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Title: Old Irish Glass
Author: Stannus, Graydon
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Old Irish Glass" ***

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    THE CONNOISSEUR SERIES
    OF BOOKS FOR COLLECTORS

    OLD IRISH GLASS


PLATE I.

[Illustration:

  CARD OF MEMBERSHIP OF THE CORK
  GLASS-CUTTERS' UNION.
   _In the possession of the Author._]



  THE CONNOISSEUR SERIES OF BOOKS FOR COLLECTORS
  EDITED BY C. REGINALD GRUNDY

  OLD
  IRISH GLASS

  BY
  Mrs. GRAYDON STANNUS

  _New Edition :: Revised and Enlarged_

  [Illustration]

  PUBLISHED BY
  THE CONNOISSEUR, 1, DUKE STREET, ST. JAMES'S, LONDON, S.W.1

  MCMXXI

[Illustration: Publisher's Logo]



[Illustration: GLASS]



    CONTENTS


                                               PAGE
    THE FASCINATION OF IRISH GLASS               1

    GLASS FACTORIES IN IRELAND                   3
      Irish Gilding                              4
      The Last Maker                             4
      Glass-makers' Wages                        4
      Glass Cutters                              5

    WALL AND TABLE LIGHTS                        7

    CHANDELIER DROPS, PENDANTS, AND ORNAMENTS    7

    THE CHARACTERISTICS OF IRISH GLASS          10
      Weight                                    10
      Colour                                    10
      Resilience                                11
      The Feel of Irish Glass                   12
      The Ring of Irish Glass                   12
      Difference in the Ring of other Glass     12

    FAKES                                       12
      Difference of Colour                      13

    THE INCREASING POPULARITY OF IRISH GLASS    13

    EXPERIENCE ESSENTIAL                        14

    IRISH GLASS SOLD ABROAD                     14

    UNCUT PIECES                                14

    THE ILLUSTRATIONS                           14



  LIST OF PLATES


                                                                  PLATE

  Card of Membership of the Cork Glass-cutters' Union                I.
  Interior of a Primitive Hand Glass-cutter's Shed                  II.
  Device for Stoppering Bottles and Opening Pans                   III.
  Four pairs of Dublin and Waterford Wall-lights     IV., V., VI., VII.
  Waterford Bowls. (Mr. Walter Harding)                           VIII.
  Waterford Bowl, _circa_ 1783. Pontil worked into an ornament.
    (Commander Swithinbank)                                         IX.
  Waterford Flower Bowl, _circa_ 1783. (Commander Swithinbank)      IX.
  Waterford Canoe-shaped Bowl, 1783. (Viscount Furness)             IX.
  Cork "Turnover" Bowl, 12 in. high. (Mrs. Rea)                     IX.
  Christening Bowl, 1760. (Author)                                   X.
  Munster Bowl, _circa_ 1780. (Mrs. Hall)                            X.
  Irish "Pinched"-sided Bowl. (Mr. Henderson)                        X.
  Waterford Orange Bowl, _circa_ 1790, 16 in. by 7-1/2 in.
    (Major Pope)                                                     X.
  Irish Moulded Bowl, very large, 1760. (Mrs. Rea)                  XI.
  Irish "Pinched" Bowl, early, retaining waste metal at foot.
    (Author)                                                        XI.
  Irish "Pinched" Bowl, traveller's sample, 3 in. (Author)          XI.
  Waterford Revolving Centre Dish, _circa_ 1783. (Hon. Mrs. York)   XI.
  Cork Glass Orange Bowl, _circa_ 1790. (Mr. Walter Harding)       XII.
  Waterford Bowl, _circa_ 1790. (Viscount Furness)                 XII.
  Cork "Pillar" Bowl, early. (Viscount Furness)                   XIII.
  Irish Large Bowl of exceptional shape, _circa_ 1785.
    (Author's family)                                             XIII.
  Irish Glass, curious specimen of early, on carved bog-oak
    stand. (Commander Swithinbank)                                 XIV.
  Irish Posset Bowl, large two-handled, possibly 1750.
    (Mrs. Hall)                                                     XV.
  Irish Ogee Bowl, _circa_ 1760. (Mr. R. Frank)                     XV.
  Waterford Bowl, bearing the Stannus crest, 1790. (Author)        XVI.
  Waterford Bowl and Basin, _circa_ 1783. (Mr. Wild)               XVI.
  Dublin copy of Bristol Two-handled Cup and Cover, _circa_ 1780.
    (Mrs. Day)                                                     XVI.
  Waterford Giant "Turnover" Round Bowl and Dish, _circa_ 1815.
    (Mrs. Rea)                                                     XVI.
  Waterford deep "Step"-cut Dish, _circa_ 1825. (Mrs. Oliver)      XVI.
  Waterford "Step"-cut Dishes with fan handles, _circa_ 1820.
    (Mrs. Hall)                                                   XVII.
  Munster Banqueting Tazze, 1790-1810. (Mrs. Hall)                XVII.
  Irish Posset Bowl, early, probably 1730. (Mrs. Rea)            XVIII.
  Irish Urn, large, _circa_ 1795. (Mr. R. Philipson)             XVIII.
  Waterford "Canoe"-shaped Bowl, 1790. (Author's family)         XVIII.
  Waterford Salad Bowl, _circa_ 1785. (Col. Fitzgerald Stannus)    XIX.
  Dublin Urns, very early. (Mr. Hugh Weguelin)                     XIX.
  Dublin Finger-bowl, early (marked). (Mr. R. Frank)               XIX.
  Cork Bowl, _circa_ 1785. (Mr. Henderson)                          XX.
  Irish Glass, three rare specimens of early, probably Dublin.
    (Mr. R. Philipson)                                              XX.
  Irish Plain Punch-bowl and Ladle, _circa_ 1770. (Mr. R. Frank)   XXI.
  Waterford "Step"-cutting, examples of, after 1815. (Author)      XXI.
  Waterford Bowl, one of the rarest extant, _circa_ 1785.
    (Mr. Walter Harding)                                          XXII.
  Waterford "Helmet" Bowl. (Major Courtauld)                      XXII.
  Waterford Dishes, pair of finely cut. (Major Courtauld)         XXII.
  Waterford Chandelier, 1785. (Author's family)                  XXIII.
  Waterford Chandelier, 1788. (Author's family)                   XXIV.
  Waterford Chandelier. (Author)                                   XXV.
  Waterford Sideboard Lights, Adam design, pair. (Author)         XXVI.
  Waterford Chimney Set, with drops, probably Dublin,
    _circa_ 1815. (Author)                                        XXVI.
  Waterford Table Lights, set of three. (Viscount Furness)       XXVII.
  Waterford Table Lights, set of four, _circa_ 1785.
    (Viscount Furness)                                           XXVII.
  Waterford Lights, on "Bosi"-work pedestals, pair.
    (Viscount Furness)                                          XXVIII.
  Irish Table Lights, _circa_ 1780, pair. (Author)                XXIX.
  Waterford Table Lights, late Adam, on Wedgwood urns, pair.
    (Mr. Hugh Weguelin)                                           XXIX.
  Waterford Table Lights, _circa_ 1783. (Mr. E. Parsons)           XXX.
  Waterford Table Lights, Adam period. (Major Pope)                XXX.
  Waterford Candlesticks, 1785, pair. (Mr. H. Samuelson)           XXX.
  Waterford Chandelier, 1783. (Mrs. Cox)                          XXXI.
  Waterford Candelabra and pair of Candlesticks. (Col. Jenner)    XXXI.
  Waterford Chandelier, Adam. (Mrs. Sabin)                       XXXII.
  Irish Candle-shades, finest period, pair. (Author)            XXXIII.
  Waterford Altar Candlesticks, _circa_ 1783, pair.
    (Mr. R. Frank)                                               XXXIV.
  Irish Candlesticks, probably 1760, three unique. (Mrs. Rea)    XXXIV.
  Irish Candlesticks, with unusual bases, _circa_ 1770, pair.
    (Mrs. Rea)                                                    XXXV.
  Waterford Tapersticks, circa 1790, pair. (Mrs. Rea)             XXXV.
  Waterford (?) Lamps, 1790, very unusual pair.
    (Mr. Walter Harding)                                         XXXVI.
  Waterford Candlestick, 1783. (Mr. Walter Harding)              XXXVI.
  Cork Candlesticks, early, pair. (Mr. Walter Harding)           XXXVI.
  Irish Rushlight Holders, blown-glass, early eighteenth
    century. (Mr. R. Frank)                                     XXXVII.
  Waterford Table Lights, pair. (Mr. Fitzroy Chapman)           XXXVII.
  Waterford Altar Candlesticks, pair, finest period.
    (Mr. Walter Harding)                                       XXXVIII.
  Waterford Candlesticks. (Mr. Walter Harding)                   XXXIX.
  Dublin (?) Mug, _circa_ 1740. (Mr. Walter Harding)             XXXIX.
  Waterford Jug, shaped. (Mr. Walter Harding)                       XL.
  Irish "Freak" Jug, _circa_ 1760. (Author)                         XL.
  Waterford Jugs, three. (Mr. R. Philipson)                         XL.
  Waterford or Cork Tankard, _circa_ 1785. (Author)                 XL.
  Dublin (?) Two-handled Spun Cup, 1750. (Author)                   XL.
  Irish Jug, heavy lustre cut, flint glass, _circa_ 1800.
    (Commander Swithinbank)                                         XL.
  Cork Decanters, early blown, marked "Cork Glass Co.," pair.
    (Author)                                                       XLI.
  Munster Liqueur Bottles, pair. (Author)                          XLI.
  Irish Decanter, early blown. (Author)                            XLI.
  Waterford Liqueur Bottles, 1820-50.                              XLI.
  Waterford Decanters, _circa_ 1780-90. (Author)                   XLI.
  Munster Jugs, set of early. (Author)                            XLII.
  Munster Decanters, set of early. (Author)                      XLIII.
  Irish Chalice, 1790-1800. (Mrs. Hall)                           XLIV.
  Dublin "Lustre-cut" Goblets, _circa_ 1850, set of.
    (Mr. David Blair)                                             XLIV.
  Irish Sweetmeat Stands, 1760-70. (Author)                       XLIV.
  Munster Chalice, 1790-1800. (Mrs. Magee)                         XLV.
  Waterford Basket Sweetmeat Stand. (Mrs. Magee)                  XLVI.
  Cork Sweetmeat Stand, with two candle sconces, early.
    (Mrs. Magee)                                                  XLVI.
  Waterford Dessert Service. (Hon. Mrs. Vickers)                 XLVII.
  Waterford Dessert Service, _circa_ 1785. (Major Pope)         XLVIII.
  Waterford Miniature Sweetmeat Stand, late Adam.
    (Mr. Walter Harding)                                        XLVIII.
  Dublin Posset Two-handled Bowl, 1760; Flat Flask, 1770;
    Goblets, Mugs, and Tea Caddy of early dates. (Author)       XLVIII.
  Cork Table Service, early Adam period. (Mr. R. Frank)           XLIX.
  Irish Lamp, probably 1660, and other early pieces.
    (Mr. Walter Harding)                                          XLIX.
  Cork and Waterford Urns, _circa_ 1785. (Commander Swithinbank)     L.
  Waterford Urns, _circa_ 1783. (Mrs. Hall)                         LI.
  Dublin Wig Stands, pair. (Mr. R. Frank)                          LII.
  Munster Glass Dishes, etc. (Mr. Hunt)                            LII.
  Waterford Cruets                                                 LII.
  Dublin Strawberry Cut Teapot. (Mrs. Day)                         LII.
  Munster Moulded Teapot. (Author)                                 LII.
  Waterford Teapot, _circa_ 1783. (Mr. R. Frank)                   LII.
  Irish Cream or Ice Pails, _circa_ 1825-35. (Mrs. McBean)         LII.
  Dublin Blue Glass Bowl, _circa_ 1740. (Author)                  LIII.
  Irish Blue Glass Bowl. (Author)                                 LIII.
  Dublin Blue Glass Lace-makers' Lamps, _circa_ 1730-40. (Author) LIII.


