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´╗┐Title: The 2001 CIA World Factbook
Author: United States. Central Intelligence Agency
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The 2001 CIA World Factbook" ***

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THE CIA WORLD FACTBOOK 2001



CONTENTS


Countries and Locations

Field Listings

Appendixes

Notes and Definitions

History of The World Factbook

Contributors and Copyright Information

Purchasing Information



=====================================================================


In general, information available as of 1 January 2001 was used in
the preparation of The World Factbook 2001.

Selected data and maps in The World Factbook are updated periodically.


=====================================================================



Country Listing


[Transcriber's note: To search on a country name in this file, prefix
the name with "@", e.g. "@Afghanistan".  "Afghanistan" will find all
occurrences; prefixing it with "@" will find the correct location.]


A

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
American Samoa
Andorra
Angola
Anguilla
Antarctica
Antigua and Barbuda
Arctic Ocean
Argentina
Armenia
Aruba
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Atlantic Ocean
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan


B

Bahamas, The
Bahrain
Baker Island
Bangladesh
Barbados
Bassas da India
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bermuda
Bhutan
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Bouvet Island
Brazil
British Indian Ocean Territory
British Virgin Islands
Brunei
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burma
Burundi


C

Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Cayman Islands
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Christmas Island
Clipperton Island
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Colombia
Comoros
Congo, Democratic Republic of the
Congo, Republic of the
Cook Islands
Coral Sea Islands
Costa Rica
Cote d'Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic


D

Denmark
Djibouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic


E

Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Europa Island


F

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Faroe Islands
Fiji
Finland
France
French Guiana
French Polynesia
French Southern and Antarctic Lands


G

Gabon
Gambia, The
Gaza Strip
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Gibraltar
Glorioso Islands
Greece
Greenland
Grenada
Guadeloupe
Guam
Guatemala
Guernsey
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana


H

Haiti
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Holy See (Vatican City)
Honduras
Hong Kong
Howland Island
Hungary


I

Iceland
India
Indian Ocean
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy


J

Jamaica
Jan Mayen
Japan
Jarvis Island
Jersey
Johnston Atoll
Jordan
Juan de Nova Island


K

Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kingman Reef
Kiribati
Korea, North
Korea, South
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan


L

Laos
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Luxembourg


M

Macau
Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Man, Isle of
Marshall Islands
Martinique
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mayotte
Mexico
Micronesia, Federated States of
Midway Islands
Moldova
Monaco
Mongolia
Montserrat
Morocco
Mozambique


N

Namibia
Nauru
Navassa Island
Nepal
Netherlands
Netherlands Antilles
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Niue
Norfolk Island
Northern Mariana Islands
Norway


O

Oman


P

Pacific Ocean
Pakistan
Palau
Palmyra Atoll
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paracel Islands
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Pitcairn Islands
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico


Q

Qatar


R

Reunion
Romania
Russia
Rwanda


S

Saint Helena
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Samoa
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Southern Ocean
Spain
Spratly Islands
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Svalbard
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria


T

Taiwan entry follows Zimbabwe
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Togo
Tokelau
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tromelin Island
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Turks and Caicos Islands
Tuvalu


U

Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan


V

Vanuatu
Venezuela
Vietnam
Virgin Islands


W

Wake Island
Wallis and Futuna
West Bank
Western Sahara
World


Y

Yemen
Yugoslavia


Z

Zambia
Zimbabwe



Taiwan


=====================================================================


Field Listings



[Transcriber's note: To search on a field code in this file, prefix
the code number with "@", e.g. "@Airports".  "Airports" will find all
occurrences; prefixing it with "@" will find the correct location.]



Field Description

Administrative divisions
Age structure
Agriculture - products
Airports
Airports - with paved runways
Airports - with unpaved runways
Area
Area - comparative
Background
Birth rate
Budget
Capital
Climate
Coastline
Communications - note
Constitution
Country name
Currency
Currency code
Death rate
Debt - external
Dependency status
Dependent areas
Diplomatic representation from the US
Diplomatic representation in the US
Disputes - international
Economic aid - donor
Economic aid - recipient
Economy - overview
Electricity - consumption
Electricity - exports
Electricity - imports
Electricity - production
Electricity - production by source
Elevation extremes
Environment - current issues
Environment - international agreements
Ethnic groups
Exchange rates
Executive branch
Exports
Exports - commodities
Exports - partners
Fiscal year
Flag description
GDP
GDP - composition by sector
GDP - per capita
GDP - real growth rate
Geographic coordinates
Geography - note
Government - note
Government type
Heliports
Highways
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
HIV/AIDS - deaths
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
Household income or consumption by
Illicit drugs
Imports
Imports - commodities
Imports - partners
Independence
Industrial production growth rate
Industries
Infant mortality rate
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
International organization participation
Internet country code
Internet Service Providers (ISPs)
Internet users
Irrigated land
Judicial branch
Labor force
Labor force - by occupation
Land boundaries
Land use
Languages
Legal system
Legislative branch
Life expectancy at birth
Literacy
Location
Map references
Maritime claims
Merchant marine
Military - note
Military branches
Military expenditures - dollar figure
Military expenditures - percent of GDP
Military manpower - availability
Military manpower - fit for military
Military manpower - military age
Military manpower - reaching military
National holiday
Nationality
Natural hazards
Natural resources
Net migration rate
People - note
Pipelines
Political parties and leaders
Political pressure groups and leaders
Population
Population below poverty line
Population growth rate
Ports and harbors
Radio broadcast stations
Radios
Railways
Religions
Sex ratio
Suffrage
Telephone system
Telephones - main lines in use
Telephones - mobile cellular
Television broadcast stations
Televisions
Terrain
Total fertility rate
Transportation - note
Unemployment rate
Waterways



======================================================================



Appendixes


Appendix A - Abbreviations

Appendix B - International Organizations and Groups

Appendix C - Selected International Environmental Agreements

Appendix D - Cross-Reference List of Country Data Codes

Appendix E - Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data Codes

Appendix F - Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names



======================================================================



Notes and Definitions


In addition to the updating of information, the following changes have
been made in this edition of The World Factbook. The entity of Serbia
and Montenegro is now officially known as Yugoslavia.  There are new
entries on:  Currency code, HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate, HIV/AIDS
- deaths, HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS, Internet users, and
Internet country code.  The Background entry, which was introduced in
the 1999 edition, has now been completed for all 267 entities in the
Factbook.  The individual country maps are being revised.  Some new
maps with elevation extremes and a partial geographic grid are included
in this edition.


Abbreviations
This information is included in Appendix A: Abbreviations, which
includes all abbreviations and acronyms used in the Factbook, with
their expansions.

Acronyms
An acronym is an abbreviation coined from the initial letter of each
successive word in a term or phrase.  In general, an acronym made up
solely from the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is
rendered in all capital letters (NATO from North Atlantic Treaty
Organization; an exception would be ASEAN for Association of Southeast
Asian Nations).  In general, an acronym made up of more than the first
letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered with only an
initial capital letter (Comsat from Communications Satellite
Corporation; an exception would be NAM from Nonaligned Movement).
Hybrid forms are sometimes used to distinguish between initially
identical terms (WTO:  WTrO for World Trade Organization and WToO for
World Tourism Organization.)

Administrative divisions
This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-
order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on
Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet
acted on by BGN are noted.

Age structure
This entry provides the distribution of the population according to
age. Information is included by sex and age group (0-14 years, 15-64
years, 65 years and over). The age structure of a population affects a
nation's key socioeconomic issues. Countries with young populations
(high percentage under age 15) need to invest more in schools, while
countries with older populations (high percentage ages 65 and over)
need to invest more in the health sector. The age structure can also be
used to help predict potential political issues. For example, the rapid
growth of a young adult population unable to find employment can lead
to unrest.

Agriculture - products
This entry is a rank ordering of major crops and products starting with
the most important.

Airports
This entry gives the total number of airports. The runway(s) may be
paved (concrete or asphalt surfaces) or unpaved (grass, dirt, sand, or
gravel surfaces), but must be usable. Not all airports have facilities
for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control.

Airports - with paved runways
This entry gives the total number of airports with paved runways
(concrete or asphalt surfaces). For airports with more than one runway,
only the longest runway is included according to the following five
groups - (1) over 3,047 m, (2) 2,438 to 3,047 m, (3) 1,524 to 2,437 m,
(4) 914 to 1,523 m, and (5) under 914 m. Only airports with usable
runways are included in this listing. Not all airports have facilities
for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control.

Airports - with unpaved runways
This entry gives the total number of airports with unpaved runways
(grass, dirt, sand, or gravel surfaces). For airports with more than
one runway, only the longest runway is included according to the
following five groups - (1) over 3,047 m, (2) 2,438 to 3,047 m, (3)
1,524 to 2,437 m, (4) 914 to 1,523 m, and (5) under 914 m. Only
airports with usable runways are included in this listing. Not all
airports have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic
control

Appendixes
This section includes Factbook-related material by topic.

Area
This entry includes three subfields. Total area is the sum of all land
and water areas delimited by international boundaries and/or
coastlines. Land area is the aggregate of all surfaces delimited by
international boundaries and/or coastlines, excluding inland water
bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). Water area is the sum of all water
surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines,
including inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers).

Area - comparative
This entry provides an area comparison based on total area equivalents.
Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states
based on area measurements (1990 revised) provided by the US Bureau of
the Census. The smaller entities are compared with Washington, DC (178
sq km, 69 sq mi) or The Mall in Washington, DC (0.59 sq km, 0.23 sq mi,
146 acres).

Background
This entry usually highlights major historic events and current issues
and may include a statement about one or two key future trends.

Birth rate
This entry gives the average annual number of births during a year per
1,000 persons in the population at midyear; also known as crude birth
rate. The birth rate is usually the dominant factor in determining the
rate of population growth. It depends on both the level of fertility
and the age structure of the population.

Budget
This entry includes revenues, total expenditures, and capital
expenditures.  These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis,
i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms

Capital
This entry gives the location of the seat of government.

Climate
This entry includes a brief description of typical weather regimes
throughout the year.

Coastline
This entry gives the total length of the boundary between the land area
(including islands) and the sea.

Communications
This category deals with the means of exchanging information and
includes the telephone, radio, television, and Internet service
provider entries.

Communications - note
This entry includes miscellaneous communications information of
significance not included elsewhere.

Constitution
This entry includes the dates of adoption, revisions, and major
amendments.

Country data codes
see Data codes

Country map
Most versions of the Factbook provide a country map in color. The maps
were produced from the best information available at the time of
preparation. Names and/or boundaries may have changed subsequently.

Country name
This entry includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US
Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional
long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local
long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former
(Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also see the
Terminology note.

Currency
This entry identifies the national medium of exchange and its basic
subunit.

Currency code
This entry gives the International Organization for Standardization
(ISO) 4217 alphabetic currency code for each country.

Data codes
This information is presented in Appendix D:  Cross-Reference List of
Country Data Codes and Appendix E:  Cross-Reference List of
Hydrographic Data Codes.  This appendix includes the US Government
approved Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) codes, the
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) codes, and
Internet codes for land entities.  The appendix also includes the
International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) codes, Aeronautical Chart
and Information Center (ACIC; now a part of the National Imagery and
Mapping Agency or NIMA) codes, and Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA)
codes for hydrographic entities. The US Government has not yet approved
a standard for hydrographic data codes similar to the FIPS 10-4
standard for country data codes.

Date of information
In general, information available as of 1 January 2001, was used in the
preparation of this edition.

Death rate
This entry gives the average annual number of deaths during a year per
1,000 population at midyear; also known as crude death rate. The death
rate, while only a rough indicator of the mortality situation in a
country, accurately indicates the current mortality impact on
population growth. This indicator is significantly affected by age
distribution, and most countries will eventually show a rise in the
overall death rate, in spite of continued decline in mortality at all
ages, as declining fertility results in an aging population.

Debt - external
This entry gives the total amount of public foreign financial
obligations.

Dependency status
This entry describes the formal relationship between a particular
nonindependent entity and an independent state.

Dependent areas
This entry contains an alphabetical listing of all nonindependent
entities associated in some way with a particular independent state.

Diplomatic representation
The US Government has diplomatic relations with 185 independent states,
including 183 of the 189 UN members (excluded UN members are Bhutan,
Cuba, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, and the US itself). In addition, the US
has diplomatic relations with 2 independent states that are not in the
UN - Holy See and Switzerland.

Diplomatic representation from the US
This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing
address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations,
consulate general locations, and consulate locations.

Disputes - international
This entry includes a wide variety of situations that range from
traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one
sort or another. Information regarding disputes over international
terrestrial and maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the US
Department of State. References to other situations involving borders
or frontiers may also be included, such as resource disputes,
geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues; however, inclusion does
not necessarily constitute official acceptance or recognition by the US
Government.

Economic aid - donor
This entry refers to net official development assistance (ODA) from
OECD nations to developing countries and multilateral organizations.
ODA is defined as financial assistance that is concessional in
character, has the main objective to promote economic development and
welfare of the less developed countries (LDCs), and contains a grant
element of at least 25%. The entry does not cover other official flows
(OOF) or private flows.

Economic aid - recipient
This entry, which is subject to major problems of definition and
statistical coverage, refers to the net inflow of Official Development
Finance (ODF) to recipient countries. The figure includes assistance
from the World Bank, the IMF, and other international organizations and
from individual nation donors. Formal commitments of aid are included
in the data. Omitted from the data are grants by private organizations.
Aid comes in various forms including outright grants and loans. The
entry thus is the difference between new inflows and repayments.

Economy
This category includes the entries dealing with the size, development,
and management of productive resources, i.e., land, labor, and capital.

Economy - overview
This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree
of market orientation, the level of economic development, the most
important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization. It
also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most
recent 12 months and may include a statement about one or two key
future macroeconomic trends.

Electricity - consumption
This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus
imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy
between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the
amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in
transmission and distribution.

Electricity - exports
This entry is the total exported electricity in kilowatt-hours.

Electricity - imports
This entry is the total imported electricity in kilowatt-hours.

Electricity - production
This entry is the annual electricity generated expressed in kilowatt-
hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated
and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted
for as loss in transmission and distribution.

Electricity - production by source
This entry indicates the percentage share of annual electricity
production of each energy source. These are fossil fuel, hydro,
nuclear, and other (solar, geothermal, and wind).

Elevation extremes
This entry includes both the highest point and the lowest point.

Entities
Some of the independent states, dependencies, areas of special
sovereignty, and governments included in this publication are not
independent, and others are not officially recognized by the US
Government. "Independent state" refers to a people politically
organized into a sovereign state with a definite territory.
"Dependencies" and "areas of special sovereignty" refer to a broad
category of political entities that are associated in some way with an
independent state. "Country" names used in the table of contents or for
page headings are usually the short-form names as approved by the US
Board on Geographic Names and may include independent states,
dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty, or other geographic
entities. There are a total of 267 separate geographic entities in The
World Factbook that may be categorized as follows:

INDEPENDENT STATES

   191 Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and
Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The
Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize,
Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil,
Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,
Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China,
Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the
Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador,
Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia,
Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana,
Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holy
See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland,
Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati,
North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon,
Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The
Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,  Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,
Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico,
Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco,
Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger,
Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea,
Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia,
Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia,
Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,
Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania,
Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,
Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay,
Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia,
Zimbabwe

OTHER

     1 Taiwan

DEPENDENCIES AND AREAS OF SPECIAL SOVEREIGNTY
     6 Australia - Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos
(Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald
Islands, Norfolk Island
     2 China - Hong Kong, Macau
     2 Denmark - Faroe Islands, Greenland
    16 France - Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island,
French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands,
Glorioso Islands, Guadeloupe, Juan de Nova Island, Martinique, Mayotte,
New Caledonia, Reunion, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Tromelin Island,
Wallis and Futuna
     2 Netherlands - Aruba, Netherlands Antilles
     3 New Zealand - Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau
     3 Norway - Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard
    15 UK - Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British
Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey,
Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, South
Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands
    14 US - American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis
Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island,
Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands,
Wake Island

MISCELLANEOUS
     6 Antarctica, Gaza Strip, Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands, West
Bank, Western Sahara

OTHER ENTITIES
     5 oceans - Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific
Ocean, Southern Ocean
     1 World
   267 total

Environment - current issues
This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental
problems.  The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout
the entry:

     acidification - the lowering of soil and water pH due to acid
precipitation and deposition usually through precipitation; this
process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows and may kill freshwater fish
and plants dependent on more neutral or alkaline conditions (see acid
rain).

     acid rain - characterized as containing harmful levels of sulfur
dioxide or nitrogen oxide; acid rain is damaging and potentially deadly
to the earth's fragile ecosystems; acidity is measured using the pH
scale where 7 is neutral, values greater than 7 are considered
alkaline, and values below 5.6 are considered acid precipitation; note
- a pH of 2.4 (the acidity of vinegar) has been measured in rainfall in
New England.

     aerosol - a collection of airborne particles dispersed in a gas,
smoke, or fog.

     afforestation - converting a bare or agricultural space by
planting trees and plants; reforestation involves replanting trees on
areas that have been cut or destroyed by fire.

     asbestos - a naturally occurring soft fibrous mineral commonly
used in fireproofing materials and considered to be highly carcinogenic
in particulate form.

     biodiversity - also biological diversity; the relative number of
species, diverse in form and function, at the genetic, organism,
community, and ecosystem level; loss of biodiversity reduces an
ecosystem's ability to recover from natural or man-induced disruption.

     bio-indicators - a plant or animal species whose presence,
abundance, and health reveal the general condition of its habitat.

     biomass - the total weight or volume of living matter in a given
area or volume.

     carbon cycle - the term used to describe the exchange of carbon
(in various forms, e.g., as carbon dioxide) between the atmosphere,
ocean, terrestrial biosphere, and geological deposits.

     catchments - assemblages used to capture and retain rainwater and
runoff; an important water management technique in areas with limited
freshwater resources, such as Gibraltar.

     DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane) - a colorless, odorless
insecticide that has toxic effects on most animals; the use of DDT was
banned in the US in 1972.

     defoliants - chemicals which cause plants to lose their leaves
artificially; often used in agricultural practices for weed control,
and may have detrimental impacts on human and ecosystem health.

     deforestation - the destruction of vast areas of forest (e.g.,
unsustainable forestry practices, agricultural and range land clearing,
and the over exploitation of wood products for use as fuel) without
planting new growth.

     desertification - the spread of desert-like conditions in arid or
semi-arid areas, due to overgrazing, loss of agriculturally productive
soils, or climate change.

     dredging - the practice of deepening an existing waterway; also, a
technique used for collecting bottom-dwelling marine organisms (e.g.,
shellfish) or harvesting coral, often causing significant destruction
of reef and ocean-floor ecosystems.

     drift-net fishing - done with a net, miles in extent, that is
generally anchored to a boat and left to float with the tide; often
results in an over harvesting and waste of large populations of non-
commercial marine species (by-catch) by its effect of "sweeping the
ocean clean".

     ecosystems - ecological units comprised of complex communities of
organisms and their specific environments.

     effluents - waste materials, such as smoke, sewage, or industrial
waste which are released into the environment, subsequently polluting
it.

     endangered species - a species that is threatened with extinction
either by direct hunting or habitat destruction.

     freshwater - water with very low soluble mineral content; sources
include lakes, streams, rivers, glaciers, and underground aquifers.

     greenhouse gas - a gas that "traps" infrared radiation in the
lower atmosphere causing surface warming; water vapor, carbon dioxide,
nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons, and ozone are the primary
greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere.

     groundwater - water sources found below the surface of the earth
often in naturally occurring reservoirs in permeable rock strata; the
source for wells and natural springs.

     Highlands Water Project - a series of dams constructed jointly by
Lesotho and South Africa to redirect Lesotho's abundant water supply
into a rapidly growing area in South Africa; while it is the largest
infrastructure project in southern Africa, it is also the most costly
and controversial; objections to the project include claims that it
forces people from their homes, submerges farmlands, and squanders
economic resources.

     Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC) - represents the 125,000 Inuits
of Russia, Alaska, Canada, and Greenland in international environmental
issues; a panel convenes every three years to determine the focus of
the ICC; the most current concerns are long-range transport of
pollutants, sustainable development, and climate change.

     metallurgical plants - industries which specialize in the science,
technology, and processing of metals; these plants produce highly
concentrated and toxic wastes which can contribute to pollution of
ground water and air when not properly disposed.

     noxious substances - injurious, very harmful to living beings.

     overgrazing - the grazing of animals on plant material faster than
it can naturally regrow leading to the permanent loss of plant cover, a
common effect of too many animals grazing limited range land.

     ozone shield - a layer of the atmosphere composed of ozone gas (O3)
that resides approximately 25 miles above the Earth's surface and
absorbs solar ultraviolet radiation that can be harmful to living
organisms.

     poaching - the illegal killing of animals or fish, a great concern
with respect to endangered or threatened species.

     pollution - the contamination of a healthy environment by man-made
waste.

     potable water - water that is drinkable, safe to be consumed.

     salination - the process through which fresh (drinkable) water
becomes salt (undrinkable) water; hence, desalination is the reverse
process; also involves the accumulation of salts in topsoil caused by
evaporation of excessive irrigation water, a process that can
eventually render soil incapable of supporting crops.

     siltation - occurs when water channels and reservoirs become
clotted with silt and mud, a side effect of deforestation and soil
erosion.

     slash-and-burn agriculture - a rotating cultivation technique in
which trees are cut down and burned in order to clear land for
temporary agriculture; the land is used until its productivity declines
at which point a new plot is selected and the process repeats; this
practice is sustainable while population levels are low and time is
permitted for regrowth of natural vegetation; conversely, where these
conditions do not exist, the practice can have disastrous consequences
for the environment .

     soil degradation - damage to the land's productive capacity
because of poor agricultural practices such as the excessive use of
pesticides or fertilizers, soil compaction from heavy equipment, or
erosion of topsoil, eventually resulting in reduced ability to produce
agricultural products.

     soil erosion - the removal of soil by the action of water or wind,
compounded by poor agricultural practices, deforestation, overgrazing,
and desertification.

     ultraviolet (UV) radiation - a portion of the electromagnetic
energy emitted by the sun and naturally filtered in the upper
atmosphere by the ozone layer; UV radiation can be harmful to living
organisms and has been linked to increasing rates of skin cancer in
humans.

     water-born diseases - those in which the bacteria survive in, and
is transmitted through, water; always a serious threat in areas with an
untreated water supply.

Environment - international agreements
This entry separates country participation in international
environmental agreements into two levels - party to and signed but not
ratified. Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the
abbreviated form of the full name.

Environmental agreements
This information is presented in Appendix C: Selected International
Environmental Agreements, which includes the name, abbreviation, date
opened for signature, date entered into force, objective, and parties
by category.

Ethnic groups
This entry provides a rank ordering of ethnic groups starting with the
largest and normally includes the percent of total population.

Exchange rates
This entry provides the official value of a country's monetary unit at
a given date or over a given period of time, as expressed in units of
local currency per US dollar and as determined by international market
forces or official fiat.

Executive branch
This entry includes several subfields. Chief of state includes the name
and title of the titular leader of the country who represents the state
at official and ceremonial functions but may not be involved with the
day-to-day activities of the government. Head of government includes
the name and title of the top administrative leader who is designated
to manage the day-to-day activities of the government. For example, in
the UK, the monarch is the chief of state, and the prime minister is
the head of government. In the US, the president is both the chief of
state and the head of government. Cabinet includes the official name
for this body of high-ranking advisers and the method for selection of
members. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession
to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election.
Election results includes the percent of vote for each candidate in the
last election.

Exports
This entry provides the total US dollar amount of exports on an f.o.b.
(free on board) basis.

Exports - commodities
This entry provides a rank ordering of exported products starting with
the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar
value.

Exports - partners
This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with
the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar
value.

Fiscal year
This entry identifies the beginning and ending months for a country's
accounting period of 12 months, which often is the calendar year but
which may begin in any month. All yearly references are for the
calendar year (CY) unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year (FY).

Flag description
This entry provides a written flag description produced from actual
flags or the best information available at the time the entry was
written. The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies
unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and
other areas do not have flags.

Flag graphic
Most versions of the Factbook include a color flag at the beginning of
the country profile. The flag graphics were produced from actual flags
or the best information available at the time of preparation. The flags
of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an
officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and other areas do not
have flags.

GDP
This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final
goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar
estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity
(PPP) calculations. See the note on GDP methodology for more
information.

GDP methodology
In the Economy section, GDP dollar estimates for all countries are
derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations rather than
from conversions at official currency exchange rates. The PPP method
involves the use of standardized international dollar price weights,
which are applied to the quantities of final goods and services
produced in a given economy.  The data derived from the PPP method
provide the best available starting point for comparisons of economic
strength and well-being between countries.  The division of a GDP
estimate in domestic currency by the corresponding PPP estimate in
dollars gives the PPP conversion rate.  Whereas PPP estimates for OECD
countries are quite reliable, PPP estimates for developing countries
are often rough approximations.  Most of the GDP estimates are based on
extrapolation of PPP numbers published by the UN International
Comparison Program (UNICP) and by Professors Robert Summers and Alan
Heston of the University of Pennsylvania and their colleagues. In
contrast, the currency exchange rate method involves a variety of
international and domestic financial forces that often have little
relation to domestic output. In developing countries with weak
currencies the exchange rate estimate of GDP in dollars is typically
one-fourth to one-half the PPP estimate. Furthermore, exchange rates
may suddenly go up or down by 10% or more because of market forces or
official fiat whereas real output has remained unchanged. On 12 January
1994, for example, the 14 countries of the African Financial Community
(whose currencies are tied to the French franc) devalued their
currencies by 50%. This move, of course, did not cut the real output of
these countries by half. One important caution:  the proportion of,
say, defense expenditures as a percentage of GDP in local currency
accounts may differ substantially from the proportion when GDP accounts
are expressed in PPP terms, as, for example, when an observer tries to
estimate the dollar level of Russian or Japanese military expenditures.
Note: the numbers for GDP and other economic data can not be chained
together from successive volumes of the Factbook because of changes in
the US dollar measuring rod, revisions of data by statistical agencies,
use of new or different sources of information, and changes in national
statistical methods and practices.

GDP - composition by sector
This entry gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry,
and services to total GDP.

GDP - per capita
This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by
population as of 1 July for the same year.

GDP - real growth rate
This entry gives GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation
and expressed as a percent.

Geographic coordinates
This entry includes rounded latitude and longitude figures for the
purpose of finding the approximate geographic center of an entity and
is based on the Gazetteer of Conventional Names, Third Edition, August
1988, US Board on Geographic Names and on other sources.

Geographic names
This information is presented in Appendix F: Cross-Reference List of
Geographic Names.  It includes a listing of various alternate names,
former names, local names, and regional names referenced to one or more
related Factbook entries. Spellings are normally, but not always, those
approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Alternate names and
additional information are included in parentheses.

Geography
This category includes the entries dealing with the natural environment
and the effects of human activity.

Geography - note
This entry includes miscellaneous geographic information of
significance not included elsewhere.

GNP
Gross national product (GNP) is the value of all final goods and
services produced within a nation in a given year, plus income earned
by its citizens abroad, minus income earned by foreigners from domestic
production. The Factbook, following current practice, uses GDP rather
than GNP to measure national production. However, the user must realize
that in certain countries net remittances from citizens working abroad
may be important to national well-being.

Government
This category includes the entries dealing with the system for the
adoption and administration of public policy.

Government type
This entry gives the basic form of government (e.g., republic,
constitutional monarchy, federal republic, parliamentary democracy,
military dictatorship).

Government - note
This entry includes miscellaneous government information of
significance not included elsewhere.

Gross domestic product
see GDP

Gross national product
see GNP

Gross world product
see GWP

GWP
This entry gives the gross world product (GWP) or aggregate value of
all final goods and services produced worldwide in a given year.

Heliports
This entry gives the total number of established helicopter takeoff and
landing sites (which may or may not have fuel or other services).

Highways
This entry includes the total length of the highway system as well as
the length of the paved and unpaved components.

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
This entry gives an estimate of the percentage of adults (aged 15-49)
living with HIV/AIDS. The adult prevalence rate is calculated by
dividing the estimated number of adults living with HIV/AIDS at yearend
by the total adult population at yearend.

HIV/AIDS - deaths
This entry gives an estimate of the number of adults and children who
died of AIDS during a given calendar year.

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
This entry gives an estimate of all people (adults and children) alive
at yearend with HIV infection, whether or not they have developed
symptoms of AIDS.

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Data on household income or consumption come from household surveys,
the results adjusted for household size. Nations use different
standards and procedures in collecting and adjusting the data. Surveys
based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than
surveys based on consumption. The quality of surveys is improving with
time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country
comparisons.

Hydrographic data codes
see Data codes

Illicit drugs
This entry gives information on the five categories of illicit drugs -
narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, and
cannabis. These categories include many drugs legally produced and
prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally produced and sold
outside of medical channels.

     Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which
provides hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes
marijuana (pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol
(THC, Marinol), hashish (hash), and hashish oil (hash oil).

     Coca (mostly Erythroxylum coca) is a bush with leaves that contain
the stimulant used to make cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with
cocoa, which comes from cacao seeds and is used in making chocolate,
cocoa, and cocoa butter.

     Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush.

     Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety
and include chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal,
phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone
(Quaalude), glutethimide (Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl,
Valmid).

     Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental,
emotional, or behavioral change in an individual.

     Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance
that results in physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment
in an individual.

     Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking, self-
awareness, and emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid, microdot),
mescaline and peyote (mexc, buttons, cactus), amphetamine variants
(PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust, hog), phencyclidine
analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others (psilocybin, psilocyn).

     Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant
(Cannabis sativa).

     Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine.

     Mandrax is a trade name for methaqualone, a pharmaceutical
depressant.

     Marijuana is the dried leaf of the cannabis or hemp plant
(Cannabis sativa).

     Methaqualone is a pharmaceutical depressant, referred to as
mandrax in Southwest Asia and Africa.

     Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and
refer to opium, opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural
narcotics include opium (paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin,
Roxanol), codeine (Tylenol with codeine, Empirin with codeine,
Robitussan AC), and thebaine. Semisynthetic narcotics include heroin
(horse, smack), and hydromorphone (Dilaudid). Synthetic narcotics
include meperidine or Pethidine (Demerol, Mepergan), methadone
(Dolophine, Methadose), and others (Darvon, Lomotil).

     Opium is the brown, gummy exudate of the incised, unripe seedpod
of the opium poppy.

     Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the source for the natural and
semisynthetic narcotics.

     Poppy straw concentrate is the alkaloid derived from the mature,
dried opium poppy.

     Qat (kat, khat) is a stimulant from the buds or leaves of Catha
edulis that is chewed or drunk as tea.

     Quaaludes is the North American slang term for methaqualone, a
pharmaceutical depressant.

     Stimulants are drugs that relieve mild depression, increase energy
and activity, and include cocaine (coke, snow, crack), amphetamines
(Desoxyn, Dexedrine), ephedrine, ecstasy (clarity, essence, doctor,
Adam), phenmetrazine (Preludin), methylphenidate (Ritalin), and others
(Cylert, Sanorex, Tenuate).

Imports
This entry provides the total US dollar amount of imports on a c.i.f.
(cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis.

Imports - commodities
This entry provides a rank ordering of imported products starting with
the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar
value.

Imports - partners
This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with
the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar
value.

Independence
For most countries, this entry gives the date that sovereignty was
achieved and from which nation, empire, or trusteeship. For the other
countries, the date given may not represent "independence" in the
strict sense, but rather some significant nationhood event such as the
traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation,
confederation, establishment, fundamental change in the form of
government, or state succession. Dependent areas include the notation
"none" followed by the nature of their dependency status. Also see the
Terminology note.

Industrial production growth rate
This entry gives the annual percentage increase in industrial
production (includes manufacturing, mining, and construction).

Industries
This entry provides a rank ordering of industries starting with the
largest by value of annual output.

Infant mortality rate
This entry gives the number of deaths of infants under one year old in
a given year per 1,000 live births in the same year. This rate is often
used as an indicator of the level of health in a country.

Inflation rate (consumer prices)
This entry furnishes the annual percent change in consumer prices
compared with the previous year's consumer prices.

Internet country code
This entry includes the two-letter codes maintained by the
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in the ISO 3166
Alpha-2 list and used by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
to establish country-coded top-level domains (ccTLDs).

Internet Service Providers (ISPs)
This entry supplies the number of Internet Service Providers within a
country. An ISP is defined as a company that provides access to the
Internet.

Internet users
This entry gives the number of users within a country that access the
Internet.  Statistics vary from country to country and may include
users who access the Internet at least several times a week to those
who access it only once within a period of several months.

International disputes
see Disputes - international

International organization participation
This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those
international organizations in which the subject country is a member or
participates in some other way.

International organizations
This information is presented in Appendix B: International
Organizations and Groups which includes the name, abbreviation, date
established, aim, and members by category.

Introduction
This category includes one entry, Background.

Irrigated land
This entry gives the number of square kilometers of land area that is
artificially supplied with water.

Judicial branch
This entry contains the name(s) of the highest court(s) and a brief
description of the selection process for members.

Labor force
This entry contains the total labor force figure.

Labor force - by occupation
This entry contains a rank ordering of component parts of the labor
force by occupation.

Land boundaries
This entry contains the total length of all land boundaries and the
individual lengths for each of the contiguous border countries.

Land use
This entry contains the percentage shares of total land area for five
different types of land use: arable land - land cultivated for crops
that are replanted after each harvest like wheat, maize, and rice;
permanent crops - land cultivated for crops that are not replanted
after each harvest like citrus, coffee, and rubber; permanent pastures
- land permanently used for herbaceous forage crops; forests and
woodland - land under dense or open stands of trees; other - any land
type not specifically mentioned above, such as urban areas, roads,
desert, etc.

Languages
This entry provides a rank ordering of languages starting with the
largest and sometimes includes the percent of total population speaking
that language.

Legal system
This entry contains a brief description of the legal system's
historical roots, role in government, and acceptance of International
Court of Justice (ICJ) jurisdiction.

Legislative branch
This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral,
bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of
office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession
to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election.
Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats
held by each party in the last election.

Life expectancy at birth
This entry contains the average number of years to be lived by a group
of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains
constant in the future. The entry includes total population as well as
the male and female components. Life expectancy at birth is also a
measure of overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the
mortality at all ages. It can also be thought of as indicating the
potential return on investment in human capital and is necessary for
the calculation of various actuarial measures.

Literacy
This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau
percentages for the total population, males, and females. There are no
universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise
specified, all rates are based on the most common definition - the
ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards
that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write
is beyond the scope of the Factbook. Information on literacy, while not
a perfect measure of educational results, is probably the most easily
available and valid for international comparisons. Low levels of
literacy, and education in general, can impede the economic development
of a country in the current rapidly changing, technology-driven world.

Location
This entry identifies the country's regional location, neighboring
countries, and adjacent bodies of water.

Map references
This entry includes the name of the Factbook reference map on which a
country may be found. The entry on Geographic coordinates may be
helpful in finding some smaller countries.

Maritime claims
This entry includes the following claims: contiguous zone, continental
shelf, exclusive economic zone, exclusive fishing zone, extended
fishing zone, none (usually for a landlocked country), other (unique
maritime claims like Libya's Gulf of Sidra Closing Line or North
Korea's Military Boundary Line), and territorial sea. The proximity of
neighboring states may prevent some national claims from being extended
the full distance.

Merchant marine
Merchant marine may be defined as all ships engaged in the carriage of
goods; or all commercial vessels (as opposed to all nonmilitary ships),
which excludes tugs, fishing vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc.; or a
grouping of merchant ships by nationality or register. This entry
contains information in two subfields - total and ships by type. Total
includes the total number of ships (1,000 GRT or over), total DWT for
those ships, and total GRT for those ships. DWT or dead weight tonnage
is the total weight of cargo, plus bunkers, stores, etc. that a ship
can carry when immersed to the appropriate load line. GRT or gross
register tonnage is a figure obtained by measuring the entire sheltered
volume of the ship available for cargo and passengers and converting it
to tons on the basis of 100 cubic feet per ton; there is no stable
relationship between GRT and DWT. Ships by type includes a listing of
barge carriers, bulk cargo ships, cargo ships, chemical tankers,
combination bulk carriers, combination ore/oil carriers, container
ships, liquefied gas tankers, livestock carriers, multifunctional
large-load carriers, petroleum tankers, passenger ships,
passenger/cargo ships, railcar carriers, refrigerated cargo ships,
roll-on/roll-off cargo ships, short-sea passenger ships, specialized
tankers, and vehicle carriers.

      A captive register is a register of ships maintained by a
territory, possession, or colony primarily or exclusively for the use
of ships owned in the parent country; it is also referred to as an
offshore register, the offshore equivalent of an internal register.
Ships on a captive register will fly the same flag as the parent
country, or a local variant of it, but will be subject to the maritime
laws and taxation rules of the offshore territory. Although the nature
of a captive register makes it especially desirable for ships owned in
the parent country, just as in the internal register, the ships may
also be owned abroad. The captive register then acts as a flag of
convenience register, except that it is not the register of an
independent state.

     A flag of convenience register is a national register offering
registration to a merchant ship not owned in the flag state. The major
flags of convenience (FOC) attract ships to their registers by virtue
of low fees, low or nonexistent taxation of profits, and liberal
manning requirements. True FOC registers are characterized by having
relatively few of the registered ships actually owned in the flag
state. Thus, while virtually any flag can be used for ships under a
given set of circumstances, an FOC register is one where the majority
of the merchant fleet is owned abroad. It is also referred to as an
open register.

     A flag state is the nation in which a ship is registered and which
holds legal jurisdiction over operation of the ship, whether at home or
abroad. Maritime legislation of the flag state determines how a ship is
crewed and taxed and whether a foreign-owned ship may be placed on the
register.

     An internal register is a register of ships maintained as a subset
of a national register. Ships on the internal register fly the national
flag and have that nationality but are subject to a separate set of
maritime rules from those on the main national register. These
differences usually include lower taxation of profits, use of foreign
nationals as crewmembers, and, usually, ownership outside the flag
state (when it functions as an FOC register). The Norwegian
International Ship Register and Danish International Ship Register are
the most notable examples of an internal register. Both have been
instrumental in stemming flight from the national flag to flags of
convenience and in attracting foreign-owned ships to the Norwegian and
Danish flags.

     A merchant ship is a vessel that carries goods against payment of
freight; it is commonly used to denote any nonmilitary ship but
accurately restricted to commercial vessels only.

     A register is the record of a ship's ownership and nationality as
listed with the maritime authorities of a country; also, it is the
compendium of such individual ships' registrations. Registration of a
ship provides it with a nationality and makes it subject to the laws of
the country in which registered (the flag state) regardless of the
nationality of the ship's ultimate owner.

Military
This category includes the entries dealing with a country's military
structure, manpower, and expenditures.

Military branches
This entry lists the names of the ground, naval, air, marine, and other
defense or security forces.

Military expenditures - dollar figure
This entry gives current military expenditures in US dollars; the
figure is calculated by multiplying the estimated defense spending in
percentage terms by the gross domestic product (GDP) calculated on an
exchange rate basis not purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. However,
in the case of Russia, estimates of military expenditures have been
made using PPP. Dollar figures for military expenditures should be
treated with caution because of different price patterns and accounting
methods among nations, as well as wide variations in the strength of
their currencies.

Military expenditures - percent of GDP
This entry gives current military expenditures as an estimated percent
of gross domestic product (GDP).

Military manpower - availability
This entry gives the total numbers of males and females age 15-49 and
assumes that every individual is fit to serve.

Military manpower - fit for military service
This entry gives the number of males and females age 15-49 fit for
military service. This is a more refined measure of potential military
manpower availability which tries to correct for the health situation
in the country and reduces the maximum potential number to a more
realistic estimate of the actual number fit to serve.

Military manpower - military age
This entry gives the minimum age at which an individual may volunteer
for military service or be subject to conscription.

Military manpower - reaching military age annually
This entry gives the number of draft-age males and females entering the
military manpower pool in any given year and is a measure of the
availability of draft-age young adults.

Military - note
This entry includes miscellaneous military information of significance
not included elsewhere.

Money figures
All money figures are expressed in contemporaneous US dollars unless
otherwise indicated.

National holiday
This entry gives the primary national day of celebration - usually
independence day.

Nationality
This entry provides the identifying terms for citizens - noun and
adjective.

Natural hazards
This entry lists potential natural disasters.

Natural resources
This entry lists a country's mineral, petroleum, hydropower, and other
resources of commercial importance.

Net migration rate
This entry includes the figure for the difference between the number of
persons entering and leaving a country during the year per 1,000
persons (based on midyear population). An excess of persons entering
the country is referred to as net immigration (e.g., 3.56
migrants/1,000 population); an excess of persons leaving the country as
net emigration (e.g., -9.26 migrants/1,000 population). The net
migration rate indicates the contribution of migration to the overall
level of population change. High levels of migration can cause problems
such as increasing unemployment and potential ethnic strife (if people
are coming in) or a reduction in the labor force, perhaps in certain
key sectors (if people are leaving).

People
This category includes the entries dealing with the characteristics of
the people and their society.

People - note
This entry includes miscellaneous demographic information of
significance not included elsewhere.

Personal Names - Capitalization
The Factbook capitalizes the surname or family name of individuals for
the convenience of our users who are faced with a world of different
cultures and naming conventions. An example would be President SADDAM
Husayn of Iraq. Saddam is his name and Husayn is his father's name. He
may be referred to as President SADDAM Husayn or President SADDAM, but
not President Husayn. The need for capitalization, bold type,
underlining, italics, or some other indicator of the individual's
surname is apparent in the following examples:  MAO Zedong, Fidel
CASTRO Ruz, George W. BUSH, and TUNKU SALAHUDDIN Abdul Aziz Shah ibni
Al-Marhum Sultan Hisammuddin Alam Shah.  By knowing the surname, a
short form without all capital letters can be used with confidence as
in President Saddam, President Castro, Chairman Mao, President Bush, or
Sultan Tunku Salahuddin.  The same system of capitalization is extended
to the names of leaders with surnames that are not commonly used such
as Queen ELIZABETH II.

Personal Names - Spelling
The romanization of personal names in the Factbook normally follows the
same transliteration system used by the US Board on Geographic Names
for spelling place names.  At times, however, a foreign leader
expressly indicates a preference for, or the media or official
documents regularly use, a romanized spelling that differs from the
transliteration derived from the US Government standard.  In such
cases, the Factbook uses the alternative spelling.

Personal Names - Titles
The Factbook capitalizes any valid title (or short form of it)
immediately preceding a person's name.  A title standing alone is
lowercased. Examples:  President PUTIN and President BUSH are chiefs of
state.  In Russia, the president is chief of state and the premier is
the head of the government, while in the US, the president is both
chief of state and head of government.

Pipelines
This entry gives the lengths and types of pipelines for transporting
products like natural gas, crude oil, or petroleum products.

Political parties and leaders
This entry includes a listing of significant political organizations
and their leaders.

Political pressure groups and leaders
This entry includes a listing of organizations with leaders involved in
politics, but not standing for legislative election.

Population
This entry gives an estimate from the US Bureau of the Census based on
statistics from population censuses, vital statistics registration
systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past and on
assumptions about future trends. The total population presents one
overall measure of the potential impact of the country on the world and
within its region. Note:  starting with the 1993 Factbook, demographic
estimates for some countries (mostly African) have explicitly taken
into account the effects of the growing impact of the HIV/AIDS
epidemic.  These countries are currently: The Bahamas, Benin, Botswana,
Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central
African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the
Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras,
Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South
Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, and
Zimbabwe.

Population below poverty line
National estimates of the percentage of the population lying below the
poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results
weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty
vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally
employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations.

Population growth rate
The average annual percent change in the population, resulting from a
surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths and the balance of migrants
entering and leaving a country. The rate may be positive or negative.
The growth rate is a factor in determining how great a burden would be
imposed on a country by the changing needs of its people for
infrastructure (e.g., schools, hospitals, housing, roads), resources
(e.g., food, water, electricity), and jobs. Rapid population growth can
be seen as threatening by neighboring countries.

Ports and harbors
This entry lists the major ports and harbors selected on the basis of
overall importance to each country.  This is determined by evaluating a
number of factors (e.g., dollar value of goods handled, gross tonnage,
facilities, military significance).

Radio broadcast stations
This entry includes the total number of AM, FM, and shortwave broadcast
stations.

Radios
This entry gives the total number of radio receivers.

Railways
This entry includes the total route length of the railway network and
of its component parts by gauge: broad, dual, narrow, standard, and
other.

Reference maps
This section includes world, regional, and special or current interest
maps.

Religions
This entry includes a rank ordering of religions by adherents starting
with the largest group and sometimes includes the percent of total
population.

Sex ratio
This entry includes the number of males for each female in five age
groups - at birth, under 15 years, 15-64 years, 65 years and over, and
for the total population. Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an
indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some countries. For
instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian countries are now
attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide due to a strong
preference for sons. This will affect future marriage patterns and
fertility patterns. Eventually it could cause unrest among young adult
males who are unable to find partners.

Suffrage
This entry gives the age at enfranchisement and whether the right to
vote is universal or restricted.

Telephone numbers
All telephone numbers in the Factbook consist of the country code in
brackets, the city or area code (where required) in parentheses, and
the local number. The one component that is not presented is the
international access code, which varies from country to country. For
example, an international direct dial telephone call placed from the US
to Madrid, Spain, would be as follows:

     011 [34] (1) 577-xxxx, where
     011 is the international access code for station-to-station calls;
01 is for calls other than station-to-station calls,
     [34] is the country code for Spain,
     (1) is the city code for Madrid,
     577 is the local exchange, and
     xxxx is the local telephone number.

An international direct dial telephone call placed from another country
to the US would be as follows:
     international access code + [1] (202) 939-xxxx, where
     [1] is the country code for the US,
     (202) is the area code for Washington, DC,
     939 is the local exchange, and
     xxxx is the local telephone number.

Telephone system
This entry includes a brief characterization of the system with details
on the domestic and international components. The following terms and
abbreviations are used throughout the entry:

     Africa ONE - a fiber-optic submarine cable link encircling the
continent of Africa.

     Arabsat - Arab Satellite Communications Organization (Riyadh,
Saudi Arabia).

     Autodin - Automatic Digital Network (US Department of Defense).

     CB - citizen's band mobile radio communications.

     cellular telephone system - the telephones in this system are
radio transceivers, with each instrument having its own private radio
frequency and sufficient radiated power to reach the booster station in
its area (cell), from which the telephone signal is fed to a regular
telephone exchange.

     Central American Microwave System - a trunk microwave radio relay
system that links the countries of Central America and Mexico with each
other.

     coaxial cable - a multichannel communication cable consisting of a
central conducting wire, surrounded by and insulated from a cylindrical
conducting shell; a large number of telephone channels can be made
available within the insulated space by the use of a large number of
carrier frequencies.

     Comsat - Communications Satellite Corporation (US).

     DSN - Defense Switched Network (formerly Automatic Voice Network
or Autovon); basic general-purpose, switched voice network of the
Defense Communications System (US Department of Defense).

     Eutelsat - European Telecommunications Satellite Organization
(Paris).

     fiber-optic cable - a multichannel communications cable using a
thread of optical glass fibers as a transmission medium in which the
signal (voice, video, etc.) is in the form of a coded pulse of light.

     GSM - a global system for mobile (cellular) communications devised
by the Groupe Special Mobile of the pan-European standardization
organization, Conference Europeanne des Posts et Telecommunications
(CEPT) in 1982.

     HF - high frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to 30,000-
kHz range.

     Inmarsat - International Mobile Satellite Organization (London);
provider of global mobile satellite communications for commercial,
distress, and safety applications at sea, in the air, and on land.

     Intelsat - International Telecommunications Satellite Organization
(Washington, DC).

     Intersputnik - International Organization of Space Communications
(Moscow); first established in the former Soviet Union and the East
European countries, it is now marketing its services worldwide with
earth stations in North America, Africa, and East Asia.

     landline - communication wire or cable of any sort that is
installed on poles or buried in the ground.

     Marecs - Maritime European Communications Satellite used in the
Inmarsat system on lease from the European Space Agency.

     Marisat - satellites of the Comsat Corporation that participate in
the Inmarsat system.

     Medarabtel - the Middle East Telecommunications Project of the
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) providing a modern
telecommunications network, primarily by microwave radio relay, linking
Algeria, Djibouti, Egypt, Jordan, Libya, Morocco, Saudi Arabia,
Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen; it was initially started in
Morocco in 1970 by the Arab Telecommunications Union (ATU) and was
known at that time as the Middle East Mediterranean Telecommunications
Network.

     microwave radio relay - transmission of long distance telephone
calls and television programs by highly directional radio microwaves
that are received and sent on from one booster station to another on an
optical path.

     NMT - Nordic Mobile Telephone; an analog cellular telephone system
that was developed jointly by the national telecommunications
authorities of the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway,
and Sweden).

     Orbita - a Russian television service; also the trade name of a
packet-switched digital telephone network.

     radiotelephone communications - the two-way transmission and
reception of sounds by broadcast radio on authorized frequencies using
telephone handsets.

     PanAmSat - PanAmSat Corporation (Greenwich, CT).

     satellite communication system - a communication system consisting
of two or more earth stations and at least one satellite that provide
long distance transmission of voice, data, and television; the system
usually serves as a trunk connection between telephone exchanges; if
the earth stations are in the same country, it is a domestic system.

     satellite earth station - a communications facility with a
microwave radio transmitting and receiving antenna and required
receiving and transmitting equipment for communicating with satellites.

     satellite link - a radio connection between a satellite and an
earth station permitting communication between them, either one-way
(down link from satellite to earth station - television receive-only
transmission) or two-way (telephone channels).

     SHF - super high frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to
30,000-MHz range.

     shortwave - radio frequencies (from 1.605 to 30 MHz) that fall
above the commercial broadcast band and are used for communication over
long distances.

     Solidaridad - geosynchronous satellites in Mexico's system of
international telecommunications in the Western Hemisphere.

     Statsionar - Russia's geostationary system for satellite
telecommunications.

     submarine cable - a cable designed for service under water.

     TAT - Trans-Atlantic Telephone; any of a number of high-capacity
submarine coaxial telephone cables linking Europe with North America.

     telefax - facsimile service between subscriber stations via the
public switched telephone network or the international Datel network.

     telegraph - a telecommunications system designed for unmodulated
electric impulse transmission.

     telex - a communication service involving teletypewriters
connected by wire through automatic exchanges.

     tropospheric scatter - a form of microwave radio transmission in
which the troposphere is used to scatter and reflect a fraction of the
incident radio waves back to earth; powerful, highly directional
antennas are used to transmit and receive the microwave signals;
reliable over-the-horizon communications are realized for distances up
to 600 miles in a single hop; additional hops can extend the range of
this system for very long distances.

     trunk network - a network of switching centers, connected by
multichannel trunk lines.

     UHF - ultra high frequency; any radio frequency in the 300- to
3,000-MHz range.

     VHF - very high frequency; any radio frequency in the 30- to 300-
MHz range.

Telephones - main lines in use
This entry gives the total number of main telephone lines in use.

Telephones - mobile cellular
This entry gives the total number of mobile cellular telephones in use.

Television - broadcast stations
This entry gives the total number of separate broadcast stations plus
any repeater stations.

Televisions
This entry gives the total number of television sets.

Terminology
Due to the highly structured nature of the Factbook database, some
collective generic terms have to be used. For example, the word Country
in the Country name entry refers to a wide variety of dependencies,
areas of special sovereignty, uninhabited islands, and other entities
in addition to the traditional countries or independent states.
Military is also used as an umbrella term for various civil defense,
security, and defense activities in many entries. The Independence
entry includes the usual colonial independence dates and former ruling
states as well as other significant nationhood dates such as the
traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation,
confederation, establishment, or state succession that are not strictly
independence dates. Dependent areas have the nature of their dependency
status noted in this same entry.

Terrain
This entry contains a brief description of the topography.

Total fertility rate
This entry gives a figure for the average number of children that would
be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing
years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each
age. The total fertility rate is a more direct measure of the level of
fertility than the crude birth rate, since it refers to births per
woman. This indicator shows the potential for population growth in the
country. High rates will also place some limits on the labor force
participation rates for women. Large numbers of children born to women
indicate large family sizes that might limit the ability of the
families to feed and educate their children.

Transnational Issues
This category includes only two entries at the present time - Disputes
- international and Illicit drugs - that deal with current issues going
beyond national boundaries.

Transportation
This category includes the entries dealing with the means for movement
of people and goods.

Transportation - note
This entry includes miscellaneous transportation information of
significance not included elsewhere.

Unemployment rate
This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without
jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted.

Waterways
This entry gives the total length and individual names of navigable
rivers, canals, and other inland bodies of water.

Years
All year references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as
fiscal year (FY). The calendar year is an accounting period of 12
months from 1 January to 31 December. The fiscal year is an accounting
period of 12 months other than 1 January to 31 December.



Note: Information for the US and US dependencies was compiled from
material in the public domain and does not represent Intelligence
Community estimates.



=====================================================================



A Brief History of Basic Intelligence and The World Factbook


The Intelligence Cycle is the process by which information is acquired,
converted into intelligence, and made available to policymakers.
Information is raw data from any source, data that may be fragmentary,
contradictory, unreliable, ambiguous, deceptive, or wrong.
Intelligence is information that has been collected, integrated,
evaluated, analyzed, and interpreted. Finished intelligence is the
final product of the Intelligence Cycle ready to be delivered to the
policymaker.

The three types of finished intelligence are: basic, current, and
estimative. Basic intelligence provides the fundamental and factual
reference material on a country or issue. Current intelligence reports
on new developments. Estimative intelligence judges probable outcomes.
The three are mutually supportive: basic intelligence is the foundation
on which the other two are constructed; current intelligence
continually updates the  inventory of knowledge; and estimative
intelligence revises overall interpretations of country and issue
prospects for guidance of basic and  current intelligence. The World
Factbook, The President's Daily Brief, and the National Intelligence
Estimates are examples of the three types of finished intelligence.

The United States has carried on foreign intelligence activities since
the days of George Washington but only since World War II have they
been coordinated on a government-wide basis. Three programs have
highlighted the development of coordinated basic intelligence since
that time: (1) the Joint Army Navy Intelligence Studies (JANIS), (2)
the National Intelligence Survey (NIS), and (3) The World Factbook.

During World War II, intelligence consumers realized that the
production of basic intelligence by different components of the US
Government resulted in a great duplication of effort and conflicting
information. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 brought home
to leaders in Congress and the executive branch the need for
integrating departmental reports to national policymakers. Detailed and
coordinated information was needed not only on such major powers as
Germany and Japan, but also on places of little previous interest. In
the Pacific Theater, for example, the Navy and Marines had to launch
amphibious operations against many islands about which information was
unconfirmed or nonexistent. Intelligence authorities resolved that the
United States should never again be caught unprepared.

In 1943, Gen. George B. Strong (G-2), Adm. H. C. Train (Office of Naval
Intelligence - ONI), and Gen. William J. Donovan (Director of the
Office of Strategic Services - OSS) decided that a joint effort should
be initiated. A steering committee was appointed on 27 April 1943 that
recommended the formation of a Joint Intelligence Study Publishing
Board to assemble, edit, coordinate, and publish the Joint Army Navy
Intelligence Studies (JANIS). JANIS was the first interdepartmental
basic intelligence program to fulfill the needs of the US Government
for an authoritative and coordinated appraisal of strategic basic
intelligence. Between April 1943 and July 1947, the board published 34
JANIS studies. JANIS performed well in the war effort, and numerous
letters of commendation were received, including a statement from Adm.
Forrest Sherman, Chief of Staff, Pacific Ocean Areas, which said,
"JANIS has become the indispensable reference work for the shore-based
planners."

The need for more comprehensive basic intelligence in the postwar world
was well expressed in 1946 by George S. Pettee, a noted author on
national security. He wrote in The Future of American Secret
Intelligence (Infantry Journal Press, 1946, page 46) that world
leadership in peace requires even more elaborate intelligence than in
war. "The conduct of peace involves all countries, all human activities
- not just the enemy and his war production."

The Central Intelligence Agency was established on 26 July 1947 and
officially began operating on 18 September 1947. Effective 1 October
1947, the Director of Central Intelligence assumed operational
responsibility for JANIS. On 13 January 1948, the National Security
Council issued Intelligence Directive (NSCID) No. 3, which authorized
the National Intelligence Survey (NIS) program as a peacetime
replacement for the wartime JANIS program. Before adequate NIS country
sections could be produced, government agencies had to develop more
comprehensive gazetteers and better maps. The US Board on Geographic
Names (BGN) compiled the names; the Department of the Interior produced
the gazetteers; and CIA produced the maps.

The Hoover Commission's Clark Committee, set up in 1954 to study the
structure and administration of the CIA, reported to Congress in 1955
that: "The National Intelligence Survey is an invaluable publication
which provides the essential elements of basic intelligence on all
areas of the world.  There will always be a continuing requirement for
keeping the Survey up-to-date." The Factbook was created as an annual
summary and update to the encyclopedic NIS studies. The first
classified Factbook was published in August 1962, and the first
unclassified version was published in June 1971. The NIS program was
terminated in 1973 except for the Factbook, map, and gazetteer
components. The 1975 Factbook was the first to be made available to the
public with sales through the US Government Printing Office (GPO). The
1996 edition was printed by GPO, and the 1997 edition was reprinted by
GPO.  The year 2001 marks the 54th anniversary of the establishment of
the Central Intelligence Agency and the 58th year of continuous basic
intelligence support to the US Government by The World Factbook and its
two predecessor programs.



=====================================================================



Contributors and Copyright Information


In general, information available as of 1 January 2001 was used in the
preparation of this edition.

The World Factbook is prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency for
the use of US Government officials, and the style, format, coverage,
and content are designed to meet their specific requirements.
Information is provided by Antarctic Information Program (National
Science Foundation), Bureau of the Census (Department of Commerce),
Bureau of Labor Statistics (Department of Labor), Central Intelligence
Agency, Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs, Defense
Intelligence Agency (Department of Defense), Department of State, Fish
and Wildlife Service (Department of the Interior), Maritime
Administration (Department of Transportation), National Imagery and
Mapping Agency (Department of Defense), Naval Facilities Engineering
Command (Department of Defense), Office of Insular Affairs (Department
of the Interior), Office of Naval Intelligence (Department of Defense),
US Board on Geographic Names (Department of the Interior), US
Transportation Command (Department of Defense), and other public and
private sources.

The Factbook is in the public domain. Accordingly, it may be copied
freely without permission of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
The official seal of the CIA, however, may NOT be copied without
permission as required by the CIA Act of 1949 (50 U.S.C. section
403m).  Misuse of the official seal of the CIA could result in civil
and criminal penalties.

Comments and queries are welcome and may be addressed to:

Central Intelligence Agency
Attn.: Office of Public Affairs
Washington, DC 20505
Telephone: [1] (703) 482-0623
FAX: [1] (703) 482-1739



=====================================================================



Purchasing Information


The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) publishes The World Factbook in
printed and Internet versions. US Government officials may obtain
information about availability of the Factbook from their organizations
or through liaison channels to the CIA. Other users may obtain sales
information about printed copies from the following:

Superintendent of Documents
P. O. Box 371954
Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954
Telephone: [1] (202) 512-1800
FAX: [1] (202) 512-2250
http://bookstore.gpo.gov/

National Technical Information Service
5285 Port Royal Road
Springfield, VA 22161
Telephone: [1] (800) 553-6847 (only in the US);
[1] (703) 605-6000 (for outside US)
FAX: [1] (703) 605-6900
http://www.ntis.gov/

The World Factbook can be accessed on the Internet at:
http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html



=====================================================================



@Afghanistan



Afghanistan    Introduction

Background: Afghanistan was invaded and occupied by the Soviet Union
in 1979. The USSR was forced to withdraw 10 years later by
anti-communist mujahidin forces supplied and trained by the US,
Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and others. Fighting subsequently continued
among the various mujahidin factions, but the fundamentalist Islamic
Taliban movement has been able to seize most of the country. In
addition to the continuing civil strife, the country suffers from
enormous poverty, a crumbling infrastructure, and widespread land
mines.



Afghanistan    Geography

Location: Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran

Geographic coordinates: 33 00 N, 65 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total:  647,500 sq km

land:  647,500 sq km

water:  0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: total:  5,529 km

border countries:  China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km,
Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Amu Darya 258 m

highest point:  Nowshak 7,485 m

Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, chromite,
talc, barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and
semiprecious stones

Land use: arable land:  12%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  46%

forests and woodland:  3%

other:  39% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 30,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains;
flooding; droughts

Environment - current issues: soil degradation; overgrazing;
deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down for
fuel and building materials); desertification

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Desertification,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban

signed, but not ratified:  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: landlocked



Afghanistan    People

Population: 26,813,057 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  42.2% (male 5,775,921; female 5,538,836)

15-64 years:  55.01% (male 7,644,242; female 7,106,568)

65 years and over:  2.79% (male 394,444; female 353,046) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.48% (2001 est.)

note:  this rate reflects the continued return of refugees from Iran

Birth rate: 41.42 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 17.72 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 11.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.08 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  1.12 male(s)/female

total population:  1.06 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 147.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  46.24 years

male:  46.97 years

female:  45.47 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.79 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun:  Afghan(s)

adjective:  Afghan

Ethnic groups: Pashtun 38%, Tajik 25%, Hazara 19%, minor ethnic
groups (Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others) 12%, Uzbek 6%

Religions: Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi'a Muslim 15%, other 1%

Languages: Pashtu 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic languages
(primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily
Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  31.5%

male:  47.2%

female:  15% (1999 est.)



Afghanistan    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Islamic State of Afghanistan;
note - the self-proclaimed Taliban government refers to the country
as Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan

conventional short form:  Afghanistan

local long form:  Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan

local short form:  Afghanestan

former:  Republic of Afghanistan

Government type: no functioning central government, administered by
factions

Capital: Kabul

Administrative divisions: 30 provinces (velayat, singular -
velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah,
Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar,
Kapisa, Konar, Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Oruzgan,
Paktia, Paktika, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, Zabol;
note - there may be two new provinces of Nurestan (Nuristan) and
Khowst

Independence: 19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign
affairs)

National holiday: Independence Day, 19 August (1919)

Constitution: none

Legal system: a new legal system has not been adopted but all
factions tacitly agree they will follow Shari'a (Islamic law)

Suffrage: NA; previously males 15-50 years of age

Executive branch: on 27 September 1996, the ruling members of the
Afghan Government were displaced by members of the Islamic Taliban
movement; the Islamic State of Afghanistan has no functioning
government at this time, and the country remains divided among
fighting factions

note:  the Taliban have declared themselves the legitimate
government of Afghanistan; however, the UN still recognizes the
government of Burhanuddin RABBANI; the Organization of the Islamic
Conference has left the Afghan seat vacant until the question of
legitimacy can be resolved through negotiations among the warring
factions; the country is essentially divided along ethnic lines; the
Taliban controls the capital of Kabul and approximately two-thirds
of the country including the predominately ethnic Pashtun areas in
southern Afghanistan; opposing factions have their stronghold in the
ethnically diverse north

Legislative branch: non-functioning as of June 1993

Judicial branch: upper courts were non-functioning as of March 1995
(local Shari'a or Islamic law courts are functioning throughout the
country)

Political parties and leaders: Taliban (Religious Students Movement)
[Mullah Mohammad OMAR]; United National Islamic Front for the
Salvation of Afghanistan or UNIFSA [Burhanuddin RABBANI, chairman;
Gen. Abdul Rashid DOSTAM, vice chairman; Ahmad Shah MASOOD, military
commander; Mohammed Yunis QANUNI, spokesman]; note - made up of 13
parties opposed to the Taliban including Harakat-i-Islami
Afghanistan (Islamic Movement of Afghanistan), Hizb-i-Islami
(Islamic Party), Hizb-i-Wahdat-i-Islami (Islamic Unity Party),
Jumaat-i-Islami Afghanistan (Islamic Afghan Society),
Jumbish-i-Milli (National Front), Mahaz-i-Milli-i-Islami (National
Islamic Front)

Political pressure groups and leaders: Afghan refugees in Pakistan,
Australia, US, and elsewhere have organized politically; Mellat
(Social Democratic Party) [leader NA]; Peshawar, Pakistan-based
groups such as the Coordination Council for National Unity and
Understanding in Afghanistan or CUNUA [Ishaq GAILANI]; tribal elders
represent traditional Pashtun leadership; Writers Union of Free
Afghanistan or WUFA [A. Rasul AMIN]

International organization participation: AsDB, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO,
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
Intelsat, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note - embassy operations
suspended 21 August 1997

consulate(s) general:  New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US embassy in Kabul has
been closed since January 1989 due to security concerns

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top),
white, and black with a gold emblem centered on the three bands; the
emblem features a temple-like structure with Islamic inscriptions
above and below, encircled by a wreath on the left and right and by
a bolder Islamic inscription above, all of which are encircled by
two crossed scimitars

note:  the Taliban uses a plain white flag



Afghanistan    Economy

Economy - overview: Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked
country, highly dependent on farming and livestock raising (sheep
and goats). Economic considerations have played second fiddle to
political and military upheavals during two decades of war,
including the nearly 10-year Soviet military occupation (which ended
15 February 1989). During that conflict one-third of the population
fled the country, with Pakistan and Iran sheltering a combined peak
of more than 6 million refugees. In early 2000, 2 million Afghan
refugees remained in Pakistan and about 1.4 million in Iran. Gross
domestic product has fallen substantially over the past 20 years
because of the loss of labor and capital and the disruption of trade
and transport; severe drought added to the nation's difficulties in
1998-2000. The majority of the population continues to suffer from
insufficient food, clothing, housing, and medical care. Inflation
remains a serious problem throughout the country. International aid
can deal with only a fraction of the humanitarian problem, let alone
promote economic development. In 1999-2000, internal civil strife
continued, hampering both domestic economic policies and
international aid efforts. Numerical data are likely to be either
unavailable or unreliable. Afghanistan was by far the largest
producer of opium poppies in 2000, and narcotics trafficking is a
major source of revenue.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $21 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $800 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  53%

industry:  28.5%

services:  18.5% (1990)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 10 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 70%, industry 15%, services
15% (1990 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues:  $NA

expenditures:  $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture,
shoes, fertilizer, and cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, oil,
coal, copper

Electricity - production: 420 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  35.71%

hydro:  64.29%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 480.6 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 90 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: opium poppies, wheat, fruits, nuts; wool,
mutton, karakul pelts

Exports: $80 million (does not include opium) (1996 est.)

Exports - commodities: opium, fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets,
wool, cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems

Exports - partners: FSU, Pakistan, Iran, Germany, India, UK,
Belgium, Luxembourg, Czech Republic

Imports: $150 million (1996 est.)

Imports - commodities: capital goods, food and petroleum products;
most consumer goods

Imports - partners: FSU, Pakistan, Iran, Japan, Singapore, India,
South Korea, Germany

Debt - external: $5.5 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: US provided about $70 million in
humanitarian assistance in 1997; US continues to contribute to
multilateral assistance through the UN programs of food aid,
immunization, land mine removal, and a wide range of aid to refugees
and displaced persons

Currency: afghani (AFA)

Currency code: AFA

Exchange rates: afghanis per US dollar - 4,700 (January 2000), 4,750
(February 1999), 17,000 (December 1996), 7,000 (January 1995), 1,900
(January 1994), 1,019 (March 1993), 850 (1991); note - these rates
reflect the free market exchange rates rather than the official
exchange rate, which was fixed at 50.600 afghanis to the dollar
until 1996, when it rose to 2,262.65 per dollar, and finally became
fixed again at 3,000.00 per dollar in April 1996

Fiscal year: 21 March - 20 March



Afghanistan    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 29,000 (1996)

note:  there were 21,000 main lines in service in Kabul in 1998

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: general assessment:  very limited telephone and
telegraph service

domestic:  in 1997, telecommunications links were established
between Mazar-e Sharif, Herat, Kandahar, Jalalabad, and Kabul
through satellite and microwave systems

international:  satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
linked only to Iran and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region);
commercial satellite telephone center in Ghazni

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7 (6 are inactive; the active station
is in Kabul), FM 1, shortwave 1 (broadcasts in Pushtu, Dari, Urdu,
and English) (1999)

Radios: 167,000 (1999)

Television broadcast stations: at least 10 (one government run
central television station in Kabul and regional stations in nine of
the 30 provinces; the regional stations operate on a reduced
schedule; also, in 1997, there was a station in Mazar-e Sharif
reaching four northern Afghanistan provinces) (1998)

Televisions: 100,000 (1999)

Internet country code: .af

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: NA



Afghanistan    Transportation

Railways: total:  24.6 km

broad gauge:  9.6 km 1.524-m gauge from Gushgy (Turkmenistan) to
Towraghondi; 15 km 1.524-m gauge from Termiz (Uzbekistan) to
Kheyrabad transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya

Highways: total:  21,000 km

paved:  2,793 km

unpaved:  18,207 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 1,200 km

note:  chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels with DWT up to about
500 (2001)

Pipelines: petroleum products - Uzbekistan to Bagram and
Turkmenistan to Shindand; natural gas 180 km

Ports and harbors: Kheyrabad, Shir Khan

Airports: 45 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  10

over 3,047 m:  3

2,438 to 3,047 m:  4

1,524 to 2,437 m:  2

under 914 m:  1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  35

2,438 to 3,047 m:  4

1,524 to 2,437 m:  15

914 to 1,523 m:  4

under 914 m:  12 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 3 (2000 est.)



Afghanistan    Military

Military branches: NA; note - the military does not exist on a
national basis; some elements of the former Army, Air and Air
Defense Forces, National Guard, Border Guard Forces, National Police
Force (Sarandoi), and tribal militias still exist but are
factionalized among the various groups

Military manpower - military age: 22 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  6,645,023 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
3,561,957 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  252,869
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%



Afghanistan    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: support to Islamic militants worldwide by
some factions; question over which group should hold Afghanistan's
seat at the UN

Illicit drugs: world's largest illicit opium producer, surpassing
Burma (potential production in 1999 - 1,670 metric tons; cultivation
in 1999 - 51,500 hectares, a 23% increase over 1998); a major source
of hashish; increasing number of heroin-processing laboratories
being set up in the country; major political factions in the country
profit from drug trade

======================================================================

@Albania



Albania    Introduction

Background: In 1990 Albania ended 44 years of xenophobic communist
rule and established a multiparty democracy. The transition has
proven difficult as corrupt governments have tried to deal with high
unemployment, a dilapidated infrastructure, widespread gangsterism,
and disruptive political opponents. International observers judged
local elections in 2000 to be acceptable and a step toward
democratic development, but serious deficiencies remain to be
corrected before the the 2001 parliamentary elections.



Albania    Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian
Sea, between Greece and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total:  28,748 sq km

land:  27,398 sq km

water:  1,350 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries: total:  720 km

border countries:  Greece 282 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia 151 km, Yugoslavia 287 km

Coastline: 362 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf:  200-m depth or to the depth of
exploitation

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry
summers; interior is cooler and wetter

Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Adriatic Sea 0 m

highest point:  Maja e Korabit (Golem Korab) 2,753 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper,
timber, nickel, hydropower

Land use: arable land:  21%

permanent crops:  5%

permanent pastures:  15%

forests and woodland:  38%

other:  21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 3,410 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along
southwestern coast; drought

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water
pollution from industrial and domestic effluents

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer
Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:  none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links
Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)



Albania    People

Population: 3,510,484 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  29.53% (male 536,495; female 500,026)

15-64 years:  63.48% (male 1,073,351; female 1,155,115)

65 years and over:  6.99% (male 107,476; female 138,021) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.88% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 19.01 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 6.5 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.08 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.78 male(s)/female

total population:  0.96 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 39.99 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  71.83 years

male:  69.01 years

female:  74.87 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.32 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: less than 100 (2000 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Albanian(s)

adjective:  Albanian

Ethnic groups: Albanian 95%, Greeks 3%, other 2% (Vlachs, Gypsies,
Serbs, and Bulgarians) (1989 est.)

note:  in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from
1% (official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization)

Religions: Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%

note:  all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious
observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing
private religious practice

Languages: Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek

Literacy: definition:  age 9 and over can read and write

total population:  93% (1997 est.)

male:  NA%

female:  NA%



Albania    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Republic of Albania

conventional short form:  Albania

local long form:  Republika e Shqiperise

local short form:  Shqiperia

former:  People's Socialist Republic of Albania

Government type: emerging democracy

Capital: Tirana

Administrative divisions: 36 districts (rrethe, singular - rreth)
and 1 municipality* (bashki); Berat, Bulqize, Delvine, Devoll
(Bilisht), Diber (Peshkopi), Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster,
Gramsh, Has (Krume), Kavaje, Kolonje (Erseke), Korce, Kruje, Kucove,
Kukes, Kurbin, Lezhe, Librazhd, Lushnje, Malesi e Madhe (Koplik),
Mallakaster (Ballsh), Mat (Burrel), Mirdite (Rreshen), Peqin,
Permet, Pogradec, Puke, Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar (Corovode),
Tepelene, Tirane (Tirana), Tirane* (Tirana), Tropoje (Bajram Curri),
Vlore

note:  administrative divisions have the same names as their
administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center
name following in parentheses)

Independence: 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 November (1912)

Constitution: a new constitution was adopted by popular referendum
on 28 November 1998; note - the opposition Democratic Party
boycotted the vote

Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state:  President of the Republic Rexhep
MEIDANI (since 24 July 1997)

head of government:  Prime Minister Ilir META (since 29 October 1999)

cabinet:  Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and
approved by the president

elections:  president elected by the People's Assembly for a
five-year term; election last held 24 July 1997 (next to be held NA
2002); prime minister appointed by the president

election results:  Rexhep MEIDANI elected president; People's
Assembly vote by number - total votes 122, for 110, against 3,
abstained 2, invalid 7

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly or Kuvendi Popullor
(155 seats; most members are elected by direct popular vote and some
by proportional vote for four-year terms)

elections:  last held 29 June 1997 (next held 24 June 2001, 2nd
round 8 July 2001)

election results:  percent of vote by party - PS 53.36%, PD 25.33%,
PSD 2.5%, PBDNJ 2.78%, PBK 2.36%, PAD 2.85%, PR 2.25%, PLL 3.09%,
PDK 1.00%, PBSD 0.84%; seats by party - PS 101, PD 27, PSD 8, PBDNJ
4, PBK 3, PAD 2, PR 2, PLL 2, PDK 1, PBSD 1, PUK 1, independents 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (chairman is elected by the People's
Assembly for a four-year term)

Political parties and leaders: Albanian National Front (Balli
Kombetar) or PBK [Abaz ERMENJI]; Albanian Republican Party or PR
[Fatmir MEDIU]; Albanian Socialist Party or PS (formerly the Albania
Workers Party) [Fatos NANO, chairman]; Christian Democratic Party or
PDK [Zef BUSHATI]; Democratic Alliance or PAD [Neritan CEKA];
Democratic Party or PD [Sali BERISHA]; Group of Reformist Democrats
[Leonard NDOKA]; Liberal Union Party [Teodor LACO]; note - Teodor
LACO of the Liberal Union Party was leader of the Social Democratic
Union of Albania or PBSD; Movement of Legality Party or PLL [Nderim
KUPI]; OMONIA [Vagjelis DULES]; Party of National Unity or PUK
[Idajet BEQUIRI]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Skender GJINUSHI];
Unity for Human Rights Party or PBDNJ [Vasil MELO, chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACCT (associate), BSEC,
CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA,
IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user),
Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Petrit BUSHATI

chancery:  2100 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:  [1] (202) 223-4942

FAX:  [1] (202) 628-7342

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Joseph LIMPRECHT

embassy:  Rruga Elbasanit Labinoti 103, Tirana

mailing address:  PSC 59, Box 100(A), APO AE 09624

telephone:  [355] (42) 32875, 33520

FAX:  [355] (42) 32222

Flag description: red with a black two-headed eagle in the center



Albania    Economy

Economy - overview: Poor by European standards, Albania is making
the difficult transition to a more open-market economy. The economy
rebounded in 1993-95 after a severe depression accompanying the end
of the previous centrally planned system in 1990 and 1991. However,
a weakening of government resolve to maintain stabilization policies
in the election year of 1996 contributed to renewal of inflationary
pressures, spurred by the budget deficit which exceeded 12% of GDP.
The collapse of financial pyramid schemes in early 1997 - which had
attracted deposits from a substantial portion of Albania's
population - triggered severe social unrest which led to more than
1,500 deaths, widespread destruction of property, and a 7% drop in
GDP. The government has taken measures to curb violent crime and to
revive economic activity and trade. The economy is bolstered by
remittances from some 20% of the labor force that works abroad,
mostly in Greece and Italy. These remittances supplement GDP and
help offset the large foreign trade deficit. Most agricultural land
was privatized in 1992, substantially improving peasant incomes. In
1998, Albania recovered the 7% drop in GDP of 1997 and pushed ahead
by 8% in 1999 and by 7.5% in 2000. International aid helped defray
the high costs of receiving and returning refugees from the Kosovo
conflict. Privatization scored some successes in 2000, but other
reforms lagged.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $10.5 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  55%

industry:  24%

services:  21% (2000)

Population below poverty line: 19.6% (1996 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 1.692 million (including 352,000 emigrant workers and
261,000 domestically unemployed) (1994 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 50%, industry and services
50%

Unemployment rate: 16% (2000 est.) officially; may be as high as 25%

Budget: revenues:  $393 million

expenditures:  $676 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil,
cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower

Industrial production growth rate: 9% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 5.332 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  3.81%

hydro:  96.19%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 5.379 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 100 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 600 million kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits,
sugar beets, grapes; meat, dairy products

Exports: $310 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: textiles and footwear; asphalt, metals and
metallic ores, crude oil; vegetables, fruits, tobacco

Exports - partners: Italy 67%, Greece 15%, Germany 5%, Austria 2%,
The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 2% (2000)

Imports: $1 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs,
textiles, chemicals

Imports - partners: Italy 37%, Greece 28%, Turkey 6%, Germany 6%,
Bulgaria 3% (2000)

Debt - external: $1 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA; aid for energy from China, Germany,
Norway (2000)

Currency: lek (ALL)

Currency code: ALL

Exchange rates: leke per US dollar - 146.08 (December 2000),143.71
(2000) 137.69 (1999), 150.63 (1998), 148.93 (1997), 104.50 (1996);
note - leke is the plural of lek

Fiscal year: calendar year



Albania    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 87,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 3,100 (1999)

Telephone system: general assessment:  Albania has the poorest
telephone service in Europe with fewer than two telephones per 100
inhabitants; it is doubtful that every village has telephone service

domestic:  obsolete wire system; no longer provides a telephone for
every village; in 1992, following the fall of the communist
government, peasants cut the wire to about 1,000 villages and used
it to build fences

international:  inadequate; international traffic carried by
microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece

Radio broadcast stations: AM 16, FM 3, shortwave 2 (1999)

Radios: 810,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 9 (plus 264 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions: 405,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .al

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 7 (2000)

Internet users: 2,500 (2000)



Albania    Transportation

Railways: total:  447 km

standard gauge:  447 km 1.435-m gauge (2001)

Highways: total:  18,000 km

paved:  5,400 km

unpaved:  12,600 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 43 km

note:  includes Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid, and
Lake Prespa (1990)

Pipelines: crude oil 145 km; petroleum products 55 km; natural gas
64 km (1991)

Ports and harbors: Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore

Merchant marine: total:  9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 17,797
GRT/26,324 DWT

ships by type:  cargo 9 (2000 est.)

Airports: 11 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  3

2,438 to 3,047 m:  3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  8

over 3,047 m:  1

1,524 to 2,437 m:  1

914 to 1,523 m:  2

under 914 m:  4 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Albania    Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Interior
Ministry Troops, Border Guards

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  870,768 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
712,763 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  35,792
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $42 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.5% (FY99)



Albania    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: the Albanian Government supports
protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians outside of its borders
but has downplayed them to further its primary foreign policy goal
of regional cooperation; Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks
independence from Yugoslavia; Albanians in The Former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia claim discrimination in education, access to
public-sector jobs, and representation in government

Illicit drugs: increasingly active transshipment point for Southwest
Asian opiates, hashish, and cannabis transiting the Balkan route and
- to a far lesser extent - cocaine from South America destined for
Western Europe; limited opium and cannabis production; ethnic
Albanian narcotrafficking organizations active and rapidly expanding
in Europe

======================================================================

@Algeria



Algeria    Introduction

Background: After a century of rule by France, Algeria became
independent in 1962. The surprising first round success of the
fundamentalist FIS (Islamic Salvation Front) party in December 1991
balloting caused the army to intervene, crack down on the FIS, and
postpone the subsequent elections. The FIS response has resulted in
a continuous low-grade civil conflict with the secular state
apparatus, which nonetheless has allowed elections featuring
pro-government and moderate religious-based parties. FIS's armed
wing, the Islamic Salvation Army, disbanded itself in January 2000
and many armed militants surrendered under an amnesty program
designed to promote national reconciliation. Nevertheless, residual
fighting continues. Other concerns include large-scale unemployment
and the need to diversify the petroleum-based economy.



Algeria    Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between
Morocco and Tunisia

Geographic coordinates: 28 00 N, 3 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total:  2,381,740 sq km

land:  2,381,740 sq km

water:  0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total:  6,343 km

border countries:  Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km,
Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km

Coastline: 998 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone:  32-52 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers
along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high
plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in
summer

Terrain: mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow,
discontinuous coastal plain

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Chott Melrhir -40 m

highest point:  Tahat 3,003 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates,
uranium, lead, zinc

Land use: arable land:  3%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  13%

forests and woodland:  2%

other:  82% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,550 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes;
mud slides

Environment - current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing and
other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw
sewage, petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is
leading to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean
Sea, in particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion,
and fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:  Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)



Algeria    People

Population: 31,736,053 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  34.21% (male 5,528,755; female 5,328,083)

15-64 years:  61.72% (male 9,901,319; female 9,687,449)

65 years and over:  4.07% (male 594,973; female 695,474) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.71% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 22.76 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 5.22 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.04 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.86 male(s)/female

total population:  1.02 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 40.56 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  69.95 years

male:  68.6 years

female:  71.34 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.72 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.07% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun:  Algerian(s)

adjective:  Algerian

Ethnic groups: Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%

Religions: Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%

Languages: Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  61.6%

male:  73.9%

female:  49% (1995 est.)



