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Title: All About Dogs - A Book for Doggy People
Author: Lane, Charles Henry
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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  ALL ABOUT DOGS
  _A Book for Doggy People_

  BY
  CHARLES HENRY LANE
  _Breeder, Exhibitor, Judge_

  [Illustration: _Pellissier & Allen, Ph. Sc._
  Chas. H. Lane]



  ALL ABOUT DOGS

  A BOOK FOR DOGGY PEOPLE
  By CHARLES HENRY LANE

  Breeder, Exhibitor, Judge

  WITH EIGHTY-SEVEN
  ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE MOST
  CELEBRATED CHAMPIONS OF OUR TIME
  DRAWN FROM LIFE

  By R. H. MOORE

  [Illustration: A variety of dogs.]

  JOHN LANE
  LONDON AND NEW YORK
  1901



  Copyright by
  JOHN LANE
  1900

  RIGGS PRINTING CO.
  ALBANY, N.Y., U.S.A.



                   _To his fellow lovers
        and admirers of Dogs throughout the World,
                     THIS LITTLE BOOK
  is respectfully Dedicated by the Author, in the earnest
     hope that it may be the means of stimulating and
         increasing their appreciation of the most
              faithful, devoted and reliable
                          FRIEND
                    of the Human Race._



ILLUSTRATIONS

  FRONTISPIECE. PHOTOGRAVURE OF THE AUTHOR.

  -----------------+---------------------+---------------------+-------
       VARIETY.    |   NAME OF ANIMAL.   |  NAME OF OWNER.     | Page.
  -----------------+---------------------+---------------------+-------
  Staghound        |Ruby                 |H. M. Queen Victoria |  7-8
  Foxhound         |Marksman             |Pytchley Hunt        | 11-12
  Harrier          |Traveller            |Aldenham Kennels     | 17-18
  Beagle (large)   |Ch. Ringwood         |F. Warde             | 21-22
  Beagle (pocket)  |Little 'Un           |F. B. Lord           | 21-22
  Bloodhound       |Ch. Nestor           |Mark Beaufoy, M. P.  | 25-26
  Otterhound       |Ch. Safety           |Dumfries. Otter Hunt | 29-30
  Great Dane       |Ch. Hannibal of      |Mrs. H. L. Horsfall  | 37-38
                   |  Redgrave           |                     |
  Pointer          |Ch. Devonshire Dan   |Miss Reston          | 41-42
  Setter (Eng.)    |Ch. Rock             |James Fletcher       | 47-48
  Setter (Gor.)    |Ch. Marquis          |Thomas Jacobs        | 51-52
  Setter (Ir.)     |Ch. Garryowen        |J. J. Giltrap        | 55-56
  Retriever        |Ch. Right Away       |S. E. Shirley        | 59-60
    (flat ct.)     |                     |                     |
  Retriever        |Ch. Tiverton Best    |Saml. Darbey         | 63-64
    (curly ct.)    |  Lad                |                     |
  Spaniel (Ir. W.) |Ch. Shaun            |Col. the Hon. W. le  | 67-68
                   |                     |  Poer Trench        |
  Spaniel          |Sandringham Bustler  |H. R. H. the Prince  | 71-72
    (Clumber)      |                     |  of Wales, K. G.    |
  Spaniel (Sussex) |Ch. Bridford Giddie  |Moses Woolland       | 73-74
  Spaniel (Black)  |Ch. Bridford Brill't |Moses Woolland       | 77-78
  Spaniel (Cocker) |Ch. Ted Obo          |J. Farrow            | 83-84
  Basset (smooth)  |Ch. Louis le Beau    |Mrs. M. Tottie       | 85-86
  Basset (rough)   |Beauty               |H. R. H. Prince of   | 89-90
                   |                     |  Wales, K. G.       |
  Dachshund        |Ch. Wiseacre         |E. S. Woodiwiss      | 91-92
  Greyhound        |Ch. Real Jam         |S. Woodiwiss         | 97-98
  Deerhound        |Ch. Selwood Dhouran  |Robt. Hood Wright    |101-102
  Wolfhound (Ir.)  |Ch. Sheelah          |Capt. Graham         |103-104
  Borzois          |Ch. Alex             |H. R. H. the         |107-108
                   |                     |  Princess of Wales  |
  Whippet          |Ch. Enterprise       |H. Vickers           |111-112
  Fox Ter          |Belgrave Joe         |Luke Turner          |115-116
    (sm old type)  |                     |                     |
  Fox Ter          |Ch. Claude Duval     |George Raper         |119-120
    (sm mod type)  |                     |                     |
  Fox Ter          |Ch. Lory             |Author               |121-122
    (wr old type)  |                     |                     |
  Fox Ter          |Ch. Roper's          |Sir H. de Trafford,  |123-124
    (wr mod type)  |  Nut-crack          |  Bt.                |
  Dandie           |Ch. Blacket-House    |Mrs. Rayner          |127-128
                   |  Yet                |                     |
  Skye             |Ch. Ballochmy le     |Sir C. Alexander,    |131-132
    (drop eared)   |  Bashful            |  Bt.                |
  Skye             |Ch. of Ch. Duchess   |Mrs. W. J. Hughes    |135-136
    (prick eared)  |                     |                     |
  Scottish Ter     |Ch. Killdee.         |H. J. Ludlow         |137-138
  St. Bernard      |Ch. Sir Bedivere     |Samuel Smith         |145-146
    (rough)        |                     |                     |
  St. Bernard      |Ch. Guide            |J. F. Smith          |149-150
    (smooth)       |                     |                     |
  Newfoundland     |Ch. Wolf of Badenoch |Mrs. Ingleton        |151-152
    (black)        |                     |                     |
  Newfoundland     |Ch. Kettering Wonder |Lady Tollemache      |153-154
    (black and     |                     |                     |
     white)        |                     |                     |
  Mastiff          |Ch. Beaufort         |W. K. Taunton        |157-158
  Dalmatian        |Ch. Berolina         |E. T. Parker         |159-160
    (blk. sptd)    |                     |                     |
  Dalmatian        |Ch. Fauntleroy       |W. B. Herman         |163-164
    (liv. sptd)    |                     |                     |
  Collie (rough)   |Lochiel              |H. R. H. the         |167-168
                   |                     |  Princess of Wales  |
  Collie (smooth)  |Ch. Lady Nellie      |Author               |171-172
  Old Eng. Shp. Dog|Ch. Cupid's Dart     |F. W. Wilmot         |175-176
  Bull Dog (large) |Ch. Blackberry       |Saml. Woodiwiss      |181-182
  Bull Dog (medium)|Ch. Barney Barnato   |G. R. Sims           |185-186
  Bull Dog (small) |Ch. Lady Rozelle     |Author               |189-190
  Bull Terrier     |Ch. Sherbourne Q'n   |W. J. Pegg           |191-192
  Boston Terrier   |Turpin               |Miss J. Tozier       |195-196
  Irish Terrier    |Ch. Ted Malone       |Mrs. Butcher         |197-198
  Airedale Terrier |Ch. Dumbarton Lass   |A. E. Jennings       |201-202
  Bedlington       |Ch. Clyde Boy        |R. H. Smith          |203-204
    Terrier        |                     |                     |
  Welsh Terrier    |Ch. Brynhir Burner   |W. S. Glynn          |207-208
  Black & Tan      |Ch. Starkie Ben      |Lt.-Col. C. S. Dean  |209-210
    Terrier        |                     |                     |
  White Eng.       |Ch. Eclipse          |J. Walsh             |213-214
    Terrier        |                     |                     |
  Poodle (corded)  |Ch. Model            |Mad'me Dagois        |221-222
  Poodle (curly)   |Ch. Rufus            |Mrs. Robt. Long      |223-224
  Pomeranian       |Ch. Koenig of        |Miss Hamilton        |227-228
    (large)        |  Rozelle            |                     |
  Pomeranian       |Marco                |H. M. Queen Victoria |229-230
    (med)          |                     |                     |
  Pomeranian       |Ch. Brilliant        |Jno. Duckworth       |233-234
    (sm med)       |                     |                     |
  Pomeranian (toy) |Ch. of Ch. & Pr.     |Miss Ada de Pass     |237-238
                   |  Tina               |                     |
  Pug (fawn)       |Ch. York             |Mrs. Grelliche       |239-240
  Pug (black)      |Ch. & Pr. Duke Beira |Miss C. F. A.        |243-244
                   |                     |  Jenkinson          |
  Schipperke       |Ch. Zwarte Piot.     |I. N. Woodiwiss      |247-248
  King Charles     |Ch. Laureate         |Hon. Mrs. McL.       |249-250
    Spaniel        |                     |  Morrison           |
  Blenheim Spaniel |Ch. Rollo            |Mrs. Forder          |253-254
  Prince Charles   |Ch. Victor Wild      |H. Taylor            |255-256
    Spanl          |                     |                     |
  Ruby Spaniel     |Ch. Jasper           |Mrs. Woodgate        |259-260
  Japanese Spaniel |Ch. of Ch. Dai Butzu |Mrs. Addis           |261-262
  Sm. Toy Terrier  |Ch. Mascotte Model   |Mrs. Monk            |265-266
  Yorksh. Toy      |Ch. Ashton Queen     |Mdes Walton & Beard  |267-268
    Terrier        |                     |                     |
  Maltese Terrier  |Ch. Pixie            |John Jacobs          |271-272
  Griffon          |Marquis de Carabas   |Count H. de Bylandt  |273-274
    Bruxelles      |                     |                     |
  Toy Bull Dog     |Rabot de Beaubourg   |Monsieur Petit       |277-278
  Toy Bull Terrier |Lily                 |Author               |279-280
  Italian          |Ch. Larkfield        |P. Turner            |281-282
    Greyhound      |  Leveret            |                     |
  Norwegian        |Jaeger               |Lady Cathcart        |287-288
    Elkhound       |                     |                     |
  Afghan Greyhound |Shahzada             |J. Whitbread         |289-290
  Thibet Sheep Dog |Siring               |H. R. H. the Prince  |293-294
                   |                     |  of Wales, K. G.    |
  Esquimaux        |Ch. Arctic King      |Mrs. H. C. Brooke    |295-296
  Chow Chow        |Ch. Chow 8th         |Mrs. Faber           |299-300
  Dingo            |Ch. Myall            |Mrs. H. C. Brooke    |301-302
  Chinese Crested  |Chinese Emperor      |W. K. Taunton        |305-306
    Dog            |                     |                     |
  Lapland Sledge   |Perla                |H. R. H. Prince      |309-310
    Dog            |                     |  of Wales, K. G.    |
  Dogue de         |Ch. Sans Peur        |Mrs. H. C. Brooke    |  ...
    Bordeaux       |                     |                     |
  -----------------+---------------------+---------------------+-------



CONTENTS


PART I

  CHAP.                                                     PAGE

  Preface                                                    iii

  Introduction                                                 v

      I. A Few Words About Dogs in General                     1

  DOGS USED IN SPORT

     II. Staghounds, Foxhounds, Harriers, Beagles              9

    III. Bloodhounds, Otterhounds, Great Danes                27

     IV. Pointers, Setters, Retrievers                        43

      V. Sporting Spaniels, Basset Hounds, Dachshunds         69

     VI. Greyhounds, Scottish Deerhounds, Irish Wolfhounds,
         Borzois, Whippets                                    99

  TERRIERS USED IN SPORT

    VII. Fox, Dandie Dinmonts, Skyes, Scottish               117


PART II

  DOGS USED IN WORK

   VIII. St. Bernards, Newfoundlands, Mastiffs,
         Dalmatians                                          147

     IX. Sheep Dogs:--Rough Collies, Smooth Collies, Old
         English                                             169

      X. Bull Dogs, Bull Terriers, Boston Terriers           179

     XI. Terriers,--Irish, Airedale, Bedlington, Black and
         Tan, Old English                                    199


PART III

  PERFORMING AND TOY BREEDS

    XII. Poodles, Pomeranians, Pugs, Schipperkes             219

   XIII. Toy Spaniels,--King Charles, Prince Charles, Ruby,
         Blenheim, Japanese                                  245

    XIV. Terriers,--Toy, Smooth Black and Tan, Yorkshire,
         Maltese, Griffons Bruxelles                         263

     XV. Toy Bull Dogs, Toy Bull Terriers, Italian
         Greyhounds                                          275


PART IV

    XVI. Something About Foreign Dogs                        291

   XVII. Humours and Vagaries of the Show Rings              311

  XVIII. }
  to     } Anecdotes About Dogs, Personal and Selected       322
  XXIII. }

   XXIV. A Few Words About General Management and Some
         Simple Maladies, to Which Dogs are Subject and
         Their Treatment                                     389



Part I



CONTENTS


  PART I

  CHAP.                                                     PAGE

  Preface                                                    iii

  Introduction                                                 v

      I. A Few Words About Dogs in General                     1

  DOGS USED IN SPORT

     II. Staghounds, Foxhounds, Harriers, Beagles              9

    III. Bloodhounds, Otterhounds, Great Danes                27

     IV. Pointers, Setters, Retrievers                        43

      V. Sporting Spaniels, Basset Hounds, Dachshunds         69

     VI. Greyhounds, Scottish Deerhounds, Irish Wolfhounds,
         Borzois, Whippets                                    99

  TERRIERS USED IN SPORT

    VII. Fox, Dandie Dinmonts, Skyes, Scottish               117



PREFACE


I am told, it is indispensable there should be a Preface to this
little work; but I am quite at a loss what to put in it. What I had
to say on the subject upon which it treats, I have said in the book,
and I am not aware of any thing I wish to add or withdraw. I can only
hope the perusal of the book may afford as much pleasure to my readers
as the writing it has given me, in recalling pleasant memories of
many friends, both two and four-footed, some of whom have long since
"joined the majority." As recording the impressions of one who has had
considerable practical experience with many varieties of the canine
race, and been brought into constant contact with the best specimens,
I think my book is somewhat out of the usual run of doggy books. While
in no wise seeking to produce a scientific treatise, nor yet a natural
history, in the ordinary acceptation of the term, my wish has been
so to write on the subject as to stir up in the minds of any of my
readers, unacquainted with the many charms possessed by dogs, a desire
to adopt some kind of dog as a companion and friend, and to confirm the
affection and regard of my multitudinous dog-loving friends, so that
they may be disposed to extend the borders of their fancy, and possibly
be interested and amused by some of the humours and vagaries of the
Show Rings or the Doggy Anecdotes. These, when they are not within my
personal knowledge, I have endeavoured to verify, so as to avoid the
"Fairy Tales" we sometimes read under the title of "Doggy Stories."
Before closing these remarks, I must express my deep gratitude, to my
friend Mr. R. H. Moore, who has given my book the inestimable advantage
of his talented pencil, in portraying so many excellent, and truthful
portraits of the "Lights of the Canine World," including more than
sixty "Champions," of their respective varieties. I am not aware that
such a number of Canine Celebrities has ever before been gathered
together in one volume, and they represent some of the best pictures
of dogs I have ever seen, even of Mr. Moore's, and, I think most dog
lovers will acknowledge that he is particularly happy in hitting off
the expressions, and catching the actual likeness of his subjects, most
kindly taking up the matter for me, when very much pressed with other
commissions, not only giving me the benefit of his valuable advice in
the selection of the most distinguished, and typical, specimens for
the different varieties procurable, but entered into the work with
the utmost ardour, and zeal; I feel therefore more indebted to him
than I can express, for enabling me to present to the Public such an
interesting and, I hope, instructive Picture Gallery of Dogs of the
present day. With these few words I commend my little book to the
troublous waters of public favour.



INTRODUCTION


I suppose, if we take the whole of the Animal Kingdom, in any way
associated with man, either as companion, or helper, there is none to
compare, in popularity, with the subject of these notes; but yet I have
often found in conversation, even with lovers of animals, very mistaken
notions about dogs, their varieties, characteristics and peculiarities.
I think there are more known and acknowledged varieties of dog, than of
any other of the animals, we are at all familiar with, and the ways,
sizes, appearance and characteristics differ so greatly that it is
hardly possible, one would imagine, to find any person to whom _some_
kind of a dog would not appeal. I wish, if possible, to say something to
stir up in the minds of some not hitherto keeping a dog, the desire to
do so, and whether merely as a guard or companion or with a view to
trying to breed some good specimens, and, occasionally, to send to some
of the Exhibitions of Dogs, which have so increased in number and
quality during the last twenty years, that I have frequently heard it
stated, that taking out Saturdays and Sundays, there is a Dog Show being
held somewhere or other on every ordinary day in the year!

I would strongly advise the obtaining a _well-bred_ dog, of whatever
variety is selected, as, not only is it more satisfactory to have about
you the best procurable type of any breed you may fancy, whether dogs or
anything else, but if you want to part with either the originals, or any
of their progeny, it is usually much easier to find purchasers and at
much better prices for what is called "pedigree stock," that is of which
the parentage for one or more generations is known, than when no
particulars or references can be given.

There are fashions in dogs, the same as in other things, and I can
remember a great many "crazes" for different breeds of dog. Fox
Terriers, which are smart, lively, game little fellows, well able to
adapt themselves to almost any circumstances, have had a long term of
favour, and are still largely kept, perhaps as largely as any breed of
their size; another element in their favour, is their not having much
coat, and so not bringing in much mud upon them, even in dirty weather,
if kept in the house. This, of course, has been rather against Skye
Terriers, which are otherwise capital dogs for the house, full of life
and spirit, but, to be kept in any order, they must be occasionally
brushed, or their coats, which should be hard and straight, somewhat of
the texture and straightness of a horse's tail, will get matted, and be
a disfigurement, instead of an ornament.

A great movement has existed, for sometime, in favour of the Irish
Terrier, who should be almost unbroken in reddish-brown colour, I mean
with little or no shading, what is called self colour. This is a "good
all round" breed, able to follow a horse, a trap, be a good guard or
companion, take care of himself in his "walks abroad," or have a turn at
anything which comes in his way in the vermin line.

Two more breeds I can strongly recommend to any in doubt as to a
suitable dog to take up as household guard or companion. These are the
Scottish Terrier, often called the Die-hard, or Aberdeen-Terrier, a
rather cobby, short legged breed, with a pointed head, ears standing
straight up, short back, and gaily carried tail, colour generally,
nearly black, grizzled, or brindled. I believe I brought, in 1868, the
first of the breed ever seen in England (at any rate I had not seen one
before), from a place called Uig, in the island of Skye, and quite a
character he was, and I could give many instances of his great sagacity,
and very quaint ways, during the many years he lived with me. I regret
to say he has long gone to the "happy hunting grounds." I shall say
something more of him amongst the "Anecdotes of Dogs," further on.

The other breed I referred to is the Dandie Dinmont Terrier,
immortalized by Sir Walter Scott. For intelligence, pluck, faithfulness,
and general adaptability to the ways, and wishes, of his owner, I do not
know any breed to surpass it. In many cases, I have known a strain of
Dandies kept up for generations, in families, and the affection between
the dogs, and their owners, is so great, that no money would bring about
a parting, and I have often seen pedigrees and genealogical trees of
well known strains of Dandies, taking them back a dozen generations,
and prized very highly by their owners or breeders.

Whatever the decision come to by an intending keeper of a dog, if it is
to be an inmate of the house, and is one of the smaller breeds, a box or
basket should be provided in some place free from draughts, and after
sprinkling either a little sawdust impregnated with disinfectant, or the
disinfectant itself, put in some straw for a bed, this is better and
less likely to harbour insect life, than hay, or any kind of rug, or
mat.

But if the dog is to be kept out of doors, obtain one of the improved
kennels, with the entrance at the side, which affords a shelter from the
wind, rain, and snow, and have a chain constructed with two or,
preferably, three swivels in it, that it cannot become twisted up. Many
a dog has been injured and even killed by neglect of these little
matters.

Of course, if convenience can be found, it is much better _not_ to tie
up a dog at all. No dog of mine, (and I have had hundreds during the
last twenty-five years, of almost every known breed) ever catches sight
of a collar or chain, except at a show, and, contrary to the popular
idea which I have often heard expressed by sympathisers with the dogs on
the show benches, dogs accustomed to exhibition work _delight in it_,
and the sight of a dog's travelling box or basket, or the rattle of a
chain, with the show label on it, is sufficient to cause the wildest
excitement amongst my dogs at any time, each dog hoping it may be his
good fortune to go to the show, which they look upon as great
entertainment.

I will undertake to say, that, if a dozen boxes or baskets are placed in
the yard, with the lids open, and as many dogs let out of their kennels,
you shall find an occupant in every box, within five minutes, and that
each shall choose the box he usually travels in! It is far better to
enclose your dog, or dogs, in one of the many forms of loose boxes, or
kennels, now procurable of so many firms who cater for dogs'
requirements, something in the way of a kennel, or sleeping box, with
railed in run attached. One of the neatest and best, at anything like
the price, (ninety shillings, if my memory serves me,) I have seen, is
made by Mr. William Calway, Sharpness, Gloucestershire, who has made
quite a leading article in his trade, of this kind of work.

Another matter to be attended to is, to give the dog plenty of exercise,
unless the weather positively prevents it. Many people seem to fancy, if
a dog is taken into the air, _in_ a carriage, or other conveyance, that
this is sufficient, but, _it is not so_, and the generality of dogs are
all the better, for at least two hours' walking exercise every day,
during which time, they will nearly, or quite, double the distance
traversed by their master or mistress, and perhaps get a drink, pick up
some grass, or otherwise amuse themselves!

As regards water, dogs do not drink so much as many people suppose, and
it is better to keep a supply, of course frequently changed, in the yard
outside the kennel, or sleeping box. Dogs, as a rule, like a drink when
going out or returning from exercise, more than they do in their own
quarters, and if it be kept there, particularly when two or more inmates
are together, it is almost sure to be upset, and make the place look
bad, besides being uncomfortable.

A very important matter is the feeding of the dogs. In these days, when
so many firms are producing biscuits, on purpose to cater for the wants
of the vast doggy community, there is no difficulty in getting some of
them, but, I have found, in a long experience with dogs, that, although
almost all breeds will eat dog biscuits--some even take them when given
whole, and chop them up like bones, _even dry_--it is better, in most
cases, to break them up, about the size of walnuts, and soak them the
day previously to use, in hot water, or broth, or even cold water. If
boiled vegetables, potatoes, cabbage, or some such, be mixed with them
afterwards, it is not only more palatable, but better for the dogs, than
the biscuit alone, and occasionally, say once in a week or ten days, a
little flour of brimstone, in the proportion of about a teaspoonful for
a fair-sized dog, should be mixed with the food.

We know, ourselves, that whatever our food, the most tempting that money
could buy, we should tire of it, if always the same, and it is precisely
the same with animals, so that, the more it is varied, the better, even
if the change is slight, and all who have had much to do with dogs, will
know that some dogs, and even some breeds of dogs, are very fanciful and
capricious in their appetites, and not always disposed to do well.

When dogs are "off their feed," a sheep's head, boiled, and then broken
up, and the bones, meat, and broth mixed with their ordinary food, will
generally "fetch" the most dainty feeder; other dogs are very keen on
oatmeal porridge, made as for human beings, but, of course, _with no
sugar_, which I may say should _never_ be given, _in any form_, to dogs,
as it is an unnatural and injurious food for them, although they are
usually quite willing to eat a lump of sugar at almost any time, but
they are _much better without it_. Milk (unskimmed, otherwise it is
likely to upset their stomachs), is also a capital thing for dogs in low
condition, or out of sorts. It is best given cold, or lukewarm, _after
being boiled_, as in its natural state it is thought liable to cause
worms, but, of course, this is not always the case. I have also found
"bovril" useful as a "pick-me-up," or appetizer, for animals on the sick
list or those who are "bad doers."



ALL ABOUT DOGS



CHAPTER I

A FEW WORDS ABOUT DOGS IN GENERAL


In these days of progress, when the tendency of everyone, and
everything, seems to be to go ahead and try to outdo all that has been
done by everyone else, in fact, as we so often see it termed, "to beat
the record," I think I am stating only the actual fact, that, in the
history of the world, dogs were never so highly thought of as they are
now, nor were they ever so catered for, in a variety of ways, nor so
generally popular.

And when we consider the many varieties of the species, differing as
much as is possible in the members of one family, and the appearance,
habits, dispositions, uses and characteristics, just as various, it is
not to be wondered at that they enjoy such an amount of public favour,
as it must be a strangely constituted human being to whom _no breed_ of
dog is acceptable!

The numerous packs of stag and foxhounds, harriers, beagles, and other
hounds, kept throughout the United Kingdom, not only are the means of
providing an immense amount of sport for our countrymen, but are, also,
directly and indirectly the cause of the great improvements which have
been effected in the breed of our horses, particularly those suited for
hunters and cover hacks, and, therefore, the cause, also, of the
circulation of a vast amount of money in our own country every year,
especially amongst farmers, millers, saddlers, hay and corn dealers,
trainers, keepers, kennelmen, grooms, helpers and a large number of
others, more or less connected with hunting and its surroundings.

To take another branch of the same subject, just consider what a large
body of men are interested and employed in the breeding, rearing, and
training of the vast number of high class greyhounds, which are kept in
some parts of the country, not only for the competitions in the
important national events, but, even for private owners, who make a
hobby of an occasional trial with their dogs. Then again, the great army
of keepers, kennelmen, and gillies, kept throughout the kingdom, to look
after and, in some cases, to breed, and break, the deerhounds, pointers,
setters, retrievers, and spaniels, which add so much to the pleasure of
a true sportsman's daily work amongst game of all kinds, from
deer-stalking to shooting black-cock, grouse, partridges, pheasants,
etc. (although many persons now-a-days seem to go on the principle of
getting a big total of the days, or weeks' "shoot," and care little for
the real pleasure of seeing the dogs "work," and do credit, or
otherwise, to care and attention devoted to their training), obtain
employment, and I have found them, as a rule, a highly respectable class
of men, often generations of the same family being in the service of one
family, and most jealous of the reputation of the master, his dogs, and
covers.

To take some of our other utility dogs, those of my readers who have
visited the cattle market of any large sized town or city, cannot have
failed to notice the dogs which attend the professional drovers there,
many of them rough looking enough, in all conscience, but, as for
intelligence, why, they are brimful of it, and willing and able to do
wonders with the cattle and sheep in the open, or on the road
afterwards, understanding the few words said to them, and eager to carry
out their orders, and although sometimes erring through _excess_ of
zeal, the reverse is seldom the case, and I am pleased to say (as I have
known and conversed with many of the men who are acquainted with my love
for animals, and know what numbers I have bred and owned), that the
greater part of them value their dogs, and appreciate their services, so
much so, that what might be considered really big offers, have
frequently been refused by them. One of them said to me, "What good,
sir, for me to take a ten pound note for 'Bess,' I couldn't do nothing
without she, and 'twould take me a doose of a time to make another larn
to do like she can, with the beasts, and that, let alone her being such
a 'pal,' and my missus, she _do_ think a deal of Bess, to be sure sir."

I have no doubt, that a great many varieties of dog have been pressed
into the service of the many and some highly accomplished troupes of
performing dogs, which the great increase of music halls throughout the
kingdom as well as the continent have brought forward. I have at
different times seen Great Danes, Scotch Deer Hounds, Dalmatians,
Poodles, and many members of some of the Terrier and Spaniel families
and hosts of undoubted mongrels taking part in these entertainments, as
well as occasionally Greyhounds and Collies, but these were, I think,
exclusively engaged in jumping competitions, when a sort of steeplechase
was arranged. These come under the category of "utility dogs," as they
assist their owners in gaining a living, and the same may be said of the
blind men's dogs, which are a great multitude, and enjoy freedom from
taxation, on the ground of their value to their helpless owners.

Another interesting class of utility dogs are those we see at so many of
our railway stations and other public places with a small box hanging
under their chins, in which may be placed any donations the charitable
are disposed to give to the "Railway Servants' Benevolent Association,"
or some other charitable object, and from the way the animals run up to
passengers, to be noticed, and wait, patiently, while a coin is found,
and placed in their boxes, gives one the idea they know what is going
on, and that the credit of a "good haul" at the end of the day, will be
in some measure reflected on the carrier of the collecting box! I have
often been surprised to see mentioned, in the newspapers, the large sums
a single dog has been the means of gathering, in this way, for some
good object, and, for aught I know, there may have been dogs hard at
work, during 1898-9, for "The Prince of Wales's Hospital Fund," or other
charitable objects!

One use to which dogs were formerly put, as "Turnspits," and another as
beasts of burden, I am pleased to say are no longer allowed by law. I
have often, when a child, seen them employed in the latter capacity in
the West of England, drawing small, usually two-wheeled carts, with not
only the usual market stock and trade utensils, but sometimes the owner,
in shape of a burly man or woman seated on the top, and not unfrequently
racing along country roads with the owners of similar vehicles, often
with two or three dogs to each, harnessed in tandem fashion, the noise
and excitement of the cavalcade being very great, and announcing their
approach long before their coming in sight. I am very pleased that both
these abuses of dogs have been abolished here, although as beasts of
burden they are still extensively employed on the continent of Europe,
and, I am bound to say, I have not seen them ill treated, badly fed, or
seeming neglected.

Of course, we know that in the Arctic regions dogs, as carriers, are
actual necessaries, and that locomotion, difficult and dangerous enough
there under any circumstances, would be simply impossible without the
aid of the Esquimaux dogs, of which I have seen a good deal, and handled
many. They have a dense double coat, are very wolf-like in expression
and shape of head, with small, pointed ears, oblique, sly-looking eyes,
rather long, arched necks, and tails with characteristic curl and
carriage. I do not consider them very sociable, but they would, I dare
say, be all right with persons they knew well. I fancy they are a breed
that has never been "made much of," (particularly in their native
lands,) by their owners, but usually get what is popularly known as
"more kicks than halfpence," and when "off duty," have often to go on
short commons, or do a little cadging on their own account, and being
thrown on their own resources, we know (on the authority of the late
immortal "Mr. Weller, Senr." evidenced in the case of his well known son
"Sam!") has a great tendency to sharpen the wits, and it is the same
with the Esquimaux dogs, who always struck me as very suspicious of
attentions from strangers, however well intentioned they may be.



CHAPTER II

DOGS USED IN SPORT

STAGHOUNDS--FOXHOUNDS--HARRIERS--BEAGLES


[Illustration: STAGHOUND "RUBY" ROYAL KENNEL ASCOT. HER MAJESTY QUEEN
VICTORIA OWNER.]

_The Staghound._--This is not a hound that will require a long
dissertation from me. There are but few packs in England which hunt the
deer at all, and still less that hunt the _wild_ deer; these are
commonly supposed to be the same as were formerly called "Southern
Hounds," and as the large tracts of land formerly waste and forest have
been gradually brought under cultivation, the places most available for
stag hunting have disappeared. They were celebrated for "tongue," and
made plenty of music as they followed the windings of the deer, but they
were not even moderately fast hounds, and it is a fact, that no very
fleet hounds can be musical. Devon, which has always been a great
country for sport, has, for many years, kept up a pack of Staghounds,
besides others, as we find "Nimrod" states "although the going in that
county is about the worst in the world, more hounds are kept in Devon
than in any three counties in England. In 1849, Devon possessed eight
established packs of Foxhounds, three of other hounds, the Staghounds,
and many a 'Parish Pack' kept by subscription." The general run of
Staghounds appear, both in shape, style and colour, like large
Foxhounds, and are commonly supposed to be formed from drafts from the
Foxhounds too large for those packs. The modern Staghound is about
twenty-four inches high, or more; they are seldom so level in colour,
shape, or kennel likeness, as you see in first-class packs of Foxhounds
and Harriers. The Royal Buckhounds are an exception; they are kept in
sound condition, and the best matching pack in the kingdom, of the
prevailing hound colours, including every marking, except the blue
mottle, thought to be indicative of the "Harrier cross." The various
colours need not be set out here, nor is it necessary, in a breed so
seldom shown, to give the points of excellence more fully than to say
that great muscular strength, plenty of bone, courage, excellent
scenting powers, and speed, are indispensable, as the quarry hunted is
usually in as fine condition as a race-horse, and nearly as fast, often
has been out before on a similar occasion, knows the country well, and
means giving his pursuers what is vulgarly termed "a run for their
money!" Still, it must be admitted, unlike the packs of all nations in
the middle ages, the Staghounds of our times are well disciplined and
steady, and the stag is more fairly hunted than he was, even in the
reign of Queen Elizabeth, so often described, (although I am bound to
say I am not included amongst her admirers) as "Good Queen Bess!"


[Illustration: FOXHOUND "MARKSMAN" PYTCHLEY HUNT.]

_The Foxhound._--I do not propose to go very deeply into the history of
this well-known and highly popular breed, or enter into its supposed
origin, about which there is so much difference of opinion. When one
remembers the great number of packs of Foxhounds in the United Kingdom,
supported either by private enterprise (like that of the late lamented
Duke of Beaufort, K. G., who, for such a number of years, bore the
burden of providing sport, over a large area, in the West of England,
four and five days a week throughout the hunting seasons; in later years
so ably seconded in his efforts by his son, the present Duke,) or by
subscription, we cannot fail to recognise the fact, that this breed of
dog has done much to keep sportsmen in touch with each other in our
land, been the means of circulating a vast amount of money in a great
many directions, and had a very important influence on the breeding of
Hunters and Coverhacks, for which the United Kingdom holds such a high
reputation. Beckford, who has been considered one of the highest
authorities on hunting, says:--"Without taking upon me to describe what
requisites may be necessary to form a good Prime Minister, I will
describe some of those which are essentially necessary towards making a
perfect Huntsman; qualities which, I will venture to say, would not
disgrace more brilliant situations, such as clear head, nice
observation, quick apprehension, undaunted courage, strength of
constitution, activity of body, a good ear, and a melodious voice." In
speaking of the Foxhound, he goes on to say, "If he is not of perfect
symmetry, he will neither run fast, or bear much work," and describes
him as follows:--"Let his legs be straight as arrows, his feet round,
and not too large; his chest deep, and back broad; his head small, his
neck thin; his tail thick and brushy; if he carries it well, so much the
better. Such young hounds, as are out at the elbow, or weak from the
knee to the foot, should never be taken into the pack. I find that I
have mentioned a "small head" as one of the necessary points about a
hound, you will please to understand it, as relative to beauty only, for
as to goodness, I believe large headed hounds are in no way inferior. As
to colour, there is much diversity of taste; very often the head and
ears are of a brilliant red, or fallow, with a white mouth and lips, and
a streak of white, technically known as a "blaze," down the head, a
white collar and chest, more or less black markings in blotches, or a
saddle on the body, and part of tail, white legs and belly. The rich
colour on head has a pleasing effect, and if the cheeks are tan-marked,
and there is the white "blaze" before mentioned, it gives a light
character to the head, or, if orange is mixed with, and under, the black
markings, such would form "almost a perfect combination of true hound
colouring." I may, fitly, conclude my few remarks on this interesting
breed with the following description of the desired points: The head
should be light, airy, sensible, and, at the same time, full of dignity;
it should have a certain amount of chops, and the forehead slightly
wrinkled. The neck should be long and clean; the least looseness, or
throatiness, is fatal to appearance. Where it joins the head, it should
be fine, gradually widening to the shoulders. A long neck is most
important, in the breed, as helping the scent, whereas, a short neck,
not only would impede action, but _pace_, also. The ears should be
close to the sides of the head and be set on low. The shoulders, long,
and sloping gracefully. Chest deep, and not too narrow. The elbows well
let down, in a line with the body. The forelegs well clothed with
muscle, "straight as darts," strong in bone from elbows to feet. The
ankles, or pasterns, must neither turn in, or out, nor stand back and
should be strong and large. The least tendency in the feet "turning
out," is most destructive to endurance and pace, if any deviation from
the straight line, they should rather _turn in_. In shape, they should
be round, not flat, or fleshy. The divisions, between the toes, should
be apparent. The soles, firm, hard, and very enduring. The back must be
straight, wide, and muscular. The loins strong, square and wide, with
deep, not flat, back-ribs. The hindquarters, very strong and muscular,
with wide appearance from behind, long as well as large. Straight hocks,
rather out than in, with strong, short bone from hock to heel. The stern
should be gaily carried, should end in a fine point, little feathered,
but not actually smooth, strong at root, gradually tapering to tips.
Black, white and hound-tan, is perhaps the best colour. When the black
is very prominent, and the tanned markings slight, the hounds are said
to be "black and white." When the colours are mixed, they are said to be
"pied." Hare, badger, red, tan, and yellow-pies, are the best, in that
order of merit. The coat should be dense, although smooth and glossy.
The well-shaped foxhound seems, owing to his well-proportioned frame,
much smaller than he really is. When thoroughly and closely examined,
his beauty and fitness for the work he has to perform, and the immense
amount of speed, strength, courage, and endurance, he so often requires,
will be fully appreciated by the observant spectator, even if he cannot
be strictly classed amongst "Sportsmen."


[Illustration: HARRIER "TRAVELLER" ALDENHAM KENNELS.]