  RUBBINGS

  Cutting on Waterford Canoe-shaped Bowl. (Author)                 LIV.
  Special Cutting on "Pinched" Boat-shaped Bowl. (Author)          LIV.
  Fan Edge from a fine Waterford Bowl, _circa_ 1815                LIV.
  "Vandyke" Cutting or "Geometrical" Design                        LIV.
  Swag and Line Cutting, with fan edge, probably 1765              LIV.
  Hobnail Cutting, late 1830                                        LV.
  Strawberry Cutting                                                LV.
  Flat Diamond Cutting                                              LV.
  Fine "Fan" Cutting from a Waterford Decanter                      LV.
  "Double," "Long" Diamond, or "Lozenge" Cutting                    LV.
  Adaptations of Cutting, 1790-1835                                LVI.
  "Leaf," "Shallow Diamond," and "Flute" Cutting from a
    Waterford Bowl                                                 LVI.
  "Castellated" Edge from a Waterford Fruit Dish                   LVI.
  "Diamond" Cutting, a rare adaptation of, _circa_ 1770           LVII.
  Cuttings on Cork and Waterford Glass                            LVII.
  Cuttings on early Waterford Glass                              LVIII.
  "Leaf" Cutting, variation of                                   LVIII.
  Flat "Leaf" Cutting                                            LVIII.
  "Lustre" Cutting, Dublin, _circa_ 1785                           LIX.
  Cutting on a Cork Bowl, late eighteenth century                  LIX.
  Star, Soft Early, _circa_ 1750                                   LIX.
  Star, Shallow-cut, from a Waterford Dish, _circa_ 1790           LIX.
  "Husk" or "Leaf" Cutting from an Irish Wine-glass,
     _circa_ 1760; one of the earliest cuttings                    LIX.

       *       *       *       *       *

  Dublin Wall-light, one of a pair. (Author)                        LX.


  ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT

                                                                   PAGE

  Drops, Pendants, and Ornaments                               6, 8, 15
  Blow-pipe and Ladles for making Stars and Ornamental Pendants       9
  The Stannus Crest, engraved on a Waterford bowl (see Plate XVI.)   16


PLATE II.

[Illustration:

  INTERIOR OF A PRIMITIVE HAND GLASS-CUTTER'S SHED.
  _From a drawing in the Author's possession._]



=THE FASCINATION OF IRISH GLASS=


All old glass is interesting, but old Irish glass possesses certain
unique qualities which make its collection peculiarly fascinating.
In it we find an unsurpassed beauty and depth of colour--a poetry of
design and a velvet softness of touch which are a pure joy to the
connoisseur. Before describing Irish glass, however, let me first give
some idea as to where and when it was produced.

Glass appears to have been made in Ireland to a very small extent
during the Middle Ages, and it would seem from the evidence of
contemporary records that as early as 1332 the coloured windows of
Dublin Castle were made by local workers in Dublin. Some authorities,
however, hold that these records refer not to glass-makers, but merely
to glaziers, who used foreign glass for their work. What is certain is
that the manufacture of glass was not seriously commenced in Ireland
until the last quarter of the sixteenth century. Window glass, coloured
glass, and drinking glass were certainly made there in 1585, and their
manufacture appears to have been carried on more or less steadily from
that time onwards in various parts of the country.

History records, for instance, that very early in the seventeenth
century a patent was granted to a man named Aston to make glass in
Ireland for a period of twenty-one years.

It was not until the second quarter of the eighteenth century that the
great period of Irish glass-making arrived, and pieces were produced
rivalling, or even surpassing, the best wares of their kind made in
England and on the Continent. Unfortunately for the success of the
factories, the English Government passed an Act, in 1788, entirely
prohibiting the export of glass from Ireland. This measure did more
than anything to cripple the great and growing industry, but did not
actually kill it, as the makers were not forbidden to sell their goods
in their own country!

Irish glass was characterised by what was then regarded as a grave
defect. Little or none of it was as colourless as contemporary
English pieces, and consequently it did not in those days attain the
reputation of the latter. This characteristic, despite the endeavour
of local manufacturers to do away with it, appears to have continued
for something like a century. Mr. Dudley Westropp, in his important
work on "Irish Glass," page 162, mentions a "letter from Exeter, dated
December 7th, 1832," in which "Elizabeth Walpole, one of the partners
in the Waterford Glass Works, says she had a conversation with Edward
Eardley, a glass merchant of Exeter and Plymouth, about some glass
she was getting over from Waterford, with a view of selling. She says
that Eardley stated that all the Irish glass he had ever seen was dark
coloured; but she told him she had sent for some Waterford glass, so
that he might see for himself."