Algeria    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  People's Democratic Republic
of Algeria

conventional short form:  Algeria

local long form:  Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash
Sha'biyah

local short form:  Al Jaza'ir

Government type: republic

Capital: Algiers

Administrative divisions: 48 provinces (wilayas, singular - wilaya);
Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar,
Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef,
Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma,
Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila,
Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane,
Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset,
Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen

Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France)

National holiday: Revolution Day, 1 November (1954)

Constitution: 19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised
3 November 1988, 23 February 1989, and 28 November 1996; note -
referendum approving the revisions of 28 November 1996 was signed
into law 7 December 1996

Legal system: socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial
review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed
of various public officials, including several Supreme Court
justices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA
(since 28 April 1999)

head of government:  Prime Minister Ali BENFLIS (since 26 August
2000)

cabinet:  Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president

elections:  president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 15 April 1999 (next to be held NA April 2004);
prime minister appointed by the president

election results:  Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA elected president; percent
of vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA over 70%; note - his six opposing
candidates withdrew on the eve of the election citing electoral fraud

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the National
People's Assembly or Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani (380 seats;
members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the
Council of Nations (144 seats; one-third of the members appointed by
the president, two-thirds elected by indirect vote; members serve
six-year terms; the constitution requires half the council to be
renewed every three years)

elections:  National People's Assembly - last held 5 June 1997 (next
to be held NA 2002); Council of Nations - last held 30 December 2000
(next to be held NA 2003)

election results:  National People's Assembly - percent of vote by
party - RND 40.8%, MSP 18.2%, FLN 16.8%, Nahda Movement 8.9%, FFS
5%, RCD 5%, PT 1.1%, Progressive Republican Party 0.8%, Union for
Democracy and Liberty 0.3%, Social Liberal Party 0.3%, independents
2.8%; seats by party - RND 155, MSP 69, FLN 64, Nahda Movement 34,
FFS 19, RCD 19, PT 4, Progressive Republican Party 3, Union for
Democracy and Liberty 1, Social Liberal Party 1, independents 11;
Council of Nations - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party
- RND 79, FLN 12, FFS 4, MSP 1 (remaining 48 seats appointed by the
president, party breakdown NA)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders: Democratic National Rally or RND
[Ahmed OUYAHIA, chairman]; Islamic Salvation Front or FIS (outlawed
April 1992) [Ali BELHADJ and Dr. Abassi MADANI (imprisoned), Rabeh
KEBIR (self-exile in Germany)]; Movement of a Peaceful Society or
MSP [Mahfoud NAHNAH, chairman]; National Liberation Front or FLN
[Boualem BENHAMOUDA, secretary general]; Progressive Republican
Party [Khadir DRISS]; Rally for Culture and Democracy or RCD [Said
SAADI, secretary general]; Renaissance Movement or EnNahda Movement
[Lahbib ADAMI]; Social Liberal Party or PSL [Ahmed KHELIL];
Socialist Forces Front or FFS [Hocine Ait AHMED, secretary general
(self-exile in Switzerland)]; Union for Democracy and Liberty
[Mouley BOUKHALAFA]; Workers Party or PT [Louisa HANOUN]

note:  a party law banning political parties based on religion was
enacted in March 1997

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL,
AMF, AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC,
OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
(observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Idriss JAZAIRY

chancery:  2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:  [1] (202) 265-2800

FAX:  [1] (202) 667-2174

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Janet A. SANDERSON

embassy:  4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers

mailing address:  B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers

telephone:  [213] (21) 69-11-86, 69-12-55, 69-18-54, 69-38-75

FAX:  [213] (21) 69-39-79

Flag description: two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and
white; a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent centered over
the two-color boundary; the crescent, star, and color green are
traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)



Algeria    Economy

Economy - overview: The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the
economy, accounting for roughly 60% of budget revenues, 30% of GDP,
and over 95% of export earnings. Algeria has the fifth-largest
reserves of natural gas in the world and is the second largest gas
exporter; it ranks fourteenth for oil reserves. Algiers' efforts to
reform one of the most centrally planned economies in the Arab world
stalled in 1992 as the country became embroiled in political
turmoil. Algeria's financial and economic indicators improved during
the mid-1990s, in part because of policy reforms supported by the
IMF and debt rescheduling from the Paris Club. Algeria's finances in
2000 benefited from the spike in oil prices and the government's
tight fiscal policy, leading to a large increase in the trade
surplus, the near tripling of foreign exchange reserves, and
reduction in foreign debt. The government continues efforts to
diversify the economy by attracting foreign and domestic investment
outside the energy sector, but has had little success in reducing
high unemployment and improving living standards.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $171 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,500 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  11%

industry:  37%

services:  52% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 23% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:
2.8%

highest 10%:  26.8% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 9.1 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: government 29%, agriculture 25%,
construction and public works 15%, industry 11%, other 20% (1996
est.)

Unemployment rate: 30% (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues:  $15.8 billion

expenditures:  $16 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.3
billion (2001 est.)

Industries: petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining,
electrical, petrochemical, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: 7% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 23.215 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  99.14%

hydro:  0.86%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 21.613 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 307 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 330 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus,
fruits; sheep, cattle

Exports: $19.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum
products 97%

Exports - partners: Italy 22%, US 15%, France 12%, Spain 11%, Brazil
8%, Netherlands 5% (1999)

Imports: $9.2 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: capital goods, food and beverages, consumer
goods

Imports - partners: France 30%, Italy 9%, Germany 7%, Spain 6%, US
5%, Turkey 5% (1999)

Debt - external: $25 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $100 million (1999 est.)

Currency: Algerian dinar (DZD)

Currency code: DZD

Exchange rates: Algerian dinars per US dollar - 74,813 (January
2001), 75.260 (2000), 66.574 (1999), 58.739 (1998), 57.707 (1997),
54.749 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Algeria    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 2.3 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 33,500 (1999)

Telephone system: general assessment:  telephone density in Algeria
is very low, not exceeding five telephones per 100 persons; the
number of fixed main lines has been increased in the last few years
to a little more than 2,000,000, but only about two-thirds of these
have subscribers; much of the infrastructure is outdated and
inefficient

domestic:  good service in north but sparse in south; domestic
satellite system with 12 earth stations (20 additional domestic
earth stations are planned)

international:  5 submarine cables; microwave radio relay to Italy,
France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and
Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel; satellite earth stations - 2
Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik, and
1 Arabsat (1998)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 25, FM 1, shortwave 8 (1999)

Radios: 7.1 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 46 (plus 216 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions: 3.1 million (1997)

Internet country code: .dz

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: 20,000 (2000)



Algeria    Transportation

Railways: total:  4,820 km

standard gauge:  3,664 km 1.435-m gauge (301 km electrified; 215 km
double track)

narrow gauge:  1,156 km 1.055-m gauge (1996)

Highways: total:  104,000 km

paved:  71,656 km (including 640 km of expressways)

unpaved:  32,344 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: none

Pipelines: crude oil 6,612 km; petroleum products 298 km; natural
gas 2,948 km

Ports and harbors: Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Beni Saf, Dellys,
Djendjene, Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda, Tenes

Merchant marine: total:  73 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
896,911 GRT/1,047,991 DWT

ships by type:  bulk 9, cargo 25, chemical tanker 7, liquefied gas
10, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 13, short-sea passenger 4,
specialized tanker 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 135 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  51

over 3,047 m:  9

2,438 to 3,047 m:  24

1,524 to 2,437 m:  12

914 to 1,523 m:  5

under 914 m:  1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  84

2,438 to 3,047 m:  3

1,524 to 2,437 m:  23

914 to 1,523 m:  40

under 914 m:  18 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Algeria    Military

Military branches: National Popular Army, Navy, Air Force,
Territorial Air Defense, National Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  8,794,622 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
5,383,770 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  388,939
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.87 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 4.1% (FY99)



Algeria    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: part of southeastern region claimed by
Libya; Algeria supports exiled West Saharan Polisario Front and
rejects Moroccan administration of Western Sahara

======================================================================

@American Samoa



American Samoa    Introduction

Background: Settled as early as 1000 B. C., Samoa was "discovered"
by European explorers in the 18th century. International rivalries
in the latter half of the 19th century were settled by an 1899
treaty in which Germany and the US divided the Samoan archipelago.
The US formally occupied its portion - a smaller group of eastern
islands with the excellent harbor of Pago Pago - the following year.



American Samoa    Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean,
about one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 14 20 S, 170 00 W

Map references: Oceania

Area: total:  199 sq km

land:  199 sq km

water:  0 sq km

note:  includes Rose Island and Swains Island

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 116 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual
rainfall averages about 3 m; rainy season from November to April,
dry season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal
plains, two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island)

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Lata 966 m

Natural resources: pumice, pumicite

Land use: arable land:  5%

permanent crops:  10%

permanent pastures:  0%

forests and woodland:  70%

other:  15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons common from December to March

Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources;
the water division of the government has spent substantial funds in
the past few years to improve water catchments and pipelines

Geography - note: Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater
harbors in the South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough
seas and protected by peripheral mountains from high winds;
strategic location in the South Pacific Ocean



American Samoa    People

Population: 67,084 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  38.44% (male 13,278; female 12,512)

15-64 years:  56.57% (male 18,784; female 19,163)

65 years and over:  4.99% (male 1,779; female 1,568) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.42% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 24.88 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 4.31 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  1.13 male(s)/female

total population:  1.02 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 10.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  75.32 years

male:  70.89 years

female:  80.02 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.5 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun:  American Samoan(s)

adjective:  American Samoan

Ethnic groups: Samoan (Polynesian) 89%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan 4%,
other 5%

Religions: Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%,
Protestant and other 30%

Languages: Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian
languages), English

note:  most people are bilingual

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  97%

male:  98%

female:  97% (1980 est.)



American Samoa    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Territory of American Samoa

conventional short form:  American Samoa

abbreviation:  AS

Dependency status: unincorporated and unorganized territory of the
US; administered by the Office of Insular Affairs, US Department of
the Interior

Government type: NA

Capital: Pago Pago

Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US); there are no
first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
Government, but there are three districts and two islands* at the
second order; Eastern, Manu'a, Rose Island*, Swains Island*, Western

Independence: none (territory of the US)

National holiday: Flag Day, 17 April (1900)

Constitution: ratified 1966, in effect 1967

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  President George W. BUSH of the
US (since 20 January 2001) and Vice President Richard B. CHENEY
(since 20 January 2001)

head of government:  Governor Tauese P. SUNIA (since 3 January 1997)
and Lieutenant Governor Togiola TULAFONO (since 3 January 1997)

cabinet:  NA

elections:  US president and vice president elected on the same
ticket for four-year terms; governor and lieutenant governor elected
on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election
last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2004)

election results:  Tauese P. SUNIA reelected governor; percent of
vote - Tauese P. SUNIA (Democrat) 50.7%, Lealaifuaneva Peter REID
(independent) 47.8%

Legislative branch: bicameral Fono or Legislative Assembly consists
of the House of Representatives (21 seats - 20 of which are elected
by popular vote and 1 is an appointed, nonvoting delegate from
Swains Island; members serve two-year terms) and the Senate (18
seats; members are elected from local chiefs and serve four-year
terms)

elections:  House of Representatives - last held 7 November 2000
(next to be held NA November 2002); Senate - last held 7 November
2000 (next to be held NA November 2004)

election results:  House of Representatives - percent of vote by
party - NA%; seats by party - NA; Senate - percent of vote by party
- NA%; seats by party - NA; note - only independents elected

note:  American Samoa elects one delegate to the US House of
Representatives; election last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held
NA November 2002); results - Eni F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA (Democrat)
reelected as delegate for a sixth term

Judicial branch: High Court (chief justice and associate justices
are appointed by the US Secretary of the Interior)

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party [leader NA];
Republican Party [leader NA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ESCAP (associate),
Interpol (subbureau), IOC, SPC

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of the US)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of the US)

Flag description: blue, with a white triangle edged in red that is
based on the outer side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and
white American bald eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying
two traditional Samoan symbols of authority, a staff and a war club



American Samoa    Economy

Economy - overview: This is a traditional Polynesian economy in
which more than 90% of the land is communally owned. Economic
activity is strongly linked to the US, with which American Samoa
conducts the great bulk of its foreign trade. Tuna fishing and tuna
processing plants are the backbone of the private sector, with
canned tuna the primary export. Transfers from the US Government add
substantially to American Samoa's economic well-being. Attempts by
the government to develop a larger and broader economy are
restrained by Samoa's remote location, its limited transportation,
and its devastating hurricanes. Tourism, a developing sector, has
been held back by the recurring financial difficulties in East Asia.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $500 million (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $8,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  NA%

industry:  NA%

services:  NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 14,000 (1996)

Labor force - by occupation: government 33%, tuna canneries 34%,
other 33% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 16% (1993)

Budget: revenues:  $121 million (37% in local revenue and 63% in US
grants)

expenditures:  $127 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY96/97)

Industries: tuna canneries (largely dependent on foreign fishing
vessels), handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 130 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  100%

hydro:  0%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 120.9 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro,
breadfruit, yams, copra, pineapples, papayas; dairy products,
livestock

Exports: $500 million (1998)

Exports - commodities: canned tuna 93%

Exports - partners: US 99.6%

Imports: $471 million (1996)

Imports - commodities: materials for canneries 56%, food 8%,
petroleum products 7%, machinery and parts 6%

Imports - partners: US 62%, Japan 9%, NZ 7%, Australia 11%, Fiji 4%,
other 7%

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: important financial support from the US,
more than $40 million in 1994

Currency: US dollar (USD)

Currency code: USD

Exchange rates: the US dollar is used

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September



American Samoa    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 13,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2,550 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment:  NA

domestic:  good telex, telegraph, facsimile and cellular telephone
services; domestic satellite system with 1 Comsat earth station

international:  satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 57,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 14,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .as

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: NA



American Samoa    Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total:  350 km

paved:  150 km

unpaved:  200 km

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Aunu'u (new construction), Auasi, Faleosao, Ofu,
Pago Pago, Ta'u

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 4 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  2

2,438 to 3,047 m:  1

under 914 m:  1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  2

under 914 m:  2 (2000 est.)



American Samoa    Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US



American Samoa    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Andorra



Andorra    Introduction

Background: Long isolated and impoverished, mountainous Andorra has
achieved considerable prosperity since World War II through its
tourist industry. Many immigrants (legal and illegal) are attracted
to the thriving economy with its lack of income taxes.



Andorra    Geography

Location: Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain

Geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 1 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total:  468 sq km

land:  468 sq km

water:  0 sq km

Area - comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: total:  120.3 km

border countries:  France 56.6 km, Spain 63.7 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

Terrain: rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Riu Runer 840 m

highest point:  Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m

Natural resources: hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

Land use: arable land:  4%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  45%

forests and woodland:  35%

other:  16% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: snowslides, avalanches

Environment - current issues: deforestation; overgrazing of mountain
meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; wastewater
treatment and solid waste disposal

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Hazardous Wastes

signed, but not ratified:  none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked



Andorra    People

Population: 67,627 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  15.29% (male 5,425; female 4,917)

15-64 years:  72.06% (male 25,654; female 23,078)

65 years and over:  12.65% (male 4,299; female 4,254) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.17% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 10.29 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 5.41 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 6.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.1 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.11 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  1.01 male(s)/female

total population:  1.1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  83.47 years

male:  80.57 years

female:  86.57 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.25 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun:  Andorran(s)

adjective:  Andorran

Ethnic groups: Spanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%,
other 6% (1998)

Religions: Roman Catholic (predominant)

Languages: Catalan (official), French, Castilian

Literacy: definition:  NA

total population:  100%

male:  NA%

female:  NA%



Andorra    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Principality of Andorra

conventional short form:  Andorra

local long form:  Principat d'Andorra

local short form:  Andorra

Government type: parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that
retains as its heads of state a coprincipality; the two princes are
the president of France and bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain, who are
represented locally by coprinces' representatives

Capital: Andorra la Vella

Administrative divisions: 7 parishes (parroquies, singular -
parroquia); Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana,
Escaldes-Engordany, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria

Independence: 1278 (was formed under the joint suzerainty of France
and Spain)

National holiday: Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)

Constitution: Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in
1991; approved by referendum 14 March 1993; came into force 4 May
1993

Legal system: based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial
review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  French Coprince Jacques CHIRAC
(since 17 May 1995), represented by Frederic de SAINT-SERNIN (since
NA); Spanish Coprince Episcopal Monseigneur Joan MARTI Alanis (since
31 January 1971), represented by Nemesi MARQUES OSTE (since NA)

head of government:  Executive Council President Marc FORNE Molne
(since 21 December 1994)

cabinet:  Executive Council or Govern designated by the Executive
Council president

elections:  Executive Council president elected by the General
Council and formally appointed by the coprinces for a four-year
term; election last held 16 February 1997 (next to be held NA 2001)

election results:  Marc FORNE Molne elected executive council
president; percent of General Council vote - 64%

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council of the Valleys or
Consell General de las Valls (28 seats; members are elected by
direct popular vote, 14 from a single national constituency and 14
to represent each of the 7 parishes; members serve four-year terms)

elections:  last held 16 February 1997 (next to be held NA February
2001)

election results:  percent of vote by party - UL 57%, AND 21%, IDN
7%, ND 7%, other 8%; seats by party - UL 16, AND 6, ND 2, IDN 2, UPO
2

Judicial branch: Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal
of the Courts or Tribunal de Corts; Supreme Court of Justice of
Andorra or Tribunal Superior de Justicia d'Andorra; Supreme Council
of Justice or Consell Superior de la Justicia; Fiscal Ministry or
Ministeri Fiscal; Constitutional Tribunal or Tribunal Constitucional

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Union or UL [Marc Forne
MOLNE] (renamed Liberal Party of Andorra or PLA); National
Democratic Group or AND [Ladislau BARO SOLA]; National Democratic
Initiative or IDN [Vincenc MATEU Zamora]; New Democracy or ND [Jaume
BARTOMEU Cassany]; Union of the People of Ordino (Unio Parroquial
d'Ordino) or UPO [Simo DURO Coma]

note:  there are two other small parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: CCC, CE, ECE, ICAO, ICRM,
IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OSCE, UN, UNESCO, WHO, WIPO, WToO, WTrO
(observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
(vacant)

chancery:  2 United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017

telephone:  [1] (212) 750-8064

FAX:  [1] (212) 750-6630

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an
embassy in Andorra; the US Ambassador to Spain is accredited to
Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by the Consulate
General's office in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina
Elisenda, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; telephone: (3493) 280-2227;
FAX: (3493) 205-7705

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in the
yellow band; the coat of arms features a quartered shield; similar
to the flags of Chad and Romania, which do not have a national coat
of arms in the center, and the flag of Moldova, which does bear a
national emblem



Andorra    Economy

Economy - overview: Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny,
well-to-do economy, accounts for roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 9
million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free
status and by its summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative
advantage has recently eroded as the economies of neighboring France
and Spain have been opened up, providing broader availability of
goods and lower tariffs. The banking sector, with its "tax haven"
status, also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural
production is limited by a scarcity of arable land, and most food
has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep
raising. Manufacturing output consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars,
and furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is
treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs)
and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.2 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $18,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  NA%

industry:  NA%

services:  NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.62% (1998)

Labor force: 30,787 salaried employees (1998)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 1%, industry 21%, services
78% (1998)

Unemployment rate: 0%

Budget: revenues:  $385 million

expenditures:  $342 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997)

Industries: tourism (particularly skiing), cattle raising, timber,
tobacco, banking

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  NA%

hydro:  NA%

nuclear:  NA%

other:  NA%

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

Electricity - exports: NA kWh

Electricity - imports: NA kWh

note:  most electricity supplied by Spain and France; Andorra
generates a small amount of hydropower

Agriculture - products: small quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat,
barley, oats, vegetables; sheep

Exports: $58 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: tobacco products, furniture

Exports - partners: France 34%, Spain 58% (1998)

Imports: $1.077 billion (c.i.f., 1998)

Imports - commodities: consumer goods, food, electricity

Imports - partners: Spain 48%, France 35%, US 2.3% (1998)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: none

Currency: French franc (FRF); Spanish peseta (ESP); euro (EUR)

Currency code: FRF; ESP; EUR

Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.0659 (January 2001), 1.0854
(2000), 0.9386 (1999); French francs per US dollar - 5.8995 (1998),
5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996); Spanish pesetas per US dollar - 149.40
(1998), 146.41 (1997), 126.66 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Andorra    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 32,946 (December 1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 14,117 (December 1998)

Telephone system: general assessment:  NA

domestic:  modern system with microwave radio relay connections
between exchanges

international:  landline circuits to France and Spain

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 15, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 16,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1997)

Televisions: 27,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .ad

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 5,000 (2000)



Andorra    Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total:  269 km

paved:  198 km

unpaved:  71 km (1994 est.)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: none (2000 est.)



Andorra    Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France and Spain



Andorra    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Angola



Angola    Introduction

Background: Civil war has been the norm in Angola since independence
from Portugal in 1975. A 1994 peace accord between the government
and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA)
provided for the integration of former UNITA insurgents into the
government and armed forces. A national unity government was
installed in April of 1997, but serious fighting resumed in late
1998, rendering hundreds of thousands of people homeless. Up to 1.5
million lives may have been lost in fighting over the past quarter
century.



Angola    Geography

Location: Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean,
between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates: 12 30 S, 18 30 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total:  1,246,700 sq km

land:  1,246,700 sq km

water:  0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total:  5,198 km

border countries:  Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km (of
which 220 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province),
Republic of the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km

Coastline: 1,600 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone:  24 NM

exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has
cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to
April)

Terrain: narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Morro de Moco 2,620 m

Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates,
copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium

Land use: arable land:  2%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  23%

forests and woodland:  43%

other:  32% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 750 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on
the plateau

Environment - current issues: overuse of pastures and subsequent
soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification;
deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both
international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as
fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing
to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate
supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
Protection

signed, but not ratified:  none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: Cabinda is separated from rest of country by the
Democratic Republic of the Congo



Angola    People

Population: 10,366,031 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  43.31% (male 2,266,870; female 2,222,262)

15-64 years:  53.98% (male 2,847,089; female 2,748,091)

65 years and over:  2.71% (male 127,798; female 153,921) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.15% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 46.54 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 24.68 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.04 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.83 male(s)/female

total population:  1.02 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 193.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  38.59 years

male:  37.36 years

female:  39.87 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.48 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 2.78% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 160,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 15,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Angolan(s)

adjective:  Angolan

Ethnic groups: Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico
(mixed European and Native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant
15% (1998 est.)

Languages: Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  42%

male:  56%

female:  28% (1998 est.)



Angola    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Republic of Angola

conventional short form:  Angola

local long form:  Republica de Angola

local short form:  Angola

former:  People's Republic of Angola

Government type: transitional government, nominally a multiparty
democracy with a strong presidential system

Capital: Luanda

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza
Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda
Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire

Independence: 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 11 November (1975)

Constitution: 11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August
1980, 6 March 1991, and 26 August 1992

Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary
law; recently modified to accommodate political pluralism and
increased use of free markets

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS
(since 21 September 1979); note - the president is both chief of
state and head of government

head of government:  President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21
September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and
head of government

cabinet:  Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections:  President DOS SANTOS originally elected (in 1979)
without opposition under a one-party system and stood for reelection
in Angola's first multiparty elections 29-30 September 1992 (next to
be held NA)

election results:  DOS SANTOS 49.6%, Jonas SAVIMBI 40.1%, making a
run-off election necessary; the run-off was not held and SAVIMBI's
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA)
repudiated the results of the first election; the civil war resumed

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia
Nacional (220 seats; members elected by proportional vote to serve
four-year terms)

elections:  last held 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA)

election results:  percent of vote by party - MPLA 54%, UNITA 34%,
others 12%; seats by party - MPLA 129, UNITA 70, PRS 6, FNLA 5, PLD
3, others 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Tribunal da Relacao (judges are
appointed by the president)

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Democratic Party or PLD
[Analia de Victoria PEREIRA]; National Front for the Liberation of
Angola or FNLA [disputed leadership: Lucas NGONDA, Holden ROBERTO];
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Jonas
SAVIMBI], largest opposition party has engaged in years of armed
resistance; Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA
[Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS] ruling party in power since 1975; Social
Renewal Party or PRS [disputed leadership: Eduardo KUANGANA, Antonio
MUACHICUNGO]; UNITA-Renovada [Eugenio NGOLO "Manuvakola", leader]

note:  about a dozen minor parties participated in the 1992
elections but won few seats and have little influence in the
National Assembly

Political pressure groups and leaders: Front for the Liberation of
the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO; Antonio
Bento BEMBE]

note:  FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed
struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC,
ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OAS
(observer), OAU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Josefina Perpetua Pitra DIAKIDI

chancery:  1615 M Street, NW, Suite 900, Washington, DC 20036

telephone:  [1] (202) 785-1156

FAX:  [1] (202) 785-1258

consulate(s) general:  New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Joseph G. SULLIVAN

embassy:  number 32 Rua Houari Boumeddienne, Luanda

mailing address:  international mail: Caixa Postal 6484, Luanda;
pouch: American Embassy Luanda, Department of State, Washington, DC
20521-2550

telephone:  [244] (2) 345-481, 346-418

FAX:  [244] (2) 346-924

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black
with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star
within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a
hammer and sickle)



Angola    Economy

Economy - overview: Angola is an economy in disarray because of a
quarter century of nearly continuous warfare. Despite its abundant
natural resources, output per capita is among the world's lowest.
Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for 85% of the
population. Oil production and the supporting activities are vital
to the economy, contributing about 45% to GDP and 90% of exports.
Violence continues, millions of land mines remain, and many farmers
are reluctant to return to their fields. As a result, much of the
country's food must still be imported. To fully take advantage of
its rich resources - gold, diamonds, extensive forests, Atlantic
fisheries, and large oil deposits - Angola will need to end its
conflict and continue reforming government policies. Despite the
increase in the pace of civil warfare in late 1998, the economy grew
by an estimated 5% in 2000. The government introduced new currency
denominations in 1999, including 1 and 5 kwanza notes. Internal
strife discourages investment outside of the petroleum sector, which
is producing roughly 800,000 barrels of oil per day. Angola has
entered into a Staff Monitored Program (SMP) with the IMF. Continued
growth depends on sharp cuts in inflation, further economic reform,
and a lessening of fighting.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $10.1 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.9% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  7%

industry:  60%

services:  33% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 325% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 5 million (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 85%, industry and services
15% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: extensive unemployment and underemployment
affecting more than half the population (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues:  $928 million

expenditures:  $2.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $963
million (1992 est.)

Industries: petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar,
bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish
processing; food processing; brewing; tobacco products; sugar;
textiles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 1.475 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  32.2%

hydro:  67.8%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 1.372 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn,
cotton, manioc (tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock;
forest products; fish

Exports: $7.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: crude oil 90%, diamonds, refined petroleum
products, gas, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton

Exports - partners: US 54%, South Korea 14%, Benelux 11%, China 7%,
Taiwan 6% (1999)

Imports: $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles
and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods

Imports - partners: South Korea 16%, Portugal 15%, US 13%, South
Africa 10%, France 8% (1999)

Debt - external: $10.8 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $493.1 million (1995)

Currency: kwanza (AOA)

Currency code: AOA

Exchange rates: kwanza per US dollar - 17,910,800 (January 2001),
10,041,000 (2000), 2,790,706 (1999), 392,824 (1998), 229,040 (1997),
128,029 (1996); note - in December 1999 the kwanza was revalued with
six zeroes dropped off the old value

Fiscal year: calendar year



Angola    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 62,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 7,052 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment:  telephone service limited
mostly to government and business use; HF radiotelephone used
extensively for military links

domestic:  limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and
tropospheric scatter

international:  satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic
Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 34, FM 7, shortwave 9 (1999)

Radios: 630,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 7 (1999)

Televisions: 150,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .ao

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 12,000 (1999)



Angola    Transportation

Railways: total:  2,771 km (inland, much of the track is unusable
because of land mines still in place from the civil war)

narrow gauge:  2,648 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2000)

Highways: total:  76,626 km

paved:  19,156 km

unpaved:  57,470 km (1997)

Waterways: 1,295 km

Pipelines: crude oil 179 km

Ports and harbors: Ambriz, Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Malongo,
Mocamedes, Namibe, Porto Amboim, Soyo

Merchant marine: total:  9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 39,305
GRT/63,067 DWT

ships by type:  cargo 8, petroleum tanker 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 247 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  31

over 3,047 m:  4

2,438 to 3,047 m:  8

1,524 to 2,437 m:  12

914 to 1,523 m:  6

under 914 m:  1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  216

over 3,047 m:  2

2,438 to 3,047 m:  5

1,524 to 2,437 m:  30

914 to 1,523 m:  96

under 914 m:  83 (2000 est.)



Angola    Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, National
Police Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  2,480,016 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
1,246,224 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  103,807
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.2 billion (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 22% (1999)



Angola    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: increasingly used as a transshipment point for
cocaine and heroin destined for Western Europe and other African
states

======================================================================

@Anguilla



Anguilla    Introduction

Background: Colonized by English settlers from Saint Kitts in 1650,
Anguilla was administered by Great Britain until the early 19th
century, when the island - against the wishes of the inhabitants -
was incorporated into a single British dependency along with Saint
Kitts and Nevis. Several attempts at separation failed. In 1971, two
years after a revolt, Anguilla was finally allowed to secede; this
arrangement was formally recognized in 1980 with Anguilla becoming a
separate British dependency.



Anguilla    Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 18 15 N, 63 10 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total:  91 sq km

land:  91 sq km

water:  0 sq km

Area - comparative: about half the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 61 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  3 NM

Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

Terrain: flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point:  Crocus Hill 65 m

Natural resources: salt, fish, lobster

Land use: arable land:  0%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  0%

forests and woodland:  0%

other:  100% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some
commercial salt ponds)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July
to October)

Environment - current issues: supplies of potable water sometimes
cannot meet increasing demand largely because of poor distribution
system



Anguilla    People

Population: 12,132 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  25.55% (male 1,574; female 1,526)

15-64 years:  67.47% (male 4,200; female 3,985)

65 years and over:  6.98% (male 376; female 471) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.68% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 15.17 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 5.61 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 17.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.8 male(s)/female

total population:  1.03 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 24.56 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  76.31 years

male:  73.41 years

female:  79.29 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.79 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun:  Anguillan(s)

adjective:  Anguillan

Ethnic groups: black

Religions: Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%,
Baptist 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, other 12%

Languages: English (official)

Literacy: definition:  age 12 and over can read and write

total population:  95%

male:  95%

female:  95% (1984 est.)



Anguilla    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  none

conventional short form:  Anguilla

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK

Government type: NA

Capital: The Valley

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday: Anguilla Day, 30 May

Constitution: Anguilla Constitutional Order 1 April 1982; amended
1990

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6
February 1952); represented by Governor Peter JOHNSTON (since NA
February 2000)

head of government:  Chief Minister Osbourne FLEMING (since 3 March
2000)

cabinet:  Executive Council appointed by the governor from among the
elected members of the House of Assembly

elections:  none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by
the monarch; chief minister appointed by the governor from among the
members of the House of Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (11 seats total, 7
elected by direct popular vote, 2 ex officio members and 2
appointed; members serve five-year terms)

elections:  last held 3 March 2000 (next to be held NA March 2005)

election results:  percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
UF 4, AUM 2, independent 1

Judicial branch: High Court (judge provided by Eastern Caribbean
Supreme Court)

Political parties and leaders: Anguilla United Movement or AUM
[Hubert HUGHES]; The United Front or UF [Osbourne FLEMMING, Victor
BANKS], a coalition of the Anguilla Democratic Party or ADP and the
Anguilla National Alliance or ANA

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: Caricom (associate), CDB,
Interpol (subbureau), OECS (associate), ECLAC (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of
the UK)

Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant and the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the
outer half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts three orange
dolphins in an interlocking circular design on a white background
with blue wavy water below



Anguilla    Economy

Economy - overview: Anguilla has few natural resources, and the
economy depends heavily on luxury tourism, offshore banking, lobster
fishing, and remittances from emigrants. The economy, and especially
the tourism sector, suffered a setback in late 1995 due to the
effects of Hurricane Luis in September but recovered in 1996.
Increased activity in the tourism industry, which has spurred the
growth of the construction sector, has contributed to economic
growth. Anguillan officials have put substantial effort into
developing the offshore financial sector. A comprehensive package of
financial services legislation was enacted in late 1994. In the
medium term, prospects for the economy will depend on the tourism
sector and, therefore, on continuing income growth in the
industrialized nations as well as favorable weather conditions.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $96 million (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $8,200 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  4%

industry:  18%

services:  78% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 4,400 (1992)

Labor force - by occupation: commerce 36%, services 29%,
construction 18%, transportation and utilities 10%, manufacturing
3%, agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining 4%

Unemployment rate: 7% (1992 est.)

Budget: revenues:  $20.4 million

expenditures:  $23.3 million, including capital expenditures of $3.8
million (1997 est.)

Industries: tourism, boat building, offshore financial services

Industrial production growth rate: 3.1% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  NA%

hydro:  NA%

nuclear:  NA%

other:  NA%

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: small quantities of tobacco, vegetables;
cattle raising

Exports: $4.5 million (1998)

Exports - commodities: lobster, fish, livestock, salt

Exports - partners: NA

Imports: $57.6 million (1998)

Imports - commodities: NA

Imports - partners: NA

Debt - external: $8.8 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $3.5 million (1995)

Currency: East Caribbean dollar (XCD)

Currency code: XCD

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7000 (fixed
rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Anguilla    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 5,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: general assessment:  NA

domestic:  modern internal telephone system

international:  microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin
(Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 6, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 3,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 1,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .ai

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 16 (2000)

Internet users: NA



Anguilla    Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total:  279 km

paved:  253 km

unpaved:  26 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Blowing Point, Road Bay

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  1

914 to 1,523 m:  1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  2

under 914 m:  2 (2000 est.)



Anguilla    Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



Anguilla    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American narcotics
destined for the US and Europe

======================================================================

@Antarctica



Antarctica    Introduction

Background: Speculation over the existence of a "southern land" was
not confirmed until the early 1820s when British and American
commercial operators and British and Russian national expeditions
began exploring the Peninsula region and areas south of the
Antarctic Circle. Not until 1838 was it established that Antarctica
was indeed a continent and not just a group of islands. Various
"firsts" were achieved in the early 20th century, including: 1902,
first balloon flight (by British explorer Robert Falcon SCOTT);
1912, first to the South Pole (five Norwegian explorers under Roald
AMUNDSEN); 1928, first fixed-wing aircraft flight (by Australian
adventurer/explorer Sir Hubert WILKINS); 1929, first flight over the
South Pole (by Americans Richard BYRD and Bernt BALCHEN); and 1935,
first transantarctic flight (American Lincoln ELLSWORTH). Following
World War II, there was an upsurge in scientific research on the
continent. A number of countries have set up year-round research
stations on Antarctica. Seven have made territorial claims, but no
other country recognizes these claims. In order to form a legal
framework for the activities of nations on the continent, an
Antarctic Treaty was negotiated that neither denies nor gives
recognition to existing territorial claims; signed in 1959, it
entered into force in 1961.



Antarctica    Geography

Location: continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle

Geographic coordinates: 90 00 S, 0 00 E

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area: total:  14 million sq km

land:  14 million sq km (280,000 sq km ice-free, 13.72 million sq km
ice-covered) (est.)

note:  fifth-largest continent, following Asia, Africa, North
America, and South America, but larger than Australia and the
subcontinent of Europe

Area - comparative: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US

Land boundaries: 0 km

note:  see entry on International disputes

Coastline: 17,968 km

Maritime claims: none; twenty of 27 Antarctic consultative nations
have made no claims to Antarctic territory (although Russia and the
US have reserved the right to do so) and do not recognize the claims
of the other nations; also see the Disputes - international entry

Climate: severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and
distance from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West
Antarctica because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has
the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January
along the coast and average slightly below freezing

Terrain: about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock,
with average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain
ranges up to 5,140 meters; ice-free coastal areas include parts of
southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area,
and parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves
along about half of the coastline, and floating ice shelves
constitute 11% of the area of the continent

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Bentley Subglacial Trench -2,540 m

highest point:  Vinson Massif 5,140 m

note:  the lowest known land point in Antarctica is hidden in the
Bentley Subglacial Trench; at its surface is the deepest ice yet
discovered and the world's lowest elevation not under sea water

Natural resources: iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel,
platinum and other minerals, and coal and hydrocarbons have been
found in small uncommercial quantities; none presently exploited;
krill, finfish, and crab have been taken by commercial fisheries

Land use: arable land:  0%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  0%

forests and woodland:  0%

other:  100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward
from the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the
plateau; cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise
along the coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of
West Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak; large
icebergs may calve from ice shelf

Environment - current issues: in 1998, NASA satellite data showed
that the antarctic ozone hole was the largest on record, covering 27
million square kilometers; researchers in 1997 found that increased
ultraviolet light coming through the hole damages the DNA of
icefish, an antarctic fish lacking hemoglobin; ozone depletion
earlier was shown to harm one-celled antarctic marine plants

Geography - note: the coldest, windiest, highest (on average), and
driest continent; during summer, more solar radiation reaches the
surface at the South Pole than is received at the Equator in an
equivalent period; mostly uninhabitable



Antarctica    People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants, but there are seasonally
staffed research stations

note:  approximately 29 nations, all signatory to the Antarctic
Treaty, send personnel to perform seasonal (summer) and year-round
research on the continent and in its surrounding oceans; the
population of persons doing and supporting science on the continent
and its nearby islands south of 60 degrees south latitude (the
region covered by the Antarctic Treaty) varies from approximately
4,000 in summer to 1,000 in winter; in addition, approximately 1,000
personnel including ship's crew and scientists doing onboard
research are present in the waters of the treaty region; Summer
(January) population - 3,687 total; Argentina 302, Australia 201,
Belgium 13, Brazil 80, Bulgaria 16, Chile 352, China 70, Finland 11,
France 100, Germany 51, India 60, Italy 106, Japan 136, South Korea
14, Netherlands 10, NZ 60, Norway 40, Peru 28, Poland 70, Russia
254, South Africa 80, Spain 43, Sweden 20, UK 192, US 1,378
(1998-99); Winter (July) population - 964 total; Argentina 165,
Australia 75, Brazil 12, Chile 129, China 33, France 33, Germany 9,
India 25, Japan 40, South Korea 14, NZ 10, Poland 20, Russia 102,
South Africa 10, UK 39, US 248 (1998-99); year-round stations - 42
total; Argentina 6, Australia 4, Brazil 1, Chile 4, China 2, Finland
1, France 1, Germany 1, India 1, Italy 1, Japan 1, South Korea 1, NZ
1, Norway 1, Poland 1, Russia 6, South Africa 1, Spain 1, Ukraine 1,
UK 2, US 3, Uruguay 1 (1998-99); Summer-only stations - 32 total;
Argentina 3, Australia 4, Bulgaria 1, Chile 7, Germany 1, India 1,
Japan 3, NZ 1, Peru 1, Russia 3, Sweden 2, UK 5 (1998-99); in
addition, during the austral summer some nations have numerous
occupied locations such as tent camps, summer-long temporary
facilities, and mobile traverses in support of research (July 2001
est.)



Antarctica    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  none

conventional short form:  Antarctica

Government type: Antarctic Treaty Summary - the Antarctic Treaty,
signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961,
establishes the legal framework for the management of Antarctica.
The 23rd Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was held in Peru in
May 1999. At the end of 2000, there were 44 treaty member nations:
27 consultative and 17 non-consultative. Consultative (voting)
members include the seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica
as national territory (some claims overlap) and 20 nonclaimant
nations. The US and Russia have reserved the right to make claims.
The US does not recognize the claims of others. Antarctica is
administered through meetings of the consultative member nations.
Decisions from these meetings are carried out by these member
nations (within their areas) in accordance with their own national
laws. The year in parentheses indicates when an acceding nation was
voted to full consultative (voting) status, while no date indicates
the country was an original 1959 treaty signatory. Claimant nations
are - Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and
the UK. Nonclaimant consultative nations are - Belgium, Brazil
(1983), Bulgaria (1998) China (1985), Ecuador (1990), Finland
(1989), Germany (1981), India (1983), Italy (1987), Japan, South
Korea (1989), Netherlands (1990), Peru (1989), Poland (1977),
Russia, South Africa, Spain (1988), Sweden (1988), Uruguay (1985),
and the US. Non-consultative (nonvoting) members, with year of
accession in parentheses, are - Austria (1987), Canada (1988),
Colombia (1989), Cuba (1984), Czech Republic (1993), Denmark (1965),
Greece (1987), Guatemala (1991), Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987),
Papua New Guinea (1981), Romania (1971), Slovakia (1993),
Switzerland (1990), Turkey (1995), Ukraine (1992), and Venezuela
(1999). Article 1 - area to be used for peaceful purposes only;
military activity, such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but
military personnel and equipment may be used for scientific research
or any other peaceful purpose; Article 2 - freedom of scientific
investigation and cooperation shall continue; Article 3 - free
exchange of information and personnel, cooperation with the UN and
other international agencies; Article 4 - does not recognize,
dispute, or establish territorial claims and no new claims shall be
asserted while the treaty is in force; Article 5 - prohibits nuclear
explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes; Article 6 - includes
under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees 00
minutes south and reserves high seas rights; Article 7 -
treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial
observation, to any area and may inspect all stations,
installations, and equipment; advance notice of all expeditions and
of the introduction of military personnel must be given; Article 8 -
allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own
states; Article 9 - frequent consultative meetings take place among
member nations; Article 10 - treaty states will discourage
activities by any country in Antarctica that are contrary to the
treaty; Article 11 - disputes to be settled peacefully by the
parties concerned or, ultimately, by the ICJ; Articles 12, 13, 14 -
deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among
involved nations. Other agreements - some 200 recommendations
adopted at treaty consultative meetings and ratified by governments
include - Agreed Measures for Fauna and Flora (1964) which were
later incorporated into the Environmental Protocol; Convention for
the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention on the
Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980); a mineral
resources agreement was signed in 1988 but remains unratified; the
Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was
signed 4 October 1991 and entered into force 14 January 1998; this
agreement provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment
through five specific annexes: 1) marine pollution, 2) fauna and
flora, 3) environmental impact assessments, 4) waste management, and
5) protected area management; it prohibits all activities relating
to mineral resources except scientific research.

Legal system: Antarctica is administered through meetings of the
consultative member nations. Decisions from these meetings are
carried out by these member nations (within their areas) in
accordance with their own national laws. US law, including certain
criminal offenses by or against US nationals, such as murder, may
apply extra-territorially. Some US laws directly apply to
Antarctica. For example, the Antarctic Conservation Act, 16 U.S.C.
section 2401 et seq., provides civil and criminal penalties for the
following activities, unless authorized by regulation of statute:
the taking of native mammals or birds; the introduction of
nonindigenous plants and animals; entry into specially protected
areas; the discharge or disposal of pollutants; and the importation
into the US of certain items from Antarctica. Violation of the
Antarctic Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000 in
fines and one year in prison. The National Science Foundation and
Department of Justice share enforcement responsibilities. Public Law
95-541, the US Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, as amended in
1996, requires expeditions from the US to Antarctica to notify, in
advance, the Office of Oceans and Polar Affairs, Room 5801,
Department of State, Washington, DC 20520, which reports such plans
to other nations as required by the Antarctic Treaty. For more
information, contact Permit Office, Office of Polar Programs,
National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia 22230; telephone:
(703) 292-8030, or see their website at www.nsf.gov.



Antarctica    Economy

Economy - overview: Fishing off the coast and tourism, both based
abroad, account for the limited economic activity. Antarctic
fisheries in 1998-99 (1 July-30 June) reported landing 119,898
metric tons. Unregulated fishing landed five to six times more than
the regulated fishery, and allegedly illegal fishing in antarctic
waters in 1998 resulted in the seizure (by France and Australia) of
at least eight fishing ships. Companies interested in commercial
fishing activities in Antarctica have put forward proposals. The
Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources
determines the recommended catch limits for marine species. A total
of 13,193 tourists visited in the 1999-2000 summer, up from the
10,013 who visited the previous year. Nearly all of them were
passengers on 24 commercial (nongovernmental) ships and several
yachts that made 143 trips during the summer. Most tourist trips
lasted approximately two weeks.



Antarctica    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 0

note:  information for US bases only (2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: general assessment:  NA

domestic:  NA

international:  NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM 2, shortwave 1

note:  information for US bases only (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (the US Navy Antarctic Support
Group operates a cable system with six channels for the American
Forces Antarctic Network-McMurdo)

note:  information for US bases only (2000)

Televisions: several hundred at McMurdo Sound

note:  information for US bases only (2001)

Internet country code: .aq

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA



Antarctica    Transportation

Ports and harbors: there are no developed ports and harbors in
Antarctica; most coastal stations have offshore anchorages, and
supplies are transferred from ship to shore by small boats, barges,
and helicopters; a few stations have a basic wharf facility US
coastal stations include McMurdo (77 51 S, 166 40 E), Palmer (64 43
S, 64 03 W); government use only except by permit (see Permit Office
under "Legal System"); offshore anchorage is sparse and intermittent

Airports: 19

note:  27 stations, operated by 16 national governments party to the
Antarctic Treaty, have aircraft landing facilities for either
helicopters and/or fixed-wing aircraft; commercial enterprises
operate two additional aircraft landing facilities; helicopter pads
are available at 27 stations; runways at 15 locations are gravel,
sea-ice, blue-ice, or compacted snow suitable for landing wheeled,
fixed-wing aircraft; of these, 1 is greater than 3 km in length, 6
are between 2 km and 3 km in length, 3 are between 1 km and 2 km in
length, 3 are less than 1 km in length, and 2 are of unknown length;
snow surface skiways, limited to use by ski-equipped, fixed-wing
aircraft, are available at another 15 locations; of these, 4 are
greater than 3 km in length, 3 are between 2 km and 3 km in length,
2 are between 1 km and 2 km in length, 2 are less than 1 km in
length, and 4 are of unknown length; aircraft landing facilities
generally subject to severe restrictions and limitations resulting
from extreme seasonal and geographic conditions; aircraft landing
facilities do not meet ICAO standards; advance approval from the
respective governmental or nongovernmental operating organization
required for landing (2001 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  19

over 3,047 m:  6

2,438 to 3,047 m:  3

1,524 to 2,437 m:  1

914 to 1,523 m:  4

under 914 m:  5 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 27 stations have helicopter landing facilities (helipads)
(2001 est.)



Antarctica    Military

Military - note: the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a
military nature, such as the establishment of military bases and
fortifications, the carrying out of military maneuvers, or the
testing of any type of weapon; it permits the use of military
personnel or equipment for scientific research or for any other
peaceful purposes



Antarctica    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Antarctic Treaty freezes claims (see
Antarctic Treaty Summary in Government type entry); sections (some
overlapping) claimed by Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New
Zealand, Norway, and UK; the US and most other nations do not
recognize the territorial claims of other nations and have made no
claims themselves (the US and Russia reserve the right to do so); no
claims have been made in the sector between 90 degrees west and 150
degrees west

======================================================================

@Antigua and Barbuda



Antigua and Barbuda    Introduction

Background: The islands of Antigua and Barbuda became an independent
state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981. Some 3,000
refugees fleeing a volcanic eruption on nearby Montserrat have
settled in Antigua and Barbuda since 1995.



Antigua and Barbuda    Geography

Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 17 03 N, 61 48 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total:  442 sq km (Antigua 281 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km)

land:  442 sq km

water:  0 sq km

note:  includes Redonda

Area - comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 153 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone:  24 NM

continental shelf:  200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some
higher volcanic areas

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point:  Boggy Peak 402 m

Natural resources: NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism

Land use: arable land:  18%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  9%

forests and woodland:  11%

other:  62% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October);
periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: water management - a major concern
because of limited natural fresh water resources - is further
hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production,
causing rainfall to run off quickly

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling

signed, but not ratified:  none of the selected agreements



Antigua and Barbuda    People

Population: 66,970 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  27.97% (male 9,527; female 9,203)

15-64 years:  67.15% (male 22,450; female 22,519)

65 years and over:  4.88% (male 1,360; female 1,911) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.74% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 19.5 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 5.87 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.71 male(s)/female

total population:  0.99 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 22.33 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  70.74 years

male:  68.45 years

female:  73.14 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.31 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun:  Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)

adjective:  Antiguan, Barbudan

Ethnic groups: black, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrian

Religions: Anglican (predominant), other Protestant, some Roman
Catholic

Languages: English (official), local dialects

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over has completed five or more
years of schooling

total population:  89%

male:  90%

female:  88% (1960 est.)



Antigua and Barbuda    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  none

conventional short form:  Antigua and Barbuda

Government type: constitutional monarchy with UK-style parliament

Capital: Saint John's

Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*,
Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint
Peter, Saint Philip

Independence: 1 November 1981 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 November (1981)

Constitution: 1 November 1981

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6
February 1952), represented by Governor General James B. CARLISLE
(since NA 1993)

head of government:  Prime Minister Lester Bryant BIRD (since 8
March 1994)

cabinet:  Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on
the advice of the prime minister

elections:  none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general chosen
by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; prime minister
appointed by the governor general

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate
(17-member body appointed by the governor general) and the House of
Representatives (17 seats; members are elected by proportional
representation to serve five-year terms)

elections:  House of Representatives - last held 9 March 1999 (next
to be held NA March 2004)

election results:  percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
ALP 12, UPP 4, independent 1

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint
Lucia; one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands
and presides over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction)

Political parties and leaders: Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester
Bryant BIRD]; Barbuda People's Movement or BPM [Thomas H. FRANK];
United Progressive Party or UPP [Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of
three opposition parties - United National Democratic Party or UNDP,
Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM, and Progressive Labor
Movement or PLM)

Political pressure groups and leaders: Antigua Trades and Labor
Union or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; People's Democratic Movement or
PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB,
ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM
(observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Lionel Alexander HURST

chancery:  3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016

telephone:  [1] (202) 362-5211

FAX:  [1] (202) 362-5225

consulate(s) general:  Miami

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an
embassy in Antigua and Barbuda (embassy closed 30 June 1994); the US
Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda

Flag description: red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on
the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal
bands of black (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising
sun in the black band



Antigua and Barbuda    Economy

Economy - overview: Tourism continues to be the dominant activity in
the economy accounting directly or indirectly for more than half of
GDP. The budding offshore financial sector has been seriously hurt
by financial sanctions imposed by the US and UK as a result of the
loosening of its money-laundering controls. The government has made
efforts to comply with international demands in order to get the
sanctions lifted. Antigua and Barbuda was listed as a tax haven by
the OECD in 2000. The dual island nation's agricultural production
is mainly directed to the domestic market; the sector is constrained
by the limited water supply and labor shortages that reflect the
pull of higher wages in tourism and construction. Manufacturing
comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major products being
bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components. Prospects for
economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on income
growth in the industrialized world, especially in the US, which
accounts for about one-third of all tourist arrivals.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $533 million (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.6% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $8,200 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  4%

industry:  12.5%

services:  83.5% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 30,000

Labor force - by occupation: commerce and services 82%, agriculture
11%, industry 7% (1983)

Unemployment rate: 7% (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues:  $122.6 million

expenditures:  $141.2 million, including capital expenditures of
$17.3 million (1997 est.)

Industries: tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing,
alcohol, household appliances)

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: 95 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  100%

hydro:  0%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 88.4 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas,
coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock

Exports: $38 million (1998)

Exports - commodities: petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%,
machinery and transport equipment 17%, food and live animals 4%,
other 8%

Exports - partners: OECS 26%, Barbados 15%, Guyana 4%, Trinidad and
Tobago 2%, US 0.3%

Imports: $330 million (1998)

Imports - commodities: food and live animals, machinery and
transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil

Imports - partners: US 27%, UK 16%, Canada 4%, OECS 3%

Debt - external: $357 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $2.3 million (1995)

Currency: East Caribbean dollar (XCD)

Currency code: XCD

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7000 (fixed
rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Antigua and Barbuda    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 28,000 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,300 (1996)

Telephone system: general assessment:  NA

domestic:  good automatic telephone system

international:  1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station -
1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Saba
(Netherlands Antilles) and Guadeloupe

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 36,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997)

Televisions: 31,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .ag

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 16 (2000)

Internet users: 8,000 (2000)



Antigua and Barbuda    Transportation

Railways: total:  77 km

narrow gauge:  64 km 0.760-m gauge; 13 km 0.610-m gauge (used almost
exclusively for handling sugarcane)

Highways: total:  1,165 km

paved:  384 km

unpaved:  781 km (1999 est.)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Saint John's

Merchant marine: total:  681 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
4,070,390 GRT/5,289,904 DWT

ships by type:  bulk 15, cargo 424, chemical tanker 10, combination
bulk 4, container 176, liquefied gas 4, multi-functional large-load
carrier 6, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 11, roll on/roll
off 29

note:  includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag
of convenience: Cyprus 2, Germany 4, Slovenia 2 (2000 est.)

Airports: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  2

2,438 to 3,047 m:  1

under 914 m:  1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  1

under 914 m:  1 (2000 est.)



Antigua and Barbuda    Military

Military branches: Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal
Antigua and Barbuda Police Force (includes Coast Guard)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%



Antigua and Barbuda    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: considered a minor transshipment point for narcotics
bound for the US and Europe; more significant as a
drug-money-laundering center

======================================================================

@Arctic Ocean

Arctic Ocean    Introduction Top of Page

Background: The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the world's five
oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and
the recently delimited Southern Ocean). The Northwest Passage (US
and Canada) and Northern Sea Route (Norway and Russia) are two
important seasonal waterways. A sparse network of air, ocean, river,
and land routes circumscribes the Arctic Ocean.



Arctic Ocean    Geography

Location: body of water between Europe, Asia, and North America,
mostly north of the Arctic Circle

Geographic coordinates: 90 00 N, 0 00 E

Map references: Arctic Region

Area: total:  14.056 million sq km

note:  includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea,
East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara
Sea, Laptev Sea, Northwest Passage, and other tributary water bodies

Area - comparative: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US

Coastline: 45,389 km

Climate: polar climate characterized by persistent cold and
relatively narrow annual temperature ranges; winters characterized
by continuous darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and
clear skies; summers characterized by continuous daylight, damp and
foggy weather, and weak cyclones with rain or snow

Terrain: central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar
icepack that averages about 3 meters in thickness, although pressure
ridges may be three times that size; clockwise drift pattern in the
Beaufort Gyral Stream, but nearly straight-line movement from the
New Siberian Islands (Russia) to Denmark Strait (between Greenland
and Iceland); the icepack is surrounded by open seas during the
summer, but more than doubles in size during the winter and extends
to the encircling landmasses; the ocean floor is about 50%
continental shelf (highest percentage of any ocean) with the
remainder a central basin interrupted by three submarine ridges
(Alpha Cordillera, Nansen Cordillera, and Lomonosov Ridge)

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Fram Basin -4,665 m

highest point:  sea level 0 m

Natural resources: sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits,
polymetallic nodules, oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals
(seals and whales)

Natural hazards: ice islands occasionally break away from northern
Ellesmere Island; icebergs calved from glaciers in western Greenland
and extreme northeastern Canada; permafrost in islands; virtually
ice locked from October to June; ships subject to superstructure
icing from October to May

Environment - current issues: endangered marine species include
walruses and whales; fragile ecosystem slow to change and slow to
recover from disruptions or damage; thinning polar icepack

Geography - note: major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea
(northern access to the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait);
strategic location between North America and Russia; shortest marine
link between the extremes of eastern and western Russia; floating
research stations operated by the US and Russia; maximum snow cover
in March or April about 20 to 50 centimeters over the frozen ocean;
snow cover lasts about 10 months



Arctic Ocean    Economy

Economy - overview: Economic activity is limited to the exploitation
of natural resources, including petroleum, natural gas, fish, and
seals.



Arctic Ocean    Transportation

Ports and harbors: Churchill (Canada), Murmansk (Russia), Prudhoe
Bay (US)

Transportation - note: sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land
routes; the Northwest Passage (North America) and Northern Sea Route
(Eurasia) are important seasonal waterways



Arctic Ocean    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: some maritime disputes (see littoral
states)

======================================================================

@Argentina



Argentina    Introduction

Background: Following independence from Spain in 1816, Argentina
experienced periods of internal political conflict between
conservatives and liberals and between civilian and military
factions. After World War II, a long period of Peronist dictatorship
was followed by a military junta that took power in 1976. Democracy
returned in 1983, and numerous elections since then have underscored
Argentina's progress in democratic consolidation.



Argentina    Geography

Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic
Ocean, between Chile and Uruguay

Geographic coordinates: 34 00 S, 64 00 W

Map references: South America

Area: total:  2,766,890 sq km

land:  2,736,690 sq km

water:  30,200 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than three-tenths the size of the
US

Land boundaries: total:  9,665 km

border countries:  Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km, Chile 5,150 km,
Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km

Coastline: 4,989 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone:  24 NM

continental shelf:  200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in
southwest

Terrain: rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling
plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Salinas Chicas -40 m (located on
Peninsula Valdes)

highest point:  Cerro Aconcagua 6,960 m

Natural resources: fertile plains of the Pampas, lead, zinc, tin,
copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium

Land use: arable land:  9%

permanent crops:  1%

permanent pastures:  52%

forests and woodland:  19%

other:  19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 17,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the
Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that
can strike the Pampas and northeast; heavy flooding

Environment - current issues: environmental problems (urban and
rural) typical of an industrializing economy such as soil
degradation, desertification, air pollution, and water pollution

note:  Argentina is a world leader in setting voluntary greenhouse
gas targets

Environment - international agreements: party to:
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources,
Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified:  Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine
Life Conservation

Geography - note: second-largest country in South America (after
Brazil); strategic location relative to sea lanes between South
Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle
Channel, Drake Passage)



Argentina    People

Population: 37,384,816 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  26.54% (male 5,077,593; female 4,842,811)

15-64 years:  63.04% (male 11,795,282; female 11,773,855)

65 years and over:  10.42% (male 1,609,672; female 2,285,603) (2001
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.15% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 18.41 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.58 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.7 male(s)/female

total population:  0.98 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17.75 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  75.26 years

male:  71.88 years

female:  78.82 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.44 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.69% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 130,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,800 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Argentine(s)

adjective:  Argentine

Ethnic groups: white (mostly Spanish and Italian) 97%, mestizo,
Amerindian, or other nonwhite groups 3%

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 92% (less than 20% practicing),
Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%

Languages: Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  96.2%

male:  96.2%

female:  96.2% (1995 est.)



Argentina    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Argentine Republic

conventional short form:  Argentina

local long form:  Republica Argentina

local short form:  Argentina

Government type: republic

Capital: Buenos Aires

Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia), and 1 autonomous city* (distrito federal); Buenos Aires;
Buenos Aires Capital Federal*; Catamarca; Chaco; Chubut; Cordoba;
Corrientes; Entre Rios; Formosa; Jujuy; La Pampa; La Rioja; Mendoza;
Misiones; Neuquen; Rio Negro; Salta; San Juan; San Luis; Santa Cruz;
Santa Fe; Santiago del Estero; Tierra del Fuego, Antartica e Islas
del Atlantico Sur; Tucuman

note:  the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica

Independence: 9 July 1816 (from Spain)

National holiday: Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)

Constitution: 1 May 1853; revised August 1994

Legal system: mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and mandatory

Executive branch: chief of state:  President Fernando DE LA RUA
(since 10 December 1999); Vice President Carlos "Chacho" ALVAREZ
resigned 6 October 2000 and a replacement has not yet been named;
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government

head of government:  President Fernando DE LA RUA (since 10 December
1999); Vice President Carlos "Chacho" ALVAREZ resigned 6 October
2000 and a replacement has not yet been named; note - the president
is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet:  Cabinet appointed by the president

elections:  president and vice president elected on the same ticket
by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 24 October
1999 (next to be held NA October 2003)

election results:  Fernando DE LA RUA elected president; percent of
vote - 48.5%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional
consists of the Senate (72 seats; formerly, three members appointed
by each of the provincial legislatures; presently transitioning to
one-third of the members being elected every two years to six-year
terms) and the Chamber of Deputies (257 seats; one-half of the
members elected every two years to four-year terms)

elections:  Senate - transition phase will begin in the 2001
elections when all seats will be fully contested; winners will
randomly draw to determine whether they will serve a two-year,
four-year, or full six-year term, beginning a rotating cycle
renovating one-third of the body every two years; Chamber of
Deputies - last held 24 October 1999 (next to be held NA October
2001)

election results:  Senate - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA%;
seats by bloc or party - Peronist 40, UCR 20, Frepaso 1, other 11;
Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA%; seats
by bloc or party - Alliance 124 (UCR 85, Frepaso 36, others 3),
Peronist 101, AR 12, other 20

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (the nine Supreme
Court judges are appointed by the president with approval by the
Senate)

Political parties and leaders: Action for the Republic or AR
[Domingo CAVALLO]; Front for a Country in Solidarity or Frepaso (a
four-party coalition) [Carlos ALVAREZ]; Justicialist Party or PJ
[Carlos Saul MENEM] (Peronist umbrella political organization);
Radical Civic Union or UCR [Raul ALFONSIN]; several provincial
parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Argentine Association of
Pharmaceutical Labs (CILFA); Argentine Industrial Union
(manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural Society (large
landowners' association); business organizations; General
Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor
organization); Peronist-dominated labor movement; Roman Catholic
Church; students

International organization participation: AfDB, Australia Group,
BCIE, BIS, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-6, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES,
LAIA, Mercosur, MINURSO, MIPONUH, MTCR, NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA,
RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMEE,
UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Guillermo Enrique GONZALEZ

chancery:  1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone:  [1] (202) 238-6400

FAX:  [1] (202) 332-3171

consulate(s) general:  Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles,
Miami, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
James D. WALSH

embassy:  Avenida Colombia 4300, 1425 Buenos Aires

mailing address:  international mail: use street address; APO
address: Unit 4334, APO AA 34034

telephone:  [54] (11) 4777-4533/4534

FAX:  [54] (11) 4511-4997

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top),
white, and light blue; centered in the white band is a radiant
yellow sun with a human face known as the Sun of May



Argentina    Economy

Economy - overview: Argentina benefits from rich natural resources,
a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural
sector, and a diversified industrial base. However, when President
Carlos MENEM took office in 1989, the country had piled up huge
external debts, inflation had reached 200% per month, and output was
plummeting. To combat the economic crisis, the government embarked
on a path of trade liberalization, deregulation, and privatization.
In 1991, it implemented radical monetary reforms which pegged the
peso to the US dollar and limited the growth in the monetary base by
law to the growth in reserves. Inflation fell sharply in subsequent
years. In 1995, the Mexican peso crisis produced capital flight, the
loss of banking system deposits, and a severe, but short-lived,
recession; a series of reforms to bolster the domestic banking
system followed. Real GDP growth recovered strongly, reaching 8% in
1997. In 1998, international financial turmoil caused by Russia's
problems and increasing investor anxiety over Brazil produced the
highest domestic interest rates in more than three years, halving
the growth rate of the economy. Conditions worsened in 1999 with GDP
falling by 3%. President Fernando DE LA RUA, who took office in
December 1999, sponsored tax increases and spending cuts to reduce
the deficit, which had ballooned to 2.5% of GDP in 1999. Growth in
2000 was a disappointing 0.8%, as both domestic and foreign
investors remained skeptical of the government's ability to pay
debts and maintain its fixed exchange rate with the US dollar. One
bright spot at the start of 2001 was the IMF's offer of $13.7
billion in support.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $476 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0.8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $12,900 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  6%

industry:  32%

services:  62% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: 37% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): -0.9% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 15 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services
NA%

Unemployment rate: 15% (December 2000)

Budget: revenues:  $44 billion

expenditures:  $48 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(2000 est.)

Industries: food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables,
textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel

Industrial production growth rate: 1% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 77.087 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  60.3%

hydro:  30.7%

nuclear:  8.75%

other:  0.25% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 77.111 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 1.08 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 6.5 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: sunflower seeds, lemons, soybeans, grapes,
corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, wheat; livestock

Exports: $26.5 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: edible oils, fuels and energy, cereals, feed,
motor vehicles

Exports - partners: Brazil 24%, EU 21%, US 11% (1999 est.)

Imports: $25.2 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, motor vehicles,
chemicals, metal manufactures, plastics

Imports - partners: EU 28%, US 22%, Brazil 21% (1999 est.)

Debt - external: $154 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: IMF offer of $13.7 billion (January 2001)

Currency: Argentine peso (ARS)

Currency code: ARS

Exchange rates: Argentine pesos per US dollar - 1.000 (fixed rate
pegged to the US dollar)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Argentina    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 7.5 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 3 million (December 1999)

Telephone system: general assessment:  by opening the
telecommunications market to competition and foreign investment with
the "Telecommunications Liberalization Plan of 1998", Argentina
encouraged the growth of modern telecommunication technology;
fiber-optic cable trunk lines are being installed between all major
cities; the major networks are entirely digital and the availability
of telephone service is being improved; however, telephone density
is presently minimal, and making telephone service universally
available will take some time

domestic:  microwave radio relay, fiber-optic cable, and a domestic
satellite system with 40 earth stations serve the trunk network;
more than 110,000 pay telephones are installed and mobile telephone
use is rapidly expanding

international:  satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Atlantic
Ocean); Atlantis II and Unisur submarine cables; two international
gateways near Buenos Aires (1999)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 260 (including 10 inactive stations),
FM NA (probably more than 1,000, mostly unlicensed), shortwave 6
(1998)

Radios: 24.3 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 42 (plus 444 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 7.95 million (1997)

Internet country code: .ar

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 33 (2000)

Internet users: 900,000 (2000)



Argentina    Transportation

Railways: total:  33,744 km (167 km electrified)

broad gauge:  20,594 km 1.676-m gauge (141 km electrified)

standard gauge:  2,739 km 1.435-m gauge (26 km electrified)

narrow gauge:  10,154 km 1.000-m gauge; 257 km 0.750-m gauge (2000)

Highways: total:  215,434 km

paved:  63,553 km (including 734 km of expressways)

unpaved:  151,881 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 10,950 km

Pipelines: crude oil 4,090 km; petroleum products 2,900 km; natural
gas 9,918 km

Ports and harbors: Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Comodoro Rivadavia,
Concepcion del Uruguay, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Necochea, Rio
Gallegos, Rosario, Santa Fe, Ushuaia

Merchant marine: total:  26 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
185,355 GRT/281,475 DWT

ships by type:  cargo 9, petroleum tanker 11, railcar carrier 1,
refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 1, short-sea passenger 2
(2000 est.)

Airports: 1,359 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  143

over 3,047 m:  4

2,438 to 3,047 m:  25

1,524 to 2,437 m:  57

914 to 1,523 m:  48

under 914 m:  9 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  1,216

over 3,047 m:  2

2,438 to 3,047 m:  2

1,524 to 2,437 m:  56

914 to 1,523 m:  601

under 914 m:  555 (2000 est.)



Argentina    Military

Military branches: Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic
(includes Naval Aviation, Marines, and Coast Guard), Argentine Air
Force, National Gendarmerie, National Aeronautical Police Force

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  9,404,434 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
7,625,425 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  335,085
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $4.3 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.3% (FY99)



Argentina    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims UK-administered Falkland Islands
(Islas Malvinas); claims UK-administered South Georgia and the South
Sandwich Islands; territorial claim in Antarctica partially overlaps
British and Chilean claims

Illicit drugs: use as a transshipment country for cocaine headed for
Europe and the US; increasing use as a money-laundering center;
domestic consumption of drugs in urban centers is increasing

======================================================================

@Armenia



Armenia    Introduction

Background: An Orthodox Christian country, Armenia was incorporated
into Russia in 1828 and the USSR in 1920. Armenian leaders remain
preoccupied by the long conflict with Azerbaijan over
Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated exclave, assigned
to Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s by Moscow. Armenia and Azerbaijan
began fighting over the exclave in 1988; the struggle escalated
after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in
1991. By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, Armenian forces held
not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also a significant portion of
Azerbaijan proper. The economies of both sides have been hurt by
their inability to make substantial progress toward a peaceful
resolution.



Armenia    Geography

Location: Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 45 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area: total:  29,800 sq km

land:  28,400 sq km

water:  1,400 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries: total:  1,254 km

border countries:  Azerbaijan-proper 566 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan
exclave 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: highland continental, hot summers, cold winters

Terrain: Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast
flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Debed River 400 m

highest point:  Aragats Lerr 4,095 m

Natural resources: small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc,
alumina

Land use: arable land:  17%

permanent crops:  3%

permanent pastures:  24%

forests and woodland:  15%

other:  41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,870 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts

Environment - current issues: soil pollution from toxic chemicals
such as DDT; energy blockade, the result of conflict with
Azerbaijan, has led to deforestation when citizens scavenged for
firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the
draining of Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan), a result of its use as a
source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of
Metsamor nuclear power plant without adequate (IAEA-recommended)
safety and backup systems

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Air Pollution,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:  Air Pollution-Persistent Organic
Pollutants

Geography - note: landlocked



Armenia    People

Population: 3,336,100 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  23.23% (male 394,194; female 380,911)

15-64 years:  67.04% (male 1,094,646; female 1,141,760)

65 years and over:  9.73% (male 135,477; female 189,112) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.21% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 11.47 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 9.74 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.87 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.72 male(s)/female

total population:  0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 41.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  66.49 years

male:  62.12 years

female:  71.08 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: less than 500 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Armenian(s)

adjective:  Armenian

Ethnic groups: Armenian 93%, Azeri 3%, Russian 2%, other (mostly
Yezidi Kurds) 2% (1989)

note:  as of the end of 1993, virtually all Azeris had emigrated
from Armenia

Religions: Armenian Orthodox 94%

Languages: Armenian 96%, Russian 2%, other 2%

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  99%

male:  99%

female:  98% (1989 est.)



Armenia    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Republic of Armenia

conventional short form:  Armenia

local long form:  Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun

local short form:  Hayastan

former:  Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic

Government type: republic

Capital: Yerevan

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (marzer, singular - marz) and
1 city* (k'aghak'ner, singular - k'aghak'); Aragatsotn, Ararat,
Armavir, Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak, Syunik', Tavush,
Vayots' Dzor, Yerevan*

Independence: 21 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 21 September (1991)

Constitution: adopted by nationwide referendum 5 July 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  President Robert KOCHARIAN (since
30 March 1998)

head of government:  Prime Minister Andranik MARKARYAN (since 12 May
2000)

cabinet:  Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

elections:  president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
special election last held 30 March 1998 (next to be held NA March
2003); prime minister appointed by the president

election results:  Robert KOCHARIAN elected president; percent of
vote - Robert KOCHARIAN 59.5%, Karen DEMIRCHYAN 40.5%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or
Azgayin Zhoghov (131 seats; members serve four-year terms)

elections:  last held 30 May 1999 (next to be held in the spring of
2003)

election results:  percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
unity bloc 61 (Republican Party 41, People's Party of Armenia 20),
Stability Group (independent Armenian deputies who have formed a
bloc) 21, ACP 10, ARF (Dashnak) 8, Law and Unity Party 7, NDU 6,
Law-Governed Party 6, independents 10, unfilled 2; note - seats by
party change frequently

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Armenia Party [Myasnik ALKHASYAN];
Armenian Communist Party or ACP [Vladimir DARBINYAN]; Armenian
Revolutionary Federation ("Dashnak" Party) or ARF [Hrant MARKARYAN];
Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Azat ARSHAKYN, chairman];
Democratic Liberal Party [Ramkavar AZATAKAN, chairman]; Free
Armenian's Mission [Ruben MNATSANIAN, chairman]; Law and Unity Party
[Artashes GEGAMIAN, chairman]; Law-Governed Party [Artur
BAGDASARIAN, chairman]; Mission Party [Artush PAPOIAN, chairman];
National Democratic Union or NDU [Vazgen MANUKIAN]; National State
Party [Samvel SHAGINIAN]; Pan-Armenian National Movement or PANM
[Vano SIRADEGHYAN]; People's Party of Armenia [Stepan DEMIRCHYAN];
Republican Party or RPA [Andranik MARKARYAN]; Shamiram Women's
Movement or SWM [Gayane SARUKHYAN]; Social Democratic (Hnchakian)
Party [Ernst SOGOMONYAN]; Stability Group [Vartan AYVAZIAN,
chairman]; Union of National Self-Determination or NSDU [Paruir
HAIRIKIAN, chairman]; Unity Bloc [Stepan DEMIRCHIAN and Andranik
MARKARYAN] (a coalition of the Republican Party and People's Party
of Armenia)

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE, CIS, EAPC,
EBRD, ECE, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM
(observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Arman KIRAKOSIAN

chancery:  2225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:  [1] (202) 319-1976

FAX:  [1] (202) 319-2982

consulate(s) general:  Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Michael C. LEMMON

embassy:  18 Marshal Bagramian Avenue, Yerevan

mailing address:  American Embassy Yerevan, Department of State,
Washington, DC 20521-7020

telephone:  [374] (2) 52-16-11

FAX:  [374] (2) 151-550

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue,
and orange



Armenia    Economy

Economy - overview: Under the old Soviet central planning system,
Armenia had developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine
tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics in
exchange for raw materials and energy. Since the implosion of the
USSR in December 1991, Armenia has switched to small-scale
agriculture away from the large agroindustrial complexes of the
Soviet era. The agricultural sector has long-term needs for more
investment and updated technology. The privatization of industry has
been at a slower pace, but has been given renewed emphasis by the
current administration. Armenia is a food importer, and its mineral
deposits (gold, bauxite) are small. The ongoing conflict with
Azerbaijan over the ethnic Armenian-dominated region of
Nagorno-Karabakh and the breakup of the centrally directed economic
system of the former Soviet Union contributed to a severe economic
decline in the early 1990s. By 1994, however, the Armenian
Government had launched an ambitious IMF-sponsored economic program
that has resulted in positive growth rates in 1995-2000. Armenia
also managed to slash inflation and to privatize most small- and
medium-sized enterprises. The chronic energy shortages Armenia
suffered in recent years have been largely offset by the energy
supplied by one of its nuclear power plants at Metsamor. Armenia's
severe trade imbalance, importing three times its exports, has been
offset somewhat by international aid, domestic restructuring of the
economy, and foreign direct investment.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $10 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  40%

industry:  25%

services:  35% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 45% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 1.5 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 55%, services 25%, industry
20% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 20% (1998 est.)

note:  official rate is 9.3% for 1998

Budget: revenues:  $360 million

expenditures:  $566 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999 est.)

Industries: metal-cutting machine tools, forging-pressing machines,
electric motors, tires, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric,
chemicals, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, gem cutting,
jewelry manufacturing, software development, brandy

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 6.668 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  45.56%

hydro:  23.25%

nuclear:  31.19%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 6.201 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: fruit (especially grapes), vegetables;
livestock

Exports: $284 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: diamonds, scrap metal, machinery and
equipment, brandy, copper ore

Exports - partners: Belgium 36%, Iran 15%, Russia 14%, US 7%,
Turkmenistan, Georgia (1999)

Imports: $913 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: natural gas, petroleum, tobacco products,
foodstuffs, diamonds

Imports - partners: Russia 17%, US 11%, Belgium 11%, Iran 10%, UK,
Turkey (1999)

Debt - external: $836 million (January 2001)

Economic aid - recipient: $245.5 million (1995)

Currency: dram (AMD)

Currency code: AMD

Exchange rates: drams per US dollar - 554.29 (1 February 2001),
539.53 (2000), 535.06 (1999), 504.92 (1998), 490.85 (1997), 414.04
(1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Armenia    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 568,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 6,220 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment:  system inadequate; now 90%
privately owned and undergoing modernization and expansion

domestic:  the majority of subscribers and the most modern equipment
are in Yerevan (this includes paging and mobile cellular service)

international:  Yerevan is connected to the Trans-Asia-Europe
fiber-optic cable through Iran; additional international service is
available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the
other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States and
through the Moscow international switch and by satellite to the rest
of the world; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 6, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 850,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (1998)

Televisions: 825,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .am

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

Internet users: 30,000 (2000)



Armenia    Transportation

Railways: total:  852 km in common carrier service; does not include
industrial lines

broad gauge:  852 km 1.520-m gauge (779 km electrified) (2001)

Highways: total:  8,431 km ()

paved:  NA

unpaved:  NA (1997)

Waterways: NA km

Pipelines: natural gas 900 km (1991)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 7 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  7

over 3,047 m:  1

1,524 to 2,437 m:  2

914 to 1,523 m:  3

under 914 m:  1 (2000 est.)



Armenia    Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force and Air Defense Aviation, Air
Defense Force, Security Forces (internal and border troops)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  905,154 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
715,734 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  34,998
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $75 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 4% (FY99)



Armenia    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Armenia supports ethnic Armenians in the
Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan in the longstanding,
separatist conflict against the Azerbaijani Government; traditional
demands regarding former Armenian lands in Turkey have subsided

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of cannabis mostly for domestic
consumption; increasingly used as a transshipment point for illicit
drugs - mostly opium and hashish - to Western Europe and the US via
Iran, Central Asia, and Russia

======================================================================

@Aruba



Aruba    Introduction

Background: Discovered and claimed for Spain in 1499, Aruba was
acquired by the Dutch in 1636. The island's economy has been
dominated by three main industries. A 19th century gold rush was
followed by prosperity brought on by the opening in 1924 of an oil
refinery. The last decades of the 20th century saw a boom in the
tourism industry. Aruba seceded from the Netherlands Antilles in
1986 and became a separate, autonomous member of the Kingdom of the
Netherlands. Movement toward full independence was halted at Aruba's
request in 1990.



Aruba    Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Venezuela

Geographic coordinates: 12 30 N, 69 58 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total:  193 sq km

land:  193 sq km

water:  0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 68.5 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: flat with a few hills; scant vegetation

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point:  Mount Jamanota 188 m

Natural resources: NEGL; white sandy beaches

Land use: arable land:  7% (including aloe 0.01%)

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  0%

forests and woodland:  0%

other:  93% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 0.01 sq km

Natural hazards: lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt

Environment - current issues: NA



Aruba    People

Population: 70,007 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  21.29% (male 7,709; female 7,193)

15-64 years:  68.52% (male 23,111; female 24,859)

65 years and over:  10.19% (male 2,954; female 4,181) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.64% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 12.64 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 6.21 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: NEGL

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.71 male(s)/female

total population:  0.93 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  78.52 years

male:  75.16 years

female:  82.04 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun:  Aruban(s)

adjective:  Aruban; Dutch

Ethnic groups: mixed white/Caribbean Amerindian 80%

Religions: Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant 8%, Hindu, Muslim,
Confucian, Jewish

Languages: Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese,
Dutch, English dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish

Literacy: definition:  NA

total population:  97%

male:  NA%

female:  NA%



Aruba    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  none

conventional short form:  Aruba

Dependency status: part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; full
autonomy in internal affairs obtained in 1986 upon separation from
the Netherlands Antilles; Dutch Government responsible for defense
and foreign affairs

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Oranjestad

Administrative divisions: none (part of the Kingdom of the
Netherlands)

Independence: none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

National holiday: Flag Day, 18 March

Constitution: 1 January 1986

Legal system: based on Dutch civil law system, with some English
common law influence

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard
of the Netherlands (since 30 April 1980), represented by Governor
General Olindo KOOLMAN (since 1 January 1992)

head of government:  Prime Minister Jan (Henny) H. EMAN (since 29
July 1994) and Deputy Prime Minister Lili BEKE-MARTINEZ

cabinet:  Council of Ministers (elected by the Staten)

elections:  the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed
for a six-year term by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime
minister elected by the Staten for four-year terms; election last
held 12 July 1997 (next to be held by December 2001)

election results:  Jan (Henny) H. EMAN elected prime minister;
percent of legislative vote - NA%; Lili BEKE-MARTINEZ elected deputy
prime minister; percent of legislative vote - NA%

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislature or Staten (21 seats;
members elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections:  last held 12 December 1997 (next to be held by NA
December 2001)

election results:  percent of vote by party - AVP 43%, MEP 39%, OLA
9% PPA 4%, ADN 2%, PARA 1%, MAS 0.5%; seats by party - AVP 10, MEP
9, OLA 2

Judicial branch: Joint High Court of Justice (judges are appointed
by the monarch)

Political parties and leaders: Aruba Solidarity Movement or MAS
[leader NA]; Aruban Democratic Party or PDA [Leo BERLINSKI]; Aruban
Liberal Party or OLA [Glenbert CROES]; Aruban Patriotic Party or PPA
[Benny NISBET]; Aruban People's Party or AVP [Tico CROES]; Electoral
Movement Party or MEP [Nelson ODUBER]; For a Restructured Aruba Now
or PARA [leader NA]; National Democratic Action or ADN [Pedro Charro
KELLY]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), ECLAC
(associate), Interpol, IOC, UNESCO (associate), WCL, WToO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (represented by the
Kingdom of the Netherlands)

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Consul
General Barbara J. STEPHENSON

embassy:  J. B. Gorsiraweg #1, Curacao

mailing address:  P. O. Box 158, Willemstad, Curacao

telephone:  [599] (9) 461-3066

FAX:  [599] (9) 461-6489

Flag description: blue, with two narrow, horizontal, yellow stripes
across the lower portion and a red, four-pointed star outlined in
white in the upper hoist-side corner



Aruba    Economy

Economy - overview: Tourism is the mainstay of the Aruban economy,
although offshore banking and oil refining and storage are also
important. The rapid growth of the tourism sector over the last
decade has resulted in a substantial expansion of other activities.
Construction has boomed, with hotel capacity five times the 1985
level. In addition, the reopening of the country's oil refinery in
1993, a major source of employment and foreign exchange earnings,
has further spurred growth. Aruba's small labor force and less than
1% unemployment rate have led to a large number of unfilled job
vacancies, despite sharp rises in wage rates in recent years.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $28,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  NA%

industry:  NA%

services:  NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.2% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 41,501 (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: most employment is in wholesale and
retail trade and repair, followed by hotels and restaurants; oil
refining

Unemployment rate: 0.6% (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues:  $NA

expenditures:  $541 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(2000 est.)

