,
excess prevailed. In one of our earliest Saxon romances we learn that
"it came to the mind of Hrothgar to build a great mead-hall, which was
to be the chief palace;" and, further on, we find this palace spoken of
as "the beer-hall, where the Thane performed his office--he that in his
hand bare the twisted ale-cup, from which he poured the bright, sweet
liquor, while the poet sang serene, and the guests boasted of their
exploits." Furthermore we learn that, when the queen entered, she
served out the liquor, first offering the cup to her lord and master,
and afterwards to the guests. In this romance, "the dear or precious
drinking-cup, from which they quaffed the mead," is also spoken of: and
as these worthies had the peculiar custom of burying the drinking-cups
with their dead, we may conclude they were held in high esteem, while
at the same time it gives us an opportunity of actually seeing the
vessels of which the romance informs us; for in Saxon graves, or
barrows, they are now frequently found. They were principally made of
glass; and the twisted pattern alluded to appears to have been the most
prevailing shape. Several other forms have been discovered, all of
which, however, are so formed with rounded bottoms that they will not
stand by themselves; consequently their contents must have been quaffed
before replacing them on the table. It is probable that from this
peculiar shape we derive our modern word "tumbler;" and, if so, the
freak attributed to the Prince Regent, and since his time, occasionally
performed at our Universities, of breaking the stems off the
wine-glasses in order to ensure their being emptied of the contents,
was no new scheme, it having been employed by our ancestors in a more
legitimate and less expensive manner. We also find, in Anglo-Saxon
graves, pitchers from which the drink was poured, differing but little
from those now in common use, as well as buckets in which the ale was
conveyed from the cellar. That drinking-cups among the Anglo-Saxons
were held in high esteem, and were probably of considerable value,
there can be no doubt, from the frequent mention made of their being
bequeathed after death; in proof of which, from among many others, we
may quote the instance of the Mercian king Witlaf giving to the Abbey
of Crowland the horn of his table, "that the elder monks may drink from
it on festivals, and in their benedictions remember sometimes the soul
of the donor," as well as the one mentioned in Gale's 'History of
Ramsey,' to the Abbey of which place the Lady Ethelgiva presented "two
silver cups for the use of the brethren in the refectory, in order
that, while drink is served in them, my memory may be more firmly
imprinted on their hearts." Another curious proof of the estimation in
which they were held is, that in pictures of warlike expeditions, where
representations of the valuable spoils are given, we invariably find
drinking-vessels portrayed most prominently. The ordinary drinks of the
Anglo-Saxons were ale and mead, though wine was also used by them; but
wine is spoken of as "not the drink of children or of fools, but of
elders and wise men:" and the scholar says he does not drink wine,
because he is not rich enough to buy it; from which, _en passant_,
we may notice that scholars were not rich men even in those days, and
up to the present time, we fear, have but little improved their worldly
estate. We cannot learn that the Saxons were in the habit of
compounding drinks, and, beyond the fact of their pledging each other
with the words "Drinc-hæl" and "Wæss-hæl," accompanying the words with
a kiss, and that minstrelsy formed a conspicuous adjunct to their
drinking-festivities, we can obtain but little knowledge of the customs
they pursued. The Vedic "cup-drink" was "Soma," which is described as
being "sweet, honied, sharp and well-flavoured," the liquor of the
Gods. One of the many hymns in the Vedas in its praise may be thus
translated--

    "We have drunk the Soma
    And are entered into Light,
    So that we know the Gods.
    What can now an enemy do to us?
    What can the malice of any mortal effect
    Against thee and us, O! thou immortal God?"

For further information on this and other points, much may be learnt
from Mr. Wright's excellent book of 'Domestic Manners and Sentiments
of the Middle Ages,' where some good illustrations of Saxon
drinking-scenes are sketched from the Harleian and other manuscripts.
From the scarcity of materials descriptive of the social habits of the
Normans, we glean but little as to their customs of drinking; in all
probability they differed but slightly from those of the Saxons,
though at this time wine became of more frequent use, the vessels from
which it was quaffed being bowl-shaped, and generally made of glass.
Will of Malmsbury, describing the customs of Glastonbury soon after
the Conquest, says, that on particular occasions the monks had "mead
in their cans, and wine in their grace-cup." Excess in drinking
appears to have been looked upon with leniency; for, in the stories of
Reginald of Durham, we read of a party drinking all night at the house
of a priest; and in another he mentions a youth passing the whole
night drinking at a tavern with his monastic teacher, till the one
cannot prevail on the other to go home. The qualities of good wine in
the 12th century are thus singularly set forth:--"It should be clear
like the tears of a penitent, so that a man may see distinctly to the
bottom of the glass; its colour should represent the greenness of a
buffalo's horn; when drunk, it should descend impetuously like
thunder; sweet-tasted as an almond; creeping like a squirrel; leaping
like a roebuck; strong like the building of a Cistercian monastery;
glittering like a spark of fire; subtle like the logic of the schools
of Paris; delicate as fine silk; and colder than crystal." If we
pursue our theme through the 13th, 14th, and 15th centuries, we find
but little to edify us, those times being distinguished more by their
excess and riot than by superiority of beverages or the customs
attached to them. It would be neither profitable nor interesting to
descant on scenes of brawling drunkenness, which ended not
unfrequently in fierce battles--or pause to admire the congregation of
female gossips at the taverns, where the overhanging sign was either
the branch of a tree, from which we derive the saying that "good wine
needs no bush," or the equally common appendage of a besom hanging
from the window, which has supplied us with the idea of "hanging out
the broom." The chief wine drank at this period was Malmsey, first
imported into England in the 13th century, when its average price was
about 50_s._ a butt; this wine, however, attained its greatest
popularity in the 15th century. There is a story in connexion with
this wine which makes it familiar to every schoolboy; and that is, the
part it played in the death of the Duke of Clarence. Whether that
nobleman did choose a butt of Malmsey, and thus carry out the idea of
drowning his cares in wine, as well as his body, matters but little,
we think, to our readers. We may however mention that although great
suspicion has been thrown on the truth of the story, the only two
contemporary writers who mention his death, Fabyan and Comines, appear
to have had no doubt that the Duke of Clarence was actually drowned in
a butt of Malmsey. In the records kept of the expenses of Mary, Queen
of Scots, during her captivity at Tutbury, we find a weekly allowance
of Malmsey granted to her for a bath. In a somewhat scarce French
book, written in the 15th century, entitled 'La Légende de Maître
Pierre Faiferi,' we find the following verse relating to the death of
the Duke of Clarence:--

    "I have seen the Duke of Clarence
      (So his wayward fate had will'd),
    By his special order, drown'd
      In a cask with Malmsey fill'd.
    That that death should strike his fancy,
      This the reason, I suppose;
    He might think that hearty drinking
  Would appease his dying throes."