This statement throws a light on the somewhat equivocal reputation
enjoyed by Irish glass until well on in the second quarter of the
nineteenth century, and also shows that at that time the Waterford
makers considered that they had entirely freed their metal from the
dark tone formerly characterising it. It is indeed a curious irony of
human endeavour that the makers of Waterford glass, now deservedly
famous for its beautiful and dark grey-blue tone, tried to eradicate it
from quite an early date. They endeavoured to make their glass whiter
and clearer, like that of Bristol, and in this they succeeded after
1830. The _late_ glass of Waterford, _i.e._, made 1835 or afterwards,
was actually whiter than that of Dublin. _Little did these glass
artists think that a century later people in all parts of the world
would be trying to reproduce the early dark colour without success._

The poor reputation for colour that Irish glass suffered under during
the eighteenth century must in itself have greatly interfered with the
export trade in the finer pieces. That there was an immense export
trade during that period is shown from contemporary statistics, but
this appears to have been largely confined to commoner wares, such
as bottles, glasses, vials, and other articles in constant use and
requiring frequent renewal. The finer and more fragile pieces were
generally kept at home. The country gentry considered it the proper
thing to support local factories by buying the wares made at them,
though they did not always appreciate their purchases, and in many
instances supplemented them with imported English glass, which they
used in preference. Thus it happens that in many old Irish country
houses choice specimens of Irish glass have been discovered stored away
in garrets and cupboards practically unused since they were made.

There is little or no documentary evidence to establish the origin of
these pieces, for, as a race, Irish land-owners are not addicted to
keeping receipts of century-old bills, but tradition and the appearance
of the surviving pieces confirm the fact that they were originally
of Irish manufacture. It must be remembered that the tradition is
the more likely to be true because until comparatively recently
Irish glass was only lightly valued, so that it was more to the
interest of the owner to consider it of English rather than of native
manufacture. The tradition, however, is confirmed by the colour and
other characteristics of the pieces. It is interesting to note that
in many instances missing pieces in sets have been replaced by later
productions of English manufacture. The differences between these and
their originals are generally easily discernible, the rich depth of
tone, which is such a beautiful characteristic of Irish work, being
almost altogether absent from the former.

It must not be thought from these remarks that old Irish glass is
plentiful. The commoner wares, such as wine glasses, tumblers,
and bottles, which were manufactured in such profusion during the
eighteenth century, have practically disappeared; and though a larger
proportion of the finer and more valuable pieces, used less frequently
and treated with greater care by successive generations of owners,
have survived, they are still comparatively rare. Nine-tenths of
the so-called old Irish glass offered for sale have no claims to be
considered as genuine, but are either old pieces from other countries
or modern fakes--chiefly the latter.



=GLASS FACTORIES IN IRELAND=


From time to time humorists over here state that "no glass was ever
made in Ireland," so that the following list of localities where a few
of the best known glass-houses stood will be of interest:--

ANTRIM: (BALLYCASTLE) 1755 TO 1790.

Bottles, heavy rummers, and very coarse but useful glass.

BELFAST: 1781 TO 1870.

Fine flint glass, heavy, rather white handsome deep cutting and very
fine bold engraving. _Glass was brought here from other parts of
Ireland to be decorated._ Foreign engravers were employed and excellent
work done. Very fine lustres, candlesticks, etc., were made here by
McDowell, following chiefly Adam and Georgian designs.

CORK: 1782 TO 1844.

Finely cut glass of every description, delicate engraving on blown
ware, gilding; particularly famous for its rummers, heavy and
light-blown decanters, and, after 1800, whole dessert services of
beautiful colour and various cutting. Black glass was made here in
1785, and window glass in 1782.

As the card of membership of the Cork Glass Cutters' Union (shown on
Plate I.) proves, "lustre" cutting was popular here.

DUBLIN: CIRCA 1630 TO 1896.

Window glass was made here from about 1630 and onwards, and as early
as 1729 the Round Glass House in Dublin produced choice specimens of
glass, such as salvers and dessert baskets, with handles and feet, of
particularly fine workmanship and design, but now exceedingly rare and
difficult to find. Very beautiful glass was made in Marlborough Street,
Dublin, by the firm of Williams, about 1771. They appear to have
specialised in chandeliers, candlesticks, salvers, bowls, decanters,
bottles, bells, and épergnes. During the last quarter of the eighteenth
century and onwards there were numbers of houses here in which every
kind of white and coloured glass was made. Many fine specimens still
exist, of which Pugh's productions (though rather late) are worthy of
note, particularly his "lustre" cutting. The early moulded pieces were
very elegant and quaint, very much like Bristol, but so far as I have
observed, heavier, and, of course, richer and darker in tone.

DRUMREA: (DUNGANNON) 1771 TO 1776.

Much the same kind of glass as Cork, but clearer; noted for fine green
and amber coloured glass both in bottles, drops for chandeliers, jelly
glasses, wine glasses, and épergnes.

NEWRY: 1790 TO 1847.

A great variety of flint glass, both cut and plain, very heavy. A great
deal of table glass was made here.

WATERFORD: 1729 TO 1852.

Produced every possible kind of glass of the most beautiful colour and
cutting. The chandeliers, candelabra, boat-shaped and turnover bowls,
were perfect. The finest period was just after 1780. After 1830 the
glass became much whiter. About 1815 some wonderful deep "step" cutting
was done, which made the glass, in some lights, look like silver plate;
while dessert services were a great feature, and I constantly come in
contact with _parts_ of these services (tucked away in cellars and odd
places) of the most surprisingly beautiful workmanship and colour.

     _NOTE._--_According to official records, the Waterford Glass
     Houses closed down from 1750 to 1780, but there exists a good deal
     of glass traditionally made within this time, certainly having all
     the attributes of Waterford, and being fashioned in contemporary
     styles._

PORTARLINGTON: 1670.

One of the very earliest glass-houses was erected here on the Stannus
property, but very little is known about it or its particular
productions, and it closed down in a few years from lack of financial
support. I believe drinking glasses were its chief output. We have
a tumbler which was made here, and some wine glasses are still in
existence.


=IRISH GILDING.=

Foreign workmen were employed in Ireland, particularly cutters,
engravers, and gilders. Irish gilding almost stands alone. It is _very_
hard, and cannot be rubbed off in the usual way. When deliberately
scraped off it leaves the glass underneath quite rough, consequently
it has survived ordinary wear and tear almost intact. The process was
chemical, and it is a great pity that more of it was not done. Very
fine soft oil gilding was executed for some years, about 1786, by a
German called Grahl.


=THE LAST MAKER.=

The glass industry died out about 1896, Pugh, of Dublin, being the
last maker of flint glass in Ireland. He is often credited with
being the first to introduce "lustre" cutting, but the rare plate of
the Cork Glass Cutters' Union, already referred to, shows that this
decoration must have been done in Cork early in the nineteenth century,
since it may be presumed that the pieces they have chosen as being
representative of their own craft would be those most largely produced.
The fine old jug in the centre, for instance, is a splendid specimen of
"lustre" work. Some people, other than glass-cutters, refer to this as
"pillar cutting"--quite a good description.


=GLASS-MAKERS' WAGES.=

While on the subject of the workers, it will be of interest, in these
days of high wages, to recall the remuneration paid to these artists
in glass as recorded in the Dublin Museum. The founder received the
princely sum of 7s. for his week's work, while the fireman only got 6s.
The glass-maker himself (not the cutter or the engraver) was evidently
a piece-worker, earning at most 50s. a week, and was doubtless a mighty
wealthy man.

PLATE III.

[Illustration:

  DEVICE FOR STOPPERING BOTTLES AND OPENING PANS.
  _From a drawing in the Author's possession._]

Naturally the extraordinary cheapness of fuel in Ireland was a great
help to the owner of a glass-house, as wood was the chief thing
he burnt. But late in the seventeenth century an Act was passed
prohibiting the felling of trees for this purpose, so even in those
early days manufacturers had their troubles. However, I do not think
this interfered very much. If an Irishman wants a thing, it takes a
great deal more than an Act of Parliament passed by the Englishman _on
the other side of the water to stop him_.

As late as the nineteenth century, in my father's time, our village
carpenter would come and buy a good-sized ash tree for 1s. 6d. Those
not so well off freely helped themselves by the light of the moon. We
do not bring people to justice in Ireland for little slips of that
sort: we should have no time left to ourselves if we did.


=GLASS CUTTERS.=

Very simple and primitive were the instruments used by the
glass-cutters. Speaking broadly, the artist (for he _was_ an artist)
merely required revolving wheels, from 2 in. to 14 in. or 16 in. in
diameter, sand, water, powdered pumice, and "putty powder," a mixture
of whitening and other ingredients for polishing.

The wheels consisted of "mild steel" for cutting (many sizes), a "blue
stone" wheel for smoothing, and one of very hard wood for polishing.
Brush wheels were also employed.

The illustration of a very primitive glass-cutter's shed (from a
drawing in my possession) will explain better than words how the
work was done; the wheels were turned by the rough boards worked by
the cutter's foot, while with his unerring hands he would perform
marvellous feats of glass-cutting. Water and sand dripped slowly on to
his wheel while he worked, generally from a flower-pot hung above.