Industries: tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 450 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  100%

hydro:  0%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 418.5 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: aloes; livestock; fish

Exports: $2.2 billion (including oil reexports) (2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: live animals and animal products, art and
collectibles, machinery and electrical equipment, transport equipment

Exports - partners: US 42%, Colombia 20%, Netherlands 12% (1999)

Imports: $2.5 billion (2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and electrical equipment, crude oil
for refining and reexport, chemicals; foodstuffs

Imports - partners: US 63%, Netherlands 11%, Netherlands Antilles
3%, Japan (1999)

Debt - external: $285 million (1996)

Economic aid - recipient: $26 million (1995); note - the Netherlands
provided a $127 million aid package to Aruba and Suriname in 1996

Currency: Aruban guilder/florin (AWG)

Currency code: AWG

Exchange rates: Aruban guilders/florins per US dollar - 1.7900
(fixed rate since 1986)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Aruba    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 33,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 3,402 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment:  NA

domestic:  more than adequate

international:  1 submarine cable to Sint Maarten (Netherlands
Antilles); extensive interisland microwave radio relay links

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 6, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 50,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 20,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .aw

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

Internet users: 4,000 (2000)



Aruba    Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total:  800 km

paved:  513 km

unpaved:  287 km

note:  most coastal roads are paved, while unpaved roads serve large
tracts of the interior (1995)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Barcadera, Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas

Merchant marine: total:  1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,120
GRT/3,635 DWT

ships by type:  cargo 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  1

2,438 to 3,047 m:  1 (2000 est.)



Aruba    Military

Military branches: Royal Dutch Navy and Marines, Coast Guard

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the Kingdom of the
Netherlands



Aruba    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: drug-money-laundering center and transit point for
narcotics bound for the US and Europe

======================================================================

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands



Ashmore and Cartier Islands    Introduction

Background: These uninhabited islands came under Australian
authority in 1931; formal administration began two years later.
Ashmore Reef supports a rich and diverse avian and marine habitat;
in 1983 it became a National Nature Reserve. Recent geological
explorations have indicated promising petroleum formations.



Ashmore and Cartier Islands    Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, islands in the Indian Ocean, northwest
of Australia

Geographic coordinates: 12 14 S, 123 05 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total:  5 sq km

land:  5 sq km

water:  0 sq km

note:  includes Ashmore Reef (West, Middle, and East Islets) and
Cartier Island

Area - comparative: about eight times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 74.1 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone:  12 NM

continental shelf:  200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive fishing zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  3 NM

Climate: tropical

Terrain: low with sand and coral

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point:  unnamed location 3 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use: arable land:  0%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  0%

forests and woodland:  0%

other:  100% (all grass and sand)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: surrounded by shoals and reefs that can pose
maritime hazards

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve established
in August 1983



Ashmore and Cartier Islands    People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants

note:  there are only seasonal caretakers (July 2001 est.)



Ashmore and Cartier Islands    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Territory of Ashmore and
Cartier Islands

conventional short form:  Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Dependency status: territory of Australia; administered from
Canberra by the Australian Department of the Environment, Sport, and
Territories

Legal system: the laws of the Northern Territory of Australia, where
applicable, apply

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used



Ashmore and Cartier Islands    Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity



Ashmore and Cartier Islands    Transportation

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only



Ashmore and Cartier Islands    Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Australia;
periodic visits by the Royal Australian Navy and Royal Australian
Air Force



Ashmore and Cartier Islands    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Atlantic Ocean

Atlantic Ocean    Introduction Top of Page

Background: The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's
five oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, but larger than the Indian
Ocean, Southern Ocean, and Arctic Ocean). The Kiel Canal (Germany),
Oresund (Denmark-Sweden), Bosporus (Turkey), Strait of Gibraltar
(Morocco-Spain), and the St. Lawrence Seaway (Canada-US) are
important strategic access waterways. The decision by the
International Hydrographic Organization in the spring of 2000 to
delimit a fifth world ocean, the Southern Ocean, removed the portion
of the Atlantic Ocean south of 60 degrees south.



Atlantic Ocean    Geography

Location: body of water between Africa, Europe, the Southern Ocean,
and the Western Hemisphere

Geographic coordinates: 0 00 N, 25 00 W

Map references: World

Area: total:  76.762 million sq km

note:  includes Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait,
Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico,
Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea, almost all of the
Scotia Sea, and other tributary water bodies

Area - comparative: slightly less than 6.5 times the size of the US

Coastline: 111,866 km

Climate: tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of
Africa near Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea;
hurricanes can occur from May to December, but are most frequent
from August to November

Terrain: surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea,
Denmark Strait, and Baltic Sea from October to June; clockwise
warm-water gyre (broad, circular system of currents) in the northern
Atlantic, counterclockwise warm-water gyre in the southern Atlantic;
the ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a rugged
north-south centerline for the entire Atlantic basin

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico
Trench -8,605 m

highest point:  sea level 0 m

Natural resources: oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals
and whales), sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits,
polymetallic nodules, precious stones

Natural hazards: icebergs common in Davis Strait, Denmark Strait,
and the northwestern Atlantic Ocean from February to August and have
been spotted as far south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands; ships
subject to superstructure icing in extreme northern Atlantic from
October to May; persistent fog can be a maritime hazard from May to
September; hurricanes (May to December)

Environment - current issues: endangered marine species include the
manatee, seals, sea lions, turtles, and whales; drift net fishing is
hastening the decline of fish stocks and contributing to
international disputes; municipal sludge pollution off eastern US,
southern Brazil, and eastern Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean
Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Lake Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North
Sea; industrial waste and municipal sewage pollution in Baltic Sea,
North Sea, and Mediterranean Sea

Geography - note: major chokepoints include the Dardanelles, Strait
of Gibraltar, access to the Panama and Suez Canals; strategic
straits include the Strait of Dover, Straits of Florida, Mona
Passage, The Sound (Oresund), and Windward Passage; the Equator
divides the Atlantic Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South
Atlantic Ocean



Atlantic Ocean    Economy

Economy - overview: The Atlantic Ocean provides some of the world's
most heavily trafficked sea routes, between and within the Eastern
and Western Hemispheres. Other economic activity includes the
exploitation of natural resources, e.g., fishing, the dredging of
aragonite sands (The Bahamas), and production of crude oil and
natural gas (Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and North Sea).



Atlantic Ocean    Transportation

Ports and harbors: Alexandria (Egypt), Algiers (Algeria), Antwerp
(Belgium), Barcelona (Spain), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Casablanca
(Morocco), Colon (Panama), Copenhagen (Denmark), Dakar (Senegal),
Gdansk (Poland), Hamburg (Germany), Helsinki (Finland), Las Palmas
(Canary Islands, Spain), Le Havre (France), Lisbon (Portugal),
London (UK), Marseille (France), Montevideo (Uruguay), Montreal
(Canada), Naples (Italy), New Orleans (US), New York (US), Oran
(Algeria), Oslo (Norway), Peiraiefs or Piraeus (Greece), Rio de
Janeiro (Brazil), Rotterdam (Netherlands), Saint Petersburg
(Russia), Stockholm (Sweden)

Transportation - note: Kiel Canal and Saint Lawrence Seaway are two
important waterways; significant domestic commercial and
recreational use of Intracoastal Waterway on central and south
Atlantic seaboard and Gulf of Mexico coast of US



Atlantic Ocean    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: some maritime disputes (see littoral
states)

======================================================================

@Australia



Australia    Introduction

Background: Australia became a commonwealth of the British Empire in
1901. It was able to take advantage of its natural resources to
rapidly develop its agricultural and manufacturing industries and to
make a major contribution to the British effort in World Wars I and
II. Long-term concerns include pollution, particularly depletion of
the ozone layer, and management and conservation of coastal areas,
especially the Great Barrier Reef. A referendum to change
Australia's status, from a commonwealth headed by the British
monarch to an independent republic, was defeated in 1999.



Australia    Geography

Location: Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South
Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 27 00 S, 133 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total:  7,686,850 sq km

land:  7,617,930 sq km

water:  68,920 sq km

note:  includes Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than the contiguous 48 states
of the US

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 25,760 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone:  24 NM

continental shelf:  200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east;
tropical in north

Terrain: mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Lake Eyre -15 m

highest point:  Mount Kosciuszko 2,229 m

Natural resources: bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, silver,
uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds,
natural gas, petroleum

Land use: arable land:  6%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  54%

forests and woodland:  19%

other:  21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 21,070 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: cyclones along the coast; severe droughts

Environment - current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing,
industrial development, urbanization, and poor farming practices;
soil salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water;
desertification; clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the
natural habitat of many unique animal and plant species; the Great
Barrier Reef off the northeast coast, the largest coral reef in the
world, is threatened by increased shipping and its popularity as a
tourist site; limited natural fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements: party to:
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources,
Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified:  Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: world's smallest continent but sixth-largest
country; population concentrated along the eastern and southeastern
coasts; regular, tropical, invigorating, sea breeze known as "the
Doctor" occurs along the west coast in the summer



Australia    People

Population: 19,357,594 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  20.64% (male 2,045,892; female 1,948,949)

15-64 years:  66.86% (male 6,538,096; female 6,405,014)

65 years and over:  12.5% (male 1,059,107; female 1,360,536) (2001
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.99% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 12.86 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.18 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.19 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.78 male(s)/female

total population:  0.99 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  79.87 years

male:  77.02 years

female:  82.87 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.77 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.15% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 14,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Australian(s)

adjective:  Australian

Ethnic groups: Caucasian 92%, Asian 7%, aboriginal and other 1%

Religions: Anglican 26.1%, Roman Catholic 26%, other Christian
24.3%, non-Christian 11%

Languages: English, native languages

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  100%

male:  100%

female:  100% (1980 est.)



Australia    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Commonwealth of Australia

conventional short form:  Australia

Government type: democratic, federal-state system recognizing the
British monarch as sovereign

Capital: Canberra

Administrative divisions: 6 states and 2 territories*; Australian
Capital Territory*, New South Wales, Northern Territory*,
Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia

Dependent areas: Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island,
Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and
McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island

Independence: 1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)

National holiday: Australia Day, 26 January (1788)

Constitution: 9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901

Legal system: based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state:  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6
February 1952), represented by Governor General Rev. Peter
HOLLINGSWORTH (since 29 June 2001)

head of government:  Prime Minister John Winston HOWARD (since 11
March 1996); Deputy Prime Minister John ANDERSON (since NA)

cabinet:  Cabinet selected from among the members of Federal
Parliament by the governor general on the advice of the prime
minister

elections:  none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the
leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is
usually appointed prime minister by the governor general for a
three-year term

note:  government coalition - Liberal Party and National Party

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Parliament consists of the
Senate (76 seats - 12 from each of the six states and two from each
of the two territories; one-half of the members elected every three
years by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of
Representatives (148 seats; members elected by popular vote on the
basis of proportional representation to serve three-year terms; no
state can have fewer than five representatives)

elections:  Senate - last held 3 October 1998 (next to be held by
October 2001); House of Representatives - last held 3 October 1998
(next to be held by October 2001)

election results:  Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by
party - Liberal Party-National Party coalition 35, Australian Labor
Party 29, Australian Democratic Party 9, Green Party 1, One Nation
Party 1, independent 1; House of Representatives - percent of vote
by party - NA%; seats by party - Liberal Party-National Party
coalition 80, Australian Labor Party 67, independent 1

Judicial branch: High Court (the chief justice and six other
justices are appointed by the governor general)

Political parties and leaders: Australian Democratic Party [Meg
LEES]; Australian Labor Party [Kim BEAZLEY]; Green Party [Bob
BROWN]; Liberal Party [John Winston HOWARD]; National Party [John
ANDERSON]; One Nation Party [Pauline HANSON]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Australian Democratic Labor
Party (anti-Communist Labor Party splinter group); Peace and Nuclear
Disarmament Action (Nuclear Disarmament Party splinter group)

International organization participation: ANZUS, APEC, ARF (dialogue
partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C,
CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OECD, OPCW,
PCA, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNMEE, UNTAET,
UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Michael THAWLEY

chancery:  1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone:  [1] (202) 797-3000

FAX:  [1] (202) 797-3168

consulate(s) general:  Atlanta, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, and
San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Edward W. GNEHM, Jr.

embassy:  Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital
Territory 2600

mailing address:  APO AP 96549

telephone:  [61] (02) 6214-5600

FAX:  [61] (02) 6214-5970

consulate(s) general:  Sydney

consulate(s):  Melbourne and Perth

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant and a large seven-pointed star in the lower
hoist-side quadrant; the remaining half is a representation of the
Southern Cross constellation in white with one small five-pointed
star and four, larger, seven-pointed stars



Australia    Economy

Economy - overview: Australia has a prosperous Western-style
capitalist economy, with a per capita GDP at the level of the four
dominant West European economies. Rich in natural resources,
Australia is a major exporter of agricultural products, minerals,
metals, and fossil fuels. Commodities account for 57% of the value
of total exports, so that a downturn in world commodity prices can
have a big impact on the economy. The government is pushing for
increased exports of manufactured goods, but competition in
international markets continues to be severe. While Australia has
suffered from the low growth and high unemployment characterizing
the OECD countries in the early 1990s and during the recent
financial problems in East Asia, the economy has expanded at a solid
4% annual growth pace in the last five years. Canberra's emphasis on
reforms is a key factor behind the economy's resilience to the
regional crisis and its stronger than expected growth rate. Growth
in 2001 will depend on key international commodity prices, the
extent of recovery in nearby Asian economies, and the strength of US
and European markets.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $445.8 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.7% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $23,200 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  3%

industry:  26%

services:  71% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  2%

highest 10%:  25.4% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.4% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 9.5 million (December 1999)

Labor force - by occupation: services 73%, industry 22%, agriculture
5% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 6.4% (2000)

Budget: revenues:  $94 billion

expenditures:  $103 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999 est.)

Industries: mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food
processing, chemicals, steel

Industrial production growth rate: 1.5% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 191.727 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  89.93%

hydro:  8.36%

nuclear:  0%

other:  1.71% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 178.306 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits; cattle,
sheep, poultry

Exports: $69 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, iron ore,
wheat, machinery and transport equipment

Exports - partners: Japan 19%, EU 14%, ASEAN 12%, US 9%, South
Korea, NZ, Taiwan, Hong Kong, China (1999)

Imports: $77 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, computers
and office machines, telecommunication equipment and parts; crude
oil and petroleum products

Imports - partners: EU 24%, US 22%, Japan 14%, ASEAN 13% (1999)

Debt - external: $220.6 billion (2000)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $1.43 billion (FY97/98)

Currency: Australian dollar (AUD)

Currency code: AUD

Exchange rates: Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.7995 (January
2001), 1.7173 (2000), 1.5497 (1999), 1.5888 (1998), 1.3439 (1997),
1.2773 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Australia    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 9.58 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 6.4 million (1998)

Telephone system: general assessment:  excellent domestic and
international service

domestic:  domestic satellite system; much use of radiotelephone in
areas of low population density; rapid growth of mobile cellular
telephones

international:  submarine cables to New Zealand, Papua New Guinea,
and Indonesia; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (4 Indian
Ocean and 6 Pacific Ocean), 2 Inmarsat (Indian and Pacific Ocean
regions) (1998)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 262, FM 345, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 25.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 104 (1997)

Televisions: 10.15 million (1997)

Internet country code: .au

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 264 (2000)

Internet users: 7.77 million (2000)



Australia    Transportation

Railways: total:  33,819 km (2,540 km electrified)

broad gauge:  3,719 km 1.600-m gauge

standard gauge:  15,422 km 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge:  14,506 km 1.067-m gauge

dual gauge:  172 km NA gauges (1999)

Highways: total:  913,000 km

paved:  353,331 km (including 1,363 km of expressways)

unpaved:  559,669 km (1996)

Waterways: 8,368 km (mainly used by small, shallow-draft craft)

Pipelines: crude oil 2,500 km; petroleum products 500 km; natural
gas 5,600 km

Ports and harbors: Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Devonport
(Tasmania), Fremantle, Geelong, Hobart (Tasmania), Launceston
(Tasmania), Mackay, Melbourne, Sydney, Townsville

Merchant marine: total:  54 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
1,558,371 GRT/2,038,776 DWT

ships by type:  bulk 26, cargo 3, chemical tanker 5, container 1,
liquefied gas 4, passenger 2, petroleum tanker 7, roll on/roll off 6
(2000 est.)

Airports: 411 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  271

over 3,047 m:  10

2,438 to 3,047 m:  12

1,524 to 2,437 m:  118

914 to 1,523 m:  122

under 914 m:  9 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  140

1,524 to 2,437 m:  17

914 to 1,523 m:  112

under 914 m:  11 (2000 est.)



Australia    Military

Military branches: Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, Royal
Australian Air Force

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  4,990,107 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
4,303,966 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  138,971
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $6.9 billion (FY98/99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.9% (FY98/99)



Australia    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: territorial claim in Antarctica
(Australian Antarctic Territory)

Illicit drugs: Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of
licit opiate products; government maintains strict controls over
areas of opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw
concentrate

======================================================================

@Austria



Austria    Introduction

Background: Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian
Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in
World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and
subsequent occupation by the victorious Allies, Austria's 1955 State
Treaty declared the country "permanently neutral" as a condition of
Soviet military withdrawal. Neutrality, once ingrained as part of
the Austrian cultural identity, has been called into question since
the Soviet collapse of 1991 and Austria's increasingly prominent
role in European affairs. A prosperous country, Austria joined the
European Union in 1995 and the euro monetary system in 1999.



Austria    Geography

Location: Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates: 47 20 N, 13 20 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total:  83,858 sq km

land:  82,738 sq km

water:  1,120 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries: total:  2,562 km

border countries:  Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary
366 km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 35 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia
330 km, Switzerland 164 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent
rain in lowlands and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional
showers

Terrain: in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the
eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Neusiedler See 115 m

highest point:  Grossglockner 3,798 m

Natural resources: iron ore, oil, timber, magnesite, lead, coal,
lignite, copper, hydropower

Land use: arable land:  17%

permanent crops:  1%

permanent pastures:  23%

forests and woodland:  39%

other:  20% (1996 est.)

Irrigated land: 457 sq km (1995 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: some forest degradation caused by air
and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of
agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by
coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from
trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Air Pollution,
Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified:  Air Pollution-Persistent Organic
Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto
Protocol

Geography - note: landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads
of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and
valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on
eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low
temperatures elsewhere



Austria    People

Population: 8,150,835 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  16.57% (male 691,925; female 658,375)

15-64 years:  68.05% (male 2,802,019; female 2,744,536)

65 years and over:  15.38% (male 478,498; female 775,482) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.24% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 9.74 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 9.8 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.62 male(s)/female

total population:  0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  77.84 years

male:  74.68 years

female:  81.15 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.39 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.23% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 9,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Austrian(s)

adjective:  Austrian

Ethnic groups: German 98%, Croatian, Slovene, other (includes
Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Roma)

Religions: Roman Catholic 78%, Protestant 5%, Muslim and other 17%

Languages: German

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  98%

male:  NA%

female:  NA%



Austria    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Republic of Austria

conventional short form:  Austria

local long form:  Republik Oesterreich

local short form:  Oesterreich

Government type: federal republic

Capital: Vienna

Administrative divisions: 9 states (bundeslaender, singular -
bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten, Niederoesterreich,
Oberoesterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark, Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien

Independence: 1156 (from Bavaria)

National holiday: National Day, 26 October (1955); note -
commemorates the passage of the law on permanent neutrality

Constitution: 1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May 1945)

Legal system: civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial
review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court; separate
administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 19 years of age; universal; compulsory for presidential
elections

Executive branch: chief of state:  President Thomas KLESTIL (since 8
July 1992)

head of government:  Chancellor Wolfgang SCHUESSEL (OeVP)(since 4
February 2000); Vice Chancellor Susanne RIESS-PASSER (FPOe) (since 4
February 2000)

cabinet:  Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice
of the chancellor

elections:  president elected by direct popular vote for a six-year
term; presidential election last held 19 April 1998 (next to be held
in the spring of 2004); chancellor traditionally chosen by the
president from the plurality party in the National Council; in the
case of the current coalition, the chancellor was chosen from
another party after the plurality party failed to form a government;
vice chancellor chosen by the president on the advice of the
chancellor

election results:  Thomas KLESTIL reelected president; percent of
vote - Thomas KLESTIL 63%, Gertraud KNOLL 14%, Heide SCHMIDT 11%,
Richard LUGNER 10%, Karl NOWAK 2%

note:  government coalition - OeVP and FPOe

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung
consists of Federal Council or Bundesrat (64 members; members
represent each of the states on the basis of population, but with
each state having at least three representatives; members serve a
four- or six-year term) and the National Council or Nationalrat (183
seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year
terms)

elections:  National Council - last held 3 October 1999 (next to be
held in the fall of 2003)

election results:  National Council - percent of vote by party -
SPOe 33.2%, OeVP 26.9%, FPOe 26.9%, Greens 7.4%; seats by party -
SPOe 65, OeVP 52, FPOe 52, Greens 14

Judicial branch: Supreme Judicial Court or Oberster Gerichtshof;
Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Constitutional Court
or Verfassungsgerichtshof

Political parties and leaders: Austrian People's Party or OeVP
[Wolfgang SCHUESSEL]; Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Susanne
RIESS-PASSER]; Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Alfred
GUSENBAUER]; The Greens Alternative or GA [Alexander VAN DER BELLEN]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Austrian Trade Union
Federation (primarily Socialist) or OeGB; Federal Economic Chamber;
OeVP-oriented League of Austrian Industrialists or VOeI; Roman
Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic
Action; three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or
OeVP representing business, labor, and farmers

International organization participation: AfDB, AsDB, Australia
Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE,
EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol,
IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer),
OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOT, UNOMIG,
UNTAET, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Peter MOSER

chancery:  3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035

telephone:  [1] (202) 895-6700

FAX:  [1] (202) 895-6750

consulate(s) general:  Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Kathryn Walt HALL

embassy:  Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1091, Vienna

mailing address:  use embassy street address

telephone:  [43] (1) 313-39-2060

FAX:  [43] (1) 313-39-2057

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white,
and red



Austria    Economy

Economy - overview: Austria with its well-developed market economy
and high standard of living is closely tied to other EU economies,
especially Germany's. Membership in the EU has drawn an influx of
foreign investors attracted by Austria's access to the single
European market and proximity to EU aspirant economies. In 2000,
Austria moved to further cut government spending and raise taxes to
meet EMU deficit targets after facing unexpected difficulties in
reducing the public deficit. To meet increased competition from both
EU and Central European countries, Austria will need to emphasize
knowledge-based sectors of the economy and continue to deregulate
the service sector. Growth is expected to remain at about 3% in 2001.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $203 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.1% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $25,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  2.2%

industry:  30.4%

services:  67.4% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 3.7 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: services 68%, industry and crafts 29%,
agriculture and forestry 3% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5.4% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues:  $56.3 billion

expenditures:  $60.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(2000 est.)

Industries: construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food,
chemicals, lumber and wood processing, paper and paperboard,
communications equipment, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 4.2% (2000)

Electricity - production: 59.283 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  29.53%

hydro:  67.65%

nuclear:  0%

other:  2.82% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 53.231 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 13.507 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 11.605 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, wine, fruit;
dairy products, cattle, pigs, poultry; lumber

Exports: $63.2 billion (2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, paper and
paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel; textiles,
foodstuffs

Exports - partners: EU 64.2% (Germany 35.7%, Italy 8.7%, France
4.5%), Switzerland 5.9%, US 4.5%, Hungary 3.9% (1999)

Imports: $65.6 billion (2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, metal
goods, oil and oil products; foodstuffs

Imports - partners: EU 70.3% (Germany 42.5%, Italy 7.9%, France
5.3%), US 5.4%, Switzerland 3.0%, Hungary 2.8% (1999)

Debt - external: $16 billion (1999)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $472 million (1999)

Currency: Austrian schilling (ATS); euro (EUR)

note:  on 1 January 1999, the EU introduced the euro as a common
currency that is now being used by financial institutions in Austria
at a fixed rate of 13.7603 Austrian shillings per euro and will
replace the local currency for all transactions in 2002

Currency code: ATS; EUR

Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.0659 (January 2001), 1.0854
(2000), 0.9386 (1999); Austrian schillings per US dollar - 11.86
(January 1999), 12.91 (1999), 12.379 (1998), 12.204 (1997), 10.587
(1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Austria    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 4 million (3,600,000 analog main
lines plus 400,000 ISDN or Integrated Services Digital Network
connections) (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 4.5 million (2000)

Telephone system: general assessment:  highly developed and efficient

domestic:  there are 48 main lines for every 100 persons and the
system is nearly 100% digital; the fiber optic net is very
extensive; all telephone applications and Internet services are
available

international:  satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic
Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 2 Eutelsat (1999)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 61 (plus several hundred
repeaters), shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 6.08 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 45 (plus 960 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions: 4.25 million (1997)

Internet country code: .at

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 37 (2000)

Internet users: 2.6 million (2000)



Austria    Transportation

Railways: total:  6,095.2 km (3,643.3 km electrified)

standard gauge:  5,564.2 km 1.435-m gauge (3,521.2 km electrified)

narrow gauge:  497.1 km (33.9 km 1.000-m gauge - 28.1 km
electrified, 497.1 km 0.760-m gauge - 94 km electrified) (2001)

Highways: total:  133,361 km

paved:  133,361 km (including 1,613 km of expressways)

unpaved:  0 km (1998)

Waterways: 358 km (1999)

Pipelines: crude oil 777 km; natural gas 840 km (1999)

Ports and harbors: Linz, Vienna, Enns, Krems

Merchant marine: total:  23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
86,905 GRT/117,417 DWT

ships by type:  bulk 1, cargo 18, combination bulk 2, container 2
(2000 est.)

Airports: 55 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  24

over 3,047 m:  1

2,438 to 3,047 m:  5

1,524 to 2,437 m:  1

914 to 1,523 m:  3

under 914 m:  14 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  31

1,524 to 2,437 m:  1

914 to 1,523 m:  3

under 914 m:  27 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Austria    Military

Military branches: Army (includes Flying Division)

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  2,091,263 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
1,731,383 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  50,580
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.7 billion (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY98)



Austria    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: minor disputes with Czech Republic and
Slovenia over nuclear power plants and post-World War II treatment
of German-speaking minorities

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and
South American cocaine destined for Western Europe

======================================================================

@Azerbaijan



Azerbaijan    Introduction

Background: Azerbaijan - a nation of Turkic Muslims - has been an
independent republic since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.
Despite a cease-fire, in place since 1994, Azerbaijan has yet to
resolve its conflict with Armenia over the Azerbaijani
Nagorno-Karabakh enclave (largely Armenian populated). Azerbaijan
has lost almost 20% of its territory and must support some 750,000
refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) as a result of the
conflict. Corruption is ubiquitous and the promise of widespread
wealth from Azerbaijan's undeveloped petroleum resources remains
largely unfulfilled.



Azerbaijan    Geography

Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran
and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 40 30 N, 47 30 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area: total:  86,600 sq km

land:  86,100 sq km

water:  500 sq km

note:  includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the
Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by
Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries: total:  2,013 km

border countries:  Armenia (with Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia
(with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran
(with Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan
exclave) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian
Sea (800 km, est.)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: dry, semiarid steppe

Terrain: large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland) (much of
it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north,
Qarabag Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) in west; Baku lies on Abseron
Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Caspian Sea -28 m

highest point:  Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous
metals, alumina

Land use: arable land:  18%

permanent crops:  5%

permanent pastures:  25%

forests and woodland:  11%

other:  41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: droughts; some lowland areas threatened by rising
levels of the Caspian Sea

Environment - current issues: local scientists consider the Abseron
Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the
Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world
because of severe air, water, and soil pollution; soil pollution
results from the use of DDT as a pesticide and also from toxic
defoliants used in the production of cotton

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification,
Endangered Species, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified:  none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked



Azerbaijan    People

Population: 7,771,092 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  28.95% (male 1,146,315; female 1,103,393)

15-64 years:  63.93% (male 2,415,678; female 2,552,759)

65 years and over:  7.12% (male 219,549; female 333,398) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.32% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 18.44 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 9.55 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -5.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.66 male(s)/female

total population:  0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 83.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  62.96 years

male:  58.65 years

female:  67.49 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.24 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: less than 500 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Azerbaijani(s)

adjective:  Azerbaijani

Ethnic groups: Azeri 90%, Dagestani 3.2%, Russian 2.5%, Armenian 2%,
other 2.3% (1998 est.)

note:  almost all Armenians live in the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh
region

Religions: Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox
2.3%, other 1.8% (1995 est.)

note:  religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan;
percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower

Languages: Azerbaijani (Azeri) 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other
6% (1995 est.)

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  97%

male:  99%

female:  96% (1989 est.)



Azerbaijan    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Republic of Azerbaijan

conventional short form:  Azerbaijan

local long form:  Azarbaycan Respublikasi

local short form:  none

former:  Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type: republic

Capital: Baku (Baki)

Administrative divisions: 59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11
cities* (saharlar; sahar - singular), 1 autonomous republic**
(muxtar respublika); Abseron Rayonu, Agcabadi Rayonu, Agdam Rayonu,
Agdas Rayonu, Agstafa Rayonu, Agsu Rayonu, Ali Bayramli Sahari*,
Astara Rayonu, Baki Sahari*, Balakan Rayonu, Barda Rayonu, Beylaqan
Rayonu, Bilasuvar Rayonu, Cabrayil Rayonu, Calilabad Rayonu,
Daskasan Rayonu, Davaci Rayonu, Fuzuli Rayonu, Gadabay Rayonu, Ganca
Sahari*, Goranboy Rayonu, Goycay Rayonu, Haciqabul Rayonu, Imisli
Rayonu, Ismayilli Rayonu, Kalbacar Rayonu, Kurdamir Rayonu, Lacin
Rayonu, Lankaran Rayonu, Lankaran Sahari*, Lerik Rayonu, Masalli
Rayonu, Mingacevir Sahari*, Naftalan Sahari*, Naxcivan Muxtar
Respublikasi**, Neftcala Rayonu, Oguz Rayonu, Qabala Rayonu, Qax
Rayonu, Qazax Rayonu, Qobustan Rayonu, Quba Rayonu, Qubadli Rayonu,
Qusar Rayonu, Saatli Rayonu, Sabirabad Rayonu, Saki Rayonu, Saki
Sahari*, Salyan Rayonu, Samaxi Rayonu, Samkir Rayonu, Samux Rayonu,
Siyazan Rayonu, Sumqayit Sahari*, Susa Rayonu, Susa Sahari*, Tartar
Rayonu, Tovuz Rayonu, Ucar Rayonu, Xacmaz Rayonu, Xankandi Sahari*,
Xanlar Rayonu, Xizi Rayonu, Xocali Rayonu, Xocavand Rayonu, Yardimli
Rayonu, Yevlax Rayonu, Yevlax Sahari*, Zangilan Rayonu, Zaqatala
Rayonu, Zardab Rayonu

Independence: 30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Founding of the Democratic Republic of
Azerbaidzhan, 28 May (1918)

Constitution: adopted 12 November 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  President Heydar ALIYEV (since 18
June 1993)

head of government:  Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 26
November 1996)

cabinet:  Council of Ministers appointed by the president and
confirmed by the National Assembly

elections:  president elected by popular vote to a five-year term;
election last held 11 October 1998 (next to be held NA October
2003); prime minister and first deputy prime ministers appointed by
the president and confirmed by the National Assembly

election results:  Heydar ALIYEV reelected president; percent of
vote - Heydar ALIYEV 77.6%, Etibar MAMEDOV 11.8%, Nizami SULEYMANOV
8.2%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis
(125 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections:  last held 4 November 2000 (next to be held NA November
2005)

election results:  percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
NAP and allies 108, APF 6, CSP 3, PNIA 2, Musavat Party 2, CPA 2,
APF "traditionalist" 1, Compatriot Party 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Azerbaijan Party
[Abutalyb SAMADOV]; Azerbaijani Democratic Party or ADP [Sardar
JALAL]; Azerbaijani Independent Democratic Party or AMDP [Leyla
YUNUSOVA]; Azerbaijan Popular Front or APF [Ali KERIMOV, leader of
"reform faction"; Mirmahmud FATTAYEV, leader of "traditionalist"
faction]; Civic Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLY]; Civic
Union Party [Ayaz MUTALIBOV]; Communist Party of Azerbaijan or CPA
[Ramiz AHMADOV]; Communist Party of Azerbaijan or CPA-2 [Firudin
HASANOV]; Compatriot Party [Mais SAFARLI]; Democratic Enlightenment
Party [Mammadhanifu MUSAYEV]; Democratic Party for Azerbaijan or DPA
[Ilyus ISMAILOV and Rasul QULIYEV, co-chairman]; Democratic World
Party of Azerbaijan [Mamnad ALIZADE]; Liberal Party of Azerbaijan
[Lala Shvkat HAJIYEVA]; Motherland Party [Fazail AGAMALI]; National
Congress Party of Azerbaijan [Ihtiyar SHIRIN]; National Movement
Party [Samir JAFAROV]; National Statehood Party [Sabir
TARIVERDIYEV]; Musavat [Isa GAMBAR, chairman]; New Azerbaijan Party
or NAP [Heydar ALIYEV, chairman]; Party for National Independence of
Azerbaijan or PNIA [Etibar MAMMADOV, chairman]; People's Democratic
Party of Azerbaijan or PDPA [Rafig TURABKHANOGLU]; Social Democratic
Party of Azerbaijan or SDP [Zardusht ALIZADE, chairman]

note:  opposition parties regularly factionalize and form new parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Sadval, Lezgin movement;
self-proclaimed Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh Republic; Talysh
independence movement

International organization participation: AsDB, BSEC, CCC, CE, CIS,
EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO
(correspondent), ITU, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW,
OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Hafiz Mir Jalal PASHAYEV

chancery:  (temporary) Suite 700, 927 15th Street NW, Washington, DC
20005 or P. O. Box 28790, Washington, DC 20038-8790

telephone:  [1] (202) 842-0001

FAX:  [1] (202) 842-0004

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Ross WILSON

embassy:  Azadliq Prospekt 83, Baku 370007

mailing address:  American Embassy Baku, Department of State,
Washington, DC 20521-7050

telephone:  [9] (9412) 98-03-35, 36, 37

FAX:  [9] (9412) 90-66-71

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red,
and green; a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered
in red band



Azerbaijan    Economy

Economy - overview: Azerbaijan's most prominent products are oil,
cotton, and natural gas. Azerbaijan's oil production declined
through 1997 but has registered an increase every year since.
Negotiation of 19 production-sharing arrangements (PSAs) with
foreign firms, which have thus far committed $60 billion to oil
field development, should generate the funds needed to spur future
industrial development. Oil production under the first of these
PSAs, with the Azerbaijan International Operating Company, began in
November 1997. Azerbaijan shares all the formidable problems of the
former Soviet republics in making the transition from a command to a
market economy, but its considerable energy resources brighten its
long-term prospects. Baku has only recently begun making progress on
economic reform, and old economic ties and structures are slowly
being replaced. An obstacle to economic progress, including stepped
up foreign investment, is the continuing conflict with Armenia over
the Nagorno-Karabakh region. Trade with Russia and the other former
Soviet republics is declining in importance while trade is building
up with Turkey, Iran, UAE, and the nations of Europe. Long-term
prospects will depend on world oil prices, the location of new
pipelines in the region, and Azerbaijan's ability to manage its oil
wealth.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $23.5 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 11.4% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  22%

industry:  33%

services:  45% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 60% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.8% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 2.9 million (1997)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture and forestry 32%, industry
15%, services 53% (1997)

Unemployment rate: 20% (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues:  $777 million

expenditures:  $995 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999 est.)

Industries: petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield
equipment; steel, iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals;
textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 6.9% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 16.378 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  86.46%

hydro:  13.54%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 15.432 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 600 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 800 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit,
vegetables, tea, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats

Exports: $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: oil and gas 75%, machinery, cotton, foodstuffs

Exports - partners: Italy, Turkey, Russia, Georgia, Iran

Imports: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, metals,
chemicals

Imports - partners: Russia, Turkey, Ukraine, UAE, Iran

Debt - external: $1 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: ODA, $113 million (1996)

Currency: Azerbaijani manat (AZM)

Currency code: AZM

Exchange rates: Azerbaijani manats per US dollar - 4,579 (1 February
2001), 4,342 (October 1999), 4,373 (1999), 3,869 (1998), 3,985.38
(1997), 4,301.26 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Azerbaijan    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 663,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 40,000 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment:  inadequate; requires
considerable expansion and modernization; teledensity of 8.6 main
lines per 100 persons is very low

domestic:  the majority of telephones are in Baku and other
industrial centers - about 700 villages still do not have public
telephone service; satellite service connects Baku to a modern
switch in its exclave of Naxcivan

international:  the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is
still serviceable; a satellite connection to Turkey enables Baku to
reach about 200 additional countries, some of which are directly
connected to Baku by satellite providers other than Turkey (1997)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 10, FM 17, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 175,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997)

Televisions: 170,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .az

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: 8,000 (2000)



Azerbaijan    Transportation

Railways: total:  2,125 km in common carrier service; does not
include industrial lines

broad gauge:  2,125 km 1.520-m gauge (1,278 km electrified) (1993)

Highways: total:  24,981 km

paved:  23,057 km (these roads are said to be hard-surfaced, and
include, in addition to conventionally paved roads, some that are
surfaced with gravel or other coarse aggregate, making them
trafficable in all weather)

unpaved:  1,924 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and
are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1998)

Waterways: none

Pipelines: crude oil 1,130 km; petroleum products 630 km; natural
gas 1,240 km

Ports and harbors: Baku (Baki)

Merchant marine: total:  56 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
253,882 GRT/313,252 DWT

ships by type:  bulk 1, cargo 12, petroleum tanker 40, roll on/roll
off 2, short-sea passenger 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 52 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  9

2,438 to 3,047 m:  5

1,524 to 2,437 m:  4 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  43

1,524 to 2,437 m:  7

914 to 1,523 m:  8

under 914 m:  28 (2000 est.)



Azerbaijan    Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border
Guards

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  2,102,780 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
1,684,673 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  77,099
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $121 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.6% (FY99)



Azerbaijan    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Armenia supports ethnic Armenians in the
Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan in the longstanding,
separatist conflict against the Azerbaijani Government; Caspian Sea
boundaries are not yet determined among Azerbaijan, Iran,
Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan

Illicit drugs: limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium
poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; limited government eradication
program; transshipment point for opiates via Iran, Central Asia, and
Russia to Western Europe

======================================================================

@Bahamas, The



Bahamas, The    Introduction

Background: Since attaining independence from the UK in 1973, The
Bahamas have prospered through tourism and international banking and
investment management. Because of its geography, the country is a
major transshipment point for illegal drugs, particularly shipments
to the US, and its territory is used for smuggling illegal migrants
into the US.



Bahamas, The    Geography

Location: Caribbean, chain of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean,
southeast of Florida

Geographic coordinates: 24 15 N, 76 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total:  13,940 sq km

land:  10,070 sq km

water:  3,870 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3,542 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf:  200-m depth or to the depth of
exploitation

exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream

Terrain: long, flat coral formations with some low rounded hills

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Mount Alvernia, on Cat Island 63 m

Natural resources: salt, aragonite, timber, arable land

Land use: arable land:  1%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  0%

forests and woodland:  32%

other:  67% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes and other tropical storms that cause
extensive flood and wind damage

Environment - current issues: coral reef decay; solid waste disposal

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification,
Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:  none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic location adjacent to US and Cuba;
extensive island chain



Bahamas, The    People

Population: 297,852

note:  estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  29.43% (male 44,179; female 43,486)

15-64 years:  64.46% (male 94,329; female 97,674)

65 years and over:  6.11% (male 7,618; female 10,566) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.93% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 19.1 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.14 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.02 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.72 male(s)/female

total population:  0.96 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17.03 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  70.46 years

male:  67.27 years

female:  73.71 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.3 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 4.13% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 6,900 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 500 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Bahamian(s)

adjective:  Bahamian

Ethnic groups: black 85%, white 12%, Asian and Hispanic 3%

Religions: Baptist 32%, Anglican 20%, Roman Catholic 19%, Methodist
6%, Church of God 6%, other Protestant 12%, none or unknown 3%,
other 2%

Languages: English, Creole (among Haitian immigrants)

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  98.2%

male:  98.5%

female:  98% (1995 est.)



Bahamas, The    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Commonwealth of The Bahamas

conventional short form:  The Bahamas

Government type: constitutional parliamentary democracy

Capital: Nassau

Administrative divisions: 21 districts; Acklins and Crooked Islands,
Bimini, Cat Island, Exuma, Freeport, Fresh Creek, Governor's
Harbour, Green Turtle Cay, Harbour Island, High Rock, Inagua, Kemps
Bay, Long Island, Marsh Harbour, Mayaguana, New Providence, Nicholls
Town and Berry Islands, Ragged Island, Rock Sound, Sandy Point, San
Salvador and Rum Cay

Independence: 10 July 1973 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 July (1973)

Constitution: 10 July 1973

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6
February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Orville
TURNQUEST (since 2 January 1995)

head of government:  Prime Minister Hubert Alexander INGRAHAM (since
19 August 1992) and Deputy Prime Minister Frank WATSON (since
December 1994)

cabinet:  Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the prime
minister's recommendation

elections:  none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
appointed by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime minister
appointed by the governor general

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate
(16-member body appointed by the governor general upon the advice of
the prime minister and the opposition leader for five-year terms)
and the House of Assembly (40 seats; members elected by direct
popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections:  last held 14 March 1997 (next to be held by March 2002)

election results:  percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
FNM 35, PLP 5

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; magistrates courts

Political parties and leaders: Free National Movement or FNM [Hubert
Alexander INGRAHAM]; Progressive Liberal Party or PLP [Perry
CHRISTIE]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CCC, CDB,
ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS,
OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
(observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Joshua SEARS

chancery:  2220 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:  [1] (202) 319-2660

FAX:  [1] (202) 319-2668

consulate(s) general:  Miami and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:
Ambassador-designate J. Richard BLANKENSHIP

embassy:  Queen Street, Nassau

mailing address:  local or express mail address: P. O. Box N-8197,
Nassau; stateside address: American Embassy Nassau, P. O. Box
599009, Miami, FL 33159-9009; pouch address: Nassau, Department of
State, Washington, DC 20521-3370

telephone:  [1] (242) 322-1181, 328-2206

FAX:  [1] (242) 356-0222

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of aquamarine (top),
gold, and aquamarine, with a black equilateral triangle based on the
hoist side



Bahamas, The    Economy

Economy - overview: The Bahamas is a stable, developing nation with
an economy heavily dependent on tourism and offshore banking.
Tourism alone accounts for more than 60% of GDP and directly or
indirectly employs 40% of the archipelago's labor force. Moderate
growth in tourism receipts and a boom in construction of new hotels,
resorts, and residences led to an increase of the country's GDP by
an estimated 3% in 1998, 6% in 1999, and 4.5% in 2000. Manufacturing
and agriculture together contribute only 10% of GDP and show little
growth, despite government incentives aimed at those sectors.
Overall growth prospects in the short run will depend heavily on the
fortunes of the tourism sector and continued sturdy growth in the
US, which accounts for the majority of tourist visitors.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.5 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $15,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  3%

industry:  7%

services:  90% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.9% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 156,000 (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: tourism 40%, other services 50%,
industry 5%, agriculture 5% (1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9% (1998 est.)

Budget: revenues:  $766 million

expenditures:  $845 million, including capital expenditures of $97
million (FY97/98)

Industries: tourism, banking, cement, oil refining and
transshipment, salt, rum, aragonite, pharmaceuticals, spiral-welded
steel pipe

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 1.465 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  100%

hydro:  0%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 1.362 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: citrus, vegetables; poultry

Exports: $376.8 million (2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: pharmaceuticals, cement, rum, crawfish,
refined petroleum products

Exports - partners: US 22.3%, Switzerland 15.6%, UK 15%, Denmark
7.4% (1998)

Imports: $1.73 billion (2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, manufactured goods, crude oil,
vehicles, electronics

Imports - partners: US 27.3%, Italy 26.5%, Japan 10%, Denmark 4.2%
(1998)

Debt - external: $385.8 million (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $9.8 million (1995)

Currency: Bahamian dollar (BSD)

Currency code: BSD

Exchange rates: Bahamian dollars per US dollar - 1.000 (fixed rate
pegged to the dollar)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Bahamas, The    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 96,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 6,152 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment:  modern facilities

domestic:  totally automatic system; highly developed

international:  tropospheric scatter and submarine cable to Florida;
3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat
(Atlantic Ocean) (1997)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 215,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 67,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .bs

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 19 (2000)

Internet users: 15,000 (2000)



Bahamas, The    Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total:  2,693 km

paved:  1,546 km

unpaved:  1,147 km (1997)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Freeport, Matthew Town, Nassau

Merchant marine: total:  1,049 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
30,000,221 GRT/44,601,471 DWT

ships by type:  bulk 185, cargo 214, chemical tanker 36, combination
bulk 15, combination ore/oil 22, container 66, liquefied gas 33,
livestock carrier 1, multi-functional large-load carrier 4,
passenger 79, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 182, railcar
carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 118, roll on/roll off 50, short-sea
passenger 15, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 24

note:  includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag
of convenience: Algeria 2, Australia 1, Austria 1, Bermuda 6,
Belgium 14, Canada 1, Cuba 1, Cyprus 2, Denmark 17, Finland 7,
France 9, Germany 9, Greece 89, Hong Kong 7, Indonesia 2, India 1,
Israel 4, Italy 8, Japan 23, Jamaica 1, Kenya 1, Lebanon 2,
Luxembourg 2, Monaco 15, Malaysia 1, Netherlands 16, Norway 139,
Poland 3, Portugal 2, Russia 2, Saudi Arabia 5, Singapore 12, Spain
7, Sweden 14, Syria 1, Switzerland 7, UAE 1, Trinidad and Tobago 2,
UK 67, Ukraine 3, US 50, British Virgin Islands 1, British Virgin
Islands 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 65 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  36

over 3,047 m:  2

2,438 to 3,047 m:  2

1,524 to 2,437 m:  16

914 to 1,523 m:  13

under 914 m:  3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  29

914 to 1,523 m:  6

under 914 m:  23 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Bahamas, The    Military

Military branches: Royal Bahamas Defense Force (Coast Guard only),
Royal Bahamas Police Force

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $20 million (FY95/96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%



Bahamas, The    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound
for US and Europe; banking industry vulnerable to money laundering

======================================================================

@Bahrain



Bahrain    Introduction

Background: Bahrain's small size and central location among Persian
Gulf countries require it to play a delicate balancing act in
foreign affairs among its larger neighbors. Possessing minimal oil
reserves, Bahrain has turned to petroleum processing and refining,
and has transformed itself into an international banking center. The
new amir is pushing economic and political reforms, and has worked
to improve relations with the Shi'a community. In 2001, the
International Court of Justice awarded the Hawar Islands, long
disputed with Qatar, to Bahrain.



Bahrain    Geography

Location: Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of
Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates: 26 00 N, 50 33 E

Map references: Middle East

Area: total:  620 sq km

land:  620 sq km

water:  0 sq km

Area - comparative: 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone:  24 NM

continental shelf:  extending to boundaries to be determined

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Terrain: mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central
escarpment

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Persian Gulf 0 m

highest point:  Jabal ad Dukhan 122 m

Natural resources: oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas,
fish, pearls

Land use: arable land:  1%

permanent crops:  1%

permanent pastures:  6%

forests and woodland:  0%

other:  92% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; dust storms

Environment - current issues: desertification resulting from the
degradation of limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust
storms; coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and
sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from
large tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations; no natural
fresh water resources so that groundwater and sea water are the only
sources for all water needs

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:  none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources;
strategic location in Persian Gulf which much of Western world's
petroleum must transit to reach open ocean



Bahrain    People

Population: 645,361

note:  includes 228,424 non-nationals (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  29.6% (male 96,697; female 94,330)

15-64 years:  67.43% (male 257,360; female 177,839)

65 years and over:  2.97% (male 9,721; female 9,414) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.73% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 20.07 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 3.92 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.45 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  1.03 male(s)/female

total population:  1.29 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 19.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  73.2 years

male:  70.81 years

female:  75.67 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.79 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.15% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun:  Bahraini(s)

adjective:  Bahraini

Ethnic groups: Bahraini 63%, Asian 19%, other Arab 10%, Iranian 8%

Religions: Shi'a Muslim 70%, Sunni Muslim 30%

Languages: Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  85.2%

male:  89.1%

female:  79.4% (1995 est.)



Bahrain    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  State of Bahrain

conventional short form:  Bahrain

local long form:  Dawlat al Bahrayn

local short form:  Al Bahrayn

former:  Dilmun

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Manama

Administrative divisions: 12 municipalities (manatiq, singular -
mintaqah); Al Hadd, Al Manamah, Al Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al
Mintaqah al Wusta, Al Mintaqah ash Shamaliyah, Al Muharraq, Ar Rifa'
wa al Mintaqah al Janubiyah, Jidd Hafs, Madinat Hamad, Madinat 'Isa,
Juzur Hawar, Sitrah

note:  all municipalities administered from Manama

Independence: 15 August 1971 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 16 December (1971); note - 15 August
1971 is the date of independence from the UK, 16 December 1971 is
the date of independence from British protection

Constitution: adopted late December 2000 (new constitution calls for
a partially elected legislature, a constitutional monarchy, and an
independent judiciary)

Legal system: based on Islamic law and English common law

Suffrage: none

Executive branch: chief of state:  Amir HAMAD bin Isa Al Khalifa
(since 6 March 1999); Heir Apparent Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad
(son of the monarch, born 21 October 1969)

head of government:  Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa
(since NA 1971)

cabinet:  Cabinet appointed by the monarch

elections:  none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister
appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly was dissolved 26
August 1975 and legislative powers were assumed by the Cabinet;
appointed Advisory Council established 16 December 1992; the
National Action Charter created a bicameral legislature on 23
December 2000; approved by referendum of 14 February 2001

Judicial branch: High Civil Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders: political parties prohibited

Political pressure groups and leaders: Shi'a activists fomented
unrest sporadically 1994-97, demanding the return of an elected
National Assembly and an end to unemployment; several small,
clandestine leftist and Islamic fundamentalist groups are active

International organization participation: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF,
ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, IHO,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO
(correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
(vacant)

chancery:  3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:  [1] (202) 342-0741

FAX:  [1] (202) 362-2192

consulate(s) general:  New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Johnny YOUNG

embassy:  #979, Road 3119 (next to Al-Ahli Sports Club), Block 321,
Zinj District, Manama

mailing address:  American Embassy Manama, PSC 451, FPO AE
09834-5100; international mail: American Embassy, Box 26431, Manama

telephone:  [973] 273-300

FAX:  [973] 272-594

Flag description: red with a white serrated band (eight white
points) on the hoist side



Bahrain    Economy

Economy - overview: In Bahrain, petroleum production and refining
account for about 60% of export receipts, 60% of government
revenues, and 30% of GDP. With its highly developed communication
and transport facilities, Bahrain is home to numerous multinational
firms with business in the Gulf. Bahrain is dependent on Saudi
Arabia for oil revenue granted as aid. A large share of exports
consists of petroleum products made from imported crude.
Construction proceeds on several major industrial projects.
Unemployment, especially among the young, and the depletion of both
oil and underground water resources are major long-term economic
problems.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $10.1 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $15,900 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  1%

industry:  46%

services:  53% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 295,000 (1998 est.)

note:  44% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national
(July 1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: industry, commerce, and service 79%,
government 20%, agriculture 1% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1998 est.)

Budget: revenues:  $1.8 billion

expenditures:  $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(2001 est.)

Industries: petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting,
offshore banking, ship repairing; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 2% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 6.185 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  100%

hydro:  0%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 5.752 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products;
shrimp, fish

Exports: $5.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 61%,
aluminum 7%

Exports - partners: India 14%, Saudi Arabia 5%, US 5%, UAE 5%, Japan
4%, South Korea 4% (1999)

Imports: $4.2 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: nonoil 59%, crude oil 41%

Imports - partners: France 20%, US 14%, UK 8%, Saudi Arabia 7%,
Japan 5% (1999)

Debt - external: $2.7 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: $48.4 million (1995)

Currency: Bahraini dinar (BHD)

Currency code: BHD

Exchange rates: Bahraini dinars per US dollar - 0.3760 (fixed rate
pegged to the US dollar)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Bahrain    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 152,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 58,543 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment:  modern system

domestic:  modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network
with rapidly growing use of mobile cellular telephones

international:  tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave
radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to Qatar, UAE, and
Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic
Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat (1997)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 338,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (1997)

Televisions: 275,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .bh

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 37,500 (2000)



Bahrain    Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total:  3,164 km

paved:  2,433 km

unpaved:  731 km

note:  there is a paved causeway connecting Bahrain to Saudi Arabia
(1997)

Waterways: none

Pipelines: crude oil 56 km; petroleum products 16 km; natural gas 32
km

Ports and harbors: Manama, Mina' Salman, Sitrah

Merchant marine: total:  7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
175,609 GRT/207,652 DWT

ships by type:  bulk 2, cargo 3, container 2 (2000 est.)

Airports: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  2

over 3,047 m:  2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  1

1,524 to 2,437 m:  1 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Bahrain    Military

Military branches: Ground Force, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard,
Police Force

Military manpower - military age: 15 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  222,141 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
121,833 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  5,926
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $318 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 5.2% (FY99)



Bahrain    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: in March of 2001, the International Court
of Justice (ICJ) awarded the Hawar Islands to Bahrain and also
adjusted Bahrain's maritime boundary with Qatar

======================================================================

@Baker Island



Baker Island    Introduction

Background: The US took possession of the island in 1857, and its
guano deposits were mined by US and British companies during the
second half of the 19th century. In 1935, a short-lived attempt at
colonization was begun on this island - as well as on nearby Howland
Island - but was disrupted by World War II and thereafter abandoned.
Presently the island is a National Wildlife Refuge run by the US
Department of the Interior; a day beacon is situated near the middle
of the west coast.



Baker Island    Geography

Location: Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half
of the way from Hawaii to Australia

Geographic coordinates: 0 13 N, 176 31 W

Map references: Oceania

Area: total:  1.4 sq km

land:  1.4 sq km

water:  0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 2.5 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 4.8 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

Terrain: low, nearly level coral island surrounded by a narrow
fringing reef

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point:  unnamed location 8 m

Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until 1891), terrestrial
and aquatic wildlife

Land use: arable land:  0%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  0%

forests and woodland:  0%

other:  100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can
be a maritime hazard

Environment - current issues: no natural fresh water resources

Geography - note: treeless, sparse, and scattered vegetation
consisting of grasses, prostrate vines, and low growing shrubs;
primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds,
shorebirds, and marine wildlife



Baker Island    People

Population: uninhabited

note:  American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and
naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during
World War II, but abandoned after the war; public entry is by
special-use permit from US Fish and Wildlife Service only and
generally restricted to scientists and educators; a cemetery and
remnants of structures from early settlement are located near the
middle of the west coast; visited annually by US Fish and Wildlife
Service (July 2001 est.)



Baker Island    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  none

conventional short form:  Baker Island

Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US; administered
from Washington, DC, by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US
Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge
system

Legal system: the laws of the US, where applicable, apply

Flag description: the flag of the US is used



Baker Island    Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity



Baker Island    Transportation

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only; note - there is
one small boat landing area along the middle of the west coast

Airports: 1 abandoned World War II runway of 1,665 m, completely
covered with vegetation and unusable (2000 est.)

Transportation - note: there is a day beacon near the middle of the
west coast



Baker Island    Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited
annually by the US Coast Guard



Baker Island    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Bangladesh



Bangladesh    Introduction

Background: Bangladesh came into existence in 1971 when Bengali East
Pakistan seceded from its union with West Pakistan. About a third of
this extremely poor country annually floods during the monsoon rainy
season, hampering economic development.



Bangladesh    Geography

Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma
and India

Geographic coordinates: 24 00 N, 90 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total:  144,000 sq km

land:  133,910 sq km

water:  10,090 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Wisconsin

Land boundaries: total:  4,246 km

border countries:  Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km

Coastline: 580 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone:  18 NM

continental shelf:  up to the outer limits of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer
(March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)

Terrain: mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Keokradong 1,230 m

Natural resources: natural gas, arable land, timber, coal

Land use: arable land:  73%

permanent crops:  2%

permanent pastures:  5%

forests and woodland:  15%

other:  5% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 31,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: droughts, cyclones; much of the country routinely
inundated during the summer monsoon season

Environment - current issues: many people are landless and forced to
live on and cultivate flood-prone land; water-borne diseases
prevalent in surface water; water pollution, especially of fishing
areas, results from the use of commercial pesticides; ground water
contaminated by naturally-occurring arsenic; intermittent water
shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and
central parts of the country; soil degradation and erosion;
deforestation; severe overpopulation

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:  Law of the Sea



Bangladesh    People

Population: 131,269,860 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  35.04% (male 23,550,607; female
22,451,006)

15-64 years:  61.6% (male 41,432,123; female 39,434,633)

65 years and over:  3.36% (male 2,389,639; female 2,011,852) (2001
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.59% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 25.3 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 8.6 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  1.19 male(s)/female

total population:  1.05 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 69.85 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  60.54 years

male:  60.74 years

female:  60.33 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.78 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.02% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 13,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Bangladeshi(s)

adjective:  Bangladeshi

Ethnic groups: Bengali 98%, tribal groups, non-Bengali Muslims (1998)

Religions: Muslim 83%, Hindu 16%, other 1% (1998)

Languages: Bangla (official, also known as Bengali), English

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  56%

male:  63%

female:  49% (2000 est.)



Bangladesh    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  People's Republic of
Bangladesh

conventional short form:  Bangladesh

former:  East Pakistan

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Dhaka

Administrative divisions: 5 divisions; Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka,
Khulna, Rajshahi; note - there may be one additional division named
Sylhet

Independence: 16 December 1971 (from West Pakistan); note - 26 March
1971 is the date of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December
1971 is known as Victory Day and commemorates the official creation
of the state of Bangladesh

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 March (1971); note - 26 March
1971 is the date of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December
1971 is Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the
state of Bangladesh

Constitution: 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended
following coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986, amended
many times

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  President Shahabuddin AHMED
(since 9 October 1996); note - the president's duties are normally
ceremonial, but with the 13th amendment to the constitution
("Caretaker Government Amendment"), the president's role becomes
significant at times when Parliament is dissolved and a caretaker
government is installed - at presidential direction - to supervise
the elections

head of government:  Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA (since 13 July
1996)

cabinet:  Cabinet selected by the prime minister and appointed by
the president

elections:  president elected by National Parliament for a five-year
term; election last held 24 July 1996 (next to be held by NA October
2001); following legislative elections, the leader of the party that
wins the most seats is usually appointed prime minister by the
president

election results:  Shahabuddin AHMED elected president without
opposition; percent of National Parliament vote - NA%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Parliament or Jatiya Sangsad
(330 seats; 300 elected by popular vote from single territorial
constituencies, 30 seats reserved for women; members serve five-year
terms)

elections:  last held 12 June 1996 (next to be held before 13
October 2001)

election results:  percent of vote by party - AL 33.87%, BNP 30.87%;
seats by party - AL 178, BNP 113, JP 33, JI 3, other 3; note - the
elections of 12 June 1996 brought to power an Awami League
government for the first time in twenty-one years; held under a
neutral, caretaker administration, the elections were characterized
by a peaceful, orderly process and massive voter turnout, ending a
bitter two-year impasse between the former BNP and opposition
parties that had paralyzed National Parliament and led to widespread
street violence

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (the chief justices and other judges
are appointed by the president)

Political parties and leaders: Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA];
Bangladesh Communist Party or BCP [Saifuddin Ahmed MANIK];
Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP [Khaleda ZIAur Rahman]; Islami
Oikya Jote or IOJ [Azizol HAQ]; Jamaat-E-Islami or JI [Motiur Rahman
NIZAMI]; Jatiya Party or JP [Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP,
FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OPCW, SAARC,
UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNTAET, UNU,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:
Ambassador-designate A. Tariq KARIM

chancery:  3510 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:  [1] (202) 244-0183

consulate(s) general:  Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Mary Ann PETERS

embassy:  Road 27, House 110, Banani, Dhaka

mailing address:  G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1000

telephone:  [880] (2) 8824700 through 8824722

FAX:  [880] (2) 8823744

Flag description: green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist
side of center; the red sun of freedom represents the blood shed to
achieve independence; the green field symbolizes the lush
countryside, and secondarily, the traditional color of Islam



Bangladesh    Economy

Economy - overview: Despite sustained domestic and international
efforts to improve economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh
remains one of the world's poorest, most densely populated, and
least developed nations. Although more than half of GDP is generated
through the service sector, nearly two-thirds of Bangladeshis are
employed in the agriculture sector, with rice as the single most
important product. Major impediments to growth include frequent
cyclones and floods, inefficient state-owned enterprises, inadequate
port facilities, a rapidly growing labor force that cannot be
absorbed by agriculture, delays in exploiting energy resources
(natural gas), insufficient power supplies, and slow implementation
of economic reforms. Reform is stalled in many instances by
political infighting and corruption at all levels of government.
Even so, Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA's Awami League government has
made some headway improving the climate for foreign investors and
liberalizing the capital markets. Progress on other economic reforms
has been halting because of opposition from the bureaucracy, public
sector unions, and other vested interest groups.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $203 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.3% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,570 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  30%

industry:  18%

services:  52% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: 35.6% (FY95/96 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:
3.9%

highest 10%:  28.6% (1995-96 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.8% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 64.1 million (1998)

note:  extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman,
Qatar, and Malaysia; workers' remittances estimated at $1.71 billion
in 1998-99

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 63%, services 26%, industry
11% (FY95/96)

Unemployment rate: 35.2% (1996)

Budget: revenues:  $4.9 billion

expenditures:  $6.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY99/00 est.)

Industries: cotton textiles, jute, garments, tea processing, paper
newsprint, cement, chemical fertilizer, light engineering, sugar

Industrial production growth rate: 6.1% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 12.06 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  93.7%

hydro:  6.3%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 11.216 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes,
tobacco, pulses, oilseeds, spices, fruit; beef, milk, poultry

Exports: $5.9 billion (2000)

Exports - commodities: garments, jute and jute goods, leather,
frozen fish and seafood

Exports - partners: US 31.2%, Germany 9.95%, UK 8.06%, France 5.82%,
Italy 4.42% (1999)

Imports: $8.1 billion (2000)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and
steel, textiles, raw cotton, food, crude oil and petroleum products,
cement

Imports - partners: India 12.2%, Singapore 7.8%, Japan 6.7%, China
6.4%, US 5.3% (1999)

Debt - external: $17 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: $1.575 billion (2000 est.)

Currency: taka (BDT)

Currency code: BDT

Exchange rates: taka per US dollar - 54.000 (January 2001), 52.142
(2000), 49.085 (1999), 46.906 (1998), 43.892 (1997), 41.794 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Bangladesh    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 500,000 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 283,000 (2000)

Telephone system: general assessment:  totally inadequate for a
modern country

domestic:  modernizing; introducing digital systems; trunk systems
include VHF and UHF microwave radio relay links, and some
fiber-optic cable in cities

international:  satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian
Ocean); international radiotelephone communications and landline
service to neighboring countries (2000)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 12, shortwave 2 (1999)

Radios: 6.15 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 15 (1999)

Televisions: 770,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .bd

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 10 (2000)

Internet users: 30,000 (2000)



Bangladesh    Transportation

Railways: total:  2,745 km

broad gauge:  923 km 1.676-m gauge

narrow gauge:  1,822 km 1.000-m gauge (2000)

Highways: total:  201,182 km

paved:  19,112 km

unpaved:  182,070 km (1997)

Waterways: up to 8,046 km depending on season

note:  includes 3,058 km main cargo routes

Pipelines: natural gas 1,250 km

Ports and harbors: Chittagong, Dhaka, Mongla Port, Narayanganj (2001)

Merchant marine: total:  35 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
268,566 GRT/375,110 DWT

ships by type:  bulk 2, cargo 25, container 3, petroleum tanker 2,
refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 2 (2000 est.)

Airports: 18 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  15

over 3,047 m:  2

2,438 to 3,047 m:  3

1,524 to 2,437 m:  4

914 to 1,523 m:  1

under 914 m:  5 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  3

1,524 to 2,437 m:  1

under 914 m:  2 (2000 est.)



Bangladesh    Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Coast Guard, Air Force, paramilitary
forces (includes Bangladesh Rifles, Bangladesh Ansars, Village
Defense Parties, National Cadet Corps), Armed Police battalions

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  36,005,553 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
21,362,279 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $559 million (FY96/97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.8% (FY96/97)



Bangladesh    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: a portion of the boundary with India is
indefinite; exchange of 151 enclaves along border with India subject
to ratification by Indian parliament; dispute with India over South
Talpatty/New Moore Island

Illicit drugs: transit country for illegal drugs produced in
neighboring countries

======================================================================

@Barbados



Barbados    Introduction

Background: The island was uninhabited when first settled by the
British in 1627. Its economy remained heavily dependent on sugar,
rum, and molasses production through most of the 20th century. In
the 1990s, tourism and manufacturing surpassed the sugar industry in
economic importance.



Barbados    Geography

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela

Geographic coordinates: 13 10 N, 59 32 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total:  430 sq km

land:  430 sq km

water:  0 sq km

Area - comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 97 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: tropical; rainy season (June to October)

Terrain: relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Mount Hillaby 336 m

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, natural gas

Land use: arable land:  37%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  5%

forests and woodland:  12%

other:  46% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: infrequent hurricanes; periodic landslides

Environment - current issues: pollution of coastal waters from waste
disposal by ships; soil erosion; illegal solid waste disposal
threatens contamination of aquifers

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Climate Change,
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified:  Biodiversity

Geography - note: easternmost Caribbean island



Barbados    People

Population: 275,330 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  21.68% (male 30,122; female 29,572)

15-64 years:  69.44% (male 93,283; female 97,915)

65 years and over:  8.88% (male 9,432; female 15,006) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.46% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 13.47 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 8.53 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.01 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.63 male(s)/female

total population:  0.93 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 12.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  73.25 years

male:  70.66 years

female:  75.86 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.64 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.17% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 1,800 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 130 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Barbadian(s) or Bajan (colloquial)

adjective:  Barbadian or Bajan (colloquial)

Ethnic groups: black 80%, white 4%, other 16%

Religions: Protestant 67% (Anglican 40%, Pentecostal 8%, Methodist
7%, other 12%), Roman Catholic 4%, none 17%, other 12%

Languages: English

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over has ever attended school

total population:  97.4%

male:  98%

female:  96.8% (1995 est.)



Barbados    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  none

conventional short form:  Barbados

Government type: parliamentary democracy; independent sovereign
state within the Commonwealth

Capital: Bridgetown

Administrative divisions: 11 parishes; Christ Church, Saint Andrew,
Saint George, Saint James, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Lucy,
Saint Michael, Saint Peter, Saint Philip, Saint Thomas; note - the
city of Bridgetown may be given parish status

Independence: 30 November 1966 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 November (1966)

Constitution: 30 November 1966

Legal system: English common law; no judicial review of legislative
acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6
February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Clifford
Straughn HUSBANDS (since 1 June 1996)

head of government:  Prime Minister Owen Seymour ARTHUR (since 6
September 1994); Deputy Prime Minister Billie MILLER (since 6
September 1994)

cabinet:  Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of
the prime minister

elections:  none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
appointed by the monarch; prime minister appointed by the governor
general

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate
(21-member body appointed by the governor general) and the House of
Assembly (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
serve five-year terms)

elections:  House of Assembly - last held 20 January 1999 (next to
be held by January 2004)

election results:  House of Assembly - percent of vote by party -
NA%; seats by party - BLP 26, DLP 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Judicature (judges are appointed
by the Service Commissions for the Judicial and Legal Services)

Political parties and leaders: Barbados Labor Party or BLP [Owen
ARTHUR]; Democratic Labor Party or DLP [David THOMPSON]; National
Democratic Party or NDP [Richard HAYNES]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Barbados Workers Union [Leroy
TROTMAN]; Clement Payne Labor Union [David COMMISSIONG]; People's
Progressive Movement [Eric SEALY]; Worker's Party of Barbados [Dr.
George BELLE]

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CCC, CDB,
ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS,
OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Michael KING

chancery:  2144 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:  [1] (202) 939-9200

FAX:  [1] (202) 332-7467

consulate(s) general:  Miami and New York

consulate(s):  Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
James A. DALEY

embassy:  Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce Building, Broad Street,
Bridgetown

mailing address:  P. O. Box 302, Bridgetown; FPO AA 34055

telephone:  [1] (246) 436-4950

FAX:  [1] (246) 429-5246

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
gold, and blue with the head of a black trident centered on the gold
band; the trident head represents independence and a break with the
past (the colonial coat of arms contained a complete trident)



Barbados    Economy

Economy - overview: Historically, the Barbadian economy had been
dependent on sugarcane cultivation and related activities, but
production in recent years has diversified into manufacturing and
tourism. The start of the Port Charles Marina project in
Speightstown helped the tourism industry continue to expand in
1996-2000. Offshore finance and information services are important
foreign exchange earners, and there is also a light manufacturing
sector. The government continues its efforts to reduce unemployment,
encourage direct foreign investment, and privatize remaining
state-owned enterprises. Growth should remain steady in 2001, with
new tourist facilities a plus factor.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $14,500 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  4%

industry:  16%

services:  80% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 136,000 (1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: services 75%, industry 15%, agriculture
10% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate: 11% (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues:  $725.5 million

expenditures:  $750.6 million, including capital expenditures of
$126.3 million (FY97/98 est.)

Industries: tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component assembly
for export

Industrial production growth rate: 0.8% (1996)

Electricity - production: 718 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  100%

hydro:  0%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 667.7 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, vegetables, cotton

Exports: $260 million (2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: sugar and molasses, rum, other foods and
beverages, chemicals, electrical components, clothing

Exports - partners: UK 14.8%, US 11.6%, Trinidad and Tobago 7.6%,
Venezuela 6.1%, Jamaica 5.8% (1998)

Imports: $800.3 million (2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: consumer goods, machinery, foodstuffs,
construction materials, chemicals, fuel, electrical components

Imports - partners: US 30.7%, Trinidad and Tobago 10.2%, Japan 8.3%,
UK 7.7%, Canada 2.2% (1998)

Debt - external: $425 million (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $9.1 million (1995)

Currency: Barbadian dollar (BBD)

Currency code: BBD

Exchange rates: Barbadian dollars per US dollar - 2.0000 (fixed rate
pegged to the US dollar)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Barbados    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 108,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 8,013 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment:  NA

domestic:  island-wide automatic telephone system

international:  satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic
Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Trinidad and Saint Lucia

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 237,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus two cable channels) (1997)

Televisions: 76,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .bb

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 19 (2000)

Internet users: 6,000 (2000)



Barbados    Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total:  1,600 km

paved:  1,578 km

unpaved:  22 km (1998)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Bridgetown, Speightstown (Port Charles Marina)

Merchant marine: total:  47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
671,545 GRT/1,125,635 DWT

ships by type:  bulk 10, cargo 28, combination bulk 1, container 2,
petroleum tanker 4, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 1

note:  includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag
of convenience: Canada 2, Hong Kong 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  1

over 3,047 m:  1 (2000 est.)



Barbados    Military

Military branches: Royal Barbados Defense Force (includes Ground
Forces and Coast Guard), Royal Barbados Police Force

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  78,069 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
53,576 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%



Barbados    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: one of many Caribbean transshipment points for
narcotics bound for Europe and the US

======================================================================

@Bassas da India



Bassas da India    Introduction

Background: This atoll is a volcanic rock surrounded by reefs and is
awash at high tide. A French possession since 1897, it was placed
under the administration of a commissioner residing in Reunion in
1968.



Bassas da India    Geography

Location: Southern Africa, islands in the southern Mozambique
Channel, about one-half of the way from Madagascar to Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 21 30 S, 39 50 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total:  0.2 sq km

land:  0.2 sq km

water:  0 sq km

Area - comparative: about one-third the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 35.2 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: tropical

Terrain: volcanic rock

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point:  unnamed location 2.4 m

Natural resources: none

Land use: arable land:  0%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  0%

forests and woodland:  0%

other:  100% (all rock)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: maritime hazard since it is usually under water
during high tide and surrounded by reefs; subject to periodic
cyclones

Environment - current issues: NA



Bassas da India    People

Population: uninhabited (July 2001 est.)



Bassas da India    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  none

conventional short form:  Bassas da India

Dependency status: possession of France; administered by a high
commissioner of the Republic, resident in Reunion

Legal system: the laws of France, where applicable, apply

Flag description: the flag of France is used



Bassas da India    Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity



Bassas da India    Transportation

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only



Bassas da India    Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France



Bassas da India    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claimed by Madagascar

======================================================================

@Belarus



Belarus    Introduction

Background: After seven decades as a constituent republic of the
USSR, Belarus attained its independence in 1991. It has retained
closer political and economic ties to Russia than any of the other
former Soviet republics. Belarus and Russia signed a treaty on a
two-state union on 8 December 1999 envisioning greater political and
economic integration but, to date, neither side has actively sought
to implement the accord.



Belarus    Geography

Location: Eastern Europe, east of Poland

Geographic coordinates: 53 00 N, 28 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area: total:  207,600 sq km

land:  207,600 sq km

water:  0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Kansas

Land boundaries: total:  3,098 km

border countries:  Latvia 141 km, Lithuania 502 km, Poland 605 km,
Russia 959 km, Ukraine 891 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between
continental and maritime

Terrain: generally flat and contains much marshland

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Nyoman River 90 m

highest point:  Dzyarzhynskaya Hara 346 m

Natural resources: forests, peat deposits, small quantities of oil
and natural gas

Land use: arable land:  29%

permanent crops:  1%

permanent pastures:  15%

forests and woodland:  34%

other:  21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: soil pollution from pesticide use;
southern part of the country contaminated with fallout from 1986
nuclear reactor accident at Chornobyl' in northern Ukraine

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Air Pollution,
Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:  Law of the Sea

Geography - note: landlocked



Belarus    People

Population: 10,350,194 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  17.93% (male 947,820; female 908,210)

15-64 years:  68.21% (male 3,428,920; female 3,631,290)

65 years and over:  13.86% (male 473,992; female 959,962) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.15% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 9.57 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 13.97 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.89 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.94 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.49 male(s)/female

total population:  0.88 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.38 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  68.14 years

male:  62.06 years

female:  74.52 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.28 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.28% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 14,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 400 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Belarusian(s)

adjective:  Belarusian

Ethnic groups: Byelorussian 81.2%, Russian 11.4%, Polish, Ukrainian,
and other 7.4%

Religions: Eastern Orthodox 80%, other (including Roman Catholic,
Protestant, Jewish, and Muslim) 20% (1997 est.)

Languages: Byelorussian, Russian, other

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  98%

male:  99%

female:  97% (1989 est.)



Belarus    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Republic of Belarus

conventional short form:  Belarus

local long form:  Respublika Byelarus'

local short form:  none

former:  Belorussian (Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type: republic

Capital: Minsk

Administrative divisions: 6 voblastsi (singular - voblasts') and one
municipality* (harady, singular - horad); Brestskaya (Brest),
Homyel'skaya (Homyel'), Horad Minsk*, Hrodzyenskaya (Hrodna),
Mahilyowskaya (Mahilyow), Minskaya, Vitsyebskaya (Vitsyebsk); note -
when using a place name with the adjectival ending 'skaya' the word
voblasts' should be added to the place name

note:  voblasti have the administrative center name following in
parentheses

Independence: 25 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 July (1944); note - 3 July
1944 was the date Minsk was liberated from German troops, 25 August
1991 was the date of independence from the Soviet Union

Constitution: 30 March 1994; revised by national referendum of 24
November 1996 giving the presidency greatly expanded powers and
became effective 27 November 1996

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  President Aleksandr LUKASHENKO
(since 20 July 1994)

head of government:  Prime Minister Vladimir YERMOSHIN (since 18
February 2000); First Deputy Prime Minister Andrey KOBYAKOV (since
13 March 2000); Deputy Prime Ministers Mikhail DEMCHUK (since 14
July 2000), Mikhail KHORSTOV (since 27 November 2000), Valeriy
KOKOREV (since 23 August 1994), Leonid KOZIK (since 4 February
1997), Gennadiy NOVITSKIY (since 11 February 1997), Aleksandr POPKOV
(since 10 November 1998)

cabinet:  Council of Ministers

elections:  president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
first election took place 23 June and 10 July 1994 (next to be held
NA; according to the 1994 constitution, the next election should
have been held in 1999, however LUKASHENKO extended his term to 2001
via the November 1996 referendum); prime minister and deputy prime
ministers appointed by the president

election results:  Aleksandr LUKASHENKO elected president; percent
of vote - Aleksandr LUKASHENKO 85%, Vyacheslav KEBICH 15%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Natsionalnoye Sobranie
consists of the Council of the Republic or Soviet Respubliki (64
seats) and the Chamber of Representatives or Palata Pretsaviteley
(110 seats)

elections:  last held October 2000 (next to be held NA)

election results:  party affiliation data unavailable; under present
political conditions party designations are meaningless

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the
president); Constitutional Court (half of the judges appointed by
the president and half appointed by the Chamber of Representatives)

Political parties and leaders: Agrarian Party or AP [Semyon
SHARETSKY, chairman]; Belarusian Communist Party or KPB [Viktor
CHIKIN, chairman]; Belarusian Ecological Green Party (merger of
Belarusian Ecological Party and Green Party of Belarus) [leader NA];
Belarusian Patriotic Movement (Belarusian Patriotic Party) or BPR
[Anatoliy BARANKEVICH, chairman]; Belarusian Popular Front or BNF
[Vintsuk VYACHORKA]; Belarusian Social-Democrat or SDBP [Nikolay
STATKEVICH, chairman]; Belarusian Social-Democratic Party Hromada
[Stanislav SHUSHKEVICH, chairman]; Belarusian Socialist Party
[Vyacheslav KUZNETSOV]; Civic Accord Bloc (United Civic Party) or
CAB [Stanislav BOGDANKEVICH, chairman]; Liberal Democratic Party or
LDPB [Sergei GAYDUKEVICH, chairman]; Party of Communists Belarusian
or PKB [Sergei KALYAKIN, chairman]; Republican Party of Labor and
Justice or RPPS [Anatoliy NETYLKIN, chairman]; Social-Democrat Party
of Popular Accord or PPA [Leanid SECHKA]; Women's Party Nadezhda
[Valentina POLEVIKOVA, chairperson]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: CCC, CEI, CIS, EAPC, EBRD,
ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Inmarsat,
Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO,
ITU, NAM, NSG, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Valeriy TSEPAKLO

chancery:  1619 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone:  [1] (202) 986-1604

FAX:  [1] (202) 986-1805

consulate(s) general:  New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Michael KOZAK

embassy:  46 Starovilenskaya St., Minsk 220002

mailing address:  use embassy street address

telephone:  [375] (17) 210-12-83

FAX:  [375] (17) 234-7853

Flag description: red horizontal band (top) and green horizontal
band one-half the width of the red band; a white vertical stripe on
the hoist side bears the Belarusian national ornament in red



Belarus    Economy

Economy - overview: Belarus has seen little structural reform since
1995, when President LUKASHENKO launched the country on the path of
"market socialism." In keeping with this policy, LUKASHENKO
reimposed administrative controls over prices and currency exchange
rates and expanded the state's right to intervene in the management
of private enterprise. In addition to the burdens imposed by
extremely high inflation, businesses have been subject to pressure
on the part of central and local governments, e.g., arbitrary
changes in regulations, numerous rigorous inspections, and
retroactive application of new business regulations prohibiting
practices that had been legal. Further economic problems are two
consecutive bad harvests, 1998-99, and persistent trade deficits.
Close relations with Russia, possibly leading to reunion, color the
pattern of economic developments. For the time being, Belarus
remains self-isolated from the West and its open-market economies.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $78.8 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $7,500 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  13%

industry:  46%

services:  41% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 22% (1995 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:
4.9%

highest 10%:  19.4% (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 200% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 4.8 million (2000)

Labor force - by occupation: industry and construction NA%,
agriculture and forestry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate: 2.1% officially registered unemployed (December
2000); large number of underemployed workers

Budget: revenues:  $4 billion

expenditures:  $4.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $180
million (1997 est.)