A wine called "Clary" was also drank at this period. It appears to
have been an infusion of the herb of that name in spirit, and is
spoken of by physicians of the time as an excellent cordial for the
stomach, and highly efficacious in the cure of hysterical affections.
This may in some measure account for the statement in the Household
Ordinances for the well keeping of the Princess Cecil, afterwards
mother to that right lusty and handsome King, Edward IV.; we there
find it laid down "that for the maintenance of honest mirth she shall
take, an hour before bedtime, a cup of Clary wine." "Red wine" is
also spoken of in the reign of Henry VIII.; but it is uncertain to
what class of wine it belonged, or whence it came: if palatable,
however, its cheapness would recommend it; for at the marriage of
Gervys Clinton and Mary Neville, three hogsheads of it, for the
wedding-feast, were bought for five guineas. Gascony and Guienne wines
were sold in the reign of Henry VIII. at eighteenpence a gallon, and
Malmsey, Romaney, and sack at twelvepence a pint. In the reign of
Edward IV. few places were allowed more than two taverns, and London
was limited to forty. None but those who could spend 100 marks a year,
or the son of a Duke, Marquis, Earl, or Baron, were allowed to keep
more than ten gallons of wine at one time; and only the High Sheriffs,
Magistrates of Cities, and the inhabitants of fortified towns might
keep vessels of wine for their own use. In the same reign, however,
we learn that the Archbishop of York consumed 100 tons on his
enthronement, and as much as four pipes a month were consumed in some
of our noblemen's houses. We must not, however, pass over the 15th
century without proclaiming it as the dawn of the "Cup-epoch," if we
may be allowed the term, as gleaned from the rolls of some of the
ancient colleges of our Universities. In the _computus_ of Magstoke
Priory, A.D. 1447, is an entry in Latin, the translation of which
seems to be this:--"Paid for raisin wine, with comfits and spices,
when Sir S. Montford's fool was here and exhibited his merriments
in the oriel chamber." And even in Edward III.'s reign, we read that
at the Christmas feasts the drinks were a collection of spiced
liquors, and cinnamon and grains of paradise were among the dessert
confections--evidence of compound drinks being in fashion; and these,
although somewhat too much medicated to be in accordance with our
present taste, deserve well of us as leading to better things. Olden
worthies who took their cups regularly, and so lived clean and
cheerful lives, when they were moved to give up their choice recipes
for the public good, described them under the head of "kitchen
physic;" for the oldest "Curry" or Cookery Books (the words are
synonymous) include, under this head, both dishes of meats and
brewages of drinks. One cup is described as "of mighty power in
driving away the cobweby fogs that dull the brain," another as "a
generous and right excellent cordial, very comforting to the stomach;"
and their possession of these good qualities was notably the reason of
their appearance at entertainments. Among the most prominent ranks the
medicated composition called Hypocras, also styled "Ypocras for
Lords," for the making of which various recipes are to be found, one
of which we will quote:--

    "Take of Aqua vitæ (brandy)     5 oz.
    Pepper                          2 oz.
    Ginger                          2 oz.
    Cloves                          2 oz.
    Grains of Paradise              2 oz.
    Ambergris                       5 grs.
    Musk                            2 grs.

Infuse these for twenty-four hours, then put a pound of sugar to a
quart of red wine or cider, and drop three or four drops of the
infusion into it, and it will make it taste richly." This compound was
usually given at marriage festivals, when it was introduced at the
commencement of the banquet, served hot; for it is said to be of so
comforting and generous a nature that the stomach would be at once put
into good temper to enjoy the meats provided. Hypocras (so called from
a particular bag through which it was strained) was also a favourite
winter beverage; and we find in an old almanac of 1699 the lines--

    "Sack, Hypocras, now, and burnt brandy
    Are drinks as good and warm as can be."

Hypocras, however, is mentioned as early as the 14th century. From
this period we select our champion of compound drinks in no less a
personage than the noblest courtier of Queen Bess; for, among other
legacies of price, Sir Walter Raleigh has handed down to us a recipe
for "Cordial Water," which, in its simplicity and goodness, stands
alone among the compounds of the age. "Take," says he, "a gallon of
strawberries and put them into a pint of aqua vitæ; let them stand
four days, then strain them gently off, and sweeten the liquor as it
pleaseth thee." This beverage, though somewhat too potent for modern
palates, may, by proper dilution, be rendered no unworthy cup even in
the present age. From the same noble hand we get a recipe for Sack
Posset, which full well shows us propriety of taste in its compounder.
"Boil a quart of cream with quantum sufficit of sugar, mace, and
nutmeg; take half a pint of sack, and the same quantity of ale, and
boil them well together, adding sugar; these, being boiled separately,
are now to be added. Heat a pewter dish very hot, and cover your basin
with it, and let it stand by the fire for two or three hours."

With regard to wines, we find in the beginning of the 16th century
that the demand for Malmsey was small; and in 1531 we find Sack first
spoken of, that being the name applied to the vintages of Candia,
Cyprus, and Spain. Shakspeare pronounced Malmsey to be "fulsom," and
bestowed all his praises on "fertil sherries;" and when Shakspeare
makes use of the word Sack, he evidently means by it a superior class
of wine. Thus Sir Launcelot Sparcock, in the "London Prodigal," says,

    "Drawer, let me have _sack_ for us old men:
    For these girls and knaves small wines are best."

In all probability, the sack of Shakspeare was very much allied to, if
not precisely the same as, our sherry; for Falstaff says, "You rogue!
there is lime in this sack too; there is nothing but roguery to be
found in villanous man; yet a coward is worse than sack with lime in
it;" and we know that lime is used in the manufacture of sherry, in
order to free it from a portion of malic and tartaric acids, and to
assist in producing its dry quality. Sack is spoken of as late as
1717, in a parish register, which allows the minister a pint of it on
the Lord's day, in the winter season; and Swift, writing in 1727, has
the lines--

    "As clever Tom Clinch, while the rabble was bawling,
    Rode stately through Holborn to die of his calling,
    He stopped at the 'George' for a bottle of sack,
    And promised to pay for it when he came back."

He was probably of the same opinion as the Elizabethan poet, who sang,

    "Sacke will make the merry minde sad,
    So will it make the melancholie glad.
    If mirthe and sadnesse doth in sacke remain,
    When I am sad I'll take some sacke again."

A recipe of this time, attributed to Sir Fleetwood Fletcher, is
curious in its composition in more ways than one; and, as we seldom
find such documents in rhyme, we give it:--

    "From famed Barbadoes, on the western main,
    Fetch sugar, ounces four; fetch sack from Spain,
    A pint; and from the Eastern coast,
    Nutmeg, the glory of our northern toast;
    O'er flaming coals let them together heat,
    Till the all-conquering sack dissolve the sweet;
    O'er such another fire put eggs just ten,
    New-born from tread of cock and rump of hen;
    Stir them with steady hand, and conscience pricking,
    To see the untimely end of ten fine chicken;
    From shining shelf take down the brazen skillet--
    A quart of milk from gentle cow will fill it;
    When boil'd and cold put milk and sack to eggs,
    Unite them firmly like the triple leagues;
    And on the fire let them together dwell
    Till miss sing twice 'you must not kiss and tell;'
    Each lad and lass take up a silver spoon,
    And fall on fiercely like a starved dragoon."