He worked from a rough design on paper beside him, and this design
he first _scratched_ on the piece of glass with a sharp instrument.
Much of the glass-cutting was done _outside_ the glass-houses by men
who had their cutting sheds in their own homes, as is shown in the
illustration, and this accounts for the "individuality" of the work
done. These men, dreamers and artists, were a "guild" with a very high
ideal. The old Irish silversmiths also worked at home in a similar
fashion, and, as all the world knows, executed the most perfect work.

In these days it is interesting to know that a strike ended the
industry in Cork previous to 1840. Some English workmen came over and
told the Cork men they were working too cheaply, though in fact they
were much better off than those in England (where machinery was now
well installed). The glass owners, who had become wealthy, but saw
little prospects of retaining their fortunes under changed conditions,
fought the men, and eventually closed down their factories.

Those in Waterford continued for some years later, and the last record
of this town is in the catalogue of the London Exhibition of 1851,
where Gatchell had some wonderful exhibits, including one centrepiece
of forty pieces of glass for a banqueting table, _no metal work of any
kind being used in it_.

In 1788 William Penrose made a celebrated service for their Majesties.
And as early as 1729 beautiful deep green glass was made at Waterford.

Interesting and romantic were the tales told by the last of the hand
glass-cutters, Barry Sheehan, who died a very old man in Cork in 1890.
He knew all the old glass-cutters, was an artist and enthusiast, and
always kept an old hand-cutting wheel at the back of his shop, a relic
of a past age of inspired workers.

According to this great authority, "lustre cutting" was the most
difficult of all, and very popular in Cork.

One old lady who lives in Cork, a sister of the late Mrs. Gatchell, who
is nearly 100 years of age, has a set of chessmen in old Irish glass,
and many children's toys and trumpets were made in her late husband's
factory.

One of the glass-houses in Cork was owned by "honest Joe Romayne,"
one time M.P. for Cork, and another by a family named Foley, and the
descendants of both of these people have some splendid pieces still.

Engraving was a different matter. This decoration was more often done
by men (chiefly foreigners) who wandered round the country carrying
with them a queer little box (one of which I have in my possession). A
few delicate copper wheels were used outside the box, which were driven
by a shaft, and two wheels inside. The handle was turned by a boy while
the engraver worked.

[Illustration: Glass Drops No. 1.]

[Illustration: Glass Drops No. 2.]

PLATE IV.

[Illustration:

  ONE FROM A SET OF FOUR PAIRS OF WALL-LIGHTS
  MADE IN DUBLIN, 1795-1830. _In the Graydon Stannus family collection._
  _From a drawing in the Author's possession._
  _(See also Plates V., VI., and VII.)_]

PLATE V.

[Illustration:

  ONE FROM A SET OF FOUR PAIRS OF WALL-LIGHTS
  MADE IN DUBLIN, 1795-1830. _In the Graydon Stannus family collection._
  _From a drawing in the Author's possession._
  (_See also Plates IV., VI., and VII._)]

PLATE VI.

[Illustration:

  ONE FROM A SET OF FOUR PAIRS OF WALL-LIGHTS
  MADE IN WATERFORD. 1815. _In the Author's collection._
  _From a drawing in the Author's possession._
  _(See also Plates IV., V., and VII.)_]

PLATE VII.

[Illustration:

  ONE FROM A SET OF FOUR PAIRS OF WALL-LIGHTS
  MADE IN DUBLIN, 1820. _In the Author's collection._
  _From a drawing in the Author's possession._
  _(See also Plates IV., V., and VI.)_]


=WALL AND TABLE LIGHTS.=

Candle-lights became very popular during the early Adam period,
and continued to be made for many years. Their conception was, I
am sure, French in its origin. A great many were made in Ireland
(especially advertised in Dublin), and they were permeated with Adam
feeling--graceful and simple.

These lights fell into disuse when gas became popular, and were stowed
away in boxes and cellars and lumber-rooms; while others, still less
fortunate, were actually thrown away or sold to the ragman for a few
shillings.

Of those I have unearthed, a great number are in varying degrees of
bad and good condition, and it is most interesting, with the aid of
some original drawings (which I am fortunate enough to possess), to
reconstruct these lovely fittings to their original beauty (see Plates
IV., V., VI., VII.). Out of about five or six broken lights I can
generally reconstruct one pair.

In my determined search for these treasures, I find that the metal back
plates which fitted on the wall and held the glass lights are in nine
cases out of ten missing, and after puzzling over this fact for some
time I discovered they were nearly always utilised by being left on the
walls and the gas-pipe brought through them! In any case, all the metal
mounts appear to have been removed from the branches, cups, etc., and I
think they were probably taken off and used for various purposes by the
"house-carpenter," or handy man, and held far more value for him than
the discarded glass, which is now rapidly becoming priceless.

In one instance I lost the ferrule off the end of my whip, and one of
our men said he'd "put it right." I noticed a fine bit of chased brass
appear on it. I said, "Larry, where did you get that?" "Shure, me lady,
it's off th' auld glass light that was tooken from t' hall"! And it
was! Irishmen have natural instincts--they always know a good thing,
and they can unerringly tell you if a person is "someone" or not!


=CHANDELIER DROPS, PENDANTS, AND ORNAMENTS.=

There are many interesting things to be learnt about the drops which
hang on chandeliers and table lights. The first and most surprising is
that most of them, even those found on quite early Irish chandeliers,
were made in England and France! _Very few were manufactured in
Ireland._

The genuine old Irish drops (so far as my personal observation and
experience goes) were always round or _almond_ shaped. The most
characteristic distinction between them and those made in other
countries is that they are very flat when viewed sideways (see
illustration No. 3, page 8), whereas the English and French come to a
point in the centre--sometimes on one side, more often on both--not a
sharp point, of course, but still a point (see illustration No. 4, page
8, which will make the difference quite clear). No. 1 (page 6) is a
very rare specimen.


[Illustration:

  No. 3.--FACE.  No. 3.--SIDE VIEW.  No. 4.--FACE.  No. 4.--SIDE VIEW.
            No. 5.             No: 6.           No. 7.
                           ORNAMENTAL DROPS.]

_All the chandeliers and lights made for my family had in every case
these Irish drops, being, of course, special orders._ When seen on a
chandelier it is remarkable how much more graceful the Irish drops
look; they are softer, more richly facetted, smoother, and, of course,
deeper in colour. The large pendants (see illustrations Nos. 2, 5, 6,
7) for ornaments and stars for chandeliers were manufactured in an
interesting way. They were made in _ladles_, designed to the required
outline and size, with a long handle (see illustration below). The
ladle was dipped in the pot of molten glass, withdrawn full, and after
being allowed to cool slightly until the glass had set, tipped out into
a "dry" furnace (known as a lehr) for some hours; by that time the
glass was hard and fit to be facetted by hand.

In Italy and Spain I have watched the glass-makers at much the same
work, but in these instances the glass was made in cut moulds, so
that the glass was _pressed_ into a pattern while hot, and not cut
afterwards.

The illustrations are of Irish ornaments in my possession on family
chandeliers, and vary in length from 5 in. to 8-1/2 in.

[Illustration:

  BLOW-PIPE AND LADLES (one shown side view).
  USED IN MAKING STARS AND ORNAMENTAL PENDANTS.]



=THE CHARACTERISTICS OF IRISH GLASS=


Irish glass, more especially Waterford, of the typical period, may be
distinguished from contemporary English glass and foreign and modern
fakes of all nationalities by a number of characteristics which may be
grouped under the headings of Weight, Colour, Resilience, Feeling to
the Touch, and Ring. Let me take these one by one.


WEIGHT.

Irish glass is generally very heavy, though there are exceptions to
this rule, markedly in the blown specimens from about 1735 to 1750,
which are extremely light. These pieces were never cut, but either
engraved only or left perfectly plain. They can be distinguished
from foreign pieces of similar weight, as they never show the little
specks of sand in the metal peculiar to the latter. On the other hand,
air-bubbles often appear in the Irish glass, which were caused by the
faulty stirring of the molten metal. These are sometimes so minute that
they appear like sand specks to the naked eye, and it is only possible
definitely to identify them as bubbles by the use of a magnifying glass.


COLOUR.