Industries: metal-cutting machine tools, tractors, trucks, earth
movers, motorcycles, television sets, chemical fibers, fertilizer,
textiles, radios, refrigerators

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 24.911 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  99.9%

hydro:  0.1%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 27.647 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 2.62 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 7.1 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: grain, potatoes, vegetables, sugar beets,
flax; beef, milk

Exports: $7.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals,
textiles, foodstuffs

Exports - partners: Russia 66%, Ukraine, Poland, Germany, Lithuania
(1998)

Imports: $8.3 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: mineral products, machinery and equipment,
metals, chemicals, foodstuffs

Imports - partners: Russia 54%, Ukraine, Germany, Poland, Lithuania
(1998)

Debt - external: $1 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $194.3 million (1995)

Currency: Belarusian ruble (BYB/BYR)

Currency code: BYB/BYR

Exchange rates: Belarusian rubles per US dollar - 1,180 (yearend
2000), 730,000 (15 December 1999), 139,000 (25 January 1999), 46,080
(second quarter 1998), 25,964 (1997), 15,500 (yearend 1996); note -
on 1 January 2000, the national currency was redenominated at one
new ruble to 2,000 old rubles

Fiscal year: calendar year



Belarus    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 2.313 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 8,167 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment:  the Ministry of
Telecommunications controls all telecommunications through its
carrier (a joint stock company) Beltelcom which is a monopoly

domestic:  local - Minsk has a digital metropolitan network and a
cellular NMT-450 network; waiting lists for telephones are long;
local service outside Minsk is neglected and poor; intercity -
Belarus has a partly developed fiber-optic backbone system presently
serving at least 13 major cities (1998); Belarus's fiber optics form
synchronous digital hierarchy rings through other countries'
systems; an inadequate analog system remains operational

international:  Belarus is a member of the Trans-European Line
(TEL), Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line, and has access to
the Trans-Siberia Line (TSL); three fiber-optic segments provide
connectivity to Latvia, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine; worldwide
service is available to Belarus through this infrastructure;
additional analog lines to Russia; Intelsat, Eutelsat, and
Intersputnik earth stations

Radio broadcast stations: AM 28, FM 37, shortwave 11 (1998)

Radios: 3.02 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 47 (plus 27 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions: 2.52 million (1997)

Internet country code: .by

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 4 (2000)

Internet users: 10,000 (2000)



Belarus    Transportation

Railways: total:  5,523 km

broad gauge:  5,523 km 1.520-m gauge (875 km electrified) (2000)

Highways: total:  63,355 km

paved:  60,567 km (these roads are said to be hard-surfaced, and
include, in addition to conventionally paved roads, some that are
surfaced with gravel or other coarse aggregate, making them
trafficable in all weather)

unpaved:  2,788 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and
are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1998)

Waterways: NA km; note - Belarus has extensive and widely used canal
and river systems

Pipelines: crude oil 1,470 km; refined products 1,100 km; natural
gas 1,980 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Mazyr

Airports: 136 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  33

over 3,047 m:  2

2,438 to 3,047 m:  19

1,524 to 2,437 m:  1

under 914 m:  11 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  103

over 3,047 m:  3

2,438 to 3,047 m:  10

1,524 to 2,437 m:  11

914 to 1,523 m:  14

under 914 m:  65 (2000 est.)



Belarus    Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, Air Defense Force, Interior
Ministry Troops, Border Guards

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  2,729,956 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
2,138,743 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  86,396
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $156 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY98)



Belarus    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis,
mostly for the domestic market; transshipment point for illicit
drugs to and via Russia, and to the Baltics and Western Europe

======================================================================

@Belgium



Belgium    Introduction

Background: Belgium became independent from the Netherlands in 1830
and was occupied by Germany during World Wars I and II. It has
prospered in the past half century as a modern, technologically
advanced European state and member of NATO and the EU. Tensions
between the Dutch-speaking Flemings of the north and the
French-speaking Walloons of the south have led in recent years to
constitutional amendments granting these regions formal recognition
and autonomy.



Belgium    Geography

Location: Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between France
and the Netherlands

Geographic coordinates: 50 50 N, 4 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total:  30,510 sq km

land:  30,230 sq km

water:  280 sq km

Area - comparative: about the size of Maryland

Land boundaries: total:  1,385 km

border countries:  France 620 km, Germany 167 km, Luxembourg 148 km,
Netherlands 450 km

Coastline: 66 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf:  median line with neighbors

exclusive fishing zone:  median line with neighbors (extends about
68 km from coast)

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy

Terrain: flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills,
rugged mountains of Ardennes Forest in southeast

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  North Sea 0 m

highest point:  Signal de Botrange 694 m

Natural resources: coal, natural gas

Land use: arable land:  24%

permanent crops:  1%

permanent pastures:  20%

forests and woodland:  21%

other:  34%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: flooding is a threat in areas of reclaimed coastal
land, protected from the sea by concrete dikes

Environment - current issues: the environment is exposed to intense
pressures from human activities: urbanization, dense transportation
network, industry, intense animal breeding and crop cultivation; air
and water pollution also have repercussions for neighboring
countries; uncertainties regarding federal and regional
responsibilities (now resolved) have impeded progress in tackling
environmental challenges

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Air Pollution,
Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources,
Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:  Air Pollution-Persistent Organic
Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: crossroads of Western Europe; majority of West
European capitals within 1,000 km of Brussels which is the seat of
both the EU and NATO



Belgium    People

Population: 10,258,762 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  17.48% (male 916,957; female 876,029)

15-64 years:  65.57% (male 3,390,145; female 3,336,908)

65 years and over:  16.95% (male 709,212; female 1,029,511) (2001
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.16% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 10.74 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 10.1 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.69 male(s)/female

total population:  0.96 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  77.96 years

male:  74.63 years

female:  81.46 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.61 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.15% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 7,700 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Belgian(s)

adjective:  Belgian

Ethnic groups: Fleming 58%, Walloon 31%, mixed or other 11%

Religions: Roman Catholic 75%, Protestant or other 25%

Languages: Dutch 58%, French 32%, German 10%, legally bilingual
(Dutch and French)

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  98%

male:  NA%

female:  NA%



Belgium    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Kingdom of Belgium

conventional short form:  Belgium

local long form:  Royaume de Belgique/Koninkrijk Belgie

local short form:  Belgique/Belgie

Government type: federal parliamentary democracy under a
constitutional monarch

Capital: Brussels

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (French: provinces, singular
- province; Flemish: provincien, singular - provincie); Antwerpen,
Brabant Wallon, Hainaut, Liege, Limburg, Luxembourg, Namur,
Oost-Vlaanderen, Vlaams Brabant, West-Vlaanderen; note - the
Brussels Capitol Region is not included within the 10 provinces

Independence: 21 July 1831 (from the Netherlands)

National holiday: Independence Day, 21 July (1831)

Constitution: 7 February 1831, last revised 14 July 1993; parliament
approved a constitutional package creating a federal state

Legal system: civil law system influenced by English constitutional
theory; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state:  King ALBERT II (since 9 August
1993); Heir Apparent Prince PHILIPPE, son of the monarch

head of government:  Prime Minister Guy VERHOFSTADT (since 13 July
1999)

cabinet:  Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch and approved
by Parliament

elections:  none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister
appointed by the monarch and then approved by Parliament

note:  government coalition - VLD, PRL, PS, SP, AGALEV, and ECOLO

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of a Senate or
Senaat in Dutch, Senat in French (71 seats; 40 members are directly
elected by popular vote, 31 are indirectly elected; members serve
four-year terms) and a Chamber of Deputies or Kamer van
Volksvertegenwoordigers in Dutch, Chambre des Representants in
French (150 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote on
the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

elections:  Senate and Chamber of Deputies - last held 13 June 1999
(next to be held in NA 2003)

election results:  Senate - percent of vote by party - VLD 15.4%,
CVP 14.7%, PRL 10.6%, PS 9.7%, VB 9.4%, SP 8.9%, ECOLO 7.4%, AGALEV
7.1%, PSC 6.0%, VU 5.1%; seats by party - VLD 11, CVP 10, PS 10, PRL
9, VB 6, SP 6, ECOLO 6, AGALEV 5, PSC 5, VU 3; Chamber of Deputies -
percent of vote by party - VLD 14.3%, CVP 14.1%, PS 10.2%, PRL
10.1%, VB 9.9%, SP 9.5%, ECOLO 7.4%, AGALEV 7.0%, PSC 5.9%, VU 5.6%;
seats by party - VLD 23, CVP 22, PS 19, PRL 18, VB 15, SP 14, ECOLO
11, PSC 10, AGALEV 9, VU 8, FN 1

note:  as a result of the 1993 constitutional revision that
furthered devolution into a federal state, there are now three
levels of government (federal, regional, and linguistic community)
with a complex division of responsibilities; this reality leaves six
governments each with its own legislative assembly; for other
acronyms of the listed parties see Political parties and leaders

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice or Hof van Cassatie (in
Dutch) or Cour de Cassation (in French) (judges are appointed for
life by the monarch)

Political parties and leaders: AGALEV (Flemish Greens) [Dos
GEYSELS]; ECOLO (Francophone Greens) [no president]; Flemish
Christian Democrats or CVP (Christian People's Party) [Stefaan DE
CLERCK, president]; Flemish Liberal Democrats or VLD [Karel DE
GUCHT, president]; Flemish Socialist Party or SP [Patrick JANSSENS,
president]; Francophone Christian Democrats or PSC (Social Christian
Party) [Joelle MILQUET, president]; Francophone Liberal Reformation
Party or PRL [Daniel DUCARME, president]; Francophone Socialist
Party or PS [Elio DI RUPO, president]; National Front or FN [Daniel
FERET]; Vlaams Blok or VB [Frank VANHECKE]; Volksunie or VU [leader
vacant]; other minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Christian and Socialist Trade
Unions; Federation of Belgian Industries; numerous other
associations representing bankers, manufacturers, middle-class
artisans, and the legal and medical professions; various
organizations represent the cultural interests of Flanders and
Wallonia; various peace groups such as Pax Christi and groups
representing immigrants

International organization participation: ACCT, AfDB, AsDB,
Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB,
EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NATO, NEA,
NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNMOP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WADB
(nonregional), WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Alexis REYN

chancery:  3330 Garfield Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:  [1] (202) 333-6900

FAX:  [1] (202) 333-3079

consulate(s) general:  Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
(vacant)

embassy:  27 Boulevard du Regent, B-1000 Brussels

mailing address:  PSC 82, Box 002, APO AE 09710

telephone:  [32] (2) 508-2111

FAX:  [32] (2) 511-2725

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side),
yellow, and red; the design was based on the flag of France



Belgium    Economy

Economy - overview: This modern private enterprise economy has
capitalized on its central geographic location, highly developed
transport network, and diversified industrial and commercial base.
Industry is concentrated mainly in the populous Flemish area in the
north, although the government is encouraging investment in the
southern region of Wallonia. With few natural resources, Belgium
must import substantial quantities of raw materials and export a
large volume of manufactures, making its economy unusually dependent
on the state of world markets. About three-quarters of its trade is
with other EU countries. Belgium's public debt is expected to fall
below 100% of GDP in 2002, and the government has succeeded in
balancing is budget. Belgium became a charter member of the European
Monetary Union (EMU) in January 1999. Economic growth in 2000 was
broad based, putting the government in a good position to pursue its
energy market liberalization policies and planned tax cuts.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $259.2 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.1% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $25,300 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  1.4%

industry:  26%

services:  72.6% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: 4%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:
3.7%

highest 10%:  20.2% (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.2% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 4.34 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: services 73%, industry 25%, agriculture
2% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 8.4% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues:  $114.8 billion

expenditures:  $117 billion, including capital expenditures of $7.6
billion (1999)

Industries: engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly,
processed food and beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles,
glass, petroleum, coal

Industrial production growth rate: 5.5% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 79.829 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  40.01%

hydro:  0.42%

nuclear:  58.33%

other:  1.24% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 75.089 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 8.207 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 9.055 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: sugar beets, fresh vegetables, fruits,
grain, tobacco; beef, veal, pork, milk

Exports: $181.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, diamonds,
metals and metal products

Exports - partners: EU 76% (Germany 18%, France 18%, Netherlands
12%, UK 10%) (1999)

Imports: $166 billion (c.i.f., 2000)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals
and metal products

Imports - partners: EU 71% (Germany 18%, Netherlands 17%, France
14%, UK 9%) (1999)

Debt - external: $28.3 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $764 million (1997)

Currency: Belgian franc (BEF); euro (EUR)

note:  on 1 January 1999, the EU introduced the euro as a common
currency that is now being used by financial institutions in Belgium
at a fixed rate of 40.3399 Belgian francs per euro and will replace
the local currency for all transactions in 2002

Currency code: BEF; EUR

Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.0659 (January 2001), 1.0854
(2000), 0.9386 (1999); Belgian francs per US dollar - 34.77 (January
1999), 36.229 (1998), 35.774 (1997), 30.962 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Belgium    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 4.769 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 974,494 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment:  highly developed,
technologically advanced, and completely automated domestic and
international telephone and telegraph facilities

domestic:  nationwide cellular telephone system; extensive cable
network; limited microwave radio relay network

international:  5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Eutelsat

Radio broadcast stations: FM 79, AM 7, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 8.075 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 25 (plus 10 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 4.72 million (1997)

Internet country code: .be

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 61 (2000)

Internet users: 2.7 million (2000)



Belgium    Transportation

Railways: total:  3,437 km (2,446 km electrified; 2,563 km double
track)

standard gauge:  3,437 km 1.435-m gauge (1998)

Highways: total:  145,774 km

paved:  116,182 km (including 1,674 km of expressways)

unpaved:  29,592 km (1999)

Waterways: 2,043 km (1,528 km in regular commercial use)

Pipelines: crude oil 161 km; petroleum products 1,167 km; natural
gas 3,300 km

Ports and harbors: Antwerp (one of the world's busiest ports),
Brugge, Gent, Hasselt, Liege, Mons, Namur, Oostende, Zeebrugge

Merchant marine: total:  21 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
32,912 GRT/53,161 DWT

ships by type:  cargo 6, chemical tanker 9, petroleum tanker 6 (2000
est.)

Airports: 42 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  24

over 3,047 m:  6

2,438 to 3,047 m:  8

1,524 to 2,437 m:  3

914 to 1,523 m:  1

under 914 m:  6 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  18

914 to 1,523 m:  2

under 914 m:  16 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Belgium    Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie,
Medical Service

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  2,517,596 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
2,079,624 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  63,247
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2.5 billion (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY99)



Belgium    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: growing producer of synthetic drugs; transit point
for US-bound ecstasy; source of precursor chemicals for South
American cocaine processors; transshipment point for cocaine,
heroin, hashish, and marijuana entering Western Europe

======================================================================

@Belize



Belize    Introduction

Background: Territorial disputes between the UK and Guatemala
delayed the independence of Belize (formerly British Honduras) until
1981. Guatemala refused to recognize the new nation until 1992.
Tourism has become the mainstay of the economy. The country remains
plagued by high unemployment, growing involvement in the South
American drug trade, and increased urban crime.



Belize    Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between
Guatemala and Mexico

Geographic coordinates: 17 15 N, 88 45 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total:  22,966 sq km

land:  22,806 sq km

water:  160 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries: total:  516 km

border countries:  Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 250 km

Coastline: 386 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM in the north, 3 NM in the south; note - from
the mouth of the Sarstoon River to Ranguana Cay, Belize's
territorial sea is 3 NM; according to Belize's Maritime Areas Act,
1992, the purpose of this limitation is to provide a framework for
the negotiation of a definitive agreement on territorial differences
with Guatemala

Climate: tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to
November); dry season (February to May)

Terrain: flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point:  Victoria Peak 1,160 m

Natural resources: arable land potential, timber, fish, hydropower

Land use: arable land:  10%

permanent crops:  1%

permanent pastures:  2%

forests and woodland:  84%

other:  3% (2000 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent, devastating hurricanes (September to
December) and coastal flooding (especially in south)

Environment - current issues: deforestation; water pollution from
sewage, industrial effluents, agricultural runoff; solid waste
disposal

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:  none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: only country in Central America without a
coastline on the North Pacific Ocean



Belize    People

Population: 256,062 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  42.04% (male 54,876; female 52,780)

15-64 years:  54.43% (male 70,534; female 68,837)

65 years and over:  3.53% (male 4,403; female 4,632) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.7% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 31.69 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 4.7 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.95 male(s)/female

total population:  1.03 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 25.14 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  71.19 years

male:  68.91 years

female:  73.57 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.05 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 2.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 2,400 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 170 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Belizean(s)

adjective:  Belizean

Ethnic groups: mestizo 43.7%, Creole 29.8%, Maya 10%, Garifuna 6.2%,
other 10.3%

Religions: Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 30% (Anglican 12%,
Methodist 6%, Mennonite 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Pentecostal
2%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1%, other 2%), none 2%, other 6% (1980)

Languages: English (official), Spanish, Mayan, Garifuna (Carib),
Creole

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  70.3%

male:  70.3%

female:  70.3% (1991 est.)

note:  other sources list the literacy rate as high as 75%



Belize    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  none

conventional short form:  Belize

former:  British Honduras

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Belmopan

Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal, Orange
Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo

Independence: 21 September 1981 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 21 September (1981)

Constitution: 21 September 1981

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6
February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Colville YOUNG
(since 17 November 1993)

head of government:  Prime Minister Said MUSA (since 27 August
1998); Deputy Prime Minister John BRICENO (since 1 September 1998)

cabinet:  Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of
the prime minister

elections:  none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
appointed by the monarch; governor general appoints the member of
the House of Representatives who is leader of the majority party to
be prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly consists of the
Senate (eight members, five appointed on the advice of the prime
minister, two on the advice of the leader of the opposition, and one
by the governor general; members are appointed for five-year terms);
and the House of Representatives (29 seats; members are elected by
direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections:  House of Representatives - last held 27 August 1998
(next to be held by NA August 2003)

election results:  percent of vote by party - PUP 59.2%, UDP 40.8%;
seats by party - PUP 26, UDP 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (the chief justice is appointed by
the governor general on the advice of the prime minister)

Political parties and leaders: People's United Party or PUP [Said
MUSA]; United Democratic Party or UDP [Manuel ESQUIVEL, Dean BARROW,
Doug SINGH]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Society for the Promotion of
Education and Research or SPEAR [Diane HAYLOCK]; United Worker's
Front

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB,
ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC,
IOM, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Lisa M. SHOMAN

chancery:  2535 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:  [1] (202) 332-9636

FAX:  [1] (202) 332-6888

consulate(s) general:  Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Carolyn CURIEL

embassy:  29 Gabourel Lane and Hutson Street, Belize City

mailing address:  P. O. Box 286, Unit 7401, APO AA 34025

telephone:  [501] (2) 77161

FAX:  [501] (2) 30802

Flag description: blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and
the bottom edges; centered is a large white disk bearing the coat of
arms; the coat of arms features a shield flanked by two workers in
front of a mahogany tree with the related motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I
Flourish in the Shade) on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a
green garland



Belize    Economy

Economy - overview: The small, essentially private enterprise
economy is based primarily on agriculture, agro-based industry, and
merchandising, with tourism and construction assuming greater
importance. Sugar, the chief crop, accounts for nearly half of
exports, while the banana industry is the country's largest
employer. The government's tough austerity program in 1997 resulted
in an economic slowdown that continued in 1998. The trade deficit
has been growing, mostly as a result of low export prices for sugar
and bananas. The tourist and construction sectors strengthened in
early 1999, supporting growth of 6% in 1999 and 4% in 2000. Aided by
international donors, the government's key short-term objective
remains the reduction of poverty.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $790 million (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,200 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  18%

industry:  24%

services:  58% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: 33% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 71,000

note:  shortage of skilled labor and all types of technical
personnel (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 38%, industry 32%, services
30% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 12.8% (1999)

Budget: revenues:  $157 million

expenditures:  $279 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999 est.)

Industries: garment production, food processing, tourism,
construction

Industrial production growth rate: 4.6% (1999)

Electricity - production: 185 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  56.76%

hydro:  43.24%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 172.1 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: bananas, coca, citrus, sugarcane; lumber;
fish, cultured shrimp

Exports: $235.7 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: sugar, bananas, citrus, clothing, fish
products, molasses, wood

Exports - partners: US 42%, UK 33%, EU 12%, Caricom 4.8%, Canada 2%,
Mexico 1% (1999)

Imports: $413 million (c.i.f., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transportation equipment,
manufactured goods; food, beverages, tobacco; fuels, chemicals,
pharmaceuticals

Imports - partners: US 58%, Mexico 12%, UK 5% EU 5%, Central America
5%, Caricom 4% (1998)

Debt - external: $338 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: Belizean dollar (BZD)

Currency code: BZD

Exchange rates: Belizean dollars per US dollar - 2.0000 (fixed rate
pegged to the US dollar)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Belize    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 31,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 3,023 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment:  above-average system

domestic:  trunk network depends primarily on microwave radio relay

international:  satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 12, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 133,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997)

Televisions: 41,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .bz

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: 12,000 (2000)



Belize    Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total:  2,872 km

paved:  488 km

unpaved:  2,384 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 825 km (river network used by shallow-draft craft;
seasonally navigable)

Ports and harbors: Belize City, Big Creek, Corozol, Punta Gorda

Merchant marine: total:  402 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
1,575,851 GRT/2,241,731 DWT

ships by type:  bulk 27, cargo 265, chemical tanker 6, combination
ore/oil 1, container 14, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum
tanker 56, refrigerated cargo 18, roll on/roll off 7, short-sea
passenger 1, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 3

note:  includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag
of convenience: Cuba 1, Singapore 1, US 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 44 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  4

1,524 to 2,437 m:  1

914 to 1,523 m:  1

under 914 m:  2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  40

2,438 to 3,047 m:  1

914 to 1,523 m:  10

under 914 m:  29 (2000 est.)



Belize    Military

Military branches: Belize Defense Force (includes Army, Maritime
Wing, Air Wing, and Volunteer Guard)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  62,698 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
37,174 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  2,847
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $17 million (FY98/99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.4% (FY98/99)



Belize    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Guatemala periodically asserts claims to
territory in southern Belize; to deter cross-border squatting, both
states in 2000 agreed to a "line of adjacency" based on the de facto
boundary, which is not recognized by Guatemala

Illicit drugs: minor transshipment point for cocaine; small-scale
illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; minor
money-laundering center

======================================================================

@Benin



Benin    Introduction

Background: Dahomey gained its independence from France in 1960; the
name was changed to Benin in 1975. From 1974 to 1989 the country was
a socialist state; free elections were reestablished in 1991.



Benin    Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean,
between Nigeria and Togo

Geographic coordinates: 9 30 N, 2 15 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total:  112,620 sq km

land:  110,620 sq km

water:  2,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries: total:  1,989 km

border countries:  Burkina Faso 306 km, Niger 266 km, Nigeria 773
km, Togo 644 km

Coastline: 121 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea:  200 NM

Climate: tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low
mountains

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Mont Sokbaro 658 m

Natural resources: small offshore oil deposits, limestone, marble,
timber

Land use: arable land:  13%

permanent crops:  4%

permanent pastures:  4%

forests and woodland:  31%

other:  48% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north in
winter

Environment - current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water;
poaching threatens wildlife populations; deforestation;
desertification

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:  none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: no natural harbors



Benin    People

Population: 6,590,782

note:  estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  47.32% (male 1,574,124; female 1,544,741)

15-64 years:  50.38% (male 1,607,900; female 1,712,360)

65 years and over:  2.3% (male 64,756; female 86,901) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.97% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 44.23 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 14.51 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.94 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.75 male(s)/female

total population:  0.97 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 89.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  49.94 years

male:  49.02 years

female:  50.88 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.23 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 2.45% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 70,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 5,600 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Beninese (singular and plural)

adjective:  Beninese

Ethnic groups: African 99% (42 ethnic groups, most important being
Fon, Adja, Yoruba, Bariba), Europeans 5,500

Religions: indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 30%, Muslim 20%

Languages: French (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common
vernaculars in south), tribal languages (at least six major ones in
north)

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  37.5%

male:  52.2%

female:  23.6% (2000)



Benin    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Republic of Benin

conventional short form:  Benin

local long form:  Republique du Benin

local short form:  Benin

former:  Dahomey

Government type: republic under multiparty democratic rule; dropped
Marxism-Leninism December 1989; democratic reforms adopted February
1990; transition to multiparty system completed 4 April 1991

Capital: Porto-Novo is the official capital; Cotonou is the seat of
government

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces; Atakora, Atlantique, Borgou,
Mono, Oueme, Zou; note - six additional provinces have been reported
but not confirmed; they are Alibori, Collines, Couffo, Donga,
Littoral, and Plateau; moreover, the term "province" may have been
changed to "department"

Independence: 1 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 1 August (1960)

Constitution: December 1990

Legal system: based on French civil law and customary law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  President Mathieu KEREKOU (since
4 April 1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and
head of government

head of government:  President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4 April 1996);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government

cabinet:  Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections:  president reelected by popular vote for a five-year
term; runoff election held 22 March 2001 (next to be held NA March
2006)

election results:  Mathieu KEREKOU reelected president; percent of
vote - Mathieu KEREKOU 84.1%, Bruno AMOUSSOU 15.9%

note:  the four top-ranking contenders following the first round
presidential elections were: Mathieu KEREKOU (incumbent) 45.4%,
Nicephore SOGOLO (former president) 27.1%, Adrien HOUNGBEDJI
(National Assembly Speaker) 12.6%, and Bruno AMOUSSOU (Minister of
State) 8.6%; the second round balloting, originally scheduled for 18
March, was postponed four days because both SOGOLO and HOUNGBEDJI
withdrew alleging electoral fraud; this left KEREKOU to run against
his own Minister of State, AMOUSSOU, in what was termed a "friendly
match"

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (83 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
serve four-year terms)

elections:  last held 30 March 1999 (next to be held NA March 2003)

election results:  percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
RB 27, PRD 11, FARD-ALAFIA 10, PSD 9, MADEP 6, E'toile 4, Alliance
IPD 4, Car-DUNYA 3, MERCI 2, other 7

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court or Cour Constitutionnelle;
Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; High Court of Justice

Political parties and leaders: African Movement for Democracy and
Progress or MADEP [Sefou FAGBOHOUN]; Alliance for Democracy and
Progress or ADP [Sylvain Adekpedjou AKINDES]; Alliance of the Social
Democratic Party or PSD and the National Union for Solidarity and
Progress or UNSP [Bruno AMOUSSOU]; Cameleon Alliance or AC [leader
NA]; Car-DUNYA [Saka SALEY]; Communist Party of Benin or PCB [Pascal
FANTONDJI, first secretary]; Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Adrien
HOUNGBEDJI]; Front for Renewal and Development or FARD-ALAFIA
[Jerome Sakia KINA]; Impulse for Progress and Democracy or IPD
[Bertin BORNA]; Liberal Democrats' Rally for National
Reconstruction-Vivoten or RDL-Vivoten [Severin ADJOVI]; Movement for
Citizens' Commitment and Awakening or MERCI [Severin ADJOVI]; New
Generation for the Republic or NGR [Paul DOSSOU]; Our Common Cause
or NCC [Francois Odjo TANKPINON]; Party Democratique du Benin or PDB
[Col. Soule DANKORO]; Rally for Democracy and Pan-Africanism or RDP
[Dominique HOYMINOU, Dr. Giles Auguste MINONTIN]; Renaissance Party
du Benin or RB [Nicephore SOGLO]; The Star Alliance (Alliance
E'toile) [Sacca LAFIA]; Union for National Democracy and Solidarity
or UDS [Adamou N'Diaye MAMA]

note:  the Coalition of Democratic Forces is an alliance of parties
and organizations supporting President KEREKOU [Gatien HOUNGBEDJI]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
ISO (subscriber), ITU, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNTAET, UPU, WADB, WADB (regional),
WAEMU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Lucien Edgar TONOUKOUIN

chancery:  2737 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:  [1] (202) 232-6656

FAX:  [1] (202) 265-1996

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Pamela E. BRIDGEWATER

embassy:  Rue Caporal Bernard Anani, Cotonou

mailing address:  B. P. 2012, Cotonou

telephone:  [229] 30-06-50, 30-05-13, 30-17-92

FAX:  [229] 30-14-39, 30-19-74

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red
with a vertical green band on the hoist side



Benin    Economy

Economy - overview: The economy of Benin remains underdeveloped and
dependent on subsistence agriculture, cotton production, and
regional trade. Growth in real output averaged a sound 5% in
1996-99, but a rapid population rise offset much of this growth.
Inflation has subsided over the past several years. Commercial and
transport activities, which make up a large part of GDP, are
vulnerable to developments in Nigeria, particularly fuel shortages.
The Paris Club and bilateral creditors have eased the external debt
situation in recent years. While high fuel prices constrained growth
in 2000, increased cotton production - enabled by a major
restructuring program - and an expansion of the Cotonou port, may
lead to increased growth in 2001.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $6.6 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,030 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  37.9%

industry:  13.5%

services:  48.6% (1999)

Population below poverty line: 37.2% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (2000 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues:  $299 million

expenditures:  $445 million, including capital expenditures of $14
million (1995 est.)

Industries: textiles, cigarettes; beverages, food; construction
materials, petroleum

Industrial production growth rate: 6.9% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 226 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  24.78%

hydro:  75.22%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 510.2 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 300 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: corn, sorghum, cassava (tapioca), yams,
beans, rice, cotton, palm oil, peanuts; poultry, livestock

Exports: $396 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: cotton, crude oil, palm products, cocoa

Exports - partners: Brazil 14%, Libya 5%, Indonesia 4%, Italy 4%
(1999)

Imports: $566 million (c.i.f., 1999)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, tobacco, petroleum products,
capital goods

Imports - partners: France 38%, China 16%, UK 9%, Cote d'Ivoire 5%
(1999)

Debt - external: $1.6 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $274.6 million (1997)

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note -
responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States

Currency code: XOF

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US
dollar - 699.21 (January 2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95
(1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996); note - from 1 January 1999,
the XOF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF per euro

Fiscal year: calendar year



Benin    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 36,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 4,295 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment:  NA

domestic:  fair system of open wire, microwave radio relay, and
cellular connections

international:  satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic
Ocean); submarine cable

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 4 (1998)

Radios: 620,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (one privately-owned) (1997)

Televisions: 60,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .bj

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 10,000 (2000)



Benin    Transportation

Railways: total:  578 km (single track)

narrow gauge:  578 km 1.000-m gauge (2000)

Highways: total:  6,787 km

paved:  1,357 km (including 10 km of expressways)

unpaved:  5,430 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: streams navigable along small sections, important only
locally

Ports and harbors: Cotonou, Porto-Novo

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 5 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  1

1,524 to 2,437 m:  1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  4

2,438 to 3,047 m:  1

1,524 to 2,437 m:  1

914 to 1,523 m:  2 (2000 est.)



Benin    Military

Military branches: Armed Forces (includes Army, Navy, Air Force),
National Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  1,455,433

females age 15-49:  1,489,947

note:  both sexes are liable for military service (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
743,980

females age 15-49:  755,149 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  70,088

females:  73,618 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $27 million (FY96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY96)



Benin    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics associated with
Nigerian trafficking organizations and most commonly destined for
Western Europe and the US

======================================================================

@Bermuda



Bermuda    Introduction

Background: Bermuda was first settled in 1609 by shipwrecked English
colonists headed for Virginia. Tourism to the island to escape North
American winters first developed in Victorian times. Bermuda has
developed into a highly successful offshore financial center. A
referendum on independence was soundly defeated in 1995.



Bermuda    Geography

Location: North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic
Ocean, east of North Carolina (US)

Geographic coordinates: 32 20 N, 64 45 W

Map references: North America

Area: total:  58.8 sq km

land:  58.8 sq km

water:  0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 103 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in
winter

Terrain: low hills separated by fertile depressions

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Town Hill 76 m

Natural resources: limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism

Land use: arable land:  6%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  0%

forests and woodland:  0%

other:  94% (55% developed, 39% rural/open space) (1997 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes (June to November)

Environment - current issues: asbestos disposal; water pollution;
preservation of open space

Geography - note: consists of about 360 small coral islands with
ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land,
reclaimed and otherwise, was leased by US Government from 1941 to
1995



Bermuda    People

Population: 63,503 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  19.4% (male 6,091; female 6,230)

15-64 years:  69.43% (male 21,783; female 22,309)

65 years and over:  11.17% (male 3,073; female 4,017) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.74% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 12.16 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.42 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  0.94 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  0.98 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.76 male(s)/female

total population:  0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  77.12 years

male:  75.04 years

female:  79.06 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.81 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun:  Bermudian(s)

adjective:  Bermudian

Ethnic groups: black 58%, white 36%, other 6%

Religions: non-Anglican Protestant 39%, Anglican 27%, Roman Catholic
15%, other 19%

Languages: English (official), Portuguese

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  98%

male:  98%

female:  99% (1970 est.)



Bermuda    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  none

conventional short form:  Bermuda

former:  Somers Islands

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK

Government type: parliamentary British overseas territory with
internal self-government

Capital: Hamilton

Administrative divisions: 9 parishes and 2 municipalities*;
Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*,
Saint Georges, Sandys, Smiths, Southampton, Warwick

Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday: Bermuda Day, 24 May

Constitution: 8 June 1968, amended 1989

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6
February 1952), represented by Governor Thorold MASEFIELD (since NA
June 1997)

head of government:  Premier Jennifer SMITH (since 10 November 1998)

cabinet:  Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor

elections:  none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by
the monarch; governor invites leader of largest party in Parliament
to form a government as premier

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (an
11-member body appointed by the governor) and the House of Assembly
(40 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year
terms)

elections:  last held 9 November 1998 (next to be held NA November
2003)

election results:  percent of vote by party - PLP 54%, UBP 44%, NLP
1%, independents 1%; seats by party - PLP 26, UBP 14

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrate Courts

Political parties and leaders: National Liberal Party or NLP
[Dessaline WALDRON]; Progressive Labor Party or PLP [Jennifer
SMITH]; United Bermuda Party or UBP [Pamela GORDON]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Bermuda Industrial Union or
BIU [Derrick BURGESS]; Bermuda Public Services Association or BPSA
[Betty CHRISTOPHER]

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), CCC,
ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), IOC

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Consul
General Lawrence D. OWEN

consulate(s) general:  Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire,
Hamilton

mailing address:  P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; American Consulate
General Hamilton, Department of State, Washington, DC 20520-5300

telephone:  [1] (441) 295-1342

FAX:  [1] (441) 295-1592

Flag description: red, with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant and the Bermudian coat of arms (white and green
shield with a red lion holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking
of the ship Sea Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer
half of the flag



Bermuda    Economy

Economy - overview: Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita
incomes in the world, having successfully exploited its location by
providing financial services for international firms and luxury
tourist facilities for 360,000 visitors annually. The tourist
industry, which accounts for an estimated 28% of GDP, attracts 84%
of its business from North America. The industrial sector is small,
and agriculture is severely limited by a lack of suitable land.
About 80% of food needs are imported. International business
contributes over 60% of Bermuda's economic output; a failed
independence vote in late 1995 can be partially attributed to
Bermudian fears of scaring away foreign firms. Government economic
priorities are the further strengthening of the tourist and
international financial sectors.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.1 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $33,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  1%

industry:  10%

services:  89% (1995 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.7% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 35,296 (1997)

Labor force - by occupation: clerical 23%, services 22%, laborers
17%, professional and technical 17%, administrative and managerial
12%, sales 7%, agriculture and fishing 2% (1996)

Unemployment rate: NEGL% (1995)

Budget: revenues:  $504.6 million

expenditures:  $537 million, including capital expenditures of $75
million (FY97/98)

Industries: tourism, finance, insurance, structural concrete
products, paints, perfumes, pharmaceuticals, ship repairing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 550 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  100%

hydro:  0%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 511.5 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy
products

Exports: $56 million (2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: reexports of pharmaceuticals

Exports - partners: UK 29.5%, US 9.8% (1997)

Imports: $739 million (2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment,
construction materials, chemicals, food and live animals

Imports - partners: US 34%, UK 9%, Mexico 8% (1997)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $27.9 million (1995)

Currency: Bermudian dollar (BMD)

Currency code: BMD

Exchange rates: Bermudian dollar per US dollar - 1.0000 (fixed rate
pegged to the US dollar)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Bermuda    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 52,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 7,980 (1996)

Telephone system: general assessment:  NA

domestic:  modern, fully automatic telephone system

international:  3 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 82,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (1997)

Televisions: 66,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .bm

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 20 (2000)

Internet users: 25,000 (2000)



Bermuda    Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total:  225 km

paved:  225 km

unpaved:  0 km

note:  in addition, there are 232 km of paved and unpaved roads that
are privately owned (1997)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Hamilton, Saint George

Merchant marine: total:  105 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
5,836,538 GRT/9,728,045 DWT

ships by type:  bulk 27, cargo 4, container 15, liquefied gas 7,
passenger 2, petroleum tanker 23, refrigerated cargo 16, roll
on/roll off 8, short-sea passenger 3

note:  includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag
of convenience: Canada 10, Hong Kong 10, Japan 1, Nigeria 4, Saudi
Arabia 1, Sweden 3, Switzerland 2, UK 10, US 7 (2000 est.)

Airports: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  1

2,438 to 3,047 m:  1 (2000 est.)



Bermuda    Military

Military branches: Bermuda Regiment, Bermuda Police Force, Bermuda
Reserve Constabulary

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



Bermuda    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Bhutan



Bhutan    Introduction

Background: Under British influence a monarchy was set up in 1907;
three years later a treaty was signed whereby the country became a
British protectorate. Independence was attained in 1949, with India
subsequently guiding foreign relations and supplying aid. A refugee
issue of some 100,000 Bhutanese in Nepal remains unresolved; 90% of
these displaced persons are housed in seven United Nations Office of
the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) camps. Maoist Assamese
separatists from India, who have established themselves in the
southeast portion of Bhutan, have drawn Indian cross-border
incursions.



Bhutan    Geography

Location: Southern Asia, between China and India

Geographic coordinates: 27 30 N, 90 30 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total:  47,000 sq km

land:  47,000 sq km

water:  0 sq km

Area - comparative: about half the size of Indiana

Land boundaries: total:  1,075 km

border countries:  China 470 km, India 605 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot
summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in
Himalayas

Terrain: mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Drangme Chhu 97 m

highest point:  Kula Kangri 7,553 m

Natural resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide

Land use: arable land:  2%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  6%

forests and woodland:  66%

other:  26% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 340 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: violent storms coming down from the Himalayas are
the source of the country's name which translates as Land of the
Thunder Dragon; frequent landslides during the rainy season

Environment - current issues: soil erosion; limited access to
potable water

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban

signed, but not ratified:  Law of the Sea

Geography - note: landlocked; strategic location between China and
India; controls several key Himalayan mountain passes



Bhutan    People

Population: 2,049,412 (July 2001 est.)

note:  other estimates range as low as 800,000

Age structure: 0-14 years:  39.99% (male 424,832; female 394,725)

15-64 years:  56.05% (male 591,152; female 557,498)

65 years and over:  3.96% (male 41,125; female 40,080) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.17% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 35.73 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 14.03 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.08 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.06 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  1.03 male(s)/female

total population:  1.07 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 108.89 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  52.79 years

male:  53.16 years

female:  52.41 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.07 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: less than 100 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun:  Bhutanese (singular and plural)

adjective:  Bhutanese

Ethnic groups: Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35%, indigenous or migrant
tribes 15%

Religions: Lamaistic Buddhist 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced
Hinduism 25%

Languages: Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan
dialects, Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  42.2%

male:  56.2%

female:  28.1% (1995 est.)



Bhutan    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Kingdom of Bhutan

conventional short form:  Bhutan

Government type: monarchy; special treaty relationship with India

Capital: Thimphu

Administrative divisions: 18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and
plural); Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang, Daga, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi,
Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar,
Shemgang, Tashigang, Thimphu, Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang

note:  there may be two new districts named Gasa and Yangtse

Independence: 8 August 1949 (from India)

National holiday: National Day (Ugyen WANGCHUCK became first
hereditary king), 17 December (1907)

Constitution: no written constitution or bill of rights; note -
Bhutan uses 1953 Royal decree for the Constitution of the National
Assembly; on 7 July 1998, a Royal edict was ratified giving the
National Assembly additional powers

Legal system: based on Indian law and English common law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: each family has one vote in village-level elections

Executive branch: chief of state:  King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK
(since 24 July 1972)

head of government:  Chairman of the Council of Ministers Sangay
NGEDUP (since NA 1999)

cabinet:  Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog) nominated by the
monarch, approved by the National Assembly; members serve fixed,
five-year terms; note - there is also a Royal Advisory Council
(Lodoi Tsokde), members nominated by the monarch

elections:  none; the monarch is hereditary, but democratic reforms
in July 1998 give the National Assembly authority to remove the
monarch with two-thirds vote

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Tshogdu (150
seats; 105 elected from village constituencies, 10 represent
religious bodies, and 35 are designated by the monarch to represent
government and other secular interests; members serve three-year
terms)

elections:  last held NA (next to be held NA)

election results:  NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Appeal (the monarch); High Court
(judges appointed by the monarch)

Political parties and leaders: no legal parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Buddhist clergy; ethnic
Nepalese organizations leading militant antigovernment campaign;
Indian merchant community; United Front for Democracy (exiled)

International organization participation: AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF, Intelsat, IOC, IOM (observer),
ITU, NAM, OPCW, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note - Bhutan has a
Permanent Mission to the UN; address: 2 United Nations Plaza, 27th
Floor, New York, NY 10017; telephone [1] (212) 826-1919; the
Bhutanese mission to the UN has consular jurisdiction in the US

consulate(s) general:  New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US and Bhutan have no
formal diplomatic relations, although informal contact is maintained
between the Bhutanese and US Embassy in New Delhi (India)

Flag description: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side
corner; the upper triangle is yellow and the lower triangle is
orange; centered along the dividing line is a large black and white
dragon facing away from the hoist side



Bhutan    Economy

Economy - overview: The economy, one of the world's smallest and
least developed, is based on agriculture and forestry, which provide
the main livelihood for more than 90% of the population. Agriculture
consists largely of subsistence farming and animal husbandry. Rugged
mountains dominate the terrain and make the building of roads and
other infrastructure difficult and expensive. The economy is closely
aligned with India's through strong trade and monetary links. The
industrial sector is technologically backward, with most production
of the cottage industry type. Most development projects, such as
road construction, rely on Indian migrant labor. Bhutan's hydropower
potential and its attraction for tourists are key resources. The
Bhutanese Government has made some progress in expanding the
nation's productive base and improving social welfare. Model
education, social, and environment programs in Bhutan are underway
with support from multilateral development organizations. Each
economic program takes into account the government's desire to
protect the country's environment and cultural traditions. Detailed
controls and uncertain policies in areas like industrial licensing,
trade, labor, and finance continue to hamper foreign investment.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.3 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,100 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  38%

industry:  37%

services:  25% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (2000 est.)

Labor force: NA

note:  massive lack of skilled labor

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry
and commerce 2%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues:  $146 million

expenditures:  $152 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY95/96 est.)

note:  the government of India finances nearly three-fifths of
Bhutan's budget expenditures

Industries: cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic
beverages, calcium carbide

Industrial production growth rate: 9.3% (1996 est.)

Electricity - production: 1.856 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  0.05%

hydro:  99.95%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 191.1 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 1.55 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 15 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: rice, corn, root crops, citrus, foodgrains;
dairy products, eggs

Exports: $154 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: cardamom, gypsum, timber, handicrafts,
cement, fruit, electricity (to India), precious stones, spices

Exports - partners: India 94%, Bangladesh

Imports: $269 million (c.i.f., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and
parts, vehicles, fabrics, rice

Imports - partners: India 77%, Japan, UK, Germany, US

Debt - external: $120 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $73.8 million (1995)

Currency: ngultrum (BTN); Indian rupee (INR)

Currency code: BTN; INR

Exchange rates: ngultrum per US dollar - 46.540 (January 2001),
44.942 (2000), 43.055 (1999), 41.259 (1998), 36.313 (1997), 35.433
(1996); note - the Bhutanese ngultrum is at par with the Indian
rupee which is also legal tender

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Bhutan    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 6,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: general assessment:  NA

domestic:  domestic telephone service is very poor with few
telephones in use

international:  international telephone and telegraph service is by
landline through India; a satellite earth station was planned (1990)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 37,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1997)

Televisions: 11,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .bt

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

Internet users: 500 (2000)



Bhutan    Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total:  3,285 km

paved:  1,994 km

unpaved:  1,291 km (1996)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  1

1,524 to 2,437 m:  1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  1

914 to 1,523 m:  1 (2000 est.)



Bhutan    Military

Military branches: Royal Bhutan Army, National Militia, Royal Bhutan
Police, Royal Body Guards, Forest Guards (paramilitary)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  504,342 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
269,251 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  21,167
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%



Bhutan    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: refugee issue over the presence in Nepal
of approximately 98,700 Bhutanese refugees, 90% of whom are in seven
United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
camps

======================================================================

@Bolivia



Bolivia    Introduction

Background: Bolivia, named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR,
broke away from Spanish rule in 1825; much of its subsequent history
has consisted of a series of nearly 200 coups and counter-coups.
Comparatively democratic civilian rule was established in the 1980s,
but leaders have faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty,
social unrest, and drug production. Current goals include attracting
foreign investment, strengthening the educational system, continuing
the privatization program, and waging an anti-corruption campaign.



Bolivia    Geography

Location: Central South America, southwest of Brazil

Geographic coordinates: 17 00 S, 65 00 W

Map references: South America

Area: total:  1,098,580 sq km

land:  1,084,390 sq km

water:  14,190 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than three times the size of
Montana

Land boundaries: total:  6,743 km

border countries:  Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400 km, Chile 861 km,
Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and
semiarid

Terrain: rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano),
hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Rio Paraguay 90 m

highest point:  Nevado Sajama 6,542 m

Natural resources: tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten,
antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropower

Land use: arable land:  2%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  24%

forests and woodland:  53%

other:  21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,750 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding in the northeast (March-April)

Environment - current issues: the clearing of land for agricultural
purposes and the international demand for tropical timber are
contributing to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and
poor cultivation methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture);
desertification; loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water
supplies used for drinking and irrigation

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification,
Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:  Environmental Modification, Marine
Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection

Geography - note: landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca,
world's highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru



Bolivia    People

Population: 8,300,463 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  38.46% (male 1,626,698; female 1,565,748)

15-64 years:  57.07% (male 2,315,098; female 2,421,987)

65 years and over:  4.47% (male 166,986; female 203,946) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.76% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 27.27 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 8.2 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.82 male(s)/female

total population:  0.98 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 58.98 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  64.06 years

male:  61.53 years

female:  66.72 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.51 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 4,200 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 380 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Bolivian(s)

adjective:  Bolivian

Ethnic groups: Quechua 30%, Aymara 25%, mestizo (mixed white and
Amerindian ancestry) 30%, white 15%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist)

Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official)

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  83.1%

male:  90.5%

female:  76% (1995 est.)



Bolivia    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Republic of Bolivia

conventional short form:  Bolivia

local long form:  Republica de Bolivia

local short form:  Bolivia

Government type: republic

Capital: La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat
of judiciary)

Administrative divisions: 9 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento); Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando,
Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija

Independence: 6 August 1825 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 August (1825)

Constitution: 2 February 1967; revised in August 1994

Legal system: based on Spanish law and Napoleonic Code; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal and compulsory (married); 21
years of age, universal and compulsory (single)

Executive branch: chief of state:  President Hugo BANZER Suarez
(since 6 August 1997); Vice President Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez
(since 6 August 1997); note - the president is both the chief of
state and head of government

head of government:  President Hugo BANZER Suarez (since 6 August
1997); Vice President Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez (since 6 August
1997); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government

cabinet:  Cabinet appointed by the president

elections:  president and vice president elected on the same ticket
by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 1 June 1997
(next to be held May or June 2002)

election results:  Hugo BANZER Suarez elected president; percent of
vote - Hugo BANZER Suarez (ADN) 22%; Jaime PAZ Zamora (MIR) 17%,
Juan Carlos DURAN (MNR) 18%, Ivo KULJIS (UCS) 16%, Remedios LOZA
(CONDEPA) 17%; no candidate received a majority of the popular vote;
Hugo BANZER Suarez won a congressional runoff election on 5 August
1997 after forming a "megacoalition" with MIR, UCS, CONDEPA, NFR,
and PDC

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional
consists of Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (27 seats;
members are directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year
terms) and Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130 seats;
members are directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year
terms; note - some members are drawn from party lists, thus not
directly elected)

elections:  Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies - last held
1 June 1997 (next to be held NA June 2002)

election results:  Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party -
NA%; seats by party - ADN 11, MIR 7, MNR 4, CONDEPA 3, UCS 2;
Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party
- ADN 32, MNR 26, MIR 23, UCS 21, CONDEPA 19, MBL 5, IU 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges appointed
for 10-year terms by National Congress); District Courts (one in
each department); provincial and local courts (to try minor cases)

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party or PDC
[leader NA]; Civic Solidarity Union or UCS [Johnny FERNANDEZ];
Conscience of the Fatherland or CONDEPA [Remedios LOZA Alvarado];
Free Bolivia Movement or MBL [Antonio ARANIBAR]; Movement of the
Revolutionary Left or MIR [Jaime PAZ Zamora]; Nationalist Democratic
Action or ADN [Hugo BANZER Suarez]; Nationalist Revolutionary
Movement or MNR [Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA]; New Republican Force or
NFR [leader NA]; Pachacuti Indigenous Movement [Filipe QUISPE];
United Left or IU [Marcos DOMIC]

note:  the ADN, MIR, and UCS comprise the ruling coalition

Political pressure groups and leaders: Cocalero Groups; indigenous
organizations; labor unions

International organization participation: CAN, CCC, ECLAC, FAO,
G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA,
Mercosur (associate), MONUC, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNTAET, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Marlene FERNANDEZ del Granado

chancery:  3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:  [1] (202) 483-4410

FAX:  [1] (202) 328-3712

consulate(s) general:  Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San
Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
V. Manuel ROCHA

embassy:  Avenida Arce 2780, San Jorge, La Paz

mailing address:  P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34032

telephone:  [591] (2) 432254

FAX:  [591] (2) 433854

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow,
and green with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar
to the flag of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star
centered in the yellow band



Bolivia    Economy

Economy - overview: Bolivia, long one of the poorest and least
developed Latin American countries, has made considerable progress
toward the development of a market-oriented economy. Successes under
President SANCHEZ DE LOZADA (1993-97) included the signing of a free
trade agreement with Mexico and joining the Southern Cone Common
Market (Mercosur), as well as the privatization of the state
airline, telephone company, railroad, electric power company, and
oil company. His successor, Hugo BANZER Suarez has tried to further
improve the country's investment climate with an anticorruption
campaign. Growth slowed in 1999, in part due to tight government
budget policies, which limited needed appropriations for
anti-poverty programs, and the fallout from the Asian financial
crisis. In 2000, major civil disturbances in April, and again in
September and October, held down overall growth to 2.5%.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $20.9 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,600 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  16%

industry:  31%

services:  53% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 70% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:
2.3%

highest 10%:  31.7% (1990)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.4% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 2.5 million

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services
NA%

Unemployment rate: 11.4% (1997)

note:  widespread underemployment

Budget: revenues:  $2.7 billion

expenditures:  $2.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1998)

Industries: mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages,
tobacco, handicrafts, clothing

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1995 est.)

Electricity - production: 3.625 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  56.61%

hydro:  41.6%

nuclear:  0%

other:  1.79% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 3.377 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 4 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 10 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: soybeans, coffee, coca, cotton, corn,
sugarcane, rice, potatoes; timber

Exports: $1.26 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: soybeans, natural gas, zinc, gold, wood

Exports - partners: UK 16%, US 12%, Peru 11%, Argentina 10%,
Colombia 7% (1998)

Imports: $1.86 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: capital goods, raw materials and
semi-manufactures, chemicals, petroleum, food

Imports - partners: US 32%, Japan 24%, Brazil 12%, Argentina 12%,
Chile 7%, Peru 4%, Germany 3%, other 6% (1998)

Debt - external: $6.6 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: $588 million (1997)

Currency: boliviano (BOB)

Currency code: BOB

Exchange rates: bolivianos per US dollar - 6.4071 (January 2001),
6.1835 (2000), 5.8124 (1999), 5.5101 (1998), 5.2543 (1997), 5.0746
(1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Bolivia    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 327,600 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 116,000 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment:  new subscribers face
bureaucratic difficulties; most telephones are concentrated in La
Paz and other cities; mobile cellular telephone use expanding rapidly

domestic:  primary trunk system, which is being expanded, employs
digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic
cable; mobile cellular systems are being expanded

international:  satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 171, FM 73, shortwave 77 (1999)

Radios: 5.25 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 48 (1997)

Televisions: 900,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .bo

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 9 (2000)

Internet users: 35,000 (2000)



Bolivia    Transportation

Railways: total:  3,691 km (single track)

narrow gauge:  3,652 km 1.000-m gauge; 39 km 0.760-m gauge (13 km
electrified) (1995)

Highways: total:  49,400 km

paved:  2,500 km (including 30 km of expressways)

unpaved:  46,900 km (1996)

Waterways: 10,000 km (commercially navigable)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,800 km; petroleum products 580 km; natural
gas 1,495 km

Ports and harbors: none; however, Bolivia has free port privileges
in maritime ports in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay

Merchant marine: total:  42 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
141,017 GRT/211,058 DWT

ships by type:  bulk 5, cargo 20, chemical tanker 3, container 1,
petroleum tanker 10, roll on/roll off 3 (2000 est.)

Airports: 1,093 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  13

over 3,047 m:  4

2,438 to 3,047 m:  3

1,524 to 2,437 m:  4

914 to 1,523 m:  2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  1,080

2,438 to 3,047 m:  3

1,524 to 2,437 m:  65

914 to 1,523 m:  212

under 914 m:  800 (2000 est.)



Bolivia    Military

Military branches: Army (Ejercito Boliviano), Navy (Fuerza Naval
Boliviana, includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana),
National Police Force (Policia Nacional de Bolivia)

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  2,005,660 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
1,306,452 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  90,120
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $147 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.8% (FY99)



Bolivia    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: has wanted a sovereign corridor to the
South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in
1884; dispute with Chile over Rio Lauca water rights

Illicit drugs: world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after
Colombia and Peru, a distant second) with an estimated 14,600
hectares under cultivation in 2000, a 33% decrease in overall
cultivation of coca from 1999 levels; intermediate coca products and
cocaine exported to or through Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, and
Chile to the US and other international drug markets; eradication
and alternative crop programs have slashed illicit coca cultivation
during the BANZER administration beginning in 1997

======================================================================

@Bosnia and Herzegovina



Bosnia and Herzegovina    Introduction

Background: Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in
October 1991, was followed by a referendum for independence from the
former Yugoslavia in February 1992. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by
neighboring Serbia - responded with armed resistance aimed at
partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held
areas to form a "greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats
reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing
an agreement creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and
Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring
parties signed a peace agreement that brought to a halt the three
years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in
Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Agreement retained Bosnia and
Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a joint
multi-ethnic and democratic government. This national government is
charged with conducting foreign, economic, and fiscal policy. Also
recognized was a second tier of government comprised of two entities
roughly equal in size: the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and
Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The
Federation and RS governments are charged with overseeing internal
functions. In 1995-96, a NATO-led international peacekeeping force
(IFOR) of 60,000 troops served in Bosnia to implement and monitor
the military aspects of the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a
smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission is to
deter renewed hostilities. SFOR remains in place at a level of
approximately 21,000 troops.



Bosnia and Herzegovina    Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia

Geographic coordinates: 44 00 N, 18 00 E

Map references: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Europe

Area: total:  51,129 sq km

land:  51,129 sq km

water:  0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries: total:  1,459 km

border countries:  Croatia 932 km, Yugoslavia 527 km

Coastline: 20 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have
short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters
along coast

Terrain: mountains and valleys

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Adriatic Sea 0 m

highest point:  Maglic 2,386 m

Natural resources: coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, forests, copper,
chromium, lead, zinc, hydropower

Land use: arable land:  14%

permanent crops:  5%

permanent pastures:  20%

forests and woodland:  39%

other:  22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues: air pollution from metallurgical
plants; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; water
shortages and destruction of infrastructure because of the 1992-95
civil strife

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Air Pollution,
Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified:  none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized
borders, the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat
Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led
Republika Srpska or RS (about 49% of the territory); the region
called Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia and traditionally has
been settled by an ethnic Croat majority



Bosnia and Herzegovina    People

Population: 3,922,205

note:  all data dealing with population are subject to considerable
error because of the dislocations caused by military action and
ethnic cleansing (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  20.13% (male 405,713; female 383,850)

15-64 years:  70.78% (male 1,422,796; female 1,353,410)

65 years and over:  9.09% (male 150,802; female 205,634) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.38% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 12.86 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.99 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 8.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.73 male(s)/female

total population:  1.02 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 24.35 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  71.75 years

male:  69.04 years

female:  74.65 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.71 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.04% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)

adjective:  Bosnian, Herzegovinian

Ethnic groups: Serb 31%, Bosniak 44%, Croat 17%, Yugoslav 5.5%,
other 2.5% (1991)

note:  Bosniak has replaced muslim as an ethnic term in part to
avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam

Religions: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, Protestant
4%, other 10%

Languages: Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian

Literacy: definition:  NA

total population:  NA%

male:  NA%

female:  NA%



Bosnia and Herzegovina    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  none

conventional short form:  Bosnia and Herzegovina

local long form:  none

local short form:  Bosna i Hercegovina

Government type: emerging democracy

Capital: Sarajevo

Administrative divisions: there are two first-order administrative
divisions - the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
(Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika
Srpska; note - Brcko in northeastern Bosnia is a self-governing
administrative unit under the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina;
it is not part of either the Federation or Republika Srpska

Independence: 1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: National Day, 25 November (1943)

Constitution: the Dayton Agreement, signed 14 December 1995,
included a new constitution now in force

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  Chairman of the Presidency Jozo
KRIZANOVI (chairman since 14 June 2001, presidency member since NA
March 2001 - Croat); other members of the three-member rotating
(every 8 months) presidency: Zivko RADISIC (since 13 October 1998 -
Serb) and Beriz BELKIC (since NA March 2001 - Bosniak); note - Ante
JELAVIC was dismissed from his post by the UN High Representative in
March 2001

head of government:  Chairman of the Council of Ministers Zlatko
LAGUMDZIJA (since 18 July 2001)

cabinet:  Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman;
approved by the National House of Representatives

elections:  the three members of the presidency (one Bosniak, one
Croat, one Serb) are elected by popular vote for a four-year term;
the member with the most votes becomes the chairman unless he or she
was the incumbent chairman at the time of the election; election
last held 12-13 September 1998 (next to be held NA September 2002);
the chairman of the Council of Ministers is appointed by the
presidency and confirmed by the National House of Representatives

election results:  percent of vote - Zivko RADISIC with 52% of the
Serb vote was elected chairman of the collective presidency for the
first 8 months; Ante JELAVIC with 52% of the Croat vote followed
RADISIC in the rotation; Alija IZETBEGOVIC with 87% of the Bosniak
vote won the highest number of votes in the election but was
ineligible to serve a second term until RADISIC and JELAVIC had each
served a first term as Chairman of the Presidency; IZETBEGOVIC
retired from the presidency 14 October 2000 and was temporarily
replaced by Halid GENJAC; Ante JELAVIC was replaced by Jozo
KRIZANOVIC in March 2001

note:  President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Karlo
FILIPOVIC (since 27 February 2001); Vice President Safet HALILOVIC
(since 27 February 2001); note - president and vice president rotate
every year; President of the Republika Srpska: Mirko SAROVIC (since
11 November 2000)

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina
consists of the National House of Representatives or Predstavnicki
Dom (42 seats - 14 Serb, 14 Croat, and 14 Bosniak; members elected
by popular vote to serve two-year terms) and the House of Peoples or
Dom Naroda (15 seats - 5 Bosniak, 5 Croat, 5 Serb; members elected
by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives and the
Republika Srpska's National Assembly to serve two-year terms); note
- as of 1 January 2001, Bosnia and Herzegovina does not have a
permanent election law; a draft law specifies four-year terms for
the state and first-order administrative division entity
legislatures; officials elected in 2000 were elected to two-year
terms on the presumption that a permanent law would be in place
before 2002

elections:  National House of Representatives - elections last held
11 November 2000 (next to be held in the fall of 2002); House of
Peoples - last constituted after the 11 November 2000 elections
(next to be constituted in the fall of 2002)

election results:  National House of Representatives - percent of
vote by party/coalition - NA%; seats by party/coalition - SDP 9, SDA
8, SDS 6, HDZ-BiH 5, SBH 5, PDP 2, NHI 1, BPS 1, DPS 1, SNS 1,
SNSD-DSP 1, DNZ 1, SPRS 1; House of Peoples - percent of vote by
party/coalition - NA%; seats by party/coalition - NA

note:  the Bosniak/Croat Federation has a bicameral legislature that
consists of a House of Representatives (140 seats; members elected
by popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held 11
November 2000 (next to be held NA 2002); percent of vote by party -
NA%; seats by party/coalition - SDA 38, SDP 37, HDZ-BiH 25, SBH 21,
DNZ 3, NHI 2, BPS 2, DPS 2, BOSS 2, GDS 1, RP 1, HSS 1, LDS 1,
Pensioners' Party of FBiH 1, SNSD-DSP 1, HKDU 1, HSP 1; and a House
of Peoples (74 seats - 30 Bosniak, 30 Croat, and 14 others); last
constituted November 2000; the Republika Srpska has a National
Assembly (83 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve
four-year terms); elections last held 11 November 2000 (next to be
held NA 2002); percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by
party/coalition - SDS 31, PDP 11, SNSD 11, SDA 6, DSP 4, SDP 4, SPRS
4, SBH 4, DNS 3, SNS 2, NHI 1, DSRS 1, Pensioners' Party 1; as of 1
January 2001, Bosnia and Herzegovina does not have a permanent
election law; a draft law specifies four-year terms for the state
and first-order administrative division entity legislatures;
officials elected in 2000 were elected to two-year terms on the
presumption that a permanent law would be in place before 2002

Judicial branch: BiH Constitutional Court (consists of nine members:
four members are selected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of
Representatives, two members by the Republika Srpska's National
Assembly, and three non-Bosnian members by the president of the
European Court of Human Rights)

note:  a new state court, established in November 1999, has
jurisdiction over cases related to state-level law and appellate
jurisdiction over cases initiated in the entities; the entities each
have a Supreme Court; each entity also has a number of lower courts;
there are ten cantonal courts in the Federation, plus a number of
municipal courts; the Republika Srpska has five municipal courts

Political parties and leaders: Bosnian Party or BOSS [Mirnes
AJANOVIC]; Bosnian Patriotic Party or BPS [Sefer HALILOVIC]; Civic
Democratic Party of BiH or GDS [Ibrahim SPAHIC]; Croat Christian
Democratic Union or HKDU BiH [Ante PASALIC]; Croatian Democratic
Union of BiH or HDZ-BiH [leader vacant]; Croatian Party of Rights or
HSP [Zdravko HRSTIC]; Croatian Peasants Party of BiH or HSS-BiH
[Ilija SIMIC]; Democratic Action Party or SDA [Alija IZETBEGOVIC];
Democratic National Alliance or DNS [Dragan KOSTIC]; Democratic
Party of Pensioners or DPS [Alojz KNEZOVIC]; Democratic Party of RS
or DSRS [Dragomir DUMIC]; Democratic Peoples Union or DNZ [Fikret
ABDIC]; Democratic Socialist Party or DSP [Nebojsa RADMANOVIC];
Liberal Democratic Party or LDS [Rasim KADIC]; New Croatian
Initiative or NHI [Kresimir ZUBAK]; Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina
or SBH [Haris SILAJDZIC]; Party of Democratic Progress or PDP
[Mladen IVANIC]; Party of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD
[Milorad DODIK]; Pensioners' Party of FBiH [Husein VOJNIKOVIC];
Pensioners' Party of SR [Stojan BOGOSAVAC]; Republican Party of BiH
or RP [Stjepan KLJUIC]; Serb Democratic Party or Serb Lands or SDS
[Dragan KALINIC]; Serb National Alliance (Serb People's Alliance) or
SNS [Biljana PLAVSIC]; Social Democratic Party BIH or SDP-BiH
[Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA]; Socialist Party of Republika Srpska or SPRS
[Zivko RADISIC]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: BIS, CE (guest), CEI,
EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
NAM (guest), OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNTAET, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
(observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Igor DAVIDOVIC

chancery:  2109 E Street NW, Washington, DC 20037

telephone:  [1] (202) 337-1500

FAX:  [1] (202) 337-1502

consulate(s) general:  New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Thomas J. MILLER

embassy:  Alipasina 43, 71000 Sarajevo

mailing address:  use street address

telephone:  [387] (33) 445-700

FAX:  [387] (33) 659-722

branch office(s):  Banja Luka, Mostar

Flag description: a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side
with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of
the flag; the remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full
five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the
hypotenuse of the triangle

Government - note: The Dayton Agreement, signed in Paris on 14
December 1995, retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's exterior border and
created a joint multi-ethnic and democratic government. This
national government - based on proportional representation similar
to that which existed in the former socialist regime - is charged
with conducting foreign, economic, and fiscal policy. The Dayton
Agreement also recognized a second tier of government, comprised of
two entities - a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and
Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb Republika Srpska (RS) - each
presiding over roughly one-half the territory. The Federation and RS
governments are charged with overseeing internal functions. The
Dayton Agreement established the Office of the High Representative
(OHR) to oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the
agreement. About 250 international and 450 local staff members are
employed by the OHR.



Bosnia and Herzegovina    Economy

Economy - overview: Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to The Former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old
Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture is almost all in private
hands, farms are small and inefficient, and the republic
traditionally is a net importer of food. Industry has been greatly
overstaffed, one reflection of the socialist economic structure of
Yugoslavia. TITO had pushed the development of military industries
in the republic with the result that Bosnia hosted a large share of
Yugoslavia's defense plants. The bitter interethnic warfare in
Bosnia caused production to plummet by 80% from 1990 to 1995,
unemployment to soar, and human misery to multiply. With an uneasy
peace in place, output recovered in 1996-98 at high percentage rates
from a low base; but output growth slowed appreciably in 1999 and
2000, and GDP remains far below the 1990 level. Economic data are of
limited use because, although both entities issue figures,
national-level statistics are not available. Moreover, official data
do not capture the large share of activity that occurs on the black
market. The marka - the national currency introduced in 1998 - has
gained wide acceptance, and the Central Bank of Bosnia and
Herzegovina has dramatically increased its reserve holdings.
Implementation of privatization, however, has been slower than
anticipated. Banking reform accelerated in early 2001 as all the
communist-era payments bureaus were shut down. The country receives
substantial amounts of reconstruction assistance and humanitarian
aid from the international community but will have to prepare for an
era of declining assistance.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $6.5 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,700 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  19%

industry:  23%

services:  58% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 1.026 million

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services
NA%

Unemployment rate: 35%-40% (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues:  $1.9 billion

expenditures:  $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999 est.)

Industries: steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite,
vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank
and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining

Industrial production growth rate: 10% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 2.585 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  38.68%

hydro:  61.32%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 2.684 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 150 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 430 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock

Exports: $950 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: NA

Exports - partners: Croatia, Switzerland, Italy, Germany

Imports: $2.45 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: NA

Imports - partners: Croatia, Slovenia, Germany, Italy

Debt - external: $3.4 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $1 billion (1999 est.)

Currency: marka (BAM)

Currency code: BAM

Exchange rates: marka per US dollar - 2.086 (January 2001), 2.124
(2000), 1.837 (1999), 1.760 (1998), 1.734 (1997), 0.015 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Bosnia and Herzegovina    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 303,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 9,000 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment:  telephone and telegraph
network is in need of modernization and expansion; many urban areas
are below average when compared with services in other former
Yugoslav republics

domestic:  NA

international:  no satellite earth stations

Radio broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 16, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 940,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 33 (plus 277 repeaters) (September
1995)

Televisions: NA

Internet country code: .ba

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 3 (2000)

Internet users: 3,500 (2000)



Bosnia and Herzegovina    Transportation

Railways: total:  1,021 km (electrified 795 km; operating as diesel
or steam until grids are repaired)

standard gauge:  1,021 km 1.435-m gauge; note - many segments still
need repair and/or reconstruction (2000)

Highways: total:  21,846 km

paved:  14,020 km

unpaved:  7,826 km

note:  road system is in need of maintenance and repair (2001)

Waterways: NA km; large sections of the Sava blocked by downed
bridges, silt, and debris

Pipelines: crude oil 174 km; natural gas 90 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac,
and Brcko (all inland waterway ports on the Sava), Orasje

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 28 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  9

2,438 to 3,047 m:  4

1,524 to 2,437 m:  2

under 914 m:  3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  19

1,524 to 2,437 m:  1

914 to 1,523 m:  7

under 914 m:  11 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 4 (2000 est.)



Bosnia and Herzegovina    Military

Military branches: Federation Army or VF (composed of both Croatian
and Bosniak elements), Republika Srpska Army or VRS (composed of
Bosnian Serb elements); note - within both of these forces air and
air defense are subordinate commands

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  1,127,146 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
895,780 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  29,757
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%



Bosnia and Herzegovina    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: minor transit point for marijuana and opiate
trafficking routes to Western Europe

======================================================================

@Botswana



Botswana    Introduction

Background: Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland,
Botswana adopted its new name upon independence in 1966. The
economy, one of the most robust on the continent, is dominated by
diamond mining.



Botswana    Geography

Location: Southern Africa, north of South Africa

Geographic coordinates: 22 00 S, 24 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total:  600,370 sq km

land:  585,370 sq km

water:  15,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: total:  4,013 km

border countries:  Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe
813 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

Terrain: predominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari
Desert in southwest

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  junction of the Limpopo and
Shashe Rivers 513 m

highest point:  Tsodilo Hills 1,489 m

Natural resources: diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash,
coal, iron ore, silver

Land use: arable land:  1%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  46%

forests and woodland:  47%

other:  6% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from
the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can
obscure visibility

Environment - current issues: overgrazing; desertification; limited
fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:  none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked; population concentrated in eastern
part of the country



Botswana    People

Population: 1,586,119

note:  estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  40.3% (male 321,164; female 318,007)

15-64 years:  55.56% (male 423,954; female 457,227)

65 years and over:  4.14% (male 26,691; female 39,076) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.47% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 28.85 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 24.18 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.68 male(s)/female

total population:  0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 63.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  37.13 years

male:  36.77 years

female:  37.51 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 35.8% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 290,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 24,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

adjective:  Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

Ethnic groups: Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%,
other, including Kgalagadi and white 7%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 50%

Languages: English (official), Setswana

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  69.8%

male:  80.5%

female:  59.9% (1995 est.)



Botswana    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Republic of Botswana

conventional short form:  Botswana

former:  Bechuanaland

Government type: parliamentary republic

Capital: Gaborone

Administrative divisions: 10 districts and four town councils*;
Central, Chobe, Francistown*, Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Kgalagadi,
Kgatleng, Kweneng, Lobatse*, Ngamiland, North-East, Selebi-Pikwe*,
South-East, Southern

Independence: 30 September 1966 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 September (1966)

Constitution: March 1965, effective 30 September 1966

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law;
judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  President Festus MOGAE (since 1
April 1998) and Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 July
1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government

head of government:  President Festus MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) and
Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 July 1998); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet:  Cabinet appointed by the president

elections:  president elected by the National Assembly for a
five-year term; election last held 16 October 1999 (next to be held
NA October 2004); vice president appointed by the president

election results:  Festus MOGAE elected president; percent of
National Assembly vote - 54.3%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the House of
Chiefs (a largely advisory 15-member body consisting of the chiefs
of the eight principal tribes, four elected subchiefs, and three
members selected by the other 12) and the National Assembly (44
seats, 40 members are directly elected by popular vote and 4
appointed by the majority party; members serve five-year terms)

elections:  National Assembly elections last held 16 October 1999
(next to be held NA October 2004)

election results:  percent of vote by party - BDP 57.2%, BNF 26%,
other 16.8%; seats by party - BDP 33, BNF 6, other 1

Judicial branch: High Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrates' Courts
(one in each district)

Political parties and leaders: Botswana Democratic Party or BDP
[Festus MOGAE]; Botswana National Front or BNF [Kenneth KOMA];
Botswana Congress Party or BCP [Michael DINGAKE]; Botswana Alliance
Movement or BAM [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]

note:  main parties are: BDP, BNF, BCP; other minor parties joined
forces in 1999 to form the Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM
[Ephraim SETSHWAELO, chairman] but did not capture any parliamentary
seats; the BAM parties are: the United Action Party [Ephraim Lepetu
SETSHWAELO], the Botswana Peoples Party, the Independence Freedom
Party [Motsamai MPHO], and the Botswana Progressive Union [D. K.
KWELE]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA,
FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Kgosi SEEPAPITSO IV

chancery:  1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone:  [1] (202) 244-4990

FAX:  [1] (202) 244-4164

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
John E. LANGE

embassy:  address NA, Gaborone

mailing address:  P. O. Box 90, Gaborone

telephone:  [267] 353982

FAX:  [267] 356947

Flag description: light blue with a horizontal white-edged black
stripe in the center



Botswana    Economy

Economy - overview: Botswana has maintained one of the world's
highest growth rates since independence in 1966. Through fiscal
discipline and sound management, Botswana has transformed itself
from one of the poorest countries in the world to a middle-income
country with a per capita GDP of $6,600 in 2000. Diamond mining has
fueled much of Botswana's economic expansion and currently accounts
for more than one-third of GDP and for three-fourths of export
earnings. Tourism, subsistence farming, and cattle raising are other
key sectors. The government must deal with high rates of
unemployment and poverty. Unemployment officially is 19%, but
unofficial estimates place it closer to 40%. HIV/AIDS infection
rates are the highest in the world and threaten Botswana's
impressive economic gains.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $10.4 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,600 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  4%

industry:  46% (including 36% mining)

services:  50% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: 47% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.6% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 235,000 formal sector employees (1995)

Labor force - by occupation: 100,000 public sector; 135,000 private
sector, including 14,300 who are employed in various mines in South
Africa; most others engaged in cattle raising and subsistence
agriculture (1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: 40% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues:  $1.6 billion

expenditures:  $1.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $560
million (FY96)

Industries: diamonds, copper, nickel, coal, salt, soda ash, potash;
livestock processing

Industrial production growth rate: 6.2% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 610 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  100%

hydro:  0%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 1.517 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 950 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: sorghum, corn, millet, pulses, groundnuts
(peanuts), beans, cowpeas, sunflower seed; livestock

Exports: $2.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: diamonds 72%, vehicles, copper, nickel, meat
(1998)

Exports - partners: EU 77%, Southern African Customs Union (SACU)
18%, Zimbabwe 3% (1998)

Imports: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and transport
equipment, textiles, petroleum products

Imports - partners: Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 76%,
Europe 10%, South Korea 5% (1998)

Debt - external: $455 million (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: $73 million (1995)

Currency: pula (BWP)

Currency code: BWP

Exchange rates: pulas per US dollar - 5.4585 (January 2001), 5.1018
(2000), 4.6244 (1999), 4.2259 (1998), 3.6508 (1997), 3.3242 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Botswana    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 86,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: general assessment:  sparse system

domestic:  small system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay
links, and a few radiotelephone communication stations

international:  two international exchanges; digital microwave radio
relay links to Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa; satellite earth
station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 15, shortwave 5 (1998)

Radios: 237,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1997)

Televisions: 31,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .bw

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 3 (2000)

Internet users: 12,000 (2000)



Botswana    Transportation

Railways: total:  888 km

narrow gauge:  888 km 1.067-m gauge (2000)

Highways: total:  18,482 km

paved:  4,343 km

unpaved:  14,139 km (1996)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 92 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  11

2,438 to 3,047 m:  2

1,524 to 2,437 m:  8

914 to 1,523 m:  1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  81

1,524 to 2,437 m:  3

914 to 1,523 m:  56

under 914 m:  22 (2000 est.)



Botswana    Military

Military branches: Botswana Defense Force (includes Army and Air
Wing), Botswana National Police

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  380,152 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
199,995 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  19,479
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $61 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY99)



Botswana    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Bouvet Island



Bouvet Island    Introduction

Background: This uninhabited volcanic island is almost entirely
covered by glaciers and is difficult to approach. It was discovered
in 1739 by a French naval officer after whom the island was named.
No claim was made until 1825 when the British flag was raised. In
1928, the UK waived its claim in favor of Norway, which had occupied
the island the previous year. In 1971, Bouvet Island and the
adjacent territorial waters were designated a nature reserve. Since
1977, Norway has run an automated meteorological station on the
island.



Bouvet Island    Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the South Atlantic Ocean,
south-southwest of the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa)

Geographic coordinates: 54 26 S, 3 24 E

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area: total:  58.5 sq km

land:  58.5 sq km

water:  0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 29.6 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea:  4 NM

Climate: antarctic

Terrain: volcanic; maximum elevation about 800 m; coast is mostly
inaccessible

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  South Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Olav Peak 935 m

Natural resources: none

Land use: arable land:  0%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  0%

forests and woodland:  0%

other:  100% (93% ice)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: covered by glacial ice; declared a nature reserve



Bouvet Island    People

Population: uninhabited (July 2001 est.)



Bouvet Island    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  none

conventional short form:  Bouvet Island

Dependency status: territory of Norway; administered by the Polar
Department of the Ministry of Justice and Police from Oslo

Legal system: the laws of Norway, where applicable, apply

Flag description: the flag of Norway is used



Bouvet Island    Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity; declared a nature reserve



Bouvet Island    Communications

Internet country code: .bv

Communications - note: automatic meteorological station



Bouvet Island    Transportation

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only



Bouvet Island    Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Norway



Bouvet Island    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Brazil



Brazil    Introduction

Background: Following three centuries under the rule of Portugal,
Brazil became an independent nation in 1822. By far the largest and
most populous country in South America, Brazil has overcome more
than half a century of military intervention in the governance of
the country to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and
development of the interior. Exploiting vast natural resources and a
large labor pool, Brazil became Latin America's leading economic
power by the 1970s. Highly unequal income distribution remains a
pressing problem.



Brazil    Geography

Location: Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 S, 55 00 W

Map references: South America

Area: total:  8,511,965 sq km

land:  8,456,510 sq km

water:  55,455 sq km

note:  includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas,
Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao
Paulo

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries: total:  14,691 km

border countries:  Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia 3,400 km, Colombia
1,643 km, French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km, Paraguay 1,290 km,
Peru 1,560 km, Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km, Venezuela 2,200 km

Coastline: 7,491 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone:  24 NM

continental shelf:  200 NM

exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: mostly tropical, but temperate in south

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains,
hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Pico da Neblina 3,014 m

Natural resources: bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel,
phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber

Land use: arable land:  5%

permanent crops:  1%

permanent pastures:  22%

forests and woodland:  58%

other:  14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 28,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring droughts in northeast; floods and
occasional frost in south

Environment - current issues: deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys
the habitat and endangers the existence of a multitude of plant and
animal species indigenous to the area; air and water pollution in
Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land
degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities

note:  President CARDOSO in September 1999 signed into force an
environmental crime bill which for the first time defines pollution
and deforestation as crimes punishable by stiff fines and jail
sentences

Environment - international agreements: party to:
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources,
Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified:  Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: largest country in South America; shares common
boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador



Brazil    People

Population: 174,468,575

note:  Brazil took an intercensal count in August 1996 which
reported a population of 157,079,573; that figure was about 5% lower
than projections by the US Census Bureau, which is close to the
implied underenumeration of 4.6% for the 1991 census; estimates for
this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess
mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy,
higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth
rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex
than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  28.57% (male 25,390,039; female
24,449,902)

15-64 years:  65.98% (male 56,603,895; female 58,507,289)

65 years and over:  5.45% (male 3,857,564; female 5,659,886) (2001
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.91% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 18.45 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 9.34 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.68 male(s)/female

total population:  0.97 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 36.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  63.24 years

male:  58.96 years

female:  67.73 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.09 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.57% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 540,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 18,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Brazilian(s)

adjective:  Brazilian

Ethnic groups: white (includes Portuguese, German, Italian, Spanish,
Polish) 55%, mixed white and black 38%, black 6%, other (includes
Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic (nominal) 80%

Languages: Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  83.3%

male:  83.3%

female:  83.2% (1995 est.)