About this time, one Lord Holles, who probably represented the total
abstainers of the age, invented a drink termed Hydromel, made of
honey, spring-water, and ginger; and a cup of this taken at night,
said he, "will cure thee of all troubles,"--thus acknowledging the
stomachic virtues of cups, though some warping of his senses would not
let him believe, to a curable extent, in more potent draughts: being
in charity with him, we hope his was a saving faith; but we have our
doubts of it, he died so young. Another recipe of the same nature was,
"The Ale of health and strength," by the Duchess of St. Albans, which
appears to have been a decoction of all the aromatic herbs in the
garden (whether agreeable or otherwise), boiled up in small beer; and,
thinking this account of its composition is sufficient, we will not
indulge our readers with the various items or proportions. One of the
most amusing descriptions of old English cheer we ever met with is
that of Master Stephen Perlin, a French physician, who was in England
during the reigns of Edward VI. and Mary. He says, writing for the
benefit of his countrymen, "The English, one with the other, are
joyous, and are very fond of music; likewise they are great drinkers.
Now remember, if you please, that in this country they generally use
vessels of silver when they drink wine; and they will say to you
usually at table, 'Goude chere;' and also they will say to you more
than one hundred times, 'Drind oui,' and you will reply to them in
their language, 'Iplaigui.' They drink their beer out of earthenware
pots, of which the handles and the covers are of silver," &c. Worthy
Master Perlin seems hardly to have got on with his spelling of the
English tongue while he was studying our habits; his account, however,
of olden customs is reliable and curious. The custom of pledging and
drinking healths is generally stated to have originated with the
Anglo-Saxons; but, with such decided evidence before us of similar
customs among the Greeks and Romans, we must at any rate refer it to
an earlier period; and indeed we may rationally surmise that, in some
form or other, the custom has existed from time immemorial. In later
times the term "toasting" was employed to designate customs of a
similar import, though the precise date of the application of this
term is uncertain; and although we cannot accept the explanation given
in the 24th number of the 'Tatler,' yet, for its quaintness, we will
quote it:--

"It is said that while a celebrated beauty was indulging in her bath,
one of the crowd of admirers who surrounded her took a glass of the
water in which the fair one was dabbling, and drank her health to the
company, when a gay fellow offered to jump in, saying, 'Though he
liked not the liquor, he would have the _toast_.'" This tale proves
that toasts were put into beverages in those days, or the wag would
not have applied the simile to the fair bather; and in the reign of
Charles II., Earl Rochester writes,

    "Make it so large that, fill'd with sack
      Up to the swelling brim,
    Vast _toasts_ on the delicious lake,
      Like ships at sea, may swim."

And in a panegyric on Oxford ale, written by Warton in 1720, we have
the lines--

    "My sober evening let the tankard bless,
    With _toast_ embrown'd, and fragrant nutmeg fraught,
    While the rich draught, with oft-repeated whiffs,
    Tobacco mild improves."

Johnson, in his translation of Horace, makes use of the expression in
Ode I. Book IV. thus--

    "There jest and feast; make him thine host,
    If a fit liver thou dost seek to _toast_;"

and Prior, in the "Camelion," says,

    "But if at first he minds his hits,
    And drinks champaign among the wits,
    Five deep he _toasts_ the towering lasses,
    Repeats your verses wrote on glasses."

This last line has reference to the custom pursued in the clubs of the
eighteenth century, of writing verses on the brims of their cups; they
also inscribed on them the names of the favourite ladies whom they
toasted: and Dr. Arbuthnot ascribes the name of the celebrated Kit-Cat
Club to the toasts drank there, rather than to the renowned
pastry-cook, Christopher Kat; for he says,

    "From no trim beaux its name it boasts,
      Grey statesmen or green wits;
    But from its pell-mell pack of toasts,
      Of old Cat and young Kits."

Among the latter may be mentioned Lady Mary Montagu, who was toasted
at the age of eight years; while among the former denomination we must
class Lady Molyneux, who is said to have died with a pipe in her
mouth. In the 17th century the custom of drinking health was conducted
with great ceremony; each person rising up in turn, with a full cup,
named some individual to whom he drank; he then drank the whole
contents of the cup and turned it upside down upon the table, giving
it at the same time a fillip to make it ring, or, as our ancient
authority has it, "make it cry 'twango.'" Each person followed in his
turn; and, in order to prove that he had fairly emptied his cup, he
was to pour all that remained in it on his thumb-nail; and if there
was too much left to remain on the nail, he was compelled to drink his
cup full again. If the person was present whose health was drank, he
was expected to remain perfectly still during the operation, and at
the conclusion to make an inclination of his head,--this being the
origin of our custom of taking wine with each other, which, with
sorrow be it said, is fast exploding. A very usual toast for a man to
give was the health of his mistress; and in France, when this toast
was given, the proposer was expected to drink his cup full of wine as
many times as there were letters in her name.

We now pass on to times which seem, in their customs, to approach more
nearly to the present, yet far back enough to be called old times; and
we think it may be pardoned if we indulge in some reminiscences of
them, tacking on to our short-lived memories the greater recollection
of history, and thus reversing the wheels of time, which are hurrying
us forward faster than we care to go. For we hold it to be an excusable
matter, this halting awhile and looking back to times of simpler
manners than those we are living in, of heartier friendships, of more
genial trustings; and that these good qualities were preeminently those
current during the 17th and 18th centuries we have abundant proof. Has
not one of the most noble sentiments in the English language come down
to us in a cup--the cup of kindness, which we are bidden to take for
"Auld Lang Syne"? And truly there come to us from this age passed by,
but leaving behind an ever-living freshness which can be made a
heritage of cheerfulness to the end of time, such testimonies of good
done by associable as well as social intercourse, that, were we cynics
of the most churlish kind, instead of people inclined to be kind and
neighbourly, we could not refuse acknowledgment of the part played in
such deeds by the cup of kindness. Be it remembered, however, such
bright oases in social history do not shine from gluttonous tables, and
are not the property of hard-drinking circles, with their attendant
vices. We seek for them in vain at the so-called social boards of the
last century, where men won their spurs by excessive wine-drinking, and
"three-bottle men" were the only _gentlemen_; neither do we meet them
amid the carousals of Whitehall and Alsatia, or, nearer to our own day,
among the vicious _coteries_ of the Regency. The scenes we like to
recall and dwell upon are those of merry-makings and jollity--or of
friendly meetings, as when gentle Master Izaac, returning from his
fishing, brings with him two-legged fish to taste his brewage (and a
very pleasant and commendable cup the great master of the gentle art
will drink with them), or when pious Master Herbert chances to meet
with a man he liketh, who hath the manner of loving all things for the
good that is in them, and who, like his greater companion, (for no one
in that quality of mind was greater than Herbert,) had a respect for
what, in others, were occasions of stumbling, could use good gifts
without abusing them, and think the loving-cup of spiced wine an
excellent good cordial for the heart, or when Dr. Donne (scarce a man
in England wiser than he), laying aside for the time his abstruse
learning, mixed a mighty cup of gillyflower sack, and talked over it
with Sir Kenelm Digby (hardly a lesser man than himself), of the good
gifts lavishly offered, but by some rudely abused, and by others
unthankfully taken, discussed the merits of plants and fruits, or the
virtues, harder to be discovered, of stones and metals, while they
marvelled at that scheme which adapted each body, animate or inanimate,
to the station ordained to it, and at the infinite goodness of Him who
made man head of all, and gave him power and discernment that he might
show, by the moderate use of things healthy and nourishing, the wisdom
of Him who ordained them to cheer and to cherish. A great regard for
the wholesome had Sir Kenelm Digby, whose carefulness in the concoction
of his favourite cup was such that he could not brew it aright if he
had not Hyde-Park water--a rule of much value in Sir Kenelm's day, no
doubt; but modern "improvements," unfortunately, interfere with the
present use of it. Other apostles of the truest temperance (moderation)
there were, and we cherish them as men who have deserved well of their
country. Dr. Parr, for example, who could drink his cider-cup on the
village green on a Sunday evening, while his farming parishioners
played at bowls,--or again, still more legibly written in social
history, and to some extent leaving an impress upon our national life,
the club-gatherings of the last century, where men of far-seeing and
prudent philosophy (Addison, Steele, Goldsmith, Johnson, and others),
whose names are interwoven with the history of their time, meeting
together, talked of human joys and human sorrows over claret-cups--men
witty themselves, and the cause of wit in other men, like sweet Sir
John, whose devotion to "sherris sack" cost him his character, and will
therefore deny him admission to our gallery of men who have drank
wisely and warily, and therefore well.

While speaking of these times, we must not forget to mention "the cup
that cheers, but not inebriates;" for it was from the introduction of
tea- and coffee-houses that clubs sprang into existence, by a process
unnecessary here to dilate on, but of which an excellent account may
be found in Philip and Grace Wharton's 'Wits and Beaux of Society.'
The first coffee-house established was the 'Grecian,' kept by one
Constantine, a Greek, who advertised that "the pure berry of the
coffee was to be had of him as good as could be anywhere found," and
shortly afterwards succeeded in securing a flourishing trade by
selling an infusion of the said berry in small cups. After him came
Mr. Garraway, who set forth that "tea was to be had of him in leaf and
in drink;" and thus took its rise Garraway's well-known coffee-house,
so celebrated for the sayings and doings of Dr. Johnson, one of which,
being somewhat to the point, we may, in passing, notice. "I admit,"
said he, "that there are sluggish men who are improved by drinking, as
there are fruits which are not good till they are rotten; there are
such men, but they are medlars."

In the eighteenth century the principal cups that we find noted were
those compounded of Beer, the names of which are occasionally
suggestive of too great a familiarity on the part of their
worshippers,--to wit, Humptie-dumptie, Clamber-clown, Stiffle, Blind
Pinneaux, Old Pharaoh, Three threads, Knock-me-down, Hugmatee, and
Foxcomb. All these were current at the beginning of that century. Then,
towards the end of it we find Cock-ale, Stepony, Stitchback, Northdown,
and Mum. _Mum_ is ale brewed from malted wheat. It is so called from
Christison Mumme, a brewer of Braunschweig in Wolfenbüttel, who lived
at the end of the 15th century, and whose house is still standing. When
three Essex men meet to drink a pot together, the draught taken by the
first is called the Neckem, that by the second the Sinkem, the last man
draining the pot by drinking the Swankens, from which we find, in
Bailey's Dictionary, "Swankie," the drop which remains at the bottom of
a cup. "Bragget" is a northland word derived from the hero Braga, who
is one of the mythological gods of the Edda, and consisted of spiced
ale drank on Mothering Sunday, a kind of metheglin derived from Bragawd
(Welsh). It is still drank in Lancashire. All these were very similar
in composition, and their precise recipes are scarcely worth recording.
Many noted houses of entertainment, both in town and country, were
distinguished by their particular brewage of these compounds. But we
can only find a single instance of a house becoming famous in this
century for claret-cups, in many respects the most desirable of any
drink: that one hostelry was the 'Heaven,' in Fleet Street, so often
quoted by the ephemeral writers of the age.

Modern English customs connected with drinking may be said to be
conspicuous from their absence; for, save in the Grace-cups, and
Loving-cups of civic entertainments and other state occasions, we do
not remember any customs worth alluding to. Certain of our cathedral
establishments and colleges retain practices of ancient date relating
to the passing round of the grace-cup; of such is the Durham Prebend's
cup, which is drank at certain feasts given by the resident Prebend to
the corporation and inhabitants of the city, and for which, under an
old charter, he is allowed a liberal sum of money annually. This
composition is still brewed from the original recipe, and served in
the original ancient silver cups, which are at least a foot high, and
hold between two and three quarts. The cups are carried into the room
by a chorister-boy, attired in a black gown, preceded by a verger,
also wearing a black gown trimmed with silver braid, and bearing in
his hand a silver wand. A Latin grace is then chanted, and the Prebend
presents the boy with a shilling, who, having placed the cups on the
table, marches out of the room, accompanied by the verger. The cups
are then passed down each side of the table, and quaffed by each guest
in succession to an appropriate toast.

For the "sensation-drinks" which have lately travelled across the
Atlantic we have no friendly feeling; they are far too closely allied
to the morning dram, with its thousand verbal mystifications, to
please our taste; and the source from which "eye-openers" and
"smashers" come is one too notorious to be welcomed by any man who
deserves well of his country: so we will pass the American bar, with
its bad brandies and fiery wine, and express our gratification at the
poor success which "Pick-me-ups," "Corpse-revivers," "Chain-lightning,"
and the like have had in this country.



HINTS TO CUP-BREWERS.


There are certain things to be observed in the compounding of cups,
which, though patent to every man's common sense, we may be pardoned
for mentioning. When a drink is to be served hot, never let the
mixture boil, but let the heat be applied as gently as possible: a
fierce heat causes the spirit to evaporate, and moreover destroys or
materially alters the fine aromatic flavour on which so much of its
delicacy depends. When the hot cup is brewed, be careful to retain the
heat as much as possible, by a covering to the vessel; and let it not
be served till the moment it is required. On the other hand, when a
cool cup is to be made, its greatest adjunct is ice, either in lumps,
which may be retained in the cup, or, as is preferable, a portion of
pounded ice should be violently shaken with the mixture and afterwards
strained off. The best way of pounding ice is to wrap a block of it in
a napkin and beat it with a mallet or rolling-pin; and the only way of
breaking up a block of ice into conveniently sized pieces with
accuracy is by using a large needle or other sharp-pointed instrument.
The rind of lemon and orange is of great service in flavouring cups;
and it is of the utmost importance that this should be pared as thinly
as possible, for it is only in the extreme outer portion that the
flavour is contained. In making all cups where lemon-peel is employed,
_reject the white part altogether, as worse than useless_; it
imparts an unpleasant flavour to the beverage, and tends to make it
muddy and discoloured.

It was customary in olden times, as well as at the present, to
communicate flavouring to compound drinks by means of different herbs,
among which first in point of flavour is Borage, which is mentioned,
as early as the 13th century, as growing in the garden of John De
Garlande; and in a list of plants of the 15th century, Borage stands
first. It is spoken of in the commencement of the 18th century as one
of the four cordial flowers, being of known virtue to revive the
hypochondriac and cheer the hard student. This Borage is a plant
having a small blue flower, and growing luxuriantly in most gardens;
by placing a sprig or two of it in any cool drink, it communicates a
peculiar refreshing flavour which cannot be imitated by any other
means. When, however, Borage cannot be procured, a thin slice of
cucumber-peel forms a very good substitute; but care must be taken to
use but one slice, or the cup will be too much impregnated with the
flavour to be palatable. A small piece from the outer rind of the
stalk is considered by some to possess superior excellence. We have
made many experiments to extract this peculiar flavouring from Borage,
in all of which we have been totally unsuccessful; nor do we imagine
it possible to separate it from the plant, in order to gain these
peculiar properties. Balm is another herb which is used for flavouring
drinks; but we do not recommend it, although we find it spoken of in
an old medical work as a very good help to digestion, and to open
obstructions to the brain, &c. &c. Mint gives an agreeable flavour to
Juleps, but is not of general application. A sprig of sweet-scented
verbena, put into some cups, imparts an aromatic and agreeable
flavour; but all these herbs must be used with caution, and are only
pleasant when judiciously introduced.

Let your utensils be clean, and your ingredients of first-rate
quality, and, unless you have some one very trustworthy and reliable,
take the matter in hand yourself; for nothing is so annoying to the
host, or so unpalatable to the guests, as a badly compounded cup. In
order that the magnitude of this important business may be fully
understood and properly estimated, we will transfer some of the
excellent aphoristic remarks of the illustrious Billy Dawson (more
properly Bully Dawson, spoken of by Charles Lamb in his 'Popular
Fallacies'), whose illustricity consisted in being the only man who
could brew Punch. This is his testimony:--"The man who sees, does, or
thinks of anything while he is making Punch, may as well look for the
North-west Passage on Mutton Hill. A man can never make good Punch
unless he is satisfied, nay positive, that no man breathing can make
better. I can and do make good Punch, because I do nothing else; and
this is my way of doing it. I retire to a solitary corner, with my
ingredients ready sorted; they are as follows; and I mix them in the
order they are here written. Sugar, twelve tolerable lumps; hot water,
one pint; lemons, two, the juice and peel; old Jamaica rum, two gills;
brandy, one gill; porter or stout, half a gill; arrack, a slight dash.
I allow myself five minutes to make a bowl on the foregoing
proportions, carefully stirring the mixture as I furnish the
ingredients until it actually foams; and then, Kangaroos! how
beautiful it is!!" If, however, for convenience, you place the matter
in the hands of your domestic, I would advise you to caution her on
the importance of the office; and this could not be better effected
than by using the words of the witty Dr. King:--

    "O Peggy, Peggy, when thou go'st to brew,
    Consider well what you're about to do;
    Be very wise--very sedately think
    That what you're going to make is--drink;
    Consider who must drink that drink, and then
    What 'tis to have the praise of honest men;
    Then future ages shall of Peggy tell,
    The nymph who spiced the brewages so well."

Respecting the size of the cup no fixed rule can be laid down, because
it must mainly depend upon the number who have to partake of it; and
be it remembered that, as cups are not intended to be quaffed _ad
libitum_, as did Bicias, of whom Cornelius Agrippa says,

    "To Bicias shee it gave, and sayd,
      'Drink of this cup of myne;'
    He quickly quafte it, and left not
      Of licoure any sygne,"

let _quality_ prevail over _quantity_, and try to hit a happy medium
between the cup of Nestor, which was so large that a young man could
not carry it, and the country half-pint of our own day, which we have
heard of as being so small that a string has to be tied to it to
prevent it slipping down with the cider.

In order to appreciate the delicacy of a well-compounded cup, we would
venture to suggest this laconic rule, "When you drink--think."



OLD RECIPES.


First and foremost among compound drinks, with regard to priority of
date, stands Hydromel, the favourite beverage of the ancient Britons,
which is probably the same as that made and used at the present day
under the name of Metheglin, a word derived from the Welsh Medey-glin,
and spoken of by Howell, who was Clerk to the Privy Council in 1640.
In ancient times, however, this compound was made by simply diluting
honey with water; but at the present day, substances are usually added
to it to cause it to ferment; and when made in this way, it differs
little from mead or bragget.


_Metheglin._

To nine gallons of boiling water put twenty-eight pounds of honey,
add the peel of three lemons, with a small quantity of ginger, mace,
cloves, and rosemary; when this is quite cold, add two tablespoonfuls
of yeast. Put this into a cask, and allow it to ferment; at the
expiration of six months, bottle it off for use.


Another favourite drink in olden times was that called "Lamb's Wool,"
which derived its name from the 1st of November, a day dedicated to
the angel presiding over fruits and seeds, and termed "La Mas-ubal,"
which has subsequently been corrupted into "lamb's wool."


_Lamb's Wool._

To one quart of strong hot ale add the pulp of six roasted apples,
together with a small quantity of grated nutmeg and ginger, with a
sufficient quantity of raw sugar to sweeten it; stir the mixture
assiduously, and let it be served hot.


Of equal antiquity, and of nearly the same composition, is the Wassail
Bowl, which in many parts of England is still partaken of on Christmas
Eve, and is alluded to by Shakspeare in his "Midsummer Night's Dream."
In Jesus College, Oxford, we are told, it is drunk on the Festival of
St. David, out of a silver gilt bowl holding ten gallons, which was
presented to that College by Sir Watkin William Wynne, in 1732.


_The Wassail Bowl._

Put into a quart of warm beer one pound of raw sugar, on which grate a
nutmeg and some ginger; then add four glasses of sherry and two quarts
more of beer, with three slices of lemon; add more sugar, if required,
and serve it with three slices of toasted bread floating in it.


Another genus of beverages, if so it may be termed, of considerable
antiquity, comprise those compositions having milk for their basis,
or, as Dr. Johnson describes them, "milk curdled with wine and other
acids," known under the name of Possets--such as milk-posset,
pepper-posset, cider-posset, or egg-posset. Most of these, now-a-days,
are restricted to the bed-chamber, where they are taken in cases of
catarrh, to act as agreeable sudorifics. They appear to us to be too
much associated with tallow applied to the nose to induce us to give
recipes for their composition, although in olden times they seem to
have been drank on festive occasions, as Shakspeare says

    "We will have a posset at the end of a sea-coal fire;"

and Sir John Suckling, who lived in the early part of the 17th
century, has in one of his poems the line--

    "In came the bridesmaids with the posset."

The Grace-cup and Loving-cup appear to be synonymous terms for a
beverage the drinking of which has been from time immemorial a great
feature at the corporation dinners in London and other large towns, as
also at the feasts of the various trade companies and the Inns of
Court, and which is a compound of wine and spices, formerly called
"Sack." It is handed round the table before the removal of the cloth,
in large silver cups, from which no one is allowed to drink before the
guest on either side of him has stood up; the person who drinks then
rises and bows to his neighbours. This custom is said to have
originated in the precaution to keep the right or dagger hand
employed, as it was a frequent practice with the Danes to stab their
companions in the back at the time they were drinking. The most
notable instance of this was the treachery employed by Elfrida, who
stabbed King Edward the Martyr at Corfe Castle whilst thus engaged. At
the Temple the custom of the Loving-cup is strictly observed. The
guests are only supposed to take one draught from it as it passes;
but, in No. 110 of the 'Quarterly Review,' a writer says, "Yet it
chanced, not long since at the Temple, that, though the number present
fell short of seventy, thirty-six quarts of the liquor were consumed."


Julep, derived from the Persian word Julap (a sweetened draught), is a
beverage spoken of by John Quincey, the physician, who died in 1723,
and also mentioned by Milton in the lines--

    ..... "Behold this cordial Julep here,
    That foams and dances in his crystal bounds,
    With spirits of balm and fragrant syrups mix'd."

This drink is now made by pounding ice and white sugar together, and
adding to it a wine-glass of brandy, half a wine-glass of rum, and a
piece of the outer rind of a lemon; these ingredients are shaken
violently, and two or three sprigs of fresh mint are stuck in the
glass; it is then usually imbibed through a straw, or stick of
maccaroni.

One of the oldest of winter beverages, and an especial favourite, both
in ancient and modern times, in our Universities, is "Bishop," also
known on the Continent under the somewhat similar name of Bischof.
This, according to Swift, is composed of

                 ..... "Fine oranges,
    Well roasted, with sugar and wine in a cup,
    They'll make a sweet Bishop when gentlefolks sup."

This recipe is given _verbatim_, in 'Oxford Night-caps.'



MODERN RECIPES.

PUNCH.


The origin of this word is attributed by Dr. Doran, in his 'History of
Court Fools,' to a club of Athenian wits; but how he could possibly
connect the word Punch with these worthies, or derive it from either
their sayings or doings, we are totally at a loss to understand. Its
more probable derivation is from the Persian Punj, or from the
Sanscrit Pancha, which denotes the usual number of ingredients of
which it is composed, viz. five. In an old book of travels dated 1639,
a certain drink is mentioned called Palepuntz, used by the English at
Surat, composed of brandy, rose-water, citron-juice, and sugar, the
acid principle being absent. We may here mention parenthetically that
'Punch, or The London Charivari,' was started by five men, of whom
three were "Lemons," viz. Mark Lemon, its editor, Leman Rede, and
Laman Blanchard. Thus 'Punch' was made with "Lemon-ade."


_Punch._

Extract the oil from the rind of a large lemon by rubbing it with
lumps of sugar; add the juice of two lemons and of two Seville
oranges, together with the finely pared rind; put this into a jug with
one pint of old rum, one pint of brandy, and half a pound of powdered
lump sugar; stir well together, then add one pint of infusion of green
tea and one quart of boiling water. Mix well, and let it be served
quite hot. This is an excellent recipe for ordinary Punch; and the
addition of green tea cannot be too strongly recommended. In order to
give Punch a delicious softness, one pint of calves'-foot jelly should
be added to the above recipe. The addition of two glasses of sherry
will also be found an improvement.


_Noyau Punch_

is made by adding two glasses of noyau to the above recipe.

A tablespoonful of Guava jelly administers a fine flavour to a bowl of
Punch. Preserved tamarinds, put into Punch, impart a flavour closely
resembling arrack; and a piece or two of preserved ginger, with a
little of the syrup, added to Punch, acts as a stimulant, and prevents
any ill effects which might otherwise arise from the acids it
contains.


_Gin Punch._

As a mild summer drink, and one readily made, we recommend Gin Punch,
according to the following recipe:--

Stir the rind of a lemon, and the juice of half a one, in half a pint
of gin; add a glass of Maraschino, half a pint of water, and two
tablespoonfuls of pounded white sugar, and, immediately before
serving, pour in two bottles of iced soda-water.


_Whisky Punch._

To one pint of whisky and two glasses of brandy add the juice and peel
of one lemon and a wine-glassful of boiling ale; well stir into it
half a pound of powdered sugar, and add a quart of boiling water. This
is said to be the most fascinating tipple ever invented; and, to quote
the words of Basil Hall, "It brightens a man's hopes, crumbles down
his difficulties, softens the hostility of his enemies, and, in fact,
induces him for the time being to think generously of all mankind, at
the tiptop of which it naturally and good-naturedly places his own
dear self."


If well made, in our opinion, there is no beverage, in point of
generosity and delicacy of flavour, that can compare with Milk Punch,
for the compounding of which, after numerous trials, we offer the
following recipe as the simplest and best.


_Milk Punch._

To the rinds of twelve lemons and two Seville oranges add 2-1/2 pounds
of loaf sugar, a bottle of pale brandy, and a bottle and a half of old
rum, with a sufficient quantity of grated nutmeg. Let this mixture
stand for a week; then add the juice of the fruit, with five pints of
water; lastly, add one quart of boiling milk, and, after letting it
stand for an hour, filter the whole through jelly-bags till it is
clear.

Bottle for use. The longer it is kept, the better it will be.

In Cambridge (a town of no mean authority in such matters) Milk Punch
is made after the following fashion.


_Milk Punch_, No. 2.

Boil together a quart of milk, four ounces of loaf sugar, a small
stick of cinnamon, and the peel of one lemon; then beat together the
yolks of three eggs and the white of one; add the boiling compound
very gradually, and keep continually stirring the mixture while you
pour into it a wine-glassful of rum and one of noyau. Serve hot.


The following compound is said to have been held in high esteem by the
Prince Regent, from whom it derives its name.


_Regent's Punch._

To a pint of strongly made green tea add the rinds and juice of two
lemons, one Seville orange, and one sweet orange, with half a pound of
loaf sugar and a small stick of cinnamon. After standing for half an
hour, strain the mixture, add a bottle of champagne, half a bottle of
sherry, three wine-glasses of brandy; rum, Curaçoa, and noyau, of each
a wine-glass, and a pint of pine-apple syrup.

Ice the compound well, and, immediately before drinking, add a bottle
of soda-water.


_Cold Milk Punch_ (German Recipe).

Take the finely shredded rind of one, and the juice of three, lemons,
one bottle of rum, one pint of arrack, half a pound of loaf sugar, and
a quart of cold water. When the sugar is melted, pour one quart of
boiling milk on the above, cover it closely for four hours, and run it
through a bag, as it should be quite bright.


Many other recipes for Punch might be added, as, for instance, Egg
Punch, Almond Punch, Punch à la Romaine, Spiced Punch, Red Punch,
Leander Punch, &c.; but the few we have prescribed will be found
reliable, so we refrain from swelling the list.

The simple admixture of spirits and water is known either by the name
of Toddy, which is a corruption of an Indian word, Taddi (the sap of
the palm tree), or by the more truly English appellation of Grog,
which thus derives its cognomen. Before the time of Admiral Vernon,
rum was given to the seamen in its raw state; but he ordered it to be
diluted, previously to delivery, with a certain quantity of water.
This watering of their favourite liquor so incensed the tars that they
nicknamed the Admiral "Old Grog," in allusion to a grogram coat which
he was in the habit of wearing.

Addison gives a humorous account of a Tory squire whom he met by
chance in a country ride, and who maintained, over a bowl of punch, to
which he was evidently addicted, that England would do very well if it
would content itself with its own productions and not depend upon
foreigners. Addison reminded him, to his great discomfiture, that, of
the favourite drink he was enjoying, the water was the only
constituent of English production, and that the brandy, lemon, spice,
and sugar were all foreigners.



WINE CUPS.


Of all compound drinks, those having wine for their basis require the
greatest care in their preparation and the greatest nicety in their
composition. This will be evident to any one who remembers the fact
that not one wine-drinker out of twenty, except by subterfuge or
previous practice, can distinguish, with his eyes closed, a glass of
sherry from one of port, although, when wide awake, no one ever
confounds the two; and there are few who cannot distinguish a glass of
fine old white port when they have the chance of tasting it.

It is not our object, however, to discourse on the merits of
particular wines, but to give recipes for the blending of such as are
most palatable and wholesome. First on the list we place Claret Cup,
as the most agreeable, wholesome, easily compounded, and easily
obtained, and because, under the new tariff, most people have learned
to distinguish the difference between the two varieties of French
wines, more or less, though at present, we fear, to use an expression
of Charles Dickens, "generally less."


_Claret Cup_, No. 1.

To a bottle of Bordeaux claret add two wine-glasses of sherry and a
wine-glass of Maraschino, with a small quantity of powdered lump
sugar. Let the above be well iced and put into a cup, and, immediately
before drinking, add a bottle of soda-water which has also been
previously iced, and stick in two sprigs of borage.


_Claret Cup_, No. 2.

To each bottle of ordinary claret add a bottle of soda-water, a glass
of sherry or Curaçoa, the peel of a lemon cut very thin, with powdered
sugar according to taste. Let the whole stand an hour or two before
serving, and then add some clear ice.


_Claret Cup_, No. 3.

To the above add a few slices of cucumber, or some sprigs of borage
instead of cucumber.


_Claret Cup_, No. 4.

As No. 2, except the lemon-peel, for which substitute, when in season,
a pint of ripe raspberries, or four or five peaches or nectarines cut
in slices. This is a most delicious beverage.


_Mulled Claret._

The best way of mulling claret is simply to heat it with a sufficient
quantity of sugar and a stick of cinnamon. To this a small quantity of
brandy may be added, if preferred.


_Burgundy Cup._

To a bottle of Burgundy wine add a wine-glass of noyau, three
wine-glasses of pine-apple syrup, one wine-glass of brandy, and a
quarter of a pound of powdered sugar; ice well; add a bottle of
seltzer- or soda-water before drinking, and serve with a sprig of
borage.


_Hock Cup_, No. 1.

To a bottle of hock add three wine-glasses of sherry, one lemon
sliced, and some balm or borage. Let it stand two hours; sweeten to
taste, and add a bottle of seltzer-water.


_Hock Cup_, No. 2.

"May-Trank" is a most popular beverage on the Rhine. Take with each
bottle of light hock about a dozen sprigs of woodruff, a quarter of an
orange cut in small slices, and about two ounces of powdered sugar.
The herbs are to be removed, after having been in the wine half an
hour. A bottle of sparkling wine added to four or five bottles of
still hock is a great improvement. A little ice is recommended.


_Hock Cup_, No. 3.

Instead of woodruff and orange take to each bottle of hock about half
a pint of highly flavoured strawberries. Sugar as above. The fruit is
to be taken with the wine after having been in it about an hour.


_Hock Cup_, No. 4.

Take some thin slices of pine-apple instead of the strawberries.


_Hock Cup_, No. 5.

Take to each bottle of hock two highly flavoured peaches peeled and
cut in slices. Sugar as above.


_Champagne Cup._

To a bottle of champagne add a wine-glass of Madeira or sherry, a
liqueur-glass of Maraschino, two slices of Seville orange-peel, and
one slice of lemon-peel. Before drinking, pour in a bottle of
seltzer-water, and serve with a sprig of verbena or a very small
piece of thinly cut peeling of cucumber.


_Moselle Cup_, No. 1.

To a bottle of Moselle add a sweet orange sliced, a leaf or two of
mint, sage, borage, and the black currant. Let this stand for three
hours; strain off, and sweeten to taste with clarified sugar.


_Moselle Cup_, No. 2.

To each bottle of still or sparkling Moselle add one bottle of
soda-water, a glass of sherry or brandy, four or five thin slices of
pine-apple, the peel of half a lemon cut very thin, and powdered sugar
according to taste: let the whole stand about an hour, and before
serving add some lumps of clear ice.


_Moselle Cup_, No. 3.

As No. 2, except the pine-apple, for which substitute a pint of fresh
strawberries, or three or four peaches or nectarines.


_Moselle Cup_, No. 4.

As No. 2, but add, instead of fruit, some sprigs of woodruff. Woodruff
is a herb much used on the Rhine for making May-Trank, its peculiar
flavour being most powerful in May: it grows in forests in many parts
of England.


_Moselle Cup_, No. 5.

When neither fruit nor woodruff can be obtained, add, instead of
sherry or brandy, a glass or two of milk-punch, or essence of punch,
and a little more of the lemon-peel.


_Cutler's Moselle Cup._

Half a pound of loaf sugar steeped in water to saturation, one orange
thinly sliced, a handful of fresh young woodruff, and two bottles of
Moselle.

N.B. Hock may be substituted for Moselle.

A bottle of Bordeaux added to the foregoing improves it.


_Mulled Port._

To a bottle of matured port add a wine-glass of sherry, some cloves,
cinnamon, nutmeg, and a small piece of bruised lemon-peel. Simmer the
spice in a little water, then add the wine; heat, but do not let it
boil, and sweeten.


_Mulled Sherry._

The same as for mulled port, with the addition of a wine-glass of
brandy.


_Sherry Cobler._

Fill a tumbler three parts full of pounded ice, to which add two
wine-glasses of sherry, a tablespoonful of brandy, two teaspoonfuls of
powdered sugar, and two or three small pieces of lemon. Pour the
mixture rapidly from one tumbler to another several times, throw in
half a dozen strawberries, and drink the mixture through a straw, or
stick of maccaroni.


_Cider Cup._

To a quart of cider add half a lemon squeezed, three tablespoonfuls of
powdered lump sugar, two wine-glasses of pale brandy, a wine-glass of
Curaçoa, two slices of lemon, with grated nutmeg on the top. Ice well,
and serve with borage.


_Morgan's Herefordshire Cup._

To two bottles of cider add a bottle of port and a bottle of
soda-water, orange-peel, and plenty of sugar. Ice well and serve with
borage.


_Donaldson's Cider Cup._

To a bottle of cider add one wine-glass of sherry, one liqueur-glass
of orange-brandy, half a liqueur-glass of Curaçoa, and before drinking
add a bottle of seltzer-water, a sprig of mint, and two or three lumps
of ice.


_The "Field" Cider Cup._

Mix together two quarts of old bottled cider, sweeten to taste, taking
care that the sugar is perfectly melted, add half a nutmeg grated, a
little powdered ginger, a glass of brandy, a glass of noyau, cut a
lemon into it in moderately thin slices, and let it remain there. Make
it two hours before wanted, and stand in some ice. There is no better
recipe than the above.


_White's Club House Cup._

Three bottles of claret, one bottle of water, one wine-glass of
Madeira, a liqueur-glass of Maraschino, four sweet oranges, three thin
slices of cucumber or a piece of borage, half a pint of sirup, the
flower and young part of borage, orange sliced with the peel; let it
stand for three hours, then stir the sirup in one pound of sugar to
half a pint of water, boiled till it thickens.


_Loving Cup._

One pint of mountain wine, one of Madeira, and one of Lisbon, one
bottle of champagne, one liqueur-glass of pale brandy, three thin
slices of lemon, sugar, nutmeg. Ice to taste.


_Djonka (a Russian Beverage)._

One pound and a half of lump sugar in very large lumps, one bottle
of Cognac, one bottle of sherry or Madeira, three bottles of Moselle
or hock, one bottle of champagne, half a pound of blanched almonds,
the thinly shred rind of four lemons, four peaches sliced, or one
pine-apple or preserved fruit. These are the ingredients. Now to
prepare the nectar. On a large well-tinned copper stewpan place a
gridiron, and on the gridiron the big lumps of sugar. Pour by degrees
the Cognac over the sugar, lighting it as you pour it on. The sugar
dissolves through the bars of the gridiron, and the spirit is burnt
out: this constitutes caramel. Next add the sherry and fruity
materials, which allow to digest for fifteen minutes, after which pour
in the Moselle, and transfer the compound into a bowl. On serving add
a bottle of champagne. Serve round in flat champagne-glasses with a
spoon to each for extracting the fruit. (_Cutler._)



    ODE TO BEER.


        Hail, beer!
    In all thy forms of Porter, Stingo, Stout,
    Swipes, Double X, Ale, Heavy, Out and Out,
        Most dear.
    Hail! thou that mak'st man's heart as big as Jove's,
        Of Ceres' gifts the best,
        That furnishest
    A cure for all our griefs, a barm for all our--loaves.

    Oh! Sir John Barleycorn, thou glorious Knight of Malt-a,
    May thy fame never alter:
    Great Britain's Bacchus! pardon all our failings,
    And with thy Ale ease all our ailings.
    I've emptied many a barrel in my time--
        And, may be, shall empty many more
        Before
      O'er the Styx I sail.
      E'en when an infant I was fond of Ale,
          A sort of Ale-y-baby,
    And still I love, in spite of gibes and jokes
    Of wine-ing folks.
    For Stout I've stoutly fought for many a year,
    For Ale I'll fight till I'm laid on my bier.
        October! oh, intoxicating name! no drink
      That e'er was made on earth can match with thee.
    Of best French brandy in the Palais Royal
    I've emptied many a phial,
        And think
      That double X beats O.D.V.
    On thy banks, Rhine,
    I've drank such wine
      As Bacchus' self might well unsober;
    But, oh! Johannisberg thy beams are shorn
    By our John Barleycorn,
      And Hock is not Hock-tober.
    As for the rest, Cape, Claret, Calcavella,
    They are but "leather and prunella,"
        Stale, flat, and musty.
            By the side of Ale
          Imperial Tokay
          Itself gives way,
            Sherry turns pale,
        And Port grows crusty.
    Rum, Whisky, Hollands seem so much sour crout,
    And Hodges's Mountain-Dew turns out
        A mere Hodge-Podge.
    Of _Bishops_ e'en, god wot!
      I don't much like the flavour,
    Politically speaking (but, then, politics are not
        My trade);
    Exception should be made
      In Doctor _Maltby's_ favour.
    "In vino veritas" they say; but that's a fable,
        A most egregious blunder.
      I've been at many a wine-bibbing ere now,
      And vow,
    For one that told the truth across the table,
        I've seen a dozen _lying_ under.
    Besides, as old Sam Johnson said once, I've no patience
      With men who never tell the sober truth
      But when they're drunk, and aren't to be believed, forsooth,
    Except in their _lie_-bations.
    Oh! do not think, you who these praises hear,
    Don't think my muse be-mused with beer,
      Nor that in speaking thus my pleasure
      I go beyond beer measure.
        But stay,
        It's time to end this lay;
    Tho' I could go on rhyming for a year
    In praise of Beer,
      And think it sport;
      But many folks I know like something short.



BEER CUPS.


These cups should always be made with good sound ale, but not too
strong; and should invariably be drank from the tankard, and not
poured into glasses, as they are generally more agreeable to the taste
than to the sight, and it is imperative that they should be kept hot.


_Hot Ale Cup._

To a quart of ale, heated, add two wine-glasses of gin, one wine-glass
of sherry, two tablespoonfuls of American bitters, plenty of cloves
and cinnamon, and four tablespoonfuls of moist sugar.


_Copus Cup._

Heat two quarts of ale; add four wine-glasses of brandy, three
wine-glasses of noyau, a pound of lump sugar, and the juice of one
lemon. Toast a slice of bread, stick a slice of lemon on it with a
dozen cloves, over which grate some nutmeg, and serve hot.


_Donaldson's Beer Cup._

To a pint of ale add the peel of half a lemon, half a liqueur-glass of
noyau, a bottle of seltzer-water, a little nutmeg and sugar, and ice
to taste.


_Freemasons' Cup._

A pint of Scotch ale, a pint of mild beer, half a pint of brandy, a
pint of sherry, half a pound of loaf sugar, and plenty of grated
nutmeg. This cup may be drank either hot or cold.


_Egg Flip._

Add the whites and yolks of three eggs, beaten together with three
ounces of lump sugar, to half a pint of strong ale; heat the mixture
nearly to the boiling-point; then put in two wine-glasses of gin or
rum (the former being preferable), with some grated nutmeg and ginger;
add another pint of hot ale, and pour the mixture frequently from one
jug to another before serving.



LIQUEURS.


Under this head we supply only a few recipes which, by experience, we
know to be good, omitting a long list of the rarer and finer kinds
which are imported from abroad, with the advice that it is better to
purchase liqueurs of first-rate quality from a first-class house,
rather than produce an inferior article of one's own making.


_Curaçoa._

To every wine-quart of the best pale brandy add the very finely pared
rinds of two Seville oranges and of one lemon, and let the mixture
stand for three weeks. Then carefully strain off the liquid, and add
as much finely powdered sugar-candy as the liquid will dissolve (about
a pound to each bottle). The mixture should be frequently shaken, for
a month. If the rind of a shaddock can be procured, a third part of
it, mixed with the orange, will impart a peculiar aromatic and very
delicious flavour to the cordial. Gin, rum, or whisky may be
substituted for brandy in this recipe, but not with an equally good
effect.


_Cherry Brandy._

To each wine-bottle of brandy add a pound of Morello cherries (not too
ripe), and half a pint of the expressed juice of the small black
cherry called "Brandyblacks." Let this stand for a week, and then add
half a pound of powdered lump sugar and a quarter of a pound of
powdered sugar-candy, with half an ounce of blanched bitter almonds.
The longer it is kept, the better it will become. Where the juice of
the black cherry cannot be obtained, sirup of mulberries will be found
an excellent substitute.


_Brandy Bitters._

To each gallon of brandy add seven ounces of sliced gentian-root, five
ounces of dried orange-peel, two ounces of seeds of cardamoms, one
ounce of bruised cinnamon, half an ounce of cloves, and a small
quantity of cochineal to colour it. Many other ingredients may be
added which complicate the flavour; but none will make the above
compound more wholesome or palatable.


_Ginger Brandy._

To each bottle of brandy add two ounces of the best ginger bruised;
let it stand for a week; then strain the liquid through muslin, and
add a pound of finely powdered sugar-candy. This should be kept at
least one year.


_Hunting-flask._

As to the best compound for a hunting-flask, it will seldom be found
that any two men perfectly agree; yet, as a rule, the man who carries
the largest, and is most liberal with it to his friends, will be
generally esteemed the best concocter. Some there are who prefer to
all others a flask of gin into which a dozen cloves have been
inserted, while others, younger in age and more fantastic in taste,
believe in equal parts of gin and noyau, or of sherry and Maraschino.
For our own part, we must admit a strong predilection for a pull at a
flask containing a well-made cold punch, or a dry Curaçoa. Then,
again, if we take the opinion of our huntsman, who (of course) is a
_spicy_ fellow, and ought to be up in such matters, he recommends a
piece of dry ginger always kept in the waistcoat pocket; and does not
care a _fig_ for anything else. So much for difference of taste: but
as we have promised a recipe, the one we venture to insert is
specially dedicated to the lovers of usquebaugh, or "the crathur:" it
was a favourite of no less a man than Robert Burns, and one we believe
not generally known; we therefore hope it will find favour with our
readers, as a wind-up to our brewings.

To a quart of whisky add the rinds of two lemons, an ounce of bruised
ginger, and a pound of ripe white currants stripped from their stalks.
Put these ingredients into a covered vessel, and let them stand for a
few days; then strain carefully, and add one pound of powdered loaf
sugar. This may be bottled two days after the sugar has been added.


Printed by TAYLOR and FRANCIS, Red Lion Court, Fleet Street.



Works Published by

JOHN VAN VOORST, PATERNOSTER ROW.


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