_The Harrier._--While I am writing these lines, I have not the
statistics before me, but I am certainly under the impression there are
not so many packs of Harriers in the country as there formerly were. The
name of "Heirers," or Harriers is known to have been given to hounds
used for hare hunting in the time of King Henry V., but they were also,
occasionally used for hunting deer! Before this, the same hound was
known as the Brachetis, or Bercelettus, the diminutive from the word
"Brache." The breed, in a more or less coarse form, has, undoubtedly
existed for "ages," and it is thought by many, that it is more likely
Foxhounds were derived from it, than that it was the other way about.
The same colours are found amongst Harriers as with his larger and more
numerous comrades, but usually, for some reason, not disclosed, more of
the "pied," (particularly the hare-pied, yellow and white, shaded with
black or grey on the back or saddle) and the sort of dapple, or freckle,
generally termed "blue mottle," is thought to be peculiar to Harrier
blood, and that, when it makes its appearance amongst any _other_ of the
hounds, it shows a cross of "Harrier blood," somewhere in the strain!
This colour is often accompanied with hound-tan markings on head, and
black patches on body, although the latter do not conduce to the
beauty of the specimen. Some of the packs of Welsh Harriers, which for
scenting and working qualities, are very hard to beat, are so versatile,
that it is said they will "hunt anything with a hairy skin," unless they
are broken from it when young, and I have heard of a pack, in the
Principality, which regularly hunts hares, until Fox hunting begins,
when the "Green Coats" are exchanged for "Pink," and they take up the
pursuit of Reynard, as to the manner born! The height of the Harrier is
a matter of taste. "Stonehenge" puts it at under twenty inches; probably
the average is about eighteen inches. A well-known sportsman in
Dorsetshire, in 1871, speaks of the pack belonging to the late Mr. T. B.
Evans, of Chettle, near Blandford, which he considered _the best he had
ever seen_, and consisted of bitches fifteen and a half inches,
combining the blood of the packs of Messrs. Wicksted, Hurrell, Boughley,
and Sir Vincent Corbet. He goes on to say, "The education of this pack
is marvellous; rabbits are frequently left to feed in the kennel, and
occasionally, I am told, coupled to any reprobates of the pack, to shame
them from molesting them! I have hunted with these hounds, and have had
the very great pleasure of seeing them handled by that supreme master of
his art. I have seen these hounds pass by rabbits, as Pointers would go
through a poultry yard. I have watched them as they spread, like a fan,
when they were picking out a cold scent, the worthy master sitting
quietly on his cob, and when they recovered it, seen them stream away,
with voices "like a Peal of Bells," and as close together as a flock of
pigeons! I have observed how they followed all the hare's doublings,
and with the true Harrier instinct, cast back, when in perplexity, never
"babbling," skirting, or puzzling over other stains, but, carrying on
the line, until they pulled down their game, sometimes even, after a
forty-five minutes burst. Many sportsmen complain in the present day
that Harriers are becoming too fast to do their work properly, and that,
this has arisen from crosses with Foxhounds, the original variety, being
thought to date back to the old "Southern Hound," more remarkable for
their great powers of scent, and hunting quality, than for pace.


[Illustration: BEAGLE (LARGE) CH. "RINGWOOD" F. WARDE OWNER. BEAGLE
(POCKET) "LITTLE 'UN" F. B. LORD OWNER.]

_Beagles._--This is another breed which is yearly gaining in popularity
and is really a miniature hound, of which there are two varieties, rough
and smooth, differing only in texture of coat, and these are subdivided
again into different heights, ranging from under sixteen and over twelve
inches to under twelve and over ten inches, which latter are often
called "Pocket Beagles." The skull should be fairly long and wide,
slightly domed, with well defined "stop;" short and tapering muzzle;
open nostrils and largish nose; thin long ears hanging folded; soft
large eyes. No dewlap, but muscular neck, rather long, deep chest, for
size; muscular thighs; well boned and straight forelegs; round, cat-like
feet; stern carried gaily. Regular colours of Foxhounds, whom they
resemble in many ways, coat flat, dense, and close. These are quite
picturesque little creatures, and I have known them kept as pets and
companions, but, of course, they are supposed to be used for their work
as Sporting Dogs only, great numbers of them being kept in different
parts of the country, and hunted as packs, most of their followers being
on foot, and often accompanied by some of the sportswomen of their
districts, as their pace is not so impetuous as that of their larger
brethren. Frequently they call forth a considerable following in the
parts they travel over, and many cricketers and others ("Dr. W. G."
amongst others), who desire to keep "in condition" during the "off
season," habitually attend the nearest meets of Beagles as an agreeable
form of "training."



CHAPTER III

DOGS USED IN SPORT (_Continued_)

BLOODHOUNDS--OTTER HOUNDS--GREAT DANES


[Illustration: BLOODHOUND, CH. "NESTOR" MARK BEAUFOY M. P. OWNER.]

I have adopted the above title, instead of the more usual term of
"Sporting Dogs," so as to be able to include breeds about which there is
a difference of opinion as to whether they are strictly "Sporting Dogs"
or not, and propose in this chapter to say a few words about
Bloodhounds, Otter Hounds and Great Danes, taking them in that order.
Many of my readers, as well as I, can remember the time, within the last
thirty years, when _Bloodhounds_ were few and far between, and the
entries of this handsome and aristocratic-looking breed were at a low
ebb, even at the best shows. This is no longer the case, thanks to the
enterprise and zeal of a few well-known breeders, of whom stands in the
very front rank, my friend Mr. Edwin Brough, of Scarborough, who gained
some of his knowledge and experience at the feet of my old friend, Mr.
Edwin Nichols, of West Kensington, who, as a breeder as well as
exhibitor of Bloodhounds, Mastiffs and Newfoundlands, was the most
successful I have ever known and, in my opinion, quite unsurpassed as a
judge of those breeds and one of the most entertaining companions I have
ever met. Seldom when I came across him at any Dog Show, which was very
often in the days I was an extensive exhibitor, but that he kept up the
company to a late hour with his entertaining stories of men and dogs! I
much regret that, owing to advancing years, he has discontinued his
attendance at the gatherings, at which he had such troops of friends and
where he, under the title of "Papa-Nichols," was so universally popular.
It is a tradition that the Bloodhound is identical with the Sleuth, or
Slouth, Hound (from the word "Slouth" probably meaning "scent,") and
that he is of a very ancient breed in these Islands, used for tracking
"Moss Troopers" and other wrong doers in the olden days; the earliest
record of them occurs in King Henry III.'s time, when they were used in
tracking offenders. The most usual colours are shades of rich tan with
more or less dark markings on body and head, which latter is long, lean
and "peaked," the face thin and narrow, the skin loose and puckered;
long folded and pendulous ears; broad nose, expanded nostrils; long
thin, flabby and pendulous flews; deep and voluminous dewlap; sunken,
bloodshot eyes, and flexible, active stern, thick at root, tapering to a
point. The Hound strikes you as not over large, but with great
character, quality and much dignity, well knit; plenty of bone;
symmetrical, straight legs; wide across the back, full in body, and back
ribs; and game in temperament; with fine, deep sloping shoulders, and
enormously powerful hind quarters. The points associated with the
Bloodhound, are as follows:--Skull, long, narrow and very much peaked,
square, deep muzzle; ears, thin, long, set on rather low, hanging in
shapely folds close against the face; eyes, deep set, dark colour and
lustrous, lids, triangular shaped, showing the red haw; flews, long,
thin, and pendulous, the upper overhanging the lower lips; neck, rather
long and slightly arched towards base of skull, plenty of dewlaps;
wrinkled skin of face, very loose and abundant; short, close lying coat,
thin skin; sloping and deep shoulders, broad, muscular loins, well let
down brisket, powerful thighs and second thighs; strong, straight legs;
feet round, with well bent hocks, stern tapering and carried gaily.
Colours: black and tan, tawny and red and tan. General appearance that
of a high class, aristocratic and very dignified animal, who looks as if
he considered himself fit company for an emperor, and would not care to
associate with any but those belonging to the "upper circles."


[Illustration: OTTERHOUND CH. "SAFETY." DUMFRIESSHIRE OTTER HUNT.]

_Otter Hounds._--I should like just to say a few words about this
picturesque breed, made familiar to us by the paintings of Landseer,
Ansdell, Noble, and Frederick Tayler, and of which I had some beautiful
specimens before me at the National Dog Show at Birmingham, in November
1898. The colours are, usually, dark and light browns and tans, mixed
with grizzle, the general appearance somewhat like rough-coated
Bloodhounds, with just a dash of an overgrown Dandie about them; very
rugged and unsophisticated they look, but _quite charming_ to an
artistic eye, and convey the idea that, when they know what they are
wanted to do, they will not hesitate to do it, whatever it may be. Any
animals that have to contend with such a wily, active, and resourceful
foe as the Otter, either on land, or where he is still more "at home,"
_in water_, have to be pretty "spry" if they would give a good account
of him. Of course, these hounds are usually kept in packs, and do not,
as a rule, enjoy much human company, except connected with their
training for their work, and the exercise of it, but would be an
ornament to _any_ establishment, and, if I mistake not, were prime
favourites of his Royal Highness, the lamented Prince Consort, whose
ability as a sportsman, and taste as a connoisseur of all relating to
art and things beautiful, are well known to his many admirers. I
remember seeing the engraving of a beautiful picture, I presume in the
possession of H. M. the Queen, either by Richard Ansdell, R. A., or the
late Frederick Tayler, R. W. S., showing his Royal Highness in a rough,
wide bottomed boat, crossing a Highland loch, with a pack of these
beautiful hounds, some in the boat, some on the bank, and some in the
water, either just starting for, or just returning from, an Otter hunt,
and it impressed me very much. I may say, that it is very usual to have
some Dandies, Skyes, or other Scottish terriers, associated with a pack
of Otter Hounds, to assist in dislodging the quarry, when it takes
refuge amongst the boulders and rocks, so often met in the haunts of the
graceful Otter. The packs of these dogs are chiefly in Dumfrieshire,
Cumberland, Devon, and some parts of Wales, both North and South.

I have come across such a detailed account of the Otter, and rules for
hunting it, in a book _more than_ _three hundred years old_, but which
show the writer to be well informed on the subject, and a man of such
keen observation, that I venture to quote it in the quaint, original
language, hoping it may be interesting to some of the "sportsmen"
amongst my readers:--"The Otter is a beast well-knowne--she feedeth on
fishe, and lyeth neareunto Ryvers, Brookes, Pooles, and Fishpondes, or
Weares. Hir lying in, commonly, is under the roots of trees, and,
sometymes, I have seene them lying in a hollowe Tree, foure, or five,
foote, above the grounde. Even as a Foxe, Polcat, Wylde Cat, or Badgerd,
will destroye a Warren, so wyll the Otter destroye all the Fishe in your
Pondes, if she once have founde the waye to them. She dyveth, and
hunteth, under the water, after a wonderfull mannere, so that, no Fishe
can escape hir, unlesse they be verie great, and swyfte. A lytter of
Otteres, will destroye you, all the Fishe, in a Ryver, in two myles
lengthe. There is great cunninge, in the Hunting of them, as shalle be
saide in the next Chaptere; and also, it is possible, to take them,
under the Water, and by the Ryver's syde, both in trappes, and in
snares, as you may take a Hare, with hare-pypes, or such lyke gynnes.
Theye byte sore, and venomouslye, and defende themselves stoutlye. I
wyll not speake much more of their nature, but, onely, that they are
footed lyke a Goose. I meane, they have a webbe betweene theyr clawes,
and have no heeles, but, onely, a rounde balle, under theyr soale, of
theyr foote, and theyr tracke is called the 'Marke' of an Otter, as we
saye the 'Slot' of an Harte. An Otter, abydeth not muche, nor longe, in
one place, but, if she be befrayde, or finde any faulte (as they are
verie perfectlye of smellinge, and hearinge,) they wyll forsake theyr
couche, and shifte a myle, or two, up, or doune, a Ryver. The lyke, wyll
she do, if she have once destroyed the store of Fishe, and finde no
plentie of feedinge. From a Ponde-Garden, or goode store of Fish-Pondes,
she wyl not, lytely, be removed, as long as there is store of fishe in
them; for therein, fishes are takene, with more ease, than in the
Ryveres, or greatere wateres, but, inough of theyr natures. When, a
Huntsman, woulde hunt the Otter, he shoulde, first, sende foure
Servantes, or Varlets, with Bloodehoundes, or suche Houndes as wyl drawe
in the game, and lette hym sende them, two up the Ryver, and two doune
the Ryver, the one couple of them, on that one syde, and the other on
that other syde of the water. And so, you shalle be sure to finde, if
there be an Otter in the quarter, for, an Otter, cannot longe abide in
the water, but muste come forthe, in the nyghte, to feede on grasse, and
herbes, by the waters syde. If, any of theyr Houndes, finde of an Otter,
lette the Huntsman looke, in the softe groundes, and moyst places, to
see, which way he bente the heade, up, or doune, the Ryver. And, if he
finde not the Otter, quicklye, he may then judge, that he is gonne to
couche, somewhere, further offe from the water; for an Otter, wyl,
sometymes, seeke hys feede, a myle, or lyttle lesse, from hys couche,
and place of reste. Commonlye, he will rather go up the Ryver, than
doune, for, goyng up the Streame, the Streame bryngeth him sente of the
Fishes, that are above hym, and bearynge hys nose into the wynde, he
shall the soonere finde any faulte, that is above hym. Also, you shoulde
make an Assemblye, for the Otter, as you do for the Harte, and it is a
note, to be observed, that all such chaces, as you drawe after, before
you finde them, lodge them, or harbor them, you shoulde make a solemne
Assemblye, to heare all reportes, before you undertake to hunte them,
and then, he whyche have founde of an Otter, or so drawen towardes hys
couche, that he can undertake to brynge you unto hym, shall cause hys
Houndes to be uncouplede, a bowshotte, or twyane, before he come to the
place, where, he thynketh, that the Otter lyeth. Because, they may caste
aboute a whyle, until they have cooled theyr baulinge and
hainsicke-toyes, which all Houndes do, lykely, use at the fyrst
uncouplinge. Then, the Varlets of the Kennell, shall seeke, by the
Ryversyde, and beate the bankes, with theyr Houndes, untill some of them
chance upon the Otter. Remember, alwayes, to set out, some upwardes, and
some doune, the Streames, and everye man hys Otter Speare, or forked
staffe, in hys hande, and, if they misse, them, shall they runne up, or
doune, the Streame, as they see the Otter bende, until they may, at
laste, give hym a blowe. For, if the Houndes, be good Otter-Houndes, and
perfectlye enterede, they wyl come chauntinge, and traylinge, alongst by
the Ryversyde, and will beate, every tree-roote, every holme, every
osier-bedde, and tufte of bullrushes; yea, sometymes, also, they wyl
take the Ryver, and beate it, lyke a Water-Spaniell, so that, it shalle
not be possible for the Otter to escape, but that eyther, the Houndes
shall lyte upon hym, or els, some of the Hunts men shalle stryke hym,
and, thusse, you maye have excellente sporte, and pastyme, in hunting of
the Otter, if the Houndes be goode and that the Ryveres be not over
greate. Where the Ryveres be greate, some use to have a lyne, thrwen
overthwart the Ryvere, the whyche, two of the Huntsmen shalle holde, by
eche ende, one on the one syde of the Ryvere, and the othere, on that
othere. And, lette them holde the lyne so slacke, that it may, alwayes,
be underneathe the watere. And, if the Otter come dyvynge, under the
watere, he shalle, of necesstie, touche theyr lyne, and so, they shall
feele, and knowe, whyche waye he is passed, the whyche shalle make hym
be taken the soonere. An Otter's Skynne, is very good furre, and his
grease, wyll make a medycyne, to make fishes turn uppe theyr bellies, as
if they weare deade. A goode Otter Hounde may prove an excellente good
Bucke Hounde, if he be not olde, before he be enterred." Another writer,
of about twenty-five years since, in speaking of the Otterhound, says:
"He is bred to stand wet or rheumatism, to hunt by eye, as well as
scent, to mark the 'bubbles' when his quarry is 'down,' and join in the
chase, in the Otter's element. Failing that, he has to stoop to the
scent again. He must be undistracted by whoops and halloos of the
attending multitude, observing the huntsman only, and answering his horn
and cheer. With many a blank day and disappointment, he must resolutely
hunt and face a '_water demon_.' The points of the breed are laid down
as follows:--The head should, in shape, be something between that of the
Bloodhound and Fox-hound. It should show much of the gravity, and
dignity of the former, but rather flatter and harder in character;
forehead long and narrow; eyes rather sunken, shewing the 'haw,' but
large and dark in colour; nostrils large and roomy, nose itself, black,
and a good size, with rough-haired muzzle and full, hanging lips; ears
coated with coarse hair, without feathering at edges, but very large,
thin, and pendulous; neck fairly throaty, muscular, and of a good
length; chest more deep than wide; rather loose back ribs, but strong,
deep, long and straight; feet large, not close, and well webbed between
toes; muscular thighs; powerful sloping shoulders, with elbows well let
down; tail carried in a sloping position, fairly coated with hair,
decreasing towards the end; coat not short, but dense, hard and wiry,
very weather resisting in character; colours may be black, dull white
and creamy tan, or black and tan, black and white, grizzled pied, buff,
or shades of brown, or brownish tan."


[Illustration: GREAT DANE CH. "HANNIBAL OF REDGRAVE" Mrs H. L.
HORSFALL OWNER.]

_Great Danes._--I suppose, at the present time, it will be generally
admitted that the largest, and best, kennel of this breed is in the
hands of one of the handsomest, and most graceful, of the many
enthusiastic ladies interested in the kennel-world, and that one of the
most charming sights at many of our largest shows is to see a team of
these beautiful dogs, accompanied by their fair owner, and from the
crowds of the public I have noticed outside the rings, on such
occasions, I have no doubt they were appreciative spectators. The points
of the breed, as stated by a well known breeder and exhibitor,
are:--The head, which should be carried high, rather long, and not too
broad; muzzle broad, strong, and blunt; eyes small, with sharp
expression; neck long and arched, free from any dewlaps; chest
moderately broad; brisket deep, loin slightly arched; shoulders sloping,
elbows well under; belly well tucked up; legs straight, and muscular,
second thighs, long and strong; feet rather large, well arched and
close; ears dropped at the tips and carried as in Black and Tan
Terriers, small as possible in proportion to size of animal; coat hard,
short, and dense; tail strong at base ending in fine tapering point,
carried rather low, not much below curve of hindquarters. General
appearance, that of an upstanding, determined animal, with whom it would
be best to avoid a difference of opinion if possible, but one who would,
doubtless, be all right, when you knew him, and he knew you!



CHAPTER IV

DOGS USED IN SPORT (_Continued_)

POINTERS--SETTERS--RETRIEVERS


[Illustration: POINTER. CH. "DEVONSHIRE DAN" MISS RESTON. OWNER.]

_The Pointer._--Although this variety of dog has not, in the general
way, enjoyed the advantage of constant human society, to anything like
the extent possessed by some others, there is little doubt numbers of
the family have developed considerable intelligence, particularly in
connection with their work. The late Mr. Forster of Manchester, relates
that a Pointer belonging to him, when out with his master, would, if he
missed a bird, go up to him, seize hold of and shake his gaiter, as if
to remonstrate with him for not making better use of the game he had
found for him. And the late Revd. T. Pearce, no mean authority on most
breeds of "sporting dogs," said in speaking of Pointers, "I have no
prejudice for the Setter, over the Pointer, although I have had ten
Setters to one Pointer. If the ground I shoot over suits the Pointer,
the Pointer suits me, but I do not think he is quite so well adapted for
the gun as the Setter, provided the Setter is of equal talent and
adequately broken. But, it would be hard to find anything more perfect
than some Pointers I have shot over myself, or more thoroughly
intelligent, industrious and sensible. One of them, 'old Jesse' a
chance dog I had of Mr. Meir, for Snipe shooting, was a fine example
indeed. As his pedigree was not ascertained, he was not used for
breeding purposes, but was a fine specimen of some Yorkshire strain,
large size, and liver and white in colour. If I missed him in driving
off to my Snipe grounds, he would track my pony and gig like a sleuth
hound, and many a time have I found him close behind my wheels, when I
have, for miles, looked back for him in vain. One bright winter morning
I sat on a gate waiting for one Capt. Hull, my companion, and looking up
a long stretch of road, I observed 'old Jesse' coming along with a young
dog of mine which he had evidently invited to join in the fun, and so I
let the young dog work on Snipe, a game he was never on before. It was a
sight to see how 'old Jesse' tried to teach him the trade. I had two
pieces of Snipe bog two miles apart, and one bad scenting day he missed
my track and went to the wrong place, so that it was past one o'clock
when I reached the place to which he had gone. On getting there, which I
generally shot first, I saw 'old Jesse' standing stiffly on a Snipe. How
long he had been 'pointing' I cannot say. Frequently, as I walked up to
his point, I have flushed Snipe, and shot them, before I reached him,
but this made no difference to him, nor did it in the least interfere
with his steadiness. Once, on the occasion I have mentioned of his being
accompanied by the young dog, he snarled at the youngster for flushing a
Jack Snipe, and when he repeated the fault, went up and worried him
severely. As two of us shot together, he got into the habit of coming
to my room in the morning, to see if I was dressed for shooting, and if
I was not, he would go to my companion's chamber and accompany him, or
track him through the streets, if he had gone on, and I do not remember
that he ever failed to find him. 'Julie,' a liver and white Pointer
bitch, was another of my Pointers which showed great sagacity and
firmness. We have frequently lost her, for a considerable time, in a
high cover on a celebrated piece of ground called Keysworth, in
Dorsetshire, belonging to my friend, Mr. Drax, and at last we have seen
the 'sting' of her fine stern above the rushes, for she always held it
higher than her head. She was one of the most intelligent dogs I ever
possessed, and would retrieve any game alive. Though only in her second
season, she was the animal always sent out with young hands, and if they
ran to pick up their game, she would bark at them reproachfully. I never
had a Pointer before, that seemed to enter so keenly into the sport, or
to appreciate, as she did, the real and proper style of beating for
game."

The points of this well known sportsman (Pointer) are:--Skull rather
wide between the ears, with a pronounced drop at the "stop," the
occipital protuberance being also well defined, the muzzle being long
and bent at the nose, which is rather dark liver, or else flesh
coloured, eyes dark or light according to colours of markings, ears
rather fine, set on low and hanging flat to the sides of the head; neck
gracefully arched and quite free from overlaps, shoulders sloping, chest
moderately wide, and extremely deep, body powerful and well ribbed up
at the loin, forelegs dead straight, set well in under the dog, heavy in
bone, the feet being round and compact, hind quarters powerful, the
stifle being a little turned out and the hocks well let down, tail
rather short and tapering to the tip, coat moderately fine. Colours:
liver and white, lemon and white, black, or black and liver ticked.


SETTERS

[Illustration: ENGLISH SETTER. CH. "ROCK". J. FLETCHER. OWNER.]

_The English Setter._--The elegant family known by the above title, are
divided into three branches, called respectively English, Gordon and
Irish; each have their body of supporters, and many very beautiful
specimens of them all are to be seen at our best shows. Perhaps
Birmingham lays itself out most for the sporting dog classes, but now,
when there are so many large exhibitions held in various parts of the
United Kingdom, the same dogs are more often seen at the various places.
The following descriptions of each of the three branches of the family,
are taken from notes communicated by a well known gentleman in the doggy
world, to a work on dogs published some seventy-five years since. "The
head of the English Setter should not be so heavy as the Pointer's, nor
so wide across the ears. There should be at least four inches from the
inner corner of the eye to the point of the nose. In many first class
dogs, there is half an inch more. The nasal bone should be rather
depressed in the centre and slightly raised at the nostrils. The nose
and nostrils large, the nose dark liver coloured or black, moist and
shining. The jaws should be level and the teeth exactly level in front,
as nothing detracts more from appearance than the 'snipe nose.' There
should not be that fullness of lip, allowable in the Pointer, but, at
the angles of the mouth, the lips should be rather pendulous. The ears,
which are usually about six inches in length, should be set low on the
head, larger where they are attached, than at the tips, which should be
round, not pointed. They should never be pricked, or carried forward,
even when the dog points. The eyes should be large and sparkling, not
protruding, as in the King Charles Spaniel, but well set and full of
intelligence. The neck, long, thin, slightly arched at crest, and clean
cut where it joins the head, this last a most important point. The
shoulders should be well set back, the blades long, the muscles
well-developed throughout. Ribs not so widely sprung as the Pointer's.
The back ribs deep and fairly near to the hip bone. The chest deep and
moderately wide. The loins broad and arched slightly and the hips wide.
The hind quarters square, strongly made and the stifles well bent.
Cat-like feet are preferable to the 'hare' or 'spoon' foot. The round
foot, with toes well arched, distributes the power of the toes more
evenly, and is best suited for every description of shooting ground, in
fact, the Foxhound foot, and leg with it. The feet should be straight,
neither turned in or out. The toes should be well furnished with hair,
which, in the best breeds, forms a tuft between the toes and protects
the sole, being replenished as fast as it wears away. The pasterns
should be nearly upright and large, knees large, forelegs upright, and
in a standing position, the legs should be like good forelegs in a
Horse, the feet slightly in advance of straight, the hocks strong, set a
little in, if any deviation from a straight line. The stern of a Setter,
like that of a Spaniel, should be carried as much as possible in a line
with the backbone. The undulating sweep upwards, if exaggerated, would
become a serious fault. A Setter's stern cannot well be too straight,
and it should never be too long or it cannot be carried handsomely. The
stern looks better when the 'feather' commences near the root of the
tail and goes off gradually to nothing at the tip. A tail blunt, or
clubbed, is very objectionable. The coat should be of the finest silky
texture, moderately waved, but devoid of curl. There may be an
inclination in the coat to part down the back. Colours in order of
merit: 1. Blue mottle, or Belton greys, which stand work and are better
than; 2. Orange and white and lemon and white; 3. black and white;
4. pure white; 5. pure black; 6. fawn or yellow; 7. liver colour or
liver and white, which last too often indicates a cross with the Pointer
or Water Spaniel.


[Illustration: GORDON-SETTER. CH. "MARQUIS". T. JACOBS. OWNER.]

"_The Gordon Setter._--The points of excellence in the Gordon, closely
resemble those of the English Setter, but, I may observe, that the great
features of true Gordon blood are, that they can go much longer without
water than the generality of Setters, and that they show more variety in
their attitude on 'the point.' The length of their shoulders, their
large bone, and their development of muscle, enable them to race, and
to keep it up. The colour of the Gordon is a great point. The black
should be _raven_ black, with a blue, or plum bloom, on the bright
lights. The tan a rich red, of burnt sienna, colour. It should be, by no
means, yellow or tabby, or mixed with black or fawn, but rich, deep, a
sort of bright new mahogany. The cheeks, lips, throat, feet, back of the
forelegs to the elbow, front of the hind legs up to the hips, belly,
inside of thighs, vent, underside of flag, inside of ears, should all be
brilliant red, and there should be a large brilliant spot of tan over
each eye. There is no objection to a white short frill, although the
absence of all white is a good thing. White toes behind, are less
objectionable than white toes in front, and several of the very best
Gordons have even had a white foot, or feet, but this is not to be
desired if it can be avoided. The origin of the breed is not well known.
The late Duke of Gordon, at any rate, brought it up to its present
excellence. There is a suspicion it came originally from Ireland, and
the fact that nearly all the best Gordon bitches have had in every
litter, one or more deep red, or orange, whelps, leads one to believe
there has been an Irish cross. The Gordon Setter's stern is shorter than
that of the English Setter, but 'sting like.' Failing this, breeders
find they have that greatest trouble to the Gordon breeder, the 'teapot
tail,' or a long stern with a curl at the end, badly carried in action.
He is a long, low, Setter, his gallop noiseless, and he is remarkably
quick in his turn, from the power of his shoulders and loins, length of
his neck and general muscular development, a trifle heavier in his
head, shorter in his stern, rather deeper in his 'brisket,' more bony
and muscular than the English Setter, with a remarkably gay temperament.
'Always busy,' he is quite the beau ideal of a sportsman's favourite,
but he has his failings. He is more frequently 'gunshy,' more often the
victim of distemper, than the English, and, occasionally, so headstrong
as to be totally irreclaimable, these may be the faults of education,
and generally are so, but undeniably they are more often the results of
inbreeding or injudicious crossing.


[Illustration: IRISH-SETTER. CH. "GARRYOWEN". J. J. GILTRAP, OWNER.]

"_The Irish Setter._--The head of the Irish Setter should be long,
narrow, yet wide in the forehead, arched or peaked cranium behind. A
short, bullet head, a wide flat one, or one running to a point at the
snout, are very common, and very bad. The lips should be deep or
moderately so. The ears should be long, reaching at the end of the hair,
to the nose, pendulous and as if lying in a fold, set well back and low
on the head; they should never be set high, short in length, or half
diamond shaped, their feather should be moderate. The eyes of rich hazel
or rich brown, well set, full, kind, sensible and loving, the iris
mahogany colour, should never be gooseberry, black, or prominent and
staring. The nose mahogany, dark flesh, or blackish mahogany, never
black or pink. Even dark flesh is not so much admired, though it may be
with a good clear hazel eye. The whiskers should be red. The forelegs
straight, moderately feathered, the feet close and small, not round like
a hounds, or splayed. The hams straight, flat and muscular, and
feathered well with buff coloured hair, the hind quarters, altogether
square and active in make. The chest should be wide when the dog is
sitting on his haunches, and the head held back and full; too wide a
chest is apt to give a waddling and slow gait. The chest ribs cannot be
too deep. The loins, for speed, should be long, moderately wide, and the
belly well tucked up. The tail should be well covered with coarse hair,
curling along the tops, and hanging moderately, though bushy, from
beneath; carried on a horizontal line with the back, not cocked or
curled. In the field, or excitement, carried low, stiff and beating the
hind legs. The coat should be rather coarse, smooth or wavy, not curly,
hair of moderate length, on the upper parts of the body, the root half
tawny, the tip half deep sienna, a sort of blood red, but never showing
black on the ears, back, head, or tail. The legs and under parts deep or
pale tawny. White should not appear anywhere except in the centre of the
forehead and the centre of the breast."

It maybe interesting to some of my readers (amongst whom I hope will be
included fanciers of every breed, as well as some who have been hitherto
fanciers of no breed at all), if I set out here the show points of
Setters, taking them in their usual order, as "English," "Gordon," and
"Irish."


_The English Setter._--The head should be long and rather narrow, the
skull slightly domed and not very broad at base, muzzle long, square and
clean, not too pointed at end; nose moderately large, with wide
nostrils, ears fine, set on low and lying close to sides of head; eyes,
soft, bright and intelligent, not light in colour. Neck very muscular
and of fair length; shoulders clean and sloping, chest not wide but
deep; back strong and muscular; ribs well sprung and deep; powerful,
broad loin; thighs fairly long and muscular; stifles well let down and
bent; forelegs well feathered and straight, pasterns short, straight and
firm; stern medium length, well set on, almost in line with back, not
carried gaily or curled; feet close and compact, slightly feathered
between toes. Coat free from any curl, soft, wavy and silky. Colours:
blue and white ticked, white with black markings and white with liver
markings most favoured, but almost any others allowed except red, and
black and tan.


_The Gordon or Black and Tan Setters_ are supposed to have been so
called from their original connection with Gordon Castle Kennels. There
are, however, said to be many good specimens not in any way related to
that particular strain, the colour of which was tricolour, black, tan
and white. This variety is heavier than their English or Irish brethren,
and shows more of the Hound and less of the Spaniel. The head is
stronger, with deeper and broader muzzle and heavier lips, the ears are
also somewhat longer, and the eyes often show the haw; the black should
be as jet and absolutely free from white. The tan on cheeks and over
eyes and on feet and pasterns should be rich and bright and clearly
defined, and the feathering on forelegs and thighs should also be tan.


_The Irish Setters_ are higher on the leg than their English cousins,
although, in most respects, the conformation of body is precisely the
same in both breeds. Head long and narrow, muzzle square, lips
moderately deep, ears fine, set low and lying well back, giving a domed
appearance to the skull; "stop" well defined, eyes rich hazel or dark
brown, soft and expressive. Chest deep and ribs well sprung; shoulders
clean and sloping; loin somewhat arched, broad and muscular. _Coat_,
lustrous and rather plentiful, rich, dark red, with a golden tinge, no
white allowable, except a star on head or chest.


[Illustration: FLAT-COATED RETRIEVER CH. "RIGHT AWAY" S. E. SHIRLEY
OWNER.]

_The Retriever._--This breed is practically divided into two varieties,
one called The Flat, Smooth, or Wavy-coated, and the other the Curly;
both, as a rule, are black, but as far as my experience of them goes,
more specimens "other than black" are seen amongst "the Curlies" than
the others, but I think, undoubtedly, blacks, of either variety, are the
handsomest. Both breeds have been brought to a great point of
perfection. _In the Flat-coated_, Mr. S. E. Shirley and Colonel
Cornwall-Legh, and _in the Curly-coated_, Earl Melville and Mr. S.
Darbey, can show teams to make a sportsman "tear his hair;" often and
often, one of these varieties has taken the coveted prize for the "best
sporting dog in the show," and they are remarkable amongst the many
charming breeds of sporting dogs bred and established in this country,
for their very "matching character," so that, a high bred lot of either
variety have a wonderful family likeness, and on the many occasions when
I have had to take part in making the awards for the sporting and
non-sporting teams, it has been a great pleasure to me to see grouped
together, in different parts of an immense ring, teams of the various
breeds, often containing the best known specimens of them, quite
priceless, and which no money could buy, but most interesting to the
lovers of beautiful, and in many cases, perfect specimens of animals.

_Show Points of Wavy, Flat, or Smooth Retrievers._--_Head_ long and
skull fairly wide; ears small and lying close to head; eyes brown or
hazel and showing great intelligence; jaws long, and sufficiently strong
to carry a Hare; muzzle fairly large, with full open nostrils; teeth
level and sound; neck fairly long; chest deep and somewhat narrow;
shoulders clean and strong, set obliquely; ribs deep, and well sprung;
body long, with muscular loins; forelegs straight and strong; quarters
muscular; stifles fairly bent; feet sound, and well arched; coat long,
and straight, and of good quality; black, without any trace of white, is
the fashionable colour, but classes for "other than black," are
sometimes well filled. White and liver coloured specimens are sometimes
met with, but seldom shown. _General appearance_ is that of a strong,
upstanding, intelligent dog, of a decidedly sporting character, but
quite prepared to take on any class of work required of him as a
"general utility dog."


[Illustration: CURLY RETRIEVER CH. "TIVERTON BEST LAD" S. DARBEY OWNER.]

_The Curly-coated Retriever._--There has been much discussion as to the
origin of this variety, which, like that of its "Flatcoated" comrade,
does not go back, it is thought, before the commencement of this
century. Some think the old "water dog" we see depicted in the sporting
pictures of our ancestors (and which looked like a cross of indifferent
Poodle, with an inferior old English sheep dog, without much of the good
points of either variety!), others claim the Irish Water Spaniel, and
others again, the Poodle, to have been one of its parents in a cross
with the Labrador dog, in the same way as its flat-coated cousin is
supposed to have been produced by a cross between a Setter and a
Labrador dog. I do not propose to enter into this controversy at all,
personally I have had more to do with the Irish Water Spaniels (of which
my brothers and I have had a great many amongst us since we were lads),
and Poodles, of which I have had a good many and handled and judged
hundreds, and I think I can see traces of the Irish Water Spaniel _and_
the Poodle in the modern Curly-coated Retriever, but more of the former
than the latter. I think, undoubtedly, the Curlies are the hardest to
breed approaching perfection, but they are wonderfully "fetching," when
up to the mark. The absence of curl, too much hair on face, and the
openness of coat, are the faults I most often notice, and some fail in
the tail not being as it should be, covered from root to end with small,
tight curls, as on body. The sort of curls on the body may be described
as like those on a nigger's head.

_The Points for Show of the Curly Retriever_ are not much at variance
with those for the Flat-coated. But the latter is often the larger dog.
The head, should be not so wide, with strong jaws, and muzzle more
inclined to be snipey; the coat, a perfect mass of short, tight curls on
the body, legs and tail, but only short, smooth hair on the face--the
stern, quite straight and carried without any curve in it, substantial
at root, lessening in size by degrees to its point.