Brazil    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Federative Republic of Brazil

conventional short form:  Brazil

local long form:  Republica Federativa do Brasil

local short form:  Brasil

Government type: federative republic

Capital: Brasilia

Administrative divisions: 26 states (estados, singular - estado) and
1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa,
Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias,
Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para,
Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do
Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao
Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins

Independence: 7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 7 September (1822)

Constitution: 5 October 1988

Legal system: based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70;
compulsory over 18 and under 70 years of age

Executive branch: chief of state:  President Fernando Henrique
CARDOSO (since 1 January 1995); Vice President Marco MACIEL (since 1
January 1995); note - the president is both the chief of state and
head of government

head of government:  President Fernando Henrique CARDOSO (since 1
January 1995); Vice President Marco MACIEL (since 1 January 1995);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government

cabinet:  Cabinet appointed by the president

elections:  president and vice president elected on the same ticket
by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 4 October
1998 (next to be held NA October 2002)

election results:  Fernando Henrique CARDOSO reelected president;
percent of vote - 53%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congresso
Nacional consists of the Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats;
three members from each state or federal district elected according
to the principle of majority to serve eight-year terms; one-third
elected after a four year period, two-thirds elected after the next
four-year period) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos
Deputados (513 seats; members are elected by proportional
representation to serve four-year terms)

elections:  Federal Senate - last held 4 October 1998 for one-third
of Senate (next to be held NA October 2002 for two-thirds of the
Senate); Chamber of Deputies - last held 4 October 1998 (next to be
held NA October 2002)

election results:  Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%;
seats by party - PMDB 27, PFL 20, PSDB 16, PT 7, PPB 5, PSB 3, PDT
2, PPS 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%;
seats by party - PFL 106, PSDB 99, PMDB 82, PPB 60, PT 58, PTB 31,
PDT 25, PSB 19, PL 12, PCdoB 7, other 14

Judicial branch: Supreme Federal Tribunal (11 ministers are
appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate); Higher
Tribunal of Justice; Regional Federal Tribunals (judges are
appointed for life)

Political parties and leaders: Brazilian Democratic Movement Party
or PMDB [Jader BARBALHO, president]; Brazilian Labor Party or PTB
[Roberto JEFFERSON]; Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB
[Teotonio VILELA Filno]; Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Miguel
ARRAES, president]; Brazilian Progressive Party or PPB [Paulo Salim
MALUF]; Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Sergio Roberto Gomes
SOUZA, chairman]; Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Leonel BRIZOLA,
president]; Liberal Front Party or PFL [Jorge BORNHAUSEN,
president]; Liberal Party or PL [Francisco Teixeira de OLIVEIRA];
Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Ciro GOMEZ, president]; Worker's
Party or PT [Jose DIRCEU, president]

Political pressure groups and leaders: left wing of the Catholic
Church, Landless Worker's Movement, and labor unions allied to
leftist Worker's Party are critical of government's social and
economic policies

International organization participation: AfDB, BIS, CCC, ECLAC,
FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA,
Mercosur, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMOP, UNTAET, UNU, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Rubens Antonio BARBOSA

chancery:  3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:  [1] (202) 238-2700

FAX:  [1] (202) 238-2827

consulate(s) general:  Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Anthony S. HARRINGTON

embassy:  Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Distrito Federal
Cep 70403-900, Brasilia

mailing address:  Unit 3500, APO AA 34030

telephone:  [55] (061) 321-7272

FAX:  [55] (061) 225-9136

consulate(s) general:  Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo

consulate(s):  Recife

Flag description: green with a large yellow diamond in the center
bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one
for each state and the Federal District) arranged in the same
pattern as the night sky over Brazil; the globe has a white
equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)



Brazil    Economy

Economy - overview: Possessing large and well-developed
agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and service sectors, Brazil's
economy outweighs that of all other South American countries and is
expanding its presence in world markets. In the late eighties and
early nineties, high inflation hindered economic activity and
investment. "The Real Plan", instituted in the spring of 1994,
sought to break inflationary expectations by pegging the real to the
US dollar. Inflation was brought down to single digit annual
figures, but not fast enough to avoid substantial real exchange rate
appreciation during the transition phase of the "Real Plan". This
appreciation meant that Brazilian goods were now more expensive
relative to goods from other countries, which contributed to large
current account deficits. However, no shortage of foreign currency
ensued because of the financial community's renewed interest in
Brazilian markets as inflation rates stabilized and the debt crisis
of the eighties faded from memory. The maintenance of large current
account deficits via capital account surpluses became problematic as
investors became more risk averse to emerging market exposure as a
consequence of the Asian financial crisis in 1997 and the Russian
bond default in August 1998. After crafting a fiscal adjustment
program and pledging progress on structural reform, Brazil received
a $41.5 billion IMF-led international support program in November
1998. In January 1999, the Brazilian Central Bank announced that the
real would no longer be pegged to the US dollar. This devaluation
helped moderate the downturn in economic growth in 1999 that
investors had expressed concerns about over the summer of 1998.
Brazil's debt to GDP ratio for 1999 beat the IMF target and helped
reassure investors that Brazil will maintain tight fiscal and
monetary policy even with a floating currency. The economy continued
to recover in 2000, with inflation remaining in the single digits
and expected growth for 2001 of 4.5%. Foreign direct investment set
a record of more than $30 billion in 2000.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.13 trillion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.2% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,500 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  9%

industry:  29%

services:  62% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 17.4% (1990 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  1%

highest 10%:  47.6% (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6% (2000)

Labor force: 79 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: services 53.2%, agriculture 23.1%,
industry 23.7%

Unemployment rate: 7.1% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues:  $151 billion

expenditures:  $149 billion, including capital expenditures of $36
billion (1998)

Industries: textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore,
tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and
equipment

Industrial production growth rate: 6.9% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 337.44 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  5.28%

hydro:  90.66%

nuclear:  1.12%

other:  2.94% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 353.674 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 5 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 39.86 billion kWh

note:  supplied by Paraguay (1999)

Agriculture - products: coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn,
sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef

Exports: $55.1 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: manufactures, iron ore, soybeans, footwear,
coffee

Exports - partners: US 23%, Argentina 11%, Germany 5%, Netherlands
5%, Japan 5% (1999)

Imports: $55.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemical products,
oil, electricity

Imports - partners: US 24%, Argentina 12%, Germany 10%, Japan 5%,
Italy 5% (1999)

Debt - external: $232 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: NA

Currency: real (BRL)

Currency code: BRL

Exchange rates: reals per US dollar - 1.954 (January 2001), 1.830
(2000), 1.815 (1999), 1.161 (1998), 1.078 (1997), 1.005 (1996)

note:  from October 1994 through 14 January 1999, the official rate
was determined by a managed float; since 15 January 1999, the
official rate floats independently with respect to the US dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year



Brazil    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 17.039 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 4.4 million (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment:  good working system

domestic:  extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic
satellite system with 64 earth stations

international:  3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations
- 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region
east), connected by microwave relay system to MERCOSUR Brazilsat B3
satellite earth station

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1,365, FM 296, shortwave 161 (of which
91 are collocated with AM stations) (1999)

Radios: 71 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 138 (1997)

Televisions: 36.5 million (1997)

Internet country code: .br

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 50 (2000)

Internet users: 8.65 million (2000)



Brazil    Transportation

Railways: total:  30,539 km (2,129 km electrified); note - excludes
urban rail

broad gauge:  5,679 km 1.600-m gauge (1199 km electrified)

standard gauge:  194 km 1.440-m gauge

narrow gauge:  24,666 km 1.000-m gauge (930 km electrified)

dual gauge:  336 km 1.000-m and 1.600-m gauges (three rails) (1999
est.)

Highways: total:  1.98 million km

paved:  184,140 km

unpaved:  1,795,860 km (1996)

Waterways: 50,000 km

Pipelines: crude oil 2,980 km; petroleum products 4,762 km; natural
gas 4,246 km (1998)

Ports and harbors: Belem, Fortaleza, Ilheus, Imbituba, Manaus,
Paranagua, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande,
Salvador, Santos, Vitoria

Merchant marine: total:  171 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
3,788,999 GRT/6,067,314 DWT

ships by type:  bulk 33, cargo 26, chemical tanker 5, combination
ore/oil 9, container 12, liquefied gas 11, multi-functional
large-load carrier 1, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 56, roll
on/roll off 12, short-sea passenger 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 3,264 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  570

over 3,047 m:  5

2,438 to 3,047 m:  21

1,524 to 2,437 m:  141

914 to 1,523 m:  370

under 914 m:  33 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  2,694

1,524 to 2,437 m:  68

914 to 1,523 m:  1,279

under 914 m:  1,347 (2000 est.)



Brazil    Military

Military branches: Brazilian Army, Brazilian Navy (includes naval
air and marines), Brazilian Air Force, Federal Police (paramilitary)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  48,298,486 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
32,388,786 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:
1,762,740 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $13.408 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.9% (FY99)



Brazil    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: limited illicit producer of cannabis, minor coca
cultivation in the Amazon region, mostly used for domestic
consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to
control cannabis; important transshipment country for Bolivian,
Colombian, and Peruvian cocaine headed for the US and Europe; also
used by traffickers as a way station for narcotics air
transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in drug-related
violence and weapons smuggling; important market for Bolivian,
Peruvian, and Colombian cocaine

======================================================================

@British Indian Ocean Territory



British Indian Ocean Territory    Introduction

Background: Established as a territory of the UK in 1965, a number
of the British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT) islands were
transferred to the Seychelles when it attained independence in 1976.
Subsequently, BIOT has consisted only of the six main island groups
comprising the Chagos Archipelago. The largest and most southerly of
the islands, Diego Garcia, contains a joint UK-US naval support
facility. All of the remaining islands are uninhabited. Former
agricultural workers, earlier resident in the islands, were
relocated primarily to Mauritius but also to the Seychelles, between
1967 and 1973. In 2000, a British High Court ruling invalidated the
local immigration order which had excluded them from the
archipelago, but upheld the special military status of Diego Garcia.



British Indian Ocean Territory    Geography

Location: Southern Asia, archipelago in the Indian Ocean, about
one-half the way from Africa to Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 6 00 S, 71 30 E

Map references: World

Area: total:  60 sq km

land:  60 sq km

water:  0 sq km

note:  includes the entire Chagos Archipelago

Area - comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 698 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  3 NM

Climate: tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds

Terrain: flat and low (most areas do not exceed four meters in
elevation)

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point:  unnamed location on Diego Garcia 15 m

Natural resources: coconuts, fish, sugarcane

Land use: arable land:  0%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  0%

forests and woodland:  NA%

other:  NA%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: archipelago of 2,300 islands; Diego Garcia,
largest and southernmost island, occupies strategic location in
central Indian Ocean; island is site of joint US-UK military facility



British Indian Ocean Territory    People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants

note:  approximately 1,200 former agricultural workers resident in
the Chagos Archipelago, often referred to as Chagossians or Ilois,
were relocated to Mauritius and the Seychelles around the time of
the construction of UK-US military facilities; in 1995, there were
approximately 1,700 UK and US military personnel and 1,500 civilian
contractors living on the island of Diego Garcia



British Indian Ocean Territory    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  British Indian Ocean Territory

conventional short form:  none

abbreviation:  BIOT

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK; administered by a
commissioner, resident in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in
London

Legal system: the laws of the UK, where applicable, apply

Executive branch: chief of state:  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6
February 1952)

head of government:  Commissioner John WHITE (since NA);
Administrator Louise SAVILL (since NA); note - both reside in the UK

cabinet:  NA

elections:  none; the monarch is hereditary; commissioner and
administrator appointed by the monarch

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of
the UK)

Flag description: white with six blue wavy horizontal stripes; the
flag of the UK is in the upper hoist-side quadrant; the striped
section bears a palm tree and yellow crown centered on the outer
half of the flag



British Indian Ocean Territory    Economy

Economy - overview: All economic activity is concentrated on the
largest island of Diego Garcia, where joint UK-US defense facilities
are located. Construction projects and various services needed to
support the military installations are done by military and contract
employees from the UK, Mauritius, the Philippines, and the US. There
are no industrial or agricultural activities on the islands. When
the Ilois return, they plan to reestablish sugarcane production and
fishing.

Electricity - production: NA kWh; note - electricity supplied by the
US military

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh



British Indian Ocean Territory    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: NA

Telephone system: general assessment:  separate facilities for
military and public needs are available

domestic:  all commercial telephone services are available,
including connection to the Internet

international:  international telephone service is carried by
satellite (2000)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: NA

Internet country code: .io

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)



British Indian Ocean Territory    Transportation

Highways: total:  NA km

paved:  short stretch of paved road of NA km between port and
airfield on Diego Garcia

unpaved:  NA km

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Diego Garcia

Airports: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  1

over 3,047 m:  1 (2000 est.)



British Indian Ocean Territory    Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK; the US
lease on Diego Garcia expires in 2016



British Indian Ocean Territory    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: the Chagos Archipelago is claimed by
Mauritius and Seychelles

======================================================================

@British Virgin Islands



British Virgin Islands    Introduction

Background: First settled by the Dutch in 1648, the islands were
soon after (1672) annexed by the English. The economy is closely
tied to the larger and more populous US Virgin Islands to the west;
the US dollar is the legal currency.



British Virgin Islands    Geography

Location: Caribbean, between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 18 30 N, 64 30 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total:  150 sq km

land:  150 sq km

water:  0 sq km

note:  includes the island of Anegada

Area - comparative: about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 80 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  3 NM

Climate: subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds

Terrain: coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep, hilly

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point:  Mount Sage 521 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use: arable land:  20%

permanent crops:  7%

permanent pastures:  33%

forests and woodland:  7%

other:  33% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October)

Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources
(except for a few seasonal streams and springs on Tortola, most of
the islands' water supply comes from wells and rainwater catchment)

Geography - note: strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and Puerto
Rico



British Virgin Islands    People

Population: 20,812 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  22.77% (male 2,399; female 2,339)

15-64 years:  72.31% (male 7,741; female 7,309)

65 years and over:  4.92% (male 555; female 469) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.22% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 15.18 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 4.42 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 11.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.06 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  1.18 male(s)/female

total population:  1.06 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 20.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  75.64 years

male:  74.74 years

female:  76.59 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.72 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun:  British Virgin Islander(s)

adjective:  British Virgin Islander

Ethnic groups: black 90%, white, Asian

Religions: Protestant 86% (Methodist 45%, Anglican 21%, Church of
God 7%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, Baptist 4%, Jehovah's Witnesses
2%, other 2%), Roman Catholic 6%, none 2%, other 6% (1981)

Languages: English (official)

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  97.8% (1991 est.)

male:  NA%

female:  NA%



British Virgin Islands    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  none

conventional short form:  British Virgin Islands

abbreviation:  BVI

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK

Government type: NA

Capital: Road Town

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday: Territory Day, 1 July

Constitution: 1 June 1977

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6
February 1952), represented by Governor Francis J. SAVAGE (since NA)

head of government:  Chief Minister Ralph T. O'NEAL (since 15 May
1995)

cabinet:  Executive Council appointed by the governor from members
of the Legislative Council

elections:  none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by
the monarch; chief minister appointed by the governor from among the
members of the Legislative Council

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (13 seats;
members are elected by direct popular vote, one member from each of
9 electoral districts, four at-large members; members serve
five-year terms)

elections:  last held 17 May 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results:  percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
VIP 7, CCM 1, NDP 5

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, consisting of the
High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeal (one judge of the
Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the
High Court); Magistrate's Court; Juvenile Court; Court of Summary
Jurisdiction

Political parties and leaders: Concerned Citizens Movement or CCM
[Ethlyn SMITH]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Orlando SMITH];
United Party or UP [Gregory MADURO]; Virgin Islands Party or VIP
[Ralph T. O'NEAL]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: Caricom (associate), CDB,
ECLAC (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, OECS (associate),
UNESCO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of
the UK)

Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant and the Virgin Islander coat of arms centered in
the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts a woman flanked
on either side by a vertical column of six oil lamps above a scroll
bearing the Latin word VIGILATE (Be Watchful)



British Virgin Islands    Economy

Economy - overview: The economy, one of the most stable and
prosperous in the Caribbean, is highly dependent on tourism, which
generates an estimated 45% of the national income. An estimated
350,000 tourists, mainly from the US, visited the islands in 1997.
In the mid-1980s, the government began offering offshore
registration to companies wishing to incorporate in the islands, and
incorporation fees now generate substantial revenues. An estimated
250,000 companies were on the offshore registry by yearend 1997. The
adoption of a comprehensive insurance law in late 1994, which
provides a blanket of confidentiality with regulated statutory
gateways for investigation of criminal offenses, is expected to make
the British Virgin Islands even more attractive to international
business. Livestock raising is the most important agricultural
activity; poor soils limit the islands' ability to meet domestic
food requirements. Because of traditionally close links with the US
Virgin Islands, the British Virgin Islands has used the dollar as
its currency since 1959.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $311 million (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $16,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  1.8%

industry:  6.2%

services:  92% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (2000)

Labor force: 4,911 (1980)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services
NA%

Unemployment rate: 3% (1995)

Budget: revenues:  $121.5 million

expenditures:  $115.5 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997)

Industries: tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete
block, offshore financial center

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1985)

Electricity - production: 42 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  100%

hydro:  0%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 39.1 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: fruits, vegetables; livestock, poultry; fish

Exports: $6.2 million (2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: rum, fresh fish, fruits, animals; gravel, sand

Exports - partners: Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

Imports: $220 million (2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: building materials, automobiles, foodstuffs,
machinery

Imports - partners: Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

Debt - external: $36.1 million (1997)

Economic aid - recipient: $2.6 million (1995)

Currency: US dollar (USD)

Currency code: USD

Exchange rates: the US dollar is used

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



British Virgin Islands    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 10,000 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: general assessment:  worldwide telephone service

domestic:  NA

international:  submarine cable to Bermuda

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 9,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus one cable company) (1997)

Televisions: 4,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .vg

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 16 (2000)

Internet users: NA



British Virgin Islands    Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total:  132 km

paved:  132 km

unpaved:  0 km (1997)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Road Town

Merchant marine: total:  1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 70,285
GRT/6,946 DWT

ships by type:  passenger 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  2

914 to 1,523 m:  1

under 914 m:  1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  1

914 to 1,523 m:  1 (2000 est.)



British Virgin Islands    Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



British Virgin Islands    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American narcotics
destined for the US and Europe

======================================================================

@Brunei



Brunei    Introduction

Background: The Sultanate of Brunei's heyday occurred between the
15th and 17th centuries, when its control extended over coastal
areas of northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Brunei
subsequently entered a period of decline brought on by internal
strife over royal succession, colonial expansion of European powers,
and piracy. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate;
independence was achieved in 1984. Brunei benefits from extensive
petroleum and natural gas fields, the source of one of the highest
per capita GDPs in the less developed countries. The same family has
now ruled in Brunei for over six centuries.



Brunei    Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and
Malaysia

Geographic coordinates: 4 30 N, 114 40 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total:  5,770 sq km

land:  5,270 sq km

water:  500 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries: total:  381 km

border countries:  Malaysia 381 km

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone:  200 NM or to median line

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy

Terrain: flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly
lowland in west

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  South China Sea 0 m

highest point:  Bukit Pagon 1,850 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, timber

Land use: arable land:  1%

permanent crops:  1%

permanent pastures:  1%

forests and woodland:  85%

other:  12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are very
rare

Environment - current issues: seasonal smoke/haze resulting from
forest fires in Indonesia

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified:  none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea
linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by
Malaysia; almost an enclave of Malaysia



Brunei    People

Population: 343,653 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  30.77% (male 53,977; female 51,772)

15-64 years:  66.52% (male 121,601; female 107,007)

65 years and over:  2.71% (male 4,449; female 4,847) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.11% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 20.45 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 3.38 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.14 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.92 male(s)/female

total population:  1.1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  73.82 years

male:  71.45 years

female:  76.31 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.44 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: less than 100 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun:  Bruneian(s)

adjective:  Bruneian

Ethnic groups: Malay 67%, Chinese 15%, indigenous 6%, other 12%

Religions: Muslim (official) 67%, Buddhist 13%, Christian 10%,
indigenous beliefs and other 10%

Languages: Malay (official), English, Chinese

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  88.2%

male:  92.6%

female:  83.4% (1995 est.)



Brunei    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Negara Brunei Darussalam

conventional short form:  Brunei

Government type: constitutional sultanate

Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan

Administrative divisions: 4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular -
daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong

Independence: 1 January 1984 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 23 February (1984); note - 1 January
1984 was the date of independence from the UK, 23 February 1984 was
the date of independence from British protection

Constitution: 29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a
State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on
1 January 1984)

Legal system: based on English common law; for Muslims, Islamic
Shari'a law supersedes civil law in a number of areas

Suffrage: none

Executive branch: chief of state:  Sultan and Prime Minister Sir
HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both
the chief of state and head of government

head of government:  Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah
(since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of
state and head of government

cabinet:  Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over
by the monarch; deals with executive matters; note - there is also a
Religious Council (members appointed by the monarch) that advises on
religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the
monarch) that deals with constitutional matters, and the Council of
Succession (members appointed by the monarch) that determines the
succession to the throne if the need arises

elections:  none; the monarch is hereditary

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council or Majlis
Masyuarat Megeri (a privy council that serves only in a consultative
capacity; NA seats; members appointed by the monarch)

elections:  last held in March 1962

note:  in 1970 the Council was changed to an appointive body by
decree of the monarch; an elected Legislative Council is being
considered as part of constitutional reform, but elections are
unlikely for several years

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (chief justice and judges are sworn
in by the monarch for three-year terms)

Political parties and leaders: Brunei Solidarity National Party or
PPKB in Malay [Haji Mohd HATTA bin Haji Zainal Abidin, president];
the PPKB is the only legal political party in Brunei; it was
registered in 1985, but became largely inactive after 1988, it was
revived in 1995 and again in 1998; it has less than 200 registered
party members; other parties include Brunei People's Party or PRB
(banned in 1962) and Brunei National Democratic Party (registered in
May 1965, deregistered by the Brunei Government in 1988)

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: APEC, ARF, ASEAN, C, CCC,
ESCAP, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFRCS, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW,
UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Pengiran Anak Dato Haji PUTEH Ibni Mohammad Alam

chancery:  3520 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:  [1] (202) 342-0159

FAX:  [1] (202) 342-0158

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Sylvia Gaye STANFIELD

embassy:  Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri
Begawan

mailing address:  PSC 470 (BSB), FPO AP 96507

telephone:  [673] (2) 229670

FAX:  [673] (2) 225293

Flag description: yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top,
almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side;
the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; the emblem
includes a swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an
upturned crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands



Brunei    Economy

Economy - overview: This small, wealthy economy is a mixture of
foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation and
welfare measures, and village tradition. Exports of crude oil and
natural gas account for over half of GDP. Per capita GDP is far
above most other Third World countries, and substantial income from
overseas investment supplements income from domestic production. The
government provides for all medical services and subsidizes rice and
housing. Brunei's leaders are concerned that steadily increased
integration in the world economy will undermine internal social
cohesion although it became a more prominent player by serving as
chairman for the 2000 APEC (Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation)
forum. Plans for the future include upgrading the labor force,
reducing unemployment, strengthening the banking and tourist
sectors, and, in general, a further widening of the economic base
beyond oil and gas.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $5.9 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $17,600 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  5%

industry:  46%

services:  49% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 144,000 (1995 est.); note - includes foreign workers
and military personnel

note:  temporary residents make up 41% of labor force (1991)

Labor force - by occupation: government 48%, production of oil,
natural gas, services, and construction 42%, agriculture, forestry,
and fishing 10% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 4.9% (1995 est.)

Budget: revenues:  $2.5 billion

expenditures:  $2.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.35
billion (1997 est.)

Industries: petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas,
construction

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: 2.445 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  100%

hydro:  0%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 2.274 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: rice, vegetables, fruits, chickens, water
buffalo

Exports: $2.55 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: crude oil, natural gas, refined products

Exports - partners: Japan 42%, US 17%, South Korea 14%, Thailand 3%
(1999)

Imports: $1.3 billion (c.i.f., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment,
manufactured goods, food, chemicals

Imports - partners: Singapore 34%, UK 15%, Malaysia 15%, US 5% (1999)

Debt - external: $0

Economic aid - recipient: $4.3 million (1995)

Currency: Bruneian dollar (BND)

Currency code: BND

Exchange rates: Bruneian dollars per US dollar - 1.7365 (January
2001), 1.7240 (2000), 1.6950 (1999), 1.6736 (1998), 1.4848 (1997),
1.4100 (1996); note - the Bruneian dollar is at par with the
Singapore dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year



Brunei    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 79,000 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 43,524 (1996)

Telephone system: general assessment:  service throughout country is
excellent; international service good to Europe, US, and East Asia

domestic:  every service available

international:  satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian
Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean); digital submarine cable links to
Malaysia, Singapore, and Philippines (2001)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 10, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 329,000 (1998)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997)

Televisions: 201,900 (1998)

Internet country code: .bn

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: 28,000 (2001)



Brunei    Transportation

Railways: total:  13 km (private line)

narrow gauge:  13 km 0.610-m gauge

Highways: total:  1,712 km

paved:  1,284 km

unpaved:  428 km (1996)

Waterways: 209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m

Pipelines: crude oil 135 km; petroleum products 418 km; natural gas
920 km

Ports and harbors: Bandar Seri Begawan, Kuala Belait, Muara, Seria,
Tutong

Merchant marine: total:  7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
348,476 GRT/340,635 DWT

ships by type:  liquefied gas 7 (2000 est.)

Airports: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  1

over 3,047 m:  1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  1

914 to 1,523 m:  1 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 3 (2000 est.)



Brunei    Military

Military branches: Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Royal Brunei Police

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  106,725 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
61,640 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  3,005
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $343 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 5.1% (FY98)



Brunei    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: possibly involved in a complex dispute
over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan,
and Vietnam; in 1984, Brunei established an exclusive fishing zone
that encompasses Louisa Reef in the southern Spratly Islands, but
has not publicly claimed the island

Illicit drugs: drug trafficking and illegally importing controlled
substances are serious offenses in Brunei and carry a mandatory
death penalty

======================================================================

@Bulgaria



Bulgaria    Introduction

Background: Bulgaria earned its independence from the Ottoman Empire
in 1878, but having fought on the losing side in both World Wars, it
fell within the Soviet sphere of influence and became a People's
Republic in 1946. Communist domination ended in 1990, when Bulgaria
held its first multi-party election since World War II and began the
contentious process of moving toward political democracy and a
market economy while combating inflation, unemployment, corruption,
and crime. Today, reforms and democratization keep Bulgaria on a
path toward eventual integration into NATO and the EU - with which
it began accession negotiations in 2000.



Bulgaria    Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between
Romania and Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 43 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total:  110,910 sq km

land:  110,550 sq km

water:  360 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries: total:  1,808 km

border countries:  Greece 494 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Yugoslavia 318 km, Turkey 240 km

Coastline: 354 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone:  24 NM

exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

Terrain: mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Black Sea 0 m

highest point:  Musala 2,925 m

Natural resources: bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable
land

Land use: arable land:  43%

permanent crops:  2%

permanent pastures:  14%

forests and woodland:  38%

other:  3% (1999 est.)

Irrigated land: 12,370 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes, landslides

Environment - current issues: air pollution from industrial
emissions; rivers polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals,
detergents; deforestation; forest damage from air pollution and
resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy metals from
metallurgical plants and industrial wastes

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Air Pollution,
Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:  Air Pollution-Persistent Organic
Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls
key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia



Bulgaria    People

Population: 7,707,495 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  15.11% (male 597,765; female 567,030)

15-64 years:  68.17% (male 2,588,805; female 2,665,736)

65 years and over:  16.72% (male 543,665; female 744,494) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: -1.14% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 8.06 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 14.53 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.73 male(s)/female

total population:  0.94 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.65 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  71.2 years

male:  67.72 years

female:  74.89 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.13 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Bulgarian(s)

adjective:  Bulgarian

Ethnic groups: Bulgarian 83%, Turk 8.5%, Roma 2.6%, Macedonian,
Armenian, Tatar, Gagauz, Circassian, others (1998)

Religions: Bulgarian Orthodox 83.5%, Muslim 13%, Roman Catholic
1.5%, Uniate Catholic 0.2%, Jewish 0.8%, Protestant,
Gregorian-Armenian, and other 1% (1998)

Languages: Bulgarian, secondary languages closely correspond to
ethnic breakdown

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  98%

male:  99%

female:  98% (1999)



Bulgaria    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Republic of Bulgaria

conventional short form:  Bulgaria

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Sofia

Administrative divisions: 28 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast);
Blagoevgrad, Burgas, Dobrich, Gabrovo, Khaskovo, Kurdzhali,
Kyustendil, Lovech, Montana, Pazardzhik, Pernik, Pleven, Plovdiv,
Razgrad, Ruse, Shumen, Silistra, Sliven, Smolyan, Sofiya,
Sofiya-Grad, Stara Zagora, Turgovishte, Varna, Veliko Turnovo,
Vidin, Vratsa, Yambol

Independence: 3 March 1878 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Liberation Day, 3 March (1878)

Constitution: adopted 12 July 1991

Legal system: civil law and criminal law based on Roman law; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  President Petar STOYANOV (since
22 January 1997); Vice President Todor KAVALDZHIEV (since 22 January
1997)

head of government:  Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime
Minister) Ivan KOSTOV (since 19 May 1997); Deputy Prime Minister
Petur ZHOTEV (since 21 December 1999)

cabinet:  Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly

elections:  president and vice president elected on the same ticket
by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 27 October
and 3 November 1996 (next to be held NA 2001); chairman of the
Council of Ministers (prime minister) nominated by the president;
deputy prime ministers nominated by the prime minister

election results:  Petar STOYANOV elected president; percent of vote
- Petar STOYANOV 59.73%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sobranie
(240 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections:  last held 17 June 2001 (next to be held NA June 2005)

election results:  percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
National Movement for Simeon II 120, UDF 51, BSP 48, DPS 21

Judicial branch: Supreme Administrative Court; Supreme Court of
Cassation; Constitutional Court (12 justices appointed or elected
for nine-year terms); Supreme Judicial Council (consists of the
chairmen of the two Supreme Courts, the Chief Prosecutor, and 22
other members; responsible for appointing the justices, prosecutors,
and investigating magistrates in the justice system; members of the
Supreme Judicial Council elected for five-year terms, 11 elected by
the National Assembly and 11 by bodies of the judiciary)

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for National Salvation or
ANS (coalition led mainly by Movement for Rights and Freedoms or
MRF) [Ahmed DOGAN]; Bulgarian Business Bloc or BBB [Georgi GANCHEV];
Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Georgi PURVANOV, chairman];
Democratic Left or DL (bloc led by BSP, includes Ecoglasnost
Political Club and Bulgarian Agrarian National Union) [leader NA];
Euro-left [Aleksandur TOMOV]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary
Organization or UMRO [Aleksander KARAKACHNOV]; Kingdom of Bulgaria
Federation [leader NA]; Movement for Rights and Freedom or DPS
[Ahmed DOGAN]; National Movement for Simeon II [Simeon II, former
king]; New Civic Party for Bulgaria [Bogomil BONEV]; People's Union
or PU (includes Bulgarian Agrarian People's Union and Democratic
Party) [Anastasiya MOZER]; St. George's Day [Lyuben DILOV]; Union of
Democratic Forces or UDF (an alliance of pro-democratic parties)
[Ivan KOSTOV]

Political pressure groups and leaders: agrarian movement; Bulgarian
Democratic Center; Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of
Bulgaria or CITUB; Democratic Alliance for the Republic or DAR; New
Union for Democracy or NUD; Podkrepa Labor Confederation; numerous
regional, ethnic, and national interest groups with various agendas

International organization participation: ACCT, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE,
CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO,
Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NSG,
OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner),
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Philip DIMITROV

chancery:  1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:  [1] (202) 387-7969

FAX:  [1] (202) 234-7973

consulate(s):  New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Richard M. MILES

embassy:  1 Suborna Street, Sofia

mailing address:  American Embassy Sofia, Department of State,
Washington, DC 20521-5740

telephone:  [359] (2) 980-52-41

FAX:  [359] (2) 981-89-77

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of white (top),
green, and red; the national emblem formerly on the hoist side of
the white stripe has been removed - it contained a rampant lion
within a wreath of wheat ears below a red five-pointed star and
above a ribbon bearing the dates 681 (first Bulgarian state
established) and 1944 (liberation from Nazi control)



Bulgaria    Economy

Economy - overview: Bulgaria, a former communist country struggling
to enter the European market economy, suffered a major economic
downturn in 1996 and 1997, with triple digit inflation and GDP
contraction of 10.6% and 6.9%. The current government - which took
office in May 1997 after pre-term parliamentary elections -
stabilized the economy and promoted growth by implementing a
currency board, practicing sound financial policies, invigorating
privatization, and pursuing structural reforms. Additionally, strong
assistance from international financial institutions - most notably
the IMF which approved a three-year Extended Fund Facility worth
approximately $900 million in September 1998 - played a critical
role in turning the economy around. After several years of tumult,
Bulgaria's economy has stabilized. Its better-than-expected economic
performance in 1999 - despite the impact of the Kosovo conflict, the
1998 Russian financial crisis, and structural reforms - and strong
growth in 2000 portends solid growth over the next few years; this
assumes continued fiscal restraint, additional structural reforms,
aid from abroad, and prosperous times in the EU economy.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $48 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,200 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  15%

industry:  29%

services:  56% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: 35% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:
3.4%

highest 10%:  22.5% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.4% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 3.83 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 26%, industry 31%, services
43% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate: 17.7% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues:  $4.85 billion

expenditures:  $4.92 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(2000 est.)

Industries: electricity, gas and water; food, beverages and tobacco;
machinery and equipment, base metals, chemical products, coke,
refined petroleum, nuclear fuel

Industrial production growth rate: 10.8% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 36.217 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  51.52%

hydro:  8.35%

nuclear:  40.12%

other:  0.01% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 33.182 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 2.2 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 1.7 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: vegetables, fruits, tobacco, livestock,
wine, wheat, barley, sunflowers, sugar beets

Exports: $4.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: clothing, footwear, iron and steel, machinery
and equipment, fuels

Exports - partners: Italy 14%, Turkey 10%, Germany 9%, Greece 8%,
Yugoslavia 8%, Belgium 6%, France 5%, US 4% (2000)

Imports: $5.9 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: fuels, minerals, and raw materials; machinery
and equipment; metals and ores; chemicals and plastics; food,
textiles

Imports - partners: Russia 24%, Germany 14%, Italy 8%, Greece 5%,
France 5%, Romania 4%, Turkey 3%, US 3% (2000)

Debt - external: $10.4 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $1 billion (1999 est.)

Currency: lev (BGL)

Currency code: BGL

Exchange rates: leva per US dollar - 2.0848 (January 2001), 2.1233
(2000), 1.8364 (1999), 1,760.36 (1998), 1,681.88 (1997), 177.89
(1996)

note:  on 5 July 1999, the lev was redenominated; the post-5 July
1999 lev is equal to 1,000 of the pre-5 July 1999 lev

Fiscal year: calendar year



Bulgaria    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 3.255 million (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 596,000 (2000)

Telephone system: general assessment:  extensive but antiquated

domestic:  more than two-thirds of the lines are residential;
telephone service is available in most villages; a fairly modern
digital cable trunk line now connects switching centers in most of
the regions, the others are connected by digital microwave radio
relay

international:  direct dialing to 58 countries; satellite earth
stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); 2 Intelsat
(Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 24, FM 93, shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios: 4.51 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 96 (plus 1,030 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions: 3.31 million (1997)

Internet country code: .bg

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 26 (2000)

Internet users: 200,000 (2000)



Bulgaria    Transportation

Railways: total:  4,294 km

standard gauge:  4,049 km 1.435-m gauge (2,710 km electrified; 917
km double track)

narrow gauge:  245 km 0.760-m gauge (1998)

Highways: total:  36,724 km

paved:  33,786 km (including 314 km of expressways)

unpaved:  2,938 km (1999)

Waterways: 470 km (1987)

Pipelines: petroleum products 525 km; natural gas 1,500 km (1999)

Ports and harbors: Burgas, Lom, Nesebur, Ruse, Varna, Vidin

Merchant marine: total:  81 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
938,706 GRT/1,440,374 DWT

ships by type:  bulk 44, cargo 16, chemical tanker 4, container 2,
passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 6, railcar carrier 2,
refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 3, short-sea passenger 1,
specialized tanker 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 215 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  128

over 3,047 m:  1

2,438 to 3,047 m:  19

1,524 to 2,437 m:  15

914 to 1,523 m:  1

under 914 m:  92 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  87

1,524 to 2,437 m:  2

914 to 1,523 m:  10

under 914 m:  75 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Bulgaria    Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Civil
Defense Forces, Internal Troops

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  1,891,498 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
1,581,697 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  56,104
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $344 million (FY00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.4% (FY00)



Bulgaria    Transnational Issues

Illicit drugs: major European transshipment point for Southwest
Asian heroin and, to a lesser degree, South American cocaine for the
European market; limited producer of precursor chemicals

======================================================================

@Burkina Faso



Burkina Faso    Introduction

Background: Independence from France came to Burkina Faso (formerly
Upper Volta) in 1960. Governmental instability during the 1970s and
1980s was followed by multiparty elections in the early 1990s.
Several hundred thousand farm workers migrate south every year to
Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana.



Burkina Faso    Geography

Location: Western Africa, north of Ghana

Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 2 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area: total:  274,200 sq km

land:  273,800 sq km

water:  400 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Colorado

Land boundaries: total:  3,192 km

border countries:  Benin 306 km, Cote d'Ivoire 584 km, Ghana 548 km,
Mali 1,000 km, Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers

Terrain: mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west
and southeast

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Mouhoun (Black Volta) River 200 m

highest point:  Tena Kourou 749 m

Natural resources: manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of
gold, antimony, copper, nickel, bauxite, lead, phosphates, zinc,
silver

Land use: arable land:  13%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  22%

forests and woodland:  50%

other:  15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 200 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring droughts

Environment - current issues: recent droughts and desertification
severely affecting agricultural activities, population distribution,
and the economy; overgrazing; soil degradation; deforestation

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:  Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: landlocked



Burkina Faso    People

Population: 12,272,289

note:  estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  47.5% (male 2,937,285; female 2,892,107)

15-64 years:  49.59% (male 2,903,153; female 3,183,121)

65 years and over:  2.91% (male 150,688; female 205,935) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.68% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 44.79 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 17.05 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.91 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.73 male(s)/female

total population:  0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 106.92 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  46.41 years

male:  45.86 years

female:  46.98 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.35 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 6.44% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 350,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 43,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Burkinabe (singular and plural)

adjective:  Burkinabe

Ethnic groups: Mossi over 40%, Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande,
Fulani

Religions: indigenous beliefs 40%, Muslim 50%, Christian (mainly
Roman Catholic) 10%

Languages: French (official), native African languages belonging to
Sudanic family spoken by 90% of the population

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  19.2%

male:  29.5%

female:  9.2% (1995 est.)



Burkina Faso    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  none

conventional short form:  Burkina Faso

former:  Upper Volta, Republic of Upper Volta

Government type: parliamentary

Capital: Ouagadougou

Administrative divisions: 30 provinces; Bam, Bazega, Bougouriba,
Boulgou, Boulkiemde, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houe, Kadiogo,
Kenedougou, Komoe, Kossi, Kouritenga, Mouhoun, Namentenga, Naouri,
Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Sanguie, Sanmatenga, Seno,
Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Yatenga, Zoundweogo

note:  a new electoral code was approved by the National Assembly in
January 1997; the number of administrative provinces was increased
from 30 to 45 (Bale, Bam, Banwa, Bazega, Bougouriba, Boulgou,
Boulkiemde, Comoe, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Ioba, Kadiogo,
Kenedougou, Komandjari, Kompienga, Kossi, Koupelogo, Kouritenga,
Kourweogo, Leraba, Loroum, Mouhoun, Nahouri, Namentenga, Nayala,
Naumbiel, Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Samentenga, Sanguie,
Seno, Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Tuy, Yagha, Yatenga, Ziro,
Zondomo, Zoundweogo), however, this change has not yet been
confirmed by the US Board on Geographic Names

Independence: 5 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Republic Day, 11 December (1958)

Constitution: 2 June 1991 approved by referendum; 11 June 1991
formally adopted

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law

Suffrage: universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  President Blaise COMPAORE (since
15 October 1987)

head of government:  Prime Minister Ernest Paramanga YONLI (since 6
November 2000)

cabinet:  Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
recommendation of the prime minister

elections:  president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term;
the president may serve unlimited terms; election last held 15
November 1998 (next to be held NA 2005); prime minister appointed by
the president with the consent of the legislature

election results:  Blaise COMPAORE reelected president with 87.5%
percent of the vote, 56% of voter turnout

note:  President COMPAORE faces an increasingly well-coordinated
opposition; recent charges against a former member of his
Presidential Guard in the 1998 assassination of a newspaper editor
signify an attempt to defuse chronic areas of dissatisfaction

Legislative branch: bicameral; consists of a National Assembly or
Assemblee des Deputes Populaires (111 seats; members are elected by
popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the purely consultative
Chamber of Representations or Chambre des Representants (178 seats;
members are appointed to serve three-year terms)

elections:  National Assembly election last held 11 May 1997 (next
to be held NA 2002)

election results:  percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
CDP 101, PDP 6, RDA 2, ADF 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders: African Democratic Rally-Alliance for
Democracy and Federation or RDA-ADF [Herman YAMEOGO]; Congress for
Democracy and Progress or CDP [Roch Marc-Christian KABORE]; Movement
for Tolerance and Progress or MTP [Noyabtigungu Congo KABORE]; Party
for African Independence or PAI [Philippe OUEDRAOGO]; Party for
Democracy and Progress or PDP [Joseph KI-ZERBO]; Union of Greens for
the Development of Burkina Faso or UVDB [Ram OVEDRAGO]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Burkinabe General
Confederation of Labor or CGTB; Burkinabe Movement for Human Rights
or HBDHP; Group of 14 February; National Confederation of Burkinabe
Workers or CNTB; National Organization of Free Unions or ONSL;
watchdog/political action groups throughout the country in both
organizations and communities

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM,
IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
ISO (subscriber), ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WAEMU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Bruno ZIDOUEMBA

chancery:  2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:  [1] (202) 332-5577

FAX:  [1] (202) 667-1882

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Jimmy J. KOLKER

embassy:  602 Avenue Raoul Follerau, Koulouba, Secteur 4, Ouagadougou

mailing address:  B. P. 35, Ouagadougou 01

telephone:  [226] 306723

FAX:  [226] 303890

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green
with a yellow five-pointed star in the center; uses the popular
pan-African colors of Ethiopia



Burkina Faso    Economy

Economy - overview: One of the poorest countries in the world,
landlocked Burkina Faso has a high population density, few natural
resources, and a fragile soil. About 90% of the population is
engaged in (mainly subsistence) agriculture which is highly
vulnerable to variations in rainfall. Industry remains dominated by
unprofitable government-controlled corporations. Following the
African franc currency devaluation in January 1994 the government
updated its development program in conjunction with international
agencies, and exports and economic growth have increased.
Maintenance of its macroeconomic progress in 2001-02 depends on
continued low inflation, reduction in the trade deficit, and reforms
designed to encourage private investment.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $12 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  26%

industry:  27%

services:  47% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:
2.2%

highest 10%:  39.5% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 5 million (1999)

note:  a large part of the male labor force migrates annually to
neighboring countries for seasonal employment

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 90% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues:  $277 million

expenditures:  $492 million, including capital expenditures of $233
million (1995 est.)

Industries: cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap,
cigarettes, textiles, gold

Industrial production growth rate: 4.2% (1995)

Electricity - production: 285 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  71.93%

hydro:  28.07%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 265.1 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: peanuts, shea nuts, sesame, cotton, sorghum,
millet, corn, rice; livestock

Exports: $220 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: cotton, animal products, gold

Exports - partners: Italy 13%, France 10%, Indonesia 8%, Thailand 7%
(1999)

Imports: $610 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery, food products, petroleum

Imports - partners: Cote d'Ivoire 30%, France 28%, Spain 3%, Benelux
3% (1999)

Debt - external: $1.3 billion (1997)

Economic aid - recipient: $484.1 million (1995)

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note -
responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States

Currency code: XOF

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US
dollar - 699.21 (January 2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95
(1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996); note - from 1 January 1999,
the XOF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF per euro

Fiscal year: calendar year



Burkina Faso    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 36,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,503 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment:  all services only fair

domestic:  microwave radio relay, open wire, and radiotelephone
communication stations

international:  satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 17, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 370,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 100,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .bf

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 4,000 (2000)



Burkina Faso    Transportation

Railways: total:  622 km (517 km from Ouagadougou to the Cote
d'Ivoire border and 105 km from Ouagadougou to Kaya)

narrow gauge:  622 km 1.000-m gauge (1995 est.)

Highways: total:  12,506 km

paved:  2,001 km

unpaved:  10,505 km (1996)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 33 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  2

over 3,047 m:  1

2,438 to 3,047 m:  1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  31

1,524 to 2,437 m:  3

914 to 1,523 m:  12

under 914 m:  16 (2000 est.)



Burkina Faso    Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National
Police, People's Militia

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  2,592,974 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
1,329,995 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $66 million (FY96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2% (FY96)



Burkina Faso    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Burma



Burma    Introduction

Background: Despite multiparty elections in 1990 that resulted in
the main opposition party winning a decisive victory, the military
junta ruling the country refused to hand over power. Key opposition
leader and Nobel Peace Prize recipient AUNG San Suu Kyi, under house
arrest from 1989 to 1995, was again placed under house detention in
September 2000; her supporters are routinely harassed or jailed.



Burma    Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay
of Bengal, between Bangladesh and Thailand

Geographic coordinates: 22 00 N, 98 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total:  678,500 sq km

land:  657,740 sq km

water:  20,760 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: total:  5,876 km

border countries:  Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463
km, Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km

Coastline: 1,930 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone:  24 NM

continental shelf:  200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers
(southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall,
mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon,
December to April)

Terrain: central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Andaman Sea 0 m

highest point:  Hkakabo Razi 5,881 m

Natural resources: petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper,
tungsten, lead, coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones,
natural gas, hydropower

Land use: arable land:  15%

permanent crops:  1%

permanent pastures:  1%

forests and woodland:  49%

other:  34% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10,680 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and
landslides common during rainy season (June to September); periodic
droughts

Environment - current issues: deforestation; industrial pollution of
air, soil, and water; inadequate sanitation and water treatment
contribute to disease

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94

signed, but not ratified:  none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic location near major Indian Ocean
shipping lanes



Burma    People

Population: 41,994,678

note:  estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  29.14% (male 6,245,798; female 5,992,074)

15-64 years:  66.08% (male 13,779,571; female 13,970,707)

65 years and over:  4.78% (male 895,554; female 1,110,974) (2001
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.6% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 20.13 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 12.3 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.81 male(s)/female

total population:  0.99 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 73.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  55.16 years

male:  53.73 years

female:  56.68 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.3 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.99% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 530,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 48,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Burmese (singular and plural)

adjective:  Burmese

Ethnic groups: Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese
3%, Mon 2%, Indian 2%, other 5%

Religions: Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic
1%), Muslim 4%, animist 1%, other 2%

Languages: Burmese, minority ethnic groups have their own languages

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  83.1%

male:  88.7%

female:  77.7% (1995 est.)

note:  these are official statistics; estimates of functional
literacy are likely closer to 30% (1999 est.)



Burma    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Union of Burma

conventional short form:  Burma

local long form:  Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the
US Government as Union of Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of
Myanmar)

local short form:  Myanma Naingngandaw

former:  Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma

Government type: military regime

Capital: Rangoon (regime refers to the capital as Yangon)

Administrative divisions: 7 divisions* (yin-mya, singular - yin) and
7 states (pyine-mya, singular - pyine); Chin State, Ayeyarwady*,
Bago*, Kachin State, Kayin State, Kayah State, Magway*, Mandalay*,
Mon State, Rakhine State, Sagaing*, Shan State, Tanintharyi*, Yangon*

Independence: 4 January 1948 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 January (1948)

Constitution: 3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988);
national convention started on 9 January 1993 to draft a new
constitution; progress has since been stalled

Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  Prime Minister and Chairman of
the State Peace and Development Council Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23
April 1992); note - the prime minister is both the chief of state
and head of government

head of government:  Prime Minister and Chairman of the State Peace
and Development Council Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992); note -
the prime minister is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet:  State Peace and Development Council (SPDC); military
junta, so named 15 November 1997, which initially assumed power 18
September 1988 under the name State Law and Order Restoration
Council; the SPDC oversees the cabinet

elections:  none; the prime minister assumed power upon resignation
of the former prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly or Pyithu Hluttaw
(485 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections:  last held 27 May 1990, but Assembly never convened

election results:  percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
NLD 392, SNLD 23, NUP 10, other 60

Judicial branch: remnants of the British-era legal system are in
place, but there is no guarantee of a fair public trial; the
judiciary is not independent of the executive

Political parties and leaders: National League for Democracy or NLD
[AUNG SHWE, chairman, AUNG SAN SUU KYI, general secretary]; National
Unity Party or NUP (proregime) [THA KYAW]; Shan Nationalities League
for Democracy or SNLD [U KHUN TUN OO]; Union Solidarity and
Development Association or USDA (proregime, a social and political
organization) [THAN AUNG, general secretary]; and other smaller
parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: All Burma Student Democratic
Front or ABSDF; Kachin Independence Army or KIA; Karen National
Union or KNU; National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma or
NCGUB [Dr. SEIN WIN] consists of individuals legitimately elected to
the People's Assembly but not recognized by the military regime; the
group fled to a border area and joined with insurgents in December
1990 to form a parallel government; several Shan factions; United Wa
State Army or UWSA

International organization participation: ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP,
ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU,
NAM, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:
Ambassador-designate U LINN MYAING

chancery:  2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:  [1] (202) 332-9044

FAX:  [1] (202) 332-9046

consulate(s) general:  New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Permanent
Charge d'Affaires Priscilla A. CLAPP

embassy:  581 Merchant Street, Rangoon (GPO 521)

mailing address:  Box B, APO AP 96546

telephone:  [95] (1) 282055, 282182

FAX:  [95] (1) 280409

Flag description: red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side
corner bearing, all in white, 14 five-pointed stars encircling a
cogwheel containing a stalk of rice; the 14 stars represent the 14
administrative divisions



Burma    Economy

Economy - overview: Burma has a mixed economy with private activity
dominant in agriculture, light industry, and transport, and with
substantial state-controlled activity, mainly in energy, heavy
industry, and the rice trade. Government policy in the 1990s has
aimed at revitalizing the economy after three decades of tight
central planning. Private activity markedly increased in the early
to mid-1990s, but began to decline in the past several years due to
frustrations with the unfriendly business environment and political
pressure from western nations. Published estimates of Burma's
foreign trade are greatly understated because of the volume of
black-market, illicit, and border trade. A major ongoing problem is
the failure to achieve monetary and fiscal stability. Burma remains
a poor Asian country and living standards for the majority have not
improved over the past decade. Short-term growth will continue to be
restrained because of poor government planning and minimal foreign
investment.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $63.7 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.9% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,500 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  42%

industry:  17%

services:  41% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: 23% (1997 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:
2.8%

highest 10%:  32.4% (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 18% (1999)

Labor force: 19.7 million (FY98/99 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 65%, industry 10%, services
25% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 7.1% (official FY97/98 est.)

Budget: revenues:  $7.9 billion

expenditures:  $12.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.7
billion (FY96/97)

Industries: agricultural processing; textiles and footwear; wood and
wood products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction materials;
pharmaceuticals; fertilizer

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 4.813 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  68.56%

hydro:  31.44%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 4.476 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: paddy rice, corn, oilseed, sugarcane,
pulses; hardwood

Exports: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: apparel 36%, foodstuffs 22%, wood products
21%, precious stones 5% (1999)

Exports - partners: India 13%, Singapore 11%, China 11%, US 8% (1999
est.)

note:  official trade statistics do not include trade in illicit
goods - such as narcotics, teak, and gems - or the largely
unrecorded border trade with China and Thailand

Imports: $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: machinery, transport equipment, construction
materials, food products

Imports - partners: Singapore 28%, Thailand 12%, China 10%, Japan
10%, South Korea 9% (1999 est.)

Debt - external: $6 billion (FY99/00 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $99 million (FY98/99)

Currency: kyat (MMK)

Currency code: MMK

Exchange rates: kyats per US dollar - official rate - 6.5972
(January 2001), 6.5167 (2000), 6.2858 (1999), 6.3432 (1998), 6.2418
(1997), 5.9176 (1996); kyats per US dollar - black market exchange
rate - 435 (yearend 2000)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Burma    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 250,000 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 8,492 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment:  meets minimum requirements
for local and intercity service for business and government;
international service is good

domestic:  NA

international:  satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios: 4.2 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1998)

Televisions: 320,000 (2000)

Internet country code: .mm

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1

note:  as of September 2000, Internet connections were legal only
for the government, tourist offices, and a few large businesses
(2000)

Internet users: 500 (2000)



Burma    Transportation

Railways: total:  3,991 km

narrow gauge:  3,991 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways: total:  28,200 km

paved:  3,440 km

unpaved:  24,760 km (1996)

Waterways: 12,800 km

note:  3,200 km navigable by large commercial vessels

Pipelines: crude oil 1,343 km; natural gas 330 km

Ports and harbors: Bassein, Bhamo, Chauk, Mandalay, Moulmein,
Myitkyina, Rangoon, Akyab (Sittwe), Tavoy

Merchant marine: total:  37 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
411,181 GRT/632,769 DWT

ships by type:  bulk 11, cargo 20, container 1, passenger/cargo 3,
petroleum tanker 2

note:  includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag
of convenience: Japan 2 (2000 est.)

Airports: 80 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  9

over 3,047 m:  3

2,438 to 3,047 m:  1

1,524 to 2,437 m:  4

914 to 1,523 m:  1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  71

over 3,047 m:  2

1,524 to 2,437 m:  15

914 to 1,523 m:  22

under 914 m:  32 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Burma    Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  12,050,964

females age 15-49:  12,070,017

note:  both sexes liable for military service (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
6,425,514

females age 15-49:  6,419,677 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  470,667

females:  479,691 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $39 million (FY97/98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.1% (FY97/98)



Burma    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: sporadic border hostilities with Thailand
over border alignment and ethnic Shan rebels operating in
cross-border region

Illicit drugs: world's second largest producer of illicit opium,
after Afghanistan (potential production in 1999 - 1,090 metric tons,
down 38% due to drought; cultivation in 1999 - 89,500 hectares, a
31% decline from 1998); surrender of drug warlord KHUN SA's Mong Tai
Army in January 1996 was hailed by Rangoon as a major
counternarcotics success, but lack of government will and ability to
take on major narcotrafficking groups and lack of serious commitment
against money laundering continues to hinder the overall antidrug
effort; becoming a major source of methamphetamine for regional
consumption

======================================================================

@Burundi



Burundi    Introduction

Background: Between 1993 and 2000, wide-spread, often intense ethnic
violence between Hutu and Tutsi factions in Burundi created hundreds
of thousands of refugees and left tens of thousands dead. Although
some refugees have returned from neighboring countries, continued
ethnic strife has forced many others to flee. Burundian troops,
seeking to secure their borders, have intervened in the conflict in
the Democratic Republic of the Congo.



Burundi    Geography

Location: Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates: 3 30 S, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total:  27,830 sq km

land:  25,650 sq km

water:  2,180 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries: total:  974 km

border countries:  Democratic Republic of the Congo 233 km, Rwanda
290 km, Tanzania 451 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude
variation (772 m to 2,670 m above sea level); average annual
temperature varies with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade
but is generally moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m;
average annual rainfall is about 150 cm; wet seasons from February
to May and September to November, and dry seasons from June to
August and December to January

Terrain: hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some
plains

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Lake Tanganyika 772 m

highest point:  Mount Heha 2,670 m

Natural resources: nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt,
copper, platinum (not yet exploited), vanadium, arable land,
hydropower

Land use: arable land:  44%

permanent crops:  9%

permanent pastures:  36%

forests and woodland:  3%

other:  8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 140 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding, landslides, drought

Environment - current issues: soil erosion as a result of
overgrazing and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands;
deforestation (little forested land remains because of uncontrolled
cutting of trees for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife
populations

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified:  Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo
watershed



Burundi    People

Population: 6,223,897

note:  estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  46.82% (male 1,472,618; female 1,441,548)

15-64 years:  50.37% (male 1,541,131; female 1,593,743)

65 years and over:  2.81% (male 71,984; female 102,873) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.38% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 40.13 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 16.36 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.7 male(s)/female

total population:  0.98 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 70.74 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  46.06 years

male:  45.15 years

female:  46.99 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.16 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 11.32% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 360,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 39,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Burundian(s)

adjective:  Burundi

Ethnic groups: Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy)
1%, Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000

Religions: Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%),
indigenous beliefs 23%, Muslim 10%

Languages: Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along
Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  35.3%

male:  49.3%

female:  22.5% (1995 est.)



Burundi    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Republic of Burundi

conventional short form:  Burundi

local long form:  Republika y'u Burundi

local short form:  Burundi

former:  Urundi

Government type: republic

Capital: Bujumbura

Administrative divisions: 16 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi,
Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba,
Muramvya, Muyinga, Mwaro, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi

Independence: 1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian
administration)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

Constitution: 13 March 1992; provided for establishment of a plural
political system; supplanted on 6 June 1998 by a Transitional
Constitution which enlarged the National Assembly and created two
vice presidents

Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary
law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch: chief of state:  President Pierre BUYOYA (interim
president since 27 September 1996, officially sworn in 11 June
1998), First Vice President Frederic BAMVUGINYUMVIRA (since NA June
1998), Second Vice President Mathias SINAMENYE (since NA June 1998);
note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government:  President Pierre BUYOYA (interim president
since 27 September 1996, officially sworn in 11 June 1998), First
Vice President Frederic BAMVUGINYUMVIRA (since NA June 1998), Second
Vice President Mathias SINAMENYE (since NA June 1998); note - the
president is both chief of state and head of government

cabinet:  Council of Ministers appointed by president

elections:  NA; current president assumed power following a coup on
25 July 1996 in which former President NTIBANTUNGANYA was overthrown

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (121 seats; note - new Transitional Constitution expanded
the number of seats from 81 to 121 in 1998; members are elected by
popular vote on a proportional basis to serve five-year terms)

elections:  last held 29 June 1993 (next was scheduled to be held in
1998, but suspended by presidential decree in 1996)

election results:  percent of vote by party - FRODEBU 71.04%, UPRONA
21.4%, other 7.56%; seats by party - FRODEBU 65, UPRONA 16, various
other parties 40

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Constitutional
Court; Courts of Appeal (there are three in separate locations);
Tribunals of First Instance (17 at the province level and 123 small
local tribunals)

Political parties and leaders: Two national, mainstream governing
parties are: Unity for National Progress or UPRONA [Luc RUKINGAMA,
president]; Burundi Democratic Front or FRODEBU [Jean MINANI,
president]

note:  A multiparty system was introduced after 1998, included are:
Burundi African Alliance for the Salvation or ABASA [Terrence
NSANZE]; Rally for Democracy and Economic and Social Development or
RADDES [Joseph NZENZIMANA]; Party for National Redress or PARENA
[Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA]; People's Reconciliation Party or PRP
[Mathias HITIMANA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Loosely organized Tutsi
militias, often affiliated with Tutsi extremist parties

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC,
CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU,
NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Thomas NDIKUMANA

chancery:  Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone:  [1] (202) 342-2574

FAX:  [1] (202) 342-2578

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Mary Carlin YATES

embassy:  Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura

mailing address:  B. P. 1720, Bujumbura

telephone:  [257] 223454

FAX:  [257] 222926

Flag description: divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels
(top and bottom) and green panels (hoist side and outer side) with a
white disk superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed
stars outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star
above, two stars below)



Burundi    Economy

Economy - overview: Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country
with an underdeveloped manufacturing sector. The economy is
predominantly agricultural with roughly 90% of the population
dependent on subsistence agriculture. Its economic health depends on
the coffee crop, which accounts for 80% of foreign exchange
earnings. The ability to pay for imports therefore rests largely on
the vagaries of the climate and the international coffee market.
Since October 1993 the nation has suffered from massive ethnic-based
violence which has resulted in the death of perhaps 250,000 persons
and the displacement of about 800,000 others. Only one in four
children go to school, and one in nine adults has HIV/AIDS. Foods,
medicines, and electricity remain in short supply.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.4 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $720 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  50%

industry:  18%

services:  32% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 36.2% (1990 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:
3.4%

highest 10%:  26.6% (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 22% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 1.9 million

Labor force - by occupation: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues:  $125 million

expenditures:  $176 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(2000 est.)

Industries: light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap;
assembly of imported components; public works construction; food
processing

Industrial production growth rate: 6.3% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 141 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  0.71%

hydro:  99.29%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 160.1 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 29 million kWh

note:  supplied by the Democratic Republic of the Congo (1999)

Agriculture - products: coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet
potatoes, bananas, manioc (tapioca); beef, milk, hides

Exports: $32 million (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: coffee, tea, sugar, cotton, hides

Exports - partners: Germany 17%, Belgium 14%, US 8%, France 6%,
Switzerland 4% (1999)

Imports: $110 million (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: capital goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs

Imports - partners: Belgium 20%, Zambia 11%, Kenya 8%, South Africa
5%, France 4% (1999)

Debt - external: $1.12 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $1.344 billion (1999 est.)

Currency: Burundi franc (BIF)

Currency code: BIF

Exchange rates: Burundi francs per US dollar - 782.36 (January
2001), 720.67 (2000), 563.56 (1999), 477.77 (1998), 352.35 (1997),
302.75 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Burundi    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 16,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 619 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment:  primitive system

domestic:  sparse system of open wire, radiotelephone
communications, and low-capacity microwave radio relay

international:  satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 440,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1999)

Televisions: 25,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .bi

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 2,000 (2000)



Burundi    Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total:  14,480 km

paved:  1,028 km

unpaved:  13,452 km (1996)

Waterways: Lake Tanganyika

Ports and harbors: Bujumbura

Airports: 4 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  1

over 3,047 m:  1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  3

914 to 1,523 m:  3 (2000 est.)



Burundi    Military

Military branches: Army (includes naval and air units), paramilitary
Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age: 16 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  1,394,273 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
728,326 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  79,360
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $57 million (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 6.1% (FY97)



Burundi    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Cambodia



Cambodia    Introduction

Background: Following a five-year struggle, communist Khmer Rouge
forces captured Phnom Penh in 1975 and ordered the evacuation of all
cities and towns; over 1 million displaced people died from
execution or enforced hardships. A 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove
the Khmer Rouge into the countryside and touched off 13 years of
fighting. UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some
semblance of normalcy, as did the rapid diminishment of the Khmer
Rouge in the mid-1990s. A coalition government, formed after
national elections in 1998, brought renewed political stability and
the surrender of remaining Khmer Rouge forces.



Cambodia    Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between
Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos

Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total:  181,040 sq km

land:  176,520 sq km

water:  4,520 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Oklahoma

Land boundaries: total:  2,572 km

border countries:  Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km

Coastline: 443 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone:  24 NM

continental shelf:  200 NM

exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry
season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Gulf of Thailand 0 m

highest point:  Phnum Aoral 1,810 m

Natural resources: timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese,
phosphates, hydropower potential

Land use: arable land:  13%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  11%

forests and woodland:  66%

other:  10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 920 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding;
occasional droughts

Environment - current issues: illegal logging activities throughout
the country and strip mining for gems in the western region along
the border with Thailand have resulted in habitat loss and declining
biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps
threatens natural fisheries); soil erosion; in rural areas, a
majority of the population does not have access to potable water;
toxic waste delivery from Taiwan sparked unrest in Kampong Saom
(Sihanoukville) in December 1998

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Marine Life
Conservation, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:  Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography - note: a land of paddies and forests dominated by the
Mekong River and Tonle Sap



Cambodia    People

Population: 12,491,501

note:  estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  41.25% (male 2,626,821; female 2,526,510)

15-64 years:  55.28% (male 3,253,611; female 3,651,129)

65 years and over:  3.47% (male 177,577; female 255,853) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.25% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 33.16 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 10.65 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.89 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.69 male(s)/female

total population:  0.94 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 65.41 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  56.82 years

male:  54.62 years

female:  59.12 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.74 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 4.04% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 220,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 14,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Cambodian(s)

adjective:  Cambodian

Ethnic groups: Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%

Religions: Theravada Buddhist 95%, other 5%

Languages: Khmer (official) 95%, French, English

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  35%

male:  48%

female:  22% (1990 est.)



Cambodia    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Kingdom of Cambodia

conventional short form:  Cambodia

local long form:  Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea

local short form:  Kampuchea

former:  Khmer Republic, Kampuchea Republic

Government type: multiparty liberal democracy under a constitutional
monarchy established in September 1993

Capital: Phnom Penh

Administrative divisions: 20 provinces (khett, singular and plural)
and 4 municipalities* (krong, singular and plural); Banteay Mean
Cheay, Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Spoe,
Kampong Thum, Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong, Keb*, Kracheh, Mondol Kiri,
Otdar Mean Cheay, Pailin*, Phnum Penh*, Pouthisat, Preah Seihanu*
(Sihanoukville), Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Rotanah Kiri, Siem Reab,
Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takev

Independence: 9 November 1953 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 9 November (1953)

Constitution: promulgated 21 September 1993

Legal system: primarily a civil law mixture of French-influenced
codes from the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia
(UNTAC) period, royal decrees, and acts of the legislature, with
influences of customary law and remnants of communist legal theory;
increasing influence of common law in recent years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  King Norodom SIHANOUK (reinstated
24 September 1993)

head of government:  Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 30 November 1998)

cabinet:  Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch

elections:  none; the monarch is chosen by a Royal Throne Council;
prime minister appointed by the monarch after a vote of confidence
by the National Assembly

Legislative branch: bicameral consists of the National Assembly (122
seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and
the Senate (61 seats; two members appointed by the monarch, two
elected by the National Assembly, and 57 elected by "functional
constituencies"; members serve five-year terms

elections:  National Assembly - last held 26 July 1998 (next to be
held NA 2003); Senate - last held 2 March 1999 (next to be held NA
2004)

election results:  National Assembly - percent of vote by party -
CPP 41%, FUNCINPEC 32%, SRP 14%, other 13%; seats by party - CPP 64,
FUNCINPEC 43, SRP 15; Senate - seats by party - CPP 31, FUNCINPEC
21, SRP 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Council of the Magistracy (provided for in
the constitution and formed in December 1997); Supreme Court (and
lower courts) exercises judicial authority

Political parties and leaders: Buddhist Liberal Party or BLP [IENG
MOULY]; Cambodian Pracheachon Party or Cambodian People's Party or
CPP [CHEA SIM]; Khmer Citizen Party or KCP [NGUON SOEUR]; National
United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative
Cambodia or FUNCINPEC [Prince NORODOM RANARIDDH]; Sam Rangsi Party
or SRP (formerly Khmer Nation Party or KNP) [SAM RANGSI]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACCT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN,
CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM
(observer), ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Roland ENG

chancery:  4500 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011

telephone:  [1] (202) 726-7742

FAX:  [1] (202) 726-8381

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Kent M. WIEDEMANN

embassy:  16-18 Mongkol lem St. 228, Phnom Penh

mailing address:  Box P, APO AP 96546

telephone:  [855] (23) 216-436

FAX:  [855] (23) 216-437

Flag description: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double
width), and blue with a white three-towered temple representing
Angkor Wat outlined in black in the center of the red band



Cambodia    Economy

Economy - overview: Cambodia's economy slowed dramatically in
1997-98 due to the regional economic crisis, civil violence, and
political infighting. Foreign investment and tourism fell off. In
1999, the first full year of peace in 30 years, progress was made on
economic reforms and growth resumed at 4%. GDP growth for 2000 had
been projected to reach 5.5%, but the worst flooding in 70 years
severely damaged agricultural crops, and high oil prices hurt
industrial production, and growth for the year is estimated at only
4%. Tourism is Cambodia's fastest growing industry, with arrivals up
34% in 2000. The long-term development of the economy after decades
of war remains a daunting challenge. The population lacks education
and productive skills, particularly in the poverty-ridden
countryside, which suffers from an almost total lack of basic
infrastructure. Fear of renewed political instability and corruption
within the government discourage foreign investment and delay
foreign aid. On the brighter side, the government is addressing
these issues with assistance from bilateral and multilateral donors.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $16.1 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,300 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  43%

industry:  20%

services:  37% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: 36% (1997 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:
2.9%

highest 10%:  33.8% (1997)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 6 million (1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 80% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 2.8% (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues:  $363 million

expenditures:  $532 million, including capital expenditures of $225
million (2000 est.)

Industries: garments, tourism, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood
products, rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 147 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  59.18%

hydro:  40.82%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 136.7 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: rice, rubber, corn, vegetables

Exports: $942 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: timber, garments, rubber, rice, fish

Exports - partners: Vietnam 18%, Thailand 15%, US 10%, Singapore 8%,
China 5% (1997)

Imports: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: cigarettes, gold, construction materials,
petroleum products, machinery, motor vehicles

Imports - partners: Thailand 16%, Vietnam 9%, Japan 7%, Hong Kong
5%, China 5% (1997)

Debt - external: $829 million (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $548 million pledged in grants and
concessional loans for 2001 by international donors

Currency: riel (KHR)

Currency code: KHR

Exchange rates: riels per US dollar - 3,909.0 (January 2001),
3,840.8 (2000), 3,807.8 (1999), 3,744.4 (1998), 2,946.3 (1997),
2,624.1 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Cambodia    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 21,800 (mid-1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 80,000 (2000)

Telephone system: general assessment:  adequate landline and/or
cellular service in Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; rural
areas have little telephone service

domestic:  NA

international:  adequate but expensive landline and cellular service
available to all countries from Phnom Penh and major provincial
cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean
region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 3, shortwave 3 (1999)

Radios: 1.34 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 5 (1999)

Televisions: 94,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .kh

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: NA



Cambodia    Transportation

Railways: total:  603 km

narrow gauge:  603 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways: total:  35,769 km

paved:  4,165 km

unpaved:  31,604 km (1997)

Waterways: 3,700 km

note:  navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6 m or less; 282 km
navigable to craft drawing as much as 1.8 m

Ports and harbors: Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville), Kampot, Krong Kaoh
Kong, Phnom Penh

Merchant marine: total:  295 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
1,305,932 GRT/1,853,487 DWT

ships by type:  bulk 22, cargo 237, chemical tanker 1, combination
bulk 3, container 8, liquefied gas 1, livestock carrier 2,
multi-functional large-load carrier 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum
tanker 7, refrigerated cargo 6, roll on/roll off 5, short-sea
passenger 1

note:  includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag
of convenience: Cyprus 3, South Korea 1, Malta 1, Panama 1, Russia
1, Singapore 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 19 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  6

2,438 to 3,047 m:  2

1,524 to 2,437 m:  2

914 to 1,523 m:  2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  13

1,524 to 2,437 m:  2

914 to 1,523 m:  11 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 3 (2000 est.)



Cambodia    Military

Military branches: Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF), including
Army, Navy, and Air Force - created in 1993 by the merger of the
Cambodian People's Armed Forces and the two noncommunist resistance
armies

note:  Khmer Rouge and royalist insurgent forces were integrated
into the RCAF in 1999

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  2,877,137 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
1,610,761 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  162,643
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $112 million (FY01 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3% (FY01 est.)



Cambodia    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: portions of boundary with Vietnam are
disputed; parts of border with Thailand are indefinite

Illicit drugs: possible money laundering; narcotics-related
corruption reportedly involving some in the government, military,
and police; possible small-scale opium, heroin, and amphetamine
production; large producer of cannabis for the international market

======================================================================

@Cameroon



Cameroon    Introduction

Background: The former French Cameroon and part of British Cameroon
merged in 1961 to form the present country. Cameroon has generally
enjoyed stability, which has permitted the development of
agriculture, roads, and railways, as well as a petroleum industry.
Despite movement toward democratic reform, political power remains
firmly in the hands of an ethnic oligarchy.



Cameroon    Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between
Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria

Geographic coordinates: 6 00 N, 12 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total:  475,440 sq km

land:  469,440 sq km

water:  6,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries: total:  4,591 km

border countries:  Central African Republic 797 km, Chad 1,094 km,
Republic of the Congo 523 km, Equatorial Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298
km, Nigeria 1,690 km

Coastline: 402 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea:  50 NM

Climate: varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid
and hot in north

Terrain: diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau
in center, mountains in west, plains in north

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Fako 4,095 m

Natural resources: petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower

Land use: arable land:  13%

permanent crops:  2%

permanent pastures:  4%

forests and woodland:  78%

other:  3% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 210 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recent volcanic activity with release of poisonous
gases

Environment - current issues: water-borne diseases are prevalent;
deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; poaching; overfishing

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83,
Tropical Timber 94

signed, but not ratified:  Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa



Cameroon    People

Population: 15,803,220

note:  estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  42.37% (male 3,385,898; female 3,310,504)

15-64 years:  54.28% (male 4,305,354; female 4,271,958)

65 years and over:  3.35% (male 244,419; female 285,087) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.41% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 36.12 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 11.99 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.) NA
migrant(s)/1,000 population

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.86 male(s)/female

total population:  1.01 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 69.83 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  54.59 years

male:  53.76 years

female:  55.44 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.8 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 7.73% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 540,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 52,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Cameroonian(s)

adjective:  Cameroonian

Ethnic groups: Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi
11%, Fulani 10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other
African 13%, non-African less than 1%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 40%, Christian 40%, Muslim 20%

Languages: 24 major African language groups, English (official),
French (official)

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  63.4%

male:  75%

female:  52.1% (1995 est.)



Cameroon    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Republic of Cameroon

conventional short form:  Cameroon

former:  French Cameroon

Government type: unitary republic; multiparty presidential regime
(opposition parties legalized in 1990)

note:  preponderance of power remains with the president

Capital: Yaounde

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est,
Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest

Independence: 1 January 1960 (from French-administered UN
trusteeship)

National holiday: Republic Day, 20 May (1972)

Constitution: 20 May 1972 approved by referendum; 2 June 1972
formally adopted; revised January 1996

Legal system: based on French civil law system, with common law
influence; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  President Paul BIYA (since 6
November 1982)

head of government:  Prime Minister Peter Mafany MUSONGE (since 19
September 1996)

cabinet:  Cabinet appointed by the president from proposals
submitted by the Prime Minister

elections:  president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term;
election last held 12 October 1997 (next to be held NA October
2004); prime minister appointed by the president

election results:  President Paul BIYA reelected; percent of vote -
Paul BIYA 92.6%; note - supporters of the opposition candidates
boycotted the elections, making a comparison of vote shares
relatively meaningless

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (180 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
serve five-year terms; note - the president can either lengthen or
shorten the term of the legislature)

elections:  last held 17 May 1997 (next to be held NA 2002)

election results:  percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
RDCP 109, SDF 43, UNDP 13, UDC 5, UPC-K 1, MDR 1, MLJC 1; note -
results from 7 contested seats were cancelled by the Supreme Court,
further elections on 3 August 1997 gave these seats to the RDPC

note:  the constitution calls for an upper chamber for the
legislature, to be called a Senate, but it has yet to be established

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the
president); High Court of Justice (consists of nine judges and 6
substitute judges, elected by the National Assembly)

Political parties and leaders: Cameroonian Democratic Union or UDC
[Adamou NDAM NJOYA]; Democratic Rally of the Cameroon People or RDCP
[Paul BIYA]; Movement for the Defense of the Republic or MDR [Dakole
DAISSALA]; Movement for the Liberation and Development of Cameroon
or MLDC [leader NA]; Movement for the Youth of Cameroon or MLJC
[Marcel YONDO]; National Union for Democracy and Progress or UNDP
[Maigari BELLO BOUBA, chairman]; Social Democratic Front or SDF
[John FRU NDI]; Union of Cameroonian Populations has two sections
UPC-N [Ndeh NTUMAZAH] and UPC-K [Augustin Frederic KODOCK]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Cameroon Anglophone Movement
or CAM [Vishe FAI, secretary general]; Southern Cameroon National
Council [Nfor Ngala NFOR, acting]

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, C,
CCC, CEEAC, CEMAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC,
OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Jerome MENDOUGA

chancery:  2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:  [1] (202) 265-8790

FAX:  [1] (202) 387-3826

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
John M. YATES

embassy:  Rue Nachtigal, Yaounde

mailing address:  P. O. Box 817, Yaounde; pouch: American Embassy,
Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2520

telephone:  [237] 23-40-14, 22-25-89, 23-05-12, 22-17-94

FAX:  [237] 23-07-53

branch office(s):  Douala

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side),
red, and yellow with a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red
band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia



Cameroon    Economy

Economy - overview: Because of its oil resources and favorable
agricultural conditions, Cameroon has one of the best-endowed
primary commodity economies in sub-Saharan Africa. Still, it faces
many of the serious problems facing other underdeveloped countries,
such as a top-heavy civil service and a generally unfavorable
climate for business enterprise. Since 1990, the government has
embarked on various IMF and World Bank programs designed to spur
business investment, increase efficiency in agriculture, improve
trade, and recapitalize the nation's banks. In June 2000, the
government completed an IMF-sponsored, three-year structural
adjustment program; however, the IMF is pressing for more reforms,
including increased budget transparency and privatization. Higher
oil prices in 2000 helped to offset the country's lower cocoa export
revenues. A rebound in the cocoa market should increase growth to
over 5% in 2001.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $26 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.4% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,700 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  43.4%

industry:  20.1%

services:  36.5% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 48% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (2000 est.)

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 70%, industry and commerce
13%, other 17%

Unemployment rate: 30% (1998 est.)

Budget: revenues:  $2.1 billion

expenditures:  $2.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY00/01 est.)

Industries: petroleum production and refining, food processing,
light consumer goods, textiles, lumber

Industrial production growth rate: 4.2% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 3.47 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  2.59%

hydro:  97.41%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 3.227 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: coffee, cocoa, cotton, rubber, bananas,
oilseed, grains, root starches; livestock; timber

Exports: $2.1 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, lumber,
cocoa beans, aluminum, coffee, cotton

Exports - partners: Italy 24%, France 18%, Netherlands 10% (2000
est.)

Imports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machines and electrical equipment, transport
equipment, fuel, food

Imports - partners: France 29%, Germany 7%, US 6%, Japan 6% (2000
est.)

Debt - external: $10.9 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: on 23 January 2001, the Paris Club agreed
to reduce Cameroon's debt of $1.3 billion by $900 million; total
debt relief now amounts to $1.26 billion

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note -
responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States

Currency code: XAF

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US
dollar - 699.21 (January 2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95
(1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996); note - from 1 January 1999,
the XAF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XAF per euro

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Cameroon    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 75,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 4,200 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment:  available only to business
and government

domestic:  cable, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter

international:  satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic
Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 11, FM 8, shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios: 2.27 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1998)

Televisions: 450,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .cm

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 20,000 (2000)



Cameroon    Transportation

Railways: total:  1,104 km

narrow gauge:  1,104 km 1.000-m gauge (1995 est.)

Highways: total:  34,300 km

paved:  4,288 km

unpaved:  30,012 km (1995)

Waterways: 2,090 km (of decreasing importance)

Ports and harbors: Bonaberi, Douala, Garoua, Kribi, Tiko

Airports: 49 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  11

over 3,047 m:  2

2,438 to 3,047 m:  4

1,524 to 2,437 m:  3

914 to 1,523 m:  1

under 914 m:  1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  38

1,524 to 2,437 m:  7

914 to 1,523 m:  21

under 914 m:  10 (2000 est.)



Cameroon    Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Infantry), Air Force,
National Gendarmerie, Presidential Guard

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  3,762,369 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
1,903,149 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  174,308
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $118.6 million (FY00/01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.4% (FY98/99)



Cameroon    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: delimitation of international boundaries
in the vicinity of Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border
incidents in the past, is complete and awaits ratification by
Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria; tripartite maritime boundary and
economic zone dispute with Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria is
currently before the ICJ

======================================================================

@Canada



Canada    Introduction

Background: A land of vast distances and rich natural resources,
Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties
to the British crown. Economically and technologically the nation
has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south
across an unfortified border. Its paramount political problem
continues to be the relationship of the province of Quebec, with its
French-speaking residents and unique culture, to the remainder of
the country.



Canada    Geography

Location: Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean
and North Pacific Ocean, north of the conterminous US

Geographic coordinates: 60 00 N, 95 00 W

Map references: North America

Area: total:  9,976,140 sq km

land:  9,220,970 sq km

water:  755,170 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than the US

Land boundaries: total:  8,893 km

border countries:  US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)

Coastline: 243,791 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone:  24 NM

continental shelf:  200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in
north

Terrain: mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in
southeast

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Mount Logan 5,959 m

Natural resources: iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead,
molybdenum, potash, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum,
natural gas, hydropower

Land use: arable land:  5%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  3%

forests and woodland:  54%

other:  38% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 7,100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: continuous permafrost in north is a serious
obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky
Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic,
Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the
country's rain and snow

Environment - current issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain
severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting,
coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on
agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming
contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry
activities

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Air Pollution,
Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic
Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94,
Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic
Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:  Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law
of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: second-largest country in world (after Russia);
strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route;
approximately 85% of the population is concentrated within 300 km of
the US/Canada border



Canada    People

Population: 31,592,805 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  18.95% (male 3,067,102; female 2,918,839)

15-64 years:  68.28% (male 10,846,151; female 10,725,800)

65 years and over:  12.77% (male 1,715,071; female 2,319,842) (2001
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.99% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 11.21 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.47 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 6.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.74 male(s)/female

total population:  0.98 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  79.56 years

male:  76.16 years

female:  83.13 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.3% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 49,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 400 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Canadian(s)

adjective:  Canadian

Ethnic groups: British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other
European 15%, Amerindian 2%, other, mostly Asian, African, Arab 6%,
mixed background 26%

Religions: Roman Catholic 42%, Protestant 40%, other 18%

Languages: English 59.3% (official), French 23.2% (official), other
17.5%

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  97% (1986 est.)

male:  NA%

female:  NA%



Canada    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  none

conventional short form:  Canada

Government type: confederation with parliamentary democracy

Capital: Ottawa

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta,
British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Northwest
Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island,
Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*

Independence: 1 July 1867 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day/Canada Day, 1 July (1867)

Constitution: 17 April 1982 (Constitution Act); originally, the
machinery of the government was set up in the British North America
Act of 1867; charter of rights and unwritten customs

Legal system: based on English common law, except in Quebec, where
civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6
February 1952), represented by Governor General Adrienne CLARKSON
(since 7 October 1999)

head of government:  Prime Minister Jean CHRETIEN (since 4 November
1993)

cabinet:  Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister from among
the members of his own party sitting in Parliament

elections:  none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a
five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the
majority party in the House of Commons is automatically designated
by the governor general to become prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of
the Senate or Senat (a body whose members are appointed to serve
until reaching 75 years of age by the governor general and selected
on the advice of the prime minister; its normal limit is 104
senators) and the House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (301
seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year
terms)

elections:  House of Commons - last held 27 November 2000 (next to
be held 2005)

election results:  percent of vote by party as of January 2001 -
Liberal Party 42%, Canadian Alliance 22%, Bloc Quebecois 13%, New
Democratic Party 4%, Progressive Conservative Party 4%; seats by
party as of January 2001 - Liberal Party 172, Canadian Alliance 66,
Bloc Quebecois 38, New Democratic Party 13, Progressive Conservative
Party 12

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Canada (judges are appointed by
the prime minister through the governor general); Federal Court of
Canada; Federal Court of Appeal; Provincial Courts (these are named
variously Court of Appeal, Court of Queens Bench, Superior Court,
Supreme Court, and Court of Justice)

Political parties and leaders: Bloc Quebecois [Gilles DUCEPPE];
Canadian Alliance [Stockwell DAY]; Liberal Party [Jean CHRETIEN];
New Democratic Party [Alexa MCDONOUGH]; Progressive Conservative
Party [Joe CLARK]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACCT, AfDB, APEC,
ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia
Group, BIS, C, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE (observer), EAPC, EBRD,
ECE, ECLAC, ESA (cooperating state), FAO, G- 7, G-10, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURCA,
MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPCW, OSCE,
PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIKOM, UNMEE,
UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNTAET, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Michael KERGIN

chancery:  501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001

telephone:  [1] (202) 682-1740

FAX:  [1] (202) 682-7726

consulate(s) general:  Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas,
Detroit, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, and Seattle

consulate(s):  Miami, Princeton, San Francisco, and San Jose

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Gordon D. GIFFIN

embassy:  490 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 1G8

mailing address:  P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburg, NY 13669-0430

telephone:  [1] (613) 238-5335, 4470

FAX:  [1] (613) 238-5720

consulate(s) general:  Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto,
and Vancouver

Flag description: three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white
(double width, square), and red with a red maple leaf centered in
the white band



Canada    Economy

Economy - overview: As an affluent, high-tech industrial society,
Canada today closely resembles the US in its market-oriented
economic system, pattern of production, and high living standards.
Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing,
mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a
largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. Real
rates of growth have averaged nearly 3.0% since 1993. Unemployment
is falling and government budget surpluses are being partially
devoted to reducing the large public sector debt. The 1989 US-Canada
Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and 1994 North American Free Trade
Agreement (NAFTA) (which included Mexico) have touched off a
dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the US.
With its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and modern
capital plant Canada enjoys solid economic prospects. Two shadows
loom, the first being the continuing constitutional impasse between
English- and French-speaking areas, which has been raising the
possibility of a split in the federation. Another long-term concern
is the flow south to the US of professional persons lured by higher
pay, lower taxes, and the immense high-tech infrastructure.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $774.7 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.3% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $24,800 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  3%

industry:  31%

services:  66% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:
2.8%

highest 10%:  23.8% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.6% (2000)

Labor force: 16.1 million (2000)

Labor force - by occupation: services 74%, manufacturing 15%,
construction 5%, agriculture 3%, other 3% (2000)

Unemployment rate: 6.8% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues:  $126.1 billion

expenditures:  $125.3 billion, including capital expenditures of
$14.8 billion (2000)

Industries: processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood
and paper products, transportation equipment, chemicals, fish
products, petroleum and natural gas

Industrial production growth rate: 4.5% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 567.193 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  26.38%

hydro:  60%

nuclear:  12.31%

other:  1.31% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 497.532 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 42.911 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 12.953 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits,
vegetables; dairy products; forest products; fish

Exports: $272.3 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: motor vehicles and parts, newsprint, wood
pulp, timber, crude petroleum, machinery, natural gas, aluminum,
telecommunications equipment, electricity

Exports - partners: US 86%, Japan 3%, UK, Germany, South Korea,
Netherlands, China (1999)

Imports: $238.2 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, crude oil,
chemicals, motor vehicles and parts, durable consumer goods,
electricity

Imports - partners: US 76%, Japan 3%, UK, Germany, France, Mexico,
Taiwan, South Korea (1999)

Debt - external: $1.9 billion (2000)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $1.3 billion (1999)

Currency: Canadian dollar (CAD)

Currency code: CAD

Exchange rates: Canadian dollars per US dollar - 1.5032 (January
2001), 1.4851 (2000), 1.4857 (1999), 1.4835 (1998), 1.3846 (1997),
1.3635 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Canada    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 18.5 million (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 4.207 million (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment:  excellent service provided by
modern technology

domestic:  domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations

international:  5 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations
- 5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and 2
Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 535, FM 53, shortwave 6 (1998)

Radios: 32.3 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 80 (plus many repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 21.5 million (1997)

Internet country code: .ca

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 760 (2000 est.)