All old Irish glass has a peculiar depth of tone, but the early glass
of Cork, Waterford, and Dublin is especially distinguished in this
quality. Its steel or grey-blue tone is unique. In this respect there
is very little difference between the wares from the three places, as
they are all characterised by the same mysterious grey colour (supposed
to be caused by impure ingredients). It should be remembered that
the factories in all three localities obtained their materials for
glass-making from the same sources, and that the workmen employed in
them frequently passed from one to another, so that, theoretically,
the metal produced in the three towns should be practically identical.
There are, however, tangible differences in at least a portion of the
glass emanating from the various localities. Thus I have noticed that
some Cork glass has a decided yellowish tinge which Waterford never
has. On the other hand, Waterford glass is often distinguished by a
peculiar cloudy bloom covering the metal, which can be rubbed off,
but will assuredly return. This "bloom" must not be confused with
the milkiness found in decanters, etc., which is caused by wine or
water being allowed to remain in them for long periods. It is quite
different: a soft bloom, exactly like that on grapes, the same colour,
or even darker, than the glass, and often will be found forming a
beautiful band of rainbow hue running round the piece it adorns. I do
not know, for certain, the cause of this appearance, but it probably
originates in some atmospheric action on the lead in the metal. It
is only found on very early dark pieces, and its possession may be
regarded not only as an additional charm of the piece so characterised
but also as a proof of its authenticity. These pieces are most
interesting, but are not always appreciated as they should be. Some
time ago I parted with a magnificent Waterford bowl, beautifully toned
in this manner, only to find a week later that it had been chemically
polished clear and bright, leaving it with not a tithe of its pristine
beauty.

These distinctions of tone and colour which I have ventured to point
out are by no means universal, so that a piece which does not possess
them must not be rejected as spurious _merely on this account_.
Sometimes it is impossible to say from what county a piece came, and
this has led experts to refer to the products supposed to emanate from
the Cork or Waterford factories as "Munster glass." Even this term is
not broad enough, however, for it fails to include the pieces turned
out by the Dublin factories, and these are nearly as likely to be
mistaken for Cork or Waterford wares, as the two latter are likely to
be mistaken for each other. _The blue-grey tinge popularly regarded as
exclusively associated with Waterford glass is quite an erroneous means
of identification, as most of the pieces I have come across, actually
impressed with the mark "Cork Glass Co.," were of this tint._ Dublin
glass, before 1800, was very dark in colour, and the very early pieces
are almost black.

It is very frequently suggested that the chemical action of the air on
old Irish glass may have something to do with the mystery of its unique
coloration; and, strange as it may seem, it is an undoubted fact that
glass does change its tone with the slow lapse of years. I believe this
to be specially so with Irish glass which has remained a long time
in Ireland; and the existence of such phenomena is borne out by the
effect that the atmosphere of Ireland has on old white marble. It may
be argued that, should this be the case, the coloration of Irish glass
may be caused entirely by the atmospheric conditions under which it is
kept, and owe nothing to its local peculiarities of manufacture. This
theory, however, cannot be substantiated, _as English glass does not
appear to be affected by Irish atmosphere to anything like the same
degree as the native metal_. I have frequently seen old Irish dessert
services and chandeliers in which individual pieces which had been
broken had been replaced by facsimiles made in England. These replaced
pieces, however early their origin, do not appear to have changed
colour in the least, and because of this can be readily singled out
among their fellows of native manufacture.


RESILIENCE OF IRISH GLASS.

Irish glass is far tougher and stronger than any other, hence its
wonderful survival even when in constant use. It takes a severe blow
to break it, or even chip it, and I have seen solid pieces fall on a
hard floor without being any the worse, beyond "singing" loudly. It
has a wonderful elasticity, and actually bounces in a way that I have
never found in any other glass. Some time ago the ring securing a large
and valuable chandelier to the ceiling of one of my rooms gave way,
with the result that the chandelier fell to the ground from a height
of twelve or fifteen feet. It was, of course, broken with the fall
from such a height, but the centre pendant, a large solid lump of lead
glass, weighing 9 lbs., had not been shattered in the least, _though
the force of the fall had flattened its point_.


THE FEEL OF IRISH GLASS.

Irish glass does not feel harsh or cold like most English or foreign,
but gives a sense of soft warmth to the touch. There is something of
the same distinction as between porcelain and earthenware, though not
nearly to such a marked extent. One has to acquire a knowledge of
it by experience; and though the tyro may at first perceive little
or no variation between the feel of Irish and English glass, if he
will cultivate his sense of touch by handling authenticated pieces of
both varieties, he will soon find that there is a small but perfectly
distinguishable difference between them.


THE RING OF IRISH GLASS.

I must make special mention of the ring of Irish glass, as this is an
important point. All British glass has a clear, definite, bright ring,
but to anyone with a musical ear it will be interesting to listen to
the peculiar throb in Irish glass, not so much a ring as a rich throb,
sometimes (particularly in large pieces) like a vibrato between two
notes. I do not say that you get this in all Irish glass, only in the
greater part of it.

No one, for instance, would expect a candlestick to ring or a
salt-cellar, or a thick shallow piece heavily cut. Jugs, as a rule,
also have a special dislike to displaying their voices, so, naturally,
people must use their discernment.


DIFFERENCE IN THE RING OF OTHER GLASS.

This peculiar ring of Irish glass is not to be found in glass of alien
origin. The foreign copies are quite different. Sometimes they will not
ring at all, especially the wine glasses; the better ones give a sound
of sorts, but it is very dead, and, if carefully listened to, the note
is never true, just a little flat, quite unlike the "singing Waterford."


=FAKES=

These are innumerable, and belong to all periods, old and modern, since
Irish glass first became popular.

No glass in the world has been so much copied, and none has, in
the long run, stood out so successfully in defying the faker.
This constitutes one of the great attractions of Irish glass to
the collector, for though many imitations of it have been made of
sufficient excellence to deceive the inexperienced and unwary, it
cannot be copied sufficiently well to deceive the connoisseur.

The finest reproductions from France, Belgium, Holland, and even
Germany, all fail in colour and texture, though some of the cutting is
exceedingly clever.

At the present moment there is an enormous amount of spurious glass
on the market, and some time ago a lot of remarkable copies were in
circulation. They were the best that have yet appeared, especially the
urns and candlesticks, and _numbers_ fell into the hands of the
unwary. One special weakness, however, was very noticeable--_the colour
fell in the tall pieces, leaving the tops whiter than the bases_.

PLATE VIII.

[Illustration: WATERFORD BOWL OF RARE BEAUTY.

  7-1/2 in. high, 12 in. diam. Engraved with escutcheon of the WINDE
  family (Chamberlain to H.R.H. Princess Sophia, sister to George III.).
  Probably a Christening Bowl. _Walter Harding collection._]

[Illustration: A REMARKABLE CONE-SHAPED BOWL IN TWO PARTS.

  12 in. high, base 8 in.; _circa_ 1770. No duplicate.
  _Originally in the Author's and now in the Walter Harding
  collection._]

At the present moment some very clever reproductions from Bohemia are
arriving in England, but they are very light and have a peculiar _pink
tinge_, which is more specially noticeable in the larger pieces.

As has already been pointed out, nearly all Irish glass is heavy, and a
very large proportion of the modern fakes fail to attain the required
weight. A marked exception to the general rule of weight is to be found
in Irish blown specimens, produced from about 1735 to 1750, which were
very light, and only engraved or quite plain, _never cut_. The faker
frequently forgets the latter point. When, however, he remembers it,
and produces plain or engraved pieces similar to the Irish, there
is yet another point of distinction. The Irish pieces often show
air-bubbles, but never the little specks of sand which, as I have
already said, almost invariably appear in the metal peculiar to foreign
glass.


DIFFERENCE OF COLOUR.

The most important distinction between Irish glass and foreign
imitations is to be found in their colours, and in this respect it
is the early glass of Cork, Waterford, and Dublin that defies the
copyist more than any other. Its steel or grey-blue tone stands alone,
although, alas, imitations artificially coloured with thin cobalt and
ultramarine have been, and in all probability will continue to be, sold
as the genuine article. In the analysis of Irish glass there is no
trace of cobalt.

Some copies of an almost emerald green have changed hands in good
faith as Waterford glass. How could green be produced from lead oxide,
potash, soda, and silica?--for this is the analysis of an early piece
of Waterford "pot metal" glass of the dark grey hue.


=THE INCREASING POPULARITY OF IRISH GLASS=

The multitude of fakes on the market bears testimony to the increasing
demand for Irish glass.

During the last six years, those members of the public who have a
knowledge of glass have realised more and more the value of the genuine
Irish article, which, of course, is due to the fact that it cannot be
copied sufficiently well to deceive the connoisseur. The direct outcome
of this is a steady increase in the market value, and rare specimens,
which were made at from 25s. to £4, now readily fetch anything from
£10 to £400; in fact, a single piece sold recently for £750, and a
beautiful bowl passed through my hands at £550; while only a few months
ago a chandelier was sold at an Irish auction for £1,218.

Magnificent specimens of Irish glass have found their way into English
collections, as will be seen by the plates shown in this book.
Photographs of most of the well-known pieces in the Dublin Museum,
and in private Irish houses, have already been reproduced in various
publications; but the accompanying photographs are of exceptional
specimens, taken exclusively from _English_ collections, and a very
large number of them has passed through my own hands.


EXPERIENCE ESSENTIAL.

It is absolutely impossible to become a sound judge of Irish glass
without years of experience, and, above all, without the constant
actual handling of pieces of all dates and descriptions, consequently
the genuine Irish dealer who has lived amongst it all his life has a
very great pull with regard to actual knowledge.

So many specimens were made to order, and were therefore of special
shape and cutting, that it is very difficult for the uninitiated to
recognise a piece as being of any certain factory or period, and he is
naturally mystified when he tries to classify such pieces into more
or less well-known categories. For instance, an ancestor of mine had
in his possession an early deep coloured bowl, cover, and stand of
exceptional quality, made about 1750. His son, in 1790, had it cut in
"flat diamonds" (a cutting then much in vogue), the result being a
specimen of early dark "wavy" glass, adorned with the beautiful cutting
of forty years later, and this is only _one_ instance of many which
could be quoted.


IRISH GLASS SOLD ABROAD.

Great quantities of Irish glass were made, and the official Irish
records show that large numbers of pieces were exported to America,
Spain, Portugal, and the West Indies, etc. Many of our finest specimens
were also taken to Holland, where they found a permanent home, _and
were extensively copied by the foreign glass-makers_.

France was very keen on Irish glass, and I have unearthed there some
very lovely and absolutely genuine specimens, especially wall-lights
and chandeliers.

Needless to say, a very big trade was done by the glass-houses direct
with old Irish families, who gave large orders for glass-ware, ranging
from single pieces to complete table services, of which few records
appear to have been kept.


UNCUT PIECES.

A large amount of Irish glass was made and put by, uncut, as Irish
families (especially those who lived near the glass-houses) preferred
to choose their own cuttings from drawings, so as to have something
different from their neighbours. This accounts for the number of uncut
pieces still to be found in various parts of Ireland, especially thick
finger-bowls, which were, undoubtedly, made in great quantities to
await orders.


THE ILLUSTRATIONS.

The following plates give some idea of the beautiful pieces of glass
which have left Ireland, but there are magnificent specimens still
there, which will probably never be placed on the market--pieces as
poetic in design as their owners are in mind; pieces that will live for
the sons and heirs to love and cherish with the many other treasures
of Ireland's finest periods, long after Sinn Feiners have ceased their
endeavours to destroy all that is best and loveliest in the old country.

At the time of writing this, I find an enormous amount of spurious
"Irish" glass on the market, and I take this opportunity of warning all
collectors and dealers (many of whom are my friends) to be exceedingly
careful. It is essential that all lovers of Irish glass should keep
their collections pure, and some of these fakes are so clever that
dealers will have to exercise the greatest vigilance and care if they
are to avoid the ignominy of having pieces which they have sold in good
faith returned to them as "wrong." At the present time, all the best
known dealers in Irish glass are trusted by their customers, and their
advice is taken without question. It is in the best interests of their
great profession that this sense of confidence should remain.

In conclusion, I should like to add that I hope this book--written, as
it is, at the request of many lovers of Irish glass--may be a real help
to the novice, and assist him to distinguish between the "true" piece
and the forgery.

[Illustration: STAR FROM A CHANDELIER.]

[Illustration:

  THE STANNUS CREST, ENGRAVED ON A WATERFORD BOWL, 1790.
  (_See Plate XVI._)]



ILLUSTRATIONS


_Photos by Hana_


=BOWLS, DISHES, PLATES AND TAZZE=


PLATE IX.

[Illustration: WATERFORD BOWL, _circa_ 1783. 8 in. by 10 in. Very flat
diamond cutting, on three feet carved as paws. This bowl, which is one
of the finest the author has ever seen, is exceptionally notable from
the fact that the pontil has been _worked up into an ornament_ instead
of being broken off. In the collection of Commander Swithinbank.]

[Illustration: WATERFORD FLOWER BOWL, 12 in. high. Heavy early glass,
finely cut, with castellated edge. _Circa_ 1783. In the collection of
Commander Swithinbank.]

[Illustration: WATERFORD CANOE-SHAPED BOWL, deep colour and rare shape;
1783. 10 in. high, 14 in. wide. In Viscount Furness's collection.]

[Illustration: An exceptionally large "TURNOVER" CORK BOWL, on heavily
domed base; early. Flat cutting. 12 in. high. In the collection of Mrs.
Rea. A similar example is in the Walter Harding collection.]


PLATE X.

[Illustration: Rare heavily chiselled CHRISTENING BOWL. Irish, 1760. 26
in. across. In the Author's collection.]

[Illustration: MUNSTER GLASS BOWL. 10 in. by 11 in. _Circa_ 1780.
Heavily but beautifully cut. In the collection of Mrs. Hall.]

[Illustration: "PINCHED" SIDED BOWL on round domed foot. 11 in. wide, 8
in. high. In Mr. Henderson's collection.]

[Illustration: WATERFORD ORANGE BOWL. 16 in. by 7-1/2 in. Unusually
large. _Circa_ 1790. In Major Pope's collection.]


PLATE XI.

[Illustration: Very large early IRISH MOULDED BOWL. It rings exactly
like a bell. Deep coloured and very soft glass. No duplicate known.
Date 1760. In Mrs. Rea's collection.]

[Illustration: A wonderful early "PINCHED" BOWL, showing the remarkable
"rainbow" band of faint colour running round the body. The foot is
square and moulded in a "dome." Note that the waste metal running from
the square base has not been cut away, proving that this piece, for
some reason unknown, has been left unfinished. There is no trace of
"milkiness" about this bowl. The small one (3 in. high) beside it is a
traveller's sample, made this minute size for convenience in carrying
about. In the Author's collection.]

[Illustration: Shallow diamond-cut WATERFORD REVOLVING CENTRE DISH, 18
in. by 6 in. The glass all fits together without any metal mounting.
_Circa_ 1783. In the Hon. Mrs. York's collection.]


PLATE XII.

[Illustration: Rare specimen of CORK GLASS ORANGE BOWL, _circa_ 1790.
14 in. long, 8-1/2 in. high. Originally in the Author's collection; now
in the Walter Harding collection.]

[Illustration: Finely cut WATERFORD BOWL, _circa_ 1790. 13 in. long, 9
in. high. In Viscount Furness's collection.]


PLATE XIII.

[Illustration: Early Cork "PILLAR" BOWL. In Viscount Furness's
collection.]

[Illustration: Large BOWL of exceptional shape, colour, and cutting.
Knopped stem. _Circa_ 1785. In the Author's family collection.]


PLATE XIV.

[Illustration: Curious specimen of early IRISH GLASS, engraved. Of a
beautiful deep colour. The stand is of Irish bog-oak, Celtic carving,
the Irish wolfhound being very carefully executed. 18 in. high. In the
collection of Commander Swithinbank.]


PLATE XV.

[Illustration: Large TWO-HANDLED POSSET BOWL, 18 in. high. Possibly as
early as 1750. Irish. In the collection of Mrs. Hall.]

[Illustration: Rare heavy, dark, plain OGEE BOWL, 11 in. by 11 in.
Irish, _circa_ 1760. In the collection of Mr. Robert Frank.]


PLATE XVI.

[Illustration: STRAWBERRY AND FAN CUT BOWL, 8 in. high. Made at
Waterford in 1790, and bearing the Stannus crest, finely engraved. In
the Author's collection.]

[Illustration: WATERFORD BOWL AND BASIN, cut all over with large, flat
double stars. 11 in. by 12 in. _Circa_ 1783. In Mr. Wild's collection.]

[Illustration: TWO-HANDLED CUP AND COVER, heavy clear glass. 4 in.
high. _Circa_ 1780. Dublin (copy of Bristol, but much heavier). In Mrs.
Day's collection.]

[Illustration: A giant "TURNOVER" ROUND BOWL AND DISH. Bowl, 12 in.
wide; dish, 20 in. Waterford, _circa_ 1815. In Mrs. Rea's collection.]

[Illustration: OCTAGONAL DEEP "STEP" CUT WATERFORD DISH, 12 in. _Circa_
1825. A very unusual specimen. In Mrs. Oliver's collection.]


PLATE XVII.

[Illustration: Set of "STEP" CUT DISHES with fan handles. Waterford,
_circa_ 1820. In the collection of Mrs. Hall.]

[Illustration: Pair of BANQUETING TAZZE, Munster glass of about
1790-1810. Made of heavy dark glass _in one piece_, with a heavily
domed foot, and finely cut in slash and diamonds. They are 13 in. high,
and weigh 32 lbs. each. In the collection of Mrs. Hall.]


PLATE XVIII.

[Illustration: Early IRISH "POSSET BOWL," probably 1730. Heavy glass of
a beautiful dark colour. In Mrs. Rea's collection.]

[Illustration: Large IRISH URN, _circa_ 1795. In Mr. R. Philipson's
collection.]

[Illustration: WATERFORD "CANOE" SHAPED BOWL, on scroll base, 1790. 14
in. long, 9 in. high. In the Author's family collection.]


PLATE XIX.

[Illustration: A beautiful WATERFORD SALAD BOWL, _circa_ 1785. 12 in.
diam., 5 in. high. In Colonel Fitzgerald Stannus's collection.]

[Illustration: One of a pair of heavy URNS, very early Dublin. 12 in.
high. In Mr. Hugh Weguelin's collection.]

[Illustration: A rare FINGER BOWL, marked "Dublin," very dark colour
and soft glass. An early piece. In Mr. Robert Frank's collection.]


PLATE XX.

[Illustration: Round CORK BOWL, of beautiful colour and ring,
_circa_ 1785. In Mr. Henderson's collection.]

[Illustration: Three rare specimens of very early IRISH GLASS. The
pressed piece in the centre is particularly beautiful in colour and
texture, and the two vases are very heavy, probably early Dublin, with
unfinished feet. In Mr. R. Philipson's collection.]


PLATE XXI.

[Illustration: IRISH PLAIN PUNCH BOWL AND LADLE, heavy uncut glass of
fine colour, _circa_ 1770. In Mr. R. Frank's collection.]

[Illustration: Fine examples of the later period (after 1815) "STEP"
CUTTING WATERFORD. This glass is whiter and much clearer than the
earlier examples. In the Author's collection.]


PLATE XXII.

[Illustration: One of the rarest WATERFORD "2-PIECE" BOWLS in
existence, _circa_ 1785. 12-1/2 in. high, 10 in. wide, 14-1/2 in. long.
Remarkable for its colour and texture. Originally in the Author's
collection; now in the Walter Harding collection.]

[Illustration: WATERFORD "HELMET" BOWL, very rare, and a pair of large,
finely cut oval WATERFORD DISHES. Adam period. In Major Courtauld's
collection.]


=CANDELABRA, CANDLESTICKS AND CHANDELIERS=


PLATE XXIII.

[Illustration: Original CHANDELIER, made at Waterford in 1785. 6 ft.
3 in. long. The upper trio of arms are "hand bent," and the stars on
these arms are 6 in. high. The pendant at the bottom weighs 9 lbs. In
the Author's family collection.]


PLATE XXIV.

[Illustration: Original CHANDELIER, made at Waterford in 1788. 6 ft. 6
in. long. The arms are each 2 ft. 8 in. long, and it weighs 2-1/2 cwt.
The cutting, workmanship, and colour are unsurpassed. It is built upon
an iron rod covered in silver tubing. In the Author's family
collection.]


PLATE XXV.

[Illustration: A WATERFORD CHANDELIER of exquisite design and cutting.
4 ft. 6 in. long. In the Author's collection.]


PLATE XXVI.

[Illustration: Pair of WATERFORD SIDEBOARD LIGHTS, of the finest period
and rare cutting. Adam design. In the Author's collection.]

[Illustration: WATERFORD GLASS CHIMNEY SET, draped with deep
"pot-metal" blue drops. 20 in. high. Probably Dublin, _circa_ 1815. In
the Author's collection.]


PLATE XXVII.

[Illustration: Set of three WATERFORD TABLE LIGHTS, 26 in. high.
In Viscount Furness's collection.]

[Illustration: Rare set of four single DINING TABLE LIGHTS. The facet
cutting on the long "reflectors" is particularly fine and interesting.
Waterford, _circa_ 1785. In Viscount Furness's collection.]


PLATE XXVIII.

[Illustration: One of a pair of ADAM LIGHTS, 4 ft. high. Waterford
glass, on old marble "Bosi" work pedestals. Slightly restored. In
Viscount Furness's collection.]


PLATE XXIX.

[Illustration: Typical pair of IRISH TABLE LIGHTS, 25 in. high, on
square bases. _Circa_ 1780. In the Author's collection.]

[Illustration: Pair of WATERFORD TABLE LIGHTS, hung with the palest
amber round drops (Dublin), and mounted on Wedgwood urns. 22 in. high.
Late Adam period. In Mr. Hugh Weguelin's collection.]


PLATE XXX.

[Illustration: Three WATERFORD FACET-CUT TABLE LIGHTS, with
almond-shaped drops, 22 in. and 23 in. high. _Circa_ 1783. In Mr. E.
Parsons' collection.]

[Illustration: Three WATERFORD TABLE LIGHTS, Adam period, 24 in. high,
with "almond" drops. In Major Pope's collection.]

[Illustration: Pair of WATERFORD CANDLESTICKS, 1785. 10 in. high. In Mr.
H. Samuelson's collection.]


PLATE XXXI.

[Illustration: WATERFORD CHANDELIER, 4 ft. 3 in. long. _Circa_ 1783. In
Mrs. Cox's collection.]

[Illustration: Early WATERFORD CANDELABRA and pair of CANDLESTICKS with
facet-cut ornament. In Colonel Jenner's collection.]


PLATE XXXII.

[Illustration: ADAM CHANDELIER, Waterford, in its original condition. 5
ft. long. In Mrs. Sabin's collection.]


PLATE XXXIII.

[Illustration: IRISH CANDLE SHADES, 23 in. high; finest period. One
cut flat double stars. These shades were used in halls and covered
large-size church candles. Unique specimens. In the Author's
collection.]


PLATE XXXIV.

[Illustration: Pair of WATERFORD ALTER CANDLESTICKS. _Circa_ 1783. In
Mr. R. Frank's collection.]

[Illustration: Three unique early IRISH CANDLESTICKS. Probably 1760.
In Mrs. Rea's collection.

These candlesticks have the largest bases on record, with high domes,
and bear the "pontil" mark _on top of the nozzle instead of at the
bottom_. They were made upside down.]


PLATE XXXV.

[Illustration: Very large IRISH CANDLESTICKS, with unusual bases.
_Circa_ 1770. In Mrs. Rea's collection.]

[Illustration: Pair of rare WATERFORD TAPERSTICKS, 5 in. high. _Circa_
1790. In Mrs. Rea's collection.]


PLATE XXXVI.

[Illustration: Pair of IRISH LAMPS. Probably Waterford, 1790. Very
unusual specimens. In the Walter Harding collection.]

[Illustration: WATERFORD CANDLESTICK, 1783, 14 in. high; and a pair of
early CORK CANDLESTICKS, 12 in. high. In the Walter Harding collection.]


PLATE XXXVII.

[Illustration: Set of three very early IRISH BLOWN GLASS RUSHLIGHT
HOLDERS, early eighteenth century. In Mr. Robert Frank's collection.]

[Illustration: WATERFORD TABLE LIGHTS, of exceptional quality, 24 in.
high. In Mr. Fitzroy Chapman's collection.]


PLATE XXXVIII.

[Illustration: Pair of antique ALTAR CANDLESTICKS, about 16 in. high.
Waterford, of the very finest period and cutting. In the Walter Harding
collection.]


PLATE XXXIX.

[Illustration: Four fine specimens of WATERFORD CANDLESTICKS. In the
Walter Harding collection.]

[Illustration: A wonderful Irish deep-coloured, moulded MUG, 8 in.
high. Probably Dublin. _Circa_ 1740. In the Walter Harding collection.]


=DECANTERS, JUGS, AND BOTTLES=


PLATE XL.

[Illustration: SHAPED WATERFORD JUG. 11 in. high. In the Walter Harding
collection.]

[Illustration: UNIQUE JUG, ordinarily termed a "freak piece." 25 in.
high, weighing 18 lbs. Irish glass, _circa_ 1760. An ordinary cream jug
is placed beside it for purposes of comparison. In the Author's
collection.]

[Illustration: Three very interesting IRISH JUGS. The two cream jugs
are finest period Waterford. The centre jug is very early and the metal
peculiarly soft. In Mr. R. Philipson's collection.]

[Illustration: TANKARD, Waterford or Cork, _circa_ 1785. 9 in. high.

TWO-HANDLED SPUN CUP, probably Dublin, 1750; deep toned glass, very
soft to the touch. 8 in. high.

In the Author's collection.

HEAVY LUSTRE CUT JUG, flint glass, _circa_ 1800. 7 in. high.

In Commander Swithinbank's collection.]


PLATE XLI.

[Illustration: EARLY BLOWN CORK DECANTERS, with the primitive engraving
of the period. These decanters are impress-marked "Cork Glass Co." In
the Author's collection.]

[Illustration: Pair of heavy old MUNSTER GLASS LIQUEUR BOTTLES and an
early BLOWN IRISH GLASS DECANTER, engraved. In the Author's collection.]

[Illustration: STEP AND PRISMATIC CUT LIQUEUR BOTTLES, Waterford,
1820-50.]

[Illustration: SWAG AND DIAMOND CUT WATERFORD DECANTERS, _circa_
1780-90. In the Author's' collection.]


PLATE XLII.

[Illustration: Set of early "MUNSTER" JUGS. In the Author's collection.]


PLATE XLIII.

[Illustration: Set of early "MUNSTER" DECANTERS. In the Author's
collection.]


=GOBLETS, CUPS, AND CHALICES=


PLATE XLIV.

[Illustration: CHALICE, 1790-1800. Sharp diamond cut, 13 in. high. One
of the rarest pieces of Irish glass. In Mrs. Hall's collection.]

[Illustration: A set of DUBLIN "LUSTRE CUT" GOBLETS, _circa_ 1850. The
property of Mr. David Blair, who has a similar set of tumblers.]

[Illustration: EARLY SWEETMEAT STANDS. Irish glass, moulded 1760-70.
In the Author's collection.]


PLATE XLV.

[Illustration: A rare CHALICE. Munster glass, 1790-1800. In Mrs. Magee's
collection.]


=SWEETMEAT STANDS=


PLATE XLVI.

[Illustration: A WATERFORD BASKET SWEETMEAT STAND, 24 in. high. In Mrs.
Magee's collection.]

[Illustration: MOULDED SWEETMEAT STAND, with two candle sconces. Early
Cork. In Mrs. Magee's collection.]


=TABLE SERVICES=


PLATE XLVII.

[Illustration: An entire early WATERFORD DESSERT SERVICE. Leaf cutting,
and "drawn stem" wine-glasses. In the possession of the Hon. Mrs.
Vickers.]


PLATE XLVIII.

[Illustration: WATERFORD DESSERT SERVICE, _circa_ 1785. In the
collection of Major Pope.]

[Illustration: A miniature WATERFORD SWEETMEAT STAND, only 13 in. high.
The handles of the baskets are glass, and the piece is a most beautiful
colour. Late Adam period. In the Walter Harding collection.]

[Illustration: Early DUBLIN POSSET TWO-HANDLED BOWL, 1760; FLAT FLASK,
1770; GOBLETS, MUGS, and TEA CADDY of early dates. In the Author's
collection.]


PLATE XLIX.

[Illustration: TABLE SERVICE OF ENGRAVED CORK GLASS, early Adam period.
Glass older than the engraving. In the collection of Mr. Robert Frank.]

[Illustration: Early IRISH GLASS, the lamp probably as early as 1660.
Originally in the Author's collection; now in the Walter Harding
collection.]


=URNS, HONEY POTS, SALTS, ETC.=


PLATE L.

[Illustration: Pair of early IRISH URNS, 22 in. high. Magnificent soft
dark metal and very shallow cutting. Probably no duplicates. In the
collection of Commander Swithinbank.]

[Illustration: Collection of tall URNS, Cork and Waterford, _circa_
1785. In the collection of Commander Swithinbank.]


PLATE LI.

[Illustration: Set of three WATERFORD URNS, _circa_ 1783. Very fine
examples of flat cutting. 14 in. and 12 in. high. In the collection of
Mrs. Hall.]

[Illustration: Celtic motif]

[Illustration: Decoration]


=MISCELLANEOUS=


PLATE LII.

[Illustration: Pair of WIG STANDS, probably Dublin, heavy lead-coloured
glass of an early period. In Mr. Robert Frank's collection.]

[Illustration: FINE MUNSTER GLASS. In the collection of Mr. Hunt.]

[Illustration: TYPICAL WATERFORD CRUETS AND CRUET BOTTLES.]

[Illustration: OLD STRAWBERRY CUT DUBLIN TEAPOT. In Mrs. Day's
collection.

OLD MUNSTER GLASS TEAPOT, moulded. In the Author's collection.

TEAPOT. Waterford, _circa_ 1783. In Mr. Robert Frank's collection.]

[Illustration: CREAM OR ICE PAILS, Irish, _circa_ 1825-35. A wonderful
example of deep step cutting, with feather handles. The glass is nearly
3/4 in. thick. In the possession of Mrs. McBean.]


PLATE LIII.

[Illustration: A very fine old Irish blue glass BOWL, with a
magnificent ring, 9 in. diam. In the Author's family collection.]

[Illustration: A very rare Dublin blue glass BOWL, with unfinished
foot, 8 in. high; extremely heavy. Specially made, _circa_ 1740. In the
Author's family collection.]

[Illustration: Pair of LACEMAKER'S LAMPS, heavy purple-blue glass, made
in Dublin, _circa_ 1730-40. 13 in. high. In the Author's family
collection.]

[Illustration: Decoration]


=RUBBINGS=


PLATE LIV.

[Illustration: The only cutting on a rare canoe-shaped Waterford bowl
in the Author's collection. "Flutes" also a very early idea, but became
deeper and smaller and sharper as time went on.]

[Illustration: A wonderful special cutting on a "pinched" Waterford
boat-shaped bowl a little deeper than engraving. In the Author's
collection.]

[Illustration: A very beautiful fan edge from a fine Waterford bowl of
_circa_ 1815.]

[Illustration: Vandyke cutting, more commonly known as "bull's-eye." A
cutting very much done between 1770 and 1800, and probably more copied
both abroad and in England _than any other_. Sometimes referred to as
"Geometrical design."]

[Illustration: Beautiful swag and line cutting with fan edge. This
is an early effort, probably 1765; but there is a fine example on a
Waterford dessert service in the possession of Colonel Wike.]


PLATE LV.

[Illustration: Hobnail cutting, _late_ 1830, so often confused with
diamond cutting.]

[Illustration: Strawberry cutting, so often confused with hobnail
cutting; much used from 1780. This is an early example. Note the
unevenness of the lines.]

[Illustration: Flat diamond. This was a _shallow_ cutting from _circa_
1768 onwards; after 1790 it became _much_ deeper and sharper, the
centre coming out to a sharp point.]

[Illustration: Fine "fan" cutting from an old Waterford decanter.]

[Illustration: "Double," or "long" diamond, so often called in England
"lozenge." It was a very soft shallow cutting till after 1780, when it
became bolder and deeper.]


PLATE LVI.

[Illustration: One of many adaptations of cutting on Irish glass from
1790 to 1835.]

[Illustration: One of many adaptations of cutting on Irish glass from
1790 to 1835.]

[Illustration: Cutting from a rare Waterford bowl. "Leaf," "shallow
diamond," and "flute." This early cutting was very irregular, and so
shallow that it is little deeper than heavy engraving.]

[Illustration: A fine "castellated" edge from a Waterford fruit dish.]


PLATE LVII.

[Illustration: A most rare and very shallow adaptation of diamond
cutting from an old Irish chalice, _circa_ 1770.]

[Illustration: A most beautiful bit of cutting on a rare early
Waterford mirror in Commander Swithinbank's collection.]

[Illustration: Curious shallow cutting from a set of Cork plates and
finger-bowls in the Author's collection.]

[Illustration: An example of step cutting, horizontal and vertical,
from a late Waterford bowl.]


PLATE LVIII.

[Illustration: Cutting from an early Waterford canoe-shaped bowl. In the
Author's collection.]

[Illustration: Very early cutting from Mr. Weguelin's Waterford urns,
showing the remarkable inaccuracy of the cutting.]

[Illustration: A variation of the early leaf cutting, somewhat later,
therefore a little sharper and more symmetrical.]

[Illustration: Flat "leaf," one of the first ideas of cutting. It is so
soft that to the touch it is almost like moulding.]


PLATE LIX.

[Illustration: A wonderful example of "lustre" cutting. Dublin, _circa_
1785.]

[Illustration: Cutting, soft and shallow, from a Cork bowl, late
eighteenth century. In the Author's collection.]

[Illustration: A soft early star found on the bottoms of finger-bowls
and decanters, _circa_ 1750. Note the remarkable variation from the
given centre.]

[Illustration: A very beautiful shallow-cut star, from a Waterford
dish, about 1790.]

[Illustration: A very early husk or leaf cutting from an early Irish
wine-glass, _circa_ 1760. This is one of the earliest cuttings.]


PLATE LX.

[Illustration: ONE OF A PAIR OF DUBLIN WALL LIGHTS. _In the Author's
collection._ _From a drawing in the Author's possession._]


Transcriber's Notes:

  Plate XI caption, removed "." from "rainbow." band.

  Italic text is denoted by _underscores_
  and bold text by =equal signs=.

  HTML version, Illustrations have been laid out sequentially, with
  captions below each.





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