CHAPTER V

DOGS USED IN SPORT (_Continued_)

SPORTING SPANIELS--BASSET HOUNDS--DACHSHOUNDS


A good many I have known, make much and think highly of some of the
breeds of Spaniels. These are noted for their affectionate disposition
and docility. The least often seen, and therefore not much known, are
the _Irish and the English Water Spaniels_. The former should be dark
liver coloured, covered with curls, except on the tail, which should be
nearly bare of hair, and on the head a considerable tuft of hair, called
the top-knot, hanging down over the eyes and face, so as to almost hide
the former. There is something very comical, and quite "Hibernian,"
about the look of this breed, and they always appear to be open for any
amount of fun, but they are also grand workers, and for duck-shooting,
and retrieving in general, they are above the average in achievements,
as they are above most of their fellows in size. _The English Variety_
is also a capital all-round useful dog, generally roan or dark coloured
in ground, with sometimes spots or markings on head and body, also
covered with curls, and looks best with tail moderately docked. He gives
you the idea of a "business dog," and is very lively and ready for work
of almost any sporting kind, and can stand a deal of it. Another of the
family I am very partial to and have sometimes met with and kept as a
companion, is the Clumber. I think this is the most aristocratic-looking
of the sporting varieties of the breed, and should be a creamy white,
with patches of lemon or light orange-tan, about the head and body.
Either the tactics of the sportsmen of the present day are too rapid, or
for some other cause, but there certainly are not so many of the breed
to be seen now as there were some fifteen or twenty years since, but I
am glad to see the present Duke of Newcastle is keeping up the breed at
Clumber, where it is supposed to have been originally produced, and that
there are still a few kennels in the country, where they are breeding
some of these beautiful dogs, for I contend that a Clumber, in good form
and well-groomed (when his coat will have quite a bloom on it), is one
of the handsomest dogs a sportsman can wish to accompany him, and
although his build and formation are not suited for a high rate of
speed, he can get over a good deal of ground in the course of the day,
and render some useful service to his owner and his friends. In that
celebrated book, "The Master of the Game," preserved in the British
Museum, and attributed to a royal author, being supposed to be written
by a son of King Edward III. (who died in 1402), the Spaniel is spoken
of as "Saynolfe," no doubt a term intended for "Spaynolfe," and is
described as one of the hounds used for hawking, and called a Spaynel,
"because the nature of him cometh from Spain, notwithstanding they are
to be found in other countries," and such hounds, the author
declares, have many good customs and evil. He insists that a good hound
for hawking should have a large head and body, and that he should be of
a "fair hewe," white or tawne, and not too "jough," that is, hairy or
rough, but, his tail should be "rough," or feathered; he goes on to
describe the proper temperament, as a sportsman of the present age would
speak of a modern Clumber, leaving out one of its greatest merits, its
_silence_, or muteness, in work, however excited, so much to be desired.
A great deal of sport may be had over a brace of Clumbers, which are as
much as a sportsman can do with, particularly with a Retriever to look
after the "killed and wounded."

I have also, occasionally, seen a specimen of the Sussex Spaniel, which
are rare dogs for work, made a house pet of. They should be rich copper
colour, and are very showy and distinguished looking in appearance,
strong and muscular in build, more active than you would give them
credit for, by their looks, and possessed of much intelligence and
affection for their friends, good guards, and well able to take their
own parts in any row, seldom coming off worst, even with larger
antagonists. They have been brought to great perfection of late years. I
should say there are some as good as any ever seen, to be met with at
the present day, and especially at the well known Bridford Kennels in
Devon. I think they are rather growing in public favour, to the reverse
being the case; I often see what I may call "the _Field Spaniel_
proper," the old glossy black, kept as a companion; the very long
backed, and short-legged type, now in favour, don't strike one as being
able to stand so much hard work, in the covers, as the more old
fashioned sort, but they are, many of them, very beautiful dogs, and of
high quality, and, what is also of importance to breeders, they command
very high prices. I heard of an instance, not very long since, when a
buyer was found for five or six specimens of the Black Field Spaniel, at
£1,100, and another gave £400 for a single dog. I know all the three
parties, that is, the seller and the two buyers, in these transactions,
and believe them to be _bonâ fide_ and true, in substance and fact, so
that Spaniel breeding evidently _can_ be made to pay. Although I
sometimes see some of the old liver and white, roan, blue and black
Spaniels about, I certainly think they are not so popular as they were
some years since. As a rule they are tractable, good tempered, "born
sportsmen," particularly fond of a ramble amongst country lanes and
hedgerows, and capital companions for all, attaching themselves readily
to ladies and children, and making themselves "at home" as members of
the household, though always ready for their own proper work, outside,
when called upon.


[Illustration: CLUMBER-SPANIEL, "SANDRINGHAM-BUSTLER". H. R. H. PRINCE
of WALES. OWNER.]

_Sporting Spaniel Points._--I will here give the show points of the
several Sporting Spaniels, commencing with the _Clumber_. The points of
this breed are as follows:--He should be long, low, and heavy, weight
varies, but averages about forty to forty-five pounds. Colour, white, of
a creamy shade, with orange or lemon markings; actual liver colour, or
the very pale lemon, once made a point of, are now objected to by some
breeders of the present day. Height should not be over eighteen or
twenty inches. Legs, both short and strong, in fact, so much so that,
with his deep, well-coated body, he shows little "daylight" below him,
as he stands or walks. Head, large, long, coloured to a line under the
eyes, and showing a "blaze" up the face. Eyes, rather small for size of
head, sunken, pensive, and thoughtful. Nose, dark flesh, or liver,
coloured. Ears, large and much feathered, below, where the fleshy part
of the ear ends. Neck, long, strong, and muscular. Back, straight and
long. Chest, wide, also the shoulders, and substantial, likewise the
forearm, which is very heavy for his size. Hocks, and hind quarters,
large, bony, and very muscular. Loins, not arched, but straight. Ribs,
round and prominent, back-ribs, in particular, very deep. Stern, set on
low, looks best "docked," as is usually the case, with a little hair
hanging at the fag end. Coat should be not too full in quantity, but
very straight, silky, shining, and soft, in texture. The appearance and
general character being that of a high class, dignified specimen of the
sporting dog, well able to do all that can be reasonably required of
him, but with no idea of being dictated to, hurried, or "put out of the
way," by any one.


[Illustration: IRISH WATER SPANIEL. CH. "SHAUN". COL. THE HON. W. LE
POER TRENCH. OWNER.]

_The Irish Water Spaniel._--The head of the Irish Water Spaniel is
rather large, forehead prominent, face perfectly smooth from eyes down,
ears from twenty-four to twenty-six inches long from end to end; head
should be crowned with a well-defined top-knot, not straggling across,
like the common Water Dog, but coming down in a peak on the forehead.
The body should be covered with small, crisp curls, which often become
draggled in the moulting season; the tail, should be round and
"rat-like," without feather, rather short than the reverse, and as stiff
as a ramrod. Colour, pure puce-shaded liver, without any white. Height,
about from twenty-two to twenty-two and a half inches, seldom more when
pure bred.


_English Water Spaniel._--The following description of this breed, which
is a very great favourite of mine, and I regret to say seems to be
growing more scarce, year by year, is from the pen of my old friend, Mr.
A. W. Langdale, who was counted an authority on Spaniels
generally:--"Young breeders and judges should have before them this
fact, that _Colour_ should be a secondary matter with the English Water
Spaniel, and the latter should never pass over a liver and white dog, in
favour of a whole coloured liver, provided the liver and white is a
well-made specimen of his breed. The weight, again, should not exceed
forty pounds, and his height nineteen inches, his ears may be fairly
long, and covered all over with curl; also the body, not the close curl
of his Irish brother, but one somewhat looser, and more straggly; his
head is broad and long, with piercing eyes, his legs are well feathered
behind, as well as in front, and there is no doubt that the feather,
which in a ticked dog, comes out from each and every liver spot in front
of the forelegs, has much to do with his power of endurance in water.
They may be called 'natural retrievers,' as no dog is easier taught."


[Illustration: SUSSEX-SPANIEL CH. "BRIDFORD GIDDIE". MOSES WOOLLAND,
OWNER.]

_The Sussex Spaniel._--He should be of a deep golden liver colour, and
should weigh about thirty-four pounds. His head should be long and
heavy, his eye large, and languishing, his forehead projecting over the
eye, the muzzle square, the lips rather pendulous, his mouth large, and
his underjaw rather recedes from the upper jaw. His ears should be large
and well furnished with silky hair, they should be small, or narrow,
where they spring from the head, and large, or lobe shaped, at the base;
they should be set low down, and hang close to the cheeks. The nostrils
should be large, the nose large and liver-coloured. The neck should be
strong and muscular, with the crest a little arched. The chest, should
be wide, the shoulders well thrown back, the body, long, and round. The
legs should be short and strong, well flewed to the foot, before and
behind. The feet, which are nearly always good in a Spaniel, should be
round, well arched, and abundantly furnished with feather. The loin
should be very strong, the back ribs very deep and round; the tail,
docked to about nine inches, and well-feathered, should be set low, and
have a downward action. The proper carriage of the tail marks the
Spaniel's purity, as much as anything. The coat should be waved, not
curled, and as already said, of a golden liver colour.


[Illustration: BLACK-SPANIEL. CH. "BRIDFORD-BRILLIANT". M. WOOLLAND.
OWNER.]

_The Black Spaniel._--The following description of the points required
in this popular variety, are laid down by my friend, Mr. T. Jacobs, of
Newton Abbot, who is, as far as I know, about the most successful
breeder and exhibitor of them, during the last twenty-five years, he
says:--"My standard is as follows: Pleasing temper I always look to
first, never breed from a bad tempered sporting dog, every sportsman
knows what a nuisance they are. A long body, short legs, with plenty of
bone and feather, a perfectly smooth, satin-like coat, with no
inclination to wave, or curl, moderately long. Ears, covered with long,
silky hair, not ringlets, well set, low down, and hung close to the
cheeks, small, or narrow, where they spring from the head, and large and
lobe shaped, at the base, well furnished with hair on the inside
leather. A long head, not 'snipey,' or heavy, like the Clumber; dark,
pleasing eye, a yellow eye indicates bad temper, and should be avoided.
Level mouth, not 'pig-jawed,' or under hung, but I prefer the former
fault to the latter, which prevails, I am sorry to see, in some of our
present show dogs. Breeders should avoid them as stock dogs. A long
neck, slightly arched, well clothed with muscle. Strong across the
loins. Ribs well sprung, and barrel-shaped. Belly, well clothed with
long hair and not tucked up, like the Greyhound, a common fault. Broad
chest, well clothed with muscle and feather. Feet, round and cat-like,
with a plentiful supply of hair between the toes. Many have argued with
me, that mating black with liver colour, would throw the black puppies
rusty, or bad black, but, being a pigeon breeder for many years, and
knowing that by mating duns and blacks, you procure a better black than
by breeding two blacks together, I thought if this held good with
Pigeons, why should it not do with dogs? I therefore mated my Spaniels,
as before described, the result is, I have never seen one bad
black, and have bred more than a dozen litters in that way."


[Illustration: COCKER SPANIEL CH. "TED OBO" J. FARROW OWNER.]

_Some Other Sporting Spaniels._--The heads of small Spaniels should
resemble those of small Setters, and have no tuft on them. The ears
should be moderately long, and lie close to the cheek. Very short ears
indicate a cross. The legs should be strong, well feathered and short;
the feet round; and each toe should be protected with hair, a plentiful
supply of which on, and between the toes, is important. The chest should
be rather broad. The elbows, not so oblique as in the Setter. The body,
should be long, and somewhat round, and barrel-like, with less depth of
the fore rib than in the Setter. The tail, should come out on a line
with the backbone. The colours may be almost anything, black, black and
white, liver, liver and white, lemon, lemon and white, roan, blue, or
grey mottled.


[Illustration: SMOOTH BASSET HOUND CH. "LOUIS LE BEAU" Mrs M. TOTTIE
OWNER.]

_Bassets._--Amongst those breeds which have been taken up a good deal as
pets and companions in comparatively recent years, have been _the
Bassets_, both _Smooth_ and _Rough-coated_. This breed, which has been
in fewer hands than most, also enjoys the advantage of royal patronage,
both their Royal Highnesses the Prince and Princess of Wales, being
successful breeders and exhibitors of them. They are heavy looking,
usually hound marked, in colour, that is, white with black and light
brown, and hound-tanned markings on body, which is very long shaped on
short, strong legs, large, pendulous ears and head, and in expression
much like what we used to see in pictures of the "old English Hound."
They have a high-class and distinguished look about them, and give you
the impression of character and breeding. They have not been used
extensively for sporting purposes in this country, to my knowledge.


[Illustration: DACHSHUND CH. "WISEACRE". E. S. WOODIWISS, OWNER.]

_Dachshunds._--Another of the breeds I have seen kept as pets, is the
_Dachshund_, or Badger Dog, as the name implies. I think they are
rarely, or ever, used for Badgers in this country, and for the safety of
the greater part of those I have seen here, I think it is much better
that is so, as any one familiar with the Badger, or the "old Gentleman
in Grey," as he is frequently called, will know that he is a formidable
opponent to tackle, muscular, active, low to the ground, with a very
tough, harsh coat, and long, powerful jaws, and weighing from over
twenty to over thirty pounds, so that it requires activity, strength and
indomitable pluck for a small dog to attempt to overcome such an animal,
possessing so many natural advantages. I think Dachshunds are not so
generally kept as pets as they were some years since, but my experience
of them is favourable, having found them amiable and docile in
disposition, cleanly in habits, and bright and lively in temperament.
They are very long, and low, in build, head and ears hound shaped,
forelegs curved with an outward turn, to facilitate digging operations,
tail carried rather gaily, coat fine in texture, skin loose, colours
most in favour, rich chestnut red, black and tan, chocolate, and other
shades of brown, and of late, what is called "dappled," which seems
to be a ground of one shade of brown, splashed with irregular blotches
of another darker shade of same colour. Of course there are constantly
springing up new patrons and patronesses for all kinds of dogs, but I
have noticed that almost every one of the persons who were the most
enthusiastic supporters, and breeders of Dachshunds, when they were
first brought forward, many years since, have now ceased to keep them,
although they nearly all keep some other breeds, so that, as in my own
case, I think it is not one of the varieties which takes a lasting hold
on its votaries, whether from the fact that it is essentially one of the
foreign made breeds, and the effect of the strong preference, which now
prevails for the encouragement of everything of British and Colonial
origin and manufacture, I do not know, but I can call to mind at least
ten of the largest breeders of Dachshunds in this country, who, I
believe, have not at present one specimen amongst the lot.


[Illustration: ROUGH BASSET. "BEAUTY" H. R. H. PRINCE of WALES, OWNER.]

_Points of the Basset Hound._--The following description of the points
desired in this breed by my friend, the late lamented Sir Everett
Millais, Bart., who was quite an enthusiast in his support of it, may be
interesting to those of my readers who admire (and who, that has seen
them, can fail to do so?) these very beautiful dogs:--"The Basset, for
its size, has perhaps more bone than nearly any other dog. The skull,
should be peaked, like that of the Bloodhound, with the same dignity,
and expression; nose, black, and well flewed. For the size of the
Hound, I think the teeth are extremely small. However, as they are not
intended to destroy life, perhaps this is the reason. The ears, should
hang, like the Bloodhounds, and are like the softest velvet. The eyes
are deep brown, and brimful of affection and intelligence. They are
pretty deeply set, and should show a considerable 'haw.' A Basset, is
one of those Hounds, incapable of having a 'wicked eye.' The neck, is
long, but of great power, and in the Basset à jambes torses, the flews
extend very nearly down to the chest. The chest, is more expansive in
the Basset, than even in the Bull Dog, and should, in the Basset à
jambes torses, be not more than two inches from the ground. In the case
of the Basset à jambes demi-torses, and jambes droites, being generally
lighter, their chests do not of course come so low. The shoulders, are
of great power and terminate in the crooked feet of the Basset, which
appear to be a mass of joints. The back and ribs, are strong, and the
former of great length, the stern, is gaily carried, like that of Hounds
in general, and when the Hound is on the scent of game, this portion of
his body gets extremely animated, and tells me, in my own Hounds, when
they have struck a fresh, or cold, scent, and I even know when the
foremost Hound will give tongue! The hindquarters, are very strong and
muscular, the muscles standing rigidly out, down to the hocks. The skin,
is soft in the smooth haired dogs, and like that of any other Hound, but
in the rough variety, it is identical with that of the Otter Hound.
Colour, of course, is a matter of fancy, although I infinitely prefer
the 'tricolour,' which has a tan head, and black and white body."

_Points of the Dachshund._--The following are set down by my friend, Mr.
A. O. Mudie, so well-known as a successful breeder, exhibitor and judge
of this quaint-looking breed, and who has had a long experience amongst
them:--Head, long and narrow, peak well developed. Jaw, strong, and
level. Ears, set on low, long, broad, and soft. Chest, deep, and narrow;
breastbone prominent. Forelegs, very short, and strong in bone,
well-crooked, but standing equally on all parts of the foot. Skin,
thick, and supple. Coat, short and strong. Loins, well arched, strong
and muscular. Any colour. Long, low, and graceful, and not cloddy."



CHAPTER VI

DOGS USED IN SPORT (_Continued_)

GREYHOUNDS--SCOTTISH DEERHOUNDS--IRISH WOLFHOUNDS--BORZOIS--WHIPPETS


[Illustration: WHIPPET GREYHOUND CH. "REAL JAM." S. WOODIWISS OWNER.]

_Greyhounds._--This is certainly, whether quite in his present form and
appearance or not, one of the most ancient breeds, and believed to have
been kept by our forefathers in the earliest part of the Christian era.
It is said to have been introduced into this country in the days of
Elfric, Duke of Mercia, and manuscript paintings exist of a Saxon chief,
his huntsman and a brace of Greyhounds in the ninth century. Although
not generally credited with much more intelligence than to view a hare
and run after it until he catches it, or it gets away, I mention later
on in this book, some tales of his sagacity which I believe are well
authenticated, and will now give a detailed description of the breed:--

_Points of the Greyhound._--Head, narrow and fine, with sufficient
muscle; nose should be straight (not curved, many, otherwise good, are
spoiled by "Roman noses"); nasal sinuses not developed; eyes full and
bright, full of life; semi-erect, small, well shaped ears; neck long,
slightly curved; chest capacious, plenty of "lung power," deep rather
than wide; shoulders deep, narrow at top, like racehorses' shoulders in
their position; forelegs straight, well set on, well muscled; forearms,
long, strong and muscular; feet compact, and not too long; well arched
ribs; wide, large and muscular hips; long, strong, slightly arched back;
hocks and knees placed low; coat glossy as satin (many good "performers"
however, have been the reverse of this); Colours: white, red, brindle,
blue and white, fawn, black, red and fawn, etc., quite a matter of
taste. It is thought, by some people, that more great winners have been
produced from the blacks, and black and whites, than from any other
colours. As far as show winners are concerned, and I have had scores of
the breed before me, I am inclined to think brindles, blacks and fawns
have been the most often the winning colours.


[Illustration: DEERHOUND, CH. "SELWOOD DHOURAN". R. HOOD WRIGHT, OWNER.]

_The Scotch Deerhound._--Although I have often seen these graceful
animals (as we know was the case with Sir Walter Scott), made inmates of
the house, there is a rugged, moorland, and, withal, business-like look
about them which gives you the idea they would be more at home in the
open air, on the heather, or the mountain side, for choice, than in the
most luxurious house dwelling. It is some time since I had any of them,
but I was very partial to the breed, and used to exhibit for some time,
and well remember the grace and activity often displayed by some of my
specimens. I always go and have a look at them at the shows. I am not
quite convinced they are making much progress, just now, although
undoubtedly there are good specimens. There are so many new breeds being
brought out and "pushed" forward, some of the older ones are apt to
be neglected.

_The Points of Scotch Deerhound._--The points of this breed are stated
by a well known breeder and exhibitor as follows:--Head, long and
narrow, tapering gradually from the ears, knee flat; nose, black,
occasionally a blue black, and pointed, lips level, ears small, set on
high and carried in a fold, soft, silky, and free from long hairs; neck
long but strong, nape very prominent, shoulders sloping, toes close and
arched, chest deep, body long, but well ribbed up; loins arched with
great breadth across hips, stifle well bent, thighs long; tail set on
low, curved but not coated, coat rough and harsh on body, mane on neck
and slight fringe on inside of legs, thighs, and tail. Colours: all
shades from dark blue or black brindled, to light grey brindled, fallow,
fawn, dun and drab. White markings often seen on chest and feet, but
most objectionable.


[Illustration: IRISH WOLFHOUND CH. "SHEELAH" CAPN GRAHAM OWNER.]

_The Irish Wolf Hound._--I think nearly all persons who take any
interest in this grand old breed, stated to have been well known to and
greatly prized by "the Romans," in old times, are aware that no one of
the present generation has devoted more time and trouble, in diving into
the history of the breed in the past, and doing his utmost, both by
experimental breeding, and stirring up a similar ardour in others, to
revive at least some of the past glories of the breed, in the present
and future, than Captain George Graham, of Dursley, and I venture to
make some quotations from an excellent and interesting article of his on
the subject, as being the highest authority procurable: "_The form_ of
the old Irish Wolfhound should be that of a tall, heavy Scotch
Deerhound, much more massive, and very majestic looking, active and
fast, perhaps less so than our present breed of Deerhounds; neck thick
in comparison to his form, and very muscular, body and frame lengthy.
_Head_, long but narrow, coming to a comparative point towards the nose,
which is rather large; and head gradually getting broader from the same
_evenly_ up to the back of the skull, not sharp up to the eyes and then
suddenly broad and humpy. _Coat_, rough, hard and long all over the
body, head, legs and tail. Hair on head, long, but rather softer than on
body, standing out boldly over eyes, beard under jaws, very marked and
wiry. Colours: black, grey, brindle, red, and fawn, though _white_ dogs
were esteemed in former times. _Ears_, small in proportion to size of
head, and erect, as in Smooth Greyhounds. If dark in colour, to be
preferred. _The tail_, should be carried with an upward curve only, and
not be curled as is the case with many Greyhounds. _Size._ We may safely
deduce that the height of these dogs varied from thirty-two to
thirty-four inches, and even thirty-five in the dogs, and from
twenty-nine to thirty-one in the bitches. The other dimensions would
naturally be about as follows for well shaped and true formed dogs.
_Girth of chest._ Dogs thirty-eight to forty-four inches; bitches
thirty-two to thirty-four inches. _Weight._ Dogs one-hundred and fifteen
to one hundred and forty pounds; bitches ninety to one hundred and
fifteen pounds. _Girth of forearm._ Dogs ten to twelve inches; bitches
eight and one-half to ten inches. _Length of head._ Dogs twelve and
one-half to fourteen inches; bitches eleven to twelve inches. Most
modern authors, and all practical lovers of the canine race whom the
writer has consulted, are agreed that the foregoing is the correct type
of dog beyond question."

_Show Points of the Irish Wolf Hound._--Skull, long but rather narrow in
proportion to the animal's height and weight, very gradually tapering to
the nose, which should be large; ears small; eyes dark hazel; neck of
fair length and very muscular; shoulders sloping, chest rather wide and
very deep; body long and very powerful, though free from any suspicion
of clumsiness; forelegs, straight, and heavy in bone; feet, compact, and
of a good size and well padded; hindquarters, very muscular, with bent
stifles and hocks; tail carried rather upward in similar form; coat,
profuse, hard, and weather resisting; brindle, black, or fawn are the
most usual colours, though whites _are_ known. Size, as tall as
possible.


[Illustration: BORZOI, CH. "ALEX" H. R. H. PRINCESS OF WALES, OWNER.]

_The Borzois._--I will next deal with the Borzois, the name of the
Russian Wolf Hounds, which have become so much more numerous of late
years, and are being patronised not only by many of the nobility and
gentry, but even by H. R. H. the Princess of Wales. The portrait of a
champion from H. R. H. kennels illustrates this variety. I remember H.
R. H. the Prince of Wales exhibited some specimens of this breed a good
many years ago, at Warwick, on one of the many occasions of my judging
there, and if I remember rightly Lady Charles Innes Ker was also an
exhibitor of the breed at the same show, but those shown by the latter,
although what would at the present day, be considered small and weedy
specimens, were more, in colour, coat and type, like those now imported
from Russia, while those then shown by H. R. H. the Prince (although, I
think, stated to be a present to him from the then Emperor of Russia,)
were pale cream, or freestone, colour, with harsher coats, and more
altogether on the style of very light coloured Scotch Deerhounds. I may
say, however, that for elegance, elasticity, beauty of form, and
movement, there is no breed to surpass the Borzois and I have no doubt
they will continue to increase in popularity. The points most sought
after in the breed are:--narrow, domed, and long skulls, long, powerful
jaws, with rather arched noses, soft and intelligent expression; very
powerful, slightly arched and longish sides, on sloping shoulders, deep
but rather narrow chests; backs rising in a gradual curve at loins, very
muscular, but appearance of being rather "tucked up;" forelegs straight,
strong and well under body; feet close and well padded; hindquarters
immensely muscular and powerful, backs well let down, tail carried low,
in a graceful curve; coat profuse and silky looking, colours usually
white with lemon, grey or red markings, but self-coloured specimens are
often seen; the general appearance is that of a high bred, distinguished
looking, graceful animal, something the shape and size of a Scotch
Deerhound, but differing from it in many respects. As I judged this
breed long before there was any club or classes provided for it, I have
always taken much interest in it, and been pleased to see how rapidly it
has come into public favour.


[Illustration: WHIPPET CH. "ENTERPRISE" H. VICKERS, OWNER.]

_The Whippet._--Although their size and elegance of shape would make
them eligible, I think, the Whippet, or "Running Dog," as he is
sometimes called, is not often kept strictly as a pet or companion, but
more often as a means of a little speculation on its fleetness of foot.
No doubt most of my readers will be aware, it is a small sized
Greyhound, rather long in head, wide between the eyes, flat at top, jaw
powerful but clean, level teeth, bright eyes, small rose ears, long,
arched neck, no throatiness, muscular, oblique shoulders, deep chest,
strong loins, arched back, rather long and broad. Legs straight, short
and muscular thighs, feet round and well split up, tail tapering and
long, with good carriage. Coat fine and close, colours, white, brindle,
fawn, blue, red, black, and mixtures of each. Of late years there has
been greatly revived interest taken in these dogs, and considerable
prizes have been offered for their competition. I have noticed also a
marked increase in the entries at shows providing classes for them, and
on several occasions, at the larger shows, I have had good classes
containing many beautiful specimens of this breed, which is so largely
kept by colliers and others of the working classes in the "Black
Country."



CHAPTER VII

TERRIERS USED IN SPORT

FOX--DANDIE DINMONTS--SKYES--SCOTTISH


[Illustration: (OLD TYPE.) SMOOTH FOX TERRIER "BELGRAVE JOE" L. TURNER,
OWNER]

[Illustration: (NEW TYPE) SMOOTH FOX TERRIER CH. "CLAUD DUVAL" G. RAPER
OWNER.]

_Fox Terriers._--As this breed is associated with my first prize, when a
schoolboy, now, some years since, but when dog shows were much rarer
than "Black Swans," were supposed to be, I have always taken much
interest in it, and have had many good specimens of both the Smooth, and
Wirehaired, varieties into which the breed is divided. They are both
very good and both have hosts of admirers. Some of the fanciers now
exhibiting, will remember, with me, the time when no classes were
provided for the "Wirehairs," and you had (as I have often done) to show
them as "Broken-haired Terriers," and often meet in your class nearly
all the members of that heterogeneous family, such as Dandies, Skyes,
Bedlingtons, Scottish (Airedales did not exist then), Irish, and old
English, enough to try the temper of judge and exhibitors, and making
the decision quite a matter of the specimen best shower and shown. But
since those days, Fox Terriers have enjoyed a long term of popularity,
and so far from the "Wirehaired" section being ignored, I have seen at
some shows more entries in it than that of their Smooth brethren, and
the figures given for high class specimens, are certainly not far
behind, even if they are not before, them. Of course, hundreds, in fact
the great majority of the Fox Terriers in the country, have never seen a
Fox, and probably never will, in the course of their natural life, and
(as I said of many of the Dachshunds we see about, and the "Badgers," so
I say of very many of the Fox Terriers to be met with everywhere) so
much the better _for them_, as a Fox, _in his earth_, which is where a
Terrier is wanted to deal with him, is not a "milk and water" animal to
tackle, as a rule, and it requires strength, perseverance, pluck and
ability on the part of his assailants. I think the following description
of the necessary points required, as expressed by my friend Mr. Francis
Redmond, well known to many of my readers as a very successful breeder,
exhibitor, and judge of the breed, will fitly conclude my brief
notice:--"The points of greatest importance in the Fox Terrier are:
Head, ears, legs and feet, neck, and shoulders, back, loin and
hindquarters, smartness, activity, size, and 'Terrier character.'
_Head._ The skull should be flat and moderately narrow, broader between
the ears and gradually tapering to the eyes, free from wrinkle. But
little slope, or indentation, should be visible, except in profile. The
jaw should be clean cut, rather long, powerful and muscular, with little
or any fullness or bulging out at the cheeks. There is a very slight
falling away below the eyes, but this must be very gradual, and not to
such an extent as to give a snipey, or wedgy, appearance. _The lips_
should be fairly tight, without any superfluous skin. _The nose_ must be
quite black. _The eyes_ should be small, not set too wide apart,
neither too much sunk, or protruding, dark-rimmed, full of life, and
intelligence. _The teeth_, strong, and level, incisors just closing over
the under ones. _The ears_, to which great importance is attached, V
shaped, rather small, fairly thick and carried forward, flat, and close
to the cheek. _The neck_ should be of fair length, clean and muscular,
well set, with shoulders tapering gradually to head. _The shoulders_,
fine at the points, long and sloping, chest deep, narrow rather than
broad. Shoulders and chest have of late received much attention by
judges; heavy shoulders and broad chests are no good for these dogs'
work. _Back and loin._ Back should be straight and strong, the ribs well
sprung, loin strong, wide and square, back ribs deep. Loin may be
slightly arched, but with no approach to 'wheel back.' _Hindquarters_
must be very strong, wide seen from behind, thighs with plenty of
muscle, long as well as large, stifles slightly bent, hocks straight.
Bone, short and strong from hock to heel. _Stern_ set on rather high,
carried gaily, not carried above a 'right angle' with back; if anything,
a trifle coarse. _Legs and feet._ Point of extreme value, to which
greatest attention should be given. Elbows well let down, in straight
line with body. Forelegs, however viewed, 'straight as gun barrels,'
with upright, powerful, pasterns; strong in bone, clothed with muscle
from elbow to foot, giving a most solid, unbroken appearance; feet,
round, and cat-like, very compact, toes short and only moderately
arched, soles hard as adamant; foot should neither turn in or out, if
any deviation, should turn in; no dew-claws behind. _The Coat_ should
be smooth, harsh in texture, very close and abundant, a jacket to
protect wearer from all weathers. Colours: white should predominate.
Brindle, fallow, liver, or red, markings are objectionable. _Size._ The
Fox Terrier must neither be leggy or too near the ground, neither must
he be cloddy, but should have plenty of 'liberty,' and galloping power,
with good bone and substance; fair speed and endurance being essentially
requisite for his legitimate calling. Seventeen pounds in hard working
condition is a fair average weight, but this may vary a pound or so
either way. Make, shape, good shoulders and chest, being far better
criterions, in this respect, than actual weight.--"

[Illustration: (OLD TYPE) WIREHAIRED FOXTERRIER CH. "LORY" C. H. LANE
OWNER.]

[Illustration: (NEW TYPE) WIREHAIRED FOXTERRIER CH. "ROPER'S NUT-CRACK".
SIR H. DE TRAFFORD BT. OWNER.]

The above applies to "Smooth," but is also an excellent standard for
"Wirehaired Fox Terriers," which are judged on same lines, _except_
coat, which in the latter, should be about two inches long, and very
dense, and wiry, not shaggy, or woolly, on any account.


[Illustration: DANDY-DINMONT. CH. "BLACKET-HOUSE YET" MRS. RAYNER,
OWNER.]

_Dandies._--A very sterling and genuine breed is _the Dandie Dinmont
Terrier_, which was, I think, first brought to public notice by the
writings of Sir Walter Scott, and as I have bred, owned, exhibited and
judged more of them than most people, I may be allowed to say they are
highly intelligent (according to my experience, much more so than any
breed of Terrier, and I believe I have kept most of them), devoted to
their owners "born sportsmen," being always open for anything in the way
of "sport" on land or in water, full of dash and spirit, have a quaint
and picturesque appearance, and make ideal companions for either sex.
Of course they are Scottish by birth and origin, but, the more they are
seen and known, the better they will be liked, and they have been so
much introduced into England, and good specimens bought up, that, at one
time, even if not now, there were more good ones in England than could
be met with in any part of Scotland. There are only supposed to be two
colours allowed in Dandies, "_Pepper_," which is a sort of pepper and
salt, composed of light and dark bluish greys, with topknots of silvery
white, and "_Mustard_," which is a kind of pale yellowish fawn, darker
on the neck and back than below, and also with a light silvery topknot.
A Dandie of high class, of either colour, shown in good coat and form,
is a very beautiful little dog, and fit company for the highest in the
land, and, as I said of the last breed I mentioned, may be seen in the
possession of all classes. I am not quite certain whether Her Majesty
the Queen continues to keep the breed. I do not remember seeing any at
Windsor, but I know that in the lifetime of the late lamented Prince
Consort, there were Dandies and Skyes amongst the royal pets. Where a
person desires to keep but one dog, and wishes to make a friend and
companion of it, I do not think that they could improve upon a Dandie,
as they make incomparable house dogs. I am speaking from a long and
intimate experience of them, as I have bred, owned, shown and judged
hundreds of them, and I have rarely found any, who have kept them, but
speak in the highest terms of their many charming qualities, and
continue to take an interest in the breed, perhaps, long after they
have any specimens of it left, and in many cases, several generations of
the same families have kept them on. In build they are low to the
ground, with long bodies, short legs, possessed of great strength and
endurance, and certainly one of the most muscular breeds of its size
with which I am acquainted, their quaint, dignified bearing, and deep
bark are marked characteristics. The following are the points of the
breed, as set out by me for publication, very many years since, and I am
not aware they have ever been altered:--Head apparently large in
proportion to size, skull fairly wide and covered with top-knot of
silky, light hair, muzzle deep and moderately broad, jaws of great
strength, teeth level, ears not thick or wide, and feathered to a point,
eyes dark hazel, very lustrous and intelligent (dark markings round the
eyes very desirable in Pepper Dandies), chest deep, forelegs as straight
as compatible with lowness, and, as well as in loins and hindquarters,
showing great bone and muscle, tail carried rather gaily, weight under
twenty-four pounds, bitches under twenty-two pounds. Colours, pepper or
mustard.


[Illustration: DROPEARED SKYE CH. "BALLOCHMY LE BASHFUL" SIR CLAUDE
ALEXANDER BART OWNER.]

_Skyes._--Perhaps it will be in order here to mention their fellow
countrymen, _the Skyes_, also admirably adapted as companions and house
dogs, the main advantages Dandies can claim over them being, in carrying
less coat, and being rather more active. Although blacks, and fawns with
black points, are occasionally seen, the predominant colours of Skyes
are, undoubtedly, various shades of grey, from light silver to dark
iron and steel. The breed is divided into two varieties, principally
distinguished by the carriage of their ears, and known as "Dropeared"
and "Prickeared;" in the former, the ears being rather large and
pendulous to the sides of the head, and in the latter, the ears are
carried as by the Pomeranians; each variety has its admirers, and some,
as I have done, keep both sorts, but I think there are many more
prick-eared to be seen, than drop-eared. These dogs are more active,
intelligent and courageous than would be supposed from their appearance,
and form strong attachments to their owners. Owing to the unsatisfactory
management of one, and the dissolution of the other, of the clubs,
founded many years since in Scotland, and England, for the encouragement
of this breed (which is another of those either still, or formerly,
favoured by royal patronage, both at Windsor and Sandringham), things
have not been going on swimmingly, for some years past, in the Skye
world, but I know there are a few zealous breeders still "pegging away"
with their kennels, and I am in hopes the interests and fortunes of the
breed will be again revived, and some more specimens brought forward, as
good, or better, than any seen in the past. The greatest fault I find
with nearly all the best specimens brought out of late years, is their
size, as in my opinion, and I have probably seen all the best brought
out during the last twenty-five years, their weight should not exceed
twenty-five pounds, even with dogs, and with bitches two or three pounds
less, with preference for small, good ones, long, low, hard in coat,
strong in bone, and muzzle, and not toys. With proper care and
attention, a Skye may be made a most beautiful animal, as is proved by
one of the inmates of a well known kennel, on one occasion, actually
pulling off, and on another, getting placed "Reserve," for the highest
possible honour at a first class London show, where all the competitors
were champions of their several varieties.

[Illustration: PRICK-EARED SKYE CH. of CH. "DUCHESS" Mrs W. J. HUGHES
OWNER.]

The points in Skyes are usually considered to be as follows: Head long
with powerful jaws and level teeth. Skull wide in front, narrowing
between ears and tapering gradually towards muzzle, with little falling
in between or behind the eyes. Eyes, close set, medium size, dark hazel.
Muzzle always black. Ears pendant, or pricked, in the former full and
well feathered, lying close to face in front, and in the latter standing
bolt upright, with a little feathering at the tip, standing towards each
other at inner edges from peak to skull. Body, preeminently long and
low, shoulders broad, chest deep, ribs oval shaped, and well sprung,
giving flattish appearance to sides. Hindquarters and flanks full and
well developed. Level back. Neck long and slightly crested; tail, when
raised, a prolongation of the incline of the back, gracefully feathered
on lower side, and not rising higher or curling over back. Legs, short,
straight and muscular, without dew claws. Feet rather large and pointing
forward. Under coat, short, close, soft and woolly. Over coat, hard,
straight, flat and crisp, averaging five and one-half inches long. Hair
on head shorter, softer, and veiling forehead and eyes; on ears,
overhanging, inside falling down and mingling with side locks, not
heavily, but surrounding the ear like a fringe, and allowing the
shape to appear. Colours: dark or light blue, grey, or steel, or fawn
with black points. Weight _not_ exceeding twenty-four pounds, a few
pounds less, better than any higher, as so many good specimens are
spoilt by being coarse, at least, this is my opinion, after considerable
practical experience of the breed, and being one of its staunchest
admirers.