Internet users: 13.28 million (1999)



Canada    Transportation

Railways: total:  36,114 km; note - there are two major
transcontinental freight railway systems: Canadian National
(privatized November 1995) and Canadian Pacific Railway; passenger
service provided by government-operated firm VIA, which has no
trackage of its own

standard gauge:  36,114 km 1.435-m gauge (156 km electrified) (1998)

Highways: total:  901,902 km

paved:  318,371 km (including 16,571 km of expressways)

unpaved:  583,531 km (1999)

Waterways: 3,000 km (including Saint Lawrence Seaway)

Pipelines: crude and refined oil 23,564 km; natural gas 74,980 km

Ports and harbors: Becancour (Quebec), Churchill, Halifax, Hamilton,
Montreal, New Westminster, Prince Rupert, Quebec, Saint John (New
Brunswick), St. John's (Newfoundland), Sept Isles, Sydney,
Trois-Rivieres, Thunder Bay, Toronto, Vancouver, Windsor

Merchant marine: total:  121 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
1,767,259 GRT/2,633,290 DWT

ships by type:  barge carrier 1, bulk 67, cargo 13, chemical tanker
5, combination bulk 1, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum
tanker 17, railcar carrier 2, roll on/roll off 7, short-sea
passenger 3, specialized tanker 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 1,417 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  517

over 3,047 m:  18

2,438 to 3,047 m:  15

1,524 to 2,437 m:  151

914 to 1,523 m:  244

under 914 m:  89 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  900

1,524 to 2,437 m:  74

914 to 1,523 m:  362

under 914 m:  464 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 18 (2000 est.)



Canada    Military

Military branches: Canadian Forces (includes Land Forces Command or
LC, Maritime Command or MC, Air Command or AC, Communications
Command or CC, Training Command or TC), Royal Canadian Mounted
Police (RCMP)

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  8,325,084 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
7,114,851 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  215,627
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $7.5 billion (FY00/01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.3% (FY00/01)



Canada    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: maritime boundary disputes with the US
(Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, Machias Seal
Island)

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug
market; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large
quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; transit point for
heroin and cocaine entering the US market

======================================================================

@Cape Verde



Cape Verde    Introduction

Background: The uninhabited islands were discovered and colonized by
the Portuguese in the 15th century; they subsequently became a
trading center for African slaves. Most Cape Verdeans descend from
both groups. Independence was achieved in 1975.



Cape Verde    Geography

Location: Western Africa, group of islands in the North Atlantic
Ocean, west of Senegal

Geographic coordinates: 16 00 N, 24 00 W

Map references: World

Area: total:  4,033 sq km

land:  4,033 sq km

water:  0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 965 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines

contiguous zone:  24 NM

exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: temperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and very
erratic

Terrain: steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Mt. Fogo 2,829 m (a volcano on Fogo Island)

Natural resources: salt, basalt rock, pozzuolana (a siliceous
volcanic ash used to produce hydraulic cement), limestone, kaolin,
fish

Land use: arable land:  11%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  6%

forests and woodland:  0%

other:  83% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,500 to 2,000 hectares (1999)

Natural hazards: prolonged droughts; harmattan wind can obscure
visibility; volcanically and seismically active

Environment - current issues: overgrazing of livestock and improper
land use such as the cultivation of crops on steep slopes has led to
soil erosion; demand for wood used as fuel has resulted in
deforestation; desertification; environmental damage has threatened
several species of birds and reptiles; overfishing

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

signed, but not ratified:  none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic location 500 km from west coast of
Africa near major north-south sea routes; important communications
station; important sea and air refueling site



Cape Verde    People

Population: 405,163 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  42.79% (male 87,458; female 85,895)

15-64 years:  50.76% (male 97,812; female 107,834)

65 years and over:  6.45% (male 10,204; female 15,960) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.92% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 28.71 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.19 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -12.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.91 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.64 male(s)/female

total population:  0.93 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 53.22 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  69.21 years

male:  65.93 years

female:  72.6 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.05 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun:  Cape Verdean(s)

adjective:  Cape Verdean

Ethnic groups: Creole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic (infused with indigenous beliefs);
Protestant (mostly Church of the Nazarene)

Languages: Portuguese, Crioulo (a blend of Portuguese and West
African words)

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  71.6%

male:  81.4%

female:  63.8% (1995 est.)



Cape Verde    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Republic of Cape Verde

conventional short form:  Cape Verde

local long form:  Republica de Cabo Verde

local short form:  Cabo Verde

Government type: republic

Capital: Praia

Administrative divisions: 14 districts (concelhos, singular -
concelho); Boa Vista, Brava, Fogo, Maio, Paul, Praia, Porto Novo,
Ribeira Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Sao Nicolau, Sao
Vicente, Tarrafal; note - there may be a new administrative
structure of 16 districts (Boa Vista, Brava, Maio, Mosteiros, Paul,
Praia, Porto Novo, Ribeira Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz,
Sao Domingos, Sao Nicolau, Sao Filipe, Sao Vicente, Tarrafal)

Independence: 5 July 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July (1975)

Constitution: new constitution came into force 25 September 1992;
underwent a major revision on 23 November 1995, substantially
increasing the powers of the president

Legal system: derived from the legal system of Portugal

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  President Pedro PIRES (since 22
March 2001)

head of government:  Prime Minister Jose Maria Pereira NEVES (since
1 February 1991)

cabinet:  Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
recommendation of the prime minister from among the members of the
National Assembly

elections:  president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 11 and 25 February 2001 (next to be held NA
February 2006); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly
and appointed by the president

election results:  Pedro PIRES elected president; percent of vote -
Pedro PIRES (PAICV) 49.43%, Carlos VIEGA (MPD) 49.42%; note: the
election was won by only twelve votes

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia
Nacional (72 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms)

elections:  last held 14 January 2001 (next to be held NA December
2005)

election results:  percent of vote by party - PAICV 47.3%, MPD
39.8%, ADM 6%, other 6.9%; seats by party - PAICV 40, MPD 30, ADM 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Supremo Tribunal de
Justia

Political parties and leaders: African Party for Independence of
Cape Verde or PAICV [Jose Maria NEVES, chairman]; Democratic
Alliance for Change or ADM [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO] (a coalition of
PCD, PTS, and UCID); Democratic Renovation Party or PRD [Jacinto
SANTOS, president]; Movement for Democracy or MPD [Antonio Gualberto
do ROSARIO, president]; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Dr.
Eurico MONTEIRO, president]; Party of Work and Solidarity or PTS
[Dr. Oresimo SILVEIRA, president]; Social Democratic Party or PSD
[Joao ALEM, president]; Union for an Independent Democratic Cape
Verde or UCID [Antonio MONTEIRO, president]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM,
OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNTAET, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Ferdinand Amilcar Spencer LOPES

chancery:  3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone:  [1] (202) 965-6820

FAX:  [1] (202) 965-1207

consulate(s) general:  Boston

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Michael D. METELITS

embassy:  Rua Abilio Macedo 81, Praia

mailing address:  C. P. 201, Praia

telephone:  [238] 61 56 16

FAX:  [238] 61 13 55

Flag description: three horizontal bands of light blue (top, double
width), white (with a horizontal red stripe in the middle third),
and light blue; a circle of 10 yellow five-pointed stars is centered
on the hoist end of the red stripe and extends into the upper and
lower blue bands



Cape Verde    Economy

Economy - overview: Cape Verde's low per capita GDP reflects a poor
natural resource base, including serious water shortages exacerbated
by cycles of long-term drought. The economy is service-oriented,
with commerce, transport, and public services accounting for almost
70% of GDP. Although nearly 70% of the population lives in rural
areas, the share of agriculture in GDP in 1998 was only 13%, of
which fishing accounts for 1.5%. About 90% of food must be imported.
The fishing potential, mostly lobster and tuna, is not fully
exploited. Cape Verde annually runs a high trade deficit, financed
by foreign aid and remittances from emigrants; remittances
constitute a supplement to GDP of more than 20%. Economic reforms,
launched by the new democratic government in 1991, are aimed at
developing the private sector and attracting foreign investment to
diversify the economy. Prospects for 2001 depend heavily on the
maintenance of aid flows, remittances, and the momentum of the
government's development program.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $670 million (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,700 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  13%

industry:  19%

services:  68% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (2000)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: 24% (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues:  $188 million

expenditures:  $228 million, including capital expenditures of $116
million (1996)

Industries: food and beverages, fish processing, shoes and garments,
salt mining, ship repair

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 40 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  100%

hydro:  0%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 37.2 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: bananas, corn, beans, sweet potatoes,
sugarcane, coffee, peanuts; fish

Exports: $40 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: fuel, shoes, garments, fish, bananas, hides

Exports - partners: Portugal, UK, Germany, Spain, France, Malaysia

Imports: $250 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, industrial products, transport
equipment, fuels

Imports - partners: Portugal, Netherlands, France, UK, Spain, US

Debt - external: $260 million (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: $111.3 million (1995)

Currency: Cape Verdean escudo (CVE)

Currency code: CVE

Exchange rates: Cape Verdean escudos per US dollar - 123.080
(December 2000), 115.877 (2000), 102.700 (1999), 98.158 (1998),
93.177 (1997), 82.591 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Cape Verde    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 45,644 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 19,729 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment:  effective system, being
improved

domestic:  interisland microwave radio relay system with both analog
and digital exchanges; work is in progress on a submarine
fiber-optic cable system which was scheduled for completion in 1998

international:  2 coaxial submarine cables; HF radiotelephone to
Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat
(Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 11 (and 14 repeaters), shortwave
0 (1998)

Radios: 73,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 2,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .cv

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 5,000 (2000)



Cape Verde    Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total:  1,100 km

paved:  858 km

unpaved:  242 km (1996)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Mindelo, Praia, Tarrafal

Merchant marine: total:  5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 9,523
GRT/11,798 DWT

ships by type:  cargo 4, chemical tanker 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 8 (2000)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  8

over 3,047 m:  1

914 to 1,523 m:  7 (2000)



Cape Verde    Military

Military branches: Army, Coast Guard/Marines

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  89,543 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
50,615 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $4 million (FY96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.8% (FY96)



Cape Verde    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: used as a transshipment point for illicit drugs
moving from Latin America and Africa destined for Western Europe

======================================================================

@Cayman Islands



Cayman Islands    Introduction

Background: The Cayman Islands were colonized from Jamaica by the
British during the 18th and 19th centuries. Administered by Jamaica
from 1863, they remained a British dependency after 1962 when the
former became independent.



Cayman Islands    Geography

Location: Caribbean, island group in Caribbean Sea, nearly one-half
of the way from Cuba to Honduras

Geographic coordinates: 19 30 N, 80 30 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total:  259 sq km

land:  259 sq km

water:  0 sq km

Area - comparative: 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 160 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and
cool, relatively dry winters (November to April)

Terrain: low-lying limestone base surrounded by coral reefs

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point:  The Bluff 43 m

Natural resources: fish, climate and beaches that foster tourism

Land use: arable land:  0%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  8%

forests and woodland:  23%

other:  69% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes (July to November)

Environment - current issues: no natural fresh water resources;
drinking water supplies must be met by rainwater catchment

Geography - note: important location between Cuba and Central America



Cayman Islands    People

Population: 35,527 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  22.21% (male 3,807; female 4,084)

15-64 years:  69.74% (male 12,102; female 12,676)

65 years and over:  8.05% (male 1,318; female 1,540) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.12% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 13.79 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 5.15 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 12.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

note:  major destination for Cubans trying to migrate to the US

Sex ratio: at birth:  0.86 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  0.93 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.86 male(s)/female

total population:  0.94 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 10.16 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  79.03 years

male:  76.24 years

female:  81.43 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.04 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun:  Caymanian(s)

adjective:  Caymanian

Ethnic groups: mixed 40%, white 20%, black 20%, expatriates of
various ethnic groups 20%

Religions: United Church (Presbyterian and Congregational),
Anglican, Baptist, Roman Catholic, Church of God, other Protestant

Languages: English

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over has ever attended school

total population:  98%

male:  98%

female:  98% (1970 est.)



Cayman Islands    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  none

conventional short form:  Cayman Islands

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK

Government type: British crown colony

Capital: George Town

Administrative divisions: 8 districts; Creek, Eastern, Midland,
South Town, Spot Bay, Stake Bay, West End, Western

Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday: Constitution Day, first Monday in July

Constitution: 1959, revised 1972 and 1992

Legal system: British common law and local statutes

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6
February 1952); Governor and President of the Executive Council
Peter SMITH (since 5 May 1999)

head of government:  Kurt TIBBETTS (since November 2000)

cabinet:  Executive Council (three members appointed by the
governor, four members elected by the Legislative Assembly)

elections:  none; the monarch is hereditary; the governor is
appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (18 seats, three
appointed members and 15 elected by popular vote; members serve
four-year terms)

elections:  last held 8 November 2000 (next to be held NA November
2004)

election results:  percent of vote - NA%; seats - NA

Judicial branch: Summary Court; Grand Court; Cayman Islands Court of
Appeal

Political parties and leaders: there are no formal political parties
but the following loose groupings act as political organizations;
National Team; Democratic Alliance; Team Cayman

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), CDB,
Interpol (subbureau), IOC, UNESCO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of
the UK)

Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant and the Caymanian coat of arms on a white disk
centered on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms includes a
pineapple and turtle above a shield with three stars (representing
the three islands) and a scroll at the bottom bearing the motto HE
HATH FOUNDED IT UPON THE SEAS



Cayman Islands    Economy

Economy - overview: With no direct taxation, the islands are a
thriving offshore financial center. More than 40,000 companies were
registered in the Cayman Islands as of 1997, including almost 600
banks and trust companies; banking assets exceed $500 billion. A
stock exchange was opened in 1997. Tourism is also a mainstay,
accounting for about 70% of GDP and 75% of foreign currency
earnings. The tourist industry is aimed at the luxury market and
caters mainly to visitors from North America. Total tourist arrivals
exceeded 1.2 million visitors in 1997. About 90% of the islands'
food and consumer goods must be imported. The Caymanians enjoy one
of the highest outputs per capita and one of the highest standards
of living in the world.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $930 million (1997 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.9% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $24,500 (1997 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  1.4%

industry:  3.2%

services:  95.4% (1994 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1998)

Labor force: 19,820 (1995)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 1.4%, industry 12.6%,
services 86% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 4.1% (1997)

Budget: revenues:  $265.2 million

expenditures:  $248.9 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997)

Industries: tourism, banking, insurance and finance, construction,
construction materials, furniture

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 330 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  100%

hydro:  0%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 306.9 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: vegetables, fruit; livestock, turtle farming

Exports: $1.5 million (1998)

Exports - commodities: turtle products, manufactured consumer goods

Exports - partners: mostly US

Imports: $507.6 million (1998)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, manufactured goods

Imports - partners: US, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, Netherlands
Antilles, Japan

Debt - external: $70 million (1996)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: Caymanian dollar (KYD)

Currency code: KYD

Exchange rates: Caymanian dollars per US dollar - 0.83 (3 November
1995), 0.85 (22 November 1993)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Cayman Islands    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 19,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2,534 (1995)

Telephone system: general assessment:  NA

domestic:  NA

international:  1 submarine coaxial cable; satellite earth station -
1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 36,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: 7,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .ky

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 16 (2000)

Internet users: NA



Cayman Islands    Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total:  406 km

paved:  304 km

unpaved:  102 km

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Cayman Brac, George Town

Merchant marine: total:  106 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
1,656,452 GRT/2,643,036 DWT

ships by type:  bulk 21, cargo 5, chemical tanker 27, container 4,
liquefied gas 1, petroleum tanker 13, refrigerated cargo 30, roll
on/roll off 4, specialized tanker 1

note:  includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag
of convenience: Cyprus 2, Denmark 2, Finland 1, Greece 11, Norway 3,
UK 3, US 3 (2000 est.)

Airports: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  2

1,524 to 2,437 m:  2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  1

914 to 1,523 m:  1 (2000 est.)



Cayman Islands    Military

Military branches: Royal Cayman Islands Police Force (RCIPF)

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



Cayman Islands    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: vulnerable to drug money laundering and drug
transshipment to the US and Europe

======================================================================

@Central African Republic



Central African Republic    Introduction

Background: The former French colony of Ubangi-Shari became the
Central African Republic upon independence in 1960. After three
tumultuous decades of misrule - mostly by military governments - a
civilian government was installed in 1993.



Central African Republic    Geography

Location: Central Africa, north of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates: 7 00 N, 21 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total:  622,984 sq km

land:  622,984 sq km

water:  0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: total:  5,203 km

border countries:  Cameroon 797 km, Chad 1,197 km, Democratic
Republic of the Congo 1,577 km, Republic of the Congo 467 km, Sudan
1,165 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers

Terrain: vast, flat to rolling, monotonous plateau; scattered hills
in northeast and southwest

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Oubangui River 335 m

highest point:  Mont Ngaoui 1,420 m

Natural resources: diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, oil, hydropower

Land use: arable land:  3%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  5%

forests and woodland:  75%

other:  17% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds affect northern
areas; floods are common

Environment - current issues: tap water is not potable; poaching has
diminished its reputation as one of the last great wildlife refuges;
desertification; deforestation

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 94

signed, but not ratified:  Law of the Sea

Geography - note: landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa



Central African Republic    People

Population: 3,576,884

note:  estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  43.23% (male 778,885; female 767,414)

15-64 years:  53% (male 929,717; female 965,947)

65 years and over:  3.77% (male 59,364; female 75,557) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.85% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 37.05 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 18.53 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.79 male(s)/female

total population:  0.98 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 105.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  43.8 years

male:  42.17 years

female:  45.48 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.86 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 13.84% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 240,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 23,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Central African(s)

adjective:  Central African

Ethnic groups: Baya 34%, Banda 27%, Sara 10%, Mandjia 21%, Mboum 4%,
M'Baka 4%, Europeans 6,500 (including 1,500 French)

Religions: indigenous beliefs 24%, Protestant 25%, Roman Catholic
25%, Muslim 15%, other 11%

note:  animistic beliefs and practices strongly influence the
Christian majority

Languages: French (official), Sangho (lingua franca and national
language), Arabic, Hunsa, Swahili

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  60%

male:  68.5%

female:  52.4% (1995 est.)



Central African Republic    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Central African Republic

conventional short form:  none

local long form:  Republique Centrafricaine

local short form:  none

former:  Ubangi-Shari, Central African Empire

abbreviation:  CAR

Government type: republic

Capital: Bangui

Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular -
prefecture), 2 economic prefectures* (prefectures economiques,
singular - prefecture economique), and 1 commune**;
Bamingui-Bangoran, Bangui**, Basse-Kotto, Gribingui*, Haute-Kotto,
Haute-Sangha, Haut-Mbomou, Kemo-Gribingui, Lobaye, Mbomou,
Nana-Mambere, Ombella-Mpoko, Ouaka, Ouham, Ouham-Pende, Sangha*,
Vakaga

Independence: 13 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Republic Day, 1 December (1958)

Constitution: passed by referendum 29 December 1994; adopted 7
January 1995

Legal system: based on French law

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  President Ange-Felix PATASSE
(since 22 October 1993)

head of government:  Prime Minister Martin ZIGUELE (since 1 April
2001)

cabinet:  Council of Ministers

elections:  president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
election last held 19 September 1999 (next to be held NA 2005);
prime minister appointed by the president

election results:  Ange-Felix PATASSE reelected president; percent
of vote - Ange-Felix PATASSE 51.63%, Andre KOLINGBA 19.38%, David
DACKO 11.15%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (109 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms; note - there were 85 seats in the National Assembly
before the 1998 election)

elections:  last held 22-23 November and 13 December 1998 (next to
be held NA 2003)

election results:  percent of vote by party - MLPC 43%, RDC 18%, MDD
9%, FPP 6%, PSD 5%, ADP 4%, PUN 3%, FODEM 2%, PLD 2%, UPR 1%, FC 1%,
independents 6%; seats by party - MLPC 47, RDC 20, MDD 8, FPP 7, PSD
6, ADP 5, PUN 3, FODEM 2, PLD 2, UPR 1, FC 1, independents 7

note:  the National Assembly is advised by the Economic and Regional
Council or Conseil Economique et Regional; when they sit together
they are called the Congress or Congres

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Constitutional Court
(all judges appointed by the president); Court of Appeal; Criminal
Courts

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy and Progress
or ADP [Francois PEHOUA]; Central African Democratic Assembly or RDC
[Andre KOLINGBA]; Civic Forum or FC [Gen. Timothee MALENDOMA];
Democratic Forum or FODEM [Charles MASSI]; Liberal Democratic Party
or PLD [Nestor KOMBO-NAGUEMON]; Movement for Democracy and
Development or MDD [David DACKO]; Movement for the Liberation of the
Central African People or MLPC [the party of the president,
Ange-Felix PATASSE]; Patriotic Front for Progress or FPP [Abel
GOUMBA]; People's Union for the Republic or UPR [leader NA];
National Unity Party or PUN [Jean-Paul NGOUPANDE]; Social Democratic
Party or PSD [Enoch LAKOUE]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC,
CCC, CEEAC, CEMAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU,
OIC (observer), OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Emmanuel TOUABOY

chancery:  1618 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:  [1] (202) 483-7800

FAX:  [1] (202) 332-9893

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Robert C. PERRY

embassy:  Avenue David Dacko, Bangui

mailing address:  B. P. 924, Bangui

telephone:  [236] 61 02 00

FAX:  [236] 61 44 94

Flag description: four equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white,
green, and yellow with a vertical red band in center; there is a
yellow five-pointed star on the hoist side of the blue band



Central African Republic    Economy

Economy - overview: Subsistence agriculture, together with forestry,
remains the backbone of the economy of the Central African Republic
(CAR), with more than 70% of the population living in outlying
areas. The agricultural sector generates half of GDP. Timber has
accounted for about 16% of export earnings and the diamond industry
for nearly 54%. Important constraints to economic development
include the CAR's landlocked position, a poor transportation system,
a largely unskilled work force, and a legacy of misdirected
macroeconomic policies. The 50% devaluation of the currencies of 14
Francophone African nations on 12 January 1994 had mixed effects on
the CAR's economy. Diamond, timber, coffee, and cotton exports
increased, leading an estimated rise of GDP of 7% in 1994 and nearly
5% in 1995. Military rebellions and social unrest in 1996 were
accompanied by widespread destruction of property and a drop in GDP
of 2%. The IMF approved an Extended Structure Adjustment Facility in
1998 and the World Bank extended further credits in 1999 and
approved a $10 million loan in early 2001. The government has set
targets of 3.5% GDP growth in 2001 and 2002. As of January 2001,
many civil servants were owed as much as 30 months pay, leading them
to go on strike and further damaging the economy.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $6.1 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,700 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  53%

industry:  20%

services:  27% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:
0.7%

highest 10%:  47.7% (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (2000 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: 6% (1993)

Budget: revenues:  $638 million

expenditures:  $1.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $888
million (1994 est.)

Industries: diamond mining, sawmills, breweries, textiles, footwear,
assembly of bicycles and motorcycles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 102 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  20.59%

hydro:  79.41%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 94.9 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: cotton, coffee, tobacco, manioc (tapioca),
yams, millet, corn, bananas; timber

Exports: $166 million (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: diamonds, timber, cotton, coffee, tobacco

Exports - partners: Benelux 64%, Cote d'Ivoire, Spain, China, Egypt,
France (1999)

Imports: $154 million (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: food, textiles, petroleum products,
machinery, electrical equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals,
pharmaceuticals, consumer goods, industrial products

Imports - partners: France 35%, Cameroon 13%, Benelux, Cote
d'Ivoire, Germany, Japan (1999)

Debt - external: $790 million (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $172.2 million (1995); note - traditional
budget subsidies from France

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note -
responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States

Currency code: XAF

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US
dollar - 699.21 (January 2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95
(1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996); note - from 1 January 1999,
the XAF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XAF per euro

Fiscal year: calendar year



Central African Republic    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 10,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 570 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment:  fair system

domestic:  network consists principally of microwave radio relay and
low-capacity, low-powered radiotelephone communication

international:  satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 3, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 283,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: 18,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .cf

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 1,000 (2000)



Central African Republic    Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total:  23,810 km

paved:  429 km

unpaved:  23,381 km (2000)

Waterways: 900 km

note:  traditional trade carried on by means of shallow-draft
dugouts; Oubangui is the most important river, navigable all year to
craft drawing 0.6 m or less; 282 km navigable to craft drawing as
much as 1.8 m

Ports and harbors: Bangui, Nola

Airports: 52 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  3

2,438 to 3,047 m:  1

1,524 to 2,437 m:  2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  49

2,438 to 3,047 m:  1

1,524 to 2,437 m:  10

914 to 1,523 m:  23

under 914 m:  15 (2000 est.)



Central African Republic    Military

Military branches: Central African Armed Forces (includes Army, Air
Force, Presidential Guard, National Gendarmerie, Police Force)

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  824,139 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
430,922 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $29 million (FY96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.2% (FY96)



Central African Republic    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Chad



Chad    Introduction

Background: Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960,
endured three decades of ethnic warfare as well as invasions by
Libya before a semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The
government eventually suppressed or came to terms with most
political-military groups, settled a territorial dispute with Libya
on terms favorable to Chad, drafted a democratic constitution, and
held multiparty presidential and National Assembly elections in 1996
and 1997 respectively. In 1998 a new rebellion broke out in northern
Chad, which continued to escalate throughout 2000. Despite movement
toward democratic reform, power remains in the hands of a northern
ethnic oligarchy.



Chad    Geography

Location: Central Africa, south of Libya

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 19 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total:  1.284 million sq km

land:  1,259,200 sq km

water:  24,800 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than three times the size of
California

Land boundaries: total:  5,968 km

border countries:  Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197
km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical in south, desert in north

Terrain: broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in
northwest, lowlands in south

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Djourab Depression 160 m

highest point:  Emi Koussi 3,415 m

Natural resources: petroleum (unexploited but exploration under
way), uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad)

Land use: arable land:  3%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  36%

forests and woodland:  26%

other:  35% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 140 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north;
periodic droughts; locust plagues

Environment - current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water;
improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water
pollution; desertification

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:  Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography - note: landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant
water body in the Sahel



Chad    People

Population: 8,707,078 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  47.73% (male 2,091,724; female 2,064,514)

15-64 years:  49.46% (male 2,035,099; female 2,271,389)

65 years and over:  2.81% (male 101,579; female 142,773) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.29% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 48.28 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 15.4 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.04 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.9 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.71 male(s)/female

total population:  0.94 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 95.06 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  50.88 years

male:  48.86 years

female:  52.98 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.56 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 2.69% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 92,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 10,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Chadian(s)

adjective:  Chadian

Ethnic groups: Muslims, commonly referred to as "northerners" or
"gorane" (Arabs, Toubou, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Kanembou,
Baguirmi, Boulala, Zaghawa, and Maba); non-Muslims, commonly
referred to as "southerners" (Sara, Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye,
Moundang, Moussei, Massa) including nonindigenous 150,000 (of whom
1,000 are French)

note:  ethnicity and regional background more commonly used to
identify Chadians than religious affiliation

Religions: Muslim 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs (mostly
animism) 25%

Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Sara and Sango (in
south), more than 100 different languages and dialects

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write French or
Arabic

total population:  48.1%

male:  62.1%

female:  34.7% (1995 est.)



Chad    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Republic of Chad

conventional short form:  Chad

local long form:  Republique du Tchad

local short form:  Tchad

Government type: republic

Capital: N'Djamena

Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular -
prefecture); Batha, Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi,
Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi,
Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile

Independence: 11 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 11 August (1960)

Constitution: passed by referendum 31 March 1995

Legal system: based on French civil law system and Chadian customary
law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY
(since 4 December 1990)

head of government:  Prime Minister Nagoum YAMASSOUM (since 13
December 1999)

cabinet:  Council of State, members appointed by the president on
the recommendation of the prime minister

elections:  president elected by popular vote to serve five-year
term; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the
two candidates receiving the most votes must stand for a second
round of voting; last held 20 May 2001 (next to be held NA 2006);
prime minister appointed by the president

election results:  Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY elected president; percent
of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 63%, Ngarlegy YORONGAR 16%, Saleh
KEBZABO 7%

note:  government coalition - MPS, UNDR, and URD

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (125 seats; members
elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); replaces the
Higher Transitional Council or the Conseil Superieur de Transition

elections:  National Assembly - last held in two rounds on 5 January
and 23 February 1997 (next to be held in late 2001); in the first
round of voting some candidates won clear victories by receiving 50%
or more of the vote; where that did not happen, the two highest
scoring candidates stood for a second round of voting

election results:  percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
MPS 65, URD 29, UNDR 15, RDP 3, others 13

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts;
Magistrate Courts

Political parties and leaders: National Union for Development and
Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]; Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS
[Mahamat Saleh AHMAT, chairman] (originally in opposition but now
the party in power and the party of the president); Rally for
Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lal Mahamat CHOUA]; Union for Renewal
and Democracy or URD [Gen. Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC,
CEEAC, CEMAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU,
OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Hassaballah Abdelhadi Ahmat SOUBIANE

chancery:  2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone:  [1] (202) 462-4009

FAX:  [1] (202) 265-1937

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Christopher E. GOLDTHWAIT

embassy:  Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena

mailing address:  B. P. 413, N'Djamena

telephone:  [235] (51) 70-09, (51) 90-52, (51) 92-33

FAX:  [235] (51) 56-54

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
yellow, and red; similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the
flags of Andorra and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of
arms centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of
France



Chad    Economy

Economy - overview: Landlocked Chad's economic development suffers
from its geographic remoteness, drought, lack of infrastructure, and
political turmoil. About 85% of the population depends on
agriculture, including the herding of livestock. Of Africa's
Francophone countries, Chad benefited least from the 50% devaluation
of their currencies in January 1994. Financial aid from the World
Bank, the African Development Fund, and other sources is directed
largely at the improvement of agriculture, especially livestock
production. The World Bank's decision to back the Doba oil field
development and the Chad-Cameroon pipeline will add Chad to the
group of already booming West African oil exporters. However, the
rank and file may not benefit much from the oil development projects.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $8.1 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  40%

industry:  14%

services:  46% (1998)

Population below poverty line: 64% (1995 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (2000 est.)

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 85% (subsistence farming,
herding, and fishing)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues:  $198 million

expenditures:  $218 million, including capital expenditures of $146
million (1998 est.)

Industries: cotton textiles, meatpacking, beer brewing, natron
(sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (1995)

Electricity - production: 90 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  100%

hydro:  0%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 83.7 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice,
potatoes, manioc (tapioca); cattle, sheep, goats, camels

Exports: $172 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: cotton, cattle, textiles

Exports - partners: Portugal 38%, Germany 12%, Thailand, Costa Rica,
South Africa, France (1999)

Imports: $223 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transportation equipment,
industrial goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs, textiles

Imports - partners: France 40%, Cameroon 13%, Nigeria 12%, India 5%
(1999)

Debt - external: $1 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $238.3 million (1995); note - $125 million
committed by Taiwan (August 1997); $30 million committed by African
Development Bank

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note -
responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States

Currency code: XAF

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US
dollar - 699.21 (January 2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95
(1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996); note - from 1 January 1999,
the XAF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XAF per euro

Fiscal year: calendar year



Chad    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 7,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: general assessment:  primitive system

domestic:  fair system of radiotelephone communication stations

international:  satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 5 (1998)

Radios: 1.67 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 10,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .td

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 1,000 (2000)



Chad    Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total:  33,400 km

paved:  267 km

unpaved:  33,133 km (1996)

Waterways: 2,000 km

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 50 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  7

over 3,047 m:  2

2,438 to 3,047 m:  3

1,524 to 2,437 m:  1

under 914 m:  1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  43

1,524 to 2,437 m:  12

914 to 1,523 m:  20

under 914 m:  11 (2000 est.)



Chad    Military

Military branches: Armed Forces (includes Ground Force, Air Force,
and Gendarmerie), Republican Guard, Rapid Intervention Force,
Police, Rural and Nomadic Guard (GNNT)

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  1,814,578 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
949,997 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  82,003
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $39 million (FY96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.5% (FY96)



Chad    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: delimitation of international boundaries
in the vicinity of Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border
incidents in the past, has been completed and awaits ratification by
Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria

======================================================================

@Chile



Chile    Introduction

Background: A three-year-old Marxist government was overthrown in
1973 by a dictatorial military regime led by Augusto PINOCHET, which
ruled until a freely elected president was installed in 1990. Sound
economic policies, first implemented by the PINOCHET dictatorship,
led to unprecedented growth in 1991-97 and have helped secure the
country's commitment to democratic and representative government.
Growth slowed in 1998-99, but recovered strongly in 2000.



Chile    Geography

Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean
and South Pacific Ocean, between Argentina and Peru

Geographic coordinates: 30 00 S, 71 00 W

Map references: South America

Area: total:  756,950 sq km

land:  748,800 sq km

water:  8,150 sq km

note:  includes Easter Island (Isla de Pascua) and Isla Sala y Gomez

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana

Land boundaries: total:  6,171 km

border countries:  Argentina 5,150 km, Bolivia 861 km, Peru 160 km

Coastline: 6,435 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone:  24 NM

continental shelf:  200/350 NM

exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: temperate; desert in north; Mediterranean in central
region; cool and damp in south

Terrain: low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes
in east

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Nevado Ojos del Salado 6,880 m

Natural resources: copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious
metals, molybdenum, hydropower

Land use: arable land:  5%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  18%

forests and woodland:  22%

other:  55% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 12,650 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis

Environment - current issues: air pollution from industrial and
vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage

Environment - international agreements: party to:
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources,
Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified:  Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Nuclear
Test Ban

Geography - note: strategic location relative to sea lanes between
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel,
Drake Passage); Atacama Desert is one of world's driest regions



Chile    People

Population: 15,328,467 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  27.25% (male 2,135,755; female 2,041,552)

15-64 years:  65.39% (male 4,993,416; female 5,029,739)

65 years and over:  7.36% (male 467,477; female 660,528) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.13% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 16.8 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 5.55 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.71 male(s)/female

total population:  0.98 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  75.94 years

male:  72.63 years

female:  79.42 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.16 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.19% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 15,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Chilean(s)

adjective:  Chilean

Ethnic groups: white and white-Amerindian 95%, Amerindian 3%, other
2%

Religions: Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 11%, Jewish NEGL%

Languages: Spanish

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  95.2%

male:  95.4%

female:  95% (1995 est.)



Chile    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Republic of Chile

conventional short form:  Chile

local long form:  Republica de Chile

local short form:  Chile

Government type: republic

Capital: Santiago

Administrative divisions: 13 regions (regiones, singular - region);
Aisen del General Carlos Ibanez del Campo, Antofagasta, Araucania,
Atacama, Bio-Bio, Coquimbo, Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins,
Los Lagos, Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena, Maule, Region
Metropolitana (Santiago), Tarapaca, Valparaiso

note:  the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica

Independence: 18 September 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 September (1810)

Constitution: 11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981, amended 30
July 1989, 1993, and 1997

Legal system: based on Code of 1857 derived from Spanish law and
subsequent codes influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial
review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state:  President Ricardo LAGOS Escobar
(since 11 March 2000); note - the president is both the chief of
state and head of government

head of government:  President Ricardo LAGOS Escobar (since 11 March
2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government

cabinet:  Cabinet appointed by the president

elections:  president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
election last held 12 December 1999, with runoff election held 16
January 2000 (next to be held NA December 2005)

election results:  Ricardo LAGOS Escobar elected president; percent
of vote - Ricardo LAGOS Escobar 51.32%, Joaquin LAVIN 48.68%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional
consists of the Senate or Senado (48 seats, 38 elected by popular
vote and 10 appointed (all former presidents who served 6 years are
senators for life); members serve eight-year terms - one-half
elected every four years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de
Diputados (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
four-year terms)

elections:  Senate - last held 11 December 1997 (next to be held NA
December 2001); Chamber of Deputies - last held 11 December 1997
(next to be held NA December 2001)

election results:  Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by
party - CPD (PDC 14, PS 4, PPD 2), RN 7, UDI 10, UCCP 1,
independents 10; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party -
CPD 50.55% (PDC 22.98%, PS 11.10%, PPD 12.55%, PRSD 3.13%), RN
16.78%, UDI 14.43%; seats by party - CPD 70 (PDC 39, PPD 16, PRSD 4,
PS 11), RN 24, UDI 21, Socialist Party 1, right-wing independents 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges are
appointed by the president and ratified by the Senate from lists of
candidates provided by the court itself; the president of the
Supreme Court is elected by the 21-member court); Constitutional
Tribunal

Political parties and leaders: Center-Center Union Party or UCCP
[Francisco Javier ERRAZURIZ]; Christian Democratic Party or PDC
[Ricardo HORMAZABAL]; Coalition of Parties for Democracy
("Concertacion") or CPD - including PDC, PS, PPD, PRSD; Independent
Democratic Union or UDI [Pablo LONGUEIRA]; National Renewal or RN
[Alberto CARDEMIL]; Party for Democracy or PPD [Guido GIRARDI];
Radical Social Democratic Party or PRSD [Anselmo SULE]; Socialist
Party or PS [Ricardo NUNEZ]

Political pressure groups and leaders: revitalized university
student federations at all major universities; Roman Catholic
Church; United Labor Central or CUT includes trade unionists from
the country's five largest labor confederations

International organization participation: APEC, CCC, ECLAC, FAO,
G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), NAM, OAS, OPANAL,
OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIBH,
UNMOGIP, UNTAET, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Andres BIANCHI

chancery:  1140 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone:  [1] (202) 785-1746

FAX:  [1] (202) 887-5579

consulate(s) general:  Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New
York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
John O'LEARY

embassy:  Avenida Andres Bello 2800, Las Condes, Santiago

mailing address:  APO AA 34033

telephone:  [56] (2) 232-2600

FAX:  [56] (2) 339-3710

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red;
there is a blue square the same height as the white band at the
hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white
five-pointed star in the center; design was based on the US flag



Chile    Economy

Economy - overview: Chile has a market-oriented economy
characterized by a high level of foreign trade. During the early
1990s, Chile's reputation as a role model for economic reform was
strengthened when the democratic government of Patricio AYLWIN -
which took over from the military in 1990 - deepened the economic
reform initiated by the military government. Growth in real GDP
averaged 8% during 1991-97, but fell to half that level in 1998
because of tight monetary policies implemented to keep the current
account deficit in check and lower export earnings - the latter a
product of the global financial crisis. A severe drought exacerbated
the recession in 1999, reducing crop yields and causing
hydroelectric shortfalls and electricity rationing, and Chile
experienced negative economic growth for the first time in more than
15 years. Despite the effects of the recession, Chile maintained its
reputation for strong financial institutions and sound policy that
have given it the strongest sovereign bond rating in South America.
By the end of 1999, exports and economic activity had begun to
recover, and growth rebounded to 5.5% in 2000. Unemployment remains
stubbornly high, however, putting pressure on President LAGOS to
improve living standards. Meanwhile, Chile has launched free trade
negotiations with the US.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $153.1 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $10,100 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  8%

industry:  38%

services:  54% (2000)

Population below poverty line: 22% (1998 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:
1.2%

highest 10%:  41.3% (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 5.8 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 14%, industry 27%, services
59% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9% (December 2000)

Budget: revenues:  $16 billion

expenditures:  $17 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(2000 est.)

Industries: copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing,
iron and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement,
textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 38.092 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  61%

hydro:  35%

nuclear:  0%

other:  4% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 35.426 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, grapes, beans, sugar beets,
potatoes, fruit; beef, poultry, wool; fish; timber

Exports: $18 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: copper, fish, fruits, paper and pulp,
chemicals

Exports - partners: EU 27%, US 16%, Japan 14%, Brazil 6%, Argentina
5% (1998)

Imports: $17 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: consumer goods, chemicals, motor vehicles,
fuels, electrical machinery, heavy industrial machinery, food

Imports - partners: US 24%, EU 23%, Argentina 11%, Brazil 6%, Japan
6%, Mexico 5% (1998)

Debt - external: $39 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: ODA, $40 million (2001 est.)

Currency: Chilean peso (CLP)

Currency code: CLP

Exchange rates: Chilean pesos per US dollar - 571.12 (January 2001),
535.47 (2000), 508.78 (1999), 460.29 (1998), 419.30 (1997), 412.27
(1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Chile    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 2.603 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 944,225 (1998)

Telephone system: general assessment:  modern system based on
extensive microwave radio relay facilities

domestic:  extensive microwave radio relay links; domestic satellite
system with 3 earth stations

international:  satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic
Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 180 (eight inactive), FM 64, shortwave
17 (one inactive) (1998)

Radios: 5.18 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 63 (plus 121 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 3.15 million (1997)

Internet country code: .cl

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 7 (2000)

Internet users: 625,000 (2000)



Chile    Transportation

Railways: total:  6,701 km

broad gauge:  2,831 km 1.676-m gauge (1317 km electrified)

narrow gauge:  117 km 1.067-m gauge (28 km electrified); 3,754 km
1.000-m gauge (37 km electrified) (2000)

Highways: total:  79,800 km

paved:  11,012 km

unpaved:  68,788 km (1996)

Waterways: 725 km

Pipelines: crude oil 755 km; petroleum products 785 km; natural gas
320 km

Ports and harbors: Antofagasta, Arica, Chanaral, Coquimbo, Iquique,
Puerto Montt, Punta Arenas, San Antonio, San Vicente, Talcahuano,
Valparaiso

Merchant marine: total:  44 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
606,506 GRT/884,023 DWT

ships by type:  bulk 11, cargo 7, chemical tanker 8, container 4,
liquefied gas 2, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off
3, vehicle carrier 2 (2000 est.)

Airports: 366 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  69

over 3,047 m:  6

2,438 to 3,047 m:  6

1,524 to 2,437 m:  22

914 to 1,523 m:  21

under 914 m:  14 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  297

over 3,047 m:  1

2,438 to 3,047 m:  4

1,524 to 2,437 m:  11

914 to 1,523 m:  62

under 914 m:  219 (2000 est.)



Chile    Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Air, Coast Guard, and
Marines), Air Force, Carabineros of Chile (National Police),
Investigations Police

note:  Carabineros and Investigations Police are normally
administered by the Ministry of Interior, but in times of national
emergency, they are considered part of the military

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  4,057,466 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
3,003,134 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  136,830
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2.5 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.1% (FY99)



Chile    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Bolivia has wanted a sovereign corridor to
the South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in
1884; dispute with Bolivia over Rio Lauca water rights; territorial
claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps
Argentine and British claims

Illicit drugs: a growing transshipment country for cocaine destined
for the US and Europe; economic prosperity has made Chile more
attractive to traffickers seeking to launder drug profits; imported
precursors passed on to Bolivia; domestic cocaine consumption is
rising

======================================================================

@China



China    Introduction

Background: For centuries China has stood as a leading civilization,
outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences. But in the
first half of the 20th century, China was beset by major famines,
civil unrest, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World
War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established a dictatorship
that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls
over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people.
After 1978, his successor DENG Xiaoping gradually introduced
market-oriented reforms and decentralized economic decision making.
Output quadrupled in the next 20 years and China now has the world's
second largest GDP. Political controls remain tight even while
economic controls continue to weaken.



China    Geography

Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay,
Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam

Geographic coordinates: 35 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total:  9,596,960 sq km

land:  9,326,410 sq km

water:  270,550 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries: total:  22,147.24 km

border countries:  Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km,
Hong Kong 30 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea
1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Macau 0.34 km, Mongolia
4,676.9 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast)
3,605 km, Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281
km

Coastline: 14,500 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone:  24 NM

continental shelf:  200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north

Terrain: mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains,
deltas, and hills in east

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Turpan Pendi -154 m

highest point:  Mount Everest 8,850 m (1999 est.)

Natural resources: coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury,
tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite,
aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)

Land use: arable land:  10%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  43%

forests and woodland:  14%

other:  33% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 498,720 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent typhoons (about five per year along
southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis;
earthquakes; droughts

Environment - current issues: air pollution (greenhouse gases,
sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal, produces acid
rain; water shortages, particularly in the north; water pollution
from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of
agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic
development; desertification; trade in endangered species

Environment - international agreements: party to:
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified:  Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine
Life Conservation

Geography - note: world's fourth-largest country (after Russia,
Canada, and US)



China    People

Population: 1,273,111,290 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  25.01% (male 166,754,893; female
151,598,117)

15-64 years:  67.88% (male 445,222,858; female 418,959,646)

65 years and over:  7.11% (male 42,547,296; female 48,028,480) (2001
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.88% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 15.95 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 6.74 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.09 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.1 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.06 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.89 male(s)/female

total population:  1.06 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 28.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  71.62 years

male:  69.81 years

female:  73.59 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.82 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.07% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 500,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 17,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Chinese (singular and plural)

adjective:  Chinese

Ethnic groups: Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan,
Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%

Religions: Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Muslim 2%-3%, Christian 1%
(est.)

note:  officially atheist

Languages: Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the
Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei
(Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects,
minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry)

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  81.5%

male:  89.9%

female:  72.7% (1995 est.)



China    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  People's Republic of China

conventional short form:  China

local long form:  Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo

local short form:  Zhong Guo

abbreviation:  PRC

Government type: Communist state

Capital: Beijing

Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural),
5 autonomous regions* (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4
municipalities** (shi, singular and plural); Anhui, Beijing**,
Chongqing**, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan,
Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin,
Liaoning, Nei Mongol*, Ningxia*, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong,
Shanghai**, Shanxi, Sichuan, Tianjin**, Xinjiang*, Xizang* (Tibet),
Yunnan, Zhejiang; note - China considers Taiwan its 23rd province;
see separate entries for the special administrative regions of Hong
Kong and Macau

Independence: 221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty 221
BC; Qing or Ch'ing Dynasty replaced by the Republic on 12 February
1912; People's Republic established 1 October 1949)

National holiday: Founding of the People's Republic of China, 1
October (1949)

Constitution: most recent promulgation 4 December 1982

Legal system: a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely
criminal law; rudimentary civil code in effect since 1 January 1987;
new legal codes in effect since 1 January 1980; continuing efforts
are being made to improve civil, administrative, criminal, and
commercial law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  President JIANG Zemin (since 27
March 1993) and Vice President HU Jintao (since 16 March 1998)

head of government:  Premier ZHU Rongji (since 18 March 1998); Vice
Premiers QIAN Qichen (since 29 March 1993), LI Lanqing (29 March
1993), WU Bangguo (since 17 March 1995), and WEN Jiabao (since 18
March 1998)

cabinet:  State Council appointed by the National People's Congress
(NPC)

elections:  president and vice president elected by the National
People's Congress for five-year terms; elections last held 16-18
March 1998 (next to be held NA March 2003); premier nominated by the
president, confirmed by the National People's Congress

election results:  JIANG Zemin reelected president by the Ninth
National People's Congress with a total of 2,882 votes (36 delegates
voted against him, 29 abstained, and 32 did not vote); HU Jintao
elected vice president by the Ninth National People's Congress with
a total of 2,841 votes (67 delegates voted against him, 39
abstained, and 32 did not vote)

Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo
Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,979 seats; members elected by municipal,
regional, and provincial people's congresses to serve five-year
terms)

elections:  last held NA December 1997-NA February 1998 (next to be
held late 2002-NA March 2003)

election results:  percent of vote - NA%; seats - NA

Judicial branch: Supreme People's Court (judges appointed by the
National People's Congress); Local Peoples Courts (comprise higher,
intermediate and local courts); Special Peoples Courts (primarily
military, maritime, and railway transport courts)

Political parties and leaders: Chinese Communist Party or CCP [JIANG
Zemin, General Secretary of the Central Committee]; eight registered
small parties controlled by CCP

Political pressure groups and leaders: no substantial political
opposition groups exist, although the government has identified the
Falungong sect and the China Democracy Party as potential rivals

International organization participation: AfDB, APEC, ARF (dialogue
partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, CCC, CDB
(non-regional), ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, NAM (observer),
OPCW, PCA, UN, UN Security Council, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNTAET, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer), ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:
Ambassador-designate YANG Jiechi

chancery:  2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:  [1] (202) 328-2500

consulate(s) general:  Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and
San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Joseph W. PRUEHER

embassy:  Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, 100600 Beijing

mailing address:  PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002

telephone:  [86] (10) 6532-3431

FAX:  [86] (10) 6532-6422

consulate(s) general:  Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang

Flag description: red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four
smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward
the middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner



China    Economy

Economy - overview: In late 1978 the Chinese leadership began moving
the economy from a sluggish Soviet-style centrally planned economy
to a more market-oriented system. Whereas the system operates within
a political framework of strict Communist control, the economic
influence of non-state managers and enterprises has been steadily
increasing. The authorities have switched to a system of household
responsibility in agriculture in place of the old collectivization,
increased the authority of local officials and plant managers in
industry, permitted a wide variety of small-scale enterprise in
services and light manufacturing, and opened the economy to
increased foreign trade and investment. The result has been a
quadrupling of GDP since 1978. In 2000, with its 1.26 billion people
but a GDP of just $3,600 per capita, China stood as the second
largest economy in the world after the US (measured on a purchasing
power parity basis). Agricultural output doubled in the 1980s, and
industry also posted major gains, especially in coastal areas near
Hong Kong and opposite Taiwan, where foreign investment helped spur
output of both domestic and export goods. On the darker side, the
leadership has often experienced in its hybrid system the worst
results of socialism (bureaucracy and lassitude) and of capitalism
(windfall gains and stepped-up inflation). Beijing thus has
periodically backtracked, retightening central controls at
intervals. The government has struggled to (a) collect revenues due
from provinces, businesses, and individuals; (b) reduce corruption
and other economic crimes; and (c) keep afloat the large state-owned
enterprises many of which had been shielded from competition by
subsides and had been losing the ability to pay full wages and
pensions. From 80 to 120 million surplus rural workers are adrift
between the villages and the cities, many subsisting through
part-time low-paying jobs. Popular resistance, changes in central
policy, and loss of authority by rural cadres have weakened China's
population control program, which is essential to maintaining growth
in living standards. Another long-term threat to continued rapid
economic growth is the deterioration in the environment, notably air
pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table
especially in the north. China continues to lose arable land because
of erosion and economic development. Weakness in the global economy
in 2001 could hamper growth in exports. Beijing will intensify
efforts to stimulate growth through spending on infrastructure--such
as water control and power grids--and poverty relief and through
rural tax reform aimed at eliminating arbitrary local levies on
farmers.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.5 trillion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,600 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  15%

industry:  50%

services:  35% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: 10% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:
2.4%

highest 10%:  30.4% (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.4% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 700 million (1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 50%, industry 24%, services
26% (1998)

Unemployment rate: urban unemployment roughly 10%; substantial
unemployment and underemployment in rural areas (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues:  $NA

expenditures:  $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments,
textiles and apparel, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers,
footwear, toys, food processing, automobiles, consumer electronics,
telecommunications

Industrial production growth rate: 10% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 1.173 trillion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  79.82%

hydro:  18.98%

nuclear:  1.2%

other:  0.01% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 1.084 trillion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 7.2 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 90 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: rice, wheat, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts,
tea, millet, barley, cotton, oilseed; pork; fish

Exports: $232 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment; textiles and
clothing, footwear, toys and sporting goods; mineral fuels

Exports - partners: US 21%, Hong Kong 18%, Japan 17%, South Korea,
Germany, Netherlands, UK, Singapore, Taiwan (2000)

Imports: $197 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, mineral fuels,
plastics, iron and steel, chemicals

Imports - partners: Japan 18%, Taiwan 11%, US 10%, South Korea 10%,
Germany, Hong Kong, Russia, Malaysia (2000)

Debt - external: $162 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: yuan (CNY)

Currency code: CNY

Exchange rates: yuan per US dollar - 8.2776 (January 2001), 8.2785
(2000), 8.2783 (1999), 8.2790 (1998), 8.2898 (1997), 8.3142 (1996)

note:  beginning 1 January 1994, the People's Bank of China quotes
the midpoint rate against the US dollar based on the previous day's
prevailing rate in the interbank foreign exchange market

Fiscal year: calendar year



China    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 135 million (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 65 million (January 2001)

Telephone system: general assessment:  domestic and international
services are increasingly available for private use; unevenly
distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial
centers, and many towns

domestic:  interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular
telephone systems have been installed; a domestic satellite system
with 55 earth stations is in place

international:  satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Pacific
Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region) and
1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean regions); several international
fiber-optic links to Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong, Russia, and
Germany (2000)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 369, FM 259, shortwave 45 (1998)

Radios: 417 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 3,240 (of which 209 are operated by
China Central Television, 31 are provincial TV stations and nearly
3,000 are local city stations) (1997)

Televisions: 400 million (1997)

Internet country code: .cn

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 3 (2000)

Internet users: 22 million (January 2001)



China    Transportation

Railways: total:  67,524 km (including 5,400 km of provincial
"local" rails)

standard gauge:  63,924 km 1.435-m gauge (13,362 km electrified;
20,250 km double track)

narrow gauge:  3,600 km 0.750-m and 1.000-m gauge local industrial
lines (1998 est.)

note:  a new total of 68,000 km was estimated for early 1999 to take
new construction programs into account (1999)

Highways: total:  1.4 million km

paved:  271,300 km (with at least 16,000 km of expressways)

unpaved:  1,128,700 km (1999)

Waterways: 110,000 km (1999)

Pipelines: crude oil 9,070 km; petroleum products 560 km; natural
gas 9,383 km (1998)

Ports and harbors: Dalian, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Haikou, Huangpu,
Lianyungang, Nanjing, Nantong, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao,
Shanghai, Shantou, Tianjin, Xiamen, Xingang, Yantai, Zhanjiang

Merchant marine: total:  1,745 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
16,533,521 GRT/24,746,859 DWT

ships by type:  barge carrier 2, bulk 324, cargo 825, chemical
tanker 21, combination bulk 11, combination ore/oil 1, container
132, liquefied gas 24, multi-functional large-load carrier 5,
passenger 7, passenger/cargo 45, petroleum tanker 258, refrigerated
cargo 22, roll on/roll off 23, short-sea passenger 41, specialized
tanker 3, vehicle carrier 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 489 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  324

over 3,047 m:  27

2,438 to 3,047 m:  88

1,524 to 2,437 m:  147

914 to 1,523 m:  30

under 914 m:  32 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  165

over 3,047 m:  1

2,438 to 3,047 m:  1

1,524 to 2,437 m:  29

914 to 1,523 m:  56

under 914 m:  78 (2000 est.)



China    Military

Military branches: People's Liberation Army (PLA) - which includes
Ground Forces, Navy (includes Marines and Naval Aviation), Air
Force, Second Artillery Corps (the strategic missile force),
People's Armed Police (internal security troops, nominally
subordinate to Ministry of Public Security, but included by the
Chinese as part of the "armed forces" and considered to be an
adjunct to the PLA in wartime)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  366,306,353
(2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
200,886,946 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:
10,089,458 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $12.608 billion (FY99); note
- China's real defense spending may be several times higher than the
official figure because a number of significant items are funded
elsewhere

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY99)



China    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: most of boundary with India in dispute;
dispute over at least two small sections of the boundary with Russia
remains to be settled, despite 1997 boundary agreement; portions of
the boundary with Tajikistan are indefinite; 33-km section of
boundary with North Korea in the Paektu-san (mountain) area is
indefinite; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands
with Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei;
maritime boundary agreement with Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin
awaits ratification; Paracel Islands occupied by China, but claimed
by Vietnam and Taiwan; claims Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto
(Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu Tai), as does Taiwan

Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for heroin produced in the
Golden Triangle; growing domestic drug abuse problem; source country
for chemical precursors and methamphetamine

======================================================================

@Christmas Island



Christmas Island    Introduction

Background: Named in 1643 for the day of its discovery, the island
was annexed and settlement was begun by the UK in 1888. Phosphate
mining began in the 1890s. The UK transferred sovereignty to
Australia in 1958. The phosphate mine, closed in 1987, was reopened
four years later, but the need for an alternative industry has
spurred investment in tourism. Old mining areas are being restored,
and almost two-thirds of the island has been declared a national
park.



Christmas Island    Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of
Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 10 30 S, 105 40 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total:  135 sq km

land:  135 sq km

water:  0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 138.9 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone:  12 NM

exclusive fishing zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  3 NM

Climate: tropical; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds

Terrain: steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Murray Hill 361 m

Natural resources: phosphate

Land use: arable land:  NA%

permanent crops:  NA%

permanent pastures:  NA%

forests and woodland:  NA%

other:  NA%

note:  mainly tropical rainforest of which 60%-70% is in a national
park

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can
be a maritime hazard

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean



Christmas Island    People

Population: 2,771 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  NA%

15-64 years:  NA%

65 years and over:  NA%

Population growth rate: 7.77% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  NA years

male:  NA years

female:  NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun:  Christmas Islander(s)

adjective:  Christmas Island

Ethnic groups: Chinese 61%, Malay 25%, European 11%, other 3%, no
indigenous population

Religions: Buddhist 55%, Christian 15%, Muslim 10%, other 20% (1991)

Languages: English, Chinese, Malay



Christmas Island    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Territory of Christmas Island

conventional short form:  Christmas Island

Dependency status: territory of Australia; administered from
Canberra by the Australian Department of the Environment, Sport, and
Territories

Government type: NA

Capital: The Settlement

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: Christmas Island Act of 1958

Legal system: under the authority of the governor general of
Australia and Australian law

Executive branch: chief of state:  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6
February 1952), represented by the Australian governor general

head of government:  Administrator William Leonard TAYLOR (since 4
February 1999)

elections:  none; the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed
by the governor general of Australia and represents the monarch and
Australia

Legislative branch: unicameral Christmas Island Shire Council (9
seats; members elected by popular vote to serve one-year terms)

elections:  last held NA December 2000 (next to be held NA December
2001)

election results:  percent of vote - NA%; seats - independents 9

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; District Court; Magistrate's Court

Political parties and leaders: none

Political pressure groups and leaders: none

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used



Christmas Island    Economy

Economy - overview: Phosphate mining had been the only significant
economic activity, but in December 1987 the Australian Government
closed the mine. In 1991, the mine was reopened by union workers.
With the support of the government, Australian-based Casinos Austria
International Ltd. built a $34 million casino on Christmas Island,
which opened in 1993. As of yearend 1999, gaming facilities at the
casino were temporarily closed but were expected to reopen in early
2000. Another economic prospect is the possible location of a
space-launching site on the island.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  NA%

industry:  NA%

services:  NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: tourism 400 people, mining 100 people
(1995)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues:  $NA

expenditures:  $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: tourism, phosphate extraction (near depletion)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  NA%

hydro:  NA%

nuclear:  NA%

other:  NA%

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: NA

Exports: $NA

Exports - commodities: phosphate

Exports - partners: Australia, NZ

Imports: $NA

Imports - commodities: consumer goods

Imports - partners: principally Australia

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: Australian dollar (AUD)

Currency code: AUD

Exchange rates: Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.7995 (January
2001), 1.7173 (2000), 1.5497 (1999), 1.5888 (1998), 1.3439 (1997),
1.2773 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Christmas Island    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: NA

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1999)

Telephone system: general assessment:  NA

domestic:  NA

international:  satellite earth stations - one Intelsat earth
station provides telephone and telex service

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 1,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: 600 (1997)

Internet country code: .cx

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: NA



Christmas Island    Transportation

Railways: 24 km to serve phosphate mines

Highways: total:  140 km (not including 100 km that is maintained by
private industry)

paved:  30 km

unpaved:  110 km (1999)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Flying Fish Cove

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  1

1,524 to 2,437 m:  1 (2000 est.)



Christmas Island    Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Australia



Christmas Island    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Clipperton Island



Clipperton Island    Introduction

Background: This isolated island was named for John CLIPPERTON, a
pirate who made it his hideout early in the 18th century. Annexed by
France in 1855, it was seized by Mexico in 1897. Arbitration
eventually awarded the island to France, which took possession in
1935.



Clipperton Island    Geography

Location: Middle America, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, 1,120 km
southwest of Mexico

Geographic coordinates: 10 17 N, 109 13 W

Map references: World

Area: total:  7 sq km

land:  7 sq km

water:  0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 12 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 11.1 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: tropical, humid, average temperature 20-32 degrees C, rains
May-October

Terrain: coral atoll

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Rocher Clipperton 29 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use: arable land:  0%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  0%

forests and woodland:  0%

other:  100% (all coral)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: reef about 8 km in circumference



Clipperton Island    People

Population: uninhabited (July 2001 est.)



Clipperton Island    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  none

conventional short form:  Clipperton Island

local long form:  none

local short form:  Ile Clipperton

former:  sometimes called Ile de la Passion

Dependency status: possession of France; administered by France from
French Polynesia by a high commissioner of the Republic

Legal system: the laws of France, where applicable, apply

Flag description: the flag of France is used



Clipperton Island    Economy

Economy - overview: Although 115 species of fish have been
identified in the territorial waters of Clipperton Island, the only
economic activity is tuna fishing.



Clipperton Island    Transportation

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only



Clipperton Island    Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France



Clipperton Island    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands



Cocos (Keeling) Islands    Introduction

Background: The islands were discovered in 1609, but remained
uninhabited until the 19th century. Annexed by the UK in 1857, they
were transferred to the Australian Government in 1955. The
population on the two inhabited islands is split between the mostly
Europeans on West Island and the Malays on Home Island.



Cocos (Keeling) Islands    Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, group of islands in the Indian Ocean,
south of Indonesia, about one-half of the way from Australia to Sri
Lanka

Geographic coordinates: 12 30 S, 96 50 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total:  14 sq km

land:  14 sq km

water:  0 sq km

note:  includes the two main islands of West Island and Home Island

Area - comparative: about 24 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 2.6 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  3 NM

Climate: pleasant, modified by the southeast trade winds for about
nine months of the year; moderate rainfall

Terrain: flat, low-lying coral atolls

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point:  unnamed location 5 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use: arable land:  0%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  0%

forests and woodland:  0%

other:  100% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: cyclones may occur in the early months of the year

Environment - current issues: fresh water resources are limited to
rainwater accumulations in natural underground reservoirs

Geography - note: two coral atolls thickly covered with coconut
palms and other vegetation



Cocos (Keeling) Islands    People

Population: 633 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  NA%

15-64 years:  NA%

65 years and over:  NA%

Population growth rate: -0.21% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  NA years

male:  NA years

female:  NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun:  Cocos Islander(s)

adjective:  Cocos Islander

Ethnic groups: Europeans, Cocos Malays

Religions: Sunni Muslim 57%, Christian 22%, other 21% (1981 est.)

Languages: English, Malay



Cocos (Keeling) Islands    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Territory of Cocos (Keeling)
Islands

conventional short form:  Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Dependency status: territory of Australia; administered from
Canberra by the Australian Department of the Environment, Sport, and
Territories

Government type: NA

Capital: West Island

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act of 1955

Legal system: based upon the laws of Australia and local laws

Suffrage: NA

Executive branch: chief of state:  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6
February 1952), represented by the Australian governor general

head of government:  Administrator (non-resident) William Leonard
TAYLOR (since 4 February 1999)

cabinet:  NA

elections:  none; the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed
by the governor general of Australia and represents the monarch and
Australia

Legislative branch: unicameral Cocos (Keeling) Islands Shire Council
(NA seats)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Magistrate's Court

Political parties and leaders: none

Political pressure groups and leaders: none

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used



Cocos (Keeling) Islands    Economy

Economy - overview: Grown throughout the islands, coconuts are the
sole cash crop. Copra and fresh coconuts are the major export
earners. Small local gardens and fishing contribute to the food
supply, but additional food and most other necessities must be
imported from Australia.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  NA%

industry:  NA%

services:  NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: the Cocos Islands Cooperative Society
Ltd. employs construction workers, stevedores, and lighterage
workers; tourism employs others

Budget: revenues:  $NA

expenditures:  $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: copra products and tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  NA%

hydro:  NA%

nuclear:  NA%

other:  NA%

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: vegetables, bananas, pawpaws, coconuts

Exports: $NA

Exports - commodities: copra

Exports - partners: Australia

Imports: $NA

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs

Imports - partners: Australia

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: Australian dollar (AUD)

Currency code: AUD

Exchange rates: Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.7995 (January
2001), 1.7173 (2000), 1.5497 (1999), 1.5888 (1998), 1.3439 (1997),
1.2773 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Cocos (Keeling) Islands    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: NA (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1999)

Telephone system: general assessment:  NA

domestic:  NA

international:  telephone, telex, and facsimile communications with
Australia and elsewhere via satellite; 1 satellite earth station of
NA type

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 300 (1992)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1997)

Televisions: NA

Internet country code: .cc

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: NA



Cocos (Keeling) Islands    Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total:  15 km

paved:  NA km

unpaved:  NA km (2001)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none; lagoon anchorage only

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  1

1,524 to 2,437 m:  1 (2000 est.)



Cocos (Keeling) Islands    Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Australia



Cocos (Keeling) Islands    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Colombia



Colombia    Introduction

Background: Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged
from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Ecuador
and Venezuela). A 40-year insurgent campaign to overthrow the
Colombian Government escalated during the 1990s, undergirded in part
by funds from the drug trade. Although the violence is deadly and
large swaths of the countryside are under guerrilla influence, the
movement lacks the military strength or popular support necessary to
overthrow the government. While Bogota continues to try to negotiate
a settlement, neighboring countries worry about the violence
spilling over their borders.



Colombia    Geography

Location: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea,
between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean,
between Ecuador and Panama

Geographic coordinates: 4 00 N, 72 00 W

Map references: South America, Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total:  1,138,910 sq km

land:  1,038,700 sq km

water:  100,210 sq km

note:  includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and
Serranilla Bank

Area - comparative: slightly less than three times the size of
Montana

Land boundaries: total:  6,004 km

border countries:  Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km,
Peru 1,496 km (est.), Venezuela 2,050 km

Coastline: 3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean
1,448 km)

Maritime claims: continental shelf:  200-m depth or to the depth of
exploitation

exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands

Terrain: flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes
Mountains, eastern lowland plains

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Pico Cristobal Colon 5,775 m

note:  nearby Pico Simon Bolivar also has the same elevation

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel,
gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower

Land use: arable land:  4%

permanent crops:  1%

permanent pastures:  39%

forests and woodland:  48%

other:  8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,300 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional
earthquakes; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil damage from
overuse of pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from
vehicle emissions

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:  Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of
the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography - note: only South American country with coastlines on
both North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea



Colombia    People

Population: 40,349,388 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  31.88% (male 6,507,282; female 6,354,454)

15-64 years:  63.37% (male 12,452,182; female 13,117,707)

65 years and over:  4.75% (male 859,967; female 1,057,796) (2001
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.64% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 22.41 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 5.69 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.81 male(s)/female

total population:  0.97 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 23.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  70.57 years

male:  66.71 years

female:  74.55 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.66 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.31% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 71,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,700 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Colombian(s)

adjective:  Colombian

Ethnic groups: mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed
black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%

Languages: Spanish

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  91.3%

male:  91.2%

female:  91.4% (1995 est.)



Colombia    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Republic of Colombia

conventional short form:  Colombia

local long form:  Republica de Colombia

local short form:  Colombia

Government type: republic; executive branch dominates government
structure

Capital: Bogota

Administrative divisions: 32 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento) and 1 capital district* (distrito capital); Amazonas,
Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta,
Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia,
Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de
Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y Providencia,
Distrito Capital de Santa Fe de Bogota*, Santander, Sucre, Tolima,
Valle del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada

Independence: 20 July 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 20 July (1810)

Constitution: 5 July 1991

Legal system: based on Spanish law; a new criminal code modeled
after US procedures was enacted in 1992-93; judicial review of
executive and legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  President Andres PASTRANA (since
7 August 1998); Vice President Gustavo BELL Lemus (since 7 August
1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government

head of government:  President Andres PASTRANA (since 7 August
1998); Vice President Gustavo BELL Lemus (since 7 August 1998); note
- the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet:  Cabinet Cabinet consists of a coalition of the two
dominant parties - the PL and PSC - and independents

elections:  president elected by popular vote for a four-year term;
election last held 31 May 1998 (next to be held NA May 2002); vice
president elected by popular vote for a four-year term in a new
procedure that replaces the traditional designation of vice
presidents by newly elected presidents; election last held 31 May
1998 (next to be held NA May 2002)

election results:  no candidate received more than 50% of the total
vote, therefore, a run-off election to select a president from the
two leading candidates was held 21 June 1998; Andres PASTRANA
elected president; percent of vote - 50.3%; Gustavo BELL elected
vice president; percent of vote - 50.3%

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the
Senate or Senado (102 seats; members are elected by popular vote to
serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Camara de
Representantes (163 seats; members are elected by popular vote to
serve four-year terms)

elections:  Senate - last held 8 March 1998 (next to be held NA
March 2002); House of Representatives - last held 8 March 1998 (next
to be held NA March 2002)

election results:  Senate - percent of vote by party - PL 50%, PSC
24%, smaller parties (many aligned with conservatives) 26%; seats by
party - PL 58, PSC 28, smaller parties 16; House of Representatives
- percent of vote by party - PL 52%, PSC 17%, other 31%; seats by
party - PL 98, PSC 52, indigenous parties 2, others 11

Judicial branch: four, coequal, supreme judicial organs; Supreme
Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justical (highest court of
criminal law; judges are selected from the nominees of the Higher
Council of Justice for eight-year terms); Council of State (highest
court of administrative law, judges are selected from the nominees
of the Higher Council of Justice for eight-year terms);
Constitutional Court (guards integrity and supremacy of the
constitution, rules on constitutionality of laws, amendments to the
constitution, and international treaties); Higher Council of Justice
(administers and disciplines the civilian judiciary; members of the
disciplinary chamber resolve jurisdictional conflicts arising
between other courts; members are elected by three sister courts and
Congress for eight-year terms)

Political parties and leaders: Conservative Party or PSC [Ciro
RAMIREZ Anzon]; Liberal Party or PL [Luis Guillermo VELEZ];
Patriotic Union or UP is a legal political party formed by
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia or FARC and Colombian
Communist Party or PCC [Jaime CAICEDO]; 19 of April Movement or M-19
[Antonio NAVARRO Wolff]

Political pressure groups and leaders: two largest insurgent groups
active in Colombia - National Liberation Army or ELN and
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia or FARC; largest paramilitary
group is United Self-Defense Groups of Colombia or AUC

International organization participation: BCIE, CAN, Caricom
(observer), CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G- 3, G-11, G-24, G-77, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES,
LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UN Security Council
(temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Luis Alberto MORENO Mejia

chancery:  2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:  [1] (202) 387-8338

FAX:  [1] (202) 232-8643

consulate(s) general:  Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and
Washington, DC

consulate(s):  Atlanta

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Anne W. PATTERSON

embassy:  Calle 22D-BIS, numbers 47-51, Apartado Aereo 3831

mailing address:  Carrera 45 #22D-45, Bogota, D.C., APO AA 34038

telephone:  [57] (1) 315-0811

FAX:  [57] (1) 315-2197

Flag description: three horizontal bands of yellow (top,
double-width), blue, and red; similar to the flag of Ecuador, which
is longer and bears the Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the
center



Colombia    Economy

Economy - overview: Colombia is poised for muted growth in the next
several years, marking continued recovery from the severe 1999
recession when GDP fell by about 4%. President PASTRANA's
well-respected economic team is working to keep the economy on
track, maintaining low interest rates, for example. In accordance
with its IMF loan agreement, the administration also is taking steps
to improve the public sector's fiscal health. However, many
challenges to improved prosperity remain. Unemployment was stuck at
a record 20% in 2000, contributing to the extreme inequality in
income distribution. Two of Colombia's leading exports, oil and
coffee, face an uncertain future; new exploration is needed to
offset declining oil production, while coffee harvests and prices
are depressed. The lack of public security is a key concern for
investors, making progress in the government's peace negotiations
with insurgent groups an important driver of economic performance.
Colombia is looking for continued support from the international
community to boost economic and peace prospects.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $250 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,200 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  19%

industry:  26%

services:  55% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 55% (1999)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  1%

highest 10%:  44% (1999)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9% (2000)

Labor force: 18.3 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: services 46%, agriculture 30%, industry
24% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 20% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues:  $22 billion

expenditures:  $24 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(2000 est.)

Industries: textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear,
beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds

Industrial production growth rate: 11% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 43.574 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  22.27%

hydro:  76.19%

nuclear:  0%

other:  1.54% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 40.532 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 27 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 35 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco,
corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; forest products;
shrimp

Exports: $14.5 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: petroleum, coffee, coal, apparel, bananas,
cut flowers

Exports - partners: US 50%, EU 14%, Andean Community of Nations 16%,
Japan 2% (2000 est.)

Imports: $12.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: industrial equipment, transportation
equipment, consumer goods, chemicals, paper products, fuels,
electricity

Imports - partners: US 35%, EU 16%, Andean Community of Nations 15%,
Japan 5% (2000 est.)

Debt - external: $34 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $40.7 million (1995)

Currency: Colombian peso (COP)

Currency code: COP

Exchange rates: Colombian pesos per US dollar - 2,241.43 (January
2001), 2087.90 (2000), 1,756.23 (1999), 1,426.04 (1998), 1,140.96
(1997), 1,036.69 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Colombia    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 5,433,565 (December 1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,800,229 (December 1998)

Telephone system: general assessment:  modern system in many respects

domestic:  nationwide microwave radio relay system; domestic
satellite system with 41 earth stations; fiber-optic network linking
50 cities

international:  satellite earth stations - 6 Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat; 3
fully digitalized international switching centers; 8 submarine cables

Radio broadcast stations: AM 454, FM 34, shortwave 27 (1999)

Radios: 21 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 60 (includes seven low-power
stations) (1997)

Televisions: 4.59 million (1997)

Internet country code: .co

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 18 (2000)

Internet users: 600,000 (2000)



Colombia    Transportation

Railways: total:  3,304 km

standard gauge:  150 km 1.435-m gauge (connects Cerrejon coal mines
to maritime port at Bahia de Portete)

narrow gauge:  3,154 km 0.914-m gauge (major sections not in use)
(2000)

Highways: total:  110,000 km

paved:  26,000 km

unpaved:  84,000 km (2000)

Waterways: 18,140 km (navigable by river boats) (April 1996)

Pipelines: crude oil 3,585 km; petroleum products 1,350 km; natural
gas 830 km; natural gas liquids 125 km

Ports and harbors: Bahia de Portete, Barranquilla, Buenaventura,
Cartagena, Leticia, Puerto Bolivar, San Andres, Santa Marta, Tumaco,
Turbo

Merchant marine: total:  13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
53,322 GRT/69,444 DWT

ships by type:  bulk 5, cargo 4, container 1, multi-functional
large-load carrier 1, petroleum tanker 2 (2000 est.)

Airports: 1,091 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  92

over 3,047 m:  2

2,438 to 3,047 m:  8

1,524 to 2,437 m:  38

914 to 1,523 m:  36

under 914 m:  8 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  999

2,438 to 3,047 m:  1

1,524 to 2,437 m:  64

914 to 1,523 m:  321

under 914 m:  613 (2000 est.)



Colombia    Military

Military branches: Army (Ejercito Nacional), Navy (Armada Nacional,
includes Marines and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea
Colombiana), National Police (Policia Nacional)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  10,779,148 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
7,205,211 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  379,295
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $3 billion (FY00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.4% (FY00)



Colombia    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: maritime boundary dispute with Venezuela
in the Gulf of Venezuela; territorial disputes with Nicaragua over
Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of coca, opium poppies, and
cannabis; world's leading coca cultivator (cultivation of coca in
1999 - 122,500 hectares, a 20.3% increase over 1998); cultivation of
opium in 1999 increased to 7,500 hectares from 6,100 hectares in
1998; potential production of opium in 1999 - 75 metric tons, a 25%
increase over 1998; potential production of heroin in 1999 - nearly
8 metric tons, as compared with 6 tons in 1998; the world's largest
processor of coca derivatives into cocaine; supplier of about 90% of
the cocaine to the US and the great majority of cocaine to other
international drug markets, and an important supplier of heroin to
the US market; active aerial eradication program

======================================================================

@Comoros



Comoros    Introduction

Background: Unstable Comoros has endured 19 coups or attempted coups
since gaining independence from France in 1975. In 1997, the islands
of Anjouan and Moheli declared their independence from Comoros. In
1999, military chief Col. AZALI seized power. He has pledged to
resolve the secessionist crisis through the 2000 Fomboni Accord, a
confederal arrangement that the Organization of African Unity has
yet to recognize.



Comoros    Geography

Location: Southern Africa, group of islands in the Mozambique
Channel, about two-thirds of the way between northern Madagascar and
northern Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 12 10 S, 44 15 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total:  2,170 sq km

land:  2,170 sq km

water:  0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than 12 times the size of
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 340 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)

Terrain: volcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains to
low hills

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Le Kartala 2,360 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use: arable land:  35%

permanent crops:  10%

permanent pastures:  7%

forests and woodland:  18%

other:  30% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: cyclones possible during rainy season (December to
April); Le Kartala on Grand Comore is an active volcano

Environment - current issues: soil degradation and erosion results
from crop cultivation on slopes without proper terracing;
deforestation

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:  none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: important location at northern end of Mozambique
Channel



Comoros    People

Population: 596,202 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  42.81% (male 127,955; female 127,267)

15-64 years:  54.26% (male 159,560; female 163,949)

65 years and over:  2.93% (male 8,326; female 9,145) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.02% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 39.52 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 9.35 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.91 male(s)/female

total population:  0.98 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 84.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  60.41 years

male:  58.2 years

female:  62.68 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.32 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.12% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun:  Comoran(s)

adjective:  Comoran

Ethnic groups: Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava

Religions: Sunni Muslim 98%, Roman Catholic 2%

Languages: Arabic (official), French (official), Comoran (a blend of
Swahili and Arabic)

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  57.3%

male:  64.2%

female:  50.4% (1995 est.)



Comoros    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Federal Islamic Republic of
the Comoros

conventional short form:  Comoros

local long form:  Republique Federale Islamique des Comores

local short form:  Comores

Government type: independent republic

Capital: Moroni

Administrative divisions: 3 islands; Grande Comore (Njazidja),
Anjouan (Nzwani), and Moheli (Mwali); note - there are also four
municipalities named Domoni, Fomboni, Moroni, and Moutsamoudou

Independence: 6 July 1975 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 July (1975)

Constitution: 20 October 1996

Legal system: French and Muslim law in a new consolidated code

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  President AZALI Assoumani (since
6 May 1999); note - the interim government of President Tajiddine
Ben Said MASSOUNDE, which had assumed power on 6 November 1998 upon
the death of President Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim, was overthrown in a
bloodless coup on 30 April 1999

head of government:  Prime Minister Hamada MADI (since late November
2000)

cabinet:  Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections:  president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 6 and 16 March 1996 (next to be held NA); prime
minister appointed by the president

note:  President AZALI claimed a one-year term at the time of the
coup; but elections, promised for spring 2000, were not held

election results:  results of the last presidential election before
the coup were: Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim elected president; percent of
vote - 64.3%

Legislative branch: bicameral legislature consists of the Senate (15
seats: five from each island); members selected by regional councils
for six-year terms) and a Federal Assembly or Assemblee Federale (43
seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms);
note - the Federal Assembly was dissolved following the coup of 30
April 1999

elections:  Federal Assembly - last held 1 and 8 December 1996 (next
to be held NA)

election results:  Federal Assembly - percent of vote by party -
NA%; seats by party - RND 39, FNJ 3, independent 1

note:  the constitution stipulates that only parties that win six
seats in the Federal Assembly (two from each island) are permitted
to be in opposition, but if no party accomplishes that, the second
most successful party will be in opposition; in the elections of
December 1996 the FNJ appeared to qualify as opposition

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supremes (two members
appointed by the president, two members elected by the Federal
Assembly, one elected by the Council of each island, and others are
former presidents of the republic)

Political parties and leaders: Front National pour la Justice or FNJ
(Islamic party in opposition) [Ahmed Abdallah MOHAMED, Ahmed
ABOUBACAR, Soidiki M'BAPANOZA]; Rassemblement National pour le
Development or RND (party of the government) [Ali Bazi SELIM]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD,
AL, CCC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS (associate), ILO, IMF, InOC, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO
(subscriber), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WHO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Deputy
Permanent Representative Mahmoud Mohamed ABOUD (acting)

chancery:  (temporary) care of the Permanent Mission of the Federal
and Islamic Republic of the Comoros to the United Nations, 420 East
50th Street, New York, NY 10022

telephone:  [1] (212) 972-8010

FAX:  [1] (212) 983-4712

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an
embassy in Comoros; the ambassador to Mauritius is accredited to
Comoros

Flag description: green with a white crescent in the center of the
field, its points facing downward; there are four white five-pointed
stars placed in a line between the points of the crescent; the
crescent, stars, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam;
the four stars represent the four main islands of the archipelago -
Mwali, Njazidja, Nzwani, and Mayotte (a territorial collectivity of
France, but claimed by Comoros); the design, the most recent of
several, is described in the constitution approved by referendum on
7 June 1992



Comoros    Economy

Economy - overview: One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros is
made up of three islands that have inadequate transportation links,
a young and rapidly increasing population, and few natural
resources. The low educational level of the labor force contributes
to a subsistence level of economic activity, high unemployment, and
a heavy dependence on foreign grants and technical assistance.
Agriculture, including fishing, hunting, and forestry, is the
leading sector of the economy. It contributes 40% to GDP, employs
80% of the labor force, and provides most of the exports. The
country is not self-sufficient in food production; rice, the main
staple, accounts for the bulk of imports. The government is
struggling to upgrade education and technical training, to privatize
commercial and industrial enterprises, to improve health services,
to diversify exports, to promote tourism, and to reduce the high
population growth rate. Continued foreign support is essential if
the goal of 4% annual GDP growth is to be met. Remittances from
150,000 Comorans abroad help supplement GDP.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $419 million (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $720 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  40%

industry:  4%

services:  56% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.5% (1999)

Labor force: 144,500 (1996 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 80%

Unemployment rate: 20% (1996 est.)

Budget: revenues:  $48 million

expenditures:  $53 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997)

Industries: tourism, perfume distillation, textiles, furniture,
jewelry, construction materials, soft drinks

Industrial production growth rate: -2% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 17 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  88.24%

hydro:  11.76%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 15.8 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: vanilla, cloves, perfume essences, copra,
coconuts, bananas, cassava (tapioca)

Exports: $7.9 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: vanilla, ylang-ylang, cloves, perfume oil,
copra

Exports - partners: France 50%, Germany 25% (1998)

Imports: $55.1 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: rice and other foodstuffs, consumer goods;
petroleum products, cement, transport equipment

Imports - partners: France 38%, Pakistan 13%, South Africa 8%, Kenya
8% (1998)

Debt - external: $197 million (1997 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $28.1 million (1997)

Currency: Comoran franc (KMF)

Currency code: KMF

Exchange rates: Comoran francs per US dollar - 524.41 (January
2001), 533.98 (2000), 461.77 (1999), 442.46 (1998), 437.75 (1997),
383.66 (1996)

note:  prior to January 1999, the official rate was pegged to the
French franc at 75 Comoran francs per French franc; since 1 January
1999, the Comoran franc is pegged to the euro at a rate of 491.9677
Comoran francs per euro

Fiscal year: calendar year



Comoros    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 6,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: general assessment:  sparse system of microwave
radio relay and HF radiotelephone communication stations

domestic:  HF radiotelephone communications and microwave radio relay

international:  HF radiotelephone communications to Madagascar and
Reunion

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 90,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1998)

Televisions: 1,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .km

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 800 (2000)



Comoros    Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total:  880 km

paved:  673 km

unpaved:  207 km (1996)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Fomboni, Moroni, Moutsamoudou

Merchant marine: total:  2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 19,122
GRT/29,817 DWT

ships by type:  cargo 2 (2000 est.)

Airports: 4 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  4

2,438 to 3,047 m:  1

914 to 1,523 m:  3 (2000 est.)



Comoros    Military

Military branches: Comoran Security Force

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  141,120 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
83,920 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%



Comoros    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims French-administered Mayotte; the
island of Anjouan (Nzwani) has moved to secede from Comoros

======================================================================

@Congo, Democratic Republic of the



Congo, Democratic Republic of the    Introduction

Background: Since 1994 the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DROC;
formerly called Zaire) has been rent by ethnic strife and civil war,
touched off by a massive inflow of refugees from the fighting in
Rwanda and Burundi. The government of former president MOBUTU Sese
Seko was toppled by a rebellion led by Laurent KABILA in May 1997;
his regime was subsequently challenged by a Rwanda- and
Uganda-backed rebellion in August 1998. Troops from Zimbabwe,
Angola, Namibia, Chad, and Sudan intervened to support the Kinshasa
regime. A cease-fire was signed on 10 July 1999, but sporadic
fighting continued. KABILA was assassinated in January 2001 and his
son Joseph KABILA was named head of state. The new president quickly
began overtures to end the war.



Congo, Democratic Republic of the    Geography

Location: Central Africa, northeast of Angola

Geographic coordinates: 0 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total:  2,345,410 sq km

land:  2,267,600 sq km

water:  77,810 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than one-fourth the size of the US

Land boundaries: total:  10,744 km

border countries:  Angola 2,511 km, Burundi 233 km, Central African
Republic 1,577 km, Republic of the Congo 2,410 km, Rwanda 217 km,
Sudan 628 km, Tanzania 473 km, Uganda 765 km, Zambia 1,930 km

Coastline: 37 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone:  boundaries with neighbors

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler
and drier in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern
highlands; north of Equator - wet season April to October, dry
season December to February; south of Equator - wet season November
to March, dry season April to October

Terrain: vast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains in east

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Pic Marguerite on Mont Ngaliema (Mount Stanley)
5,110 m

Natural resources: cobalt, copper, cadmium, petroleum, industrial
and gem diamonds, gold, silver, zinc, manganese, tin, germanium,
uranium, radium, bauxite, iron ore, coal, hydropower, timber

Land use: arable land:  3%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  7%

forests and woodland:  77%

other:  13% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts in south; volcanic activity

Environment - current issues: poaching threatens wildlife
populations; water pollution; deforestation; refugees who arrived in
mid-1994 were responsible for significant deforestation, soil
erosion, and wildlife poaching in the eastern part of the country
(most of those refugees were repatriated in November and December
1996)

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:  Environmental Modification

Geography - note: straddles Equator; very narrow strip of land that
controls the lower Congo river and is only outlet to South Atlantic
Ocean; dense tropical rain forest in central river basin and eastern
highlands



Congo, Democratic Republic of the    People

Population: 53,624,718

note:  estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  48.24% (male 12,988,488; female
12,878,232)

15-64 years:  49.21% (male 12,931,886; female 13,459,109)

65 years and over:  2.55% (male 575,113; female 791,890) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.1% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 46.02 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 15.15 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

note:  one million refugees fled into Zaire (now called the
Democratic Republic of the Congo or DROC) in 1994 to escape the
fighting between the Hutus and the Tutsis; fighting in the DROC
between rebels and government forces in October 1996 caused 875,000
refugees to return to Rwanda in late 1996 and early 1997; an
additional 173,000 Rwandan refugees disappeared in early 1997 and
are assumed to have been killed by Zairian forces; fighting between
the Congolese government and Uganda- and Rwanda-backed Congolese
rebels spawned a regional war in DROC in August 1998, which left 1.8
million Congolese displaced in DROC and caused 300,000 Congolese
refugees to flee to surrounding countries

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.73 male(s)/female

total population:  0.98 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 99.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  48.94 years

male:  46.96 years

female:  50.98 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.84 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 5.07% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 1.1 million (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 95,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Congolese (singular and plural)

adjective:  Congolese or Congo

Ethnic groups: over 200 African ethnic groups of which the majority
are Bantu; the four largest tribes - Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all Bantu),
and the Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) make up about 45% of the population

Religions: Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Kimbanguist 10%,
Muslim 10%, other syncretic sects and indigenous beliefs 10%

Languages: French (official), Lingala (a lingua franca trade
language), Kingwana (a dialect of Kiswahili or Swahili), Kikongo,
Tshiluba

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write French,
Lingala, Kingwana, or Tshiluba

total population:  77.3%

male:  86.6%

female:  67.7% (1995 est.)



Congo, Democratic Republic of the    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Democratic Republic of the
Congo

conventional short form:  none

local long form:  Republique Democratique du Congo

local short form:  none

former:  Congo Free State, Belgian Congo, Congo/Leopoldville,
Congo/Kinshasa, Zaire

abbreviation:  DROC

Government type: dictatorship; presumably undergoing a transition to
representative government

Capital: Kinshasa

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (provinces, singular -
province) and one city* (ville); Bandundu, Bas-Congo, Equateur,
Kasai-Occidental, Kasai-Oriental, Katanga, Kinshasa*, Maniema,
Nord-Kivu, Orientale, Sud-Kivu

Independence: 30 June 1960 (from Belgium)

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 June (1960)

Constitution: 24 June 1967, amended August 1974, revised 15 February
1978, amended April 1990; transitional constitution promulgated in
April 1994; in November 1998, a draft constitution was approved by
former President Laurent KABILA but it has not been ratified by a
national referendum

Legal system: based on Belgian civil law system and tribal law; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state:  Joseph KABILA (since 26 January
2001); note - the president succeeded his father Laurent Desire
KABILA after his assassination on 16 January 2001; as president he
is both chief of state and head of government

head of government:  Joseph KABILA (since 26 January 2001); note -
the president succeeded his father Laurent Desire KABILA after his
assassination on 16 January 2001; as president he is both chief of
state and head of government

cabinet:  National Executive Council, appointed by the president

elections:  before Laurent Desire KABILA seized power, the president
was elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last
held 29 July 1984 (next was scheduled to be held in May 1997);
formerly, the prime minister was elected by the High Council of the
Republic; note - elections were not held in 1991 as called for by
the constitution

election results:  results of the last election were: MOBUTU Sese
Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga reelected president in 1984 without
opposition

note:  Marshal MOBUTU Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga was
president from 24 November 1965 until forced into exile on 16 May
1997 when his government was overthrown militarily by Laurent Desire
KABILA, who immediately assumed governing authority; KABILA pledged
to hold elections by April 1999, but in December 1998 announced that
elections would be postponed until all foreign military forces
attempting to topple the government had withdrawn from the country;
KABILA was assassinated in January 2001 and was succeeded by his son
Joseph KABILA

Legislative branch: a 300-member Transitional Constituent Assembly
established in August 2000

elections:  NA; members of the Transitional Constituent Assembly
were appointed by former President KABILA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Social Christian Party or
PDSC [Andre BO-BOLIKO]; Popular Movement of the Revolution or MPR
[leader NA]; Unified Lumumbast Party or PALU [Antoine GIZENGA];
Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Etienne TSHISEKEDI
wa Mulumba]; Union of Federalists and Independent Republicans or
UFERI [Kouyoumba MUCHULI Mulembe]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC,
CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol,
IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, PCA,
SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Faida MITIFU

chancery:  1800 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone:  [1] (202) 234-7690, 7691

FAX:  [1] (202) 234-2609

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
William Lacy SWING

embassy:  310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa

mailing address:  Unit 31550, APO AE 09828

telephone:  [243] (12) 21804, 21807

FAX:  [243] (88) 43805

Flag description: light blue with a large yellow five-pointed star
in the center and a columnar arrangement of six small yellow
five-pointed stars along the hoist side



Congo, Democratic Republic of the    Economy

Economy - overview: The economy of the Democratic Republic of the
Congo - a nation endowed with vast potential wealth - has declined
drastically since the mid-1980s. The new government instituted a
tight fiscal policy that initially curbed inflation and currency
depreciation, but these small gains were quickly reversed when the
foreign-backed rebellion in the eastern part of the country began in
August 1998. The war has dramatically reduced national output and
government revenue and has increased external debt. Foreign
businesses have curtailed operations due to uncertainty about the
outcome of the conflict and because of increased government
harassment and restrictions. The war has intensified the impact of
such basic problems as an uncertain legal framework, corruption,
raging inflation, and lack of openness in government economic policy
and financial operations. A number of IMF and World Bank missions
have met with the government to help it develop a coherent economic
plan but associated reforms are on hold.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $31 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -15% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $600 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  58%

industry:  17%

services:  25% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 540% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 14.51 million (1993 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 65%, industry 16%, services
19% (1991 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues:  $269 million

expenditures:  $244 million, including capital expenditures of $24
million (1996 est.)

Industries: mining (diamonds, copper, zinc), mineral processing,
consumer products (including textiles, footwear, cigarettes,
processed foods and beverages), cement

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 5.268 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  2.05%

hydro:  97.95%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 4.55 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 404 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 55 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: coffee, sugar, palm oil, rubber, tea,
quinine, cassava (tapioca), palm oil, bananas, root crops, corn,
fruits; wood products

Exports: $960 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: diamonds, copper, coffee, cobalt, crude oil

Exports - partners: Benelux 62%, US 18%, South Africa, Finland,
Italy (1999)

Imports: $660 million (c.i.f., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, mining and other machinery,
transport equipment, fuels

Imports - partners: South Africa 28%, Benelux 14%, Nigeria 9%, Kenya
7%, China (1999)

Debt - external: $13 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $195.3 million (1995)

Currency: Congolese franc (CDF)

Currency code: CDF

Exchange rates: Congolese francs per US dollar - 50 (January 2001),
4.5 (January 2000), 4.02 (1999), 1.61 (1998), 1.31 (1997), 0.50
(1996)

note:  on 30 June 1998 the Congolese franc was introduced, replacing
the new zaire

Fiscal year: calendar year



Congo, Democratic Republic of the    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 21,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 8,900 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment:  NA

domestic:  barely adequate wire and microwave radio relay service in
and between urban areas; domestic satellite system with 14 earth
stations

international:  satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 12, shortwave 1 (1999)

Radios: 18.03 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 20 (1999)

Televisions: 6.478 million (1997)

Internet country code: .cd

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: 1,500 (1999)



Congo, Democratic Republic of the    Transportation

Railways: total:  5,138 km (1995)

note:  severely reduced route-distance in use because of damage to
facilities by civil strife

narrow gauge:  3,987 km 1.067-m gauge (858 km electrified); 125 km
1.000-m gauge; 1,026 km 0.600-m gauge (2000)

Highways: total:  157,000 km (including 30 km of expressways)(1996)

paved:  NA km

unpaved:  NA km

Waterways: 15,000 km (including the Congo and its tributaries, and
unconnected lakes)

Pipelines: petroleum products 390 km

Ports and harbors: Banana, Boma, Bukavu, Bumba, Goma, Kalemie,
Kindu, Kinshasa, Kisangani, Matadi, Mbandaka

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 232 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  24

over 3,047 m:  4

2,438 to 3,047 m:  3

1,524 to 2,437 m:  15

914 to 1,523 m:  2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  208

1,524 to 2,437 m:  20

914 to 1,523 m:  96

under 914 m:  92 (2000 est.)



Congo, Democratic Republic of the    Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Special Presidential
Security Group

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  11,615,554 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
5,915,251 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $250 million (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 4.6% (FY97)



Congo, Democratic Republic of the    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: the Democratic Republic of the Congo is in
the grip of a civil war that has drawn in military forces from
neighboring states, with Uganda and Rwanda supporting the rebel
movements that occupy much of the eastern portion of the state; most
of the Congo river boundary with the Republic of the Congo is
indefinite (no agreement has been reached on the division of the
river or its islands, except in the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area)

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for domestic
consumption

======================================================================

@Congo, Republic of the



Congo, Republic of the    Introduction

Background: Upon independence in 1960, the former French region of
Middle Congo became the Republic of the Congo. A quarter century of
experimentation with Marxism was abandoned in 1990 and a
democratically elected government installed in 1992. A brief civil
war in 1997 restored former Marxist President SASSOU-NGUESSO.



Congo, Republic of the    Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean,
between Angola and Gabon

Geographic coordinates: 1 00 S, 15 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total:  342,000 sq km

land:  341,500 sq km

water:  500 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries: total:  5,504 km

border countries:  Angola 201 km, Cameroon 523 km, Central African
Republic 467 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,410 km, Gabon
1,903 km

Coastline: 169 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea:  200 NM

Climate: tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to
October); constantly high temperatures and humidity; particularly
enervating climate astride the Equator

Terrain: coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern
basin

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Mount Berongou 903 m

Natural resources: petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium,
copper, phosphates, natural gas, hydropower

Land use: arable land:  0%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  29%

forests and woodland:  62%

other:  9% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: seasonal flooding

Environment - current issues: air pollution from vehicle emissions;
water pollution from the dumping of raw sewage; tap water is not
potable; deforestation

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Ozone Layer
Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:  Law of the Sea

Geography - note: about 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville,
Pointe-Noire, or along the railroad between them



Congo, Republic of the    People

Population: 2,894,336

note:  estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  42.43% (male 618,411; female 609,633)

15-64 years:  54.23% (male 765,501; female 804,125)

65 years and over:  3.34% (male 38,772; female 57,894) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.2% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 38.24 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 16.22 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.67 male(s)/female

total population:  0.97 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 99.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  47.57 years

male:  44.38 years

female:  50.85 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 6.43% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 86,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 8,600 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Congolese (singular and plural)

adjective:  Congolese or Congo

Ethnic groups: Kongo 48%, Sangha 20%, M'Bochi 12%, Teke 17%,
Europeans NA%; note - Europeans estimated at 8,500, mostly French,
before the 1997 civil war; may be half that of 1998, following the
widespread destruction of foreign businesses in 1997

Religions: Christian 50%, animist 48%, Muslim 2%

Languages: French (official), Lingala and Monokutuba (lingua franca
trade languages), many local languages and dialects (of which
Kikongo has the most users)

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  74.9%

male:  83.1%

female:  67.2% (1995 est.)



Congo, Republic of the    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Republic of the Congo

conventional short form:  none

local long form:  Republique du Congo

local short form:  none

former:  Middle Congo, Congo/Brazzaville, Congo

Government type: republic

Capital: Brazzaville

Administrative divisions: 9 regions (regions, singular - region) and
1 commune*; Bouenza, Brazzaville*, Cuvette, Kouilou, Lekoumou,
Likouala, Niari, Plateaux, Pool, Sangha

Independence: 15 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 August (1960)

Constitution: Draft constitution approved by transitional parliament
in September 2000

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO
(since 25 October 1997, following the civil war in which he toppled
elected president Pascal LISSOUBA); note - the president is both the
chief of state and head of government

head of government:  President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO (since 25
October 1997, following the civil war in which he toppled elected
president Pascal LISSOUBA); note - the president is both the chief
of state and head of government

cabinet:  Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections:  president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 16 August 1992 (next was to be held 27 July 1997
but will be delayed for several years pending the drafting of a new
constitution)

election results:  Pascal LISSOUBA elected president in 1992;
percent of vote - Pascal LISSOUBA 61.3%, Bernard KOLELAS 38.7%; note
- LISSOUBA was deposed in 1997, replaced by Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO

Legislative branch: unicameral National Transitional Council (75
seats, members elected by reconciliation forum of 1,420 delegates on
NA January 1998); note - the National Transitional Council replaced
the bicameral Parliament

elections:  National Transitional Council - last held NA January
1998 (next to be held NA 2001); note - at that election the National
Transitional Council is to be replaced by a bicameral assembly

election results:  National Transitional Council - percent of vote
by party - NA%; seats by party - NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders: the most important of the many
parties are the Democratic and Patriotic Forces or FDP (an alliance
of Convention for Alternative Democracy, Congolese Labor Party or
PCT, Liberal Republican Party, National Union for Democracy and
Progress, Patriotic Union for the National Reconstruction, and Union
for the National Renewal) [Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO, president];
Association for Democracy and Social Progress or RDPS [Jean-Pierre
Thystere TCHICAYA, president]; Congolese Movement for Democracy and
Integral Development or MCDDI [Michel MAMPOUYA]; Pan-African Union
for Social Development or UPADS [Martin MBERI]; Union of Democratic
Forces or UFD [Sebastian EBAO]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Congolese Trade Union
Congress or CSC; General Union of Congolese Pupils and Students or
UGEEC; Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women or URFC; Union of
Congolese Socialist Youth or UJSC

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC,
CCC, CEEAC, CEMAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM
(observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  (vacant);
Charge d'Affaires ad interim Serge MOMBOULI

chancery:  4891 Colorado Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20011

telephone:  [1] (202) 726-5500

FAX:  [1] (202) 726-1860

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
David H. KAEUPER

embassy:  NA

mailing address:  NA

telephone:  [243] (88) 43608

FAX:  [243] (88) 41036

note:  the embassy is temporarily collocated with the US Embassy in
the Democratic Republic of the Congo (US Embassy Kinshasa, 310
Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa)

Flag description: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a
yellow band; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower
triangle is red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia



Congo, Republic of the    Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is a mixture of village agriculture
and handicrafts, an industrial sector based largely on oil, support
services, and a government characterized by budget problems and
overstaffing. Oil has supplanted forestry as the mainstay of the
economy, providing a major share of government revenues and exports.
In the early 1980s, rapidly rising oil revenues enabled the
government to finance large-scale development projects with GDP
growth averaging 5% annually, one of the highest rates in Africa.
Moreover, the government has mortgaged a substantial portion of its
oil earnings, contributing to the government's shortage of revenues.
The 12 January 1994 devaluation of Franc Zone currencies by 50%
resulted in inflation of 61% in 1994, but inflation has subsided
since. Economic reform efforts continued with the support of
international organizations, notably the World Bank and the IMF. The
reform program came to a halt in June 1997 when civil war erupted.
Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO, who returned to power when the war ended in
October 1997, publicly expressed interest in moving forward on
economic reforms and privatization and in renewing cooperation with
international financial institutions. However, economic progress was
badly hurt by slumping oil prices and the resumption of armed
conflict in December 1998, which worsened the Republic of the
Congo's budget deficit. Even with the IMF's renewed confidence and
high world oil prices, Congo is unlikely to realize growth of more
than 5% in 2001-02. With the return to fragile peace, the IMF
approved a $14 million credit in November 2000 to aid post-conflict
reconstruction.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $3.1 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,100 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  10%

industry:  48%

services:  42% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues:  $870 million

expenditures:  $970 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: petroleum extraction, cement kilning, lumbering,
brewing, sugar milling, palm oil, soap, flour, cigarette making

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 302 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  0.66%

hydro:  99.34%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 406.9 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 126 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: cassava (tapioca), sugar, rice, corn,
peanuts, vegetables, coffee, cocoa; forest products

Exports: $2.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: petroleum 50%, lumber, plywood, sugar, cocoa,
coffee, diamonds

Exports - partners: US 23%, Benelux 14%, Germany, Italy, Taiwan,
China (1998)

Imports: $870 million (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: petroleum products, capital equipment,
construction materials, foodstuffs

Imports - partners: France 23%, US 9%, Belgium 8%, UK 7%, Italy
(1997 est.)

Debt - external: $5 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $159.1 million (1995)

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note -
responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States

Currency code: XAF

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US
dollar - 699.21 (January 2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95
(1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996); note - from 1 January 1999,
the XAF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XAF per euro

Fiscal year: calendar year



Congo, Republic of the    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 22,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,000 (1996)

Telephone system: general assessment:  services barely adequate for
government use; key exchanges are in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, and
Loubomo; intercity lines frequently out-of-order

domestic:  primary network consists of microwave radio relay and
coaxial cable

international:  satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 1 (1999)

Radios: 341,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1999)

Televisions: 33,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .cg

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 500 (2000)



Congo, Republic of the    Transportation

Railways: total:  894 km

narrow gauge:  894 km 1.067-m gauge (2000)

Highways: total:  12,800 km

paved:  1,242 km

unpaved:  11,558 km (1996)

Waterways: 1,120 km

note:  the Congo and Ubangi (Oubangui) rivers provide 1,120 km of
commercially navigable water transport; other rivers are used for
local traffic only

Pipelines: crude oil 25 km

Ports and harbors: Brazzaville, Impfondo, Ouesso, Oyo, Pointe-Noire

Airports: 33 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  4

over 3,047 m:  1

1,524 to 2,437 m:  3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  29

1,524 to 2,437 m:  7

914 to 1,523 m:  12

under 914 m:  10 (2000 est.)



Congo, Republic of the    Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, Navy, Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  684,922 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
347,946 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  32,350
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $110 million (FY93)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.8% (FY93)



Congo, Republic of the    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: most of the Congo river boundary with the
Democratic Republic of the Congo is indefinite (no agreement has
been reached on the division of the river or its islands, except in
the Stanley Pool/Pool Malebo area)

======================================================================

@Cook Islands



Cook Islands    Introduction

Background: Named after Captain Cook, who sighted them in 1770, the
islands became a British protectorate in 1888. By 1900,
administrative control was transferred to New Zealand; in 1965
residents chose self-government in free association with New
Zealand. The emigration of skilled workers to New Zealand and
government deficits are continuing problems.



Cook Islands    Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean,
about one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 21 14 S, 159 46 W

Map references: Oceania

Area: total:  240 sq km

land:  240 sq km

water:  0 sq km

Area - comparative: 1.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 120 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf:  200 NM or to the edge of the
continental margin

exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds

Terrain: low coral atolls in north; volcanic, hilly islands in south

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Te Manga 652 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use: arable land:  9%

permanent crops:  13%

permanent pastures:  0%

forests and woodland:  0%

other:  78% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons (November to March)

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea

signed, but not ratified:  Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol



Cook Islands    People

Population: 20,611 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  NA%

15-64 years:  NA%

65 years and over:  NA%

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun:  Cook Islander(s)

adjective:  Cook Islander

Ethnic groups: Polynesian (full blood) 81.3%, Polynesian and
European 7.7%, Polynesian and non-European 7.7%, European 2.4%,
other 0.9%

Religions: Christian (majority of populace are members of the Cook
Islands Christian Church)

Languages: English (official), Maori

Literacy: definition:  NA

total population:  95%

male:  NA%

female:  NA%



Cook Islands    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  none

conventional short form:  Cook Islands

former:  Harvey Islands

Dependency status: self-governing in free association with New
Zealand; Cook Islands is fully responsible for internal affairs; New
Zealand retains responsibility for external affairs, in consultation
with the Cook Islands

Government type: self-governing parliamentary democracy

Capital: Avarua

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: none (became self-governing in free association with
New Zealand on 4 August 1965 and has the right at any time to move
to full independence by unilateral action)

National holiday: Constitution Day, first Monday in August (1965)

Constitution: 4 August 1965

Legal system: based on New Zealand law and English common law

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch: chief of state:  Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6
February 1952), represented by Apenera SHORT (since NA); New Zealand
High Commissioner Jon JONESSEN (since NA January 1998),
representative of New Zealand

head of government:  Prime Minister Dr. Terepai MAOATE (since 18
November 1999); Deputy Prime Minister Norman GEORGE (since NA)

cabinet:  Cabinet chosen by the prime minister; collectively
responsible to Parliament

elections:  none; the monarch is hereditary; the UK representative
is appointed by the monarch; the New Zealand high commissioner is
appointed by the New Zealand Government; following legislative
elections, the leader of the party that wins the most seats usually
becomes prime minister

note:  ten years of rule by the Cook Islands Party (CIP) came to an
end 18 November 1999 with the resignation of Prime Minister Joe
WILLIAMS; WILLIAMS had led a minority government since October 1999
when the New Alliance Party (NAP) left the government coalition and
joined the main opposition Democratic Alliance Party (DAP); on 18
November 1999, DAP leader Dr. Terepai MAOATE was sworn in as prime
minister

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (25 seats; members elected
by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections:  last held NA June 1999 (next to be held by NA 2004)

election results:  percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
CIP 12, DAP 12, NAP 1

note:  the House of Ariki (chiefs) advises on traditional matters,
but has no legislative powers

Judicial branch: High Court

Political parties and leaders: Cook Islands People's Party or CIP
[Tai CARPENTER]; Democratic Alliance Party or DAP [Terepai MAOATE];
New Alliance Party or NAP [Norman GEORGE]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, ESCAP
(associate), FAO, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, Intelsat (nonsignatory user),
IOC, OPCW, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (self-governing in free
association with New Zealand)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (self-governing in free
association with New Zealand)

Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant and a large circle of 15 white five-pointed
stars (one for every island) centered in the outer half of the flag



Cook Islands    Economy

Economy - overview: Like many other South Pacific island nations,
the Cook Islands' economic development is hindered by the isolation
of the country from foreign markets, the limited size of domestic
markets, lack of natural resources, periodic devastation from
natural disasters, and inadequate infrastructure. Agriculture
provides the economic base with major exports made up of copra and
citrus fruit. Manufacturing activities are limited to fruit
processing, clothing, and handicrafts. Trade deficits are made up
for by remittances from emigrants and by foreign aid, overwhelmingly
from New Zealand. In the 1980s and 1990s, the country lived beyond
its means, maintaining a bloated public service and accumulating a
large foreign debt. Subsequent reforms, including the sale of state
assets, the strengthening of economic management, the encouragement
of tourism, and a debt restructuring agreement, have rekindled
investment and growth.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $100 million (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,000 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  18%

industry:  9%

services:  73% (1995)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 6,601 (1993)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 29%, industry 15%, services
56% (1995) note - shortage of skilled labor

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues:  $25 million

expenditures:  $23 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY 99/00)

Industries: fruit processing, tourism, fishing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 21 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  100%

hydro:  0%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 19.5 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: copra, citrus, pineapples, tomatoes, beans,
pawpaws, bananas, yams, taro, coffee; pigs, poultry

Exports: $3 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: copra, papayas, fresh and canned citrus
fruit, coffee; fish; pearls and pearl shells; clothing

Exports - partners: Japan 42%, New Zealand 25%, US 9%, Australia 9%
(1999)

Imports: $85 million (c.i.f., 1994)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, textiles, fuels, timber, capital
goods

Imports - partners: NZ 70%, Australia 8% (1999)

Debt - external: $141 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $13.1 million (1995); note - New Zealand
continues to furnish the greater part

Currency: New Zealand dollar (NZD)

Currency code: NZD

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars per US dollar - 2.2502 (January
2001), 2.1863 (2000), 1.8886 (1999), 1.8632 (1998), 1.5083 (1997),
1.4543 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Cook Islands    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 5,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1994)

Telephone system: general assessment:  NA

domestic:  the individual islands are connected by a combination of
satellite earth stations, microwave systems, and VHF and HF
radiotelephone; within the islands, service is provided by small
exchanges connected to subscribers by open wire, cable, and
fiber-optic cable

international:  satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 14,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (plus eight low-power repeaters)
(1997)

Televisions: 4,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .ck

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 3 (2000)

Internet users: NA



Cook Islands    Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total:  320 km (1992)

paved:  NA

unpaved:  NA

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Avarua, Avatiu

Merchant marine: total:  1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,310
GRT/2,181 DWT

ships by type:  cargo 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 7 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  1

1,524 to 2,437 m:  1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  6

1,524 to 2,437 m:  3

914 to 1,523 m:  3 (2000 est.)



Cook Islands    Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand, in
consultation with the Cook Islands and at its request



Cook Islands    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Coral Sea Islands



Coral Sea Islands    Introduction

Background: Scattered over some 1 million square kilometers of
ocean, the Coral Sea Islands were declared a territory of Australia
in 1969. They are uninhabited except for a small meteorological
staff on Willis Island. Automated weather stations, beacons, and a
lighthouse occupy many other islands and reefs.



Coral Sea Islands    Geography

Location: Oceania, islands in the Coral Sea, northeast of Australia

Geographic coordinates: 18 00 S, 152 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total:  less than 3 sq km

land:  less than 3 sq km

water:  0 sq km

note:  includes numerous small islands and reefs scattered over a
sea area of about 1 million sq km, with the Willis Islets the most
important

Area - comparative: NA

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3,095 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  3 NM

Climate: tropical

Terrain: sand and coral reefs and islands (or cays)

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point:  unnamed location on Cato Island 6 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use: arable land:  0%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  0%

forests and woodland:  0%

other:  100% (mostly grass or scrub cover)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: occasional tropical cyclones

Environment - current issues: no permanent fresh water resources

Geography - note: important nesting area for birds and turtles



Coral Sea Islands    People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants

note:  there is a staff of three to four at the meteorological
station (July 2001 est.)



Coral Sea Islands    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Coral Sea Islands Territory

conventional short form:  Coral Sea Islands

Dependency status: territory of Australia; administered from
Canberra by the Department of the Environment, Sport, and Territories

Legal system: the laws of Australia, where applicable, apply

Executive branch: administered from Canberra by the Department of
the Environment, Sport, and Territories

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used



Coral Sea Islands    Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity



Coral Sea Islands    Communications

Communications - note: there are automatic weather stations on many
of the isles and reefs relaying data to the mainland



Coral Sea Islands    Transportation

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only



Coral Sea Islands    Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Australia; visited
regularly by the Royal Australian Navy; Australia has control over
the activities of visitors



Coral Sea Islands    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Costa Rica



Costa Rica    Introduction

Background: Costa Rica is a Central American success story: since
the late 19th century, only two brief periods of violence have
marred its democratic development. Although still a largely
agricultural country, it has achieved a relatively high standard of
living. Land ownership is widespread. Tourism is a rapidly expanding
industry.



Costa Rica    Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the
North Pacific Ocean, between Nicaragua and Panama

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 N, 84 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total:  51,100 sq km

land:  50,660 sq km

water:  440 sq km

note:  includes Isla del Coco

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries: total:  639 km

border countries:  Nicaragua 309 km, Panama 330 km

Coastline: 1,290 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: tropical and subtropical; dry season (December to April);
rainy season (May to November); cooler in highlands

Terrain: coastal plains separated by rugged mountains

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Cerro Chirripo 3,810 m

Natural resources: hydropower

Land use: arable land:  6%

permanent crops:  5%

permanent pastures:  46%

forests and woodland:  31%

other:  12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,200 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional earthquakes, hurricanes along Atlantic
coast; frequent flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season and
landslides; active volcanoes

Environment - current issues: deforestation and land use change,
largely a result of the clearing of land for cattle ranching and
agriculture; soil erosion; water pollution (rivers); coastal marine
pollution; wetlands degradation; fisheries protection; solid waste
management; air pollution

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified:  Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine
Life Conservation



Costa Rica    People

Population: 3,773,057 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  31.38% (male 605,728; female 578,128)

15-64 years:  63.37% (male 1,209,084; female 1,181,754)

65 years and over:  5.25% (male 92,314; female 106,049) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.65% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 20.27 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 4.3 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.87 male(s)/female

total population:  1.02 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 11.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  76.02 years

male:  73.49 years

female:  78.68 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.47 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.54% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 12,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 750 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Costa Rican(s)

adjective:  Costa Rican

Ethnic groups: white (including mestizo) 94%, black 3%, Amerindian
1%, Chinese 1%, other 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 76.3%, Evangelical 13.7%, other Protestant
0.7%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.3%, other 4.8%, none 3.2%

Languages: Spanish (official), English spoken around Puerto Limon

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  94.8%

male:  94.7%

female:  95% (1995 est.)



Costa Rica    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Republic of Costa Rica

conventional short form:  Costa Rica

local long form:  Republica de Costa Rica

local short form:  Costa Rica

Government type: democratic republic

Capital: San Jose

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia); Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limon,
Puntarenas, San Jose

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 7 November 1949

Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state:  President Miguel Angel RODRIGUEZ
(since 8 May 1998); First Vice President Astrid FISCHEL Volio (since
8 May 1998), Second Vice President Elizabeth ODIO Benito (since 8
May 1998); note - president is both the chief of state and head of
government

head of government:  President Miguel Angel RODRIGUEZ (since 8 May
1998); First Vice President Astrid FISCHEL Volio (since 8 May 1998),
Second Vice President Elizabeth ODIO Benito (since 8 May 1998); note
- president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet:  Cabinet selected by the president

elections:  president and vice presidents elected on the same ticket
by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 1 February
1998 (next to be held 3 February 2002)

election results:  Miguel Angel RODRIGUEZ elected president; percent
of vote - Miguel Angel RODRIGUEZ (PUSC) 46.6%, Jose Miguel CORRALES
(PLN) 44.6%

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea
Legislativa (57 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote
to serve four-year terms)

elections:  last held 1 February 1998 (next to be held 3 February
2002)

election results:  percent of vote by party - PUSC 41%, PLN 35%,
minority parties 24%; seats by party - PUSC 27, PLN 23, minority
parties 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (22 justices are
elected for eight-year terms by the Legislative Assembly)

Political parties and leaders: Agricultural Labor Action or PALA
[Carlos Alberto SOLIS Blanco]; Costa Rican Renovation Party or PRC
[Justo OROZCO]; Democratic Force Party or PFD [Jose M. NUNEZ];
Libertarian Movement Party or PML [Otto GUEVARA Guth]; National
Christian Alliance Party or ANC [Alejandro MADRIGAL]; National
Independent Party or PNI [Jorge GONZALEZ Marten]; National
Integration Party or PIN [Walter MUNOZ Cespedes]; National
Liberation Party or PLN [Sonia PICADO]; Social Christian Unity Party
or PUSC [Luis Manuel CHACON]

note:  mainly a two-party system - PUSC and PLN; numerous small
parties share less than 25% of population's support

Political pressure groups and leaders: Authentic Confederation of
Democratic Workers or CATD (Communist Party affiliate); Chamber of
Coffee Growers; Confederated Union of Workers or CUT (Communist
Party affiliate); Costa Rican Confederation of Democratic Workers or
CCTD (Liberation Party affiliate); Federation of Public Service
Workers or FTSP; National Association for Economic Development or
ANFE; National Association of Educators or ANDE; Rerum Novarum or
CTRN (PLN affiliate) [Gilbert Brown]

International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO,
G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Jaime DAREMBLUM Rosenstein

chancery:  2114 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:  [1] (202) 234-2945

FAX:  [1] (202) 265-4795

consulate(s) general:  Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Denver, Houston,
Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Phoenix, San Antonio, San
Francisco, St. Paul, and Tampa

consulate(s):  Austin

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Thomas J. DODD

embassy:  Calle 120 Avenida O, Pavas, San Jose

mailing address:  APO AA 34020

telephone:  [506] 220-3939

FAX:  [506] 220-2305

Flag description: five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red
(double width), white, and blue, with the coat of arms in a white
disk on the hoist side of the red band



Costa Rica    Economy

Economy - overview: Costa Rica's basically stable economy depends on
tourism, agriculture, and electronics exports. Poverty has been
substantially reduced over the past 15 years, and a strong social
safety net has been put into place. Foreign investors remain
attracted by the country's political stability and high education
levels, and tourism continues to bring in foreign exchange. However,
traditional export sectors have not kept pace. Low coffee prices and
an overabundance of bananas have hurt the agricultural sector. The
government continues to grapple with its large deficit and massive
internal debt and with the need to modernize the state-owned
electricity and telecommunications sector.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $25 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,700 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  12.5%

industry:  30.7%

services:  56.8% (1999)

Population below poverty line: 20.6% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:
1.3%

highest 10%:  34.7% (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 1.9 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 20%, industry 22%, services
58% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5.2% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues:  $1.95 billion

expenditures:  $2.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(2000 est.)

Industries: microprocessors, food processing, textiles and clothing,
construction materials, fertilizer, plastic products

Industrial production growth rate: 4.3% (2000)

Electricity - production: 5.805 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  2.41%

hydro:  83.32%

nuclear:  0%

other:  14.27% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 5.303 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 165 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 69 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: coffee, pineapples, bananas, sugar, corn,
rice, beans, potatoes; beef; timber

Exports: $6.1 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: coffee, bananas, sugar; pineapples; textiles,
electronic components, medical equipment

Exports - partners: US 54.1%, EU 21.3%, Central America 8.6% (1999)

Imports: $5.9 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: raw materials, consumer goods, capital
equipment, petroleum

Imports - partners: US 56.4%, EU 9%, Mexico 5.4%, Japan 4.7%, (1999)

Debt - external: $4.2 billion (2000 est.)

Currency: Costa Rican colon (CRC)

Currency code: CRC

Exchange rates: Costa Rican colones per US dollar - 318.95 (2001),
308.19 (2000), 285.68 (1999), 257.23 (1998), 232.60 (1997), 207.69
(1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Costa Rica    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 450,000 (1998)

note:  584,000 installed in 1997, but only about 450,000 were in use
1998

Telephones - mobile cellular: 143,000 (2000)

Telephone system: general assessment:  very good domestic telephone
service

domestic:  point-to-point and point-to-multi-point microwave,
fiber-optic, and coaxial cable link rural areas; Internet service is
available

international:  connected to Central American Microwave System;
satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); two
submarine cables (1999)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 50, FM 43, shortwave 19 (1998)

Radios: 980,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 6 (plus 11 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 525,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .cr

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 3 (of which only one is legal)
(2000)

Internet users: 150,000 (2000)



Costa Rica    Transportation

Railways: total:  950 km

narrow gauge:  950 km 1.067-m gauge (260 km electrified) (2000)

Highways: total:  37,273 km

paved:  7,827 km

unpaved:  29,446 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 730 km (seasonally navigable)

Pipelines: petroleum products 176 km

Ports and harbors: Caldera, Golfito, Moin, Puerto Limon, Puerto
Quepos, Puntarenas

Merchant marine: total:  1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,716
GRT/NA DWT

ships by type:  passenger 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 152 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  29

2,438 to 3,047 m:  2

1,524 to 2,437 m:  1

914 to 1,523 m:  19

under 914 m:  7 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  123

914 to 1,523 m:  28

under 914 m:  95 (2000 est.)



Costa Rica    Military

Military branches: Coast Guard, Air Section, Ministry of Public
Security Force (Fuerza Publica)

note:  Costa Rica has no military, only domestic police forces,
including the Coast Guard and Air Section

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  1,035,090 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
692,973 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  39,411
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $69 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.6% (FY99)



Costa Rica    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: legal dispute over navigational rights of
Rio San Juan on border with Nicaragua

Illicit drugs: transshipment country for cocaine and heroin from
South America; illicit production of cannabis on small, scattered
plots; domestic cocaine consumption is rising, particularly crack
cocaine; those who previously only trafficked are now becoming users

======================================================================

@Cote d'Ivoire



Cote d'Ivoire    Introduction

Background: Close ties to France since independence in 1960, the
development of cocoa production for export, and foreign investment
made Cote d'Ivoire one of the most prosperous of the tropical
African states. Falling cocoa prices and political turmoil, however,
sparked an economic downturn in 1999 and 2000. On 25 December 1999,
a military coup - the first ever in Cote d'Ivoire's history -
overthrew the government led by President Henri Konan BEDIE.
Presidential and legislative elections held in October and December
2000 provoked violence due to the exclusion of opposition leader
Alassane OUATTARA. In October 2000, Laurent GBAGBO replaced junta
leader Robert GUEI as president, ending 10 months of military rule.



Cote d'Ivoire    Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean,
between Ghana and Liberia

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 5 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area: total:  322,460 sq km

land:  318,000 sq km

water:  4,460 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries: total:  3,110 km

border countries:  Burkina Faso 584 km, Ghana 668 km, Guinea 610 km,
Liberia 716 km, Mali 532 km

Coastline: 515 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf:  200 NM

exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons
- warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot
and wet (June to October)

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Gulf of Guinea 0 m

highest point:  Mont Nimba 1,752 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, diamonds, manganese, iron
ore, cobalt, bauxite, copper, hydropower

Land use: arable land:  8%

permanent crops:  4%

permanent pastures:  41%

forests and woodland:  22%

other:  25% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 680 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; during
the rainy season torrential flooding is possible

Environment - current issues: deforestation (most of the country's
forests - once the largest in West Africa - have been heavily
logged); water pollution from sewage and industrial and agricultural
effluents

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:  none of the selected agreements



Cote d'Ivoire    People

Population: 16,393,221

note:  estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  46.21% (male 3,802,397; female 3,773,455)

15-64 years:  51.57% (male 4,343,518; female 4,110,805)

65 years and over:  2.22% (male 180,463; female 182,583) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.51% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 40.38 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 16.65 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

note:  after Liberia's civil war started in 1990, more than 350,000
refugees fled to Cote d'Ivoire; by the end of 1999 most Liberian
refugees were assumed to have returned

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.06 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.99 male(s)/female

total population:  1.03 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 93.65 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  44.93 years

male:  43.58 years

female:  46.33 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.7 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 10.76% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 760,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 72,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Ivorian(s)

adjective:  Ivorian

Ethnic groups: Akan 42.1%, Voltaiques or Gur 17.6%, Northern Mandes
16.5%, Krous 11%, Southern Mandes 10%, other 2.8% (1998)

Religions: Christian 34%, Muslim 27%, no religion 21%, animist 15%,
other 3% (1998)

note:  the majority of foreigners (migratory workers) are Muslim
(70%) and Christian (20%)

Languages: French (official), 60 native dialects with Dioula the
most widely spoken

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  48.5%

male:  57%

female:  40%



Cote d'Ivoire    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Republic of Cote d'Ivoire

conventional short form:  Cote d'Ivoire

local long form:  Republique de Cote d'Ivoire

local short form:  Cote d'Ivoire

former:  Ivory Coast

Government type: republic; multiparty presidential regime
established 1960

Capital: Yamoussoukro; note - although Yamoussoukro has been the
official capital since 1983, Abidjan remains the administrative
center; the US, like other countries, maintains its Embassy in
Abidjan

Administrative divisions: 50 departments (departements, singular -
departement); Abengourou, Abidjan, Aboisso, Adzope, Agboville,
Agnibilekrou, Bangolo, Beoumi, Biankouma, Bondoukou, Bongouanou,
Bouafle, Bouake, Bouna, Boundiali, Dabakala, Daloa, Danane, Daoukro,
Dimbokro, Divo, Duekoue, Ferkessedougou, Gagnoa, Grand-Lahou,
Guiglo, Issia, Katiola, Korhogo, Lakota, Man, Mankono, Mbahiakro,
Odienne, Oume, Sakassou, San-Pedro, Sassandra, Seguela, Sinfra,
Soubre, Tabou, Tanda, Tingrela, Tiassale, Touba, Toumodi, Vavoua,
Yamoussoukro, Zuenoula

note:  Cote d'Ivoire may have a new administrative structure
consisting of 58 departments; the following additional departments
have been reported but not yet confirmed by the US Board on
Geographic Names (BGN); Adiake', Ale'pe', Dabon, Grand Bassam,
Jacqueville, Tiebissou, Toulepleu, Bocanda

Independence: 7 August (1960) (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 7 August (1960)

Constitution: 3 November 1960; has been amended numerous times, last
time 27 July 1998

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law;
judicial review in the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  President Laurent GBAGBO (since
26 October 2000); note - took power following a popular overthrow of
the interim leader Gen. Robert GUEI who had claimed a dubious
victory in presidential elections; Gen. GUEI himself had assumed
power on 25 December 1999, following a military coup against the
government of former President Henri Konan BEDIE

head of government:  Prime Minister and Minister of Planning and
Development Affi N'GUESSAN (since 27 October 2000) appointed by the
president

cabinet:  Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections:  president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 26 October 2000 (next is scheduled to be held NA
2005); prime minister appointed by the president

election results:  Laurent GBAGBO elected president; percent of vote
- Laurent GBAGBO 59.4%, Robert GUEI 32.7%, Francis WODIE 5.7%, other
2.2%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (225 seats; members are elected in single- and
multi-district elections by direct popular vote to serve five-year
terms)

elections:  elections last held 10 December 2000 with by-elections
on 14 January 2001 (next to be held NA 2005)

election results:  percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
FPI 96, PDCI-RDA 94, RDR 5, PIT 4, other 2, independents 22, vacant 2

note:  a Senate is scheduled to be created in the next full election
in 2005

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme consists of four
chambers: Judicial Chamber for criminal cases, Audit Chamber for
financial cases, Constitutional Chamber for judicial review cases,
and Administrative Chamber for civil cases; there is no legal limit
to the number of members

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party of Cote
d'Ivoire-African Democratic Rally or PDCI-RDA [Aime Henri Konan
BEDIE]; Ivorian Popular Front or FPI [Laurent GBAGBO]; Ivorian
Worker's Party or PIT [Francis WODIE]; Rally of the Republicans or
RDR [Henriette DAGRI-DIABATE]; Union for Democracy and Peace [Gen.
Robert GUEI]; over 20 smaller parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC (observer), OPCW, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WADB (regional), WAEMU,
WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Youssouf BAMBA

chancery:  3421 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone:  [1] (202) 797-0300

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
George MU

embassy:  5 Rue Jesse Owens, Abidjan

mailing address:  B. P. 1712, Abidjan 01

telephone:  [225] 20 21 09 79

FAX:  [225] 20 22 32 59

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side),
white, and green; similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer
and has the colors reversed - green (hoist side), white, and orange;
also similar to the flag of Italy, which is green (hoist side),
white, and red; design was based on the flag of France



Cote d'Ivoire    Economy

Economy - overview: Cote d'Ivoire is among the world's largest
producers and exporters of coffee, cocoa beans, and palm oil.
Consequently, the economy is highly sensitive to fluctuations in
international prices for these products and to weather conditions.
Despite government attempts to diversify the economy, it is still
largely dependent on agriculture and related activities, which
engage roughly 68% of the population. After several years of lagging
performance, the Ivorian economy began a comeback in 1994, due to
the 50% devaluation of the CFA franc and improved prices for cocoa
and coffee, growth in nontraditional primary exports such as
pineapples and rubber, limited trade and banking liberalization,
offshore oil and gas discoveries, and generous external financing
and debt rescheduling by multilateral lenders and France. Moreover,
government adherence to donor-mandated reforms led to a jump in
growth to 5% annually in 1996-99. Growth was negative in 2000
because of the difficulty of meeting the conditions of international
donors, continued low prices of key exports, and post-coup
instability. In 2001-02, a moderate rebound in the cocoa market
could boost growth back above 3%; however, political instability
could impede growth again.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $26.2 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -0.3% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,600 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  32%

industry:  18%

services:  50% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:
3.1%

highest 10%:  28.8% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 68% agricultural (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate: 13% in urban areas (1998 est.)

Budget: revenues:  $1.5 billion

expenditures:  $2.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $420
million (2000 est.)

Industries: foodstuffs, beverages; wood products, oil refining,
truck and bus assembly, textiles, fertilizer, building materials,
electricity

Industrial production growth rate: 15% (1998 est.)

Electricity - production: 4.06 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  75.37%

hydro:  24.63%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 3.183 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 593 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: coffee, cocoa beans, bananas, palm kernels,
corn, rice, manioc (tapioca), sweet potatoes, sugar, cotton, rubber;
timber

Exports: $3.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: cocoa 33%, coffee, tropical woods, petroleum,
cotton, bananas, pineapples, palm oil, cotton, fish (1999)

Exports - partners: France 15%, US 8%, Netherlands 7%, Germany 6%,
Italy 6% (1999)

Imports: $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: food, consumer goods; capital goods, fuel,
transport equipment

Imports - partners: France 26%, Nigeria 10%, China 7%, Italy 5%,
Germany 4% (1999)

Debt - external: $13.9 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: ODA, $1 billion (1996 est.)

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note -
responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States

Currency code: XOF

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US
dollar - 699.21 (January 2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95
(1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996); note - from 1 January 1999,
the XOF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF per euro

Fiscal year: calendar year



Cote d'Ivoire    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 219,283 (31 December 1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 322,500 (May 2000)

Telephone system: general assessment:  well developed by African
standards but operating well below capacity

domestic:  open-wire lines and microwave radio relay; 90% digitalized

international:  satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic
Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean); 2 coaxial submarine cables (June 1999)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 8, shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios: 2.26 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 14 (1999)

Televisions: 900,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .ci

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 5 (2001)

Internet users: 20,000 (2000)



Cote d'Ivoire    Transportation

Railways: total:  660 km

narrow gauge:  660 km 1.000-meter gauge; 25 km double track

note:  an additional 600 km of this railroad extends into Burkina
Faso, ending at Kaya, north of Ouagadougou (2000)

Highways: total:  50,400 km

paved:  4,889 km

unpaved:  45,511 km (1996)

Waterways: 980 km (navigable rivers, canals, and numerous coastal
lagoons)

Ports and harbors: Abidjan, Aboisso, Dabou, San-Pedro

Merchant marine: total:  1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,200
GRT/1,500 DWT

ships by type:  petroleum tanker 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 36 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  7

over 3,047 m:  1

2,438 to 3,047 m:  2

1,524 to 2,437 m:  4 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  29

1,524 to 2,437 m:  8

914 to 1,523 m:  12

under 914 m:  9 (2000 est.)



Cote d'Ivoire    Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie,
Republican Guard (includes Presidential Guard), Sapeur-Pompier
(Military Fire Group)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  3,851,432 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
2,010,862 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  188,411
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $94 million (FY96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1% (FY96)



Cote d'Ivoire    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for local
consumption; transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast Asian
heroin to Europe and occasionally to the US, and for Latin American
cocaine destined for Europe

======================================================================

@Croatia



Croatia    Introduction

Background: In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a
kingdom known after 1929 as Yugoslavia. Following World War II,
Yugoslavia became an independent communist state under the strong
hand of Marshal TITO. Although Croatia declared its independence
from Yugoslavia in 1991, it took four years of sporadic, but often
bitter, fighting before occupying Serb armies were mostly cleared
from Croatian lands. Under UN supervision the last Serb-held enclave
in eastern Slavonia was returned to Croatia in 1998.



Croatia    Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between
Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates: 45 10 N, 15 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total:  56,542 sq km

land:  56,414 sq km

water:  128 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries: total:  2,028 km

border countries:  Bosnia and Herzegovina 932 km, Hungary 329 km,
Yugoslavia 266 km, Slovenia 501 km

Coastline: 5,835 km (mainland 1,777 km, islands 4,058 km)

Maritime claims: continental shelf:  200-m depth or to the depth of
exploitation

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: Mediterranean and continental; continental climate
predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry
summers along coast

Terrain: geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border,
low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Adriatic Sea 0 m

highest point:  Dinara 1,830 m

Natural resources: oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore,
calcium, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, hydropower

Land use: arable land:  21%

permanent crops:  2%

permanent pastures:  20%

forests and woodland:  38%

other:  19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 30 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues: air pollution (from metallurgical
plants) and resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal
pollution from industrial and domestic waste; landmine removal and
reconstruction of infrastructure consequent to 1992-95 civil strife

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Air Pollution,
Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:  Air Pollution-Persistent Organic
Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: controls most land routes from Western Europe to
Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits



Croatia    People

Population: 4,334,142 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  18.16% (male 403,722; female 383,151)

15-64 years:  66.61% (male 1,452,872; female 1,434,086)

65 years and over:  15.23% (male 245,727; female 414,584) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.48% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 12.82 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 11.41 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 13.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.59 male(s)/female

total population:  0.94 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  73.9 years

male:  70.28 years

female:  77.73 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.94 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.02% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 350 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Croat(s)

adjective:  Croatian

Ethnic groups: Croat 78.1%, Serb 12.2%, Bosniak 0.9%, Hungarian
0.5%, Slovenian 0.5%, Czech 0.4%, Albanian 0.3%, Montenegrin 0.3%,
Roma 0.2%, others 6.6% (1991)

Religions: Roman Catholic 76.5%, Orthodox 11.1%, Muslim 1.2%,
Protestant 0.4%, others and unknown 10.8% (1991)

Languages: Croatian 96%, other 4% (including Italian, Hungarian,
Czech, Slovak, and German)

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  97%

male:  99%

female:  95% (1991 est.)



Croatia    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Republic of Croatia

conventional short form:  Croatia

local long form:  Republika Hrvatska

local short form:  Hrvatska

Government type: presidential/parliamentary democracy

Capital: Zagreb

Administrative divisions: 20 counties (zupanije, zupanija -
singular), 1 city (grad -singular)*: Bjelovarsko-Bilogorska
Zupanija, Brodsko-Posavska Zupanija, Dubrovacko-Neretvanska
Zupanija, Istarska Zupanija, Karlovacka Zupanija,
Koprivnicko-Krizevacka Zupanija, Krapinsko-Zagorska Zupanija,
Licko-Senjska Zupanija, Medimurska Zupanija, Osjecko-Baranjska
Zupanija, Pozesko-Slavonska Zupanija, Primorsko-Goranska Zupanija,
Sibensko-Kninska Zupanija, Sisacko-Moslavacka Zupanija,
Splitsko-Dalmatinska Zupanija, Varazdinska Zupanija,
Viroviticko-Podravska Zupanija, Vukovarsko-Srijemska Zupanija,
Zadarska Zupanija, Zagreb*, Zagrebacka Zupanija

Independence: 25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: Republic Day/Statehood Day, 30 May (1990)

Constitution: adopted on 22 December 1990

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)

Executive branch: chief of state:  President Stjepan (Stipe) MESIC
(since 18 February 2000)

head of government:  Prime Minister Ivica RACAN (since 27 January
2000); Deputy Prime Ministers Goran GRANIC (since 27 January 2000),
Zeljka ANTUNOVIC (since 27 January 2000), Slavko LINIC (since 27
January 2000)

cabinet:  Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and
approved by the House of Representatives

elections:  president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 7 February 2000 (next to be held NA 2005); prime
minister nominated by the president in line with the balance of
power in the Assembly

election results:  Stjepan MESIC elected president; percent of vote
- Stjepan MESIC (HNS) 56%, Drazen BUDISA (HSLS) 44%

note:  government coalition - SDP, HSLS, HSS, LP, HNS, IDS

Legislative branch: bicameral Assembly or Sabor consists of the
House of Counties or Zupanijski Dom (68 seats, 63 directly elected
by popular vote, 5 appointed by the president; members serve
four-year terms; note - House of Counties to be abolished in 2001)
and House of Representatives or the Zastupnicki Dom (151 seats;
members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections:  House of Counties - last held 13 April 1997; House of
Representatives - last held 2-3 January 2000 (next to be held NA
2004)

election results:  House of Counties - percent of vote by party -
NA%; seats by party - HDZ 42, HSLS/HSS 11, HSS 2, IDS 2, SDP/PGS/HNS
2, SDP/HNS 2, HSLS/HSS/HNS 1, HSLS 1; note - in some districts
certain parties ran as coalitions, while in others they ran alone;
House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by
party - HDZ 46, SDP 44, HSLS 24, HSS 17, HSP/HKDU 5, IDS 4, HNS 2,
independents 4, minority representatives 5

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; judges for
both courts appointed for eight-year terms by the Judicial Council
of the Republic, which is elected by the House of Representatives

Political parties and leaders: Alliance of Croatian Coast and
Mountains Department or PGS [Luciano SUSANJ]; Croatian Christian
Democratic Union or HKDU [Marko VESELICA]; Croatian Democratic Union
or HDZ [Ivo SANADER]; Croatian Party of Rights or HSP [Dobroslav
PARAGA]; Croatian Peasant Party or HSS [Zlatko TOMCIC]; Croatian
People's Party or HNS [Vesna PUSIC]; Croatian Social Liberal Party
or HSLS [Drazen BUDISA]; Independent Democratic Serb Party or SDSS
[Vojislav STANIMIROVIC]; Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Ivan
JAKOVCIC]; Liberal Party or LP [leader NA]; Social Democratic Party
of Croatia or SDP [Ivica RACAN]

note:  the Social Democratic Party or SDP and the Croatian Social
Liberal Party or HSLS formed a coalition as did the HSS, HNS, LP,
and IDS, which together defeated the Croatian Democratic Union or
HDZ in the 2000 lower house parliamentary election

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC,
EBRD, ECE, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
ISO, ITU, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Ivan GRDESIC

chancery:  2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:  [1] (202) 588-5899

FAX:  [1] (202) 588-8936

consulate(s) general:  Chicago, Cleveland, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Lawrence G. ROSSIN

embassy:  Andrije Hebranga 2, 100000 Zagreb

mailing address:  use street address

telephone:  [385] (1) 455-55-00

FAX:  [385] (1) 455-85-85

Flag description: red, white, and blue horizontal bands with
Croatian coat of arms (red and white checkered)



Croatia    Economy

Economy - overview: Before the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the
Republic of Croatia, after Slovenia, was the most prosperous and
industrialized area, with a per capita output perhaps one-third
above the Yugoslav average. Croatia faces considerable economic
problems stemming from: the legacy of longtime communist
mismanagement of the economy; damage during the internecine fighting
to bridges, factories, power lines, buildings, and houses; the large
refugee and displaced population, both Croatian and Bosnian; and the
disruption of economic ties. Stepped-up Western aid and investment,
especially in the tourist and oil industries, would help bolster the
economy. The economy emerged from its mild recession in 2000 with
tourism the main factor. Massive unemployment remains a key negative
element. The government's failure to press the economic reforms
needed to spur growth is largely the result of coalition politics
and public resistance, particularly from the trade unions, to
measures that would cut jobs, wages, or social benefits.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $24.9 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.2% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,800 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  10%

industry:  19%

services:  71% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 4% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 1.68 million (October 2000)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services
NA%

Unemployment rate: 22% (October 2000)

Budget: revenues:  $6 billion

expenditures:  $4.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999 est.)

Industries: chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal,
electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper,
wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding,
petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 1.7% (2000)

Electricity - production: 10.96 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  40.89%

hydro:  59%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0.11% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 13.643 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 1 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 4.45 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed,
alfalfa, clover, olives, citrus, grapes, soy beans, potatoes;
livestock, dairy products

Exports: $4.3 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: transport equipment, textiles, chemicals,
foodstuffs, fuels

Exports - partners: Italy 18%, Germany 15.7%, Bosnia and Herzegovina
12.8%, Slovenia 10.6%, Austria 6.2% (1999)

Imports: $7.8 billion (c.i.f., 1999)

Imports - commodities: machinery, transport and electrical
equipment, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, foodstuffs

Imports - partners: Germany 18.5%, Italy 15.9%, Russia 8.6%,
Slovenia 7.9%, Austria 7.1% (1999)

Debt - external: $9.9 billion (December 1999)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: kuna (HRK)

Currency code: HRK

Exchange rates: kuna per US dollar - 8.089 (January 2001), 8.277
(2000), 7.112 (1999), 6.362 (1998), 6.101 (1997), 5.434 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Croatia    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 1.488 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 187,000 (yearend 1998)

Telephone system: general assessment:  NA

domestic:  reconstruction plan calls for replacement of all analog
circuits with digital and enlarging the network; a backup will be
included in the plan for the main trunk

international:  digital international service is provided through
the main switch in Zagreb; Croatia participates in the
Trans-Asia-Europe (TEL) fiber-optic project which consists of two
fiber-optic trunk connections with Slovenia and a fiber-optic trunk
line from Rijeka to Split and Dubrovnik; Croatia is also investing
in ADRIA 1, a joint fiber-optic project with Germany, Albania, and
Greece (2000)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 16, FM 98, shortwave 5 (1999)

Radios: 1.51 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 36 (plus 321 repeaters) (September
1995)

Televisions: 1.22 million (1997)

Internet country code: .hr

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 9 (2000)

Internet users: 100,000 (1999)



Croatia    Transportation

Railways: total:  2,296 km

standard gauge:  2,296 km 1.435-m gauge (983 km electrified) (2000)

Highways: total:  27,840 km

paved:  23,497 km (including 330 km of expressways)

unpaved:  4,343 km (1998)

Waterways: 785 km

note:  (perennially navigable; large sections of Sava blocked by
downed bridges, silt, and debris)

Pipelines: crude oil 670 km; petroleum products 20 km; natural gas
310 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Dubrovnik, Dugi Rat, Omisalj, Ploce, Pula,
Rijeka, Sibenik, Split, Vukovar (inland waterway port on Danube),
Zadar

Merchant marine: total:  53 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
631,853 GRT/969,739 DWT

ships by type:  bulk 11, cargo 18, chemical tanker 1, combination
bulk 5, container 3, multi-functional large-load carrier 3,
passenger 1, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll
off 4, short-sea passenger 3 (2000 est.)

Airports: 67 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  22

over 3,047 m:  2

2,438 to 3,047 m:  6

1,524 to 2,437 m:  2

914 to 1,523 m:  4

under 914 m:  8 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  45

1,524 to 2,437 m:  1

914 to 1,523 m:  8

under 914 m:  36 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Croatia    Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air and Air Defense
Forces

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  1,085,877 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
859,621 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  30,037
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $575 million (2000)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.8% (2000)



Croatia    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Croatia and Italy made progress toward
resolving a bilateral issue dating from World War II over property
and ethnic minority rights; progress with Slovenia on discussions of
adjustments to land boundary, but problems remain in defining
maritime boundary in Gulf of Piran; Croatia and Yugoslavia are
negotiating the status of the strategically important Prevlaka
Peninsula, which is currently under a UN military observer mission
(UNMOP)

Illicit drugs: transit point along the Balkan route for Southwest
Asian heroin to Western Europe; a minor transit point for maritime
shipments of South American cocaine bound for Western Europe

======================================================================

@Cuba



Cuba    Introduction

Background: Fidel CASTRO led a rebel army to victory in 1959; his
iron rule has held the country together since. Cuba's communist
revolution, with Soviet support, was exported throughout Latin
America and Africa during the 1960s, 70s, and 80s. The country is
now slowly recovering from a severe economic recession in 1990,
following the withdrawal of former Soviet subsidies, worth $4
billion to $6 billion annually. Havana portrays its difficulties as
the result of the US embargo in place since 1961. Illicit migration
to the US - using homemade rafts, alien smugglers, or falsified
visas - is a continuing problem. Some 3,000 Cubans took to the
Straits of Florida in 2000; the US Coast Guard interdicted only
about 35% of these.



Cuba    Geography

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, south of Florida

Geographic coordinates: 21 30 N, 80 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total:  110,860 sq km

land:  110,860 sq km

water:  0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries: total:  29 km

border countries:  US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay 29 km

note:  Guantanamo Naval Base is leased by the US and thus remains
part of Cuba

Coastline: 3,735 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to
April); rainy season (May to October)

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains, with rugged hills and
mountains in the southeast

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point:  Pico Turquino 2,005 m

Natural resources: cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese,
salt, timber, silica, petroleum, arable land

Land use: arable land:  24%

permanent crops:  7%

permanent pastures:  27%

forests and woodland:  24%

other:  18% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 9,100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: the east coast is subject to hurricanes from August
to October (in general, the country averages about one hurricane
every other year); droughts are common

Environment - current issues: pollution of Havana Bay; overhunting
threatens wildlife populations; deforestation

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified:  Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate
Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: largest country in Caribbean



Cuba    People

Population: 11,184,023 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  20.99% (male 1,205,159; female 1,142,070)

15-64 years:  69.14% (male 3,876,432; female 3,855,878)

65 years and over:  9.87% (male 511,589; female 592,895) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.37% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 12.36 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.33 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.86 male(s)/female

total population:  1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  76.41 years

male:  74.02 years

female:  78.94 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.03% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 1,950 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 120 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Cuban(s)

adjective:  Cuban

Ethnic groups: mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11%, Chinese 1%

Religions: nominally 85% Roman Catholic prior to CASTRO assuming
power; Protestants, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jews, and Santeria are also
represented

Languages: Spanish

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  95.7%

male:  96.2%

female:  95.3% (1995 est.)

People - note: illicit migration is a continuing problem; Cubans
attempt to depart the island and enter the US using homemade rafts,
alien smugglers, direct flights, or falsified visas; some 3,000
Cubans took to the Straits of Florida in 2000; the US Coast Guard
interdicted about 35% of these migrants; Cubans also use
non-maritime routes to enter the US; some 2,400 Cubans arrived
overland via the southwest border and direct flights to Miami



Cuba    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Republic of Cuba

conventional short form:  Cuba

local long form:  Republica de Cuba

local short form:  Cuba

Government type: Communist state

Capital: Havana

Administrative divisions: 14 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia) and 1 special municipality* (municipio especial);
Camaguey, Ciego de Avila, Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La Habana, Granma,
Guantanamo, Holguin, Isla de la Juventud*, La Habana, Las Tunas,
Matanzas, Pinar del Rio, Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa
Clara

Independence: 20 May 1902 (from US)

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 October (1868); note - 10
October 1868 is the date of independence from Spain, 20 May 1902 is
the date of independence from US administration

Constitution: 24 February 1976, amended July 1992

Legal system: based on Spanish and American law, with large elements
of Communist legal theory; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 16 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  President of the Council of State
and President of the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (prime
minister from February 1959 until 24 February 1976 when office was
abolished; president since 2 December 1976); First Vice President of
the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of
Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December 1976); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government:  President of the Council of State and President
of the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (prime minister from
February 1959 until 24 February 1976 when office was abolished;
president since 2 December 1976); First Vice President of the
Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of
Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December 1976); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet:  Council of Ministers proposed by the president of the
Council of State, appointed by the National Assembly; note - there
is also a Council of State whose members are elected by the National
Assembly

elections:  president and vice president elected by the National
Assembly; election last held 24 February 1998 (next election
unscheduled)

election results:  Fidel CASTRO Ruz elected president; percent of
legislative vote - 100%; Raul CASTRO Ruz elected vice president;
percent of legislative vote - 100%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly of People's Power
or Asemblea Nacional del Poder Popular (601 seats, elected directly
from slates approved by special candidacy commissions; members serve
five-year terms)

elections:  last held 11 January 1998 (next to be held in 2003)

election results:  percent of vote - PCC 94.39%; seats - PCC 601

Judicial branch: People's Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo Popular
(president, vice president, and other judges are elected by the
National Assembly)

Political parties and leaders: only party - Cuban Communist Party or
PCC [Fidel CASTRO Ruz, first secretary]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77,
IAEA, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMO, Inmarsat,
Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO,
ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS (excluded from formal participation since
1962), OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note - Cuba has an
Interests Section in the Swiss Embassy, headed by Principal Officer
Fernando REMIREZ DE ESTENOZ; address: Cuban Interests Section, Swiss
Embassy, 2630 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009; telephone: [1]
(202) 797-8518

Diplomatic representation from the US: none; note - the US has an
Interests Section in the Swiss Embassy, headed by Principal Officer
Vicki HUDDLESTON; address: USINT, Swiss Embassy, Calzada between L
and M Streets, Vedado Seccion, Havana; telephone: 33-3551 through
3559 (operator assistance required); FAX: 33-3700; protecting power
in Cuba is Switzerland

Flag description: five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and
bottom) alternating with white; a red equilateral triangle based on
the hoist side bears a white, five-pointed star in the center;
design influenced by the US flag



Cuba    Economy

Economy - overview: The government, the primary player in the
economy, has undertaken limited reforms in recent years to stem
excess liquidity, increase enterprise efficiency, and alleviate
serious shortages of food, consumer goods, and services, but
prioritizing of political control makes extensive reforms unlikely.
Living standards for the average Cuban, without access to dollars,
remain at a depressed level compared with 1990. The liberalized
farmers' markets introduced in 1994, sell above-quota production at
market prices, expand legal consumption alternatives, and reduce
black market prices. Income taxes and increased regulations
introduced since 1996 have sharply reduced the number of legally
self-employed from a high of 208,000 in January 1996. Havana
announced in 1995 that GDP declined by 35% during 1989-93 as a
result of lost Soviet aid and domestic inefficiencies. The slide in
GDP came to a halt in 1994 when Cuba reported growth in GDP of 0.7%.
Cuba reported that GDP increased by 2.5% in 1995 and 7.8% in 1996,
before slowing down in 1997 and 1998 to 2.5% and 1.2% respectively.
Growth recovered with a 6.2% increase in GDP in 1999 and a 5.6%
increase in 2000. Much of Cuba's recovery can be attributed to
tourism revenues and foreign investment. Growth in 2001 should
continue at the same level as the government balances the need for
economic loosening against its concern for firm political control.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $19.2 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.6% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,700 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  7%

industry:  37%

services:  56% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.3% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 4.3 million (2000 est.)

note:  state sector 75%, non-state sector 25% (1998)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 25%, industry 24%, services
51% (1998)

Unemployment rate: 5.5% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues:  $13.5 billion

expenditures:  $14.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(2000 est.)

Industries: sugar, petroleum, tobacco, chemicals, construction,
services, nickel, steel, cement, agricultural machinery

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 14.358 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  94.2%

hydro:  0.7%

nuclear:  0%

other:  5.1% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 13.353 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: sugar, tobacco, citrus, coffee, rice,
potatoes, beans; livestock

Exports: $1.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: sugar, nickel, tobacco, fish, medical
products, citrus, coffee

Exports - partners: Russia 23%, Netherlands 23%, Canada 13% (1999)

Imports: $3.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: petroleum, food, machinery, chemicals,
semifinished goods, transport equipment, consumer goods

Imports - partners: Spain 18%, Venezuela 13%, Canada 8% (1999)

Debt - external: $11.1 billion (convertible currency, 1999); another
$15 billion -$20 billion owed to Russia (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: $68.2 million (1997 est.)

Currency: Cuban peso (CUP)

Currency code: CUP

Exchange rates: Cuban pesos per US dollar - 1.0000 (nonconvertible,
official rate, for international transactions, pegged to the US
dollar); convertible peso sold for domestic use at a rate of 1.00 US
dollar per 22 pesos by the Government of Cuba (January 2001)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Cuba    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 473,031 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2,994 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment:  NA

domestic:  principal trunk system, end to end of country, is coaxial
cable; fiber-optic distribution in Havana and on Isla de la
Juventud; 2 microwave radio relay installations (one is old,
US-built; the other newer, Soviet-built); both analog and digital
mobile cellular service established

international:  satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic
Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 169, FM 55, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 3.9 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 58 (1997)

Televisions: 2.64 million (1997)

Internet country code: .cu

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 4 (2001)

Internet users: 60,000 (2000)



Cuba    Transportation

Railways: total:  11,969 km

standard gauge:  4,807 km 1.435-m gauge (147 km electrified)

note:  in addition to the 4,807 km of standard gauge track in public
use, 7,162 km of track is in private use by sugar plantations; about
90% of the private use track is standard gauge and the rest is
narrow gauge (2000)

Highways: total:  60,858 km

paved:  29,820 km (including 638 km of expressway)

unpaved:  31,038 km (1997)

Waterways: 240 km

Ports and harbors: Cienfuegos, Havana, Manzanillo, Mariel, Matanzas,
Nuevitas, Santiago de Cuba

Merchant marine: total:  15 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
54,821 GRT/78,062 DWT

ships by type:  bulk 1, cargo 7, liquefied gas 1, petroleum tanker
1, refrigerated cargo 5 (2000 est.)

Airports: 171 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  77

over 3,047 m:  7

2,438 to 3,047 m:  9

1,524 to 2,437 m:  16

914 to 1,523 m:  10

under 914 m:  35 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  94

914 to 1,523 m:  31

under 914 m:  63 (2000 est.)



Cuba    Military

Military branches: Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) includes ground
forces, Revolutionary Navy (MGR), Air and Air Defense Force
(DAAFAR), Territorial Troops Militia (MTT), and Youth Labor Army
(EJT); the Border Guard (TGF) is controlled by the Interior Ministry

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  3,090,633

females age 15-49:  3,029,274 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
1,911,160

females age 15-49:  1,867,958 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  79,562

females:  85,650 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: roughly 4% (FY95 est.)

Military - note: Moscow, for decades the key military supporter and
supplier of Cuba, cut off almost all military aid by 1993



Cuba    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased
to US and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can
terminate the lease

Illicit drugs: territorial waters and air space serve as
transshipment zone for cocaine bound for the US and Europe;
established the death penalty for certain drug-related crimes in 1999

======================================================================

@Cyprus



Cyprus    Introduction

Background: Independence from the UK was approved in 1960 with
constitutional guarantees by the Greek Cypriot majority to the
Turkish Cypriot minority. In 1974, a Greek-sponsored attempt to
seize the government was met by military intervention from Turkey,
which soon controlled almost 40% of the island. In 1983, the
Turkish-held area declared itself the "Turkish Republic of Northern
Cyprus", but it is recognized only by Turkey. UN-led talks on the
status of Cyprus resumed in December 1999 to prepare the ground for
meaningful negotiations leading to a comprehensive settlement.



Cyprus    Geography

Location: Middle East, island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of
Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 35 00 N, 33 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area: total:  9,250 sq km (of which 3,355 sq km are in the Turkish
Cypriot area)

land:  9,240 sq km

water:  10 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.6 times the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 648 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf:  200-m depth or to the depth of
exploitation

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: temperate, Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool,
winters

Terrain: central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered
but significant plains along southern coast

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Mediterranean Sea 0 m

highest point:  Olympus 1,951 m

Natural resources: copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt,
marble, clay earth pigment

Land use: arable land:  12%

permanent crops:  5%

permanent pastures:  0%

forests and woodland:  13%

other:  70% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 390 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: moderate earthquake activity; droughts

Environment - current issues: water resource problems (no natural
reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, sea water
intrusion to island's largest aquifer, increased salination in the
north); water pollution from sewage and industrial wastes; coastal
degradation; loss of wildlife habitats from urbanization

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Air Pollution,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified:  Air Pollution-Persistent Organic
Pollutants



Cyprus    People

Population: 762,887 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  22.95% (male 89,532; female 85,518)

15-64 years:  66.26% (male 255,368; female 250,140)

65 years and over:  10.79% (male 35,864; female 46,465) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.59% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 13.08 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.65 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.77 male(s)/female

total population:  1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.89 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  76.89 years

male:  74.6 years

female:  79.3 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.93 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 400 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun:  Cypriot(s)

adjective:  Cypriot

Ethnic groups: Greek 78% (99.5% of the Greeks live in the Greek
Cypriot area; 0.5% of the Greeks live in the Turkish Cypriot area),
Turkish 18% (1.3% of the Turks live in the Greek Cypriot area; 98.7%
of the Turks live in the Turkish Cypriot area), other 4% (99.2% of
the other ethnic groups live in the Greek Cypriot area; 0.8% of the
other ethnic groups live in the Turkish Cypriot area)

Religions: Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian
Apostolic, and other 4%

Languages: Greek, Turkish, English

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  94%

male:  98%

female:  91% (1987 est.)



Cyprus    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Republic of Cyprus

conventional short form:  Cyprus

note:  the Turkish Cypriot area refers to itself as the "Turkish
Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC)

Government type: republic

note:  a disaggregation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the
island began following the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this
separation was further solidified after the Turkish intervention in
July 1974 after a Greek junta-based coup attempt gave the Turkish
Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the
only internationally recognized government; on 15 November 1983
Turkish Cypriot "President" Rauf DENKTASH declared independence and
the formation of a "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC),
recognized only by Turkey; both sides publicly support a settlement
based on a federation (Greek Cypriot position) or confederation
(Turkish Cypriot position)

Capital: Nicosia

Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca,
Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos; note - Turkish Cypriot area's
administrative divisions include Kyrenia, all but a small part of
Famagusta, and small parts of Lefkosa (Nicosia) and Larnaca

Independence: 16 August 1960 (from UK); note - Turkish Cypriot area
proclaimed self-rule on 13 February 1975

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October (1960); note - Turkish
Cypriot area celebrates 15 November (1983) as Independence Day

Constitution: 16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for a
new or revised constitution to govern the island and to better
relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held
intermittently; in 1975 Turkish Cypriots created their own
constitution and governing bodies within the "Turkish Federated
State of Cyprus," which was renamed the "Turkish Republic of
Northern Cyprus" in 1983; a new constitution for the Turkish Cypriot
area passed by referendum on 5 May 1985

Legal system: based on common law, with civil law modifications

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  President Glafcos CLERIDES (since
28 February 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state
and head of government; post of vice president is currently vacant;
under the 1960 constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish
Cypriot

head of government:  President Glafcos CLERIDES (since 28 February
1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the
1960 constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot

cabinet:  Council of Ministers appointed jointly by the president
and vice president

elections:  president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 15 February 1998 (next to be held NA February
2003)

election results:  Glafcos CLERIDES reelected president; percent of
vote - Glafcos CLERIDES 50.8%, George IAKOVOU 49.2%

note:  Rauf R. DENKTASH has been "president" of the Turkish Cypriot
area since 13 February 1975 ("president" elected by popular vote for
a five-year term); elections last held 15 April 2000 (next to be
held NA April 2005); results - Rauf R. DENKTASH reelected president
after the other contender withdrew; Dervis EROGLU has been "prime
minister" of the Turkish Cypriot area since 16 August 1996; there is
a Council of Ministers (cabinet) in the Turkish Cypriot area

Legislative branch: unicameral - Greek Cypriot area: House of
Representatives or Vouli Antiprosopon (80 seats; 56 assigned to the
Greek Cypriots, 24 to Turkish Cypriots; note - only those assigned
to Greek Cypriots are filled; members are elected by popular vote to
serve five-year terms); Turkish Cypriot area: Assembly of the
Republic or Cumhuriyet Meclisi (50 seats; members are elected by
popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections:  Greek Cypriot area: last held 27 May 2001 (next to be
held NA May 2006); Turkish Cypriot area: last held 6 December 1998
(next to be held NA December 2003)

election results:  Greek Cypriot area: House of Representatives -
percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - AKEL (Communist)
20, DISY 19, DIKO 9, KISOS 4, others 4; Turkish Cypriot area:
Assembly of the Republic - percent of vote by party - UBP 40.3%, DP
22.6%, TKP 15.4%, CTP 13.4%, UDP 4.6%, YBH 2.5%, BP 1.2%; seats by
party - UBP 24, DP 13, TKP 7, CTP 6

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the Supreme
Council of Judicature)

note:  there is also a Supreme Court in the Turkish Cypriot area

Political parties and leaders: Greek Cypriot area: Democratic Party
or DIKO [Tassos PAPADOPOULOS]; Democratic Rally or DISY [Nikos
ANASTASIADHIS]; Restorative Party of the Working People or AKEL
(Communist Party) [Dimitrios CHRISTOFIAS]; Social Democrats Movement
or KISOS (formerly United Democratic Union of Cyprus or EDEK)
[Vassos LYSSARIDIS]; United Democrats Movement or EDE (formerly Free
Democrats Movement or KED) [George VASSILIOU]; Turkish Cypriot area:
Communal Liberation Party or TKP [Mustafa AKINCI]; Democratic Party
or DP [Salih COSAR]; National Birth Party or UDP [Enver EMIN];
National Unity Party or UBP [Dervis EROGLU]; Our Party or BP [Okyay
SADIKOGLU]; Patriotic Unity Movement or YBH [Izzet IZCAN];
Republican Turkish Party or CTP [Mehmet ALI TALAT]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Confederation of Cypriot
Workers or SEK (pro-West); Confederation of Revolutionary Labor
Unions or Dev-Is; Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions or
Turk-Sen; Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation or PEO (Communist controlled)

International organization participation: Australia Group, C, CCC,
CE, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (associate), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, NSG, OAS
(observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Erato KOZAKOU-MARCOULLIS

chancery:  2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:  [1] (202) 462-5772

FAX:  [1] (202) 483-6710

consulate(s) general:  New York

note:  representative of the Turkish Cypriot area in the US is Ahmet
ERDENGIZ; office at 1667 K Street NW, Washington, DC; telephone [1]
(202) 887-6198

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Donald K. BANDLER

embassy:  corner of Metochiou and Ploutarchou Streets, Engomi, 2407
Nicosia

mailing address:  P. O. Box 4536, FPO AE 09836

telephone:  [357] (2) 776400

FAX:  [357] (2) 780944

Flag description: white with a copper-colored silhouette of the
island (the name Cyprus is derived from the Greek word for copper)
above two green crossed olive branches in the center of the flag;
the branches symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between
the Greek and Turkish communities

note:  the Turkish Cypriot flag has a horizontal red stripe at the
top and bottom between which is a red crescent and red star on a
white field



Cyprus    Economy

Economy - overview: Economic affairs are affected by the division of
the country. The Greek Cypriot economy is prosperous but highly
susceptible to external shocks. Erratic growth rates in the 1990s
reflect the economy's vulnerability to swings in tourist arrivals,
caused by political instability on the island and fluctuations in
economic conditions in Western Europe. Economic policy is focused on
meeting the criteria for admission to the EU. As in the Turkish
sector, water shortage is a growing problem, and several
desalination plants are planned. The Turkish Cypriot economy has
about one-fifth the population and one-third the per capita GDP of
the south. Because it is recognized only by Turkey, it has had much
difficulty arranging foreign financing, and foreign firms have
hesitated to invest there. It remains heavily dependent on
agriculture and government service, which together employ about half
of the work force. Moreover, the small, vulnerable economy has
suffered because the Turkish lira is legal tender. To compensate for
the economy's weakness, Turkey provides direct and indirect aid to
tourism, education, industry, etc.