[Illustration: HARD-HAIRED SCOTCH TERRIER CH. "KILLDEE" H. J. LUDLOW
Owner.]

_Scottish Terriers._--One of the misfortunes of being a "general lover
of animals," is that you can never tell which sort you like best, there
are so many breeds, I have bred and exhibited, and I think all breeds I
have judged, and I am identified with so many, which are presumed to be
my "prime favourites," but, it is a positive fact, although I have never
before mentioned it, that, some of the breeds, in which, I have had the
largest entries, for years and years, were taken up by me, so warmly,
because, I thought them in "low water," and in danger of extinction
without they were encouraged, that they were not at all favourites of
mine. But I do not intend to disclose preference for any particular
variety, beyond what my friends may know, or others may gather from the
contents of this book, but this I will say of the _Scottish Terrier_,
that if I was not the first, as mentioned hereafter in my "Doggy
Anecdotes," in this work, to introduce him into this country, more than
twenty-five years since, I must have been _one_ of the earliest, as I
never saw one here until long after arrival of my "_Fraochen_" (whose
life-like picture, coming through the underwood with a Rabbit in his
mouth, hangs by me while I pen these lines!). As I said of the Dandie,
and might say of the Irish Terrier, that where a man, _or woman_, for
that matter, as they are capital specimens for either sex, wants to keep
only one dog, _they cannot better_ one of those three breeds. They are
as true as steel, devoted as "pals," and faithful _as dogs_! The great
uniformity of type, and character, now seen in the large classes of
these game and picturesque-looking little fellows, at the larger shows,
proves the amount of care and attention which has been devoted to them
by breeders, _within_ the last quarter of a century. The usual colours
are, shades of black, dark grey and grizzle, and sometimes stone colour.
My friend, the late Capt. Keen, made an effort to introduce whites, but
I do not think it came to much. Although, I am glad to say, the
enthusiasm for the breed in "North-Britain," has not abated, not a few
good specimens, and to my certain knowledge (for I have the pleasure of
numbering them amongst my friends), not a few keen fanciers of "Scottish
Terriers," exist on _this_ side of "the border," and it is always my
wish, with them, when they meet, as with every other kind of "stock," in
rivalry, "may the best win, and the loser do his best to turn the tables
next time." With these few remarks on a breed on which much more could
be said, if space and time permitted, I will give: _The Points of the
Scottish Terrier_.--Skull of good length, rather inclined to be curved
in shape, covered with short hair, and showing a drop between the eyes;
muzzle, very powerful, and not too pointed; nose, large and black;
teeth, extremely large; eyes, dark, small, piercing in expression, and
very bright; ears, very small, sharp at the corners, and carried erect;
neck, short, and powerful; chest, rather wide, and very deep; body, only
moderately long, and very powerful at the loins; forelegs, straight,
short, and heavy in bone, with small, compact feet, well padded with
hair between the toes; hindquarters very muscular and the hocks well
bent; tail of fair length and carried rather gaily; coat, very harsh,
and weather resisting; colours, dark grey, black, brindle, red or
wheaten. Much white marking being very objectionable.



Part II



CONTENTS


PART II

  DOGS USED IN WORK

  CHAP.                                                     PAGE

   VIII. St. Bernards, Newfoundlands, Mastiffs,
         Dalmatians                                          147

     IX. Sheep Dogs:--Rough Collies, Smooth Collies, Old
         English                                             169

      X. Bull Dogs, Bull Terriers, Boston Terriers           179

     XI. Terriers,--Irish, Airedale, Bedlington, Black and
         Tan, Old English                                    199



CHAPTER VIII

DOGS USED IN WORK

ST. BERNARDS--NEWFOUNDLANDS--MASTIFFS--DALMATIANS


[Illustration: ROUGH ST BERNARD CH. "SIR BEDIVERE" S. SMITH OWNER.]

[Illustration: SMOOTH ST BERNARD CH. "GUIDE" J. F. SMITH OWNER.]

_St. Bernards._--Although apparently so much removed from the breeds, I
have been deeply associated with for the last twenty-five years, I am
bound to say I have always been a great admirer of St. Bernards, and can
well remember many years ago, at a show held at Laycock's Dairy Yard,
Islington, being struck with admiration at the team shown there by Mr.
Cumming Macdona (at that time, and for some years later, "a name to
conjure with" in the St. Bernard world), and afterwards I was a great
admirer of my friend Mr. Gresham's Hector and Abbess (two of the best I
had seen in possession of one owner) and many more, too numerous to
mention. I am inclined to think the breed is not quite as popular as it
was some years since, and that the entries at most of our best shows are
neither as large, nor as good, as they were. The points desired are as
follows:--The head very massive and large, showing great depth from eye
to lower jaw; the face rather short; muzzle wide, deep, and cut off
square; the lips should hang down well and be rather loose; the "stop"
well defined, but not too abrupt; the skull massive and well rounded,
eyes dark in colour, of medium size, rather deeply set, the lower eyelid
drooping slightly, so as to show a little of the red haw; ears rather
small, lying well to the cheek, and very slightly feathered in the Rough
variety; nose black in colour, wide and deep; legs very straight, with
great bone and muscle, hocks and stifle well bent; feet large and
compact; body rather long, broad, straight and ribs well rounded. The
coat of the Smooth or Short-coated variety, should be very close, thick
and slightly brokenhaired. In the Rough variety the coat should be dense
and flat, of medium length, not woolly, rather longer on the neck,
thighs and tail. Colour and markings: orange, orange and tawny, and all
shades of brindle, and red; the markings should be as follows:--White
muzzle, white blaze up face, the white being shaded with black, also
black shadings on the ears, white collar round neck, white chest, legs
and tip of tail. The body may be white with patches of any of above
colours.


[Illustration: Bk NEWFOUNDLAND. CH. "WOLF OF BADENOCH". Mrs INGLETON
OWNER.]

[Illustration: LANDSEER-NEWFOUNDLAND. CH. "KETTERING WONDER". LADY
TOLLEMACHE OWNER.]

_Newfoundlands._--There are few of the non-sporting breeds which have
received more notice in the newspapers than the Newfoundland dog, being
so often associated with saving of life on the sea coasts, or on the
banks of some of our rivers, and I think there are few, if any, dogs so
really and naturally fond of the water, and being possessed of strength
and courage, they are often able to render valuable aid. At one time I
feared they were becoming almost extinct, and I think the many and very
beautiful specimens we now see at our shows, are mainly due to my old
friend, Mr. Edwin Nichols, of Kensington, who took up the breed
very warmly some years ago, and became one of the most shining lights in
the Newfoundland world. I remember, his ideas of the points to be sought
after were as follows:--Head to be broad and massive, with a flat skull
and somewhat square muzzle; ears small, in proportion to size of the
animal, and lying close to the head; coat straight, dense and capable of
resisting water; tail carried gaily, but not curled over the back.
Colours: black, black and white, or bronze. Average weights, one hundred
pounds for dogs and eighty-five pounds for bitches. General appearance
that of a dignified, thoughtful, and thoroughly reliable guard,
companion, or friend, with a great deal of character.


[Illustration: MASTIFF CH. "BEAUFORT" W. K. TAUNTON OWNER.]

_The Mastiff._--This, which is usually considered one of the National
breeds of this kingdom, is a splendid fellow, stylish and imperious in
manner and bearing, and fit to be the associate of the very highest in
the land. I don't think I can do better than quote the opinion of Mr. M.
B. Wynn, whom I well remember as a frequent exhibitor, breeder and judge
of this variety, some years ago. He says:--"What I consider a true type
of the British Mastiff. Head, this is the most important feature, it
should be broad between ears, and broad between the eyes. The "stop"
should extend up the face to a considerable length; forehead wrinkled
and flat; cheeks very prominent; muzzle broad, blunt and heavy, and as
deep as possible; profile square, and the under jaw, if any thing, to be
undershot; eyes small and to be deeply set, with a deal of loose skin
down the sides of the face; ears small and either half erect, or wholly
pendant, and thin to the touch. Body: Chest deep and thick through,
broad between forelegs; loin, broad, flat, heavy; body long. Stern: Many
good breeders prefer a long one, but I do not care for it to reach much
below the hock. Legs, broad, round, massive, straight. Height: this is a
much disputed point. The taller the better, provided the weight
corresponds in proportion. A dog standing twenty-eight inches high,
ought to weigh in good condition one hundred and twenty-five pounds, and
for every inch in height above that (_i. e._, twenty-eight inches) the
weight ought to increase from eight to ten pounds. But over thirty
inches, a still greater increase, in proportion. Many good dogs are only
twenty-eight and twenty-nine inches high, but from thirty-one to
thirty-three are to be desired. Height should ever be accompanied with
massive build and length, and should proceed from the shoulder to the
elbow, rather than from the elbow to the foot. I mean the height of the
dog should be derived from the depth of the chest, rather than from
"over-legginess," as this must tend to develop the weight, more or less,
of the whole animal. Colour, after all, is the last requisite, since you
may breed in a few generations, any colour you please. The purest fawns
have descended from the most decided brindles, and from time to time,
the white face, especially, has and will occur, and generally in the
finest specimens, and those which most closely resemble the paintings of
their progenitors. I am an advocate for fineness of coat, but not at the
expense of other more characteristic features.

_Points of the Mastiff._--The show points of this breed have been set
out as follows:--Head large and massive, skull flatly rounded, muzzle
square, broad and deep, teeth level, eyes dark brown or hazel coloured
and wide apart in setting; front legs straight, muscular and with great
bone; chest deep; loins strong and wide. Size of secondary importance,
so long as symmetry is retained. Colours: brindled, or apricot fawn, in
both cases noses, muzzles and ears black. General appearance that of a
massive, dignified and fine looking animal, well suited as a guard or
reliable companion.


[Illustration: THE BLACK SPOTTED DALMATIAN BITCH CH. "BEROLINA" E. T.
PARKER OWNER.]

_The Dalmatian._--This is a breed I have bred and kept for many years
and I have had the pleasure of judging some of the largest classes of
them ever seen, if I remember rightly, having nearly sixty entries on
one occasion, at the Crystal Palace, and large classes at the Royal
Agricultural Hall, Earl's Court, Birmingham and other places. At one
time they got down to a very low ebb, in numbers, but I think they are
now coming forward again, as I had a very good lot before me at the last
show of the Kennel Club. I think they have more of the Pointer type than
that of any other breed about them although I have used them entirely as
companions and guards, and there is no doubt they have a natural talent
as carriage dogs, and are very fond of horses; I know they are
exclusively used in Italy and other parts of the Continent of Europe for
sporting purposes, and they are often included in troupes of performing
dogs, in some of which I have seen very accomplished specimens, seeming
to adapt themselves to the work, particularly of a humorous character,
with much spirit and to be easily trained. Of course, as show dogs,
their markings are of great importance. I have for some time been trying
to bring forward more specimens of the liver, as well as the black,
spotted variety, which is now so seldom seen. Prince 4th, and his
handsome son, Champion Fauntleroy, a capital portrait of whom
illustrates this variety, and the bitch Doncaster Beauty, are the three
best of that colour, I have seen for many years, while Fawdry's Captain
and Leaho, my Lurth and Leah, and Wilson's Acrobat and Parker's Coming
Still, and Champion Berolina (formerly Wilson's), as well as Hartley's
Treasure, are the best of the black spotted variety seen for a very long
time. I have found them very docile and affectionate as well as more
intelligent than many people suppose, from seeing them running behind a
carriage.

[Illustration: LIVER SPOTTED DALMATIAN CH. "FONTLEROY." W. B. HERMAN
OWNER.]

_Points of the Show Dalmatian._--The points of this breed are, longish
head, flat skull, with moderate stop; long and powerful muzzle; medium
sized eyes, dark for black spotted, and light for the liver spotted
variety; ears rather small, white with black or liver markings, carried
close to head; nose black or liver, according to markings on body; neck
arched and fairly long, without throatiness; very deep but not wide
chest; powerful back and well ribbed body; muscular loins and straight
legs, compact, well padded feet; slightly curved, tapering tail, with
markings on it same colour as on body, carried rather gaily with an
upward curve; coat dense, harsh and short. Ground colour, white,
pure, with spots on body, ears and tail, size of a shilling or larger,
clear and distinct, not mixed or blurred, colour of spots to be rather
intense black, or a rich liver. Weight from fifty to fifty-five pounds.
General appearance to be that of a showy, stylish, powerful and
upstanding dog (too many of even the good specimens shown, are too
small, in my opinion), much of the Pointer type, but higher on leg and
altogether larger. They should have a close, fine coat, which if kept in
proper order, should have almost such a shiny appearance as you see on a
well groomed horse, they are very lively, cleanly, affectionate, and
much more intelligent animals, than is generally supposed, and as they
are exceedingly active, and fond of exercise, to those persons who like
a cheerful comrade, willing and able, besides being an excellent guard,
to accompany them on their journeys on foot, on horseback, or when
driving, or even on bicycle, when the travelling is at a moderate pace,
I think a Dalmatian would be suitable.



CHAPTER IX

DOGS USED IN WORK (_Continued_)

SHEEP-DOGS--ROUGH COLLIES--SMOOTH COLLIES--OLD ENGLISH SHEEP-DOGS


[Illustration: ROUGH COLLIE "LOCHIEL". H. R. H. PRINCESS OF WALES,
OWNER.]

_The Rough-coated Collie_ is a very beautiful and interesting breed, of
a highly nervous temperament, very intelligent, and capable of much
training for the performance of his natural work with the flocks. Those
who have seen him, at the Sheepdog trials, which are frequently held in
various parts of the country, but more particularly in Wales, can
testify to the patience, care, judgment and discretion, shown by many of
the competitors, who, in these cases, have usually three strange sheep
to conduct a long distance, over a course marked out by flags on small
posts stuck in the ground at intervals, and put them into a small pen,
usually made of three hurdles, at the end of the course, no one being
allowed to accompany the dogs during the trial, but merely to give
directions from a distance, by voice or gestures. I am inclined to think
the Scotch Collie is, at the present time, nearly the most popular breed
of dog in the United Kingdom, and a really first class specimen, good in
head, ears, eyes, shape, size, coat, colour and brush, is very valuable.
This is another breed favoured in high places, Her Majesty The Queen,
the Princess of Wales (one of whose specimens illustrates this variety),
the Countess of Warwick, and many more distinguished persons too
numerous to particularize, being amongst those who have extended their
patronage to this favourite breed of dog. The points to be desired in
this breed, are as follows:--Long head, skull not too wide or round,
obliquely set eyes, dark and expressive, small ears, set rather far back
and high, raised semi-erect, technically known as half-pricked, when
excited, with points slightly forward and hanging down; frame sinewy,
active and well knit; deep but wide in chest; straight forelegs,
feathered at back, with well bent hocks, strong compact feet; dense
undercoat of warm, woolly hair, with coat of hard hair over, intensely
full over the shoulders, neck and chest, tail carried in a graceful
curve and not over back, profusely feathered on lower side, colours
usually shades of black, sable grey, blue and red, with or without
white; size from forty-five to sixty-five for dogs, and for bitches
something less. The general appearance of a strong, active and very
intelligent dog, eager and ready to obey his master's orders.

[Illustration: SMOOTH COLLIE CH. "LADY NELLIE" C. H. LANE OWNER.]

I must not omit to mention the _Smooth Collie_, another variety. I have
long bred and kept it. It also is distinguished for its great activity.
I remember, in particular, one merle bitch of this breed I had who would
run up a rough stone wall ten feet high, like a cat, and jump down the
other side, and I have frequently seen her take a run and go over the
large wooden doors leading into my stable yard; _she_ was a marvel, but
I have had many others, who have surprised me by their athletic
performances. Some of the most intelligent work of any breed of sheep
dog has been done by Smooth Collies. A black and light brown bitch, of
what I may call Bloodhound colour, which I had some years since (her
portrait illustrates this variety), had again and again beaten all
competitors and taken gold and silver medals at Sheep Dog trials in
England and Wales, and was superior in intelligence to most "two-legged
animals" of any variety. If in charge of a flock of sheep, on a narrow
road, or lane, and they got jammed, she would either jump the wall or
hedge, at side, and run down to head them, or run over their backs to
the front, and drive them back to clear the course, and she knew what
was said to her almost before it was uttered. The appearance of this
breed is much like that of the Rough, or Scotch Collie, except that the
coat is short and sleek, ears pricked and without feathering on them or
the legs; and the tail, with only a slight fringe of hair on its lower
side. The favoured colours are merle (which is a sort of mottled grey,
black and blue), black and white, tricolour, and what I have before
mentioned as Bloodhound colour, being black on the back, and light
tan-coloured brown all the rest of the body, and it is considered an
advantage, rather than otherwise, for one or both of the eyes to be
"wall," or china, coloured. Having used them for work, as companions,
guards, and as house pets, I can speak very highly of Smooth Collies,
which, I think, are more kept in the north of England and in Wales,
particularly the South, than in any other parts of the country, but I
also think that if they were more known, they would be more kept, as
they have many advantages in their favour, and, like other short-coated
breeds, their change of coat is hardly perceptible, whereas we know how
very unsightly is any long-coated breed of dog when "out of coat." The
points of this breed are the same as in the Rough-coated variety, except
in coat.


_Bobtail Sheep Dogs._--Another very favourite breed with many is the
_Old English_, also called the Short-tailed, more commonly known as
"_Bobtailed_" _Sheep Dogs_, and, except for being rather large, and
carrying a heavy coat, both of which are objections in a house, they are
very agreeable companions, as they are very warm, in fact devoted, in
their affections, capital guards, quick to learn and carry out their
owner's wishes, well able to take care of themselves in any difference
with _any other breed_ of dogs, and so marvellously active, and
muscular, that I have seen a "Bobtail" win prizes in open jumping
competition with _all_ other breeds. To look at them no one would have
the slightest idea of their lively and active character. I have had a
great deal to do with them, having kept and bred them for many years,
and almost my earliest remembrance of any kind of dog, is connected with
a shaggy old customer of this breed called "Billie," belonging to a very
old friend of mine, at a Somersetshire farm, with whom I was on the
closest terms of friendship, and whose companionship used to impart a
strong "doggy" odour to my garments on the occasions of my visiting
him. I am very pleased to say, that this breed, which had been much
neglected on account of the influx of Scotch Collies, and was even in
danger of becoming almost extinct, has been very much taken up the last
few years, and even in London you now often see very decent specimens
accompanying fashionable ladies and carriages. It may not be generally
known, but I have proved it by actual practice with a great many of my
own specimens, that a "Bobtail" is a capital dog to follow carriage,
trap, or a rider on horseback. I have come many miles, on the darkest
nights, across country roads and lanes, with a couple following me, and
never knew an instance where they missed me, or failed to turn up at the
end of the journey, and the same in the crowded streets of a large city
I often visit. It is supposed to be one of the oldest breeds of dog we
have, and in one of Shakespeare's old English comedies, which was lately
mounted in unusually first class style, and with many novel realistic
effects, by a popular and well known manager at a West End theatre, a
quaint old shepherd appeared on the stage accompanied by a rugged
Bobtail, who made herself quite at home in her novel surroundings, and
gave a great finish to the scene. The Bobtail in question was lent by
me, and is the sister of a well known "Champion" belonging to one of the
most successful exhibitors and spirited buyers of Sheep dogs in the
United Kingdom. The points of this breed, as show specimens, are:--Head
square and large, eyes rather small and dark, but wall or marble eyes
are considered an advantage when obtainable, particularly in light
coloured specimens, body should be large and powerful, without
coarseness, sloping rather to front; legs straight, very strong and
muscular, well covered with hair down to toes, hindquarters high and
heavy, ears small for size of animal, neatly set on side of head,
densely coated with a harsh, straight and broken coat, of
weather-resisting character, colours very various, but shades of blue,
particularly that known as pigeon blue, mixed with white, especially on
head, chest and forelegs, most desired, weight forty-five to fifty-five
pounds.

_Champion Cupid's Dart_, whose portrait is here given, is one of the
best of the breed at present before the public.

[Illustration: OLD ENGLISH SHEEP-DOG. CH. "CUPID'S DART" F. WILMOT.
OWNER.]



CHAPTER X

DOGS USED IN WORK (_Continued_)

BULL DOGS--BULL TERRIERS--BOSTON TERRIERS


[Illustration: BULLDOG CH. "BLACKBERRY" S. WOODIWISS OWNER. (LARGE)]

[Illustration: BULLDOG "BARNEY BARNATO" G. R. SIMS OWNER. (MEDIUM)]

Amongst the most popular breeds of late years, has been one that would
not be generally expected to be found in that capacity, although it is a
very old and national breed. Perhaps I should say that, in reference to
all the companionable breeds I have mentioned in these articles, I mean
more especially kept by ladies, as when one speaks of such dogs, one
naturally thinks of animals not chained to a dog box, or shut up in a
kennel outside, but brought into the house, and, literally "treated as
one of the family." I refer to the _Bull Dog_, and having owned and had
to do with a great many of these, I can testify to their usual good
temper and placidity of disposition, in spite of the many unfavourable
comments we frequently hear about them. Indeed, it is a rare thing to
meet with a bad tempered Bull dog, and the majority of them will submit
to great liberties being taken, even by smaller dogs, rather than
attempt to take their own part, and have little idea of fighting in the
style practised by some other breeds. But if they once make up their
minds to go for any person, or animal, they are difficult to dislodge
when they have taken hold. The sizes are very various, the dogs running
from under forty pounds to over fifty-five pounds, and the bitches from
under thirty-five to under fifty pounds, and of late years a class of
"Toy Bull dogs" have been brought out, which I mention elsewhere. The
head large, small ears, rather prominent eyes, very short nose, chin
rather turned up and generally pugilistic look of the face, with the
body rather heavy in front, swung between legs placed widely apart, back
short and curved, technically called "roached," with mean hindquarters
and a short tail, with a downward turn in it if not "screwed," are
familiar features of the breed to most people knowing anything of it,
and the colours are white, white and brindle, white and Hound tan, white
and black, brindle, brindle and white, brindle and fallow, fawn with
black muzzle, fawn and white, red, red and white, red and black, black,
and black and white. Of course the brindles, reds, and fawns run into
different shades of each, but I think the foregoing contain nearly all
the colours allowed by the Bull Dog Clubs. It is a fascinating breed,
and when once it has been taken up, is seldom altogether dropped, and I
have known several generations of the same family keeping up the strain.
I should say the mortality amongst Bull Dogs is as great as, or probably
greater than, in _any other breed_ of dog, particularly before they are
a year old. Whether their being so much inbred, to preserve certain
characteristics, or being so short faced as to interfere with their
organs of respiration, are the causes, I will not pretend to say, but if
you ask any breeder, he will tell you what considerable losses he
suffers every year. Another difficulty which would not be suspected, is
that many of them are such bad "doers," that is, do not seem to have any
appetite for their food. I remember congratulating an enthusiast of the
breed on the condition of his favourite, a large brindle and white, at
least fifty pounds weight. "Yes," he said, "he is looking well, but for
the last fortnight he has been living entirely on veal cutlets." I
thought he would be an expensive boarder on such fare, but from my
experience of the breed and its owners, I doubt very much if _any other
kind of dog_ is so much pampered. They are naturally slow and lazy in
their movements, do not, as a rule, take much exercise, or go much into
the open air, so have not much healthy appetite, but as a _thin_ Bull
Dog is an abomination, their "condition" _must_ be kept up.

[Illustration: BULLDOG, CH. "LADY ROZELLE" C. H. LANE OWNER. (SMALL)]


[Illustration: BULLTERRIER CH. "SHERBOURNE QUEEN" W. J. PEGG OWNER.]

_Bull Terrier._--The Bull Terrier, formerly so much used in combats with
others of the same variety, (now happily things of the past, except "on
the quiet" at some of the less reputable public houses in out of the way
spots), has always been a prime favourite with the younger members of
the sporting fraternity, on account of his undaunted courage, activity,
lively disposition, and neat "business-like" appearance. He has been
much affected by the stoppage of "cropping the ears," and they are only
now beginning to produce specimens with small, well-carried, drop ears,
which take off much of the fierce expression they formerly wore, and
make them more presentable to the general public. For my own part, and I
have had many good specimens in my time, I do not care for them being
too big. I think twenty-five pounds quite heavy enough, even for a dog,
but I have often seen them at shows nearly or quite double that weight,
when to my mind, they become coarse and unwieldy, whereas such a breed
should be active, bright and lively, as well as shapely and stylish in
appearance. In colour he should be pure white, although I have seen and
owned many otherwise nearly perfect specimens, with markings, usually
lemon or brindled, on some part of head or body. The following are the
points laid down by Mr. S. E. Shirley, President of the Kennel Club, who
used to own some grand specimens:--The head should be long; the forehead
flat, the eyes small, round, keen, and as dark as possible, any approach
to a light or hazel coloured eye, being very objectionable; the jaws
should be quite level, strong and muscular; the muzzle fine and tapering
from the eyes; the nose quite black; the neck, long and well set into
strong, sloping shoulders; the chest wide and deep; the legs very
straight, strong and powerful; the feet small and round; the back strong
and short; the tail, which is or should be a great point in the Bull
Terrier, should be moderately fine, at the root, gradually tapering to
the point, it should be set on rather low, and carried in a gay, jaunty
manner, neither high nor low, not "hooped," or with the slightest
inclination to twist or "screw."


[Illustration: BOSTON-TERRIER "TURPIN". MISS J. TOZIER, OWNER.]

_The Boston Terrier._--By the kindness of a correspondent on the "other
side of the water," who has taken the trouble to supply some authentic
details of this breed of which so little is known amongst Englishmen,
but which are sure to be of much interest to the many fanciers and
admirers of the variety, I have much pleasure in giving the actual words
of my correspondent in the following description and standard of show
points of the Boston Terrier.

"_Concerning the earlier dogs of the breed._--How did the breed
originate? It resulted from a cross between the English Bull dog and the
English Terrier, and these two have been considerably inbred. Accidental
peculiarities of the first dogs used as sires are partly responsible for
the present type. About 30 years ago Mr. Robert C. Hooper, of Boston,
Mass., U. S. A., came into possession of a dog named Judge who was
imported from England. This dog known as Hooper's Judge was destined to
be the ancestor of the true modern Boston Terrier. He was a cross
between an English Bull dog and an English Terrier, leaning in type
rather more toward the Bull dog. Judge was bred to Gyp, or Kate, a white
bitch, owned by Ed. Burnett, of Southboro, Mass. She weighed twenty
pounds, had a fine three-quarter tail low stationed, stocky-build,
showing strength in her make-up, good head, being short and blocky. From
Judge and Gyp descended Well's Eph. Eph was mated to Tobin's Kate,
weighing twenty pounds, short head, golden brindle in colour, and
straight three-quarter tail. From Well's Eph and Tobin's Kate came
Barnard's Tom, the _first_ dog with a screw tail. This dog Tom was a
great improvement over his sire and grandsire, beside being the _first_
to show the fine quality that is present in a good specimen of the
modern Boston Terrier--Tom was the best Boston Terrier of his day, so,
of course, was much used in stud. The above gives very briefly the main
facts concerning the older dogs of this breed. To correct an idea that
has become somewhat prevalent, it can here be stated that the dog is in
no sense a fighting dog. While he is plucky as might be expected from
his ancestry, he is not quarrelsome or aggressive--is very loyal to his
master, obedient, affectionate and of sweet nature, quick in motion and
very intelligent."

Show points and standard of the Boston Terrier, furnished by an
enthusiastic American fancier of the breed.

_General Appearance._--The general appearance of the Boston Terrier is
that of a smooth, short-coated, compactly built dog of medium stature.
The head should indicate a high degree of intelligence, and should be in
proportion to the dog's size, the body rather short and well knit, the
limbs strong and finely turned, no feature being so prominent that the
dog appears badly proportioned. The dog conveys an idea of
determination, strength and activity--style of a high order, carriage
easy and graceful.

Skull--Broad and flat without prominent cheeks, and forehead free from
wrinkles.

Stop--Well defined but indenture not too deep.

Eyes--Wide apart, large and round, neither sunken nor too prominent,
dark in colour and soft--the outside corner on a line with the
cheeks as viewed from the front.

Ears--Small and thin, as near corners of the skull as possible.

Muzzle--Short, square, wide and deep, without wrinkles; nose black and
wide, with a well defined straight line between nostrils. The jaws broad
and square with short, regular teeth; the chops wide and deep, not
pendulous, completely covering the teeth when the mouth is closed.

Neck--Of fair length, without throatiness, and slightly arched.

Body--Deep and broad at chest, well ribbed up. Back short, not roached.
Loins and quarters strong.

Elbows--Standing neither in nor out.

Fore legs--Wide apart, straight and well muscled.

Hind legs--Straight, quite long from stifle to hock, which should turn
neither in nor out, short and straight from hock to pastern, thighs well
muscled, hocks not too prominent.

Feet--Small, turned neither in nor out. Toes compact and arched.

Tail--Set on low, fine tapering or screw--devoid of fringe or coarse
hair, _not_ carried above the horizontal.

Colour--Any colour, brindle, evenly marked with white, strongly
preferred.

Markings--White muzzle, blaze on face, collar, chest and feet.

Coat--Fine in texture, short and bright and not hard.

Weight--Light-weight class, under twenty-three pounds, but not less
than thirteen pounds. Heavy-weight class, twenty-three to thirty pounds,
inclusive.

_Disqualifications_--Cocked tail or any artificial means to deceive the
judge.

SCORE OF POINTS.

Skull, 12; ears, 2; eyes, 5; stop, 2; muzzle, 12; neck, 5; body, 15;
elbows, 2; forelegs, 4; hindlegs, 4; feet, 2; tail, 10; colour, 8;
markings, 4; coat, 3; general appearance, style, 10.

Total, 100.



CHAPTER XI

DOGS USED IN WORK (_Continued_)

TERRIERS--IRISH--AIREDALE--BEDLINGTON--BLACK AND TAN--SMOOTH ENGLISH


[Illustration: IRISH TERRIER CH. "TED MALONE" Mrs BUTCHER OWNER]

_The Irish Terrier._--There is scarcely any breed of any of the many
varieties of the Terrier, which has grown more in popularity during the
last twenty years, than this. And I believe it has done so strictly on
its merits; of course, somewhat helped by the ardour and zeal of his
excitable and genial fellow-countrymen, who have done all in their power
to help on one of their "national breeds." From the points hereafter
given, my readers will get a good description of the breed. I may say
that my experience of it, _personally_, was chiefly in some I bought of
my friend, Mr. W. Graham, of Belfast, (so much known and liked in
English as well as Irish doggy circles, and the breeder and exhibitor of
some of the best specimens of the breed ever seen). The only reason we
"parted company," was their talent for "boxing." If I had a dozen or
more dogs out peaceably enjoying themselves in a paddock, the moment
"the Irishmen" were let out, there were "ructions," and they could not
content themselves with just a friendly bout amongst themselves, or with
some of the Dandies, Skyes, or others, near their own size and weight,
but must needs go and pick a quarrel with some of the Collies, Bobtails
or other larger dogs, and I feared they would be killed, so got rid of
them, though they were all right with all of us, and indeed great
favourites. The following description of the breed is by my friend, Mr.
L. I. Barnett, so well known as Secretary of the English Section of the
Irish Terrier Club, and a frequent judge:--

_Points of the Irish Terrier._--"Head long, rather narrow; punishing
jaw; eyes, small and dark; ears fairly small, not set on too high; legs
straight, and strong; feet, round, and thick, with good heels; chest
narrow, with good depth of brisket; back strong, and straight, with tail
set on rather high; loins strong; neck, strong, and muscular; coat very
hard, and straight, shorter on head; colour yellow-red, darker on ears;
expression, 'wicked,' but intelligent."


[Illustration: AIREDALE TERRIER CH. "DUMBARTON LASS" A. E. JENNINGS
OWNER.]

_Airedales._--Another breed I see occasionally kept is the _Airedale
Terrier_, which are seldom less than forty pounds weight, and often much
more. As guards, or companions, they are admirable, and follow a trap
well, and can look after their own welfare, but although they have been
immensely improved since they were first brought out, in the North of
England, as "The Waterside Terrier," there is, to my mind, a coarse and
common look about them, that seems to keep them more associated with a
breed suitable to accompany his master's trap or cart, or to mount guard
over premises liable to be attacked by burglars, and its size always
seems to me much to its disadvantage, in doing any of the work
which usually falls to the members of the different varieties of
"Terriers." The long shaped head, small ears, dark hazel eyes, strong,
well-knit body, with docked tail, and the colour grizzled black above,
and light tan below, will be familiar to most readers of these words. I
have known many beautiful Airedales, some of them (except in size)
nearly perfect in their Terrier character, and on the occasions I have
judged the breed I have had excellent entries of good quality, and I
know now many who keep them, and prefer them to any other breed of dog.
I am bound, however, to say I have never been very much taken up with
them, as I object to their size as being too big to be classed amongst
Terriers for the work of that variety.


[Illustration: BEDLINGTON-TERRIER. CH. "CLYDE-BOY" R.H. SMITH. OWNER.]

_The Bedlington._--This breed, which first appeared at Darlington Dog
show in 1866, had existed in the extreme north of England, for nearly or
quite fifty years before that, and has always been more bred and kept in
the north than in any other part of the country, although I have
occasionally seen good specimens elsewhere. The following extract from a
letter published in "The Field" in March, 1869, from a staunch supporter
of the breed, will be of interest to some of my readers. "The Bedlington
Terrier is fast, and whether on land, or in water, is equally at home;
in appetite, these dogs are dainty, and they seldom fatten; but
experience has shown them to be wiry, enduring, and, in courage, equal
to the bull dog. They will face almost anything, and I know of a dog
which will extinguish a candle or lighted paper at his master's
bidding! To these other good qualities may be added, their marked
intelligence, and hostility to vermin of all kinds. They will encounter
the otter, fox, badger, with the greatest determination. The points of
the Bedlington Terrier, which is a very lively member, as a rule, are as
follows: Skull narrow and domed, and adorned with a silky top-knot; jaws
very strong and punishing and lips tight; nose large and either black or
liver-coloured, according to shade of the coat, eyes small and rather
deeply sunk, their colour following that of body, ears fine, filbert
shaped, tipped with soft silky hair and carried flat against the sides
of the head, neck long and shoulders sloping, body rather narrow at the
chest, but deep at this point, ribs flat, slightly arched at the loins,
which should be powerful, legs straight, feet of fair size, hindquarters
graceful looking and not too heavy, tail tapering almost all the way
from base, carried in a curve like a Turkish Sword; coat much as a
Dandie's, linty, composed of a mixture of hard and soft hair. Colours
blue liver or sandy, or mixtures of above with tanned markings, pure
self colours preferred and any white objectionable. General appearance
that of a particularly alert and active dog of immense energy and
courage, and quite prepared to take his own part, with any dog of any
breed.


[Illustration: WELSH TERRIER CH. "BRYNHIR BURNER" W. S. GLYNN. OWNER.]

_The Welsh Terrier._--Another handy sized breed for pet or companion and
a smart guard is the Welsh Terrier, which is practically a wire-haired
black and tan terrier, not over twenty pounds, and often less, in
weight, head flat and wider at base, eyes set rather wide, muzzle
longish, and a bit stronger than usually seen in Fox Terriers, ears
small, with forward carriage, neck clean and not short, muscular thighs
and well-boned, straight, fore-legs, coat (black, or grizzle and tan, in
colour) wiry, hard and dense, should have no white spots, or markings.
They are very smart, showy dogs and usually very keen on anything in the
vermin, or sporting line, and are being bred very true to type by some
of their patrons, many of whom are very enthusiastic in their praise.


_The Old English Terrier._--A breed closely resembling these are the
_Old English Terriers_, usually rather larger and more grizzled in
colour than their Welsh brethren, and very suitable, being something
like a small Airedale in appearance, as companions or house guards. The
considerable interest taken in Airedales and Welsh Terriers, (both of
which have one or more specialist clubs to look after their interests
and push them forward) has been rather prejudicial to the Old English
Terriers, which have been somewhat neglected, but I should like to see
someone take them up, as there is much of "general utility" about them,
and they should not be allowed to die out.


[Illustration: BLACK & TAN TERRIER CH. STARKIE BEN LT. COL. C. S. DEAN.
OWNER.]

_The Black and Tan Terrier._--Another well-known breed is the Manchester
or Black and Tan Terrier, which, some years since, enjoyed considerable
popularity, and I think the main cause of its decline, was its getting
into the hands of some unscrupulous members of the community, who dyed,
faked, and "rang the changes," as it was called, with them, to such an
extent, that respectable people were afraid to have anything to do with
them. I have no doubt that the cropping edict has also been against
them, as formerly, if a dog had large, or ugly ears, their appearance
was often improved in the cropping, but now, unless the ears are
naturally small, good specimens have little chance in the keen
competition of these dogs. I need hardly describe them as fine-coated,
rather snake-headed dogs with bright eyes of dark colour, and marked
with tan, which should be clear in shade on the legs, thighs, feet, and
other parts. They are well adapted as pets and companions, being smart,
lively and intelligent in their manners and cleanly and vigilant in
their habits. The points of the Manchester or Black and Tan Terrier are
rather elaborate and run as follows: Head long and narrow, flat from the
back to the nose and with no humps at sides or cheek, muzzle long and
tapering, but not weak, eyes small and oval shaped, black and bright.
The correct carriage of the ears is a debatable point since cropping has
been abolished, but probably the drop ear is correct; neck light and
graceful, shoulders sloping, chest rather narrow but deep and the body
slightly arched with good back ribs; forelegs quite straight with well
arched toes and jet black toenails, powerful hindquarters with hocks
well let down, tail very fine and carried almost straight, coat short,
yet close. Colour: Lustrous blue black, with rich mahogany tan markings
along the jaws, under the throat, over the eyes, on the cheeks, inside
the ears, on each side of breast, on the inside of the hind legs,
under the vent and on the forelegs up to above the pastern joint. The
toes, however, have black lines called "pencilling," running up them and
there is a black spot called the thumb mark just along the pastern joint
in front of the limb. The general appearance is that of a high class and
well-bred, smart and neat-looking dog well suited for any work, coming
into the sphere of a terrier, and a fit companion or guard for either
sex, or any rank of life. He can adapt himself to the cottage, or the
palace, and look well in either.


[Illustration: WHITE ENGLISH TERRIER. CH. ECLIPSE J. WALSH. OWNER.]

_The White English Terrier_--I may here mention what is doubtless a
branch of the same variety or closely allied to it, the White English
Terrier, which, but for its colour, being all pure white, is just built
on the same lines, and is suitable for the same purposes, as his black
and tan cousin. Some years since when the lighter weights of bull
terriers were more popular than at present, I think they were largely
crossed with White English, so as to get down their size, and some I
have had, and many I have seen, have undoubtedly had some of the Bull
Terrier blood in them, which could be traced in their skulls, showing
rather more fullness than the breed should indicate, and their
dispositions being rather more warlike than was always convenient to
their owners, or agreeable to their kennel companions. I contend that a
thoroughbred White English Terrier is quite a superior dog and fit
company for anyone. I know some of the best at the present time are
owned by ladies.



Part III



CONTENTS

PART III

PERFORMING AND TOY BREEDS


  CHAP.                                                     PAGE

    XII. Poodles, Pomeranians, Pugs, Schipperkes             219

   XIII. Toy Spaniels,--King Charles, Prince Charles, Ruby,
         Blenheim, Japanese                                  245

    XIV. Terriers,--Toy, Smooth Black and Tan, Yorkshire,
         Maltese, Griffons Bruxelles                         263

     XV. Toy Bull Dogs, Toy Bull Terriers, Italian
         Greyhounds                                          275



CHAPTER XII

PERFORMING AND TOY BREEDS

POODLES--POMERANIANS--PUGS--SCHIPPERKES


[Illustration: CORDED POODLE CH. "MODEL". MAD^{ME} DAGOIS OWNER.]

[Illustration: CURLY POODLE CH. "RUFUS" MRS R. LONG OWNER.]

_Poodles._--One of the most intelligent breeds in existence, that of the
Poodle, lends itself especially to becoming a pet or companion, soon
becoming warmly attached to its owner, very quick at learning what is
required of it, and very smart and vigilant as a guard. Although, in
ordinary life, we principally see the curly variety, at all the leading
shows, we see specimens of the "corded variety" both white and black in
colour, and with coats quite fearful and wonderful to behold, hanging in
festoons of cords or tags, in some cases of such length as to sweep the
ground as they walk along, which must be a considerable inconvenience to
the dogs, as well as their owners. There has been much correspondence
and discussion on the subject, but I think, after a lengthened
acquaintance with the breed, and having seen and handled nearly all the
best specimens brought forward during the last twenty-five years, there
is no doubt there are two varieties, corded and curly, and although they
have been sometimes interbred, there are corded specimens which would be
corded under any circumstances, and there are curly ones that could not
be turned into corded, however long their coats were left alone. I
speak from my own experience, as I have had Poodles which were never
anything else but curly, whether clipped or unclipped, and others with
coats that would soon become corded if not attended to. I know this is
not a general opinion, but it is my impression of the breed. It used to
be supposed there were only two colours for Poodles, black and white,
but of late years we have seen some very beautiful specimens black and
white, red, brown, slate colour, and grey, and different shades of those
colours, and so many new breeders and exhibitors of these dogs have
appeared in this country and abroad, that I think they may be said to be
in more favour than ever, and at most of the larger shows command large
entries and attract a great deal of attention from the public, I am
told. I had the record entry of eighty specimens at the Ladies' KA Show
at Ranelagh Park, 1896. Of course, any breed which requires exceptional
care in its preparation, and which so soon gives evidence of any neglect
(as in the case of an unshaven and untrimmed Poodle), will always have a
limited number of active adherents, but irrespective of their value for
sporting purposes (in the same way as the English and Irish Water
Spaniels and the Retrievers), all who have kept any of them will know
they are full of merit, good tempered as a rule, born humourists, fond
of children, grand swimmers, excellent guards, and very affectionate and
faithful to their owners and friends. A very high authority, both as a
breeder, exhibitor and judge, has set out the points of a correct Poodle
as follows:--head long, straight and fine; skull rather narrow and
peaked at back, very slight "stop;" long, strong and fine jaw, not full
in cheek; teeth white and level; lips black and rather tight fitting;
gums and roof of mouth black; nose sharp and black; eyes very dark
brown, full of fire and intelligence, nearly almond shaped, leather of
ears long and wide, hanging close to face; well proportioned neck of
fair length and strength; strong muscular shoulders, sloping well to
back; deep and moderately wide chest; short, strong, slightly curved
back; broad muscular loins; ribs well sprung and braced up; small round
feet, toes well arched, pads thick and hard; well set, straight legs,
with plenty of bone and muscle; hind legs very muscular and well bent,
hocks well let down; tail not curled over back, but carried rather gaily
and set on high; coat profuse and of good texture, not silky; if corded,
hanging in tight, even cords; if curled, in strong, thick curls, of even
length, without knots or cords. Colours should be self, whites and
blacks seem to be the most popular. The general appearance is that of a
very active, intelligent and elegant looking dog, stepping out well and
carrying himself proudly.


[Illustration: WHITE POMERANIAN CH. "KÖNIG of ROZELLE" MISS HAMILTON
OWNER.]

_Pomeranians._--Another breed, which has made gigantic strides in public
favour of late years, is the Pomeranian, which may be best described, as
a miniature copy of the Rough-coated Collie, as it resembles it in
nearly every respect, except the carriage of ears and tail, the former
being pricked and carried bolt upright, and the latter curled over the
side and back of the body. The colours are very varied, starting with
white, black, brown, blue, almost every shade of those colours can be
met with, besides parti-colours, and the sizes run from nearly thirty
pounds to three pounds in weight. Other things being equal, the smaller
the size, the more valuable they are, and high class specimens
frequently change hands at prices ranging from £10 to £200, so that it
has lately been one of the most profitable breeds to produce, as good
specimens have been commanding fair prices, and plenty of buyers were
found for anything out of the common at almost any price. Browns have
been greatly in favour, latterly even more so than blacks, and next to
them come whites, but hitherto, there has been a difficulty in obtaining
very small whites, and if this is overcome (and many of the leading
breeders are doing their best), I think the toy whites will be greatly
sought after; some of the little blacks and browns are very beautiful,
and I have known very long figures, £100 and over, refused for them by
their owners! Being very lively, cheerful and affectionate, and
exceedingly sharp and active as guards, this breed is admirably adapted
as a pet or companion, and they make very sharp house dogs. It is not
desirable to chain them up, as the rubbing of the collar and chain is
almost certain to interfere with the set of the crest and frill which in
this breed (as in Collies), form such attractive features in their
appearance. Pomeranians are seemingly popular with all classes, from
Royalty downward. Her Majesty the Queen has a large kennel of them at
Windsor, which I had the honour of an invitation to inspect, and can
testify to the great interest taken in the breed, and the number of
specimens kept, with every care and consideration shown for their
happiness and comfort. Her Majesty's collection, when I saw them, some
time since, consisted almost entirely of what I should call "off
colours" that is, not white, black, brown or blue, but shades and
mixtures of those and other colours, some exceedingly pretty, and
although somewhat larger in size, being mostly "small-medium," and not
so fine in head as many of the dogs now shown, are so good in other
respects, that they have often successfully competed with well-known
specimens, when Her Majesty has entered any at the Royal Agricultural
Hall and Crystal Palace Shows. A great many are also kept by persons in
the higher, middle and lower ranks of life, both in this country and the
continent of Europe (where, no doubt, the breed originated), and it is a
common occurrence, when a popular judge is officiating at one of the
larger shows, to see over fifty entries of Pomeranians in the various
classes. I have frequently had one hundred, and sometimes even more
entries to judge, at the larger shows, and a puzzling job to undertake,
on a dull day, in a failing light, is to tackle a class of from twenty
to twenty-five black specimens, and try to find out the respective
merits of each when there are probably ten or a dozen really good ones
amongst the lot, though, to an outsider, they all look much alike.
Small, good specimens fetch very long prices, and the breed is
exceedingly popular.

[Illustration: POMERANIAN "MARCO" H. M. QUEEN VICTORIA OWNER.]

The illustrations of this variety are Miss Hamilton's White Dog, the
most successful winner of his colour ever shown, H. M., the Queen's Red
Dog, a beautiful specimen of the colour and the constant companion of
Her Gracious Majesty; Mr. J. Duckworth's Fawn Dog, one of the best
headed and coated specimens shown for some time; Miss A. de Pass's Toy
Brown, a most perfect and charming specimen, who has taken more prizes
than any of her size and colour.

[Illustration: FAWN POMERANIAN CH. "BRILLIANT" J. DUCKWORTH OWNER.]

The points are as follows: In general build, and coat more especially,
the Pomeranians should somewhat resemble the Rough-coated Collie, with
the difference that his head should be shorter, ears smaller and carried
perfectly erect; and his tail curled up from the root tightly over his
back, or lying flat on his back. He must be a compact little dog, well
proportioned in build, standing on straight limbs, and possessing a
profuse coat of long and perfectly straight silky or glossy hair all
over his body, forming a mane, round his neck, of longer hair, with the
forelegs feathered, and the thighs more heavily feathered. He must be
sharp and intelligent in expression, and exhibit great activity and
buoyancy of disposition, and should not exceed twenty pounds in weight,
the smaller specimens being preferable. At the larger shows they are
generally divided into over eight pounds and under eight pounds.
Colours, white, black, brown, blue and sable, and any combination of
those colours. At the present time there is a feeling rather in favour
of the shades of brown, but there are many very beautiful specimens of
all the colours mentioned above.

[Illustration: SMALL POMERANIAN CHAMPION of CHAMPIONS AND PRIMIER "TINA"
MISS ADA DE PASS OWNER.]


[Illustration: FAWN PUG CH. "YORK". Mrs GRELICHE OWNER.]

_Pugs._--One of the really old-fashioned pets and companions is the Pug,
of which I have for the last thirty years generally had some
specimens about my house, and usually, when I have judged the breed,
have been favoured with record entries. I remember on one occasion, when
I had a very heavy day at an important London show, and had taken an
immense amount of trouble, in the open, on a broiling day in June or
July, when the whole of my exhibitors were of the fair sex, and ranged
from the highest in the kennel-world, Her Royal Highness, the Princess
of Wales, to those who would not be ashamed to be included amongst "the
working classes," I thought, "I shall catch it pretty warmly over this
job." I hardly supposed it within the bounds of possibility for any
living "mere man," to give satisfaction to such a large number of the
other sex, especially when their own particular pets were concerned, so
that I was certainly gratified to have a letter, some weeks after, from
the Hon. Secretary of the show (whose daughter was an exhibitor and by
no means a novice in Pugs either), stating that I had "achieved the
unique feat of pleasing every one, as not a single complaint or grumble
had been heard or received by the committee from the large body of Pug
exhibitors." I mention this, not for the purpose of self-glorification,
but to show that, although generally judges are supposed to meet with
obloquy and abuse, often not deserved, they do, sometimes, receive
kindly recognition of their endeavours, to pick out the best specimens
brought under their notice! A good Pug should have a large skull, in
proportion to size, well-defined stop, with high forehead, square face,
wide-apart eyes, dark and large, round and rather prominent; thin,
small ears, carried well forward, a desideratum is a black thumb mark in
middle of skull, the mask and ears should be black. Heavy wrinkles about
head and face; muscular, thick neck, with skin loose; square, thick,
cobby body; deep loins; well rounded ribs; dark trace down back very
desirable; also a dark mole on each cheek; muscular hindquarters; firm
thighs; strong, short, straight fore legs; well arched, firm, round
feet, with black toe nails if possible; tail tightly curled on hips,
double turn much desired; coat, except on tail, where it is longer and
harsher, should be glossy, soft and short. A very smart, showy and
active dog, _often an arrant coward_, but with a great appearance of
dignity, and even ferocity, which is not without its impression on the
public. My experience of the breed is that they are, as a rule, very
affectionate, and devoted to their owners, "good-doers" and nearly
always ready for anything in the way of eating and drinking, great
lovers of comfort, and very jealous of any other members of the doggy
community being made as much of as themselves. They are very lively,
bustling companions, and very popular with those who have kept them. I
omitted to say, that the colours are silver fawn and apricot fawn, and
of late years, there is also a black variety, the points of which are
really the same as in the fawns, but partly concealed by the colour. I
think, as a rule, the blacks run more leggy, and many of them heavier
than the fawns, but I have had some beautiful specimens of both colours
before me many times, and I like a good one, of _any size_,
although, if you _can_ get true Pug qualities, in a small one, it is all
the better.

Two of the best-known illustrate this variety.

[Illustration: BLACK PUG CH. & PREMIER "DUKE BEIRA". MISS C. F. A.
JENKINSON OWNER.]


[Illustration: SCHIPPERCHE CH. "ZWARTE PIOT" I. N. WOODIWISS OWNER.]

_Schipperkes._--The Schipperke is rather a new breed in this country,
and much kept as a pet and companion by its supporters. It was, I think,
imported originally from Belgium, where, I understand, though I do not
remember seeing many there, it has long been used by the Bargees as a
protection on board their boats for their persons and property on their
long journeys through the canals. In appearance it is something like a
medium or rather small-sized black Pomeranian, out of coat and without
any tail, the texture of the coat dense and harsh, soft on the ears,
smooth on the head, front of hocks and forelegs, but forming a mane or
frill, round neck and shoulders; size should not exceed twenty pounds,
and all the better if it is less; eyes small, slightly oval, and dark
brown in colour; they make very sharp little watch dogs, are always on
the move, and anxious to know the ins and outs of what comes in their
way, very excitable and lively in temperament, the former being
expressed by raising their mane referred to, barking sharply and running
and jumping about; they are good and game vermin killers, as a general
rule.



CHAPTER XIII

PERFORMING AND TOY BREEDS (_Continued_)

TOY SPANIELS--KING CHARLES--PRINCE CHARLES--BLENHEIM--RUBY--JAPANESE


[Illustration: KING CHARLES SPANIEL CH. "LAUREATE" MRS MCLAREN
MORRISON, OWNER.]

I now come to another group of undoubted pets and companions, I mean the
Toy Spaniels, and a charming lot they are. I will briefly notice them in
their usually accepted order, taking our old friend, the King Charles,
first. I am afraid I shall be thought "laudator temporis acti," and
old-fashioned, but hardened "all-round dog lover" as I am, and have
been, ever since I knew one end of a dog from another, I must say, I
dearly love a good "King Charles," and, as I always go through the
classes for them, at all the big shows, even when I have nothing,
judicially, to do with them, I am grieved to see such small entries of
these beautiful dogs, and so few good enough to "fill the eye" of a
critical fancier. It is not so much of the size, or colours I complain,
as the coats, which are so, very often, curly, a bad fault, in my
opinion, and many of them are "smutty" and dark in their tan. Of course
there are notable exceptions, but I greatly fear that other dog breeds,
which have been warmly "pushed" of late years, in every possible way,
and, generally, by interested parties, have disheartened the breeders of
some of the Toy Spaniels, or, we should see more good ones coming out!
The points of the breed to be desired are large round skull, with well
defined "stop," large, lustrous eyes, short, turned-up muzzle, long
pendulous ears, well-feathered; fairly long neck, short and compact
back, short straight fore-legs, feet large, soft, profuse coat, quite
straight, without tendency to curl, colour glossy, unbroken black, and
rich mahogany tan. Weight not to exceed twelve pounds, as much less as
possible, with quality.


[Illustration: BLENHEIM SPANIEL. CH. "ROLLO" MRS. FORDER, OWNER.]

_The Blenheim Spaniel._--The next of this charming group to be
considered, is the Blenheim Spaniel, with which, its having been the
favourite breed of my dear mother, and her mother, I have been more
associated than with some of the others; the points of a perfect
specimen are almost entirely the same as in the King Charles, except
that the colours are red and white, with more of the latter than the
former, and it is very desirable to have a distinct mark of red about
the size of a shilling or florin, on the upper part of the skull, which
is termed "the spot" and is a recognised peculiarity of this variety.


[Illustration: PRINCE CHARLES SPANIEL CH. "VICTOR WILD" H. TAYLOR
OWNER.]

_The Prince Charles Spaniel._--Another variety is known as the Prince
Charles, and the points of this again are the same as of the King
Charles, except in colour, which is white with a good deal of black and
tan markings. When evenly marked, and well formed in other ways, they
are very attractive little fellows. I have noticed a tendency,
particularly with these, to get specimens too large; in my opinion,
they should be under the maximum weight allowed (twelve pounds) as the
intention is, they should be not too heavy for a lady to pick up, and
carry her little companion, when out with it, if so disposed. So that,
from six to ten pounds would be a more suitable weight, and such as you
may see in numbers of Yorkshire Terriers, Griffons, Pomeranians and
Japanese Spaniels, some of the keenest rivals of the native Toy
Spaniels. In fact many of all those varieties can be obtained well under
five pounds weight, or even less if desired.


[Illustration: RUBY SPANIEL. CH. "JASPER" MRS. WOODGATE OWNER.]

_The Ruby Toy Spaniel._--Another very beautiful variety, is the Ruby
Spaniel, something the colour of its larger cousin, the Sussex Spaniel,
but richer, and brighter in tone. I am afraid these are not being so
much bred as they were some years since, but all true dog lovers, would
regret their becoming extinct, on account of their great beauty and
aristocratic appearance; to be correct, the colour should be quite free
from white, as rich and bright as possible, and the points same as King
Charles and without legginess, which seems to affect these more than the
other varieties; I suppose, there is little doubt the native breeds of
Toy Spaniels have been much interbred, and I have been told by breeders
they have had in one litter a specimen of all four breeds. I cannot
vouch for the truth of this, as it has not happened within my own
experience, but if true, it confirms the idea of how much they have been
interbred.


[Illustration: JAPANESE SPANIEL CH. "DAI BUTZU" MRS. ADDIS OWNER.]

_The Japanese Spaniel._--The last of the Toy Spaniel family to be
noticed is the Japanese Spaniel, and, at the present time, I think, it
enjoys the most popularity, and is kept by ladies of high rank, as well
as by their humbler fellow-creatures. In point of colour, they most
resemble the Prince Charlies, and they are sometimes, but not often,
seen almost the colours of a Blenheim. They are not so high, or domed in
skull, but much wider, both in head and face, with very short nose,
fairly large, pendulous ears, large, dark, full eyes, rather short on
legs, cobby in body, and with tail curled over back, something in the
way of the Maltese Terrier. They have a very quaint, old-fashioned look
about them, even when puppies, and, unless they have been bred in this
country, or, until they get acclimatized, are certainly delicate, and
the mortality amongst the imported specimens has been very great. It is
now sometime since I had any of the breed, and, at that time, larger
specimens were in vogue than now appear at our shows; but no doubt, as
ladies' pets, they are better, not exceeding eight or nine pounds. I may
mention, to prove how these pretty little creatures have come forward of
late years, I was present at a large London show, where a Japanese
Spaniel, belonging to a friend of mine, a well-known lady-exhibitor, was
awarded the first prize (a seventy-guinea silver cup in which the winner
might have been hidden!) as the "Champion of champions," in a class
composed of all the specimens of all kinds of dogs, that had been
awarded a championship at that show, and the gratified owner had the
honour of receiving the splendid prize from H. R. H. the Princess of
Wales, who was also an exhibitor at the show, and is, we all know, a
keen admirer of dogs in general.

The portrait of this beautiful specimen illustrates this variety.



CHAPTER XIV

PERFORMING AND TOY BREEDS (_Continued_)

TOY TERRIERS--SMOOTH BLACK AND TAN--YORKSHIRE--MALTESE--GRIFFONS
BRUXELLES


[Illustration: TOY TERRIER. CH. "MASCOTTE MODEL" Mrs MONK OWNER.]

To take these in the above order, I propose to say a few words about
each. I regret to say that, really first-rate specimens of the Toy Black
and Tans are few and far between, there are many of the right size, and
colour, but, so many fail in head, which should be like that of a true
terrier of the "Manchester" type, in miniature, but the majority are too
round and short in skull, and the other "points" of the breeds are the
same. I need not say that a good specimen is a beautiful little creature
and a charming pet for a lady, and very smart and showy. I have little
doubt that the edict against cropping has had a prejudicial effect on
them, as well as their larger brethren, and that having to wear such
ears, as they have been born with, gives no chance for the skill of the
"cropper" to improve their appearance, and, a great many of the breed
appear to have what are known as "Bat," or "Tulip," ears, which look out
of proportion to their size. I am in hopes that breeders may succeed (as
has been done with the "Manchesters") in breeding more specimens with
small drop ears, of the orthodox type, when, no doubt, a revival of
interest will be taken in this somewhat neglected variety. One of the
best seen for years illustrates this variety. Occasionally more or less
good specimens of the White English Smooth Terrier, in miniature, are
seen, and when correct in points, they are very pretty.


[Illustration: YORKSHIRE TERRIER. CH. "ASHTON QUEEN" Mdes WALTON &
BEARD OWNERS].

_Yorkshire Toy Terrier._--I will now speak of another very beautiful
breed of dogs, well suited as ladies' pets. Yorkshire Terriers,
sometimes not exceeding three pounds in weight, colour slate blue on
back and sides, also part of head, the rest a golden tan; when in form,
the coat sweeps the ground, and is soft and bright in texture, and
colour; of course, such a breed cannot be kept "up to the mark" without
some care, and trouble, but a good specimen, turned out in correct form,
is "quite a picture," and provokes any amount of admiration particularly
amongst the fair sex, and I have known any sum from £5 to £250 to be
paid for really tip-toppers, to be kept as companions, for which they
are well suited, and I can, from my own experience, testify to their
affectionate and engaging qualities. Of course their coats must be kept
to a reasonable length, often brushed out, and they would not be
suitable inmates for a kennel, being essentially a breed for indoors.

The best specimen living illustrates this variety.


[Illustration: MALTESE TERRIER. CH. "PIXIE". J. JACOBS OWNER.]

_Maltese Terriers._--Another of the Pet Dogs, proper, is the lovely
little Maltese Terrier, whose praises I have been singing for years, and
I am delighted to see they are slowly coming back into favour.
Those of my readers who remember the Team shown, many years since, by
the late Lady Giffard, will, I think, confirm my opinion, that a more
beautiful lot of ladies' pet dogs could not be seen. To those not
acquainted with the breed, I may say, they resemble very small
drop-eared Skye Terriers, with pure white long coats, often sweeping the
ground, and almost like floss silk in texture, with short backs and
tails curled over them, dark, piercing eyes and black noses. They are
very smart, corky little fellows. I admire them greatly, and have done
my best for some years past to revive interest in them, and am glad to
see better entries at shows which provide classes and judges to suit
them. This is thought to be one of the oldest of the Toy breeds, having
been highly prized by the ladies of ancient Greece, and other nations of
that historic period. Head should be much like that of a drop-eared Skye
in miniature. Coat long, straight and silky, often sweeping the ground,
quite free from curl, or wooliness. Nose and roof of mouth black, ears
moderately long, well feathered, with hair mingling on neck. Tail short,
well feathered, and curled tightly over back. Colour, pure white,
without markings, or even tints of any other colour. Weight five to six
pounds, the smaller the better, other points being equal.

By the kindness of my old friend, Mr. J. Jacobs, the best known breeder
of Maltese, I have been able to give a portrait of his beautiful little
champion.


[Illustration: GRIFFON BRUXELLES "MARQUIS DE CARABAS" COUNT DE BYLANDT
OWNER.]

_Griffons Bruxelles._--One of the most recent of all the breeds suitable
as pets and companions and which has been very much "boomed" the last
few years, is the above named, somewhere about the size, and a little
the shape of a Yorkshire Toy Terrier, if you can imagine one with a
short harsh coat instead of a long silky one, and with a chin prominent
as possible, without showing the teeth, in fact, "under-jawed;" round
nearly black eyes; lashes, and lids dark, short black nose, with hair
around it and the eyes; prick ears carried straight up as darts, feet
longish; tail docked rather short; head round and covered with harsh
hair, not woolly or silky; longer round eyes, nose, lips (which should
have a "moustache" over them,) and cheeks; colour preferred, chestnut
red, wiry rough, and plentiful coat, but not long. Weight for the larger
variety nine pounds maximum; for the smaller five pounds maximum. These
are cobby in build, active, intelligent, hardy little fellows, very
quaint, comical, and self-important in their ways, which makes them
attractive, even to persons not taking much interest in dogs in general;
they are now being pushed forward very much and have a club of their
own, so they seem likely to, what is called "catch on!"

I have secured the portrait of a grand little specimen of this variety
belonging to the well known judge, Count H. de Bylandt.



CHAPTER XV

PERFORMING AND TOY BREEDS (_Continued_)

TOY BULL DOGS--TOY BULL TERRIERS--ITALIAN GREYHOUNDS


[Illustration: TOY BULLDOG "RABOT DE BEAUBOURG" M. PETIT OWNER.]

_Toy Bull Dogs._--Have been much taken up of late, and strange though it
may seem, for an offshoot, or miniature variety of an old English breed,
the larger number of the best that have appeared at the shows, so far,
have come from France! I have seen many specimens with good heads and
bodies, but comparatively few with the correct type of ear, the majority
having what I described in speaking of Smooth Toy Terriers, as "Bat or
Tulip" ears, which give rather a silly, vacant, expression to the face.
However, the breed is being so eagerly patronised by people in the
higher ranks, and good specimens easily command such high prices, that
there is little reason to doubt, breeders will succeed in producing more
specimens, with the correct type of ear, when we shall see a great
improvement in the number and quality of the entries at all those shows
which provide classes for these quaint little animals, which should be
kept down to a twenty-pound limit at most, if they are to retain their
title to be classified amongst the "Toys."


[Illustration: TOY BULL TERRIER "LILY" C. H. LANE OWNER.]

_Toy Bull Terriers._--The Toy Bull Terriers which have been a good deal
encouraged of late years, should be counterparts of the larger breed,
but too many of them fail in head properties, and are both too short in
face and too round in skull, very often, they have a small patch of
brindle or other colour on some part of their head or body, although
they are preferred pure white, if possible. For many years I kept some
of these, and bred them as small as two and a half pounds, but even at
that weight their courage did not seem less, and the smallest I ever had
was killed by her reckless attack on an antagonist far beyond her
powers. I have known several others without the slightest consideration
of their size and weight, rush upon foes that could actually have
swallowed them, without the least hesitation, or any show of fear.


[Illustration: ITALIAN GREYHOUND CH. "LARKFIELD LEVERET" P. TURNER,
OWNER.]

_Italian Greyhounds._--Another very graceful and elegant breed is the
Italian Greyhound, which some years ago was much more kept as a pet than
of late; it is more slightly built and shorter in head than the Whippet,
and the colours most often seen are golden fawns and creams, but I have
had some before me, and well shaped ones too, red, red and white, and
blue fawn, the last named being the best of the "off colours." The coat
should be very fine, soft and glossy, the best size is not exceeding
eight or eight and a half pounds, in weight. They are exceedingly
graceful, elegant little creatures, but rightly or wrongly (as this is
one of the few breeds of dogs, I have not bred or kept,) give me the
impression of being delicate and requiring care and attention.
The breed seems mostly in the hands of three or four persons, but I am
pleased to say, there are still some excellent specimens of both sexes
to be seen, so that I am in hopes there is no immediate fear of its
extinction, as this is one of the breeds that would not look out of
place in company with the highest in the land.

The portrait of a good and typical specimen, from Mrs. P. Turner's
well-known kennel, illustrates this variety.



Part IV



CONTENTS

PART IV


  CHAP.                                                     PAGE

    XVI. Something About Foreign Dogs                        291

   XVII. Humours and Vagaries of the Show Rings              311

  XVIII. }
  to     } Anecdotes About Dogs, Personal and Selected       322
  XXIII. }

   XXIV. A Few Words About General Management and Some
         Simple Maladies, to Which Dogs are Subject and
         Their Treatment                                     389



CHAPTER XVI

SOMETHING ABOUT FOREIGN DOGS


I think, perhaps, it will be best for me to say something about these,
although my friend, Mr. Edwin Brough, was wont to call them by the
generic term of "Wild Beasts," particularly those belonging to our
mutual friend, Mr. W. K. Taunton, who for very many years had one of the
best collections of rare breeds of foreign dogs, I should say, to be met
with in Europe, comprising specimens from the Arctic Regions, China,
Australia, India, Africa and other distant parts of the world. I have
often had specimens of his before me at different shows, particularly
those held in the London District, and remember paying a visit, by
invitation, some years since to his kennels in Essex and being very much
interested in the many typical specimens I saw there. I should consider
Mr. Taunton not only a first-rate judge of bloodhounds and mastiffs, but
(although one of the most unassuming men I know) far and away, the
ablest and best judge of "Foreign Dogs" in this country, or probably in
any other. He has bred and owned more than most other judges have even
seen!


[Illustration: NORWEGIAN ELKHOUND "JAEGER" LADY CATHCART OWNER.]

_The Norwegian Elk-Hound._--One of the kinds most often kept is the
Norwegian Elk-Hound, which much resembles the Esquimaux, but differs in
character of coat, ears and tail. He should be active in build, though
strongly made, particularly in the shoulders; fairly long wedge-shaped
head; rather strong and blunt shaped jaws; thick coat, with plenty of
undercoat, in varying shades of dark and light grey, back parts being
darker and under parts lighter and sometimes slightly tanned; good round
feet, with legs strong, firm and straight, ears much larger and
differently carried from the Esquimaux, both upright and pointed; tail
profusely covered with hair, and carried with a double twist to the
side, rather inclined to be wolf-like in expression, with dark brown
eyes.


[Illustration: AFGHAN GREYHOUND "SHAHZADA" J. WHITBREAD OWNER.]

_The Persian Greyhound_ is another of the "Foreigners" sometimes met
with, and is a very elegant creature if shown in good form, about the
size of a medium-sized greyhound, with soft feathery fringe on head and
ears, thighs, tail and elsewhere, which gives a very unique appearance
to it, the colours most often seen are shades of fawn, or drab, and from
the extra hair upon it they seem to be shorter and stronger in head than
the British greyhounds. There is a variety called the Afghan Greyhounds,
which greatly resemble the Persians even in colours, except that all the
specimens I have had before me of the latter have been considerably
less, more like large Whippets in size. I am not prepared to say whether
there is any, or if so what, connection between the two breeds.


_The African Sand Dog_ is another breed occasionally seen; it is
remarkable for being almost entirely without hair, usually a sort of
blue black in colour, and sometimes having a tuft of coarse bristle-like
hair on the top of the head, and a similar tuft of the same colour and
character at the end of the tail. In shape and appearance they slightly
resemble a fat, and rather coarse, both in head and body, black and tan
terrier; they, no doubt, have their admirers, or they would not continue
to be imported and kept, but they are essentially one of the breeds that
may be described as "not everybody's money."


[Illustration: THIBET SHEEP DOG "SIRING" H. R. H. PRINCE of WALES
OWNER.]

_Thibet Sheep Dogs._--A breed I have not often seen, but which is really
a handsome and noble looking one is the Great Thibet Sheep Dog, of which
I remember H. R. H. the Prince of Wales had a good specimen at
Sandringham some years since, which I can only describe as having a
Collie-like body with a thick under and over coat, but not so profuse as
with our collies, and a head combining the expression of Newfoundland,
Mastiff and Bloodhound, large, pendulous ears, heavy lips and jaws, and
great dignity, and even ferocity in appearance. From the rough life they
live, with very rough people, I have heard from those who have travelled
in Thibet, these dogs are very awkward customers to tackle, and often
make things very unpleasant for travellers and strangers, but I have no
doubt they would make excellent guards, and have a very distinguished
appearance as companions.


_Afghan Sheep Dog._--Another eastern breed is the Afghan Sheep Dog,
which, in the specimens I have seen greatly resembles our own breed of
English Short-tailed Sheep Dog, and like him, is covered all over with a
dense, shaggy coat. It seemed to me, they were somewhat more woolly in
texture and corded in character than the coats of our dogs, and also
they were leggier and more tucked up, so that, although they stand as
high, or higher, I should say they would weigh considerably less on the
average than our own "Bobtails." Their colours appear to be usually
white, with brown or black markings, more or less profusely scattered
over the bodies.


[Illustration: ESQUIMAUX CH. "ARCTIC KING" Mrs H. C. BROOKE OWNER.]

_Esquimaux._--The Esquimaux is another of the foreign breeds
occasionally seen here, rather larger and heavier than the Chow, and
longer in head and neck, generally some shade of grey or black and white
in colour with a harsh outer, but dense warm under coat, rather long and
arched in neck, eyes obliquely set, small for size of dog, and very sly
and wolf-like in expression, with pricked ears carried rather forward
and tail curled over back. In the general way, they are not very
fascinating to strangers, and may be spoken of in the same terms as the
hero of a popular comic song who was said to be "all right, when you
know him, but you've got to know him, _first_!" No doubt, the number of
expeditions to the Arctic regions of late years, and the keen public
interest taken in all their details, has had the effect of bringing
these dogs, so important to all Arctic explorers, more to the
front. There is a quaint, independent air about them I rather like. I
have very frequently had to judge them in classes of "foreign dogs from
the Arctic and Northern regions," and should not describe them as very
genial, or sociable, in manner, although somewhat unique and interesting
in appearance.


[Illustration: CHOW CHOW. CH. "CHOW VIII". Mrs FABER OWNER.]

_Chow._--Another breed which is not without its supporters, many of whom
are amongst the ranks of the aristocracy, is the Chow, which, as the
name implies, is a native of China, and much resembles a large, coarse
Pomeranian, with a short thick head and rather blunt prick ears, the
colours are almost invariably shades of red, black, or slate blue,
though I have seen some variations on these. Chows often are as large as
small collies, and possess very warm dense coats, somewhat in the
Esquimaux style, and carry their tails much the same way, and are
remarkable for having nearly inky black tongues. Like many of these
foreign breeds, they are hardly yet naturalised in this country, but
they are handsome, distinguished-looking dogs and not unlikely to become
more popular, as they become more understood. At present they are in
very few hands, and are more often met with at shows in the "any other
variety" or "Foreign, any variety," classes, than in a class or classes
to themselves, but at some of the larger shows, I have frequently had
good entries of them, containing many beautiful specimens of the breed.

SHOW POINTS OF CHOWS

The points of Chows are as follows: Skull flat and wide, muzzle
substantial under the eyes, of fair length and rather blunt at the nose,
tongue and lips black, eyes dark and small, ears very small, pointed,
carried erect and forward; neck powerful and slightly arched, shoulders
muscular and nicely sloped, chest wide and deep, body short and powerful
with strong loins; fore-legs strong and straight with small round feet,
hindquarters rather square with hindquarters well let down, tail tightly
curled over back, coat very profuse, flat and rather coarse in texture.
Colours most usually black or red; yellow, blue and white, if strictly
self colours, are correct. Weight, dogs forty to fifty pounds; bitches a
little less.


[Illustration: AUSTRALIAN DINGO CH. "MYALL" Mrs H. C. BROOKE OWNER.]

_The Dingo._--Another colonial breed, the Dingo or Wild Dog of
Australia, many of us have heard of but few seen. As I happen to have a
brother, a clergyman, in that country, whose parish is forty miles
square, taking him the best part of each week to visit his parishioners
on horseback or in buggy, also three nephews, sons of another brother,
likewise a clergyman in England, all situated in different parts of the
same colony, I have heard a great deal of the doings of the "Dingoes."
They are very particular in their attentions to the poultry, lambs, and
sometimes sheep, so that they do not bear a good name in that country!
They are a good deal like jackals, but rather larger in size, and
coats sleeker, and tails less feathered, less mane on shoulders, and
perhaps somewhat finer in head, quite a sly, wolf-like expression, not
often very safe to handle; colours usually shades of yellow, or sandy,
but I have seen them shades of brown, and grey mixed, rather fox-like in
bark; they are usually kept as curiosities of the canine race,
frequently muzzled or "caged," but as they get more used to civilised
life, they may develop more interesting qualities than they have yet
been credited with.


[Illustration: CHINESE CRESTED DOG "CHINESE EMPEROR" W. K. TAUNTON
OWNER.]

_The Chinese Crested Dog._--I think I will bring this brief notice of
some of the "outlandish" breeds to a close, with a mention of what I
think is rather a rare sort, the Chinese Crested Dog, as, although I
have judged Foreign Dogs at all the leading shows during a great many
years, I have had very few true specimens of this scarce breed brought
before me. I am pleased to have been able to secure a good portrait of
the best I have ever seen, by the courtesy of its owner. I have
generally found them with a smooth mottled skin quite devoid of hair,
except a crest, or tuft of stiffish hair on the forehead or above it,
usually nearly white or whitey brown in colour, and a tuft of similar
colour and character at the end of the tail. Round skull, well defined
"stop," and rather short, mean face, in shape and style of body
something like a coarse strong Italian greyhound, and nearly always
giving you the idea of being pinched with the cold. From what little I
have seen of them, I should consider them, rather delicate, and
unsuited for our climate, except under favourable circumstances. I
imagine they are merely kept as companions and pets, as I never heard of
any of them being turned to account for any useful purpose. I am aware
there are several other breeds I might have included in this chapter,
such as the Samoyede Sledge dogs, (a capital portrait of this breed is
here given) the Pyrenean Sheep Dog; the Leonberg Dog, _The Dogue de
Bordeaux_, a capital portrait of a very fine specimen of which is also
given, and which has a great deal the character of a high-class Bull
Mastiff about it, and has been largely used on the Continent in fighting
the bear and other large game; and others, but I think I have said
enough to comply with its title of "Something About Foreign Dogs!"

[Illustration: LAPLAND-SLEDGE-DOG "PERLA". H. R. H. PRINCE OF WALES.
OWNER.]

[Illustration: DOGUE DE BORDEAUX. CH. "SANS-PEUR". (Late) Mrs H. C.
BROOKE OWNER.]



CHAPTER XVII

HUMOURS AND VAGARIES OF THE SHOW-RINGS


I remember meeting a friend, many years since, whose wife was rather a
fine woman, who had _been_ younger and better looking, but still
"fancied herself" a good deal, and had a decent Pug, which she made a
point of taking to any shows held in their neighbourhood, and as I knew
he had entered the Pug in two or three classes at a local show where a
reverend gentleman, at that time very well known as an "all round
judge," at many shows throughout the kingdom, was officiating, I said,
"Well, old fellow, and how did your wife get on with her Pug?" "Oh, very
badly," said he, "there was a smart looking girl, with pink roses in her
hat, had a dog in the ring, and the judge couldn't look at anything
else, although our Pug was ever so much better!"

As I happened to hear, casually, that another reverend judge, who had
been not only a very successful breeder and exhibitor, but one of our
ablest judges, particularly of the non-sporting breeds, was about to
decline further judging, I considered, especially at that time, when
there were few judges of ability and standing, that he could be ill
spared, so I wrote to ask him, if I obtained a strong expression of
opinion from some of the leading exhibitors in his section, whether he
would reconsider the matter, and he wrote me a very courteous letter,
agreeing to do so. I then had a fac-simile letter, of my writing,
prepared, and sent a copy to all the leading breeders and exhibitors of
non-sporting dogs, and I do not think I had one refusal. I doubt if any
judge ever had such a requisition, and the result was, that for many
years, the public had the benefit of his valuable services, until, I
regret to say, ill health compelled him to give up all such matters, but
he retained his popularity to the last, and his retirement was
universally regretted. I have often met him since as a looker on at
shows, and we have occasionally corresponded.

As I have mentioned in the earlier pages of this work, for many years I
was a very keen breeder and exhibitor of Dandies, and kept a great many
of them at one time, perhaps the strongest kennel of the breed in the
kingdom, and won scores of prizes, etc. I remember, on one occasion,
when I had a team of dogs at a show in Gloucestershire, I had one of my
best Dandies entered either in a "Rough Terrier Class," or a class
composed of "Winners of so many Prizes" (in those days, all sorts of
peculiar classes and conditions were introduced into the schedules), and
there were two judges to officiate, neither of whom, I very much expect,
had ever had a Dandie before him previously. I was, at first, much
amused to see how they were puzzled over him, and I could see them
taking counsel together (I may say, they were men of the highest class,
as straight as gun barrels, and both deservedly respected and esteemed
by the whole kennel world, one amongst sporting, the other among
non-sporting classes, but as I hope and believe they are both still
living I will not mention their names, although I have told the tale to
one of them to his intense amusement and delight). But afterwards, I
began to fear they would, from not being sure what manner of animal I
had in tow, pass me over, or worse still, give some inferior notice to
my dog, who was a noted champion, and about the best specimen of the
breed _at that time_. After a while they came back to me and made a more
detailed examination of my dog, asked me his number, and awarded him
First Prize and Special, to my great relief, as I had been thinking what
a fool I had been to enter a "Champion," to have such a chance of a
"knock-back" at a county show!

Sometime after that, I was taking a short exhibiting tour, with a team
of my dogs, following three or four shows, held close together, and not
more than one or two days each in duration. Amongst others I had an
excellent Dandie Bitch with me, who had never been "out of the money,"
and was in excellent form at the time. I showed her at one place
(Reading, I fancy,) and took first under the Rev. W. I. Mellor. The next
show was, I think, Swindon; there I met almost the same lot of Dandies,
this time under the late Mr. W. Lort, who, after he had looked through
the class, came up to me and said, "I am sorry to say, Mr. Lane, I
cannot give you more than 'Very Highly Commended,' for your Bitch." I
replied, "In that case, sir, I shall be greatly obliged by your passing
her over altogether; she took first prize yesterday in the same company
under Mr. Mellor, who is reckoned one of our leading Dandie judges, and
I am going to show her under him to-morrow at Henley (I think it was)
where I have every hope she will _do the same_, so that I should not
like her to take 'V. H. C.' _for the first time in her life_ in
between." So the bitch was passed over and duly won another first prize
the next day.

The first time I had the honor of judging any dogs belonging to members
of the Royal Family was many years since at Warwick, where, I believe,
H. R. H. the Prince of Wales exhibited, for the first time, Skyes, and
foreign dogs. He may have shown others, also, but those were the classes
with which I was concerned. I remember the Committee and Chairman of the
show were, quite properly, much impressed with the honour of the Royal
patronage to their show at that time, nearly or quite the best held out
of London and admirably managed by a well organised and most capable and
courteous committee of "real workers," whom it was always a pleasure to
meet. As I judged, or showed, at all their shows, I can speak from
experience; and I may further say that I consider it a _positive
calamity_ for the kennel world when these shows came to an end. For, not
only were they most delightful gatherings, of the "Flower of the Fancy,"
both dogs, and people, but, held in well adapted buildings and premises,
near the quaint old Midland Town, almost under the shadow of the
historic castle and under the active patronage of the late Earl of
Warwick, and the present Earl, then Lord Brooke (both able and devoted
"Dog Fanciers") and his beautiful wife, who always used to grace the
shows by her presence, and took a keen interest in many of the animals
shown, besides being an exhibitor in some of the classes. The Chairman
intimated to me that the inmates of the Royal Kennel should stand well
in the Prize List. I told him "every dog entered would be judged by me
strictly on its merits, and if it was afterwards found the Royal Dogs
were amongst the Prize Winners, none would be more pleased than I
should, but I could not say or do more than that, and I was sure H. R.
H. would wish his dogs to stand, or fall, on their merits alone!" Since
then I have very often had the honour of judging dogs from the Royal
Kennels, both Sandringham and Windsor.

I remember it so happened that the first time Her Majesty the Queen
exhibited any dogs, nearly all Her Majesty's entries came into my
classes at a Great London show. Soon after my entering the building I
went to have a look at my classes, and shortly afterwards, the secretary
came up to me and said, "Do you know you have the great honour of being
the first man to judge any dogs from Her Majesty's kennels?" I said, "I
have heard so." He then said, "Well, I am most anxious they should all
be in the prize list, as I consider it a high honour that Her Majesty
has allowed them to be entered." I said, "That is all right enough, but
although I will not admit Her Majesty has a more loyal or devoted
subject than myself, I am here in a public capacity as a judge, and if
Her Majesty's dogs are entered, in competition with Her Majesty's
subjects' dogs, they can only be judged 'on their merits,' and from what
I can see on the benches as the Royal dogs have been pointed out to me
by your keepers I don't think many of them will be 'in the money,' as
the classes are very large and good." He said, "That will never do; what
can be done?" I said, "Will you leave it to me?" He said, "Yes,
entirely." I said, "Then I will have all the dogs of the same colour and
type as those from the Royal kennels, formed into a separate class,"
(which luckily, was feasible,) "and judged together." This was done and
I hope caused general satisfaction, which would not have been the case
had any partiality been shown, nor would such have been approved by Her
Majesty, I am perfectly sure, if the circumstances came to be known at
the palace.

On one occasion when I had been judging a number of classes at a large
London show, after I had done, one of the fair exhibitors came up to me
and said, "You don't seem to like my dogs." I said, "If you will tell me
the numbers of your dogs I will refer to my judging book, and see what
notes I made of them." She gave the numbers, and I read out the notes on
each. But this did not satisfy her, and she said, "Ah! I am only a poor
widow, if I were only a rich heiress, like ----, I suppose it would be
different, she can win any number of prizes with her dogs." I replied,
"You have no right to speak in that way to me, neither you nor any other
exhibitor can say I have ever made any distinction between rich and
poor. I have always sought to judge the dogs alone, irrespective of
their owners; if the dogs of the person you mention have won it is
because they were, in my opinion, the best." She said no more, nor did
I, but I presume she thought I spoke the truth, as I have often noticed
her as an exhibitor in my classes, at various shows since, and it is not
reasonable to suppose she would continue to show under me, if she
thought I favoured any one!

Indeed, there are so many "lookers-on" round every ring, nowadays who
understand the various breeds, and are prepared to criticise the awards,
that judges are "put upon their mettle," particularly with some of the
popular breeds, where the competition is often very keen, and the
entries large.

Some years since, at a large show in Wales I had a large and good class
of Bedlington Terriers, but there was one dog that stood out, head and
shoulders above the rest; it chanced that I began my examination of each
specimen in the class, which I always endeavour to make, and a short
note of the result in my book, at the dog standing next to him in the
ring, and therefore he was the last to be looked at, and merely going
over him enough to see that his coat, condition, topknot, legs, eyes,
teeth and ears, were satisfactory, I sent them for a run round, marked
my book and dismissed the class; while I was waiting for the next lot of
dogs a very melancholy-looking man crept up to me and said, "Would you
kindly tell me, sir, what you gave my dog?" I asked his number, and when
he told me, said, "First and special for best in the show;" he threw his
hat up in the air, and roared out, "Well, I'm blessed, I knowed he
knowed 'em, he didn't hardly want to look at my dog, he didn't, he could
see he were the best with half an eye, he could," and, from being a
solemn and sad-looking person, he became the most jovial-looking fellow
you could wish to see. I did not know his name, and do not know it now,
but he amused me very much at the time!

I do not remember _where_ it occurred, but I was judging rather a good
class of Scottish Terriers somewhere in the provinces, and a keeper
brought in a dog I liked the look of, and after going over the classes I
marked him first, and told the keeper to take him away and bench him,
which I suppose he did. You can imagine my surprise when shortly after,
the same dog made his appearance in the ring again, this time led by a
man I knew well as rather an extensive exhibitor, at that time, and he
began "making the most of his dog" before me. But as I had quite done
with him, and had still some of my awards in the class to make, I did
not want that, so I said, "I should take away that dog, and bench him if
I were you, as he has been judged and sent out sometime since." The
exhibitor in question, whom his worst enemy would not describe as either
shy or timid, was unusually rapid in his departure from that ring, and I
have since heard the story from others, to whom I suppose he told it,
but I have never told it until now!

I have had such a long and varied experience of judging, that although I
have often and often had classes large enough and strong enough to make
one "pull one's self together," I never remember being really
"nonplussed," but _once_, and that was when I was judging some years ago
at the People's Palace, situated in the East End of London. I presume,
the "drawers up" of the schedule had not been previously experienced in
such work, as amongst others, they had provided a "Variety Class for
London Exhibitors," and, if obtaining entries is a criterion of success,
it was very successful, as they obtained no less than 145 entries. I do
not know, but I should think, it was the largest class ever seen at any
show! And when I saw the tens and scores of dogs pouring into my ring, I
wondered what was to become of them, as it was a good walk merely to go
round them, and they formed a small dog show by themselves, and I
noticed about five or six well-known "Champions" amongst them, as it
included most of the known breeds of dogs. After referring to my judging
book, many pages in which were of course taken up, I found I had three
prizes to divide amongst this crowd, so I went to the committee, and
explained the matter to them. They behaved very well indeed, they said,
"We will leave the matter entirely to you, do whatever you please in
it." I went back, divided the class into over thirty pounds and under
thirty pounds, cleared out all that was no good, and weeded down the
remainder, and eventually gave two equal firsts, two equal seconds, and
two equal thirds in each division, making twelve prizes and two
"reserves" in all, which was a lot better than attempting to award three
prizes amongst close on 150 dogs. I think the exhibitors were pleased,
and felt I had done the best in my power to get them and myself out of
an awkward position.

Many of my readers will remember Mr. George Helliwell, better known to
his intimates as "Yorkshire George," and his long connection with the
late Mr. Fletcher's successful kennel of sporting dogs. It was always a
safe "draw" to touch on the merits of the Fox Terrier "Rattler," who won
many of his numerous honours, when in George's care, and he was never
tired, and would be nearly moved to tears in recounting his virtues and
triumphs. I remember one occasion, when he was officiating as a judge,
in which capacity he was in great request, and highly qualified. After
he had judged a class, one of the exhibitors, who was not satisfied with
what he had awarded to his dog, went up and asked him why he had not
given him more, saying his dog "had a wonderful pedigree," and thought
he ought to have beaten all there. George said, in his own peculiar way,
slapping his inquirer gently on the back, "If tha' tak my advice, lad,
the next toime ther' goes to show, thou'll tak thy dog's pedigree wi
thee, and leave dog at 'oom!" I fear my writing of the matter does not
properly convey the intense humour of the incident, and the "broad
Yorkshire dialect" in which the advice was given! But "George's" many
friends will picture it for themselves.

I saw in the papers lately the death of Mr. Frank Adcock, and it brought
to my mind not only his craze for Giant Bull Dogs, which is well known
to "the Fancy" of his day, but also his Great Dane "Satan," most
appropriately named, as he rightly or wrongly enjoyed the reputation of
being the most savage member of the canine race ever benched at shows.
I remember him as a very large, I think, dark Harlequin-coloured
specimen of the breed, always muzzled, even on the bench, and it usually
required two, and sometimes four, keepers to deal with him, and on one
occasion, I think it was a show at Bristol Drill Hall, many years since,
when he was being removed from the benches to be sent back to his owner,
he, although still muzzled, overpowered his attendants, and worried and
tore most of the clothes from one of them, well known to exhibitors as
"Teddy Morgan," who gave me a blood-curdling account of his experiences
of the affair. He said he fully thought "Satan" would have killed him
then and there, and spoke of the nonchalant and airy manner in which his
owner treated the matter, when he, afterwards recounted his perils and
troubles to him, with all the embellishments of which he was capable,
adding, "Mr. Adcock, he guv me a 'quid' (20 _s._) sir, and said he were
glad it were me, and not some raw cove what didn't understand dogs!"



CHAPTER XVIII

ANECDOTES ABOUT DOGS, PERSONAL AND SELECTED


I have generally found persons, whether doggy or not, interested in
anecdotes about dogs, particularly those displaying their intelligence,
fidelity and courage. Some of the following are within my own knowledge,
all are related as being believed to be true. I have selected those I
fancied might be interesting out of a great many I have collected, but
some of them may have appeared elsewhere.

We were telling of the extraordinary ways dogs will find their way home,
alone, when a farmer in my district named Churchill said, "Yes, you see
that Sheep dog," pointing to a large merle, rather old-fashioned type of
Collie, called by his master "Ben." "Well," he said, "I was down at my
daughter's in the lower part of Somersetshire, and had taken Ben there
with me, by rail, and while we were all in the garden in the evening, I
went into the house for something or other, and Ben missed me. He at
once jumped the fence and set off on the return journey just as darkness
was coming on, but he could not have wasted much time about it, as my
servants told me he was back at my farm, more than forty miles distant,
very early the next morning, and they kept looking out for me, as we
were generally not far away from each other. I had that dog from a
puppy, and I knew he had never seen that road before, it was dark soon
after he started, yet he must have travelled at the rate of five or six
miles an hour all the way, and at a time when there would be few people
or conveyances about to help him."

I had a very similar experience with a dog of another breed. I had been
travelling in the island of Skye, and bought from a game-keeper at a
romantic looking village called Uig, a young dog, which he called a
Short-Haired Skye Terrier, but which was, really, what is now known as a
Scottish, or Aberdeen Terrier, called by the Gaelic name of "Fraochen,"
which I believe means heather, and was very appropriate in his case, for
he was just that sort of brindle grizzled colour, that if he was in the
heather (as I noticed many times while he was with me,) you could hardly
distinguish him from it.

After going about with us to various places, I brought him to my
mother's house at Clifton in Gloucestershire, where I was making a short
stay, and the following day I went out for a drive over the Durdham
Downs, through Westbury, Henbury, etc., to a village, about ten or
twelve miles from Clifton, and (as I have since thought very foolishly,)
I allowed, "Fraochen," to follow the trap, and several times during the
journey, there I noticed him running by the side, or in front, but when
we had accomplished the journey and were about to return by a different
route, I missed him, and it then struck me, what a fool I had been, to
take out a young dog, not only along a strange road, but in a country
which he had never before seen, and quite a contrast to his native home
in Skye. I of course gave him up as lost, which I much regretted, as his
cool, independent manner and quaint, jaunty air had greatly endeared him
to me, during the time we had been acquainted. However, when I returned
to Clifton, I had to pass one place, near where some of the houses of
the Clifton college masters now stand, where four roads meet, by one of
which I must come to reach my mother's house. On the space in the
centre, and commanding a view of these four, sat "Fraochen," waiting our
approach. How he managed to get over the ten or twelve miles of quite
unknown country, (as I found that he, like ourselves, came back by a
different route from the one we went by,) I do not know, but I asked
several travellers we met, if they had noticed a dog coming towards them
along the road, and most of them answered they did, and that he was
"running like steam," or he "wasn't wasting much time about it," etc.

He lived with me until his death from old age, many years afterwards but
was quite a character in many ways. One of his peculiarities was, if he
was out with my wife, with whom he was a prime favourite, without me, he
considered her under his special protection, no matter how many or how
large any of the other dogs out at same time might be, and if he was on,
ever so far in front, and he met any rough-looking or suspicious
character of the tramp species, he would immediately return and walk
close to my wife's side, so as to come between her and the
objectionable person, and continue that position so long as he was
anywhere near.

We were talking of the speed of Greyhounds, which has been said to be
equal to that of the fleetest horse, and a singular circumstance which
occurred at Doncaster, in Yorkshire, sometime since, proved that it was
not much inferior. A mare cantering over the Doncaster course, her
competitor having been withdrawn, was joined by a Greyhound bitch, when
she had proceeded about a mile, she seemed determined to race with the
mare, which the jockey on the latter humoured, and gradually increased
his pace, until at the distance, they put themselves at their full
speed. The mare beat her antagonist only by a short head.

The race horse is perhaps from his superior strength and length of
stride, generally able to outrun the Greyhound on level ground, but the
latter would have the pull over him in a hilly country, or over ground
at all rough or uneven.

The Greyhound is said to be deficient in attachment to his master and in
general intelligence. There is some truth in the imputation, but he has,
in fact, far less even than the hound, the opportunity of forming
individual attachments and no other exercise of the mind is required of
him, than to follow the game which starts up before him and catch it, if
he can. If, however, he is closely watched, he will be found to have all
the intellect his situation requires.

In illustration of this, I remember reading in a very old doggy book,
an account of two greyhounds said to be as arrant thieves as ever lived.
They would now and then steal into the cooking house, belonging to the
kennels, lift up the boiler lid with their noses or paws, and if any
portion of the joints or pieces of meat rose above the water, suddenly
seize them and before there was time for them to suffer much from the
heat, fling it out on the stone floor and eat it at their leisure, when
it had grown cold. In order to prevent this, the top of the boiler was
secured by an iron rod, passing under its handle and tied to the handle
of the boiler on each side; and not many days passed before they found
out they could gnaw the cords around it, displace the rod and fish out
the meat as before. Small chains were then substituted for the cords and
the meat was cooked in safety for nearly a week, when they found that by
rearing on their hind legs and applying their united strength towards
the upper part of the boiler, they could lift it off the fire and roll
it on the floor, so getting at the soup or broth, although the meat was
not in their reach. The keeper who looked after them expressed himself
heartily glad when they were gone, for he said he was often afraid to go
into the kennel, wondering what they would be up to next, and felt sure
they were demons, and not dogs at all.

A singular story is told of King Richard II. of England, and a dog of
this breed. It is given in the quaint language of Froissart. "A
Greyhound called Mithe, who always wayted upon ye Kynge, and wolde know
no man els. For when so ever ye Kynge did ryde, he that kept ye
Greyhounde dyd lette hym lose, and he wolde streyht runne to ye Kynge
and faun uppon hym and leape with his fore fete upon ye shoulders of ye
Kynge. It came to passe that onne daye as ye Kynge and ye Erle of Darbye
talked togyther in ye yarde of ye Courte ye Greyhounde who was wonte to
leape uppon ye Kynge, left ye Kynge and came to ye Erle of Darbye, Duke
of Lancastre, and made to hym the same friendlye continuance, and chere
as he was wonte to do to ye Kynge. The Duke, who knew not ye dogge, nor
whence he came, demanded of ye Kynge what ye Greyhounde wolde do.
Cousin, quoth ye Kynge, it is a great good token to you, but an evyl and
a gruesome signe to me. How know ye that, quod ye Duke. I know it fulle
wele, quod ye Kynge. Ye Greyhounde acknowledgethe and acceptethe you,
here this daye as ye ryteful Kynge of Englande, as ye shal be, without
doubte, and I shal be streyghtwaye deposed; the Greyhounde hathe thys
knowledge, naturally, there fore take hym to you, he wil followe you and
forsake me. Ye Duke wel understoode those wordes and cheryshed ye
Greyhounde, who wolde never after followe Kynge Richarde, but continued
to follow at all tymes ye Duke of Lancastre."

The owner of the dog an English Water Spaniel, tells the following
anecdote, which is stated to be absolutely true: "I was once on the
seacoast, when a small, ill-made and leaky fishing boat was cast on
shore, on a dangerous reef of rocks. Three men and a boy of ten years,
constituted the crew, the men swam to land, but were so bruised and
knocked about against the rocks that they were unable to render any
assistance to the poor boy, and no one was found to venture out to help
him. I heard the noise and went to the spot with my dog, I spoke to him
and in he went, more like a seal or other marine animal, than a dog, and
after several vain attempts succeeded in mounting the wreck and laid
hold of the boy's clothes, who screamed and clung to the ropes, etc.,
being much frightened at being thus dragged into the water, as the waves
were dashing over the rocks. In the excitement and anxiety of the moment
I thought the dog had missed his hold, and stripped off most of my
clothes to render what assistance I could. I was just in the act of
springing in, having selected the time when the receding waves gave the
best chance, when I caught sight of old Bagsman, as my dog was called,
with the struggling boy, whose head was uppermost. I rushed to where
they must land and received both as they reached the shore.

Some time after I was out with the same dog, wild fowl shooting. We had
both been hard at work and I left him behind me, while I went to a
neighbouring town to get a supply of gunpowder. A man in a drunken
frolic had pushed off in a boat with a girl in it, the tide running out,
carried the boat quickly away, and the man being unable to swim, became
frightened and jumped overboard. Bagsman was near the spot, heard the
splash, jumped in, swam to the man, caught hold of him and brought him
twenty or thirty yards towards shore, when the drunken fellow clasped
the dog tightly round the body, and they both went down together. The
girl was saved by a boat going to her assistance. The body of the man
was recovered about an hour afterward with that of the dog, tightly
clasped in his arms, thus dragging both to the bottom."

The sagacity of the Poodle is well known, and their aptitude to learn
tricks. Mr. Wilkie, of Ladiethorn, in Northumberland, had one he had
instructed to go through all the apparent agonies of death. He would
fall on his side, stretch himself out and move his hind legs as if he
were in great pain; he would next simulate the convulsive throbs of
departing life, and then stretch out his limbs, and thus seem as if he
had expired; in this position he would remain motionless, until he heard
his master's command to rise.

Jesse, in his "Gleanings in Natural History," gives another illustration
of the intelligence of this breed. A friend of his had one that was not
always under proper command. To keep him in better order he purchased a
small whip, with which he, once or twice, corrected him during a walk.
On his return the whip was put on a table in the hall, but the next
morning it was missing. Soon afterwards it was found concealed in an
outhouse, and again used in correcting the dog. Once more it would have
been lost, but on a strict watch being kept upon the suspected dog, he
was seen to take it away from the hall table in order to once more hide
it away.

There are endless stories told of the life saving qualities of
Newfoundland dogs. I will here mention two of them. A German was
travelling one evening on foot through the Dyke country in Holland,
accompanied by a large specimen of this breed, walking on a high bank
which formed one side of a dyke, his foot slipped and he was
precipitated into the water, and being unable to swim soon lost his
senses. When he recovered consciousness, he found himself in a cottage
on the other side of the dyke, surrounded by peasants, who had been
using the means for the recovery of drowned persons. The account given
him by one of them was, that returning home from work he observed, some
distance off, a large dog in the water, swimming and dragging, and
sometimes pushing along something that he seemed to have great
difficulty in supporting, but which he at length succeeded in getting
into a small creek on the opposite side. When the animal had pulled what
he had hitherto supported, as far out of the water as he was able, the
peasant was able to discover that it was the body of a man, whose face
and hands the dog was industriously licking. He hastened to a bridge
across the dyke, and having obtained assistance, the body was conveyed
to a neighbouring house, where proper means soon restored the drowning
man to life. Two very considerable bruises, with the marks of teeth,
appeared one on his shoulder and the other on his poll, hence it was
presumed the faithful beast had first seized his master by the shoulder
and swam with him in this manner for sometime, but that his sagacity had
prompted him to quit this hold and to shift it to the nape of the neck,
by which he had been enabled to support the head out of the water and in
this way he had conveyed him, nearly a quarter of a mile, before he had
brought him to the creek where the banks were low and accessible.

Another story runs as follows: A vessel was driven on the beach at Lydd
in Kent. The surf was rolling furiously. Eight poor fellows were crying
for help, but no boat could be got off for their assistance. At length a
gentleman came down to the beach accompanied by a fine Newfoundland dog,
he directed the attention of the animal to the vessel and put a short
stick into his mouth. The intelligent and courageous fellow at once
understood his meaning, sprang into the sea, and fought his way through
the waves. He could not, however, on account of the high seas running,
get close enough to the vessel to deliver that with which he was
charged, but the crew understood what was meant, made fast a rope to
another piece of wood and threw it towards him. The noble beast dropped
his own piece of wood, and seized that which had been cast to him, and
then, with a degree of strength and determination scarcely credible, for
he was again and again lost sight of in the roaring sea, he dragged it
through the surge and delivered it to his master. A line of
communication was thus formed, and every man on board was rescued.

Referring to some of the breeds peculiar to northern climes the
following is told: A man named Chabert had a beautiful Siberian dog, who
would draw him in a light carriage twenty miles a day. He asked £200 for
him, and sold him for nearly that amount, for he was a most beautiful
specimen of his breed, and as docile as he was beautiful. Between the
sale and the delivery, the dog had an accident and broke his leg.
Chabert, to whom the money was an object of immense importance, was in
despair. He took the dog at night to a leading veterinary surgeon. He
formally introduced them to each other, he talked to the dog, pointed to
his leg, limped round the room, then requested the surgeon to apply some
bandages, etc., round the leg and then seemed to walk sound and well, he
patted the dog on the head, who was looking alternately at him and the
surgeon, desired the surgeon to pat him and offer him his hand to lick,
and then holding up his finger to the dog and gently shaking his head,
quitted the room and the house. The dog immediately laid himself down,
and submitted to a reduction of the fracture and the bandaging of the
limb, without a motion, except once or twice, licking the hand of the
operator. He was quite docile, and remained in a manner motionless, day
after day, until at the expiration of a month, the limb was sound. Not a
trace of the fracture was to be detected and the purchaser knew nothing
of it.

Many years ago, the following scene took place in a street adjoining
Hanover Square. It was an exhibition of a highly interesting character,
worthy to be recorded. The then editor of the "Lancet" having heard that
a French gentleman, Mr. Leonard, who had for some time been engaged in
instructing two dogs in various performances, that required the
exercise, not merely of the natural instincts of the animals and the
power of imitation, but of a higher intellect and degrees of reflection
and judgment far greater than is commonly developed in dogs, was then
residing in London, obtained an introduction, and was obligingly
favoured by Mr. Leonard, with an appointment to witness the performance
of his extraordinary pupils, and he thus describes the interview:

Two fine dogs of the Spanish breed were introduced by Mr. Leonard, with
the customary French politeness, the largest by the name of Philax, the
other as Brac (or Spot), the former had been in training three, the
latter two years. They were in vigourous health, and having bowed
gracefully, took their seats on the hearth rug side by side. Mr. Leonard
then gave a lively description of the means he had employed to develop
the brain power of these animals, how from being fond of the chase and
anxious to possess the best trained dogs, he had employed the usual
course of training, how the conviction had been impressed on his mind,
that by gentle usage and steady perseverance in making the animal repeat
over and over again, what was wanted, not only would he be capable of
performing the act required, but the part of the brain which was brought
into mental activity by the effort, would become more fully developed
and a permanent increase of power obtained.

After this introduction, Mr. Leonard spoke to his dogs in French in his
usual tone, ordering one to walk, the other to lie down, to run, gallop,
halt, crouch, etc., which they did as promptly and correctly as the most
docile children. Then he put them through the usual exercises of the
circus rings, which they performed as well as the best trained ponies at
any high class circus. He then placed six cards of different colours on
the floor, and sitting with his back to the dogs, directed one to pick
up the blue card, and the other the white one, etc., etc., varying his
orders rapidly, and speaking in such a manner that unless the dogs had a
perfect knowledge of the words used, they could not have carried out his
commands. For example, he said, "Philax, take the red card and give it
to Brac," and "Brac, take the white card and give it to Philax." The
dogs instantly did this and exchanged cards with each other. He then
said, "Philax, put your card on the green," and "Brac, put yours on the
blue," and this was immediately done. Pieces of bread and meat were
placed on the floor, also figured cards and varied directions and
instructions were given to the dogs, so as severely to test their
memories, obedience and intelligence. They brought the bread, meat, or
cards, as commanded, but did not attempt to eat any of the two former,
unless ordered to do so. Philax was then desired to fetch a piece of
meat and give it to Brac, and then Brac was told to give it back to
Philax, who was to return it to its place. Philax was next told he might
bring a piece of bread and eat it, but before he had time to swallow it,
his master forbade him and desired him to show he had obeyed orders, and
the dog instantly protruded the crust between his lips. While some of
these feats were being performed, Mr. Leonard loudly cracked a whip
occasionally, to prove that the animals were so completely under
discipline that they would give no heed to any noises or interruptions.

After many other performances Mr. Leonard invited Mr. Blanc, a gentleman
present, to play a game of dominoes with one of his dogs, which he
consented to do. The younger dog, Brac, seated himself on a chair at the
table and Messrs. Leonard and Blanc seated themselves opposite. Six
dominoes were placed on their edges, in the usual way, before the dog
and the same number before Mr. Blanc. The dog having amongst its numbers
a double number, took it up in its mouth and dropped it in the centre of
the table, Mr. Blanc added a single number to one side of it, the dog at
once played another correctly, and so on, till all the pieces were used
up. A fresh lot of six dominoes were then served out to each competitor
and Mr. Blanc (just to test the dog) intentionally put a wrong number in
the course of the game. The dog looked surprised and excited, stared
hard at Mr. Blanc, growled, and finally barked loudly. Finding no notice
taken of his remonstrances, he then pushed away the wrong domino, with
his nose, and put a right number, from amongst his own, in its place.
Mr. Blanc afterwards continued the play correctly and the game was won
by the dog. Not the slightest hint or information appeared to be given
by Mr. Leonard to the dog. This method of playing a game of dominoes
must have been entirely the result of his individual observation and
judgment. The performance was strictly private throughout, the owner of
the dogs was a gentleman of independent fortune, and had taken up the
instruction of his dogs merely as a curious and amusing investigation as
to the cultivated intelligence of animals.

Plutarch relates that, at the Theatre of Marcellus, a dog was exhibited
before the Emperor Vespasian so well taught, as to perform the figures
and steps of every (then) known kind of dance. He afterwards feigned
illness in a most singular manner, so as to strike the spectators with
astonishment. He first exhibited various symptoms of pain, then fell
down as if dead, afterwards seemed to revive, gradually, as if waking
from a profound sleep and then frisked and sported about, giving
meanwhile various demonstrations of joy and delight.

It is surprising the antipathy which sometimes exists between inmates of
the same kennels, I have had several instances of it in the course of a
long experience with most breeds. I remember some years ago I had a Skye
Terrier bitch, called "Wasp," and a Pepper Dandie bitch, known as
"Hornet," which we generally characterised as "The Insects," and very
stinging insects they were, if they happened to meet. One day when I was
driving in the dog cart to the railway station, at that time about a
six-mile drive to the nearest town to where I was living, and as we were
going along, I thought I heard a humming sound, and said to my kennelman
who was with me, "Jump down, Hale, I believe those Insects are at it!"
and I was right. They had eaten through the sides of their baskets, and
got at each other, through the holes, and were fairly enjoying
themselves on the journey. We managed to keep them apart the rest of the
way to the show they were bound for. I cannot recall what the place was,
but I well remember that "Hornet," who although quite a little creature,
was a perfect demon with others of her own race, though sweet tempered,
and most engaging with human beings, broke three chains I bought there,
two of them new ones, in order to get again at "Wasp," before they left
the show to return home. Their portraits appear in one of my pictures
with pony, my children and dogs, and are very like them.



CHAPTER XIX

ANECDOTES ABOUT DOGS (_Continued_)


In these days, when so much has been attempted and done, in connection
with expeditions to the Arctic regions, the following account by the
late Captain Parry, R. N. in the Journal of his second voyage, may be
interesting as giving a lively and accurate description of the manner in
which Esquimaux Dogs are managed in the sleighing operations in those
inclement climes.

"When drawing a sledge," says he, "the dogs have a simple harness of
reindeer or seal skin, going round the neck of one bight and another for
each of the fore legs, with a single thong leading over the back, and
attached to the sledge, as a trace.

"Though they appear, at first sight, to be huddled together without any
regard to regularity, there is, in fact, considerable attention paid to
their arrangement, particularly in the selection of a dog of peculiar
spirit and sagacity, who is allowed by a longer trace, to precede all
the rest, as Leader, and to whom, in turning to the right or left, the
driver usually addresses himself.

"This choice is made without regard to age or sex, and the rest of the
dogs take precedency according to their training or sagacity, the least
effective being put nearest the sledge.

"The leader is, usually, from eighteen to twenty feet from the fore part
of the sledge and the hindmost dog about half that distance, so that,
when ten or twelve are running together several are nearly abreast of
each other.

"The driver sits quite low on the front part of the sledge, with his
feet overhanging the snow on one side, and having in his hand a whip, of
which the handle is plaited a little way down to stiffen it, and give it
a spring, on which much of its use depends, and that which composes the
lash is chewed by the women to make it flexible in frosty weather.

"The men acquire, from their youth, considerable expertness in the use
of this whip. The lash is left to trail along the ground by the side of
the sledge, and with it they can inflict a very severe blow upon any one
of the dogs at pleasure.

"Though the dogs are kept in training solely and entirely by the fear of
the whip, and, indeed without it would soon have their own way, its
immediate effect is always detrimental to the draught of the sledge, for
not only does the individual that is struck draw back and slacken his
pace, but generally turns upon his next neighbour, and this passing on
to the next occasions a general divergency, accompanied by the usual
yelping and showing of teeth. The dogs then come together again by
degrees, and the pace of the sledge is quickened; but even at the best
of times, by this rude mode of draught, (and be it remembered the _only
one_, in these inclement parts of the world,) the traces of one-third of
the dogs form an angle of thirty or forty degrees on each side of the
direction in which the sledge is advancing.

"Another great inconvenience attending the Esquimaux method of putting
dogs to, besides that of not employing their strength to the best
advantage, is the constant entanglement of the traces by the dogs
repeatedly doubling under from side to side to avoid the whip, so that,
after running a few miles, the traces always require to be taken off and
cleared.

"In directing the sledge, the whip plays no very essential part, the
driver for this purpose using certain words, as the carters do with us,
to make the dogs turn more to the right or left. To these, a good leader
attends with admirable precision, especially if his own name be
repeated, at the same time looking behind over his shoulder with great
earnestness, as if listening to the directions of the driver.

"On a beaten track, or where even a single foot, or sledge mark is
visible, or occasionally discernible, there is not the slightest trouble
in guiding the dogs; for even in the darkest night, and in the heaviest
snow drifts, there is little or no danger of them losing their road, the
leader keeping his nose near the ground, and directing the rest with
wonderful sagacity.

"Where, however, there is no beaten track, the best driver amongst them,
makes a terribly circuitous course, as all the Esquimaux roads plainly
show; these generally occupying an extent of six miles, when with a
horse and sledge the journey would scarcely have amounted to five!

"On rough ground, as on hummocks of ice, the sledge would be frequently
overturned, or altogether stopped, if the driver did not repeatedly get
off and by lifting or drawing it on one side, steer clear of those
accidents. At all times, indeed, except on a smooth and well made road,
he is pretty constantly employed, thus, with his feet, which, together
with his never ceasing vociferations and frequent use of the whip,
renders the driving of one of these vehicles by no means an easy or a
pleasant task.

"When the driver wishes to stop the sledge, he calls out 'Wo, woa,'
exactly as our carters do, but the attention paid to this command
depends altogether on his ability to enforce it. If the weight is small
and the journey homeward, the dogs are not to be thus delayed, the
driver is obliged therefore to dig his heels into the snow, to obstruct
their progress, and having thus succeeded in stopping them, he stands up
with one leg before the foremost cross-piece of the sledge, till by
means of gently laying his whip over each dog's head, he has made them
all lie down. Even then, he takes care not to quit his position; so
that, should the dogs set off, he is thrown upon the sledge instead of
being left behind by them.

"With heavy loads, the dogs draw best with one of their own people,
especially a woman, walking a little way ahead, and in this case they
are sometimes enticed to mend their pace by holding a mitten to the
mouth and then making the motion of cutting it with a knife and
throwing it on the snow, when the dogs, mistaking it for meat, hasten
forward to pick it up. The women also entice them from the huts in a
similar manner. The rate at which they travel depends of course on the
weight they have to draw and the roads on which the journey is
performed.

"When the latter is level and very hard and smooth constituting in other
parts of North America what is called 'good sleighing,' six or seven
dogs will draw from eight to ten hundredweight at the rate of seven or
eight miles an hour, for several hours together, and will easily, under
these circumstances, perform a journey of from fifty to sixty miles a
day. On untrodden snow, five and twenty, or thirty miles would be a good
journey in a day.

"The same number of well-fed dogs with five or six hundredweight behind
them, that of the sledge included, are almost unmanageable, and will, on
a smooth road, run any way they please at the rate of ten miles an hour.
The work performed, however, by a greater number of dogs is, by no
means, in proportion to this, owing to the imperfect mode already
described of utilising the strength of these sturdy creatures and to the
more frequent snarling and fighting occasioned by the increase in
numbers of the draught team or teams."

I have no doubt all owners of kennels have noticed the sudden
antipathies taken by dogs sometimes to their own comrades and
companions. I remember several instances, amongst my dogs; one was
between two remarkably quiet and unassuming Bull Bitches, Louisa and
Lucretia, who lived together in a roomy kennel for a long time, but one
night there was such a great noise amongst all the dogs that I felt sure
there must be something serious going on, so I got up and dressed
sufficiently to go down, and found that although the barking and yelling
was being done by the Sheep Dogs, Terriers, etc., the "business" lay
entirely between the two ladies mentioned, who were simply locked
together, and I had a nasty job to get and keep them apart, as it really
wants two persons to deal with two determined "boxers," but at last, I
got one outside, and the other inside the loose box, and then managed
all right.

Another case I had was the two well-known champions, Rob Roy and Laird,
two of the best Dandies going at the time they were about. Neither of
them had any idea what fear was, but each hated the other with the most
deadly hatred, and even to hear the bark of the one, would set the other
screaming to get at him, and yet they were both docile with people, and
mostly with other dogs, but Laird had a particular dislike to any dog,
running in front of a vehicle and barking at the horse, and this
aversion was the cause of his sudden death. Cedar Lodge, Downend, Glo.,
where I then lived, was the corner of one of four roads, with a large
lawn on the two front sides of it, and it was Laird's delight to sit on
the top of a low wall, there, and watch the passers by; one morning,
early, he was thus engaged, when a crank axle cart came rumbling along,
accompanied by a good-sized dog, barking in front of the horse; this
was too much for Laird, who sprang from the wall into the road and
pinned the dog, and before the man could pull up his horse, the wheels
of the cart had gone over the fighting dogs in the road with fatal
effects on one of the combatants, as Laird, without a whimper, though he
must have been seriously injured, walked slowly into the house, lay down
in his own box, and died then and there!

Another case of sudden antipathy I remember was between two Skye Bitches
of mine, Laura and Lucy (winners of some fifty prizes at all the best
shows, while they were about), I bought, on the dispersal of Mrs.
Jacobson's kennel, after her lamented death. She was a genuine fancier,
and sportswoman, and all her dogs were sure to be "workers," and
thoroughly game. One of them was drop-eared, and the other prick-eared,
and for a long time they were the best of friends, and not only lived
together in one kennel, but used to go to shows often considerable
distances, such as Edinburgh, Darlington, and other places in a long low
wicker basket, which just suited them without any partition or division
in it. But one day they had some difference of opinion, the cause of
which I do not know, but there were "ructions," and they never could be
trusted together again without the certainty of "war to the knife."

James Hogg, well known as the Ettrick shepherd, declares in his
"Shepherd's Calendar" that dogs know what is said on subjects in which
they are interested. A farmer had a dog that for three or four years in
the latter part of his life, met him at the foot of his farm, about a
mile and a half from his house, on his way home. If he was away half a
day, a week, or a fortnight, it was all the same, she met him at that
spot, there was never an instance known of her going to meet him, on a
wrong day, and she could only know when he was coming back, by hearing
it mentioned in the family.

I have had many dogs who knew Sunday perfectly well, whether by hearing
the church bells, or other indications of the day, I do not know, but
although wild to go if they saw me going out at any other time, on that
day, they would take no notice nor make any attempt to follow me.

In the same way I have had many thin-coated dogs such as Bull and
English Terriers, Smooth Toys and Pugs, who would not go out willingly
in wet weather, but Sheep Dogs, Dalmatians, Deerhounds, Dandies,
Scottish, Skyes and Wirehaired Fox Terriers, take no notice of it,
beyond occasionally shaking themselves, to get rid of some of the water.

Another of Hogg's tales is as follows: "One of my Sheep dogs, named
Hector, was very keen in picking up what was said before him." One day
Hogg said to his mother, "I am going to Bowerhope to-morrow for a
fortnight, but I will not take Hector with me, for he is constantly
quarrelling with the rest of the dogs." Hector was present and must have
overheard the conversation, as next morning he was missing, and when
Hogg reached Bowerhope, Hector was sitting on a hillock, waiting his
arrival, he had swum across a flooded river to reach the spot.

Retrievers have the reputation, either rightly or wrongly, of being
quarrelsome with other dogs, and so are more often kept as guards or for
sporting work, than as companions or pets, but the following are
recorded of their sagacity. The inmates of a house in High street in a
well-known city were aroused by the loud barking of a dog on the
premises. He was a large Black Retriever, Jack, much attached to his
master and family. The cause of alarm was soon seen to be a fire raging
furiously next door, the smoke from which had aroused the dog. In a
short time the house was emptied, all the inmates escaping before it
caught fire, which appeared inevitable. Jack was often used to be left
in charge of the house when the family were temporarily absent, and
although not tied up, no persuasion or even coaxing would induce him to
desert his post, so much so that it was four hours after he had given
the first alarm of fire, that he allowed one of the family to persuade
him to leave the building, which was then almost "gutted." In a
marvellous manner, he had escaped injury from the fire, or falling
walls, rafters, etc., but the shock to the system from the inhalation of
smoke, etc., was so severe, that it caused inflammation of the lungs,
and he died the next day, after suffering with coughing, etc., really a
martyr to what he looked upon as his duty, and though occasionally
taking a little water, refusing all food.



CHAPTER XX

ANECDOTES ABOUT DOGS (_Continued_)


Another instance of sagacity occurred at Bristol, when a nursemaid
wheeling a perambulator with a baby in it, down Spring Hill, which those
of my readers who know the locality, will remember, is one of the
steepest in that hilly part of the country, was seized with a fit, and
loosened her hold. In an instant the little vehicle, with its living
occupant, was darting down towards a flight of steps in the hill and
apparently to certain destruction. Just before its arrival at the steps,
the leathern apron of the perambulator was seized by a Retriever dog,
who happened to witness the occurrence, and saw the danger of it, the
vehicle was stopped and the child saved from an untimely death.

The natural love of fun and inclination for being taught almost anything
of the Irish Water Spaniel is well known, so that I think the following
account by Mr. Lindhoe, R.E., at one time a keen fancier and exhibitor,
of his Rake and Blaeney, may be interesting to my readers.

He writes: "Rake is a very clever dog and can be taught almost any
trick. He is very tender-mouthed and can dive and bring up an egg,
unbroken, from a depth of twelve feet or more. It is very amusing also
to see him take sixpence out of a bucket of water, as he sometimes has
his head under nearly two minutes before picking it up. I taught him a
very clever trick which used to cause much amusement at the shows.
Whenever he was disturbed by any one poking at him with a stick to make
him rouse up and show himself, he would rise gently, put his fore paws
on the shoulders of the disturber of his rest, and before it was guessed
what idea he had in view, seize and take off the man's hat and deposit
it in the pan of water, or on the straw in his pen. Blaeney also is
wonderfully clever, and a splendid hand at sport on land or in water.
After a game of croquet is finished, she invariably brings in the hoops,
mallets, balls, etc., and places them in their proper box in the hall.
Once when I was engaged in separating four large Mastiffs who were
fighting, she came to my rescue, and considering the best way of
rendering assistance, seized the most stubborn of the combatants by the
tail and held on till the fight was stopped. She would retrieve very
long distances and often surprised people by seizing some stick or other
article, which had been put down on purpose for her to fetch, and they
had unknowingly picked up. I have frequently known both these dogs jump
into the water from a distance of nearly thirty feet."

I remember, on a recent occasion, when I had promised to judge at one of
our largest London shows, having the impression the show opened on the
Tuesday, I went up on the Monday, and did not discover my mistake until
I got to the hotel I usually patronised for any show in that part of the
metropolis, but as I have always any amount of places and people to
see, I own I did not trouble about the matter, and had nearly forgotten
it until at the show I met a gentleman also hailing from the same part
of England and a well-known light in the Beagle world, who said: "I did
an unusual thing this time, came up a day too soon, and I shall get a
pretty 'roasting' over it." I replied: "I also did the same for the
first time, in a long experience of Dog shows, but do not expect any
'roasting.'" He said, "Oh, but my wife will know it, if no one else
does, and she will never forget it." I answered, "Neither my wife, nor
any one else, will know it, from me, as I don't believe (any more than
the late Mr. Sam Weller) in telling matters against myself." But as I
see the gentleman referred to has followed the example of the late Mr.
Silas Wegg (in Our Mutual Friend) and "dropped into poetry," in the
pages of a well known fancier's paper, it may amuse some of our mutual
friends if I quote the lines here:


TOO PREVIOUS PUNCTUALITY.

  Two L's went up, a Lordly Lane.
    To visit Cruft, his Show
  And scorning both the wind, and rain,
    Were early, "on the go."

  They both hail from the Sunny West,
    And, both, their locks, are grey,
  But spite of this, may I be blessed,
    They, both, mistook the day!

  The one, a Judge, of well-known fame,
    But not, a Judge, of days,
  The other, but, a Judge of Game,
    In all its gamey ways.

  So eager were they for the fray,
    To be in time, for Sport,
  They both arrived, upon the day,
    The day, before, they ought!

Many of the older exhibitors will remember the late Mr. I. H.
Murchison, F. R. G. S., whose large and successful kennel of St.
Bernards, Dandies, and Fox Terriers, was for so many years in the front
rank at all the leading shows? As I was much mixed up in the two last
named varieties, I used constantly to be in his company, and that of his
son, also a keen and capable fancier. I remember on one occasion meeting
him at a show, I forget where it was, now, I think in the London
district, but amongst the dogs he had there was a young and very
promising Fox Terrier, called "Cracknel," with which he had carried all
before him, and he showed me a letter he had received from a gentleman
then, as now, in the front rank of Fox Terrier breeders, and exhibitors,
offering him £270 for the dog, and he said, since receipt of the letter,
the writer had offered to make it "even money" (£300), at that time,
quite a fancy price for a specimen of that breed. He said, "What would
you advise me to do about it?" I said, "Why take it, without hesitation,
it is a tempting price, the life of all dogs is uncertain, and show
dogs, especially, and it will do your kennel more good to have sold a
dog from it, at such a figure, than anything you can gain, in any other
way." However, he refused the offer, and Cracknel not long afterwards
rushed into a hayfield after a rabbit, or rat, and so cut himself with a
scythe hidden in the long grass that he had to be sewn up and was long
in the veterinary surgeon's care and was never in the front rank again!

I have known many such cases of good offers being refused to the
prejudice of the dog's owners. I remember a well-known lady exhibitor
coming up to me at a show with a telegram she had just received from
America, offering her £150 for a prize winning pug she had, and asking
my advice. I strongly advised her to take it, as it was far more than
the market value of the dog, but, in the end, she sent back a refusal.
Other dogs came forward, and put her dog into the rear rank, and she
afterwards sold it for, I think, about £20.

Mr. Edwin Nichols, of whom I have spoken in relation to several large
breeds, was one of the first men to get large prices for his dogs, as it
must be quite twenty years or more since he received so he told me, £900
for two dogs, one of them being the well known Mastiff, "Turk," one of
the grandest specimens of his day, and the other a high class
Bloodhound.

And to show what a fine judge he was as to the strains to breed, I
remember an instance he gave me from his extensive experience. He met a
friend one day to whom he had sold a Bloodhound bitch puppy, who said,
"Mr. Nichols, I wish you would take back that puppy I had from you, it
is always doing mischief in the garden, etc., and I wish to get rid of
it." Mr. Nichols said, "I really don't want it, I have a lot of dogs of
all ages, and I am more a seller than a buyer at present." To make a
long story short, he eventually took back the young bitch for £10,
afterward mating her to one of his best dogs, and he told me that he
sold that litter, which produced two if not three champions, for over
one thousand pounds. I say, that a man who could do such a thing, proved
himself a consummate judge, and I have not the slightest doubt of the
truth of the story, and, when he named the dogs in the litter to me, I
knew what grand specimens of the breed they were.



CHAPTER XXI

ANECDOTES ABOUT DOGS (_Continued_)


I have mentioned the "Warwick Shows" of days gone by, and what charming
re-unions they were. I think the incident which follows must have been
at the first of them, for although I had known Mr. Nichols by sight and
name, I did not think I was known to him. I remember I had reached
Warwick in the afternoon, engaged a bed at the Globe Hotel (where they
told me mine was a double bedded room, and I stipulated that the other
bed should not be occupied without my consent), and went to the show,
and meeting with many friends there, it was late when I got back. I then
found Mr. Nichols waiting to see who I was, as it seemed the other bed
in my room was the only one unoccupied in the town. I had not left my
name, and the hotel people's description did not enlighten him, but he
said, "Whoever it is, if he knows anything about dogs, or doggy men, he
will know me!" and so it proved. We had, as always afterwards whenever
we met, a long talk on subjects congenial to us both, and he secured the
"last bed of Warwick!"

Amongst the many weaknesses to which I plead guilty, is a devoted
admiration of the works of the late Charles Dickens, some of which came
out in their green coloured numbers, while I was a schoolboy, and it was
the delight of my brothers and self, to sit and listen to them being
read out to us by our dear mother, who had a gift in that direction. I
hope my readers will pardon my giving here, a very short doggy story,
from Pickwick Papers, in the pithy, disjointed sentences of "Mr. Alfred
Jingle," as I wish to give something, however slight, about nearly every
breed, and the anecdotes about Pointers are not very numerous. "Ah! you
should keep dogs, fine animals, sagacious creatures. Dog of my own once,
Pointer, surprising instinct, out shooting one day, entering enclosure,
whistled, dog stopped, whistled again, Ponto! no go; stock still, called
him, 'Ponto, Ponto,' no go, stock still, wouldn't move, dog transfixed,
staring at a board, looked up, saw an inscription, 'Gamekeeper has
orders to shoot all dogs found in this enclosure,' wouldn't pass it,
wonderful dog, valuable dog that, very. 'Singular circumstance that,'
said Mr. Pickwick, 'Will you allow me to make a note of it?' 'Certainly,
sir, certainly, hundred more anecdotes of the same animal.'"

At the risk of its being considered "a chestnut," I will here recount
the story of the dogs of Oldacre, so well told by the late William
Howitt, in his "Boys' Country Book" (one of the prime favourites of my
boyhood). "This story brings to my recollection, those two noble dogs at
Oldacre, two grand Setters that Squire Mills used always to have at his
heels, whether it was shooting season or not, just one the picture of
the other, as like as pin to pin or pear to pear!

Well, Squire Mills had an estate in Oxfordshire, a hundred miles off at
least; and there he used to go twice a year to receive his rents, and he
never went, while he had those dogs, without taking one of them with
him. When the dog was tired he let him go up into his chaise and ride,
and when he was tired of riding, the dog leaped out and jogged along
again till he was tired again.

Squire Mills always stopped at the Mitre Inn at Oxford, and it so
happened, on one occasion, that as his Setter followed him up the stable
yard, a great mastiff, which was chained to a kennel, suddenly rushed
out, seized on the Setter, and before he could be beaten off, had very
severely worried him. Squire Mills was very angry, and the innkeeper
made many apologies, but that did not cure the dog's wounds, and the
Squire, who said he would rather have given five pounds than the dog had
been so used, set off homeward in no very good humour.

The dog, which seemed very much hurt, lay whining and appearing very
uneasy, in the bottom of the chaise, all the way home, and when they got
there the keeper was ordered to pay every attention to him, and do all
that he could for him. But the dog lay in his kennel for more than a
week, and seemed in a very poor way, indeed. He would not eat, and the
keeper was very doubtful what would be the upshot of it, when, one
morning he was very much surprised to find, both he and his fellow dog
missing.

All inquiries were made, but nothing could be heard of them and it was
concluded they were stolen. The squire immediately offered five and
twenty guineas for the discovery of the thief; but no thief was heard
of, or the dogs either, till a week afterwards, when they again entered
the yard, but two such poor jaded, worn-down creatures as never were
seen.

They were, apparently, starved to the very point of death, covered with
dust, and in fact, in such a condition that notwithstanding all that
could be done, they both died in the course of a few days. On examining
them after death, they appeared to have been shot at, various shot-corns
being found in their skins.

Nothing, however, came to light about it; and on the next rent day the
Squire made his journey into Oxfordshire without either of his favourite
dogs.

As he passed the kennel of the Mastiff in the Inn Yard, at Oxford, he
could not help looking, with resentment, towards it, when to his
surprise, instead of the Mastiff, which had been there many years, he
saw quite another dog. "And so you have parted with that savage brute of
a Mastiff that worried my setter the last time I was here," he said to
the Ostler. "Ay," replied the Ostler, "there's a curious thing about
that, sir, the dog was worried, dead on the spot, at the door of his own
kennel, and if I am not mistaken, your setter helped to do it too." "My
setter," said the Squire, "what do you mean?" "I mean, sir," said the
man, "that about a week or so after you was here last, when your dog got
so towsled by old Sampson, the Mastiff, we heard all of a sudden a
terrible noise of dogs fighting in the yard, and on running out, saw two
great dogs fiercely at work with old Sampson. They had got him down, and
seemed tearing him into very atoms. Our master made no more to do, but
in he ran, snatched down the gun, and fired at the dogs, but it was too
late, they were just going over the yard wall together, and I dare say,
got off without the peppering master meant for them. But there, however,
was old Sampson, as dead as the stones he lay upon!" "And you thought,"
said the Squire, "that one of the dogs resembled my setter?" "Nay," said
the Ostler, "both of them. One was the very picture of the other, and if
they were not your setters, they were no dogs at all!" "It is very
wonderful," said the Squire, "but I have not a doubt but that you are
quite right in your belief, and this accounts for what, till this
moment, has very much puzzled me. My dog was so resentful of the injury
and insult that he received from your Mastiff, that he without doubt
communicated his grievances to his brother dog, and prevailed on him to
set out on a pilgrimage of revenge. The dogs disappeared for a week or
more together, they came back wounded, and in that miserable plight,
that they never recovered it. The dogs, let me tell you, are both dead,
and I would not have taken a hundred pounds for them." The Ostler and
all the people about the inn were wonderfully surprised at the story,
and a wonderful circumstance it was, to be sure. My grandfather, who
told the story, added, "It is just as true as you sit there, I had it
word for word, nay, I have had it, word for word, twenty times, from
Squire Mills himself."

Of course in a long career of dog showing and judging I have come into
contact with all classes of exhibitors, and I am bound to say, as a
general rule, have met with the greatest courtesy and had many a kind
turn done me at different times, nor was I ever, but once, the subject
of any of the practical jokes which used to be, more than they are now,
so very frequent, and sometimes very rough, and unpleasant in their
nature.

The one exception was when I was stopping at Sydenham, on the occasion
of a Crystal Palace show, and when I rose in the morning to go up and
see my dogs before breakfast, my boots could nowhere be found, but as I
knew there was a very lively team stopping at the same hotel, I felt
certain it was their doing, and resolved to checkmate them by going to
see the dogs all the same and saying nothing about it, so as I always
carried in my bag a pair of Indian leather moccasins, I put them on, and
went over to the Palace, where I presently met one of the squad I
suspected of "lifting my boots," he said, "What funny shoes you have on,
Mr. Lane." I said, "Yes, they are a little out of the common, but, the
fact is, some of the jokers at my hotel, have taken a fancy to my boots
and probably supposed I should be kept a prisoner in the hotel all day,
and so I put on these," he said, "You don't mean to say, _your_ boots
were taken. They've taken the wrong man's; no one had the slightest idea
of playing any prank on you," and when I returned, I found my boots in
my room.

I came across, in an old French work, the following curious, if true,
method of fishing, in which the services of a Poodle, or Terrier were
called into action. The enthusiastic sportsman who fears neither storms
nor sunstroke (_coup de soleil_) makes his appearance at the Riverside
without either fishing rod, lines, worms, flies or bait, of any
description, but having under his left arm a double-barrelled gun, in
his right hand, a large cabbage and following at his heels a clever
Poodle or Terrier dog. The fisherman, or huntsman, I scarcely know which
to call him, now duly reconnoitres the river, fixes upon some tree, the
large and lower branches of which hang out over the water, ascends with
his gun and cabbage, and having taken up his position upon one of the
large projecting branches, closely examines the surface of the stream
beneath him.

He has, usually, not been long on his perch, before he perceives a
stately pike, or other member of the finny tribe, paddling up the river,
he instantly breaks a leaf off the cabbage, and when the fish has
approached sufficiently near, throws it into the water, the frightened
fish immediately disappears, but shortly after rises, and grateful to
the kind and unknown friend who has provided this admirable parasol,
swims towards it, and after pushing it about for a while with his nose,
finally places himself comfortably under its protecting and congenial
shade.

The sportsman in the tree, watching the animated movements of the
cabbage leaf, immediately fires, when the dog, whose sagacity is quite
equal to that of his master, plunges into the water, and if the fish is
either dead or severely wounded, seldom fails to bring the scaly morsel
to land; thus as long as the heavens are bright and blue, the water
keeps warm on the surface and the larger fish prefer to swim in the sun,
the sport continues so long as the climbing and staying powers of the
sportsman hold out. Sometimes the dog and fish have a very sharp
struggle, and then the fun is great indeed unless, by chance, the
sportsman should unfortunately miss his footing in the tree, in the
midst of his amusement and drop head foremost into the water with his
double-barrelled gun and what is left of his cabbage.

I think it may be interesting here to quote the eulogistic terms in
which Mr. Burchell, the well-known African traveller, wrote of his dogs,
as he had a considerable experience of the breed in the course of his
long and perilous journeys in that (at the time he was there) almost
unknown country.

"Our pack of dogs," says he, "consisted of five and twenty, of various
sorts and sizes. This great variety, though not altogether intentional,
as I was obliged to take any that could be procured and were at all
likely to answer my purposes, was often of the greater service to me, as
I observed, some gave notice of danger, or their suspicions of it, in
one way, and others in quite a different manner. Some were more disposed
to keep watch against men, others against wild beasts of prey, and
others for animals and birds of sport; some discovered an enemy by their
quickness of hearing, others by that of scent; some were useful for
speed in pursuing game, some for their vigilance and barking, and others
for their courage in holding ferocious animals at bay. So large a pack
indeed was not maintained without adding greatly to our care and
trouble, in supplying them with meat and water, for it was sometimes
difficult to procure for them enough of the latter; but, their services
were invaluable, often contributing to our safety, and always to our
ease, by their constant vigilance, as we felt confident that no danger
could approach us at night without its being announced by their barking.

"No circumstances could render the value and fidelity of these animals
so conspicuous and sensible as a journey through regions which abounding
in wild beasts of almost every class, gave us continual opportunities of
witnessing the strong contrast between the ferocious beasts of prey,
many of which fly at the approach of man and these kind, but not always
duly appreciated, companions of the human race. Many times when we have
been travelling over plains where the wild creatures of all kinds have
fled directly we appeared in sight, have I turned my eyes towards my
dogs, in admiration of their devotion and attachment and have felt a
grateful affection towards them for preferring our society to the wild
liberty of other quadrupeds.

"Often in the middle of the night when all my people have been fast
asleep round the fire, have I stood to contemplate these faithful
animals lying by their side, and have learned to esteem them for their
social inclination to mankind. When wandering over pathless deserts,
oppressed with vexation and distress at the conduct of my own men I have
turned to them, as my only friends and felt how much inferior to them
was man when actuated only by selfish views.

"The familiarity which exists between these animals and our own race, is
so common to almost every country of the globe, that any remark upon it
must seem superfluous, but I cannot avoid believing that it is the
universality of the fact which prevents the greater part of mankind from
duly reflecting on the subject. While almost every other quadruped fears
man as its most formidable enemy, here is one which regards him as a
friend.

"We must not mistake the nature of the case, it is not because we train
him to our use and have made choice of him in preference to other
animals, but because this particular species feels a natural desire to
be useful to man and from spontaneous impulse attaches itself to him.
Were it not so we should see in various countries an equal familiarity
with various other quadrupeds according to the habits, tastes, or
caprices of different nations. But, everywhere, it is the dog only takes
delight in associating with us, in sharing our abodes, and is even
jealous that our attention should be bestowed on him alone, it is he who
knows us personally, watches for us, and warns us of danger.

"It is impossible for the naturalist, when taking a survey of the whole
animal creation not to feel a conviction that this friendship between
two creatures so different from each other, must be the result of the
laws of nature; nor can the humane and feeling mind avoid the belief
that kindness to those animals, from which he derives continued and
essential assistance is part of his moral duty." These words of such an
experienced naturalist as Mr. Burchell, are as true to-day as when they
were written by him more than fifty years ago, but I am bound to say I
think dogs are more valuable, and more thought of now, than ever they
were since the world began.

Mr. Bell tells a short story of the intelligence displayed by a
Bloodhound belonging to a friend of his, a Mr. Boyle. He says, "To make
trial whether a young hound was well instructed, Mr. Boyle desired one
of his servants to walk to a town four miles off, and then to a market
town three miles from thence. The dog, without seeing the man he was to
pursue, followed him by the scent to the above mentioned places,
notwithstanding the multitude of market people that went along the same
road and of travellers that had occasion to come, and when the
Bloodhound came to the market town he passed through the streets,
without taking notice of any of the people there, and ceased not till he
had gone to the house, where the man he sought rested himself and where
he found him in an upper room to the wonder of those who had accompanied
him in this pursuit." In the face of the Bloodhound trials last year,
and again this spring, in which my friend Mr. Brough has been so much
interested, I thought some of my readers might like to see this short
account of the doings of a young hound, more than half a century ago.

To illustrate the occasional trials of exhibitors, I recollect starting
off early with a team of dogs for one of the first general shows held at
Oxford, I think all my dogs were in boxes or baskets but one, a
tricolour Collie, whose name I forget, and he was on the chain, and put
by the railway people into one of those vile receptacles they call dog
boxes, narrow, dark, low and often dirty. On arrival at Didcot (which I
had before connected in my mind with Banbury cakes, and was quite
surprised to find a "one-eyed" sort of straggling village of
contemptible size,) a porter opened one end of the dog den and called
the Collie, he, however, showed no intention of responding to the call,
and retreated to the other end of the den and growled at the porter, and
one of the other porters went around to the further side of the coach
and opened the other door of the den, and the dog, taking advantage of
this chance of freedom, bolted out, crossed the line, went through a
hedge and found himself at once in the open country. I had taken no part
in the affair, and declined all responsibility, but told the officials I
should sue the company for the value of the dog, lost through their
carelessness. They begged me to accompany some of their men in search of
the dog, as he might be easier caught if he saw someone he knew amongst
those after him.

Soon after it began to rain, and from soon after eleven a. m. till
after six p. m. we tramped the country in search of the wandering dog,
whom we afterwards saw in the distance, but in that district the fields
are very large, and often as we laboriously got into a field through a
hedge or over hurdles, etc., we had the mortification of seeing the dog
disappear through or over the hedge on the opposite side, and very
wearisome work it was.

At length I decided to go on to Oxford, with the rest of my dogs, and
left the matter of the lost dog with the railway company, who, I was
informed, offered a reward for his recovery, and about a month
afterwards I had a letter asking me to call at one of their stations
where they thought a dog lately found answered the description of mine.
This turned out to be correct and I took home the dog, making a small
claim for expenses I had been put to in the matter. The dog was not in
bad condition, and still wore the collar and chain on him when lost, but
it is strange how that dog managed to live for a month in such a
sparsely inhabited district as that round about Didcot, at any rate at
that time, which is about fifteen years ago.



CHAPTER XXII

ANECDOTES ABOUT DOGS (_Continued_)


I have been asked to reproduce a humourous "skit," which appeared in
"The Daily Mail" 9th of July, 1897, from the pen of a well-known
contributor to that paper. It was headed "A Ladies' Dog Show," and ran
as follows: "Seven gentle ladies were yesterday to be observed walking
gravely in a circle in Regents Park. They each led a Black Pug by a
chain. They walked round and round a ruddy old gentleman with keen blue
eyes, a shepherd's smock, and a slouched straw hat. Three partridge
feathers stuck out jauntily from the side of the hat. The ladies cast
appealing looks at the shepherd, who stared hard at the insignificant
little wretches of dogs, one of whom barked all the while, but he did
not heed it. The march became quicker; the ladies looked more appealing
than ever. A crowd gathered around and observed the strange proceedings
with wonder. What was it? they asked. A new system of Pantheistic
worship? or a side show from a menagerie? The shepherd put up his hand
and the ladies stopped, dead. He threw down his glittering pencil to
attract the notice of one of the glossy little Pugs. The Pug snapped. He
caught it by the head, and stared hard in its ridiculous little face.
The dog chastened by the keen blue eyes, ceased to yelp. The proud
proprietor at the other end of the chain, looked as anxious as a
criminal in the dock. The other ladies made the most of this moment of
respite. They patted their dogs and kissed them, and told them to be
good little duckies of doggies, and mamma would be so pleased! One
tempted her charge with a biscuit, another with half a crown. The coin
was held up above the dog's nose. Doggie jumped, and scrambled and
yelped just like any of its human acquaintances. The shepherd looked at
each dog in turn, and wrote something in a book, and then seven ladies
and seven dogs left the ring. One lady looked pleased, another fairly
satisfied and the rest as if somebody had blundered. The Pugs were all
indifferent. But the secret was out, there were no mysterious rites of
an Esoteric creed. It was a dog show, that of the 'Ladies' Kennel
Association.' They have survived their internecine troubles, and have
more members than they had before that dramatic split at the Holborn
restaurant and boast of more entries at this show than ever they had
before. Between seven hundred and eight hundred dogs are staged. At a
Ladies' Show it is to be expected that some of the conventionalities
will be overthrown. There are, for instance, no men prowling about, with
cloth caps, buckskin leggings, and wisps of straw, telling you that
their Terrier killed fifty rats in thirty seconds or that 'the Brindled
Bull was own sister to the best dawg that was ever bred.' The exhibitors
are ladies, elegantly dressed, who sit and listen to the band with their
Pugs and Spaniels, on their knees. It is the same with the dogs, there
are no sporting dogs, to speak of, though the number is increasing year
by year and not half a score of Bull Dogs. Such as there are, a little
aristocracy of bone and jowl lie at rest in a distant corner of the tent
not deigning to notice the Poodles around. Near them are a few Airedale
Terriers. One of them, which would be in its element in a rattling
street fight, stretched to the top of its pen, looked over at the
'curled darlings' on the other side, deliberately yawned and turned over
again to sleep. There is a whole tent full of Toy Spaniels and other
exquisites in upholstered pens. They have ribbons round their necks, and
bells and go about two to the pound. The Poodles are curled and shaven
and shorn, and decked out with top-knots of coloured ribbons. One which
lay asleep was described as a 'Rag and a Bone, and a Hank of Worsted,'
Two Poodle puppies, not yet shorn, looked refreshingly unkempt by the
side of these ultra-respectable Uncles and Aunts. A litter of Dachshunds
resembled lion cubs asleep. The foreign class which is both strong and
varied, provided an amusing contrast. In one pen was a huge shaggy
'Balu,' in the next a shivering little 'Mousie Chihuahua,' whatever that
may be! 'Balu' could have taken 'Mousie' among his hors d'oeuvres
before dinner. Chows with big heads and wee twinkling eyes. Borzois
trying to twist their legs into geometrical figures; an Esquimo asleep;
a vicious Dingo in a cage. St. Bernards which made the tent quiver, when
they barked and Bloodhounds sleeping serenely, there being no murderers
about, these were the Giants of the show. If not as numerous, certainly
they were a more weighty section than the Toy Spaniels. The Princess of
Wales was among the exhibitors. If anyone wants to see a good collection
of 'Japs' and 'Poms' and 'Skyes' and 'Dachs' and 'Charlies,' so the
ladies tenderly call them, at Regents Park, he will find them."

The following related by the late Hon. Grantley Berkeley, strongly
illustrative of the sagacity and thinking powers of dogs, may be
interesting to some of my readers: "I had a dog called 'Wolf,' at
Teffont Mane House, in Wiltshire, and when I fed my tame pheasants and
partridges I always took him with me. This dog had seen my caution when
I approached the birds and always obeyed my signal to lie down by the
gun till I had done feeding them. When the game began to get to an age
to stray, a considerable number used to come upon the lawn in front of
the windows.

"One afternoon the lawn being, to all appearances, clear of birds, I
sent Wolf to hunt a rabbit out of a circular flower bed, for me to
shoot. The dog obeyed the sign, but no sooner had he entered the
laurels, than he made a sort of snap with his jaws, a thing he always
did when he was not pleased, and returned to my heels with rather a
sheepish look. The sign to hunt having been repeated the same thing
occurred and on his returning to me with a peculiar expression in his
face, I went to the laurels to ascertain what hindered his obedience.

"To my great pleasure I found about a dozen young pheasants, into whose
presence he was fearful of intruding, so I lay down on the lawn close to
the pheasants, and letting him see how pleased I was, caressed him for
full five minutes, and then when I retired, did so in a most marked and
stealthy manner, which he, close at my heels, immediately adopted. Now
suppose some thoughtless or inconsiderate master with such a dog as this
had upon his refusal to hunt, beaten or kicked him for disobedience,
which would really have deserved the punishment, the sensible dog, or
the silly man?

"On taking up my residence at Beacon Lodge, and, for years after, Wolf
was still in or out of the house, my constant companion and closely
observant of all I did or desired. When first the wild white rabbits
began to appear at Beacon, I never shot them, but very frequently killed
the brown ones by their side. In hunting any outlying place, if by
chance there was a white rabbit, I used to stop Wolf from hunting it up
to my gun, and by observation the dog convinced himself that a rabbit so
coloured was on no account to be molested. When the whites had become
more common, one evening I went out to kill some rabbits for the table,
or to give away, and seeing a very fine young white one, I shot it. The
rabbit lay dead on the contrary side of a fence, and Wolf had not seen
it killed, but at a sign from me, flew over to pick up whatever might be
there. The rabbit lay kicking with its hinder legs, and Wolf seeing the
motion in the grass, dashed up, but instantly made the snap with his
jaws, dropped his stern and came back with a sheepish look, as if to
tell me I had done wrong. I praised and made much of him, and taking him
with me up to the rabbit encouraged him to pick it up and to give it to
me, and ever after he would pick up any coloured rabbit that might be
killed.

"Wolf's dinner hour was at my dessert time, the last thing the retiring
servants had to do was to place his plate upon the hearthrug.
Occasionally they neglected to do this, and then he had seen me ring the
bell, to rectify the omission. For some years before his death, when his
dinner was due, and had not been brought in, after looking at me with a
wistful expression of countenance, he would go up and kiss the bell
handle, and then come to me, look up in my face, and push my arm with
his nose. Of course, up came his dinner, with a ring from the bell,
denoting double quick time."

More than forty years since, there was a London street dog which took a
great fancy to following the fire engines. Whenever there was a fire
there would the dog be seen running in and out among the throng
apparently making himself as busy as possible. This strange conduct of
the animal, of course, attracted the attention of the firemen, and after
a time they used to feed and take notice of him, occasionally giving him
a ride on the engine. At last, so well was the dog known that he came to
be called the Fireman's Dog. He owned no master, but stopped a day or
two with any of the firemen he took a fancy to. He was always on the
alert, directly the fire alarm was given, and used frequently to run by
the side of the horses for miles together. At last the dog on one of the
journeys, was run over and killed, when the firemen had his body stuffed
and set up in a glass case in the principal office of the Metropolitan
fire brigade, Watling street, London. There it remained for some years,
and numbers of people called to see him in his glass case.

In 1853 the Superintendent of the Fire Station, Chandos street, Covent
Garden, was for some neglect of duty degraded to the rank of an ordinary
fireman. This disgrace so preyed on the poor fellow's mind, that one
winter's night he threw himself over Waterloo Bridge and was drowned. He
left a widow and children totally unprovided for, and in order to
procure a sum for their relief, the glass case containing the stuffed
figure of the Fireman's Dog was disposed of by way of lottery. A raffle
took place at a tavern in Chandos street, when upwards of a hundred
pounds was realised. The dog was won by the tavern-keeper, and in his
parlour it may still be seen. Thus you see that long after death the dog
has been found useful to his masters in time of need.

The following account of a dog, for many years known as "The Brighton
Coach Dog," is cut from an old newspaper of the time. "For a long period
a dog invariably accompanied the only coach which in 1851 ran between
London and Brighton. On the 24th June, in that year, he was placed on
the back of the coach to prevent his barking at the horses, when he
jumped off at Henfield and fell between the wheels, one of which,
passing over his back, killed him. The animal belonged to an ostler at
the Newcastle Place stables, Edgeware Road, London; he went to the yard
when a puppy and the man took care of him.

"Being brought up amongst horses, he was never happy unless with them
at home, or travelling about. His chief delight was to travel up and
down with the Brighton coach. He had been known to travel, during the
last spring of his life, for eight successive days to and from Brighton,
Sundays intervening.

"The distance from London to Brighton by way of Leatherhead, Dorking,
Horsham and Henfield, the road which the stage coach traversed is
seventy-four miles. It was with great difficulty he could be kept on the
coach, always preferring to run by the side of it and it was his being
placed on the top of the coach, from feelings of humanity on the part of
Clarke, the coachman, which cost him his life.

"On one occasion the guard placed him inside the coach, when there were
no passengers, but in a few minutes he was surprised to see him running
beside the coach, having jumped clean through the glass window.

"During the early part of the summer he went with a strange coach to
Tunbridge Wells, not liking his berth he did not return to London by the
same conveyance, but found his way across the country from Tunbridge
Wells to Brighton and went up to London with his favourite team.

"He was well known by many on the road from London to Brighton, and in
some places on the journey met with hospitable treatment. At the time of
his death he was about five years old. Clarke informed us that he would
kill a goose on his travels by the roadside, throw it over his back like
a fox, and run for miles, and he offered to lay a wager that the dog
would accompany the coach between Brighton and London daily for a month,
Sundays excepted, and kill a goose by the roadside each day of his
travels, provided birds were put within his reach. His skin was
preserved, and has been stuffed. The 'Brighton Coach Dog' may be seen in
the attitude of life in the bar parlour of a tavern in the Edgeware
Road."

I do not think I mentioned, when speaking of my kennels, and dogs, that
for many years, an old Great Western Railway coach formed part of them,
it was composed of a first-class, second-class, third-class
compartments, and a luggage van, as a general rule, we had a pair of
dogs, male and female, in each division, and used the luggage van for
biscuits.

As some of my readers may like to try the same experiment, I may say
that there is no difficulty in the way, there are usually railway
coaches of different sizes (I believe, you can also purchase horse boxes
and trucks, which often serve the purpose of cow and poultry and cart
and trap sheds) for sale at Swindon, where I bought mine for five
pounds.

Of course, it was merely the body, without any of the iron under part,
but with the windows, doors, seats, ventilators, etc., no cushions or
upholstery of any kind, but the only expense I had to incur was to get
the village smith to fix some small iron bars on the outside of each
window frame, to enable us to open the windows to give plenty of air,
without the fear of the inmates getting out. The company delivered free
to their nearest station, which in my case was within two miles from my
place, and I there had a trolly and pair of horses, and the coach run on
to it and lashed firmly to the trolly and it was brought without much
difficulty as the weight was only about thirty-five hundredweight,
although it looked a heavy affair.

There was more time and trouble in fixing it in its place in my yard,
than in the journey there. And some years afterwards when I changed my
residence, I got the village smith to fix an axle and a couple of low
strong wheels at each end of the coach, and one of the neighbouring
farmers easily took it along the road to my new dwelling place, with a
couple of his cart horses, to the great amusement and delight of the
rural population, who insisted that each of the divisions was filled
with some of my dogs, which were well known in the district as being
frequent prize winners.

The following is related on the authority of an old newspaper called
the "Boston Traveller," published in the United States of America: A
gentleman stopping at an hotel in Boston, privately hid his pocket
handkerchief behind the sofa cushion in the coffee room and left the
hotel accompanied by his dog, after walking for some distance, he
suddenly stopped and said to his dog, "I have left my handkerchief at
the hotel, go back and fetch it for me," giving no particular directions
about it. The dog immediately returned at full speed, and entered the
room his master had just left. He went directly to the sofa, but the
handkerchief was gone. He jumped upon tables and counters, but it was
nowhere to be seen. It turned out that a friend of his master's had
discovered it and supposing it had been left by mistake, had taken care
of it for the owner. But "Tiger" was not to be foiled. He flew about the
room, apparently much excited, in quest of the "lost or stolen." Soon,
however, he was upon the track, he scented it to the gentleman's coat
pocket. What was to be done? The dog had no means of asking for it, by
word of mouth, and was not accustomed to picking pockets, and besides
the gentleman was ignorant of his business with him. But Tiger's
sagacity did not suffer him to remain long in suspense. He seized the
skirt containing the prize and furiously tearing it from the coat,
hastily made off with it, much to the surprise of the owner. Tiger then
overtook his master, and restored the lost property. Both the owner of
the dog and the gentleman who had lost the tail of his coat, applauded
the dog for his sagacity.

In the southeast window of St. Mary's church, Lambeth, there is the
full length figure of a pedlar with his pack, his staff and dog. This is
the portrait of the unknown man who gave "Pedlar's Acre" to the parish
of Lambeth. The story is worth telling. In the year 1504, a poor pedlar
passing over a piece of waste ground near the river sat down to rest on
the trunk of a tree. While seated here, he noticed that his dog acted
very strangely, busying himself with scratching the earth with his feet
and barking, and smelling about, every now and then running up to his
master and looking him earnestly in the face and trying to drag him from
his seat. The pedlar did not at first pay much attention to the dog, but
its repeated barking and running to and fro compelled him, at last, to
see what the animal wanted. Going to where the dog had been scratching
he was surprised to find something shining below. Digging on the spot he
discovered a large sum of money with part of which he purchased the land
originally known as Pedlar's Acre, but now called the Belvidere Road, in
Lambeth.

Maitland, the historian of London, (1739 edition, page 791) tells the
story as I have given it with the addition that the pedlar left the
piece of land to the parish on condition that his portrait and that of
his dog should be perpetually preserved in painted glass in one of the
windows of the church. I cannot say whether this be true or not, but
such is the legend, and there is the painted window with the portrait of
the man and dog, as evidence still remaining.

The following story about a Mastiff appeared in the Glasgow Chronicle:
Early one Sunday morning some thieves attempted to enter the premises of
Messrs. McLeod and Pollock, Argyle street, Glasgow, jewellers, by
breaking through the sky-light. The building was one story high and it
was comparatively easy to get on to the roof. About two o'clock a. m.
Mr. McLeod, who resided in the back of the premises, was awakened by the
action of his watch dog. The animal did not bark, but jumped upon the
bed and continued scratching with his forepaws until his master rose up.
The dog then uttered a low growl and looked towards the roof, as if
anxious to draw his master's attention to that particular quarter.
Immediately afterwards a small piece of glass fell on the floor, and on
Mr. McLeod looking up he could see a man furtively moving on the roof;
the police were informed and effected an arrest of the intruding
burglar, through the warning given by the dog and before he had time to
conceal himself or make good his retreat.



CHAPTER XXIII

ANECDOTES ABOUT DOGS (_Continued_)


In Mr. St. John's "Highland Sports," there is the following
characteristic anecdote of a shepherd's dog: "A shepherd, a neighbour of
mine, to prove the quickness of his dog, who was lying before the fire
in the farmhouse kitchen where we were talking, one day, said to me in
the middle of a conversation about quite a different matter, 'I'm
thinking, sir, the cow's got into the potatoes,' though he purposely
laid no stress on these words, and said them in a quiet, unconcerned
tone of voice, the dog, who appeared to be asleep, immediately jumped
up, leaped through the open window and scrambled up the turf roof of the
house, from which he could see the potato field. Not seeing her there,
he then ran into the farm yard, and finding her there, all right, came
back to the house. After a time the shepherd said the same words again,
and the dog repeated his look out, but on the false alarm being given a
third time, the dog got up and wagging his tail, looked his master full
in the face with such a comical expression of inquiry, that we could not
refrain from laughing heartily, on which with a slight growl he laid
himself down again to sleep in his accustomed place on the hearth rug,
with an offended air, as if determined not to be made a fool of again."

Most people who know anything about dogs, or doggy people, know Mr.
George Raper, one of the most popular and capable all-round judges we
have, but they do not all know what a very lively and active man he is.
In my long experience as an exhibitor, I have often found myself in his
company in different parts of the country, and usually he has had some
good story to tell, or amusing thing to do. I remember, on one occasion,
when we and a number more were staying at an hotel in South Wales, I
forget now whether it was Haverfordwest, Pembroke or Tenby, but I think
it was one of those three, how he astonished an old gentleman (not the
least doggy or sporting in his appearance), by his agility. We were
talking in the bar parlour of the hotel about vaulting, and in the room
there was the ordinary high and wide pewter covered counter, or bar. I
said, "I suppose you would not attempt to negotiate such an article as
that?" Mr. Raper said, "I should have a good try at it," and without
saying more, he stepped back, placed his hand on the centre of the
counter, vaulted over, and then vaulted back again; the old gentleman,
who was sitting down quietly having some refreshment, jumped up and
said, "Bless my heart and soul, sir, I never saw such a thing done in my
life!" which made us all laugh heartily.

Captain Brown, in his "Popular Natural History," tells the following
story of those formerly much to be pitied animals, the dogs utilized as
"Turnspits." "The Duke de Leancourt had for the work in his kitchen two
Turnspits, which took their turns, regularly, every other day in the
wheel (something after the style of the revolving cages for squirrels
and mice). One of them not liking his employment, hid himself on the day
it was his turn to work, when they tried to force his companion to mount
the wheel in his stead, he cried, and wagging his tail, intimated to
those in authority to follow him. He at once conducted them to an
upstairs lumber room, where he dislodged the idle dog, and gave him a
good thrashing on the spot."

In Mr. Baker's "Rifle and Hound in Ceylon," he says: "I was once
shooting at Illepecadewè, which is a lonely, miserable spot, when I met
with a very sagacious and independent sportsman in a most unexpected
manner. I was shooting with a friend and we had separated for a few
hundred paces. Presently I came upon a lot of Pea fowl and killed one of
them with my rifle. The shot was no sooner fired than I heard another
shot in the jungle, in the direction taken by my friend. My rifle was
still unloaded when a spotted doe bounded out of the jungle, followed by
a white Pariah dog in full chase. Who would have dreamt of meeting with
a dog at a distance of more than three or four miles from any houses! I
whistled to the dog, and to my surprise he came to me, the deer having,
meanwhile, run clean out of sight in an incredibly short space of time.
He was a knowing looking brute, and evidently out hunting on his own
account. Just at this moment, my friend called out to me that he had
wounded a buck, and had found the blood-stained track. I picked a blade
of grass from the spot, which was tinged with blood, and holding it to
the dog's nose, he eagerly followed me to the track, upon which I
dropped it.

"He went off in a moment, but running mute I was obliged to follow, and
after a run of over half a mile, I lost sight of him. In following the
track of the wounded buck I heard the distant barking of a dog, by which
I knew he had brought him to bay, and I was soon at the spot. The buck
had taken up a position in a small glade, and was charging furiously at
the dog, but he was a great deal too knowing to court the danger and
kept well out of the way. I shot the buck, and tying a piece of jungle
rope to the dog's neck, gave him to a gunbearer to lead as I hoped he
might be again useful in hunting up a wounded deer. I had not proceeded
more than half a mile when we arrived at the edge of a small sluggish
stream, covered in most places with rushes and waterlilies.

"We waded through this about up to our hips, but the gunbearer, who had
the dog with him, could not prevail upon our mute companion to follow;
he pulled violently back and shrank and showed every sign of terror as
he approached the water. I had now got over and was on the opposite
bank, but as nothing could induce the dog to voluntarily come near the
river, I told the gunbearer to drag him across by force. This he
accordingly did, and the dog swam with frantic exertions across the
river and managed to slip his head out of the jungle rope by which he
was held. The moment he arrived on terra firma, he rushed up a steep
bank and looked attentively down into the water beneath. We now gave him
credit for his sagacity in refusing to cross the dangerous passage.

"The reeds bowed down to the right and left as a huge crocodile of
about eighteen feet in length moved slowly from his shallow bed into a
deep hole. The dog turned to the right about and ran off as fast as his
legs would carry him. No calling or whistling would induce him to return
and I never saw him again. How he knew that a large crocodile lay
concealed in the river I do not know, he probably had a previous
unpleasant experience of those creatures, and seemed determined to
profit by the lesson he had learnt. Making use of the experience I had
gained in wild sports in the country, I came out well armed, according
to my ideas of weapons for the chase. I had four double-barrelled rifles
made specially to my order and my own pattern, my hunting knives and
boar spear heads were also made to my own design and I arrived in Ceylon
with a fine pack of Foxhounds, and 'Bran,' a favourite greyhound of
wonderful speed and strength. The usual drawbacks and discomforts
attending upon a new settlement having been overcome, Newera Ellia
formed a pleasant place of residence. I soon, however, discovered that
Foxhounds were not at all adapted to a country so enclosed by forest,
some of the hounds were lost, others I parted with, and their progeny,
crossed with Pointers, Bloodhounds and other breeds, have proved a
useful stamp for Elk hunting.

"It is difficult to form a pack for this sport which shall be perfect in
all respects. Sometimes a splendid hound in character may be more like a
butcher's dog in appearance, but the pack cannot afford to part with him
if he has really proved his value in work. The casualties from Leopards,
Wild Boars, Elks and lost dogs are so great that the pack is with
extreme difficulty kept up by breeding.

"It must be borne in mind that the place of a lost dog cannot be easily
supplied in Ceylon! Newera Ellia is one of the few places in the island
where the climate is suited to the constitution of a dog. In the low and
hot climates they lead a short and miserable life, which is soon ended
by the inevitable liver complaint; thus, if a supply for the pack cannot
be kept up by breeding, hounds must be procured from England from time
to time, and this, it is needless to say, is attended with much risk and
great expense."

On one of the last occasions I exhibited my dogs at Maidstone show, in
Kent, I was rather amused by a conversation I had with the secretary
there. He said, "whenever I see you, sir, I think of your Dog." I asked
what dog he referred to? He said, "one of your Dandies, I think he was a
champion, (I forget whether it was Champion Rob Roy, or Champion Laird,
but think it must have been the former). You had to leave before the end
of the show, which was very unusual with you, sir, and you asked me to
see your dogs packed; I was out in the building where all the boxes and
baskets were, when I heard a crackling noise, and, looking towards the
place, saw a dog's head, and directly afterwards his body, come out of
one of the hampers, and saw the dog walk across the building, and search
amongst the packages, when he had found the one he wanted, he lifted up
the lid with his nose, jumped in and lay down; I at once went over to
see what name and number was on the package, and found that one of your
dogs had been put, by an oversight, into a wrong basket, and as he found
out it was not the proper one, he ate his way out, searched for and
found his correct travelling basket, and lay down in it, ready to be
sent home. I thought this was so smart and intelligent of the dog that I
have never forgotten it, and have often mentioned it to my friends, who
are interested in dogs."

The following about the dog, which appeared in the "Arcana of Science"
in 1829, just seventy years ago, may be interesting to some of my
readers at the present day: "The dog is the only animal that dreams, he
and the elephant the only animals that understand looks and expressions;
the elephant is the only four-footed animal that feels ennui; the dog
the only quadruped which has been brought to speak. Professor Leibnitz,
in Saxony, bore witness to a hound, he had heard speak thirty words
distinctly."

I am inclined to doubt the speaking faculty of the dog, though I have
certainly seen many animals that could do almost everything, _but_
speak.

Buffon, the eminent French naturalist, says of the dog, "More docile
than man, more obedient than any other animal, he is not only instructed
in a short time, but also conforms to the manners and dispositions of
those who have authority over him. He takes his tone from the house he
inhabits, like the rest of the domestic staff, he is disdainful among
the great and churlish among the clowns. Always assiduous in serving his
master, and only friendly to his friends; he is indifferent to all
others and declares himself openly against such as are dependent like
himself. He knows a beggar by his voice, by his clothes or his gestures
and challenges his approach. When, at night, or other occasions, the
protection of the house is entrusted to his care, he seems proud of the
charge, he continues a vigilant sentinel, he goes his rounds, scents
strangers at a distance and gives them warning he is upon duty. If they
attempt to break in upon his territory, he becomes more fierce, flies at
them, threatens, fights, and either conquers alone or alarms those who
have most at interest in coming to his assistance, however, when he has
conquered, he quickly reposes, and abstains from what he has prevented
others from abusing, giving thus, at once, a lesson of courage,
temperance and fidelity."

I think it was in May, 1881, I sustained one of my severest losses in
connection with dogs. I was at that time owner of a very well-known and
high class, all white, medium-sized Bull Bitch, which I called "Lady
Rozelle" (her portrait appears in one of the illustrations to this book,
as well as that of my Smooth Collie Bitch, "Lady Nellie," even more
celebrated in her own line) and had taken a great number of prizes at
all the leading shows. I was anxious to take just one more, the gold
medal of the Bull Dog Club. She had already taken both the bronze and
silver medals, and I then intended her to rest on her laurels, as I have
always endeavoured to let any of my great prize winners end their days
in peace and comfort, free from the fatigue and excitement of shows and
never like to see animals which have done good service for their owners,
hacked about in Variety and Selling classes, all over the country. The
weather when I travelled to Aldridge's, St. Martin's Lane, where the
Bull Dog Club's show was to be held, was very warm and sultry, and on
arrival at Paddington, I had her box put on the roof of a cab and run
over to the show, but on its being opened there, as it happened, by my
old friend, Mr. J. W. Berrie, then, as now, the president of the Bull
Dog Club, I think everyone present was horrified to find my beautiful
bitch actually stone dead, and from the appearance of the body, should
think the heat must have brought on an apoplectic seizure and death must
have been very sudden. Of course, as is usual in such cases, I had
someone at the time anxious to purchase her at, what was then thought, a
very long price, £250.

Dogs have played important parts in the superstitions of ages now
happily passed away. When the dog howled at the gate, it used to be
alleged that one of the family was to die. Old women suspected of being
witches because they were infirm and stricken with poverty were supposed
to always have either a cat or dog, said to be their "Familiar" and
through whom they could be enabled to commune with the Spirit of
Darkness. To meet a black dog on a dark or stormy night was deemed a
very unlucky sign; dogs were said to be possessed by evil spirits, and
to haunt the wicked and in more than one story the evil one himself has
been stated to have taken the form of the faithful friend and companion
of man. I will conclude these anecdotes about dogs with the following
excellent advice given by the late well-known sportsman, the Hon.
Grantley Berkeley, in the pages of "The Field," more than forty years
since: "Before you chastise a dog, be not only sure that he is in fault,
but also ascertain that he himself understands in what respect he has
done wrong. Take care not to punish him so severely that terror and pain
combined obliterate the why and the wherefore from the sufferer's
recollection, if you do, you cowe the dog, without amending his manners.
To teach tricks to dogs, (in the general way, and, unless they are dogs
belonging to those whose living is to be earned by the employment of
performing dogs,) either with cards, numbers, or letters, is infinitely
beneath a sportsman, as well as insulting to the useful and thinking
capabilities of the canine race!"



CHAPTER XXIV

A FEW WORDS ABOUT GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND SOME SIMPLE MALADIES, TO WHICH
DOGS ARE SUBJECT, AND THEIR TREATMENT


These few practical directions and suggestions are not intended to take
the place of the veterinary surgeon, whose skill and experience are
often of the greatest value in dealing with cases of a serious nature,
but just to give inexperienced persons some idea what to do, in case of
emergency; as, in all cases of illness or accidents to animals,
immediate treatment is often most important.

I may say that a "bond of sympathy" should exist between an owner or
keeper, and his dogs, and when this is the case, it will be much easier
to deal with them, either in health or sickness, but _particularly_ the
latter.

I believe more trouble is caused by mismanagement than any other cause,
and that if only proper attention be paid to the three cardinal points
of "cleanliness, food and exercise," there will not be much the matter
with the inmates of the kennel.

I have, for a great number of years, kept a small lot of dogs, varying
in number from fifteen to fifty, but although _accidents_ will be
constantly occurring with live stock of all kinds, I have had
wonderfully little illness, amongst my dogs, except the ordinary
ailments so generally expected, and I attribute this mainly to
endeavouring to enforce cleanliness and plenty of exercise, and
providing food varying in character and quantity to suit the appetites
of the inmates.

I may say, while on the subject of food, that although in winter, or
very cold weather, it is well it should be given "with the chill off,"
it is better not to let it be warm, in a general way, as it is thought
unnatural for dogs, and tends to weaken their digestive powers.

Also except in cases of packs of hounds, where it is unavoidable, (but
they are generally accompanied by some of the kennel men, and attendants
to avoid undue "differences of opinion,") it is best, _not_ to feed two
or more dogs together, as often the stronger member will overpower the
weaker, and perhaps consume more than his or her share; you will notice
this, even amongst puppies.

An owner, or keeper will soon get to know the right amount to give each,
and give just as much as will be finished _at the time_, when the pan
should be removed, or washed out, and filled with water, if benched
alone, not otherwise, or it may be upset in the course of play, etc.

Except in cases of bitches with families or puppies by themselves when
two or more meals may be given, it is usual to feed once a day either
morning or evening as most convenient, giving each as much as they will
eat, with appetite, the oftener varied the better, as I said in the
"Introduction."

Unless any difficulty occurs, at the birth of the puppies, when skilled
assistance should be obtained, the less the bitch is disturbed the
better, but a few days afterwards it is well to examine the litter, and
destroy any deformed or faulty ones, and if she has more than she can
reasonably bring up, to put some of them under a "foster mother," which
are frequently advertised in the papers dealing with dogs and doggy
matters, if not procurable in your own district, in such case, it is
best not to take away all the foster litter at once, but introduce the
new-comers (in the absence of the "Foster,") amongst her remaining
puppies, and mix them up, together, so that they will _smell alike_, and
gradually weed out those not desired to be kept.

After three weeks old, the puppies should be given bread and milk, which
will help the mothers in their nursing, and about this time if a breed
which requires their tails to be shortened, a part may be taken off,
with a strong pair of scissors, not too sharp, feeling for a joint,
before making the cut, and if carefully done, it causes but momentary
pain, and soon heals up.

At six weeks old, they may be removed from the mother, altogether, and
if she seems at all troubled with milk, occasionally squeeze out any
milk, with the finger and thumb, and dress the teats with vinegar and
water, which generally prevents swelling or inflammation, and helps to
dry off the milk.

I need not say that the stories sometimes heard about dogs having a
"worm under the tongue," which must be taken out, are _all humbug_, and
should not be credited.

Sometimes dogs' claws, when not sufficiently exercised, grow too long
and require to be shortened, but this is easily done with a sharp pair
of "nippers."

Putting a piece of stone sulphur in the water is _no good_, as being a
mineral, it does not dissolve, and you might just as well put a lump of
coal in! But, as I said before, a little "Flowers of Brimstone,"
according to the size of the animal, either mixed in milk, or with its
food, is beneficial and has a cooling effect, and I sometimes add a
small quantity of magnesia, with the same object.

Above everything, see that the place where the dog lives is dry, warm in
winter and free from draughts.

I think dogs kept in a house as pets are more liable to disease, than
those kept in kennels, from often having no regular meals or rules, but
constantly being fed by many people, and so getting more than they
require of food, but much less of exercise.

Chicken and game bones are not desirable for dogs, as they break into
sharp splinters which when swallowed may cause injury to the intestines,
but other bones are occasionally very good for dogs, and much enjoyed by
them; and when at liberty they will take grass, which, as with cats, is
very useful for their digestion.

Most dogs are troubled with fleas, and some with ticks and other small
insects, particularly in the summer. I have found an occasional washing,
with a weak solution of "Jeye's Purifier," (procurable of any chemist,
or stores, with full directions on the bottles), makes a great
improvement in this respect, and if the breed of the animal is small, or
it is one kept indoors, it may have an occasional combing with a small
tooth comb, having a basin of boiling water at hand, to put the
"results" in.

In all treatment of a sick dog, _remember_ you are dealing with a
highly sensitive and nervous patient, be very gentle, avoid roughness,
or anything likely to alarm him; in giving any liquid medicine, _do not
open his mouth_, but placing him between your knees with his face
looking in same direction as your own, gently raise his jaw, and pulling
his lips away from his teeth, on one side of his mouth, to form a cup,
or funnel, very slowly pour from bottle or spoon, the quantity he is to
have, into it. Keep his head raised for a minute or two, and if he does
not swallow the dose, insert a spoon between his front teeth, this will
have the effect of drawing off his attention from the medicine, and he
will, usually, swallow at once. If the dose is a pill, bolus, or
anything solid, hold his head the same way as before mentioned, but with
the left hand under lower jaw, press firmly on each side with thumb and
finger at the junction of upper and lower jaws. This will usually cause
him to open his mouth, when the dose should be put into the mouth, as
far back as possible, _over the tongue_ (or he will spit it out) and
close the jaws somewhat sharply, and in most cases the deed is done. If
any trouble arises with the action of his front paws, this may be got
over by wrapping him round with a shawl, or coarse apron. When once you
have got into the way of it, you will be surprised how simple it is. I
am quite sure a practised owner or kennelsman, would dose a dozen dogs,
while a novice was making a bungle over one!

_Distemper_ carries off scores of dogs every year, but it is quite a
mistake to suppose all dogs _must_ have it. I have had, probably, more
without than with it, the worst of it is that it varies so in different
cases, so that the same treatment does not do for all; sometimes the
brain, at others, the stomach, at others, the lungs, are most affected;
it is of an inflammatory and very debilitating character, and frequently
accompanied by severe convulsions and fits, which are very alarming and
distressing. Generally, there is discharge from nose and eyes, but _not_
invariably. I am doubtful if there is any positive and unfailing cure
for the complaint, although so many claim to be, so much depends on the
form the disease takes, the treatment given, and the constitution of the
patient. The symptoms comprise great depression, debility, want of life
and appetite, and great languor; as medicine, two or three grains of
calomel in milk may be given; if possible, get the patient to drink it
which he sometimes will, being feverish from the nature of the disease;
sometimes a small dose of "James's Powders," administered in same way,
has a good effect. For food, anything light and nourishing, such as
thickish gruel, or good broth, or bovril, may be given. The old adage,
that prevention is better than cure holds good here, and young dogs not
fed too highly, and occasionally dosed with Epsom salts or jalap, when
their bowels are out of order, or their eyes look unnatural, not given
much meat while young, and kept from going into the water at too early
an age, will often ward off this scourge of the race.

Dogs are sometimes troubled with _Skin affections_ such as mange and
eczema, both are thought to have their origin in errors in feeding and
particularly in the former, from want of due attention to cleanliness. I
have found the following, which we have always kept ready for use, to
apply a little if required, a certain cure, if persevered with. Equal
quantities of train oil and paraffin and a tablespoonful of black
sulphur to each quart of the mixture applied freely to the affected
parts, every other day with a piece of sponge. If the attack is very
slight, a little sulphur ointment made by mixing sufficient Flowers of
Sulphur, with hog's lard, to make a fairly firm ointment, and rub on
this two or three times a week, where the cause arises. A small dose of
Epsom salts will be beneficial.

_Canker in the ear_ is troublesome, particularly with the breeds having
large ears, a little alum and water is advised as a wash for the ears,
into which it should be poured, and the flaps closed over and rubbed
gently; but I have personally found a little "Hippacea" (procurable at
most chemists), which is a rather moist ointment, rubbed inside the
affected parts, give much relief.

_Fits_ are often caused, either by distemper or worms, they are always
alarming, particularly when they take place away from the kennels or
home, in such case I either borrow from someone at hand, or send for, a
hamper, or box, and get the patient home as soon as possible; as perfect
quiet and repose are very important, merely sprinkling a little cold
water on his face and placing him in some place, with plenty of straw,
or shavings, where he cannot hurt himself by falling about, as he is
quite unconscious for the time being and not accountable for his
actions. When able to take medicine, give such treatment as the cause of
the fits require, they are usually those I mentioned, but when caused by
extreme debility, as with an overtaxed nursing mother, they are very
serious. In any case of fits, where good professional advice can be
obtained and the patient is a pet, or valuable, it is better not to
attempt to deal with it without.

_Asthma_ is supposed to arise from errors in feeding, but it is certain
some breeds of dogs are more liable to it than others. Light nourishing
diet, very moderate exercise, and a little opening medicine will
certainly have a good effect, but it is a difficult complaint to get rid
of when once it makes its appearance.

_Diarrhoea_ sometimes occurs with dogs from inattention to dietary
matters, but they more often suffer from the other extreme. A little
Epsom salts in water, or thin gruel, will often work the desired end,
but if the dog seems still in pain, ten or fifteen drops of tincture of
opium may be given in water.

_Eye affections_ are not uncommon with some breeds, but the eye is such
a tender and delicate organ to meddle with that I prefer to advise any
of my readers, who may have a patient suffering in that way, to call in
the best advice they can procure, than to give them any directions.

_Wounds_, whether incised or contused, are rather awkward for a novice
to deal with, and if he does so, he had better muzzle the patient, both
to prevent being bitten and to keep the bandage, plaster or poultice
from being torn off; of course in the former case, the affected part
must be gently washed with cold water, and the blood staunched with lint
or otherwise, and if possible tightly bandaged, and closing the edges of
the wound keep them together with sticking plaster, binding all round
with lint.

In _contused wounds_ apply and frequently change a bread poultice, large
enough to take in all the injured parts and keep the patient as quiet as
possible, and maintain his strength with light nourishing diet, of a
more hearty character.

This is not a "Kennel Guide" (although I hope it may teach some of my
readers something they did not know in a rough and ready way) and there
are, in almost every district in the kingdom, as I know from actual
experience, having met scores of them in the course of my doggy travels,
highly qualified gentlemen, practising as veterinary surgeons, who have
made a lifelong study of the diseases, and calamities, to which dogs, as
well as their owners, are liable.

I think I have now said a little about all the many breeds suitable, or
likely to be kept as companions or pets, and sufficient for my book to
form a _vade-mecum_, or guide, to anyone in doubt, as to what sort of
dog to choose for the purpose, and this was the original idea which
prompted the commencement of the work.

The illustrations herein are from life, the subjects being mostly
typical specimens, and are introduced to show good types of some of the
least common, or every day breeds. From the remarks often overheard at
exhibitions and elsewhere, it has greatly surprised me how many persons
have only a vague idea of all but the most ordinary varieties.

Thinking over matters and things even to compile a work of this kind,
has brought back to mind many forgotten incidents concerning both people
and animals, and I have derived much pleasure in the course of it. I am
in hopes, if the book falls into the hands of any, who have hitherto
known, or cared nothing for dogs of any kind, they may be sufficiently
interested in my recital, of the charming qualities of so many different
varieties, to take up one or more of them, and test the truth of my
statements, which I may say are founded on fact, and a very lengthened
and practical experience as a breeder, exhibitor and now for many years
as a judge, during which time I believe I have kept most, and
adjudicated on all, known varieties of dogs, and on most of the breeds
very often indeed.

And considering the many thousands of dogs, which have come under my
notice, I am bound to say, on the whole, I have not had much to complain
of, in my treatment by the exhibitors, which have often included Her
Majesty the Queen, a well-known lover of animals, and other members of
the Royal Family, as well as leading members of the nobility and gentry,
and very many of the middle, lower and working classes.

And, I hope, the reason has been that as far as lay in my power, I have
tried to serve all alike, that is, to regard the dogs, and not their
owners or leaders, as the sole matter to be dealt with, and where
exhibitors recognise this in a judge, as a rule, his classes are well
filled.

I think, I have said enough, in this chapter, to justify its title, and,
I hope, to form a fitting "wind-up," for my little work, as "All about
Dogs."


THE END.


Printed by BALLANTYNE, HANSON &. CO.
Edinburgh & London



TRANSCRIBER'S NOTES


The following changes have been made to the original:

  Illustrations have been moved from their original positions in the
  book to fall in line with corresponding text.

  Page
     i a full stop after "Rough collies" has been replaced with a comma
    20 the "t" of "the" in "the skull should be" has been capitalised
    46 "out" has been replaced with "our" in "seen at our best shows."
    85 a full stop has been added after "smooth basset hound."
    95 quotation marks have been added before "Head, long and narrow,"
    97 a second "S" was added to "WOODIWISS" to conform with other
       instances
    99 "senis" has been replaced with "semi-" in "semi-erect, small,
       well shaped ears;"
   100 a hyphen was added to "business-like" in "business-like look
       about them"
   123 missing quotation mark was added before "ROPER"
   133 hyphens were added to "prick-eared" and "drop-eared" in "more
       prick-eared to be seen, than drop-eared"
   178 An apostrophe was added to "Cupid's" in "champion Cupid's Dart,
       whose portrait"
   223 closing quotation marks were added to "RUFUS"
   219 "varities" was replaced with "varieties" in "there is no doubt
       there are two varieties"
   283 a second "l" was added to "illustrates" in "Mrs. P. Turner's
       well-known kennel, illustrates"
   308 "Pyrenneean" was replaced by "Pyrenean" in "the Pyrenean Sheep
       Dog"
   322 a comma was replaced by a full stop after "called by his master
       Ben"
   353 "XX" replaced with "XXI" in "CHAPTER XXI"
   353 the lines "ANECDOTES ABOUT DOGS" and "(_Continued_) and CHAPTER
       XXI" were switched for consistency
   394 a full stop was replaced by a comma in "cure holds good here,"

  For consistency all instances of "Ch." in the illustration titles were
  replaced by "CH."

  For consistency full stops were added after section headers where they
  were missing, e.g. 205 full stop added after "Bedlington" in
  "Bedlington.--This breed,"

The following inconsistencies in the text were not changed:

  There are a number of opening quotation marks which are not closed in
  the original. It is not clear where the quotation ends so closing
  quotation marks have not been added:

     13 "Let his legs be straight as arrows
     19 "The education of this pack is marvellous;
     50 "The Gordon Setter.--
     54 "The Irish Setter.--
    155 "What I consider a true type
    205 "The Bedlington Terrier is fast,
    354 "This story brings to my recollection

  Inconsistency in spelling has been retained where it was unclear as to
  which spelling was correct or both spellings are valid. The following
  have been identified and checked with the original:

    borzoi/borzois
    Claude/CLAUD
    dachshounds/dachshunds
    Dumfrieshire/DUMFRIESSHIRE
    Fauntleroy/Fontleroy
    fox terrier/foxterrier
    Grelliche/GRELICHE
    Koenig/KÖNIG
    SCHIPPERCHE/shipperke

  Many words have variable hyphenation in the original. They have not
  been standardised. The following have been identified and checked:

    Bridford-brilliant/Bridford brilliant
    dew claws/dew-claws
    Elk-hound/elkhound
    flatcoated/flat-coated
    forelegs/fore-legs
    now-a-days/nowadays
    Otterhounds/Otter hounds
    sheepdog/sheep-dog/sheep dog
    top-knot/top knot





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