GDP: Greek Cypriot area: purchasing power parity - $9.7 billion
(2000 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: purchasing power parity - $830
million (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: Greek Cypriot area: 4.2% (2000 est.);
Turkish Cypriot area: 4.9% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: Greek Cypriot area: purchasing power parity -
$16,000 (2000 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: purchasing power parity -
$5,300 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: Greek Cypriot area: agriculture 6.3%,
industry 22.4%, services 71.3% (1998); Turkish Cypriot area:
agriculture 11.8%, industry 20.5%, services 67.7% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): Greek Cypriot area: 4.2% (2000
est.); Turkish Cypriot area: 58% (1999 est.)

Labor force: Greek Cypriot area: 291,000; Turkish Cypriot area:
86,300 (2000)

Labor force - by occupation: Greek Cypriot area: services 73%,
industry 22%, agriculture 5% (2000); Turkish Cypriot area: services
56.4%, industry 22.8%, agriculture 20.8% (1998)

Unemployment rate: Greek Cypriot area: 3.6% (2000 est.); Turkish
Cypriot area: 6% (1998 est.)

Budget: revenues:  Greek Cypriot area - $2.9 billion (2000 est.);
Turkish Cypriot area - $294 million (2000 est.)

expenditures:  Greek Cypriot area - $3.2 billion, including capital
expenditures of $324 million (2000 est.); Turkish Cypriot $495
million, including capital expenditures of $60 million (2000 est.)

Industries: food, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metal products,
tourism, wood products

Industrial production growth rate: Greek Cypriot area: 2.2% (1999);
Turkish Cypriot area: -0.3% (1999)

Electricity - production: 2.951 billion kWh (1999); Turkish Cypriot
area: NA kWh

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  100%

hydro:  0%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 2.744 billion kWh (1999); Turkish Cypriot
area: NA kWh

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: potatoes, citrus, vegetables, barley,
grapes, olives, vegetables

Exports: Greek Cypriot area: $1 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.); Turkish
Cypriot area: $51.1 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: Greek Cypriot area: citrus, potatoes, grapes,
wine, cement, clothing and shoes; Turkish Cypriot area: citrus,
potatoes, textiles

Exports - partners: Greek Cypriot area: UK 17.3%, Greece 9.7%,
Russia 7.0%, Lebanon 5.2% (1999); Turkish Cypriot area: Turkey 51%,
UK 31%, other EU 16.5% (1999)

Imports: Greek Cypriot area: $3.6 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.);
Turkish Cypriot area: $402 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: Greek Cypriot area: consumer goods, petroleum
and lubricants, food and feed grains, machinery; Turkish Cypriot
area: food, minerals, chemicals, machinery

Imports - partners: Greek Cypriot area: UK 11.2%, US 10.6%, Italy
8.8%, Greece 8.2%, Germany 6.7% (1999); Turkish Cypriot area: Turkey
58.6%, UK 12.5%, other EU 13% (1999)

Debt - external: Greek Cypriot area: $NA; Turkish Cypriot area: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: Greek Cypriot area - $17 million (1998);
Turkish Cypriot area - $700 million from Turkey in grants and loans
(1990-97) that are usually forgiven

Currency: Greek Cypriot area: Cypriot pound (CYP); Turkish Cypriot
area: Turkish lira (TRL)

Currency code: CYP; TRL

Exchange rates: Cypriot pounds per US dollar - 0.6146 (January
2001), 0.6208 (2000), 0.5423 (1999), 0.5170 (1998), 0.5135 (1997),
0.4663 (1996); Turkish liras per US dollar - 677,621 (December
2000), 625,219 (2000), 418,783 (1999), 260,724 (1998), 151,865
(1997), 81,405 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Cyprus    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: Greek Cypriot area: 405,000 (1998);
Turkish Cypriot area: 83,162 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: Greek Cypriot area: 68,000 (1998);
Turkish Cypriot area: 70,000 (1999)

Telephone system: general assessment:  excellent in both the Greek
Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot areas

domestic:  open wire, fiber-optic cable, and microwave radio relay

international:  tropospheric scatter; 3 coaxial and 5 fiber-optic
submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic
Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: Greek Cypriot area: AM 7, FM 60, shortwave
1 (1998); Turkish Cypriot area: AM 3, FM 11, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: Greek Cypriot area: 310,000 (1997); Turkish Cypriot area:
56,450 (1994)

Television broadcast stations: Greek Cypriot area: 4 (plus 225
low-power repeaters) (September 1995); Turkish Cypriot area: 4 (plus
5 repeaters) (September 1995)

Televisions: Greek Cypriot area: 248,000 (1997); Turkish Cypriot
area: 52,300 (1994)

Internet country code: .cy

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 6 (2000)

Internet users: 80,000 (2000)



Cyprus    Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total:  Greek Cypriot area: 10,663 km (1998 est.); Turkish
Cypriot area: 2,350 km (1996 est.)

paved:  Greek Cypriot area: 6,249 km (1998 est.); Turkish Cypriot
area: 1,370 km (1996 est.)

unpaved:  Greek Cypriot area: 4,414 km (1998 est.); Turkish Cypriot
area: 980 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Paphos,
Vasilikos

Merchant marine: total:  1,328 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
22,905,542 GRT/36,312,219 DWT

ships by type:  barge carrier 2, bulk 431, cargo 438, chemical
tanker 23, combination bulk 36, combination ore/oil 4, container
140, liquefied gas 6, passenger 8, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum
tanker 143, refrigerated cargo 40, roll on/roll off 42, short-sea
passenger 9, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 3

note:  includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag
of convenience: Austria 8, Belgium 7, China 10, Cuba 10, Denmark 2,
Germany 79, Greece 385, Hong Kong 9, Croatia 2, India 5, Iran 1,
Israel 4, Italy 2, Japan 19, South Korea 3, Latvia 10, Lithuania 1,
Monaco 1, Netherlands 13, Norway 11, Poland 9, Portugal 3, Russia
42, Singapore 1, Spain 5, Sudan 2, Sweden 3, Switzerland 2, UAE 6,
UK 8, Ukraine 2, US 9, Venezuela 2 (2000 est.)

Airports: 15 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  12

2,438 to 3,047 m:  7

1,524 to 2,437 m:  1

914 to 1,523 m:  3

under 914 m:  1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  3

914 to 1,523 m:  1

under 914 m:  2 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 7 (2000 est.)



Cyprus    Military

Military branches: Greek Cypriot area: Greek Cypriot National Guard
(GCNG; includes air and naval elements), Hellenic Forces Contingent
on Cyprus (ELDYK), Greek Cypriot Police; Turkish Cypriot area:
Turkish Cypriot Security Force (TCSF), Turkish mainland army units

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  198,275 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
136,147 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  6,616
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $370 million (FY00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 4.2% (FY00)



Cyprus    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: 1974 hostilities divided the island into
two de facto autonomous areas, a Greek Cypriot area controlled by
the internationally recognized Cypriot Government (59% of the
island's land area) and a Turkish-Cypriot area (37% of the island),
that are separated by a UN buffer zone (4% of the island); there are
two UK sovereign base areas mostly within the Greek Cypriot portion
of the island

Illicit drugs: minor transit point for heroin and hashish via air
routes and container traffic to Europe, especially from Lebanon and
Turkey; some cocaine transits as well

======================================================================

@Czech Republic



Czech Republic    Introduction

Background: After World War II, Czechoslovakia fell within the
Soviet sphere of influence. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact
troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize
party rule and create "socialism with a human face." Anti-Soviet
demonstrations the following year ushered in a period of harsh
repression. With the collapse of Soviet authority in 1989,
Czechoslovakia regained its freedom through a peaceful "Velvet
Revolution." On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a "velvet
divorce" into its two national components, the Czech Republic and
Slovakia. Now a member of NATO, the Czech Republic has moved toward
integration in world markets, a development that poses both
opportunities and risks.



Czech Republic    Geography

Location: Central Europe, southeast of Germany

Geographic coordinates: 49 45 N, 15 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total:  78,866 sq km

land:  77,276 sq km

water:  1,590 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries: total:  1,881 km

border countries:  Austria 362 km, Germany 646 km, Poland 658 km,
Slovakia 215 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain: Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and
plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists
of very hilly country

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Elbe River 115 m

highest point:  Snezka 1,602 m

Natural resources: hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite,
timber

Land use: arable land:  41%

permanent crops:  2%

permanent pastures:  11%

forests and woodland:  34%

other:  12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 240 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding

Environment - current issues: air and water pollution in areas of
northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present
health risks; acid rain damaging forests

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Air Pollution,
Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:  Air Pollution-Persistent Organic
Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto
Protocol

Geography - note: landlocked; strategically located astride some of
oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is
a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and
the Danube in central Europe



Czech Republic    People

Population: 10,264,212 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  16.09% (male 847,219; female 804,731)

15-64 years:  69.99% (male 3,592,984; female 3,590,802)

65 years and over:  13.92% (male 549,538; female 878,938) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.07% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 9.11 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 10.81 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.96 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.63 male(s)/female

total population:  0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  74.73 years

male:  71.23 years

female:  78.43 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.18 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.04% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 2,200 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Czech(s)

adjective:  Czech

Ethnic groups: Czech 81.2%, Moravian 13.2%, Slovak 3.1%, Polish
0.6%, German 0.5%, Silesian 0.4%, Roma 0.3%, Hungarian 0.2%, other
0.5% (1991)

Religions: atheist 39.8%, Roman Catholic 39.2%, Protestant 4.6%,
Orthodox 3%, other 13.4%

Languages: Czech

Literacy: definition:  NA

total population:  99.9% (1999 est.)

male:  NA%

female:  NA%



Czech Republic    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Czech Republic

conventional short form:  Czech Republic

local long form:  Ceska Republika

local short form:  Ceska Republika

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Prague

Administrative divisions: 13 regions (kraje, singular - kraj) and 1
capital city* (hlavni mesto); Brnensky, Budejovicky, Jihlavsky,
Karlovarsky, Kralovehradecky, Liberecky, Olomoucky, Ostravsky,
Pardubicky, Plzensky, Praha*, Stredocesky, Ustecky, Zlinsky

Independence: 1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech
Republic and Slovakia)

National holiday: Czech Founding Day, 28 October (1918)

Constitution: ratified 16 December 1992; effective 1 January 1993

Legal system: civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to
bring it in line with Organization on Security and Cooperation in
Europe (OSCE) obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal
theory

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  President Vaclav HAVEL (since 2
February 1993)

head of government:  Prime Minister Milos ZEMAN (since 17 July
1998); Deputy Prime Ministers Vladimir SPIDLA (since 22 July 1998),
Pavel RYCHETSKY (since 22 July 1998), Jan KAVAN (since 8 December
1999)

cabinet:  Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation
of the prime minister

elections:  president elected by Parliament for a five-year term;
election last held 20 January 1998 (next to be held NA January
2003); prime minister appointed by the president

election results:  Vaclav HAVEL reelected president; Vaclav HAVEL
received 47 of 81 votes in the Senate and 99 out of 200 votes in the
Chamber of Deputies (second round of voting)

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of
the Senate or Senat (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote
to serve six-year terms; one-third elected every two years) and the
Chamber of Deputies or Poslanecka snemovna (200 seats; members are
elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections:  Senate - last held 12 and 19 November 2000 (next to be
held NA November 2002); Chamber of Deputies - last held 19-20 June
1998 (next to be held by NA June 2002)

election results:  Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by
party - KDU-CSL 28, ODS 22, CSSD 15, ODA 7, US 4, KSCM 3,
independents 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party -
CSSD 32.3%, ODS 27.7%, KSCM 11%, KDU-CSL 9.0%, US 8.6%; seats by
party - CSSD 74, ODS 63, KSCM 24, KDU-CSL 20, US 18, CSNS 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; chairman and
deputy chairmen are appointed by the president for a 10-year term

Political parties and leaders: Christian and Democratic
Union-Czechoslovak People's Party or KDU-CSL [Jan KASAL, chairman];
Civic Democratic Alliance or ODA [Daniel KROUPA, chairman]; Civic
Democratic Party or ODS [Vaclav KLAUS, chairman]; Communist Party of
Bohemia and Moravia or KSCM [Miroslav GREBENICEK, chairman];
Communist Party of Czechoslovakia or KSC [Miroslav STEPAN,
chairman]; Czech National Social Party of CSNS [Jan SULA, chairman];
Czech Social Democratic Party or CSSD [Milos ZEMAN, chairman];
Democratic Union or DEU [Ratibor MAJZLIK, chairman]; Freedom Union
or US [Karel KUEHNL, chairman]; Quad Coalition [Cyril SVOBODA,
chairman] (includes KDU-CSL, US, ODA, DEU); Republicans of Miroslav
SLADEK or RMS [Miroslav SLADEK, chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Czech-Moravian Confederation
of Trade Unions [Richard FALBR]

International organization participation: ACCT (observer), Australia
Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant),
FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC,
NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG,
UPU, WCL, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Alexsandr VONDRA

chancery:  3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:  [1] (202) 274-9100

FAX:  [1] (202) 966-8540

consulate(s) general:  Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Steven J. COFFEY

embassy:  Trziste 15, 11801 Prague 1

mailing address:  use embassy street address

telephone:  [420] (2) 5753-0663

FAX:  [420] (2) 5753-0583

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red
with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side (identical to
the flag of the former Czechoslovakia)



Czech Republic    Economy

Economy - overview: Basically one of the most stable and prosperous
of the post-Communist states, the Czech Republic has been recovering
from recession since mid-1999. The economy grew about 2.5% in 2000
and should achieve somewhat higher growth in 2001. Growth is led by
exports to the EU, especially Germany, and foreign investment, while
domestic demand is reviving. Uncomfortably high fiscal and current
account deficits could be future problems. Unemployment is down to
8.7% as job creation continues in the rebounding economy; inflation
is up to 3.8% but still moderate. The EU put the Czech Republic just
behind Poland and Hungary in preparations for accession, which will
give further impetus and direction to structural reform. Moves to
complete banking, telecommunications and energy privatization will
add to foreign investment, while intensified restructuring among
large enterprises and banks and improvements in the financial sector
should strengthen output growth.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $132.4 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $12,900 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  3.7%

industry:  41.8%

services:  54.5% (1999)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:
4.3%

highest 10%:  22.4% (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.8% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 5.203 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 5%, industry 40%, services
55% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate: 8.7% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues:  $16.7 billion

expenditures:  $18 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(2001 est.)

Industries: metallurgy, machinery and equipment, motor vehicles,
glass, armaments

Industrial production growth rate: 7.6% (2000)

Electricity - production: 67.642 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  77.8%

hydro:  3.43%

nuclear:  18.77%

other:  0% (2000)

Electricity - consumption: 52.898 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports: 18.744 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports: 8.735 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products: wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit;
pigs, poultry

Exports: $28.3 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment 44%, other
manufactured goods 40%, chemicals 7%, raw materials and fuel 7%
(1999)

Exports - partners: Germany 43%, Slovakia 8.4%, Austria 6.6%, Poland
5.6%, France 4% (1999)

Imports: $31.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment 42%, other
manufactured goods 33%, chemicals 12%, raw materials and fuels 10%
(1999)

Imports - partners: Germany 37.5%, Slovakia 6.7%, Austria 6.2%,
Italy 5.9%, France 5.4% (1999)

Debt - external: $21.3 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: Czech koruna (CZK)

Currency code: CZK

Exchange rates: koruny per US dollar - 37.425 (January 2001), 38.598
(2000), 34.569 (1999), 32.281 (1998), 31.698 (1997), 27.145 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Czech Republic    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 3.869 million (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 4.346 million (2000)

Telephone system: general assessment:  privatization and
modernization of the Czech telecommunication system got a late start
but is advancing steadily; growth in the use of mobile cellular
telephones is particularly vigorous

domestic:  86% of exchanges now digital; existing copper subscriber
systems now being enhanced with Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
(ADSL) equipment to accommodate Internet and other digital signals;
trunk systems include fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay

international:  satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic
and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 1
Globalstar

Radio broadcast stations: AM 31, FM 304, shortwave 17 (2000)

Radios: 3,159,134 (December 2000)

Television broadcast stations: 150 (plus 1,434 repeaters) (2000)

Televisions: 3,405,834 (December 2000)

Internet country code: .cz

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): more than 300 (2000)

Internet users: 900,000 (2000)



Czech Republic    Transportation

Railways: total:  9,444 km

standard gauge:  9,350 km 1.435-m standard gauge (2,843 km
electrified; 1,929 km double track)

narrow gauge:  94 km 0.760-m narrow gauge (2000)

Highways: total:  55,432 km

paved:  55,432 km (including 499 km of expressways)

unpaved:  0 km (2000)

Waterways: 303 km

note:  (the Labe (Elbe) is the principal river) (2000)

Pipelines: natural gas 3,550 km (2000)

Ports and harbors: Decin, Prague, Usti nad Labem

Airports: 114 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  43

over 3,047 m:  2

2,438 to 3,047 m:  10

1,524 to 2,437 m:  14

914 to 1,523 m:  1

under 914 m:  16 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  71

1,524 to 2,437 m:  1

914 to 1,523 m:  28

under 914 m:  42 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Czech Republic    Military

Military branches: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Territorial
Defense, Railroad Units

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  2,653,456 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
2,024,070 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  69,393
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.2 billion (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.2% (FY01)



Czech Republic    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Liechtenstein's royal family claims
restitution for 1,600 sq km of land in the Czech Republic
confiscated in 1918; individual Sudeten German claims for
restitution of property confiscated in connection with their
expulsion after World War II; Austria has minor dispute with Czech
Republic over nuclear power plants and post-World War II treatment
of German-speaking minorities

Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin
and minor transit point for Latin American cocaine to Western
Europe; domestic consumption - especially of locally produced
synthetic drugs - on the rise

======================================================================

@Denmark



Denmark    Introduction

Background: Once the seat of Viking raiders and later a major north
European power, Denmark has evolved into a modern, prosperous nation
that is participating in the political and economic integration of
Europe. So far, however, the country has opted out of some aspects
of the European Union's Maastricht Treaty, including the economic
and monetary system (EMU) and issues concerning certain internal
affairs.



Denmark    Geography

Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North
Sea, on a peninsula north of Germany (Jutland); also includes two
major islands (Sjaeland and Fyn)

Geographic coordinates: 56 00 N, 10 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total:  43,094 sq km

land:  42,394 sq km

water:  700 sq km

note:  includes the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the
rest of metropolitan Denmark (the Jutland Peninsula, and the major
islands of Sjaeland and Fyn), but excludes the Faroe Islands and
Greenland

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of
Massachusetts

Land boundaries: total:  68 km

border countries:  Germany 68 km

Coastline: 7,314 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone:  24 NM

continental shelf:  200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool
summers

Terrain: low and flat to gently rolling plains

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Lammefjord -7 m

highest point:  Yding Skovhoej 173 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, fish, salt, limestone,
stone, gravel and sand

Land use: arable land:  60%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  5%

forests and woodland:  10%

other:  25% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 4,350 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding is a threat in some areas of the country
(e.g., parts of Jutland, along the southern coast of the island of
Lolland) that are protected from the sea by a system of dikes

Environment - current issues: air pollution, principally from
vehicle and power plant emissions; nitrogen and phosphorus pollution
of the North Sea; drinking and surface water becoming polluted from
animal wastes and pesticides

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Air Pollution,
Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified:  Air Pollution-Persistent Organic
Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto
Protocol, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: controls Danish Straits (Skagerrak and Kattegat)
linking Baltic and North Seas; about one-quarter of the population
lives in greater Copenhagen



Denmark    People

Population: 5,352,815 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  18.59% (male 510,826; female 484,385)

15-64 years:  66.56% (male 1,804,617; female 1,758,019)

65 years and over:  14.85% (male 331,906; female 463,062) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.3% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 11.96 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 10.9 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.98 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.72 male(s)/female

total population:  0.98 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  76.72 years

male:  74.12 years

female:  79.47 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.73 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.17% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 4,300 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Dane(s)

adjective:  Danish

Ethnic groups: Scandinavian, Inuit, Faroese, German, Turkish,
Iranian, Somali

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 95%, other Protestant and Roman
Catholic 3%, Muslims 2%

Languages: Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Inuit dialect), German
(small minority)

note:  English is the predominant second language

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  100%

male:  NA%

female:  NA%



Denmark    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Kingdom of Denmark

conventional short form:  Denmark

local long form:  Kongeriget Danmark

local short form:  Danmark

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Copenhagen

Administrative divisions: metropolitan Denmark - 14 counties (amter,
singular - amt) and 2 kommunes*; Arhus, Bornholm, Fredericksberg*,
Frederiksborg, Fyn, Kobenhavn, Kobenhavns*, Nordjylland, Ribe,
Ringkobing, Roskilde, Sonderjylland, Storstrom, Vejle, Vestsjalland,
Viborg

note:  see separate entries for the Faroe Islands and Greenland,
which are part of the Kingdom of Denmark and are self-governing
administrative divisions

Independence: first organized as a unified state in 10th century; in
1849 became a constitutional monarchy

National holiday: none designated; Constitution Day, 5 June is
generally viewed as the National Day

Constitution: 1849 was the original constitution; there was a major
overhaul 5 June 1953, allowing for a unicameral legislature and a
female chief of state

Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14
January 1972); Heir Apparent Crown Prince FREDERIK, elder son of the
monarch (born 26 May 1968)

head of government:  Prime Minister Poul Nyrup RASMUSSEN (since 25
January 1993)

cabinet:  Cabinet appointed by the prime minister and approved by
Parliament

elections:  none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister
appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Folketing (179 seats,
including 2 from Greenland and 2 from the Faroe Islands; members are
elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation
to serve four-year terms)

elections:  last held 11 March 1998 (next to be held by March 2002)

election results:  percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
progovernment parties: Social Democratic Party 65, Socialist
People's Party 13, Social Liberal Party 7, Red-Green Unity List 5;
opposition: Liberal Party 43, Conservative Party 17, Danish People's
Party 13, Center Democratic Party 8, Christian People's Party 4,
Progress Party 4; seats by party as of 1 January 2001: government
coalition parties - Social Democrats 63, Social Liberals 7;
pro-government parties - Socialist People's Party 13, Unity List 5;
opposition - Liberals 42, Conservatives 16, Danish People's Party
13, Center Democrats 8, Christian People's Party 4, Progress Party 4
(now named Freedom 2000); does not include the 4 overseas seats

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the monarch
for life)

Political parties and leaders: Center Democratic Party [Mimi
JAKOBSEN]; Christian People's Party [Jann SJURSEN]; Conservative
Party (sometimes known as Conservative People's Party) [Bendt
BENDTSEN]; Danish People's Party [Pia KJAERSGAARD]; Liberal Party
[Anders Fogh RASMUSSEN]; Progress Party (now named Freedom 2000)
[Kim BEHNKE]; Social Democratic Party [Poul Nyrup RASMUSSEN]; Social
Liberal Party (sometimes called the Radical Left) [Marianne JELVED,
leader; Johannes LEBECH, chairman]; Socialist People's Party [Holger
K. NIELSEN]; Red-Green Unity List (bloc includes Left Socialist
Party, Communist Party of Denmark, Socialist Workers' Party)
[collective leadership]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: AfDB, AsDB, Australia
Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO,
G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
ISO, ITU, MONUC, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD,
OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMEE,
UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNTAET, UNTSO, UPU,
WEU (observer), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Ulrik Andreas FEDERSPIEL

chancery:  3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:  [1] (202) 234-4300

FAX:  [1] (202) 328-1470

consulate(s) general:  Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Stuart BERNSTEIN

embassy:  Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24, 2100 Copenhagen

mailing address:  PSC 73, APO AE 09716

telephone:  [45] 35 55 31 44

FAX:  [45] 35 38 96 16

Flag description: red with a white cross that extends to the edges
of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist
side, and that design element of the Dannebrog (Danish flag) was
subsequently adopted by the other Nordic countries of Finland,
Iceland, Norway, and Sweden



Denmark    Economy

Economy - overview: This thoroughly modern market economy features
high-tech agriculture, up-to-date small-scale and corporate
industry, extensive government welfare measures, comfortable living
standards, and high dependence on foreign trade. Denmark is a net
exporter of food and energy and has a comfortable balance of
payments surplus. The center-left coalition government has reduced
the formerly high unemployment rate and attained a budget surplus as
well as followed the previous government's policies of maintaining
low inflation and a stable currency. The coalition has lowered
marginal income tax rates and raised environmental taxes thus
maintaining overall tax revenues. Problems of bottlenecks, and
longer term demographic changes reducing the labor force, are being
addressed through labor market reforms. The government has been
successful in meeting, and even exceeding, the economic convergence
criteria for participating in the third phase (a common European
currency) of the European Monetary Union (EMU), but Denmark, in a
September 2000 referendum, reconfirmed its decision not to join the
11 other EU members in the euro. Even so, the Danish currency
remains pegged to the euro.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $136.2 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $25,500 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  3%

industry:  25%

services:  72% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  2%

highest 10%:  24% (2000 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.9% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 2.856 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: services 79%, industry 17%, agriculture
4% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5.3% (2000)

Budget: revenues:  $52.9 billion

expenditures:  $51.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $500
million (2001 est.)

Industries: food processing, machinery and equipment, textiles and
clothing, chemical products, electronics, construction, furniture,
and other wood products, shipbuilding, windmills

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 37.885 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  88.4%

hydro:  0.07%

nuclear:  0%

other:  11.53% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 32.916 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 7.28 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 4.963 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: grain, potatoes, rape, sugar beets; pork and
beef, dairy products; fish

Exports: $50.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: machinery and instruments, meat and meat
products, dairy products, fish, chemicals, furniture, ships,
windmills

Exports - partners: EU 66.5% (Germany 20.1%, Sweden 11.7%, UK 9.6%,
France 5.3%, Netherlands 4.7%), Norway 5.8%, US 5.4% (1999)

Imports: $43.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, raw materials and
semimanufactures for industry, chemicals, grain and foodstuffs,
consumer goods

Imports - partners: EU 72.1% (Germany 21.6%, Sweden 12.4%, UK 8.0%,
Netherlands 8.0%, France 5.8%), Norway 4.2%, US 4.5% (1999)

Debt - external: $21.7 billion (2000)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $1.63 billion (1999)

Currency: Danish krone (DKK)

Currency code: DKK

Exchange rates: Danish kroner per US dollar - 7.951 (January 2001),
8.083 (2000), 6.976 (1999), 6.701 (1998), 6.604 (1997), 5.799
(1996); note - the Danes rejected the Euro in a 28 September 2000
referendum

Fiscal year: calendar year



Denmark    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 4.785 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,444,016 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment:  excellent telephone and
telegraph services

domestic:  buried and submarine cables and microwave radio relay
form trunk network, 4 cellular mobile communications systems

international:  18 submarine fiber-optic cables linking Denmark with
Norway, Sweden, Russia, Poland, Germany, Netherlands, UK, Faroe
Islands, Iceland, and Canada; satellite earth stations - 6 Intelsat,
10 Eutelsat, 1 Orion, 1 Inmarsat (Blaavand-Atlantic-East); note -
the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)
share the Danish earth station and the Eik, Norway, station for
worldwide Inmarsat access (1997)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 355, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 6.02 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 26 (plus 51 repeaters) (1998)

Televisions: 3.121 million (1997)

Internet country code: .dk

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 13 (2000)

Internet users: 2.3 million (2000)



Denmark    Transportation

Railways: total:  2,859 km (508 km privately owned and operated)

standard gauge:  2,859 km 1.435-m gauge (600 km electrified; 760 km
double track) (1998)

Highways: total:  71,474 km

paved:  71,474 km (including 880 km of expressways)

unpaved:  0 km (1999)

Waterways: 417 km

Pipelines: crude oil 110 km; petroleum products 578 km; natural gas
700 km

Ports and harbors: Abenra, Alborg, Arhus, Copenhagen, Esbjerg,
Fredericia, Kolding, Odense, Roenne (Bornholm), Vejle

Merchant marine: total:  342 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
6,073,489 GRT/8,027,002 DWT

ships by type:  bulk 10, cargo 128, chemical tanker 27, container
76, liquefied gas 26, livestock carrier 6, petroleum tanker 22,
railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 13, roll on/roll off 23,
short-sea passenger 7, specialized tanker 3

note:  includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag
of convenience: Finland 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 119 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  28

over 3,047 m:  2

2,438 to 3,047 m:  7

1,524 to 2,437 m:  4

914 to 1,523 m:  12

under 914 m:  3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  91

1,524 to 2,437 m:  1

914 to 1,523 m:  7

under 914 m:  83 (2000 est.)



Denmark    Military

Military branches: Royal Danish Army, Royal Danish Navy, Royal
Danish Air Force, Home Guard

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  1,292,619 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
1,106,094 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  29,212
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2.47 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.4% (FY99)



Denmark    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Rockall continental shelf dispute
involving Iceland and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a
boundary agreement in the Rockall area); dispute with Iceland over
the Faroe Islands fisheries median line boundary within 200 NM;
disputes with Iceland, the UK, and Ireland over the Faroe Islands
continental shelf boundary outside 200 NM

======================================================================

@Djibouti



Djibouti    Introduction

Background: The French Territory of the Afars and the Issas became
Djibouti in 1977. A peace accord in 1994 ended a three-year uprising
by Afars rebels.



Djibouti    Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Red
Sea, between Eritrea and Somalia

Geographic coordinates: 11 30 N, 43 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total:  22,000 sq km

land:  21,980 sq km

water:  20 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries: total:  508 km

border countries:  Eritrea 113 km, Ethiopia 337 km, Somalia 58 km

Coastline: 314 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone:  24 NM

exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: desert; torrid, dry

Terrain: coastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Lac Assal -155 m

highest point:  Moussa Ali 2,028 m

Natural resources: geothermal areas

Land use: arable land:  0%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  9%

forests and woodland:  0%

other:  91% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: earthquakes; droughts; occasional cyclonic
disturbances from the Indian Ocean bring heavy rains and flash floods

Environment - current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water;
desertification

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified:  none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic location near world's busiest shipping
lanes and close to Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into
Ethiopia; mostly wasteland



Djibouti    People

Population: 460,700 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  42.58% (male 98,314; female 97,859)

15-64 years:  54.58% (male 132,619; female 118,841)

65 years and over:  2.84% (male 6,787; female 6,280) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.6% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 40.66 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 14.66 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.12 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  1.08 male(s)/female

total population:  1.07 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 101.51 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  51.21 years

male:  49.37 years

female:  53.1 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.72 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 11.75% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 37,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 3,100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Djiboutian(s)

adjective:  Djiboutian

Ethnic groups: Somali 60%, Afar 35%, French, Arab, Ethiopian, and
Italian 5%

Religions: Muslim 94%, Christian 6%

Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  46.2%

male:  60.3%

female:  32.7% (1995 est.)



Djibouti    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Republic of Djibouti

conventional short form:  Djibouti

former:  French Territory of the Afars and Issas, French Somaliland

Government type: republic

Capital: Djibouti

Administrative divisions: 5 districts (cercles, singular - cercle);
'Ali Sabih, Dikhil, Djibouti, Obock, Tadjoura

Independence: 27 June 1977 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 June (1977)

Constitution: multiparty constitution approved by referendum 4
September 1992

Legal system: based on French civil law system, traditional
practices, and Islamic law

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch: chief of state:  President GUELLEH Ismail Omar
(since 8 May 1999);

head of government:  Prime Minister DILLEITA Mohamed Dilleita (since
4 March 2001)

cabinet:  Council of Ministers responsible to the president

elections:  president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
election last held 9 April 1999 (next to be held NA 2005); prime
minister appointed by the president

election results:  GUELLEH Ismail Omar elected president; percent of
vote - GUELLEH Ismail Omar 74.4%, IDRIS Moussa Ahmed 25.6%

Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des
Deputes (65 seats; members elected by popular vote for five-year
terms)

elections:  last held 19 December 1997 (next to be held NA 2002)

election results:  percent of vote - NA%; seats - RPP 65; note - RPP
(the ruling party) dominated the election

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders: Democratic National Party or PND
[ADEN Robleh Awaleh]; Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Abdillahi
HAMARITEH]; People's Progress Assembly or RPP (governing party)
[Ismail Omar GELLEH]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Front for the Restoration of
Unity and Democracy or FRUD and affiliates; Movement for Unity and
Democracy or MUD

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD,
AL, AMF, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user),
Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
ROBLE Olhaye Oudine

chancery:  Suite 515, 1156 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005

telephone:  [1] (202) 331-0270

FAX:  [1] (202) 331-0302

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Donald YAMAMOTO

embassy:  Plateau du Serpent, Boulevard Marechal Joffre, Djibouti

mailing address:  B. P. 185, Djibouti

telephone:  [253] 35 39 95

FAX:  [253] 35 39 40

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) and
light green with a white isosceles triangle based on the hoist side
bearing a red five-pointed star in the center



Djibouti    Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is based on service activities
connected with the country's strategic location and status as a free
trade zone in northeast Africa. Two-thirds of the inhabitants live
in the capital city, the remainder being mostly nomadic herders.
Scanty rainfall limits crop production to fruits and vegetables, and
most food must be imported. Djibouti provides services as both a
transit port for the region and an international transshipment and
refueling center. It has few natural resources and little industry.
The nation is, therefore, heavily dependent on foreign assistance to
help support its balance of payments and to finance development
projects. An unemployment rate of 40% to 50% continues to be a major
problem. Inflation is not a concern, however, because of the fixed
tie of the franc to the US dollar. Per capita consumption dropped an
estimated 35% over the last seven years because of recession, civil
war, and a high population growth rate (including immigrants and
refugees). Faced with a multitude of economic difficulties, the
government has fallen in arrears on long-term external debt and has
been struggling to meet the stipulations of foreign aid donors. The
year 2001 will see only small growth as port activity should
decrease now that Ethiopia has more trade route options.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $574 million (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,300 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  3%

industry:  22%

services:  75% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 282,000

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 75%, industry 11%, services
14% (1991 est.)

Unemployment rate: 50% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues:  $133 million

expenditures:  $187 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999 est.)

Industries: limited to a few small-scale enterprises, such as dairy
products and mineral-water bottling

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

Electricity - production: 180 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  100%

hydro:  0%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 167.4 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: fruits, vegetables; goats, sheep, camels

Exports: $260 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: reexports, hides and skins, coffee (in
transit)

Exports - partners: Somalia 53%, Yemen 23%, Ethiopia 5%, (1998)

Imports: $440 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: foods, beverages, transport equipment,
chemicals, petroleum products

Imports - partners: France 13%, Ethiopia 12%, Italy 9%, Saudi Arabia
6%, UK 6% (1998)

Debt - external: $356 million (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $106.3 million (1995)

Currency: Djiboutian franc (DJF)

Currency code: DJF

Exchange rates: Djiboutian francs per US dollar - 177.721 (fixed
rate since 1973)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Djibouti    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 8,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 203 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment:  telephone facilities in the
city of Djibouti are adequate as are the microwave radio relay
connections to outlying areas of the country

domestic:  microwave radio relay network

international:  submarine cable to Jiddah, Suez, Sicily, Marseilles,
Colombo, and Singapore; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat
(Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; Medarabtel regional microwave radio
relay telephone network

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 52,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus 5 low-power repeaters) (1998)

Televisions: 28,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .dj

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 1,000 (2000)



Djibouti    Transportation

Railways: total:  100 km (Djibouti segment of the Addis
Ababa-Djibouti railroad)

narrow gauge:  100 km 1.000-m gauge

note:  Djibouti and Ethiopia plan to revitalize the century-old
railroad that links their capitals by 2003

Highways: total:  2,890 km

paved:  364 km

unpaved:  2,526 km (1996)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Djibouti

Merchant marine: total:  1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,369
GRT/3,030 DWT

ships by type:  cargo 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 12 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  2

over 3,047 m:  1

2,438 to 3,047 m:  1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  10

1,524 to 2,437 m:  2

914 to 1,523 m:  5

under 914 m:  3 (2000 est.)



Djibouti    Military

Military branches: Djibouti National Army (includes Navy and Air
Force)

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  108,038 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
63,589 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $23 million (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 4.5% (FY97)



Djibouti    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Dominica



Dominica    Introduction

Background: Dominica was the last of the Caribbean islands to be
colonized by Europeans, due chiefly to the fierce resistance of the
native Caribs. France ceded possession to Great Britain in 1763,
which made the island a colony in 1805. In 1980, two years after
independence, Dominica's fortunes improved when a corrupt and
tyrannical administration was replaced by that of Mary Eugenia
CHARLES, the first female prime minister in the Caribbean, who
remained in office for 15 years.



Dominica    Geography

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, about one-half of the way from Puerto Rico to
Trinidad and Tobago

Geographic coordinates: 15 25 N, 61 20 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total:  754 sq km

land:  754 sq km

water:  0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than four times the size of
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 148 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone:  24 NM

exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy rainfall

Terrain: rugged mountains of volcanic origin

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point:  Morne Diablatins 1,447 m

Natural resources: timber, hydropower, arable land

Land use: arable land:  9%

permanent crops:  13%

permanent pastures:  3%

forests and woodland:  67%

other:  8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: flash floods are a constant threat; destructive
hurricanes can be expected during the late summer months

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling

signed, but not ratified:  none of the selected agreements



Dominica    People

Population: 70,786 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  28.72% (male 10,300; female 10,027)

15-64 years:  63.45% (male 23,056; female 21,855)

65 years and over:  7.83% (male 2,267; female 3,281) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.98% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 17.81 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.19 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -20.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.69 male(s)/female

total population:  1.01 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 16.54 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  73.6 years

male:  70.74 years

female:  76.61 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.03 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun:  Dominican(s)

adjective:  Dominican

Ethnic groups: black, Carib Amerindian

Religions: Roman Catholic 77%, Protestant 15% (Methodist 5%,
Pentecostal 3%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Baptist 2%, other 2%),
none 2%, other 6%

Languages: English (official), French patois

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over has ever attended school

total population:  94%

male:  94%

female:  94% (1970 est.)



Dominica    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Commonwealth of Dominica

conventional short form:  Dominica

Government type: parliamentary democracy; republic within the
Commonwealth

Capital: Roseau

Administrative divisions: 10 parishes; Saint Andrew, Saint David,
Saint George, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Luke, Saint Mark,
Saint Patrick, Saint Paul, Saint Peter

Independence: 3 November 1978 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 November (1978)

Constitution: 3 November 1978

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  President Vernon Lordon SHAW
(since 6 October 1998)

head of government:  Prime Minister Pierre CHARLES (since 1 October
2000); note - assumed post after death of Roosevelt DOUGLAS

cabinet:  Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the
prime minister

elections:  president elected by the House of Assembly for a
five-year term; election last held 6 October 1998 (next to be held
NA October 2003); prime minister appointed by the president

election results:  Vernon Lordon SHAW elected president; percent of
legislative vote - NA%

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (30 seats, 9
appointed senators, 21 elected by popular vote; members serve
five-year terms)

elections:  last held 31 January 2000 (next to be held by NA 2005)

election results:  percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party
-DLP 11, UWP 8, DFP 2

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, consisting of the
Court of Appeal and the High Court (located in Saint Lucia; one of
the six judges must reside in Dominica and preside over the Court of
Summary Jurisdiction)

Political parties and leaders: Dominica Freedom Party or DFP
[Charles SAVARIN]; Dominica Labor Party or DLP [Pierre CHARLES];
United Workers Party or UWP [Edison JAMES]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Dominica Liberation Movement
or DLM (a small leftist party)

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, C, Caricom,
CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS,
OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Nicholas J. O. LIVERPOOL (resident in Dominica)

chancery:  3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016

telephone:  [1] (202) 364-6781

FAX:  [1] (202) 364-6791

consulate(s) general:  New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an
embassy in Dominica; US interests are served by the embassy in
Bridgetown, Barbados

Flag description: green, with a centered cross of three equal bands
- the vertical part is yellow (hoist side), black, and white and the
horizontal part is yellow (top), black, and white; superimposed in
the center of the cross is a red disk bearing a sisserou parrot
encircled by 10 green, five-pointed stars edged in yellow; the 10
stars represent the 10 administrative divisions (parishes)



Dominica    Economy

Economy - overview: The economy depends on agriculture and is highly
vulnerable to climatic conditions, notably tropical storms.
Agriculture, primarily bananas, accounts for 21% of GDP and employs
40% of the labor force. Development of the tourist industry remains
difficult because of the rugged coastline, lack of beaches, and the
lack of an international airport. Hurricane Luis devastated the
country's banana crop in September 1995; tropical storms had wiped
out one-quarter of the crop in 1994 as well. The subsequent recovery
has been fueled by increases in construction, soap production, and
tourist arrivals. The government is attempting to develop an
offshore financial industry in order to diversify the island's
production base.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $290 million (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  21%

industry:  16%

services:  63% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 25,000

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 40%, industry and commerce
32%, services 28%

Unemployment rate: 20% (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues:  $72 million

expenditures:  $79.9 million, including capital expenditures of
$11.5 million (FY97/98)

Industries: soap, coconut oil, tourism, copra, furniture, cement
blocks, shoes

Industrial production growth rate: -10% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: 62 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  48.39%

hydro:  51.61%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 57.7 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: bananas, citrus, mangoes, root crops,
coconuts, cocoa; forest and fishery potential not exploited

Exports: $60.7 million (2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: bananas, soap, bay oil, vegetables,
grapefruit, oranges

Exports - partners: Caricom countries 47%, UK 36%, US 7% (1996 est.)

Imports: $126 million (2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: manufactured goods, machinery and equipment,
food, chemicals

Imports - partners: US 41%, Caricom countries 25%, UK 13%,
Netherlands, Canada (1996 est.)

Debt - external: $108.9 million (1999)

Economic aid - recipient: $24.4 million (1995)

Currency: East Caribbean dollar (XCD)

Currency code: XCD

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7000 (fixed
rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Dominica    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 19,000 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 461 (1996)

Telephone system: general assessment:  NA

domestic:  fully automatic network

international:  microwave radio relay and SHF radiotelephone links
to Martinique and Guadeloupe; VHF and UHF radiotelephone links to
Saint Lucia

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 10, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 46,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (however, there is one cable
television company) (1997)

Televisions: 6,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .dm

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 16 (2000)

Internet users: 2,000 (2000)



Dominica    Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total:  750 km

paved:  375 km

unpaved:  375 km (2001)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Portsmouth, Roseau

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  2

914 to 1,523 m:  2 (2000 est.)



Dominica    Military

Military branches: Commonwealth of Dominica Police Force (includes
Special Service Unit, Coast Guard)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%



Dominica    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US
and Europe; minor cannabis producer; banking industry is vulnerable
to money laundering

======================================================================

@Dominican Republic



Dominican Republic    Introduction

Background: A legacy of unsettled, mostly non-representative, rule
for much of the 20th century was brought to an end in 1996 when free
and open elections ushered in a new government.



Dominican Republic    Geography

Location: Caribbean, eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola,
between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of Haiti

Geographic coordinates: 19 00 N, 70 40 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total:  48,730 sq km

land:  48,380 sq km

water:  350 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of New
Hampshire

Land boundaries: total:  275 km

border countries:  Haiti 275 km

Coastline: 1,288 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone:  24 NM

continental shelf:  200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  6 NM

Climate: tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation;
seasonal variation in rainfall

Terrain: rugged highlands and mountains with fertile valleys
interspersed

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Lago Enriquillo -46 m

highest point:  Pico Duarte 3,175 m

Natural resources: nickel, bauxite, gold, silver

Land use: arable land:  21%

permanent crops:  9%

permanent pastures:  43%

forests and woodland:  12%

other:  15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,300 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and
subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding;
periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: water shortages; soil eroding into the
sea damages coral reefs; deforestation; Hurricane Georges damage

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified:  Law of the Sea

Geography - note: shares island of Hispaniola with Haiti (eastern
two-thirds is the Dominican Republic, western one-third is Haiti)



Dominican Republic    People

Population: 8,581,477 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  34.11% (male 1,495,477; female 1,431,406)

15-64 years:  60.99% (male 2,664,679; female 2,569,398)

65 years and over:  4.9% (male 199,240; female 221,277) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.63% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 24.77 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 4.7 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.81 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.04 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.9 male(s)/female

total population:  1.03 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 34.67 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  73.44 years

male:  71.34 years

female:  75.64 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.97 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 2.8% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 130,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 4,900 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Dominican(s)

adjective:  Dominican

Ethnic groups: white 16%, black 11%, mixed 73%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  82.1%

male:  82%

female:  82.2% (1995 est.)



Dominican Republic    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Dominican Republic

conventional short form:  none

local long form:  Republica Dominicana

local short form:  none

Government type: representative democracy

Capital: Santo Domingo

Administrative divisions: 29 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia) and 1 district* (distrito); Azua, Baoruco, Barahona,
Dajabon, Distrito Nacional*, Duarte, Elias Pina, El Seibo,
Espaillat, Hato Mayor, Independencia, La Altagracia, La Romana, La
Vega, Maria Trinidad Sanchez, Monsenor Nouel, Monte Cristi, Monte
Plata, Pedernales, Peravia, Puerto Plata, Salcedo, Samana, Sanchez
Ramirez, San Cristobal, San Juan, San Pedro de Macoris, Santiago,
Santiago Rodriguez, Valverde

Independence: 27 February 1844 (from Haiti)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 February (1844)

Constitution: 28 November 1966

Legal system: based on French civil codes

Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal and compulsory; married persons
regardless of age

note:  members of the armed forces and police cannot vote

Executive branch: chief of state:  President Rafael Hipolito MEJIA
Dominguez (since 16 August 2000); Vice President Milagros
ORTIZ-BOSCH (since 16 August 2000); note - the president is both the
chief of state and head of government

head of government:  President Rafael Hipolito MEJIA Dominguez
(since 16 August 2000); Vice President Milagros ORTIZ-BOSCH (since
16 August 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and
head of government

cabinet:  Cabinet nominated by the president

elections:  president and vice president elected on the same ticket
by popular vote for four-year term; election last held 16 May 2000
(next to be held NA May 2004)

election results:  Raphael Hipolito MEJIA Dominguez elected
president; percent of vote - Rafael Hipolito MEJIA Dominguez (PRD)
49.87%, Danilo MEDINA (PLD) 24.95%, Joaquin BALAGUER (PRSC) 24.6%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional
consists of the Senate or Senado (30 seats; members are elected by
popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies
or Camara de Diputados (149 seats; members are elected by popular
vote to serve four-year terms)

elections:  Senate - last held 16 May 1998 (next to be held NA May
2002); Chamber of Deputies - last held 16 May 1998 (next to be held
NA May 2002)

election results:  Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by
party - PRD 24, PLD 3, PRSC 3; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote
by party - NA%; seats by party - PRD 83, PLD 49, PRSC 17

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges are elected
by a Council made up of members of the legislative and executive
branches with the president presiding)

Political parties and leaders: Dominican Liberation Party or PLD
[Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna]; Dominican Revolutionary Party or PRD
[Hatuey DE CAMPS]; Social Christian Reformist Party or PRSC [Joaquin
BALAGUER Ricardo]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Collective of Popular
Organizations or COP

International organization participation: ACP, Caricom (observer),
ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
ISO (subscriber), ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM (observer), OAS,
OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Roberto Bienvenido SALADIN-SELIN

chancery:  1715 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:  [1] (202) 332-6280

FAX:  [1] (202) 265-8057

consulate(s) general:  Boston, Chicago, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico),
Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San
Juan (Puerto Rico)

consulate(s):  Houston, Jacksonville, Mobile, and Ponce (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Charles T. MANATT

embassy:  corner of Calle Cesar Nicolas Penson and Calle Leopoldo
Navarro, Santo Domingo

mailing address:  Unit 5500, APO AA 34041-5500

telephone:  [1] (809) 221-2171

FAX:  [1] (809) 686-7437

Flag description: a centered white cross that extends to the edges
divides the flag into four rectangles - the top ones are blue (hoist
side) and red, and the bottom ones are red (hoist side) and blue; a
small coat of arms is at the center of the cross



Dominican Republic    Economy

Economy - overview: The Dominican economy experienced dramatic
growth over the last decade, even though the economy was hit hard by
Hurricane Georges in 1998. Although the country has long been viewed
primarily as an exporter of sugar, coffee, and tobacco, in recent
years the service sector has overtaken agriculture as the economy's
largest employer, due to growth in tourism and free trade zones. The
country suffers from marked income inequality; the poorest half of
the population receives less than one-fifth of GNP, while the
richest ten percent enjoy 40% of national income. In December 2000,
the new MEJIA administration passed broad new tax legislation which
it hopes will provide enough revenue to offset rising oil prices and
to service foreign debt.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $48.3 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,700 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  11.3%

industry:  32.2%

services:  56.5% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 25% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:
1.6%

highest 10%:  39.6% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.9% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 2.3 million - 2.6 million

Labor force - by occupation: services and government 58.7%, industry
24.3%, agriculture 17% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate: 13.8% (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues:  $2.3 billion

expenditures:  $2.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $867
million (1999 est.)

Industries: tourism, sugar processing, ferronickel and gold mining,
textiles, cement, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: 8% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 7.29 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  87.19%

hydro:  12.4%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0.41% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 6.78 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, coffee, cotton, cocoa, tobacco,
rice, beans, potatoes, corn, bananas; cattle, pigs, dairy products,
beef, eggs

Exports: $5.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: ferronickel, sugar, gold, silver, coffee,
cocoa, tobacco, meats

Exports - partners: US 66.1%, Netherlands 7.8%, Canada 7.6%, Russia
7.4%, UK 4.5% (1999 est.)

Imports: $9.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum, cotton and fabrics,
chemicals and pharmaceuticals

Imports - partners: US 25.7%, Venezuela 9.2%, Mexico 4%, Japan 3%,
Panama 2.6% (1999 est.)

Debt - external: $4.7 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $239.6 million (1995)

Currency: Dominican peso (DOP)

Currency code: DOP

Exchange rates: Dominican pesos per US dollar - 16.888 (January
2001), 16.415 (2000), 16.033 (1999), 15.267 (1998), 14.265 (1997),
13.775 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Dominican Republic    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 709,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 130,149 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment:  NA

domestic:  relatively efficient system based on islandwide microwave
radio relay network

international:  1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station -
1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 120, FM 56, shortwave 4 (1998)

Radios: 1.44 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 25 (1997)

Televisions: 770,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .do

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 24 (2000)

Internet users: 25,000 (1999)



Dominican Republic    Transportation

Railways: total:  757 km

standard gauge:  375 km 1.435-m gauge (Central Romana Railroad)

narrow gauge:  142 km 0.762-m gauge (Dominican Republic Government
Railway)

note:  240 km operated by sugar companies in various gauges
(0.558-m, 0.762-m, 1.067-m gauges) (2000)

Highways: total:  12,600 km

paved:  6,224 km

unpaved:  6,376 km (1996)

Waterways: none

Pipelines: crude oil 96 km; petroleum products 8 km

Ports and harbors: Barahona, La Romana, Puerto Plata, San Pedro de
Macoris, Santo Domingo

Merchant marine: total:  1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,587
GRT/1,165 DWT

ships by type:  cargo 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 29 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  13

over 3,047 m:  3

2,438 to 3,047 m:  2

1,524 to 2,437 m:  4

914 to 1,523 m:  3

under 914 m:  1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  16

1,524 to 2,437 m:  2

914 to 1,523 m:  4

under 914 m:  10 (2000 est.)



Dominican Republic    Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  2,281,035 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
1,430,776 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  87,404
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $180 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.1% (FY98)



Dominican Republic    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American drugs destined
for the US and Europe; has become a transshipment point for ecstasy
from the Netherlands and Belgium destined for US and Canada

======================================================================

@Ecuador



Ecuador    Introduction

Background: The "Republic of the Equator" was one of three countries
that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others
being Colombia and Venezuela). Between 1904 and 1942, Ecuador lost
territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. A border
war with Peru that flared in 1995 was resolved in 1999.



Ecuador    Geography

Location: Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the
Equator, between Colombia and Peru

Geographic coordinates: 2 00 S, 77 30 W

Map references: South America

Area: total:  283,560 sq km

land:  276,840 sq km

water:  6,720 sq km

note:  includes Galapagos Islands

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Nevada

Land boundaries: total:  2,010 km

border countries:  Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,237 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf:  claims continental shelf
between mainland and Galapagos Islands

territorial sea:  200 NM

Climate: tropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher
elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands

Terrain: coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands
(sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Chimborazo 6,267 m

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, timber, hydropower

Land use: arable land:  6%

permanent crops:  5%

permanent pastures:  18%

forests and woodland:  56%

other:  15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,560 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic
activity; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion;
desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production
wastes

Environment - international agreements: party to:
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification,
Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:  none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in
world



Ecuador    People

Population: 13,183,978 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  35.8% (male 2,398,801; female 2,320,537)

15-64 years:  59.81% (male 3,900,193; female 3,984,797)

65 years and over:  4.39% (male 269,372; female 310,278) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 25.99 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 5.44 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.55 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.87 male(s)/female

total population:  0.99 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 34.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  71.33 years

male:  68.52 years

female:  74.28 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.12 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.29% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 19,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,400 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Ecuadorian(s)

adjective:  Ecuadorian

Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 65%, Amerindian
25%, Spanish and others 7%, black 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially
Quechua)

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  90.1%

male:  92%

female:  88.2% (1995 est.)



Ecuador    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Republic of Ecuador

conventional short form:  Ecuador

local long form:  Republica del Ecuador

local short form:  Ecuador

Government type: republic

Capital: Quito

Administrative divisions: 22 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El
Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios,
Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichincha,
Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe

Independence: 24 May 1822 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day (independence of Quito), 10
August (1809)

Constitution: 10 August 1998

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate
persons ages 18-65, optional for other eligible voters

Executive branch: chief of state:  President Gustavo NOBOA Bejarano
(since 22 January 2000) selected president following coup that
deposed President MAHUAD; Vice President Pedro PINTO Rubianes (since
28 January 2000) elected by National Congress from a slate of
candidates submitted by President NABOA; note - the president is
both the chief of state and head of government

head of government:  President Gustavo NOBOA Bejarano (since 22
January 2000) selected president following coup that deposed
President MAHUAD; Vice President Pedro PINTO Rubianes (since 28
January 2000) elected by National Congress from a slate of
candidates submitted by President NABOA; note - the president is
both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet:  Cabinet appointed by the president

elections:  president and vice president elected on the same ticket
by popular vote for four-year term (no reelection); election last
held 31 May 1998; runoff election held 12 July 1998 (next to be held
NA 2002)

election results:  results of the last election prior to the coup
were: Jamil MAHUAD elected president; percent of vote - 51%

note:  a military-indigenous coup toppled democratically elected
President Jamil MAHAUD on 21 January 2000; the military quickly
handed power over to Vice President Gustavo NOBOA on 22 January;
National Congress then elected a new vice president from a slate of
candidates submitted by NOBOA; the new administration is scheduled
to complete the remainder of MAHAUD's term, due to expire in January
2003

Legislative branch: unicameral National Congress or Congreso
Nacional (121 seats; 79 members are popularly elected at-large
nationally to serve four-year terms; 42 members are popularly
elected by province - two per province - for four-year terms)

elections:  last held 31 May 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)

election results:  percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
DP 32, PSC 27, PRE 24, ID 18, P-NP 9, FRA 5, PCE 3, MPD 2, CFP 1;
note - defections by members of National Congress are commonplace,
resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the
various parties

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (new justices are
elected by the full Supreme Court)

Political parties and leaders: Concentration of Popular Forces or
CFP [Averroes BUCARAM]; Democratic Left or ID [Rodrigo BORJA
Cevallos]; Ecuadorian Conservative Party or PCE [Sixto DURAN
Ballen]; Independent National Movement or MIN [leader NA];
Pachakutik-New Country or P-NP [Rafael PANDAM]; Popular Democracy or
DP [Ramiro RIVERA]; Popular Democratic Movement or MPD [leader NA];
Radical Alfarista Front or FRA [Fabian ALARCON, director]; Roldosist
Party or PRE [Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz, director]; Social Christian
Party or PSC [Jaime NEBOT Saadi, president]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Confederation of Indigenous
Nationalities of Ecuador or CONAIE [Antonio VARGAS]; Coordinator of
Social Movements or CMS [F. Napoleon SANTOS]; Popular Front or FP
[Luis VILLACIS]

International organization participation: CAN, CCC, ECLAC, FAO,
G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO,
ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Ivonne A-BAKI

chancery:  2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone:  [1] (202) 234-7200

FAX:  [1] (202) 667-3482

consulate(s) general:  Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New
Orleans, New York, Newark, Philadelphia, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Gwen C. CLARE

embassy:  Avenida 12 de Octubre y Avenida Patria, Quito

mailing address:  APO AA 34039

telephone:  [593] (2) 562-890

FAX:  [593] (2) 502-052

consulate(s) general:  Guayaquil

Flag description: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double
width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the
center of the flag; similar to the flag of Colombia which is shorter
and does not bear a coat of arms



Ecuador    Economy

Economy - overview: Ecuador has substantial oil resources and rich
agricultural areas. Because the country exports primary products
such as oil, bananas, and shrimp, fluctuations in world market
prices can have a substantial domestic impact. Ecuador joined the
World Trade Organization in 1996, but has failed to comply with many
of its accession commitments. In recent years, growth has been
uneven due to ill-conceived fiscal stabilization measures. The
aftermath of El Nino and depressed oil market of 1997-98 drove
Ecuador's economy into a free-fall in 1999. The beginning of 1999
saw the banking sector collapse, which helped precipitate an
unprecedented default on external loans later that year. Continued
economic instability drove a 70% depreciation of the currency
throughout 1999, which eventually forced a desperate government to
"dollarize" the currency regime in 2000. The move stabilized the
currency, but did not stave off the ouster of the government. The
new president, Gustavo NOBOA has yet to complete negotiations for a
long sought IMF accord. He will find it difficult to push through
the reforms necessary to make "dollarization" work in the long run.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $37.2 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0.8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,900 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  14%

industry:  36%

services:  50% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 50% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:
2.2%

highest 10%:  33.8% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 96% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 4.2 million

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 30%, industry 25%, services
45% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 13%; note - widespread underemployment (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues:  planned $5.1 billion (not including revenue from
potential privatizations)

expenditures:  $5.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999)

Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, metal work, paper
products, wood products, chemicals, plastics, fishing, lumber

Industrial production growth rate: 2.4% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: 10.065 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  29.51%

hydro:  70.49%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 9.386 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 25 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes,
manioc (tapioca), plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef,
pork, dairy products; balsa wood; fish, shrimp

Exports: $5.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: petroleum, bananas, shrimp, coffee, cocoa,
cut flowers, fish

Exports - partners: US 37%, Colombia 5%, Italy 5%, Chile 5%, Peru 4%
(1999)

Imports: $3.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, raw materials,
fuels; consumer goods

Imports - partners: US 30%, Colombia 13%, Venezuela 6%, Japan 5%,
Venezuela 6%, Mexico 3% (1998)

Debt - external: $15 billion (1999)

Economic aid - recipient: $695.7 million (1995)

Currency: US dollar (USD)

Currency code: USD

Exchange rates: sucres per US dollar - 25,000 (January 2001),
24,988.4 (2000), 11,786.8 (1999), 5,446.6 (1998), 3,988.3 (1997),
3,189.5 (1996)

note:  on 7 January 2000, the government passed a decree
"dollarizing" the economy; on 13 March 2000, the National Congress
approved a new exchange system whereby the US dollar is adopted as
the main legal tender in Ecuador for all purposes; on 20 March 2000,
the Central Bank of Ecuador started to exchange sucres for US
dollars at a fixed rate of 25,000 sucres per US dollar; since 30
April 2000, all transactions are denominated in US dollars

Fiscal year: calendar year



Ecuador    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 899,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 160,061 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment:  NA

domestic:  facilities generally inadequate and unreliable

international:  satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 392, FM 27, shortwave 29 (1998)

Radios: 4.15 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 15 (including one station on the
Galapagos Islands) (1997)

Televisions: 1.55 million (1997)

Internet country code: .ec

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 13 (2000)

Internet users: 20,000 (2000)



Ecuador    Transportation

Railways: total:  965 km

narrow gauge:  965 km 1.067-m gauge (2000)

Highways: total:  43,197 km

paved:  8,165 km

unpaved:  35,032 km (1999 est.)

Waterways: 1,500 km

Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; petroleum products 1,358 km

Ports and harbors: Esmeraldas, Guayaquil, La Libertad, Manta, Puerto
Bolivar, San Lorenzo

Merchant marine: total:  30 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
233,312 GRT/385,784 DWT

ships by type:  cargo 2, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 1,
passenger 3, petroleum tanker 22, specialized tanker 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 180 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  59

over 3,047 m:  2

2,438 to 3,047 m:  5

1,524 to 2,437 m:  18

914 to 1,523 m:  15

under 914 m:  19 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  121

914 to 1,523 m:  32

under 914 m:  89 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Ecuador    Military

Military branches: Army (Ejercito Ecuatoriano), Navy (Armada
Ecuatoriana, includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea
Ecuatoriana), National Police (Policia Nacional)

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  3,382,567 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
2,280,899 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  132,978
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $720 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.4% (FY98)



Ecuador    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: significant transit country for cocaine and
derivatives of coca originating in Colombia and Peru; importer of
precursor chemicals used in production of illicit narcotics;
important money-laundering hub; increased activity on the northern
frontier by trafficking groups and Colombian insurgents

======================================================================

@Egypt



Egypt    Introduction

Background: Nominally independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt
acquired full sovereignty following World War II. The completion of
the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have
altered the time-honored place of the Nile river in the agriculture
and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in
the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all
continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has
struggled to ready the economy for the new millennium through
economic reform and massive investment in communications and
physical infrastructure.



Egypt    Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between
Libya and the Gaza Strip

Geographic coordinates: 27 00 N, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total:  1,001,450 sq km

land:  995,450 sq km

water:  6,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than three times the size of New
Mexico

Land boundaries: total:  2,689 km

border countries:  Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 255 km, Libya 1,150 km,
Sudan 1,273 km

Coastline: 2,450 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone:  24 NM

continental shelf:  200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM

Climate: desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

Terrain: vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Qattara Depression -133 m

highest point:  Mount Catherine 2,629 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates,
manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc

Land use: arable land:  2%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  0%

forests and woodland:  0%

other:  98% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 32,460 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes, flash
floods, landslides, volcanic activity; hot, driving windstorm called
khamsin occurs in spring; dust storms, sandstorms

Environment - current issues: agricultural land being lost to
urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below
Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral
reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from
agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; very
limited natural fresh water resources away from the Nile which is
the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population
overstraining natural resources

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:  Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between
Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal,
shortest sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size,
and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle
Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream neighbors; dominance of
Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees



Egypt    People

Population: 69,536,644 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  34.59% (male 12,313,585; female
11,739,072)

15-64 years:  61.6% (male 21,614,284; female 21,217,978)

65 years and over:  3.81% (male 1,160,967; female 1,490,758) (2001
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.69% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 24.89 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.7 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.78 male(s)/female

total population:  1.02 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 60.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  63.69 years

male:  61.62 years

female:  65.85 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.07 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.02% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun:  Egyptian(s)

adjective:  Egyptian

Ethnic groups: Eastern Hamitic stock (Egyptians, Bedouins, and
Berbers) 99%, Greek, Nubian, Armenian, other European (primarily
Italian and French) 1%

Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94%, Coptic Christian and other 6%

Languages: Arabic (official), English and French widely understood
by educated classes

Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  51.4%

male:  63.6%

female:  38.8% (1995 est.)



Egypt    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Arab Republic of Egypt

conventional short form:  Egypt

local long form:  Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah

local short form:  Misr

former:  United Arab Republic (with Syria)

Government type: republic

Capital: Cairo

Administrative divisions: 26 governorates (muhafazat, singular -
muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum,
Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah, Al
Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid,
Ash Sharqiyah, As Suways, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id,
Dumyat, Janub Sina', Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina',
Suhaj

Independence: 28 February 1922 (from UK)

National holiday: Revolution Day, 23 July (1952)

Constitution: 11 September 1971

Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, and
Napoleonic codes; judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of
State (oversees validity of administrative decisions); accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state:  President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK
(since 14 October 1981)

head of government:  Prime Minister Atef OBEID (since 5 October 1999)

cabinet:  Cabinet appointed by the president

elections:  president nominated by the People's Assembly for a
six-year term, the nomination must then be validated by a national,
popular referendum; national referendum last held 26 September 1999
(next to be held NA October 2005); prime minister appointed by the
president

election results:  national referendum validated President MUBARAK's
nomination by the People's Assembly to a fourth term

Legislative branch: bicameral system consists of the People's
Assembly or Majlis al-Sha'b (454 seats; 444 elected by popular vote,
10 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms) and
the Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura - which functions only in a
consultative role (264 seats; 176 elected by popular vote, 88
appointed by the president; members serve NA-year terms)

elections:  People's Assembly - three-phase voting - last held 19
October, 29 October, 8 November 2000 (next to be held NA November
2005); Advisory Council - last held 7 June 1995 (next to be held NA)

election results:  People's Assembly - percent of vote by party -
NDP 88%, independents 8%, opposition 4%; seats by party - NDP 398,
NWP 7, Tagammu 6, Nasserists 2, LSP 1, independents 38, undecided 2;
Advisory Council - percent of vote by party - NDP 99%, independents
1%; seats by party - NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Nasserist Arab Democratic Party or
Nasserists [Dia' al-din DAWUD]; National Democratic Party or NDP
[President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK, leader] - governing party;
National Progressive Unionist Grouping or Tagammu [Khalid MUHI
AL-DIN]; New Wafd Party or NWP [No'man GOMA]; Socialist Liberal
Party or LSP [leader NA]

note:  formation of political parties must be approved by government

Political pressure groups and leaders: despite a constitutional ban
against religious-based parties, the technically illegal Muslim
Brotherhood constitutes MUBARAK's potentially most significant
political opposition; MUBARAK tolerated limited political activity
by the Brotherhood for his first two terms, but moved more
aggressively since then to block its influence; civic society groups
are sanctioned, but constrained in practical terms; trade unions and
professional associations are officially sanctioned

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACC, ACCT
(associate), AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, BSEC (observer), CAEU, CCC, EBRD,
ECA, ESCWA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC,
OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNTAET,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Nabil FAHMY

chancery:  3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:  [1] (202) 895-5400

FAX:  [1] (202) 244-4319, 5131

consulate(s) general:  Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Daniel C. KURTZER

embassy:  5 Latin America St., Garden City, Cairo

mailing address:  Unit 64900, APO AE 09839-4900

telephone:  [20] (2) 795-7371

FAX:  [20] (2) 797-2000

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white,
and black with the national emblem (a shield superimposed on a
golden eagle facing the hoist side above a scroll bearing the name
of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; similar to the
flag of Yemen, which has a plain white band; also similar to the
flag of Syria, which has two green stars, and to the flag of Iraq,
which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a
horizontal line centered in the white band



Egypt    Economy

Economy - overview: A series of IMF arrangements - along with
massive external debt relief resulting from Egypt's participation in
the Gulf war coalition - helped Egypt improve its macroeconomic
performance during the 1990s. Sound fiscal and monetary policies
through the mid-1990s helped to tame inflation, slash budget
deficits, and build up foreign reserves, while structural reforms
such as privatization and new business legislation prompted
increased foreign investment. By mid-1998, however, the pace of
structural reform slackened, and lower combined hard currency
earnings resulted in pressure on the Egyptian pound and sporadic US
dollar shortages. External payments were not in crisis, but Cairo's
attempts to curb demand for foreign exchange convinced some
investors and currency traders that government financial operations
lacked transparency and coordination. Monetary pressures have since
eased, however, with the 1999-2000 higher oil prices, a rebound in
tourism, and a series of mini-devaluations of the pound. The
development of a gas export market is a major plus factor in future
growth.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $247 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,600 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  17%

industry:  32%

services:  51% (1999)

Population below poverty line: 22.9% (FY95/96 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:
4.4%

highest 10%:  25% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (2000)

Labor force: 19.9 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 29%, services 49%, industry
22% (FY99)

Unemployment rate: 11.5% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues:  $22.6 billion

expenditures:  $26.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY99)

Industries: textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals,
hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals

Industrial production growth rate: 2.1% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 64.685 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  76.59%

hydro:  23.41%

nuclear:  0%

other:  0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 60.157 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits,
vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats

Exports: $7.3 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, cotton,
textiles, metal products, chemicals

Exports - partners: EU 35%, Middle East 17%, Afro-Asian countries
14%, US 12% (1999)

Imports: $17 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs,
chemicals, wood products, fuels

Imports - partners: EU 36%, US 14%, Afro-Asian countries 14%, Middle
East 6% (1999)

Debt - external: $31 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: ODA, $2.25 billion (1999)

Currency: Egyptian pound (EGP)

Currency code: EGP

Exchange rates: Egyptian pounds per US dollar - market rate - 3.8400
(January 2001), 3.6900 (2000), 3.4050 (1999), 3.3880 (1998), 3.3880
(1997), 3.3880 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Egypt    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 3,971,500 (December 1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 380,000 (1999)

Telephone system: general assessment:  large system; underwent
extensive upgrading during 1990s and is reasonably modern; Internet
access and cellular service are available

domestic:  principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah,
Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and
microwave radio relay

international:  satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic
Ocean and Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat; 5 coaxial
submarine cables; tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio
relay to Israel; a participant in Medarabtel and a signatory to
Project Oxygen (a global submarine fiber-optic cable system)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 42 (plus 15 repeaters), FM 14,
shortwave 3 (1999)

Radios: 20.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 98 (September 1995)

Televisions: 7.7 million (1997)

Internet country code: .eg

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 50 (2000)

Internet users: 300,000 (2000)



Egypt    Transportation

Railways: total:  4,955 km

standard gauge:  4,955 km 1,435-m gauge (42 km electrified; 1,560 km
double track) (2000)

Highways: total:  64,000 km

paved:  50,000 km

unpaved:  14,000 km (1996)

Waterways: 3,500 km

note:  including the Nile, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway,
and numerous smaller canals in the delta; Suez Canal (193.5 km
including approaches), used by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 16.1
m of water

Pipelines: crude oil 1,171 km; petroleum products 596 km; natural
gas 460 km

Ports and harbors: Alexandria, Al Ghardaqah, Aswan, Asyut, Bur
Safajah, Damietta, Marsa Matruh, Port Said, Suez

Merchant marine: total:  181 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
1,336,678 GRT/1,982,220 DWT

ships by type:  bulk 23, cargo 61, container 2, liquefied gas 1,
passenger 61, petroleum tanker 15, roll on/roll off 15, short-sea
passenger 3 (2000 est.)

Airports: 90 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total:  69

over 3,047 m:  12

2,438 to 3,047 m:  35

1,524 to 2,437 m:  17

914 to 1,523 m:  2

under 914 m:  3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  21

2,438 to 3,047 m:  2

1,524 to 2,437 m:  2

914 to 1,523 m:  7

under 914 m:  10 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 2 (2000 est.)



Egypt    Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  18,562,994 (2001
est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:
12,020,059 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  712,983
(2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $4.04 billion (FY99/00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 4.1% (FY99/00)



Egypt    Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Egypt asserts its claim to the "Hala'ib
Triangle," a barren area of 20,580 sq km under partial Sudanese
administration that is defined by an administrative boundary which
supersedes the treaty boundary of 1899

Illicit drugs: a transit point for Southwest Asian and Southeast
Asian heroin and opium moving to Europe, Africa, and the US; popular
transit stop for Nigerian couriers

======================================================================

@El Salvador



El Salvador    Introduction

Background: El Salvador achieved independence from Spain in 1821 and
from the Central American Federation in 1839. A 12-year civil war,
which cost the lives of some 75,000 people, was brought to a close
in 1992 when the government and leftist rebels signed a treaty that
provided for military and political reforms.



El Salvador    Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between
Guatemala and Honduras

Geographic coordinates: 13 50 N, 88 55 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total:  21,040 sq km

land:  20,720 sq km

water:  320 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries: total:  545 km

border countries:  Guatemala 203 km, Honduras 342 km

Coastline: 307 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea:  200 NM

Climate: tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season
(November to April); tropical on coast; temperate in uplands

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central
plateau

Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Cerro El Pital 2,730 m

Natural resources: hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum, arable
land

Land use: arable land:  27%

permanent crops:  8%

permanent pastures:  29%

forests and woodland:  5%

other:  31% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,200 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: known as the Land of Volcanoes; frequent and
sometimes very destructive earthquakes and volcanic activity

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water
pollution; contamination of soils from disposal of toxic wastes;
Hurricane Mitch damage

Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification,
Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:  Law of the Sea

Geography - note: smallest Central American country and only one
without a coastline on Caribbean Sea



El Salvador    People

Population: 6,237,662 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years:  37.68% (male 1,198,623; female 1,151,584)

15-64 years:  57.27% (male 1,693,865; female 1,878,254)

65 years and over:  5.05% (male 142,345; female 172,991) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.85% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 28.67 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 6.18 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.9 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.82 male(s)/female

total population:  0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 28.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population:  70.03 years

male:  66.43 years

female:  73.81 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.34 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.6% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 20,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,300 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun:  Salvadoran(s)

adjective:  Salvadoran

Ethnic groups: mestizo 90%, Amerindian 1%, white 9%

Religions: Roman Catholic 86%

note:  there is extensive activity by Protestant groups throughout
the country; by the end of 1992, there were an estimated 1 million
Protestant evangelicals in El Salvador

Languages: Spanish, Nahua (among some Amerindians)

Literacy: definition:  age 10 and over can read and write

total population:  71.5%

male:  73.5%

female:  69.8% (1995 est.)



El Salvador    Government

Country name: conventional long form:  Republic of El Salvador

conventional short form:  El Salvador

local long form:  Republica de El Salvador

local short form:  El Salvador

Government type: republic

Capital: San Salvador

Administrative divisions: 14 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento); Ahuachapan, Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan, La
Libertad, La Paz, La Union, Morazan, San Miguel, San Salvador, Santa
Ana, San Vicente, Sonsonate, Usulutan

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 23 December 1983

Legal system: based on civil and Roman law, with traces of common
law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:  President Francisco FLORES Perez
(since 1 June 1999); Vice President Carlos QUINTANILLA Schmidt
(since 1 June 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state
and head of government

head of government:  President Francisco FLORES Perez (since 1 June
1999); Vice President Carlos QUINTANILLA Schmidt (since 1 June
1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government

cabinet:  cabinet selected by the president

elections:  president and vice president elected on the same ticket
by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 7 March 1999
(next to be held NA March 2004)

election results:  Francisco FLORES Perez elected president; percent
of vote - Francisco FLORES (ARENA) 52%, Facundo GUARDADO (FMLN) 29%,
Ruben ZAMORA (CDU) 7.5%, other (no individual above 3%) 11.5%

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea
Legislativa (84 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
serve three-year terms)

elections:  last held 12 March 2000 (next to be held NA March 2003)

election results:  percent of vote by party - ARENA 36.1%, FMLN
35.14%, PCN 8.76%, PDC 7.08%, CD 5.32%, PAN 3.75%, USC 1.47%, PLD
1.29%; seats by party - ARENA 28, FMLN 31, PCN 14, PDC 5, CD 3, PAN
1, independent 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges are selected
by the Legislative Assembly)

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party or PDC
[Rene AGUILUZ]; Democratic Convergence or CD (includes PSD, MNR,
MPSC) [Ruben ZAMORA, secretary general]; Democratic Party or PD
[Jorge MELENDEZ]; Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front or FMLN
[Fabio CASTILLO]; Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Kirio Waldo
SALGADO, president]; National Action Party or PAN [Gustavo Rogelio
SALINAS, secretary general]; National Conciliation Party or PCN
[Ciro CRUZ Zepeda, president]; National Republican Alliance or ARENA
[Walter ARAUJO]; Social Christian Union or USC (formed by the merger
of Christian Social Renewal Party or PRSC and Unity Movement or MU)
[Abraham RODRIGUEZ, president]

Political pressure groups and leaders: labor organizations -
Electrical Industry Union of El Salvador or SIES; Federation of the
Construction Industry, Similar Transport and other activities, or
FESINCONTRANS; National Confederation of Salvadoran Workers or CNTS;
National Union of Salvadoran Workers or UNTS; Port Industry Union of
El Salvador or SIPES; Salvadoran Union of Ex-Petrolleros and Peasant
Workers or USEPOC; Salvadoran Workers Central or CTS; Workers Union
of Electrical Corporation or STCEL; business organizations -
National Association of Small Enterprise or ANEP; Salvadoran
Assembly Industry Association or ASIC; Salvadoran Industrial
Association or ASI

International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO,
G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent),
ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL,
OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Rene Antonio LEON Rodriguez

chancery:  2308 California Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:  [1] (202) 265-9671

consulate(s) general:  Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco

consulate(s):  Boston

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador
Rose M. LIKINS

embassy:  Boulevard Santa Elena Final, Antiguo Cuscatlan, La
Libertad, San Salvador

mailing address:  Unit 3116, APO AA 34023

telephone:  [503] 278-4444

FAX:  [503] 278-6011

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white,
and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band;
the coat of arms features a round emblem encircled by the words
REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL; similar to the flag
of Nicaragua, which has a different coat of arms centered in the
white band - it features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA
DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; also similar
to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X
pattern centered in the white band



El Salvador    Economy

Economy - overview: El Salvador is a struggling Central American
economy which has been suffering from a weak tax collection system,
factory closings, the aftermaths of Hurricane Mitch of 1998 and the
devastating earthquakes of early 2001, and weak world coffee prices.
On the bright side, in recent years inflation has fallen to single
digit levels, and total exports have grown substantially. The trade
deficit has been offset by remittances (an estimated $1.6 billion in
2000) from Salvadorans living abroad and by external aid. As of 1
January 2001, the US dollar was made legal tender alongside the
colon.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $24 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  12%

industry:  28%

services:  60% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 48% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:
1.2%

highest 10%:  38.3% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 2.35 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 30%, industry 15%, services
55% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 10% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues:  $1.8 billion

expenditures:  $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999 est.)

Industries: food processing, beverages, petroleum, chemicals,
fertilizer, textiles, furniture, light metals

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 3.641 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  45.65%

hydro:  41.01%

nuclear:  0%

other:  13.34% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 3.638 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 208 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 460 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: coffee, sugar, corn, rice, beans, oilseed,
cotton, sorghum; shrimp; beef, dairy products

Exports: $2.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: offshore assembly exports, coffee, sugar,
shrimp, textiles, chemicals, electricity

Exports - partners: US 63%, Guatemala 11%, Honduras 7%, Costa Rica
4% (1999)

Imports: $4.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: raw materials, consumer goods, capital goods,
fuels, foodstuffs, petroleum, electricity

Imports - partners: US 52%, Guatemala 9%, Mexico 6%, Costa Rica 3%
(1999)

Debt - external: $4.1 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: total $252 million; $57 million from US
(1999 est.)

Currency: Salvadoran colon (SVC); US dollar (USD)

Currency code: SVC; USD

Exchange rates: Salvadoran colones per US dollar - 8.755 (fixed rate
since 1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year



El Salvador    Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 380,000 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 40,163 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment:  NA

domestic:  nationwide microwave radio relay system

international:  satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic
Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System

Radio broadcast stations: AM 61 (plus 24 repeaters), FM 30,
shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 2.75 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 5 (1997)

Televisions: