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Title: Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland (3 of 6): England (4 of 9) - Edward the Fourth, Earle of March, Sonne and Heire to - Richard Duke of Yorke
Author: Holinshed, Raphael
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland (3 of 6): England (4 of 9) - Edward the Fourth, Earle of March, Sonne and Heire to - Richard Duke of Yorke" ***

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sonne and heire to Richard duke of Yorke.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 1.]

[Sidenote: The earle of March taketh vpon him as king.]

[Sidenote: His title declared.]

After that this prince Edward earle of March had taken vpon him the
gouernement of this realme of England (as before ye haue heard) the
morow next insuing, being the fourth of March, he rode to the church
of saint Paule, and there offered: and after Te Deum soong, with great
solemnitie he was conueied to Westminster, and there set in the hall
with the scepter roiall in his hand, whereto people in great numbers
assembled. His claime to the crowne was declared to be by two maner of
waies, the first, as sonne and heire to duke Richard his father, right
inheritor to the same; the second, by authoritie of parlement, and
forfeiture committed by king Henrie. Wherevpon it was againe demanded
of the commons, if they would admit and take the said erle as their
prince and souereigne lord, which all with one voice cried; yea, yea.

[Sidenote: He is proclamed king.]

This part thus plaied, he entered into Westminster church vnder a
canopie with solemne procession, and there as king offered; and
herewith taking the homages of all the nobles there present, he
returned by water to London, and was lodged in the bishops palace; and
on the morrow after, he was proclamed king by the name of Edward the
fourth, throughout the citie. This was in the yeare of the world 5427,
and after the birth of our Saviour 1461 after our accompt, beginning
the yeare at Christmasse; but after the vsuall accompt of the church of
England 1460, the twentith of emperour Frederike the third; the nine
and thirtith and last of Charles the seuenth French king; and first
yeare of the reigne of Iames the third king of Scots.

Whilest these things were adooing in the southparts, king Henrie being
in the north countrie, assembled a great armie, trusting (for all this)
to subdue his enimies; namelie, sith their chiefe ringleader the duke
of Yorke was dispatched out of the waie. But he was deceiued: for out
of the ded stocke sprang a branch more mightie than the stem; this
Edward the fourth, a prince so highlie fauoured of the people, for his
great liberalitie, clemencie, vpright dealing, and courage, that aboue
all other, he with them stood in grace alone: by reason whereof, men of
all ages and degrees to him dailie repaired, some offering themselues
and their men to ieopard their liues with him, and other plentiouslie
gaue monie to support his charges, and to mainteine his right.

By which meanes, he gathered togither a puissant armie, to the intent
by battell (sithens none other waies would serue) at once to make an
end of all. So, his armie and all things prepared, he departed out
of London the twelfe daie of March, and by easie iournies came to
the castell of Pomfret, where he rested, appointing the lord Fitz
Walter to kéepe the passage at Ferribridge with a good number of tall
men. King Henrie on the other part, hauing his armie in readinesse,
committed the gouernance thereof to the duke of Summerset, the earle of
Northumberland, and the lord Clifford, as men desiring to reuenge the
death of their parents, slaine at the first battell at saint Albons.
These capteins leauing king Henrie, his wife, and sonne, for the most
safegard within the citie of Yorke, passed the riuer of Wharfe with
all their power, intending to stop king Edward of his passage ouer the
riuer of Aire.

[Sidenote: The lord Fitzwater slaine.]

And the better to bring that to passe, the lord Clifford determined to
make a charge vpon them that kept the passage of Ferribridge; and so he
departed with his light horssemen from the great armie on the saturdaie
before Plamesundaie; and earelie yer his enimies were aware, slue the
kéepers and wan the bridge. The lord Fitz Walter hearing the noise,
suddenlie rose out of his bed, and vnarmed with a pollax in hand,
thinking that it had béene but a fraie amongst his men, came downe to
appease the same; but yer he knew what the matter meant was slaine, and
with him the bastard of Salisburie brother to the earle of Warwike, a
valiant yoong gentleman, and of great audacitie.

[Sidenote: The earle of Warwike.]

[Sidenote: A proclamation.]

When the earle of Warwike was informed hereof, like a man desperat,
he mounted on his hacknie, and hasted puffing and blowing to king
Edward, saieng; "Sir, I praie God haue mercie of their soules, which
in the beginning of your enterprise haue lost their liues. And bicause
I sée no succors of the world but in God, I remit the vengeance to
him our creator and redéemer." With that he alighted downe, and slue
his horse with his sword, saieng; Let him flée that will, for suerlie
I will tarrie with him that will tarrie with me: and kissed the
crosse of his sword as it were for a vow to the promise. King Edward,
perceiuing the courage of his trustie friend the earle of Warwike, made
proclamation, that all men which were afraid to fight, should depart:
and to all those that tarried the battell, he promised great rewards,
with addition that anie souldier which voluntarilie would abide, and
afterwards, either in or before the fight should seeme to flée or turne
his backe, then he that could kill him, should haue a great reward and
double wages.

[Sidenote: The lord Clifford slain.]

[Sidenote: Dintingdale.]

[Sidenote: Crueltie paid with sudden mischiefe.]

After this proclamation ended, the lord Fauconbridge, sir Walter Blunt,
Robert Horne with the fore-ward passed the riuer at Castelford, three
miles from Ferribridge, intending to haue inuironed the lord Clifford
and his companie, but they being therof aduertised, departed in great
hast toward king Henries armie; yet they met with some that they looked
not for, & were so trapt yer they were aware. For the lord Clifford,
either for heat or paine, putting off his gorget, suddenlie with an
arrow (as some saie) without an head, was striken into the throte, and
immediatlie rendred his spirit; and the earle of Westmerlands brother
and all his companie almost were there slaine, at a place called
Dintingdale, not far from Towton. This end had the lord Clifford,
which slue the earle of Rutland knéeling on his knees, whose yoong
sonne Thomas Clifford was brought vp with a sheepheard in poore habit,
euer in feare to be knowne, till king Henrie the seuenth obteined the
crowne, by whom he was restored to his name and possessions.

[Sidenote: The lord Faucounbridge.]

[Sidenote: Saxton.]

[Sidenote: _Whethamsted_ saith, that K. H[=e]ries power excéeded in
number king Edwards by twentie thousand men.]

[Sidenote: An heauie proclamai[=o].]

[Sidenote: Palmesundaie field.]

When this conflict was ended at Ferribridge, the lord Fauconbridge,
hauing the fore-ward, bicause the duke of Norffolke was fallen sicke,
valiantlie vpon Palmesundaie in the twilight set foorth his armie and
came to Saxton, where he might apparantlie behold the host of his
aduersaries, which were accompted thréescore thousand men, and thereof
aduertised king Edward, whose whole armie amounted to eight and fortie
thousand six hundred and thréescore persons: which incontinentlie with
the earle of Warwike set forward, leauing the rere-ward vnder the
gouernance of sir Iohn Wenlocke, sir Iohn Dinham, and other. And first
of all, he made proclamation, that no prisoner should be taken. So the
same daie about nine of the clocke, which was the nine and twentith
daie of March, being Palmesundaie, both the hostes approched in a faire
plaine field, betwéene Towton and Saxton.

When ech part perceiued other, they made a great shout; and at the same
instant there fell a small sléete or snow, which by violence of the
wind that blew against them, was driuen into the faces of king Henries
armies, so that their sight was somewhat dimmed. The lord Fauconbridge,
leading K. Edwards fore-ward, caused euerie archer vnder his standard
to shoot one flight (which before he caused them to prouide) and then
made them to stand still. The northerne men feeling the shot, but by
reason of the sléet, not well viewing the distance betwéene them and
their enimies, like forward men shot their sheafe arrowes as fast as
they might: but all to losse, for they came short of the southerne men
by thréescore yards.

[Sidenote: The earle of Northumberland.]

[Sidenote: The obstinate minds of both parts.]

So their shot almost spent, the lord Fauconbridge marched forward
with his archers, which not onelie shot their whole sheafes, but also
gathered the arrowes of their enimies, and let a great part flie
against their first owners, and suffered a great sort of them to stand,
which sore troubled the legs of the northerne men, when the battell
ioined. The earle of Northumberland and Andrew Trollop, chiefe capteins
of king Henries vawward, séeing their shot not to preuaile, hasted to
ioine with their enimies, and the other part slacked not their pase.
This battell was sore foughten, for hope of life was set aside on
either part, & taking of prisoners proclamed a great offense, so euerie
man determined to vanquish or die in the field.

[Sidenote: King Henries part discomfited.]

[Sidenote: Cocke or riuer.]

This deadlie conflict continued ten houres in doubtfull state of
victorie, vncerteinlie heauing and setting on both sides; but in the
end, king Edward so couragiouslie comforted his men, that the other
part was discomfited and ouercome, who like men amazed, fled toward
Tadcaster bridge to saue themselues, where in the mid waie is a little
brooke called Cocke, not verie broad, but of a great déepenesse, in
which, what for hast to escape, and what for feare of their followers,
a great number was drowned there. It was reported, that men aliue
passed the riuer vpon dead carcasses, and that the great riuer of
Wharfe whereinto that brooke dooth run, and of all the water comming
from Towton, was coloured with bloud.

[Sidenote: The number slaine in battell of Saxt[=o], otherwise called
Palmesundaie field.]

The chase continued all night, and the most part of the next daie, and
euer the northerne men (as they saw anie aduantage) returned againe,
and fought with their enimies, to the great losse of both parts. For
in these two daies were slaine (as they that knew it wrote) on both
parts six and thirtie thousand seuen hundred thréescore & sixteene
persons, all Englishmen and of one nation, whereof the chiefe were the
earles of Northumberland and Westmerland, the lord Dacres, and the lord
Welles, sir Iohn Neuill, Andrew Trollop, Robert Horne, and manie other
knights and esquiers, and the earle of Deuonshire was taken prisoner,
but the dukes of Summerset and Excester fled from the field and saued

[Sidenote: King Henrie withdraweth to Berwike, & from thence into

After this great victorie, king Edward rode to Yorke, where he was
with all solemnitie receiued; and first he caused the heads of his
father, the earle of Salisburie, and other his freends, to be taken
from the gates, and to be buried with their bodies: and there he
caused the earle of Deuonshire, and thrée other to be beheaded, and
set their heads in the same place. King Henrie, after he heard of the
irrecouerable losse of his armie, departed incontinentlie with his wife
and sonne to the towne of Berwike, and leauing the duke of Summerset
there, went into Scotland, and comming to the king of Scots, required
of him and his councell, aid, and comfort.

[Sidenote: Quéene Margaret with hir sonne goeth into France.]

The yoong king of Scots, lamenting the miserable state of king Henrie,
comforted him with faire words and friendlie promises, and assigned to
him a competent pension to liue on, during his abode in Scotland. King
Henrie, in recompense of this courtesie and friendship, deliuered to
the king of Scots the towne of Berwike, whereof he had got possession.
He faithfullie supported the part of king Henrie, and concluded a
mariage betwixt his sister, and the yoong prince of Wales, but the
same was neuer consummate, as after ye shall heare. When king Henrie
was somwhat setled in the relme of Scotland, he sent his wife and
sonne into France to king Reiner hir father, trusting by his aid and
succour to assemble an armie, and once againe to recouer his right and
dignitie: but he in the meane time made his aboad in Scotland, to see
what waie his friends in England would studie for his restitution.

The quéene being in France, did obteine of the yoong French king then
Lewes the eleuenth, that all hir husbands friends, and those of the
Lancastriall band, might safelie and suerlie haue resort into anie part
of the realme of France, prohibiting all other of the contrarie faction
anie accesse, or repair into that countrie. ¶ Thus ye haue heard, how
king Henrie the sixt, after he had reigned eight and thirtie yeares &
od moneths, was driuen out of this realme. But now leauing him with
the princes of his part, consulting togither in Scotland, and queene
Margaret his wife gathering of men in France, I will returne where I
left, to proceed with the dooings of king Edward.

This yoong prince, hauing with prosperous success obteined so
glorious a victorie in the mortall battell at Towton, and chased all
his aduersaries out of the realme, or at the least waies put them
to silence, returned after the maner and fashion of a triumphant
conquerour, with great pompe vnto London; where according to the old
custome of the realme, he called a great assemblie of persons of all
degrees, and the nine & twentith daie of Iune was at Westminster with
solemnitie crowned and annointed king. ¶ In which yeare, this king
Edward called his high court of parlement at Westminster, in the which,
the state of the realme was greatlie reformed, and all the statutes
made in Henrie the sixt his time (which touched either his title or
profit) were reuoked.

In the same parlement, the earle of Oxford far striken in age, and
his sonne and heire the lord Awbreie Véer, either through malice of
their enimies, or for that they had offended the king, were both, with
diuerse of their councellors, attainted, and put to execution; which
caused Iohn earle of Oxford euer after to rebell. There were also
beheaded the same time, sir Thomas Tudenham knight, William Tirell, and
Iohn Montgomerie esquiers, and after them diuerse others. Also after
this, he created his two yoonger brethren dukes, that is to saie, lord
George duke of Clarence, lord Richard duke of Glocester; and the lord
Iohn Neuill, brother to Richard earle of Warwike, he first made lord
Montacute, and afterwards created him marques Montacute.

Beside this, Henrie Bourchier brother to Thomas archbishop of
Canturburie, was created earle of Essex; and William lord Fauconbridge
was made earle of Kent. To this Henrie lord Bourchier, a man highlie
renowmed in martiall feats, Richard duke of Yorke long before this
time, had giuen his sister Elizabeth in mariage, of whome he begat
foure sonnes, William, Thomas, Iohn and Henrie: the which William being
a man of great industrie, wit, and prouidence in graue and weightie
matters, maried the ladie Anne Wooduile, decended of high parentage,
whose mother Iaquet was daughter to Peter of Lutzenburgh earle of
saint Paule, by the which Anne he had lord Henrie earle of Essex, one
daughter named Cicile, maried to Water lord Ferrers of Chartleie and an
other called Isabell, which died vnmaried.

[Sidenote: 1462.]

[Sidenote: _Iohn Stow._]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 2.]

[Sidenote: The duke of Summerset & other, submit them to king Edward.]

The earle of Kent was appointed about this time to kéepe the seas,
being accompanied with the lord Audelie, the lord Clinton, sir Iohn
Howard, sir Richard Walgraue, and others, to the number of ten
thousand, who landing in Britaine, wan the towne of Conquet, and the
Isle of Reth, and after returned. When all things were brought in
order, and framed as king Edward in maner could wish, Henrie duke of
Summerset, sir Rafe Persie, and diuerse other, being in despaire of
all good chance to happen vnto king Henrie, came humblie, & submitted
themselues vnto king Edward, whome he gentlie receiued. Which clemencie
notwithstanding, both the one and the other (when time serued) reuolted
from king Edward, and betooke themselues to take part with Henrie,
vnto whom they had béene adherents before: bicause they grew in hope
that in the end the confederats, to whom they so closelie did cleaue
both in effection and seriousnesse of labour (though they pretended a
temporall renunciation of all dutie and seruice for their securitie
sake) should haue the honor of victorie against their gainstanders.
But as commonlie the euents of enterprises fall out flat contrarie to
mens expectation and hope; so came it to passe with these, whose hope
though it were gréene and flourie in the prosecuting of their affaires,
yet in the knitting vp of the matter and vnluckie successe thereof, it
fell out in triall to be a flattering, a false, and a fruitlesse hope:
and therefore that is a true and a wise sentence of the comicall poet &
well seruing the purpose:

[Sidenote: _Plaut. in Mostel._]

    Insperata accidunt magis sæpè quàm quæ speres.

[Sidenote: 1463.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 3.]

[Sidenote: The Quéene returneth foorth of France.]

All this season was king Henrie in Scotland, and quéene Margaret
(being in France) found such friendship at the French kings hands,
that she obteined a crue of fiue hundred Frenchmen, with the which she
arriued in Scotland. And after that she had reposed hir selfe a time,
she sailed with hir gallant band of those ruffling Frenchmen toward
Newcastell, and landed at Tinmouth. But whether she were afraid of hir
owne shadow, or that the Frenchmen cast too manie doubts; the truth is,
that the whole armie returned to their ships, and a tempest rose so
suddenlie, that if she had not taken a small carauell, and that with
good spéed arriued at Berwike, she had beene taken at that present time
by hir aduersaries.

And although fortune was so fauourable to hir, yet hir companie with
stormie blasts was driuen on the shore before Banburgh castell, where
they set their ships on fire, and fled to an Iland called holie Iland,
where they were so assailed by the bastard Ogle, and an esquier called
Iohn Manners, with other of king Edwards freends, that manie of them
were slaine, and almost foure hundred taken prisoners: but their
coronell Peter Bressie, otherwise called monsieur de Varenne, happened
vpon a fisherman, and so came to Berwike vnto queene Margaret, who made
him capteine of the castell of Alnewike, which he with his Frenchmen
kept, till they were rescued.

[Sidenote: Banburgh castell.]

[Sidenote: The duke of Summerset reuolteth.]

Shortlie after quéene Margaret obteined a great companie of Scots,
and other of hir friends, and so bringing hir husband with hir, and
leauing hir sonne called prince Edward in the towne of Berwike, entered
Northumberland, tooke the castell of Banburgh, and stuffed it with
Scotishmen, and made thereof capteine sir Rafe Greie, and came forward
toward the bishoprike of Durham. When the duke of Summerset heard
these newes, he without delaie reuolted from king Edward, and fled to
king Henrie. So likewise did sir Rafe Persie, and manie other of the
kings friends. But manie mo followed king Henrie, in hope to get by
the spoile: for his armie spoiled and burned townes, and destroied
fields whersoeuer he came. King Edward aduertised of all these things,
prepared an armie both by sea and land.

Some of his ships were rigged and vittelled at Lin, and some at Hull,
and well furnished with souldiers were herewith set foorth to the sea.
Also the lord Montacute was sent into Northumberland, there to raise
the people to withstand his enimies. And after this, the king in his
proper person, accompanied with his brethren, and a great part of the
nobilitie of his realme, came to the citie of Yorke, furnished with
a mightie armie, sending a great part thereof to the aid of the lord
Montacute, least peraduenture he giuing too much confidence to the men
of the bishoprike and Northumberland, might through them be deceiued.

[Sidenote: The lord Montacute.]

[Sidenote: Hegelie moore.]

[Sidenote: Sir Rafe Persie.]

The lord Montacute then hauing such with him as he might trust, marched
foorth towards his enimies, and by the waie was incountered with the
lord Hungerford, the lord Roos, sir Rafe Persie, and diuerse other,
at a place called Hegelie moore, where suddenlie the said lords, in
maner without stroke strikeng, fled; and onelie sir Rafe Percie abode,
and was there manfullie slaine, with diuerse other, saieng when he was
dieng; I haue saued the bird in my bosome: meaning that he had kept his
promise and oth made to king Henrie: forgetting (belike) that he in
king Henries most necessitie abandoned him, and submitted him to king
Edward, as before you haue heard.

[Sidenote: Exham field.]

[Sidenote: The duke of Summerset taken.]

The lord Montacute séeing fortune thus prosperouslie leading his saile,
aduanced forward; & learning by espials, that king Henrie with his host
was incamped in a faire plaine called Liuels, on the water of Dowill in
Examshire, hasted thither, and manfullie set on his enimies in their
owne campe, which like desperate persons with no small courage receiued
him. There was a sore foughten field, and long yer either part could
haue anie aduantage of the other: but at length the victorie fell
to the lord Montacute, who by fine force entered the battell of his
enimies, and constreined them to flie, as despairing of all succours.
In which flight, and chase were taken Henrie duke of Summerset, which
before was reconciled to king Edward, the lord Roos, the lord Molins,
the lord Hungerford, sir Thomas Wentworth, sir Thomas Husseie, sir Iohn
Finderne, and manie other.

[Sidenote: King Henrie fled.]

[Sidenote: The duke of Summerset beheaded.]

King Henrie was a good horsseman that day, for he rode so fast awaie
that no man might ouertake him; and yet he was so neere pursued, that
certeine of his henchmen were taken, their horsses trapped in blue
veluet, and one of them had on his head the said king Henries helmet,
or rather (as may be thought, & as some say) his high cap of estate,
called Abacot, garnished with two rich crownes, which was presented to
king Edward at Yorke the fourth day of Maie. The duke of Summerset was
incontinentlie beheaded at Exham; the other lords and knights were had
to Newcastell, and there (after a little respit) were likewise put to
death. Beside these, diuerse other, to the number of fiue and twentie,
were executed at Yorke, and in other places.

[Sidenote: The earle of Kime, otherwise Angus, beheaded.]

Sir Humfrie Neuill, and William Tailbois, calling himselfe earle of
Kime, sir Rafe Greie, and Richard Tunstall, with diuerse other, which
escaped from this battell, hid themselues in secret places: but yet
they kept not themselues so close, but that they were espied and
taken. The earle of Kime was apprehended in Riddesdale, and brought
to Newcastell, and there beheaded. Sir Humfrie Neuill was taken in
Holdernesse, and at Yorke lost his head. After this battell called
Exham field, king Edward came to the citie of Durham, and sent from
thence into Northumberland the earle of Warwike, the lord Montacute,
the lords Fauconbridge & Scroope, to recouer such castels as his
enimies there held, and with force defended.

[Sidenote: Alnewike castell besieged.]

They first besieged the castell of Alnewike, which sir Peter Bressie
and the Frenchmen kept, and in no wise would yéeld, sending for aid to
the Scots. Whervpon sir George Dowglas erle of Angus, with thirtéene
thousand chosen men, in the day time came and rescued the Frenchmen out
of the castell; the Englishmen looking on, which thought it much better
to haue the castell without losse of their men, than to léese both
the castell and their men, considering the great power of the Scots,
& their owne small number; and so they entered the castell and manned
it. After this, they woone the castell of Dunstanburgh by force, and
likewise the castell of Banburgh. Iohn Gois, seruant to the duke of
Summerset, being taken within Dunstanburgh, was brought to Yorke, and
there beheaded.

Sir Rafe Greie being taken in Banburgh, for that he had sworne to be
true to king Edward, was disgraded of the high order of knighthood at
Doncaster, by cutting off his gilt spurs, renting his cote of armes,
and breaking his sword ouer his head: and finallie, he was there
beheaded for his manifest periurie. After this, king Edward returned to
Yorke, where (in despite of the earle of Northumberland, who then kept
himselfe in the realme of Scotland) he created sir Iohn Neuill, lord
Montacute earle of Northumberland; and in reproofe of Iasper earle of
Penbrooke he created William lord Herbert earle of the same place. But
after, when by mediation of friends, the earle of Northumberland was
reconciled to his fauour, he restored him to his possessions, name,
and dignitie; and preferred the lord Montacute to the title of marques
Montacute: so that in degree, he was aboue his elder brother the earle
of Warwike; but in power, policie, & possessions, far mener.

[Sidenote: 1464.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 4.]

King Edward, though all things might séeme now to rest in good case,
yet he was not negligent in making necessarie prouision against
all attempts of his aduersarie king Henrie, and his partakers; and
therefore raised bulworks, and builded fortresses on ech side of his
realme, where anie danger was suspected for the landing of anie armie.
He caused also espials to be laid vpon the marches, fore against
Scotland, that no person should go out of the realme to king Henrie
and his companie, which then soiourned in Scotland. But all the doubts
of trouble that might insue by the means of king Henries being at
libertie, were shortlie taken away and ended: for he himselfe, whether
he was past all fear; or that hée was not well established in his wits
and perfect mind; or for that he could not long kéepe himselfe secret,
in disguised atire boldlie entred into England.

[Sidenote: King Henrie taken.]

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl. ex I.S. pag. 717._]

He was no sooner entred, but he was knowne and taken of one Cantlow,
and brought toward the king, whom the earle of Warwike met on the way
by the kings commandement, and brought him through London to the Tower,
& there he was laid in sure hold. ¶ But it is woorthie the noting,
which I haue obserued in a late chronographers report touching this
matter; namelie, that king Henrie was taken in Cletherwood, beside
Bungerleie Hippingstons in Lancashire, by Thomas Talbot sonne and
heire to sir Edward Talbot of Basshall, and Iohn Talbot his cosin of
Colebrie, which deceiued him being at his dinner at Wadington Hall, and
brought him toward London, with his legs bound to the stirrups, where
he was met by the earle of Warwike, and arested at Esildon; doctor
Manning deane of Windsor, doctor Bedle, and yoong Ellerton being in his
companie, with their feet bound vnder the horse bellies were brought
also to the Tower of London.

[Sidenote: The earle of Penbroke.]

[Sidenote: _Ab. Flem._]

Quéene Margaret hearing of the captiuitie of hir husband, mistrusting
the chance of hir sonne, all desolate and comfortlesse departed out of
Scotland, and passed into France, where she remained with hir father
duke Reiner, till she returned into England to hir harme, as after ye
shall heare. The new duke of Summerset, and his brother Iohn, sailed
into France, where they also liued in great miserie; till duke Charles,
bicause he was of their kin, as descended of the house of Lancaster by
his mother, succoured them with a small pension, which was to them a
great comfort. The earle of Penbroke went from countrie to countrie,
not alwaies at his hearts ease, nor in safetie of life. [As for his
dignitie and reputation, it was the more obscured, for that he had
lost the title of his honor, and left at his wits end, doubtfull
and vncerteine in contrarie factions (as manie more) what to say or
doo for his best securitie. Neuerthelesse he concealed his inward
discontentment, and as oportunitie of time ministred matter, so he
grew in courage, and fell to practises of force (with other complices)
therby to accomplish the cloudie conceits of his troubled mind, being
persuaded, that temporall misfortunes are, if not vtterlie auoidable,
yet manfullie to be withstood, or at least with audacitie & courage to
be suffered, as the poet properlie saith:

[Sidenote: _Vir. Aen. 6._]

    Tu ne cede malis, sed contra audentior ito.]

[Sidenote: New coine stamped.]

King Edward being thus in more suertie of his life than before,
distributed the possessions of such as tooke part with king Henrie
the sixt, to his souldiers and capteins, which he thought had well
deserued: and besides this, he left no other point of liberalitie
vnshewed, whereby he might allure to him the beneuolent minds and
louing hearts of his people. And moreouer to haue the loue of all
men, he shewed himselfe more familiar both with the nobilitie and
commonaltie, than (as some men thought) was conuenient, either for his
estate, or for his honor: notwithstanding the same liberalitie be euer
after vsed. The lawes of the realme, in part he reformed, and in part
he newlie augmented. The coine both gold and siluer (which yet at this
day is) he newlie deuised, and diuided; for the gold he named roials
and nobles, and the siluer he called grotes and halfe grotes.

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl. ex I.S. pag. 716._]

[Sidenote: Sergeants feast.]

[Sidenote: _Register of maiors._]

[Sidenote: The maior of London departeth from the sergeants feast.]

¶ In Michaelmasse terme were made sergeants at law, Thomas Yoong,
Nicholas Geneie, Richard Neale, Thomas Brian, Richard Pigot, Iohn
Greenfield, Iohn Catesbie, and Gwie Fairfax, which held their feast in
the bishop of Elies place in Holborne. To the which feast the maior of
London, with the aldermen, shiriffes, and commons of diuerse crafts
being bidden, repaired. But when the maior looked to be set to keepe
the state in the hall, as it beene vsed in all places of the citie
and liberties, out of the kings presence (vnknowne to the sergeants
and against their wils, as they said) the lord Graie of Ruthen then
treasuror of England was there placed. Wherevpon the maior, aldermen,
and commons departed home, and the maior made all the aldermen to dine
with him. Howbeit he and all the citizens were greatlie displeased
that he was so dealt with, and the new sergeants and others were right
sorie therefore, and had rather than much good it had not so happened.
This was then (as my record reporteth more at large) registred to be a
president in time to come.

After that king Edward had reduced the state of the publike affaires
vnto his liking; to purchase himselfe a good opinion, and fauourable
iudgement among the commons, he made proclamations, that all persons,
which were adherents to his aduersaries part, & would leaue their
armour, and submit themselues wholie to his grace and mercie, should be
cléerelie pardoned and forgiuen. By this kind of courteous dealing he
wan him such fauour of the people, that euer after, in all his warres,
he was (thorough their aid and support) a victor and conquerour. When
his realme was thus brought into a good and quiet estate, it was
thought méet by him and those of his councell, that a marriage were
prouided for him in some conuenient place; and therefore was the earle
of Warwike sent ouer into France, to demand the ladie Bona, daughter to
Lewes duke of Sauoie, and sister to the ladie Carlot, then quéene of
France; which Bona was at that time in the French court.

[Sidenote: The earle of Warwike sent into France about a marriage.]

[Sidenote: The ladie Elizabeth Graie.]

The earle of Warwike, comming to the French king, then lieng at Tours,
was of him honourablie receiued, and right courteouslie interteined.
His message was so well liked, and his request thought so honourable
for the aduancement of the ladie Bona, that hir sister quéene Carlot
obteined both the good will of the king hir husband, and also of hir
sister the foresaid ladie: so that the matrimonie on that side was
cleerelie assented to, and the erle of Dampmartine appointed (with
others) to saile into England, for the full finishing of the same. But
here consider the old prouerbe to be true, which saith, that mariage
goeth by destinie. For, during the time that the earle of Warwike was
thus in France, and (according to his instructions) brought the effect
of his commission to passe, the king being on hunting in the forest of
Wichwood besides Stonistratford, came for his recreation to the manor
of Grafton, where the duchesse of Bedford then soiourned, wife to sir
Richard Wooduile lord Riuers, on whome was then attendant a daughter of
hirs, called the ladie Elizabeth Graie, widow of sir Iohn Graie knight,
slaine at the last battell of saint Albons, as before ye haue heard.

This widow, hauing a sute to the king for such lands as hir husband had
giuen hir in iointure, so kindled the kings affection towards hir, that
he not onelie fauoured hir sute, but more hir person; for she was a
woman of a more formall countenance than of excellent beautie; and yet
both of such beautie and fauour, that with hir sober demeanour, swéete
looks, and comelie smiling (neither too wanton, nor too bashfull)
besides hir pleasant toong and trim wit, she so alured and made subiect
unto hir the heart of that great prince, that after she had denied him
to be his paramour, with so good maner, and words so well set as better
could not be deuised; he finallie resolued with himselfe to marrie hir,
not asking counsell of anie man, till they might perceiue it was no
bootie to aduise him to the contrarie of that his concluded purpose;
sith he was so farre gone that he was not reuocable, and therefore
had fixed his heart vpon the last resolution: namelie, to applie an
holesome, honest, and honourable remedie to his affections fiered with
the flames of loue, and not to permit his heart to the thraldome of
vnlawful lust; which purpose was both princelie and profitable; as the
poet saith:

[Sidenote: _Ouid. de rem. am. lib. 1._]

    Vtile propositum est sæuas extinguere flammas,
      Nec seruum vitijs pectus habere suum.

[Sidenote: 1465.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 5.]

But yet the duchesse of Yorke his moother letted this match as much
as in hir laie: & when all would not serue, she caused a precontract
to be alleged, made by him with ladie Elizabeth Lucie. But all doubts
resolued, all things made cléere, and all cauillations auoided,
priuilie in a morning he married the said ladie Elizabeth Graie at
Grafton beforesaid, where he first began to fansie hir. And in the
next yere after she was with great solemnitie crowned quéene at
Westminster. Hir father also was created earle Riuers, and made high
constable of England: hir brother lord Anthonie was married to the sole
heire of Thomas lord Scales: sir Thomas Graie sonne to sir Iohn Graie
the quéenes first husband, was created marques Dorset, and married
to Cicelie heire to the lord Bonuille. The French king was not well
pleased to be thus dallied with; but he shortlie (to appease the gréefe
of his wife and hir sister the ladie Bona) married the said ladie Bona
to the duke of Millan.

[Sidenote: The earle of Warwike offended with the kings mariage.]

Now when the earle of Warwike had knowledge by letters sent to him
out of England from his trustie friends, that king Edward had gotten
him a new wife, he was not a little troubled in his mind, for that he
tooke it his credence thereby was greatlie minished, and his honour
much stained, namelie in the court of France: for that it might be
iudged he came rather like an espiall, to mooue a thing neuer minded,
and to treat a marriage determined before not to take effect. Suerlie
he thought himselfe euill vsed, that when he had brought the matter to
his purposed intent and wished conclusion, then to haue it quaile on
his part; so as all men might thinke at the least wise, that his prince
made small account of him, to send him on such a sléuelesse errand.

All men for the most part agrée, that this marriage was the onlie
cause, why the earle of Warwike conceiued an hatred against king
Edward, whome he so much before fauoured. Other affirme other causes;
and one speciallie, for that king Edward did attempt a thing once in
the earles house, which was much against the earles honestie (whether
he would haue defloured his daughter or his néece, the certeintie was
not for both their honours openlie reuealed) for suerlie, such a thing
was attempted by king Edward; which loued well both to behold and also
to féele faire damsels. But whether the iniurie that the earle thought
he receiued at the kings hands, or the disdaine of authoritie that the
earle had vnder the king, was the cause of the breach of amitie betwixt
them: truth it is, that the priuie intentions of their harts brake into
so many small pieces, that England, France, and Flanders, could neuer
ioine them againe, during their naturall liues.

[Sidenote: The earle of Warwike keepeth his gréefe secret.]

But though the earle of Warwike was earnestlie inflamed against the
king, for that he had thus married himselfe without his knowledge,
hauing regard onelie to the satisfieng of his wanton appetite, more
than to his honour or suertie of his estate; yet did he so much
dissemble the matter at his returne into England, as though he had not
vnderstood anie thing thereof: but onelie declared what he had doone,
with such reuerence, and shew of fréendlie countenance, as he had béene
accustomed. And when he had taried in the court a certeine space,
he obteined licence of the king to depart to his castell of Warwike,
meaning (when time serued) to vtter to the world, that which he then
kept secret, that is to saie, his inward grudge, which he bare towards
the king, with desire of reuenge, to the vttermost of his power.
Neuerthelesse, at that time he departed (to the outward shew) so farre
in the kings fauour, that manie gentlemen of the court for honours sake
gladlie accompanied him into his countrie.

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl. ex I. S. pag. 717._]

[Sidenote: Long piked shooes forbidden.]

¶ This yéere it was proclamed in England, that the beakes or pikes of
shooes and boots should not passe two inches, vpon paine of cursing by
the cleargie, and forfeiting twentie shillings, to be paid one noble
to the king, and other to the cordwainers of London, and the third to
the chamber of London; and for other cities and townes the like order
was taken. Before this time, and since the yeare of our Lord 1382, the
pikes of shooes and boots were of such length, that they were faine to
be tied vp vnto the knees with chaines of siluer and gilt, or at the
least with silken laces.

[Sidenote: 1466.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 6.]

[Sidenote: Cotteshold shéepe transported into Spaine.]

[Sidenote: Truce with Scots.]

In this yeare also, the kings daughter, the ladie Elizabeth, after wife
to king Henrie the seauenth, was borne; king Edward concluded an amitie
and league with Henrie king of Castile, and Iohn king of Aragon; at the
concluding whereof, he granted licence for certeine Cotteshold shéepe,
to be transported into the countrie of Spaine (as people report)
which haue there so multiplied and increased, that it hath turned the
commoditie of England much to the Spanish profit. Beside this, to haue
an amitie with his next neighbour the king of Scots, he winked at
the losse of Berwike, and was contented to take a truce for fiftéene
yeares. Thus king Edward, though for refusall of the French kings
sister in law he wan him enimies in France; yet in other places he
procured him fréends: but those fréends had stood him in small stéed,
if fortune had not holpe him to an other, euen at his elbow.

[Sidenote: 1467.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 7.]

[Sidenote: The bastard of Burgognie ambassadour into England.]

This was Charles earle of Charolois, the sonne and heire apparant
vnto Philip duke of Burgognie, which Charles being then a widower,
was councelled to be suter vnto king Edward, for to haue in mariage
the ladie Margaret, sister to the said king, a ladie of excellent
beautie, and indued with so manie worthie gifts of nature, grace, and
fortune, that she was thought not vnworthie to match with the greatest
prince of the world. The lord Anthonie bastard brother to the said
earle Charolois, commonlie called the bastard of Burgognie, a man of
great wit, courage, and valiantnesse, was appointed by his father duke
Philip, to go into England in ambassage, about this sute; who being
furnished of plate and apparell, necessarie for his estate, hauing in
his companie gentlemen, and other expert in all feats of chiualrie
and martiall prowesse, to the number of foure hundred horsses, tooke
his ship, and arriued in England, where he was of the king & nobles
honourablie receiued.

[Sidenote: Iusts betwixt the bastard of Burgognie & the lord Scales.]

This message being declared, ye may be sure the same was ioifullie
heard of the king and his councell; the which by that affinitie, saw
how they might be assured of a buckler against France. But yet the
earle of Warwike, bearing his heartie fauour vnto the French king,
did as much as in him laie by euill reports to hinder this marriage:
but this notwithstanding, at length, the king granted to the bastards
request; and the said bastard openlie in the kings great chamber
contracted the said ladie Margaret, for, and in the name of his brother
the said earle of Charolois. After this marriage thus concluded, the
bastard challenged the lord Scales, brother to the queene, a man both
equall in hart and valiantnesse with the bastard, to fight with him
both on horssebacke, and on foot: which demand the lord Scales gladlie

The king causing lists to be prepared in West-smithfield for these
champions, and verie faire and costlie galleries for the ladies, was
present at this martiall enterprise himselfe. The first daie they ran
togither diuerse courses with sharpe speares, and departed with equall
honor. The next day they turneied on horssebacke. The lord Scales
horsse had on his chafron a long sharpe pike of steele, and as the two
champions coped togither, the same horsse (whether thorough custome
or by chance) thrust his pike into the nosethrils of the bastards
horsse; so that for verie paine he mounted so high, that he fell on
the one side with his maister, and the lord Scales rode round about
him with his sword in his hand, vntill the king commanded the marshall
to helpe vp the bastard, which openlie said; "I can not hold me by the
clouds, for though my horsse faileth me, surelie I will not faile my
contercompanion." The king would not suffer them to doo anie more that

[Sidenote: The law of armes.]

The morow after, the two noblemen came into the field on foot, with two
polaxes, and fought valiantlie: but at the last, the point of the polax
of the lord Scales happened to enter into the sight of the bastards
helme, and by fine force might haue plucked him on his knees: the king
suddenlie cast downe his warder, and then the marshals them seuered.
The bastard not content with this chance, and trusting on the cunning
which he had at the polax, required the king of iustice, that he might
performe his enterprise. The lord Scales refused it not, but the king
said, he would aske councell: and so calling to him the constable,
and the marshall, with the officers of armes, after consultation had,
and the lawes of armes rehearsed, it was declared for a sentence
definitiue, by the duke of Clarence, then constable of England, and the
duke of Norffolke, then marshall; that if he would go forward with his
attempted challenge, he must by the law of armes be deliuered to his
aduersarie, in the same state and like condition as he stood when he
was taken from him.

[Sidenote: The death of the duke of Burgognie.]

[Sidenote: George Neuill archbishop of Yorke.]

The bastard hearing this iudgement, doubted the sequele of the matter;
and so relinquished his challenge. Other challenges were doone, and
valiantlie atchiued by the Englishmen, which I passe ouer. Shortlie
after came sorowfull tidings to the bastard, that his father duke
Philip was dead, who therevpon taking his leaue of king Edward, and
of his sister the new duchesse of Burgognie, liberallie rewarded with
plate and iewels, with all spéed returned to his brother the new duke,
who was not a little glad of the contract made for him with the said
ladie, as after well appeared. In this same yeare, king Edward, more
for the loue of the marques Montacute, than for anie fauour he bare
to the earle of Warwike, promoted George Neuill their brother to the
archbishoprike of Yorke.

[Sidenote: 1468.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 8.]

[Sidenote: The ladie Margaret sister to king Edward, sent ouer to the
duke of Burgognie.]

Charles duke of Burgognie reioising that he had so well sped, for
conclusion of marriage with king Edwards sister, was verie desirous
to sée hir, of whome he had heard so great praise, & wrote to king
Edward, requiring him to send his sister ouer vnto him, according to
the couenants passed betwixt them. King Edward being not slacke in this
matter, appointed the dukes of Excester and Suffolke, with their wiues,
being both sisters to the ladie Margaret, to attend hir, till she came
to hir husband. And so after that ships, and all other necessarie
prouisions were readie, they being accompanied with a great sort of
lords and ladies, and others, to the number of fiue hundred horsse, in
the beginning of Iune departed out of London to Douer, and so sailed to
Sluis, and from thense was conueied to Bruges, where the marriage was
solemnized betwixt the duke and hir, with great triumphs, and princelie
feastings. Touching the pompe had and vsed at the setting forward of
this ladie on hir voiage it is a note worth the reading; and therefore
necessarilie here interlaced for honours sake.

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl. ex I. S. pag. 719, 720. in Quart._]

On the eightéenth of Iune, Margaret sister to K. Edward the fourth
began hir iornie from the Wardrobe in London, toward hir marriage with
Charles duke of Burgognie: first she offered in the church of saint
Paule, and then rode thorough the citie, the earle of Warwike riding
before hir, with earles and barons a great number; the duchesse of
Norffolke, with other ladies and gentlewomen in great number. And
at hir entrie into Cheape, the maior of London and his brethren the
aldermen presented hir with a paire of rich basons, & in them an
hundred pounds of gold and that night she lodged at the abbeie of
Stratford, where the king then laie: from thense she tooke hir iournie
to Canturburie.

The king riding after to sée hir shipping, on the first of Iulie,
she tooke the sea at Margate, and there tooke leaue of the king hir
brother, and departed. There returned backe againe with the king,
the duke of Clarence, the duke of Glocester, the earles of Warwike,
Shrewesburie, and Northumberland. And there abode with hir in the ship,
the lord Scales, the lord Dacres, hir chamberlaine, sir Iohn Wooduile,
sir Iohn Howard, and manie other famous knights and esquiers. She
was shipped in the new Ellen of London, and in hir nauie the Iohn of
Newcastell, the Marie of Salisburie, and manie other roiall ships, and
on the morrow landed at Sluis in Flanders. Now as soone as hir ship &
companie of ships were entered into the hauen, there receiued hir sir
Simon de Lelein and the water bailiffe, in diuerse boats and barks
apparelled readie for hir landing.

The first estate that receiued hir was the bishop of Utright well
accompanied, and the countesse of Shorne bastard daughter to duke
Philip of Burgognie, and with hir manie ladies and gentlewomen; and so
procéeding in at the gate of the towne, the same towne was presented to
hir, she to be souereigne ladie thereof: also they gaue to hir twelue
marks of gold Troie weight, the which was two hundred pounds of English
monie: and so procéeded thorough the towne to hir lodging, euerie
housholder standing in the street with a torch in his hand burning. On
the morow the old duchesse of Burgognie came to hir, accompanied with
manie great estates. On the third of Iulie came the duke of Burgognie
to Sluis, with twentie persons secretlie, and was there openlie
affianced to the ladie Margaret, by the bishop of Salisburie and the
lord Scales, in presence of the lord Dacres, the duchesse of Norffolke,
the ladie Scales, and all the knights & esquiers, gentlewomen
inuironing the chamber.

On the 8 of Iulie (being saturdaie) by the duke of Burgognies
appointment, the lady Margaret remoued by water to the Dame. And on
the sunday in the morning betwixt fiue and six of the clocke, the
mariage was solemnized betwixt them, by the bishops of Salisburie
and of Turneie; there being present the old duches of Burgognie, the
lord Scales, the lord Dacres, with the knights, esquiers, ladies and
gentlewomen that came out of England. The great triumphs, feastings,
shewes of pageants, with other strange deuises, and iustings, were such
as I haue not read the like, and would be ouer long in this place to
set downe.

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl._]

¶ Of this aliance with other more mention is honorablie made in the
[1]declaration of the causes that moued the Quéene of England to giue
aid to the defense of the people afflicted & oppressed in the low
countries by the Spaniards, namelie for the maintenance of perpetuall
amitie. Which declaration is so set foorth in this booke, as the same
in the seuen and twentith yeare of hir maiesties reigne was published:
vnto which yeare I remit the reader (for the further search thereof)
for that it conteineth much memorable matter, touching the manifest
causes of concord to be continued betwéene them of the low countries
and vs English.

[1] Giuen at Richmont on the first of October. _An. Dom. 1585. & An.
Reg. 27._

[Sidenote: _Fabian. 497._]

[Sidenote: Sir Thomas Cooke.]

Sir Thomas Cooke late maior of London, was by one named Hawkins
appeached of treason, for the which he was sent to the Tower, and
his place within London seized by the lord Riuers, and his wife and
seruants cleerelie put out therof. The cause was this. The forenamed
Hawkins came vpon a season vnto the said sir Thomas, requesting him to
lend a thousand markes vpon good suertie, wherevnto he answered, that
first he would know for whome it should be and for what intent.

At length, vnderstanding it should be for the vse of queene Margaret,
he answered he had no currant wares whereof anie shifts might be made
without too much losse: and therefore required Hawkins to mooue him no
further in that matter, for he intended not to deale withall: yet the
said Hawkins exhorted him to remember, what benefits he had receiued
by hir when she was in prosperitie, as by making him hir wardrober, and
customer of Hampton, &c.

But by no meanes the said Cooke would grant goods nor monie, although
at last the said Hawkins required but an hundred pounds, he was faine
to depart without the value of a penie, and neuer came againe to mooue
him, which so rested two or three years after, till the said Hawkins
was cast in the Tower, and at length brought to the brake, called the
duke of Excesters daughter, by meanes of which paine he shewed manie
things, amongst the which the motion was one that he had made to sir
Thomas Cooke, and accused himselfe so farre, that he was put to death.

By meane of which confession, the said sir Thomas was troubled (as
before is shewed) when the said sir Thomas had laine in the Tower from
Whitsuntide till about Michaelmas, in the which season manie inquiries
were made to find him guiltie, and euer quit, till one iurie (by meanes
of sir Iohn Fog) indicted him of treason, after which an oier and
terminer was kept at the Guildhall, in which sat with the maior the
duke of Clarence, the earle of Warwike, the lord Riuers, sir Iohn Fog,
with other of the kings councell.

To the which place the said Thomas was brought, and there arreigned
vpon life and death, where he was acquited of the said indictement, and
had to the counter in Bread street, and from thence to the kings bench.
After a certeine time that he was thus acquited, his wife got againe
the possession of hir house, the which she found in an euill plight;
for such seruants of the lord Riuers and sir Iohn Fog, as were assigned
to kéepe it, made hauocke of what they listed.

Also at his place in Essex named Giddihall, were set an other sort
to kéepe that place, the which destroied his déere in his parke, his
conies, and his fish without reason, and spared not brasse, pewter,
bedding, & all that they might carie, for the which might neuer one
penie be gotten in recompense, yet could not sir Thomas Cooke be
deliuered, till he had paied eight thousand pounds to the king, and
eight hundred pounds to the quéene.

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl. ex Edw. Hall. in Edw. 4. fol._ cxcviij, &c.]

In this meane time, the earle of Warwike bearing a continuall grudge
in his hart toward king Edward, since his last returne out of France,
persuaded so with his two brethren, the archbishop, and the marques,
that they agreed to ioine with him in anie attempt which he should take
in hand against the said king. The archbishop was easilie allured to
the earles purpose, but the marques could by no meanes be reduced to
take anie part against king Edward of a long time, till the earle had
both promised him great rewards and promotions, and also assured him
of the aid and power of the greatest princes of the realme. And euen
as the marques was loth to consent to his vnhappie conspiracie, so
with a faint hart he shewed himselfe an enimie vnto king Edward which
double dissimulation was both the destruction of him and his brethren.
¶ And that they were persuasions of no small force, which the earle of
Warwike vsed to the archbishop and marques, I haue thought good here to
interlace, as I find remembred by Edward Hall in forme following.

The persuasions of the earle of Warwike vnto his two brethren against
king Edward the fourth.

My deere and welbeloued brethren, the incredible faithfulnesse, the
secret sobernesse, and the politike prudence that I haue euer by
long continuance of time experimented in you both, dooth not onelie
incourage my heart, yea and setteth me in great hope of obteining my
purpose, but also putteth me out of all dread and mistrust, firmelie
beléeuing, and suetlie iudging, that you both will with tooth and
naile endeuour your selues, to the vttermost of your power, to bring
to effect and purpose the thing that I now shall declare vnto you.
Suerlie, I would in no wise that you should thinke, that that which
I shall speake to you of king Edward and king Henrie, should rise of
any lightnesse or phantasie of my mind, or anie trifeling toie latelie
fallen into my imagination; but the true experience and iust iudgement
that I haue of them both, their qualities and conditions, in manner
compell and constraine me to saie as I say and to doo as I doo.

For suerlie, king Henrie is a godlie, good, and a vertuous person,
neither forgetting his freends, nor putting in obliuion anie benefit
by him of a meane person receiued, nor yet anie paine for his causes
susteined hath he left vnrewarded: to whome God hath sent a sonne,
called prince Edward, borne to be of great worthinesse and praise, of
much bountifulnesse and liberalitie, of whome men may manie laudable
things coniecture, considering the paine, labour, and trauell, that
he taketh to helpe his father out of captiuitie and thraldome. King
Edward on the contrarie side, is a man contumelious, opprobrious,
and an iniurious person; to them that deserue kindnesse he sheweth
vnkindnesse, and them that loue him he deadlie hateth, now detesting to
take anie paine for the preferment or maintenance of the publike wealth
of this realme, but all giuen to pastime, pleasure, and daliance;
sooner preferring to high estate men descended of low bloud and base
degree, than men of old and vndefiled houses, which haue both supported
him and the common-wealth of his realme.

So that I now perceiue, that it is euen come to this point, that he
will destroie all the nobilitie; or else the nobilitie must shortlie
of verie necessitie destroie and confound him. But reason would, that
we that were first hurt, should first reuenge our cause: for it is not
vnknowen to you both, how that he, immediatlie after he had obteined
the crowne, began first secretlie, and then openlie to enuie, disdaine,
and impugne the fame, glorie, and renowme of our house and familie; as
who said, that all the honor, preferment, and authoritie that we haue,
we had onelie receiued at his hands, and that we had neither obteined
dignitie nor rule by our great labour, aid and trauell. Which to all
men may seeme vntrue, that consider that our name, chiefe title, and
principall authoritie, was to vs giuen by king Henrie the sixt, and
not by him. But if euery man will remember, who first toke part with
his father, when hee claimed the crowne (who at that time, for that
cause was in great ieopardie, and almost slaine by the kings meniall
seruants, and who neuer left this man in prosperitie nor aduersitie,
till he had the garland, and the realme in quietnesse) shall
manifestlie perceiue, that we and our bloud haue shewed our selues more
like fathers to him, than he like a freend to vs.

If we haue receiued any benefits of him, suerlie they be not so much
as we haue deserued, nor so much as we looked for; and yet they be
much more than he would we shuld inioy, as ye both well perceiue and
know. Let these things ouerpasse, and speake of the vngentle, vntrue,
and vnprincelie handling of me in the last ambassage, being sent to
the French king for to treat a mariage for him, hauing full authoritie
to bind and to lose, to contract and conclude. Which thing when I had
finished & accomplished: how lightlie his mind changed, how priuilie
he vowed, and how secretlie he maried, both you know better than I. So
that by this meanes, I was almost out of all credence in the court of
France, both with the king and queene, as though I had come thither
like an espiall, to moue a thing neuer minded; or to treat of a mariage
determined before neuer to take effect. Whereby the fame of all our
estimation, which all kings and princes haue conceiued in vs (partlie
obteined by the vertue & prowesse of our noble ancestors, and partlie
atchiued by our owne paines & forward acts) shall now be obfuscate,
vtterlie extinguished, and nothing set by.

What worme is touched, and will not once turne againe? What beast is
striken, that will not rore or sound? What innocent child is hurt that
will not crie? If the poore and vnreasonable beasts, if the selie babes
that doo lacke discretion, grone against harme to them proffered; how
ought an honest man to be angrie, when things that touch his honestie
be dailie against him attempted? But if a meane person in that case
be angrie: how much more ought a noble man to fume & stirre coales,
when the high type of his honour is touched, his fame in maner brought
to infamie, and his honour almost blemished & appalled, without his
offense or desert? All this brethren you know to be true, the dishonor
of one is the dishonor of vs all, and the hurt of one is the hurt of
all: wherefore, rather than I will liue vnreuenged, or suffer him to
reigne, which hath sought my decaie and dishonor, I will suerlie spend
my life, lands, and goods, in setting vp that iust and good man king
Henrie the sixt: and in deposing this vntrue, vnfaithful, and vnkind
prince (by our onelie means) called king Edward the fourth.

       *       *       *       *       *

Beside all this, the earle of Warwike, being a far casting prince,
perceiued somewhat in the duke of Clarence, whereby he iudged
that he bare no great good will towards the king his brother; and
therevpon, feeling his mind by such talke as he of purpose ministred,
vnderstood how he was bent, and so wan him to his purpose: and for
better assurance of his faithful friendship, he offered him his
eldest daughter in mariage, with the whole halfe deale of his wiues
inheritance. And herevpon, after consultation had of their weightie
businesse and dangerous affaires, they sailed ouer to Calis, of the
which towne the earle was capteine, where his wife & two daughters then
soiourned, whome the duke (being in loue with hir person) had great
desire to visit.

[Sidenote: 1469.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 9.]

[Sidenote: A commotion in Yorkeshire.]

But the earle, hauing in continuall remembrance his purposed
enterprise, appointed his brethren, the archbishop and the marquesse,
that they should by some meanes in his absence stir vp some new
rebellion in the countie of Yorke, and other places adioining, so that
this ciuill warre should séeme to all men to haue béene begun without
his assent or knowlege, being on the further side of the seas. The duke
of Clarence being come to Calis with the earle of Warwike, after he had
sworne on the sacrament to kéepe his promise and pact made with the
said earle whole and inuiolate, he married the ladie Isabell, eldest
daughter to the earle, in our ladies church there. Shortlie after,
according as he had béene aforehand deuised, a commotion was begun in
Yorkeshire, to the great disquieting of that countrie. The same chanced
by this means.

[Sidenote: Saint Leonards hospital in Yorke.]

There was in the citie of Yorke an old and rich hospitall, dedicated
to saint Leonard, for the harbourough and reléeuing of poore people.
Certeine euill disposed persons of the earle of Warwikes faction,
intending to set a broile in the countrie, persuaded the husbandmen to
refuse to giue anie thing to the said hospitall, affirming that the
corne giuen to that good intent, came not to the vse of the poore; but
was conuerted to the behoofe of the maister of the hospitall, and the
preests, whereby they grew to be rich, and the poore people wanted
their due succour and reléefe. And not content with these saiengs, they
fell to dooings: for when the proctors of the hospitall, according to
their vsage, went about the countrie to gather the accustomed corne,
they were sore beaten, wounded, and euill intreated.

[Sidenote: A rebellion.]

[Sidenote: Robert Huldorne capteine of the rebels taken and beheaded.]

Shortlie after, the conspiracie of the euill disposed people grew to
an open rebellion, so that there assembled to the number of fifteene
thousand men, euen readie bent to set on the citie of Yorke. But the
lord marquesse Montacute, gouernour and president of that countrie for
the king, taking spéedie counsell in the matter, with a small number of
men, but well chosen, incountered the rebels before the gates of Yorke:
where (after a long conflict) he tooke Robert Huldorne their capteine,
and before them commanded his head to be striken off, and then (bicause
it was a darke euening) he caused his souldiers to enter into Yorke,
and there to refresh them. Héere manie men haue maruelled, whie the
marquesse thus put to death the capteine of those people, which had
procured this their rebellious enterprise.

[Sidenote: Sir Iohn Coniers.]

Some saie he did it, to the intent to séeme innocent and faultlesse
of his brothers dooings. But other iudge, that he did it, for that
contrarie to his promise made to his brother, he was determined to
take part with king Edward, with whome (as it shall after appeare) he
in small space entered into grace and fauour. The rebels being nothing
dismaied with the death of their capteine, but rather the more bent on
mischéefe, by faire meanes and craftie persuasions got to them Henrie,
sonne to the lord Fitz Hugh, and sir Henrie Neuill sonne and heire to
the lord Latimer, the one being nephue and the other cousine germane to
the erle of Warwike. Although these yoong gentlemen bare the names of
capteins, yet they had a gouernour that was sir Iohn Coniers, a man of
such courage & valiantnesse, as few are to be found in his daies within
the north parts.

[Sidenote: The earle of Penbroke.]

After they saw that they could not get Yorke, bicause they wanted
ordinance, they determined with all speed to march toward London,
intending to raise such a toie in the peoples minds, that they should
thinke king Edward neither to be a lawfull prince, nor yet profitable
to the common-wealth. King Edward hauing perfect knowledge of all
the dooings of the earle of Warwike, and of his brother the duke of
Clarence, was by diuerse letters certified of the great armie of the
northerne men, with all spéed comming toward London; and therefore in
great hast he sent to William lord Herbert, whom (as yée haue heard) he
had created earle of Penbroke; requiring him without delaie to raise
his power, and incounter with the northerne men.

[Sidenote: The lord Stafford.]

The earle of Penbroke, commonlie called the lord Herbert, both readie
to obeie the kings commandement, according to his dutie, and also
desirous to reuenge the malice which he bare to the earle of Warwike,
for that he knew how he had béene the onelie let whie he obteined not
the wardship of the lord Bonneuilles daughter and heire for his eldest
sonne, accompanied with his brother sir Richard Herbert, a valiant
knight, and aboue six or seauen thousand Welshmen, well furnished,
marched forward to incounter with the northerne men. And to assist him
with archers, was appointed Humfrie lord Stafford of Southwike, named
but not created earle of Deuonshire by the king, in hope that he would
serue valiantlie in that iournie: he had with him eight hundred archers.

[Sidenote: The Welshmen discomfited.]

When these two lords were met at Cotteshold, they heard how the
northerne men were going toward Northampton: wherevpon the lord
Stafford, and sir Richard Herbert, with two thousand well horsed
Welshmen, rode foorth afore the maine armie, to sée the demeanour of
the northerne men: and at length, vnder a woods side, they couertlie
espied them passing forward, and suddenlie set on the rere-ward: but
the northerne men with such nimblenesse turned about, that in a moment
the Welshmen were discomfited, and manie taken, the remnant returned
to the armie with small gaine. The northerne men well cooled with this
small victorie, went no further southwards, but tooke their waie toward
Warwike, looking for aid of the earle, which was latelie come from
Calis, with his sonne in law the duke of Clarence, and was raising men
to aid his freends and kinsfolke.

[Sidenote: Hedgecote. B[=a]berie field.]

[Sidenote: Discord what it breedeth.]

The king likewise assembled people to aid the erle of Penbroke, but
before either part receiued succour from his fréend or partaker, both
the armies met by chance in a faire plaine, néere to a towne called
Hedgecote, foure miles distant from Banberie, where there are thrée
hilles, not in equall quantitie, but lieng in maner (although not
fullie) triangle. The Welshmen got first the west hill, hoping to
haue recouered the east hill also, which if they might haue obteined,
the victorie had beene theirs, as their foolish prophesiers told them
before. These northerne men incamped on the south hill; the earle of
Penbroke and the lord Stafford of Southwike were lodged in Banberie,
the daie before the field, which was saint Iames daie, and there the
earle of Penbroke put the lord Stafford out of an Inne, wherein he
delighted much to be, for the loue of a damosell that dwelled in the
house: and yet it was agréed betwixt them, that which of them soeuer
obteined first a lodging, should not be displaced.

The lord Stafford in great despite departed with his whole band of
archers, leauing the earle of Penbroke almost desolate in the towne,
who with all diligence returned to his host, lieng in the field
vnpurveied of archers. Sir Henrie Neuill, sonne to the lord Latimer,
tooke with him certeine light horssemen, and skirmished with the
Welshmen in the euening, iust before their campe, where dooing right
valiantlie, but a little too hardilie aduenturing himselfe, was
taken and yeelded, and yet cruellie slaine. Which vnmercifull act
the Welshmen sore rued the next day yer night: for the northerne men
sore displeased for the death of this nobleman, in the next morning
valiantlie set on the Welshmen, and by force of archers caused them
quicklie to descend the hill, into the vallie, where both the hoasts

[Sidenote: The valiant manhood of sir Richard Herbert.]

[Sidenote: Iohn Clappam.]

The earle of Penbroke did right valiantlie, and so likewise did his
brother sir Richard Herbert, in so much that with his polax in his
hand, he twise by fine force passed thorough the battell of his
aduersaries, and without anie hurt or mortall wound returned. But
sée the hap, euen as the Welshmen were at point to haue obteined the
victorie, Iohn Clappam esquier, seruant to the earle of Warwike,
mounted vp the side of the east hill, accompanied onelie with fiue
hundred men, gathered of the rascals of the towne of Northampton, and
other villages about, hauing borne before them the standard of the
earle of Warwike, with the white beare, crieng; A Warwike, a Warwike.

[Sidenote: The Welshmen slaine.]

[Sidenote: _Abr. Flem._]

The Welshmen, thinking that the earle of Warwike had come on them
with all his puissance, suddenlie as men amazed, fled: the northerne
men them pursued, and slue without mercie, so that there died of the
Welshmen that daie, aboue fiue thousand, besides them that fled and
were taken. The earle of Penbroke, and his brother sir Richard Herbert,
with diuerse gentlemen, were taken and brought to Banberie, where the
earle with his brother, and other gentlemen, to the number of ten, that
were likewise taken, lost their heads. But great mone was made for that
noble and hardie gentleman, sir Richard Herbert, being able for his
goodlie personage and high valiancie to haue serued the greatest prince
in christendome. [But what policie or puissance can either preuent or
impugne the force of fate, whose law as it standeth vpon an ineuitable
necessitie; so was it not to be dispensed withall; and therfore
destinie hauing preordeined the maner of his deth, it was patientlie to
be suffered, sith puissantlie it could not be auoided, nor politikelie
preuented, nor violentlie resisted: for

    ----sua quenq; dies ad funera raptat.]

[Sidenote: Robin of Reddesdale.]

[Sidenote: The erle Riuers and his sonne beheaded.]

[Sidenote: The lord Stafford of Southwike beheaded.]

The Northamptonshire men, with diuerse of the northerne men by them
procured, in this furie made them a capteine, called Robert Hilliard,
but they named him Robin of Reddesdale, and suddenlie came to Grafton,
where they tooke the earle Riuers, father to the quéene, and his
son sir Iohn Wooduile, whome they brought to Northampton, and there
beheaded them both without iudgement. The king aduertised of these
mischances, wrote to the shiriffes of Summersetshire, and Deuonshire,
that if they might by anie meanes take the lord Stafford of Southwike,
they should without delaie put him to death. Herevpon search was made
for him, till at length he was found in a village within Brentmarch,
and after brought to Bridgewater where he was beheaded.

After the battell was thus fought at Hedgecote commonlie called
Banberie field, the northerne men resorted toward Warwike, where the
earle had gathered a great multitude of people, which earle receiued
the northerne men with great gladnes, thanking sir Iohn Coniers, and
other their capteins for their paines taken in his cause. The king in
this meane time had assembled his power, and was comming toward the
earle, who being aduertised thereof, sent to the duke of Clarence,
requiring him to come and ioine with him. The duke being not farre off,
with all speed repaired to the earle, and so they ioined their powers
togither, and vpon secret knowledge had, that the king (bicause they
were entered into termes by waie of communication to haue a peace)
tooke small héed to himselfe, nothing doubting anie outward attempt of
his enimies.

[Sidenote: King Edward taken prisoner.]

[Sidenote: Middleham castell.]

[Sidenote: _Abr. Flem._]

The earle of Warwike, intending not to léese such opportunitie of
aduantage, in the dead of the night, with an elect companie of men of
warre (as secretlie as was possible) set on the kings field, killing
them that kept the watch, and yer the king was ware (for he thought
of nothing lesse than of that which then hapned) at a place called
Wolnie, foure miles from Warwike, he was taken prisoner and brought to
the castell of Warwike. And to the intent his friends should not know
what was become of him, the earle caused him by secret iournies in the
night to be conueied to Middleham castell in Yorkeshire, and there to
be kept vnder the custodie of the archbishop of Yorke, and other his
freends in those parties. King Edward being thus in captiuitie, spake
euer faire to the archbishop, and to his other kéepers, so that he had
leaue diuerse daies to go hunt. [Which exercise he vsed, as it should
séeme not so much for regard of his recreation, as for the recouerie of
his libertie: which men estéeme better than gold, and being counted a
diuine thing, dooth passe all the wealth, pleasure, and treasure of the
world; according to the old saieng:

    Non bene profuluo libertas venditur auro,
    Hoc coeleste bonum præterit orbis opes.]

[Sidenote: Sir William Stanleie.]

[Sidenote: K. Edward is deliuered out of captiuitie.]

[Sidenote: He commeth to London.]

Now on a daie vpon a plaine when he was thus abrode, there met with
him sir William Stanleie, sir Thomas a Borough, and diuerse other of
his friends, with such a great band of men, that neither his kéepers
would, nor once durst moue him to returne vnto prison againe. Some
haue thought that his kéepers were corrupted with monie, or faire
promises, and therefore suffred him thus to scape out of danger. After
that he was once at libertie, he came to Yorke, where he was ioifullie
receiued, and taried there two daies: but when he perceiued he could
get no armie togither in that countrie to attend him to London, he
turned from Yorke to Lancaster, where he found his chamberleine the
lord Hastings well accompanied, by whose aid and such others as drew to
him, being well furnished, he came safelie to the citie of London.

When the earle of Warwike, and the duke of Clarence had knowledge how
king Edward by the treason or negligence of them (whome they had put
in trust) was escaped their hands, they were in a wonderfull chafe:
but sith the chance was past, they began eftsoones to prouide for the
warre, which they saw was like to insue; and found much comfort, in
that a great number of men, deliting more in discord than in concord,
offered themselues to aid their side. But other good men desirous of
common quiet, and lamenting the miserable state of the realme, to
redresse such mischiefe as appeared to be at hand by these tumults,
tooke paine, and road betweene the king, the earle, and the duke, to
reconcile them ech to other.

Their charitable motion and causes alledged, bicause they were of
the chiefest of the nobilitie, and therfore caried both credit and
authoritie with them, so asswaged the moods both of the king, the duke,
and the earle, that ech gaue faith to other to come and go safelie
without ieopardie. In which promise both the duke and earle putting
perfect confidence, came both to London. At Westminster, the king, the
duke, and the earle, had long communication togither for to haue come
to an agreement: but they fell at such great words vpon rehersall of
old matters, that in great furie without any conclusion they departed,
the king to Canturburie, and the duke and the earle to Warwike, where
the earle procured a new armie to be raised in Lincolneshire, and made
capteine thereof sir Robert Welles, sonne to Richard lord Welles, a man
of great experience in warre.

[Sidenote: 1470.]

[Sidenote: Sir Thomas Dimmocke.]

The king aduertised hereof without delaie prepared an armie, and out of
hand he sent to Richard lord Welles, willing him vpon the sight of his
letters, to repaire vnto him: which to doo he had oftentimes refused,
excusing himselfe by sickenesse and feeblenesse of bodie. But when that
excuse serued not, he thinking to purge himselfe sufficientlie of all
offense and blame before the kings presence, tooke with him sir Thomas
Dimmocke, who had maried his sister, and so came to London. And when he
was come vp, being admonished by his fréends that the king was greatlie
with him displeased, he with his brother in law tooke the sanctuarie at

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 10.]

[Sidenote: The lord Welles and Thomas Dimmocke beheaded.]

But king Edward, trusting to pacifie all this busie tumult without anie
further bloudshed, promised both those persons their pardons, causing
them vpon his promise to come out of sanctuarie to his presence, and
calling to him the lord Welles, willed him to write to his sonne to
leaue off the warre, and in the meane season he with his armie went
forward, hauing with him the lord Welles, and sir Thomas Dimmocke. And
being not past two daies iournie from Stamford, where his enimies had
pitched their field, and hearing that sir Robert Welles, not regarding
his fathers letters, kept his campe still, he caused the lord Welles,
father to the said sir Robert, and sir Thomas Dimmocke to be beheaded,
contrarie to his promise.

[Sidenote: Losecote field.]

Sir Robert Welles, hearing that the king approched, and that his father
and sir Thomas Dimmocke were beheaded, though he was somewhat doubtfull
to fight, before the earle of Warwike were with his power assembled,
yet hauing a yoong and lustie courage, manfullie set on his enimies.
The battell was sore fought on both sides, and manie a man slaine;
till sir Robert, perceiuing his people at point to flie, was busilie
in hand to exhort them to tarie, and in the meane time compassed about
with enimies was there taken, & with him sir Thomas de Land knight,
and manie more. After the taking of their capteine, the Lincolneshire
men amazed, threw awaie their coats the lighter to run awaie, and fled
amaine, and therefore this battell is called there yet vnto this daie,
Losecote field.

[Sidenote: The faithfulnesse of the lord Stanleie.]

[Sidenote: The duke of Clarence and the earle of Warwike take the sea.]

The king reioising at this victorie, caused sir Robert Welles, and
diuerse other to be put to execution in the same place. The fame went
at this battell were slaine ten thousand men at the least. The earle of
Warwike laie at the same time at his castell of Warwike, and meant to
haue set forward the next daie toward his armie in Lincolnshire. But
when he heard that the same was ouerthrowne, he tooke new counsell,
and with all diligence imagined how to compasse Thomas lord Stanleie,
which had maried his sister, that he might be one of the conspiracie.
Which thing when he could not bring to passe (for the lord Stanleie
had answered him, that he would neuer make warre against king Edward)
he thought no longer to spend time in wast; and mistrusting he was
not able to méet with his enimies, he with his sonne in law the duke
of Clarence departed to Excester, and there tarieng a few daies,
determined to saile into France, to purchase aid of king Lewes.

[Sidenote: The earle of Warwike kept out of Calis.]

Now resting vpon this point, he hired ships at Dartmouth: and when
the same were readie trimmed and decked, the duke and the earle with
their wiues, and a great number of seruants imbarked themselues,
and first tooke their course towards Calis, whereof the earle was
capteine, thinking there to haue left his wife and daughters, till he
had returned out of France. But when they were come before the towne
of Calis, they could not be suffered to enter: for the lord Vauclere a
Gascoigne, being the earles deputie in that towne, whether he did it by
dissimulation, or bearing good will to king Edward (as by the sequele
it may be doubted whether he did or no) insteed of receiuing his master
with triumph, he bent and discharged against him diuerse peeces of
ordinance, sending him word he should not there take land.

[Sidenote: Monsieur de Vauclere made deputie of Calis.]

This nauie lieng thus before Calis at anchor, the duchesse of Clarence
was there deliuered of a faire sonne, which child the earles deputie
would scarse suffer to be christened within the towne; nor without
great intreatie would permit two flagons of wine to be conueied aboord
to the ladies lieng in the hauen. The king of England aduertised of the
refusall made by monsieur de Vauclere to the earle of Warwike, was so
much pleased therewith, that incontinentlie he made him chiefe capteine
of the towne of Calis by his letters patents, which he sent to him out
of hand, and thereof discharged the earle as a traitor and rebell. Thus
was the one in respect of his accepted seruice honorablie aduanced; and
the other, in regard of his disloialtie shamefullie disgraced: whereof
as the one tooke occasion of inward delight; so the othe could not be
void of grudging conceipts.

[Sidenote: The double dealing of monsieur de Vauclere.]

[Sidenote: The lord Duras was a Gascoigne also.]

The duke of Burgognie (vnto whome king Edward had written, that in no
wise he should receiue the earle of Warwike, nor anie of his friends
within his countries) was so well pleased with the dooings of monsieur
de Vauclere, that he sent to him his seruant Philip de Cumins, and gaue
him yéerelie a thousand crownes in pension, praieng and requiring him
to continue in truth and fidelitie toward king Edward, as he had shewed
and begun. But although monsieur de Vauclere sware in the said Philips
presence, trulie to take king Edwards part; yet he sent priuilie to the
earle of Warwike lieng at Whitsanbaie, that if he landed, hee should be
taken and lost: for all England (as he said) tooke part against him;
the duke of Burgognie, and all the inhabitants of the towne, with the
lord Duras the kings marshall, and all the retinue of the garrison were
his enimies.

[Sidenote: The earle of Warwike landed at Diepe.]

[Sidenote: Ambois.]

The earle, hauing this aduertisement from his feigned enimie, with
his nauie sailed toward Normandie, and by the waie spoiled and tooke
manie ships of the duke of Burgognies subiects, and at the last (with
all his nauie and spoiles) he tooke land at Diepe in Normandie, where
the gouernor of the countrie friendlie welcomed him, and aduertised
king Lewes of his arriuall. The French king, desirous of nothing
more than to haue occasion to pleasure the erle of Warwike, of whom
the hie renowme caused all men to haue him in admiration, sent vnto
him, requiring both him and his sonne in law the duke of Clarence, to
come vnto his castell of Ambois, where he then soiourned. The duke
of Burgognie, hearing that the duke and earle were thus receiued in
France, sent a post with letters vnto king Lewes, partlie by waie of
request, and partlie by way of menacing, to dissuade him from aiding of
his aduersaries, the said duke and earle.

[Sidenote: Iohn marques Montacute.]

But the French king little regarded this sute of the duke of Burgognie,
and therefore answered, that he might and would succour his friends,
and yet breake no leage with him at all. In the meane time, K. Edward
made inquirie for such as were knowne to be aiders of the earle of
Warwike within his realme, of whom some he apprehended as guiltie, and
some (doubting themselues) fled to sanctuarie, and other trusting to
the kings pardon, submitted themselues, as Iohn marques Montacute, whom
he courteouslie receiued. When quéene Margaret that soiourned with duke
Reiner hir father, heard tell that the earle of Warwike was come to the
French court, with all diligence shee came to Ambois to sée him, with
hir onelie sonne prince Edward.

[Sidenote: The earles of Penbroke & Oxford.]

[Sidenote: A league.]

[Sidenote: Edward prince of Wales maried.]

With hir also came Iasper earle of Penbroke, and Iohn earle of Oxford,
which after diuerse imprisonments latelie escaped, fled out of England
into France, and came by fortune to this assemblie. These persons,
after intreatie had of their affaires, determined by meanes of the
French king to conclude a league and amitie betweene them. And first to
begin withall, for the sure foundation of their new intreatie, Edward
prince of Wales wedded Anne second daughter to the earle of Warwike,
which ladie came with hir mother into France. After which mariage,
the duke and the earles tooke a solemne oth, that they should neuer
leaue the warre, till either king Henrie the sixt, or his sonne prince
Edward, were restored to the crowne: and that the quéene and the prince
should depute and appoint the duke and the earle to be gouernors &
conseruators of the common-wealth, till time the prince were come to
estate. Manie other conditions were agréed, as both reason & the
weightinesse of so great businesse required.

[Sidenote: The promise of the duke of Clarence.]

Whilest these things were thus in dooing in the French court, there
landed a damsell, belonging to the duchesse of Clarence; as she said:
which made monsieur de Vaucléere beleeue, that she was sent from king
Edward to the duke of Clarence and the earle of Warwike with a plaine
ouerture and declaration of peace. Of the which tidings Vaucléere
was verie glad for the earles sake. But this damsell comming to the
duke, persuaded him so much to leaue off the pursute of his conceiued
displeasure towards his brother king Edward, that he promised at his
returne into England, not to be so extreme enimie against his brother
as he was taken to be: and this promise afterward he did kéepe. With
this answer the damsell returned into England, the earle of Warwike
being thereof clearelie ignorant.

The French king lent both ships, men, and monie vnto quéene Margaret,
and to hir partakers, and appointed the bastard of Burbon, admerall of
France, with a great nauie to defend them against the nauie of the duke
of Burgognie, which he laid at the mouth of the riuer Saine, readie to
incounter them, being of greater force than both the French nauie and
the English fléet. And yet king Reiner did also helpe his daughter with
men and munition of warre. When their ships and men were come togither
to Harflue, the erle of Warwike thought not to linger time: bicause he
was certified by letters from his friends out of England, that assoone
as he had taken land, there would be readie manie thousands to doo him
what seruice and pleasure they could or might. And beside this, diuerse
noble men wrote that they would helpe him with men, armor, monie, and
all things necessarie for the warre, and further to aduenture their
owne bodies in his quarell.

[Sidenote: The loue which the people bare to the earle of Warwike.]

[Sidenote: A proclamation.]

Suerlie his presence was so much desired of all the people, that
almost all men were readie in armour, looking for his arriuall: for
they iudged that the verie sunne was taken from the world when hée was
absent. When he had receiued such letters of comfort, he determined
with the duke, and the earles of Oxford and Pembroke (bicause quéene
Margaret and hir sonne were not yet fullie furnished for the iournie)
to go before with part of the nauie, and part of the armie. And euen
as fortune would, the nauie of the duke of Burgognie at the same time
by a tempest was scattered, & driuen beside the coast of Normandie: so
that the earle of Warwike in hope of a bonne voiage, caused sailes to
be halsed vp, and with good spéed landed at Darmouth in Deuonshire,
from whence almost six moneths passed he tooke his iournie toward
France (as before ye haue heard.) When the earle had taken land, he
made proclamation in the name of king Henrie the sixt, vpon high
paines commanding and charging all men able to beare armor, to prepare
themselues to fight against Edward duke of Yorke, which contrarie to
right had vsurped the crowne. It is almost not to be beléeued, how
manie thousands men of warre at the first tidings of the earles landing
resorted vnto him.

[Sidenote: King Edward c[=o]meth to Lin and taketh ship to passe ouer

King Edward wakened with the newes of the earles landing, and the
great repaire of people that came flocking in vnto him, sent foorth
letters into all parts of his realme to raise an armie: but of them
that were sent for, few came, and yet of those few the more part came
with no great good willes. Which when he perceiued, he began to doubt
the matter, and therefore being accompanied with the duke of Glocester
his brother, the lord Hastings his chamberlaine, which had maried the
earles sister, and yet was euer true to the king his maister, and the
lord Scales brother to the quéene, he departed into Lincolnshire. And
bicause he vnderstood that all the realme was vp against him, and some
part of the earle of Warwiks power was within halfe a daies iournie of
him, following the aduise of his counsell, with all hast possible he
passed the Washes in great ieopardie, & comming to Lin found there an
English ship, and two hulkes of Holland readie (as fortune would) to
make saile.

[Sidenote: The lord Hastings.]

[Sidenote: The number that passed ouer with king Edward.]

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl._]

Wherevpon he with his brother the duke of Glocester, the lord Scales,
and diuerse other his trustie friends, entered into the ship. The lord
Hastings taried a while after, exhorting all his acquaintance, that of
necessitie should tarie behind, to shew themselues openlie as friends
to king Henrie for their owne safegard, but hartilie required them in
secret to continue faithfull to king Edward. This persuasion declared,
he entered the ship with the other, and so they departed, being in
number in that one ship and two hulkes, about seuen or eight hundred
persons, hauing no furniture of apparell, or other necessarie things
with them, sauing apparell for warre. [For it was no taking of leasure
to prouide their corporall necessaries (though the want of them could
hardlie be borne) in a case of present danger; considering that they
were made against by the contrarie faction with such swift pursute.
And it had bene a point of extreme follie, to be carefull for the
accidents, permitting in the meane time the substance vnto the spoile.]

[Sidenote: King Edward arriued at Alquemare.]

[Sidenote: The lord Gronture.]

As king Edward with saile and ore was thus making course towards the
duke of Burgognies countrie (whither he determined at the first to
go) it chanced that seuen or eight gallant ships of Easterlings, open
enimies both to England and France, were abrode on those seas, and
espieng the kings vessels, began to chase him. The kings ship was
good of saile, and so much gat of the Easterlings, that he came on
the coast of Holland, and so descended lower before a towne in the
countrie called Alquemare, and there cast anchor as néere the towne
as was possible, bicause they could not enter the hauen at an ebbing
water. The Easterlings also approched the English ship, as néere as
their great ships should come at the low water, intending at the floud
to haue their preie: as they were verie like to haue atteined it in
déed, if the lord Gronture, gouernor of that countrie for the duke of
Burgognie, had not by chance béene at the same time in that towne.

This lord (vpon knowledge had of king Edwards arriuall there in the
hauen, and in what danger he stood by reason of the Easterlings)
commanded them not to be so hardie as once to meddle with anie
Englishmen, being both the dukes fréends and alies. Then did king
Edward & all his companie come on land. Who after they had beene well
refreshed & gentlie comforted by the lord Gronture, they were by him
brought to the Hagh, a rich towne in Holland, where they remained a
while, hauing all things necessarie ministred to them by order of
the duke of Burgognie, sent vnto the lord Gronture, immediatlie vpon
certificat from the said lord Gronture of king Edwards arriuall. [Héere
we sée in what perplexities king Edward and his retinue were, partlie
by enimies at home in his owne countrie, whose hands he was constreined
to flée from by the helpe of the sea; partlie also by aduersaries
abroad, seeking opportunitie to offer him not the incounter onelie,
but the ouerthrow. And suerly, had not good fortune fauoured him, in
preparing readie meanes for him to auoid those imminent dangers; he
had doubtlesse fallen among the weapons of his owne countrimen, and
so neuer haue feared forren force: but in escaping both the one and
the other, euen with shift of so spéedie expedition, it is a note (if
it be well looked into) of happinesse, if anie happinesse may be in
preseruation from ruine and reproch.]

[Sidenote: _Edw. Hall. fol._ ccix.]

Now let all Englishmen (saith Edward Hall) consider (as before is
rehearsed) what profit, what commoditie, and what helpe in distresse,
the mariage of the ladie Margaret, king Edwards sister to the duke
Charles, did to him in his extreame necessitie; and but by that meane
vncurable extremitie: for his alies and confederats in Castile and
Arragon were too far from him, either speedilie to flie to, or shortlie
to come fro with anie aid or armie. The French king was his extreme
enimie, and freend to king Henrie, for whose cause in the king of Scots
(for all the leage betwéene them) he did put little confidence and
lesse trust. The states and all Eastland were with him at open war, and
yet by this marriage, God prouided him a place to flie to, both for
refuge and reléefe.

[Sidenote: _Abr. Flem._]

[But for the further and cleerer explanation of these stratagems, or
rather ciuill tumults, it shall not be amisse to insert in this place
(sith I cannot hit vpon one more conuenient) a verie good note or
addition receiued from the hands of maister Iohn Hooker chamberlaine of
Excester; the contents whereof are of such qualitie, that they cannot
stand in concurrence with anie matter introduced within the compasse of
the ninth yeare of this kings reigne (as he had quoted it) and therfore
I thought it méet to transfer the same to this tenth yeare; considering
that some part of the matter by him largelie touched, is briefelie in
the premisses alreadie remembred.]

[Sidenote: _Iohn Hooker, alias Vowell._]

[Sidenote: Lord Dinh[=a], and baron Carew, with their power come to

¶ This yeare (saith he) was verie troublesome, and full of ciuill wars
and great discords. For after that king Edward the fourth was escaped
out of prison, at Wolneie besides Warwike, he mustered and prepared a
new armie. Wherevpon the earle of Warwike and the duke of Clarence,
mistrusting themselues, prepared to passe the seas ouer to Calis, and
first of all sent awaie the duches of Clarence daughter to the said
earle, who was then great with child, and she being accompanied with
the lord Fitz Warren, the lord Dinham, and the baron of Carew, and a
thousand fighting men came to this citie of Excester the eightéenth
daie of March, and was lodged in the bishops palace. Sir Hugh, or (as
some saie) sir William Courtneie, who then fauoured the partie of
king Edward the fourth, assembled a great troope and armie of all the
fréends he could make, and inuironing the citie, besieged the same; he
pulled downe all the bridges, rampered vp all the waies, and stopped
all the passages, so that no vittels at all could be brought to this
citie for twelue daies togither, which being doone vpon a sudden and
vnlooked for, vittels waxed short and scant within the citie, and by
reason of so great a multitude within the same, the people for want of
food began to murmur and mutter.

The duches and the lords of hir companie, mistrusting what might
and would be the sequele hereof, began to deale with the maior, and
required to haue the keies of the gates to be deliuered into their
hands and that they would vndertake the safe custodie of the citie.
Likewise sir William Courtneie did send his messenger to the maior,
and required the gates to be opened and to giue him entrance: or els
he would with sword and fier destroie the same. The maior and his
brethren being in great perplexities, and hauing to answer not onelie
the lords within and the knight without, but most of all doubting the
common people within, who being impatient of penurie, were deafe to all
persuasions and listen to any counsels: did so order and handle the
matter, as that by good spéeches and courteous vsages, euerie partie
was stopped and staied, vntill by means and mediations of certeine good
and godlie men, an intreatie was made, the matter was compounded and
the siege raised, and euerie man set at libertie.

[Sidenote: The duke of Clarence and the earle of Warwike soiorne at
Excester, and are pursued of the king.]

The next daie after which conclusion, the gates being opened, to wit,
the third of Aprill 1470, the earle of Warwike and the duke of Clarence
came to this citie, and here rested, and soiorned themselues vntill
sufficient shipping was prouided for their passage ouer the seas, and
then they all imbarked themselues, and passed ouer to Calis. The king
in this meane time mustered his armie, and prepared with all spéed all
things necessarie to follow and pursue his said aduersaries, and came
to this citie, thinking to find them here the fourtéenth of Aprill
being saturdaie 1470, with fortie thousand fighting men: but the
birds were fled awaie before his comming. Neuerthelesse the king came
and entred into the citie, being accompanied with sundrie noble men;
namelie, the bishop of Elie then lord treasuror, the duke of Norffolke
earle marshall, the duke of Suffolke, the earle of Arundell, the earle
of Wilshire sonne to the duke of Buckingham, the earle of Worcester
constable of England, the earle of Shrewesburie, the earle Riuers, the
lord Hastings, the lord Graie of Codnor, the lord Audelie, the lord
Saie, the lord Sturton, the lord Dacres, the lord Montioie, the lord
Stanlei, the lord Ferris, and the baron of Dudlei.

[Sidenote: The king is receiued verie honorablie into the citie of

[Sidenote: The citizens beneuolence to the king.]

Before whose comming, the maior being aduertised thereof, tooke order,
and gaue commandement to euerie citizen and inhabitant, being of
abilitie, to prouide and prepare for himselfe a gowne of the cities
liuerie, which was then red colour, and to be in a readinesse for
receiuing of the king, which was accordinglie doone. And when the
king was come neere to the citie, the maior being verie well attended
with foure hundred persons well and séemelie apparelled in the cities
liuerie, went to the south gate, and without the same attended the
kings comming. Who when he was come, the maior did his most humble
obeisance, and therewith Thomas Dowrish then recorder of the citie
made vnto his grace an humble oration, congratulating his comming to
the citie: which ended, the maior deliuered vnto the king the keies of
the gates and the maces of his office, and therewith a pursse of one
hundred nobles in gold, which his grace tooke verie thankfullie. The
monie he kept, but the keies and the maces he deliuered backe to the
maior; and then the maior tooke the mace and did beare it through the
citie bare-headed before the king, vntill he came to his lodging.

[Sidenote: How long the king continued in the citie.]

[Sidenote: The duke of Clarence and the earle of Warwike arriue on the
English coasts.]

The next daie following, being Palmesundaie, the king in most princelie
and roiall maner came to the cathedrall church of saint Peters, to
heare the diuine seruice, where he followed and went in procession
after the maner as was then vsed, round about the churchyard, to the
great ioy and comfort of all the people: he continued in the citie
thrée daies vntill the tuesdaie then following; who when he had dined
tooke his horsse and departed backe towards London, and gaue to the
maior great good thanks for his interteinement. About foure moneths
after this, in August, the duke of Clarence and the erle of Warwike
returned againe from Calis, with all their retinue, & landed some at
Plimmouth, some at Dartmouth, and some at Exmouth: but all met in this
citie, and from hence they all passed towards London, and at euerie
place they proclamed king Henrie the sixt, which when king Edward
heard, he was very much troubled therewith: and not able then to
withstand their force, he passed the seas to his brother in law the
duke of Burgognie.

[Sidenote: The practise of a knight being chiefe iustice at the law to
rid himselfe of life.]

This yeare also, being verie troublesome, and the gouernement
vncerteine, men were in great perplexities, & wist not what to doo.
And among manie there was one speciallie to be remembred, who to rid
himselfe out of these troubles, did deuise this practise: his name was
sir William Haukesford knight, a man verie well learned in the lawes
of the realme, and one of the chiefe iustices at the law: he dwelled
at Annorie in Deuonshire, a gentleman of great possessions, and hauing
neuer a sonne, the lord Fitz Warren, sir Iohn Sentleger, & sir William
Bulleine, who maried his daughters, were his heires. This man being
one of the chiefest lawiers in the land, was dailie sought to and his
councell asked: and he considering that when the sword ruled, law had a
small course, and finding by experience what fruits insue such counsell
as dooth not best like the parties, was verie heauie, sorrowfull, and
in great agonies.

[Sidenote: An vniust or surmised charge of the knight against the
kéeper of his parke.]

Herevpon suddenlie he called vnto him the keeper of his parke, with
whom he fell out and quareled, bicause (as he said) he was slothfull
and careles, and did not walke in the nights about the parke, but
suffered his game to be spoiled and his deere to be stolen, wherefore
he willed him to be more vigilant and carefull of his charge, and also
commanded him that if he met anie man in his circuit and walke in the
night time, and would not stand nor speake vnto him, he should not
spare to kill him what so euer he were. This knight, hauing laid this
foundation, and minding to performe what he had purposed for the ending
of his dolefull daies, did in a certeine darke night secretlie conueie
himselfe out of his house, and walked alone in his parke. Then the
kéeper in his night walke hearing one stirring and comming towards him,
asked who was there? but no answer was made at all.

[Sidenote: The kéeper killeth his maister the knight with an arrow.]

Then the keeper willed him to stand, which when he would not doo, the
kéeper nocked his arrow and shot vnto him, and killed him; who when he
perceiued that it was his maister, then he called to remembrance his
maisters former commandement. And so this knight, otherwise learned
and wise, being affraid to displease man, did displease God, and verie
disorderlie ended his life. It is inrolled amongst the records of this
citie, of a commission directed to Iohn earle of Deuonshire, & from him
sent to the maior of the citie of Excester to be proclamed. The words
be these: Decimoquarto die Aprilis, vz. in vigilia Paschæ, An. 49.
Hen. 6. commissio domini regis directa Iohanni comiti Deuon. missa est
maiori vt proclamaretur. And likewise in an other place: Quatuor marcæ
sunt solutæ Iohanni comiti Deuon. ex assensu maioris.

Howbeit, certeine it is there was no such earle of that name, onelie
there was Iohn Holland then liuing duke of Excester, wherefore
something is mistaken herein.

[Sidenote: _Abr. Flem._]

But was this a practise (thinke you) beséeming a man of worship,
learning, and iudgement, to make awaie himselfe, bicause he saw a
temporall interruption of his prosperitie? Suerlie how much learning
so euer he had in the lawes of the land, litle at all or none (as
appeareth) had he in suffering the forces of aduersitie, whom the feare
of it did so terrifie, that it droue him to his end. Wise therefore
is the counsel of the comedie-writer, and worthie of imitation, that
a man, when he is in best case and highest degrée of welfare, should
euen then meditate with himselfe how to awaie with hardnesse, with
penurie, perils, losse, banishment, and other afflictions: for so shall
he prepare himselfe to beare them with patience when they happen: as
souldiers trained vp in militarie exercises at home, are so much the
forwarder for the field, & fitter to incounter their foes (with lesse
dread of danger) when they come abroad to be tried: and therefore it is
wiselie (& to the purpose) said of Virgil:

[Sidenote: _Aeneid. 5._]

    ----superando omnis fortuna ferendo est.

[Sidenote: K. Edwards fréends take sanctuarie.]

[Sidenote: Quéene Elizabeth deliuered of a prince.]

[Sidenote: _Ab. Flem._]

But to returne to the princes affaires. When the fame was once spred
abroad that K. Edward was fled the relme, an innumerable number of
people resorted to the earle of Warwike to take his part, but all K.
Edwards trustie fréends went to diuerse sanctuaries, and amongst other
his wife quéene Elizabeth tooke sanctuarie at Westminster, and there
in great penurie forsaken of all hir friends, was deliuered of a faire
son called Edward, which was with small pompe like a poore mans child
christened, the godfathers being the abbat and prior of Westminster,
and the godmother the ladie Scroope. [But what might be the heauinesse
of this ladies hart (thinke we) vpon consideration of so manie
counterblasts of vnhappinesse inwardlie conceiued? Hir husband had
taken flight, his adherents and hir fréends sought to shroud themselues
vnder the couert of a new protector, she driuen in distresse forsooke
not that simple refuge which hir hard hap forced vpon hir; and (a kings
wife) wanted in hir necessitie such things as meane mens wiues had
in superfluitie, & (a corosiue to a noble mind) a prince of renowmed
parentage was (by constreint of vnkind fortune) not vouchsafed the
solemnitie of christendome due and decent for so honorable a personage.]

[Sidenote: The Kentishmen make an hurlie burlie.]

[Sidenote: King Henrie fetched out of the Tower & restored to his
kinglie gouernement.]

The Kentishmen in this seson (whose minds be euer moueable at the
change of princes) came to the subvrbs of London, spoiled mansions,
robbed béerehouses, and by the counsell of sir Geffrie Gates and other
sanctuarie men, they brake vp the kings Bench and deliuered prisoners,
and fell at Ratcliffe, Limehouse, & S. Katharins, to burning of houses,
slaughter of people, and rauishing of women. Which small sparkle had
growne to a greater flame, if the earle of Warwike with a great power
had not suddenlie quenched it, and punished the offendors: which
benefit by him doone, caused him much more to be estéemed and liked
amongst the commons than he was before. When he had settled all things
at his pleasure, vpon the twelfe daie of October he rode to the Tower
of London, and there deliuered king Henrie out of the ward, where he
before was kept, and brought him to the kings lodging, where he was
serued according to his degrée.

On the fiue and twentith day of the said moneth, the duke of Clarence
accompanied with the earles of Warwike and Shrewesburie, the lord
Strange, and other lords and gentlemen, some for feare, and some
for loue, and some onelie to gaze at the wauering world, went to the
Tower, and from thense brought king Henrie apparelled in a long gowne
of blew veluet, through London to the church of saint Paule, the
people on euerie side the stréets reioising and crieng; God saue the
king: as though ech thing had succéeded as they would haue had it:
and when he had offered (as kings vse to doo) he was conueied to the
bishops palace, where he kept his houshold like a king. [Thus was the
principalitie posted ouer somtimes to Henrie, sometimes to Edward;
according to the swaie of the partie preuailing: ambition and disdaine
still casting fagots on the fire, whereby the heat of hatred gathered
the greater force to the consumption of the péeres and the destruction
of the people. In the meane time, neither part could securelie possesse
the regalitie, when they obteined it; which highmindednesse was in the
end the ouerthrow of both principals and accessaries, according to the
nature thereof noted in this distichon by the poet:

    Fastus habet lites, offensis fastus abundat,
    Fastus ad interitum præcipitare solet.]

[Sidenote: A parlement.]

[Sidenote: K. Edward adiudged an vsurper.]

When king Henrie had thus readepted and eftsoons gotten his regall
power and authoritie, he called his high court of parlement to begin
the six and twentith day of Nouember at Westminster; in the which king
Edward was adiudged a traitor to the countrie, and an vsurper of the
realme. His goods were confiscat and forfeited. The like sentence was
giuen against all his partakers and freends. And besides this it was
inacted, that such as for his sake were apprehended, and were either
in captiuitie or at large vpon suerties, should be extremelie punished
according to their demerits, amongst whome was the lord Tiptoft earle
of Worcester lieutenant for king Edward in Ireland, exercising there
more extreme crueltie than princelie pietie, and namelie on two infants
being sonnes to the earle of Desmond.

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl. ex I. S. pag. 725._]

[Sidenote: The earle Tiptoft beheaded.]

[Sidenote: The crowne intailed.]

[This earle of Worcester, being found in the top of an high trée, in
the forest of Waibridge, in the countie of Huntington, was brought
to London, and either for treason to him laid, or malice against
him conceiued, was atteinted, and beheaded at the Tower hill, and
after buried at the Blacke friers.] Moreouer, all statutes made by
king Edward were clearlie reuoked, and the crownes of the realmes of
England and France were by authoritie of the same parlement intailed
to king Henrie the sixt, and to his heires male; and for default of
such heires, to remaine to George duke of Clarence, & to his heires
male: and further, the said duke was inabled to be next heire to his
father Richard duke of Yorke, and to take from him all his landes and
dignities, as though he had béene his eldest sonne at the time of his
death. Iasper earle of Penbroke, and Iohn earle of Oxford, with diuerse
other by king Edward atteinted, were restored to their old names,
possessions, and ancient dignities.

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl. ex I. S. pag. 722, 723._]

[Sidenote: The earle of Warwike his housekéeping.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: The earle of Warwike instituted gouernour of the realme.]

Beside this, the earle of Warwike, as one to whom the common-wealth
was much bounden [and euer had in great fauour of the commons of this
land, by reason of the exceeding houshold which he dailie kept in all
countries where euer he soiourned or laie: and when he came to London,
he held such an house, that six oxen were eaten at a breakefast, and
euerie tauerne was full of his meat, for who that had anie acquaintance
in that house, he should haue had as much sod and rost as he might
carrie vpon a long dagger] he (I saie) was made gouernour of the
realme, with whom as fellow was associat George duke of Clarence. And
thus was the state of the realme quite altered. To this parlement came
the marquesse Montacute, excusing himselfe, that for feare of death he
declined to take king Edwards part, which excuse was accepted. When
quéene Margaret vnderstood by hir husbands letters, that the victorie
was gotten by their fréends, she with hir sonne prince Edward and hir
traine entered their ships, to take their voiage into England: but
the winter was so sharpe, the weather so stormie, and the wind so
contrarie, that she was faine to take land againe, and to deferre hir
iournie till another season.

[Sidenote: Iasper earle of Penbroke.]

[Sidenote: Margaret countesse of Richmond and Derbie.]

About the same season, Iasper earle of Penbroke went into Wales, to
visit his lands in Penbrokeshire, where he found lord Henrie sonne to
his brother Edmund earle of Richmond, hauing not full ten yeares of
age; he being kept in maner like a captiue, but honorablie brought
vp by the ladie Herbert, late wife to William earle of Penbroke,
beheaded at Banburie (as ye before haue heard.) This Henrie was borne
of Margaret the onelie daughter and heire of Iohn the first duke of
Summerset, then not being full ten yeares of age, the which ladie
though she were after ioined in mariage with lord Henrie sonne to
Humfreie duke of Buckingham, and after to Thomas Stanleie earle of
Derbie, both being yoong and apt for generation, yet she had neuer anie
more children, as though she had doone hir part to bring foorth a man
child, and the same to be a king (as he after was indéed) intituled by
the name of Henrie the seuenth (as after ye shall heare.)

[Sidenote: The saieng of king Henrie the sixt, of Henrie of Richmond
after king Henrie the seuenth.]

[Sidenote: _Ab. Flem._]

The earle of Penbroke tooke this child, being his nephue, out of the
custodie of the ladie Herbert, and at his returne brought the child
with him to London to king Henrie the sixt, whome when the king had
a good while beheld, he said to such princes as were with him: Lo,
suerlie this is he, to whom both we and our aduersaries leauing the
possession of all things shall hereafter giue roome and place. So
this holie man shewed before the chance that should happen, that this
earle Henrie so ordeined by God, should in time to come (as he did
indéed) haue and inioy the kingdome and whole rule of this realme of
England. ¶ So that it might seeme probable by the coherence of holie
Henries predictions with the issue falling out in truth with the
same; that for the time he was indued with a propheticall spirit. And
suerlie the epithet or title of holie is not for naught attributed
vnto him, for it is to be read in writers, that he was by nature
giuen to peaceablenesse, abhorring bloud and slaughter, detesting
ciuill tumults, addicted to deuotion, verie frequent in praier, and
not estéeming so highlie of courtlie gallantnesse as stood with the
dignitie of a prince. In consideration wherof, he procured against
himselfe an apostasie of his people both natiue and forren; who
reuolted and fell from fealtie. And whie? The reason is rendred by the
same writer, namelie:

    Quòd tales homines populus sceleratior odit,
    Fastidit, detestatur: non conuenit inter
    Virtutem & vitium, lucem fugêre tenebræ.

[Sidenote: The ragged staffe.]

The earle of Warwike, vnderstanding that his enimie the duke of
Burgognie had receiued king Edward, and meant to aid him for recouerie
of the kingdome, he first sent ouer to Calis foure hundred archers on
horssebacke to make warre on the dukes countries; and further, prepared
foure thousand valiant men to go ouer shortlie, that the duke might
haue his hands euen full of trouble at home. And where ye haue heard
that the erle of Warwike was kept out of Calis at his fléeing out of
England into France, ye shall note that within a quarter of an houre
after it was knowne that he was returned into England; and had chased
king Edward out of the realme; not onelie monsieur de Vaucléere, but
also all other of the garrison & towne shewed themselues to be his
fréends; so that the ragged staffe was taken vp and worne in euerie
mans cap, some ware it of gold enameled, some of siluer; and he that
could haue it neither of gold nor siluer, had it of whitish silke or
cloth: such wauering minds haue the common people, bending like a reed
with euerie wind that bloweth.

[Sidenote: The duke of Burgognie sendeth ambassadors to Calis.]

The duke of Burgognie, hauing an armie readie at the same time to
inuade the frontiers of France, to recouer the townes of saint
Quintines and Amiens, latelie by the French king taken from him,
doubted to be hindered greatlie by the Englishmen, if he should be
constreined to haue warre with them: for the duke of Burgognie held
not onlie at that season Flanders, but also Bulleine, and Bullennois,
and all Artois, so that he was thereby in danger to receiue harme out
of Calis on ech side. Therefore he sent ambassadors thither, which did
so much with the councell there, that the league was newlie confirmed
betwixt the realme of England and the dukes countries; onelie the name
of Henrie put in the writing in stéed of Edward. This matter hindered
sore the sute of king Edward, dailie suing to the duke for aid at his
hands, the more earnestlie indéed, bicause of such promises as by
letters were made vnto him out of England, from his assured fréends

[Sidenote: 1471.]

[Sidenote: He aideth K. Edward vnder hand.]

But duke Charles would not consent openlie to aid king Edward; but yet
secretlie vnder hand by others he lent vnto him fiftie thousand florens
of the crosse of S. Andrew, and further caused foure great ships to be
appointed for him in the hauen of de Véere, otherwise called Camphire
in Zeland, which in those daies was free for all men to come vnto,
and the duke hired for him fouretéene ships of the Easterlings well
appointed, & for the more suertie tooke a bond of them to serue him
trulie, till he were landed in England, and fifteene daies after.
The Easterlings were glad of this iournie, trusting if he got againe
the possession of England, they should the sooner come to a peace,
and obteine restitution of their liberties and franchises, which
they claimed of former time to haue within this realme. The duke of
Burgognie cared not much on whose side the victorie fell, sauing for
paiment of his monie: for he would oft saie, that he was fréend to both
parties, and either part was fréendlie to him.

[Sidenote: _W. Fleetwood._]

[Sidenote: He arriueth on the coast of Norffolke.]

In déed, as he was brother in law to the one, so was he of kin to the
other, as by his grandmother being daughter to Iohn of Gant duke of
Lancaster. When therefore all king Edwards furniture and prouision for
his iournie were once readie, hauing now with him about two thousand
able men of warre, beside mariners, he entered into the ships with
them, in the hauen before Flishing in Zeland, vpon the second day of
March: and bicause the wind fell not good for his purpose, he taried
still aboord for the space of nine daies, before it turned méet for
his iournie. But after that the wind once came about (as he wisht)
the sails were hoissed vp on the 11 of March being monday, & forward
they sailed, directing their course streight ouer towards the coast of
Norffolke. On the next day being tuesday, & the twelfe of March, toward
the euening, they road before Cromer, where the king sent to land sir
Robert Chamberleine, with sir Gilbert Debenham knights, and diuerse
other, to the end they might discouer the countrie, and vnderstand how
the people within the land were bent towards him, especiallie those
countries there next adioining.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 11.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Oxford.]

Vpon their returne, he vnderstood that there was no suertie for him
to land in those parties, by reason of the good order which the earle
of Warwike, and the earle of Oxford especiallie had taken in that
countrie to resist him: for not onelie the duke of Norffolke, but all
other the gentlemen (whome the earle of Warwike had in anie suspicion)
were by letters of priuie seale sent for, and either committed to safe
kéeping about London, or else inforced to find suertie for their loiall
demeanor towards king Henrie: yet those knights and other that were
thus sent foorth to make inquirie, were well receiued of their frends,
and had good cheare. But after the king perceiued by their report, how
things stood thereabouts, he caused his ships to make course towards
the north parts.

[Sidenote: He arriueth at the head of Humber.]

[Sidenote: He landeth at Rauenspurgh.]

The same night folowing, a great storme of winds and weather rose,
sore troubling the seas, and continued till the fourtéenth day of that
moneth being thursday, on the which day with greater danger, by reason
of the tempestuous rage and torment of the troubled seas, he arriued at
the head of Humber, where the other ships were scattered from him, each
one seuered from other; so that of necessitie they were driuen to land
in sunder where they best might, for doubt to be cast awaie in that
perillous tempest. The king with the lord Hastings his chamberleine,
and other to the number of fiue hundred men being in one ship, landed
within Humber on Holdernesse side, at a place called Rauenspurgh, euen
in the same place where Henrie erle of Derbie, after called king Henrie
the fourth landed, when he came to depriue king Richard the second of
the crowne, and to vsurpe it to himselfe.

Richard duke of Glocester, and three hundred men in his companie,
tooke land in another place foure miles distant from thence, where
his brother king Edward did land. The earle Riuers, and with him two
hundred men, landed at a place called Pole, fourtéene miles from the
hauen where the king came on land. The residue of his people landed
some here some there, in place where for their suerties they thought
best. On the morrow, being the fiftéenth of March, now that the tempest
ceased, and euerie man being got to land, they drew from euerie of
their landing places towards the king, who for the first night was
lodged in a poore village, two miles from the place where he first set
foot on land. [As for his traine, though the season of the yeere was
naturallie cold, & therfore required competent refection by warmth, it
is to be supposed, that all their lodgings were hard inough, sith the
principals prouision was sorie inough. But what of that? Better (in
cases of extremitie) an hard shift than none at all.]

Touching the folks of the countrie, there came few or none to him. For
by the incensing of such as had bin sent into those parts from the
erle of Warwike, and other his aduersaries, the people were shrewdlie
induced to stand against him. But yet, in respect of the good will
that manie of them had borne to his father, they could haue béene
content, that he should haue inioied his right to his due inheritance
of the duchie of Yorke, but in no wise to the title of the crowne.
And herevpon they suffered him to passe, not seeking to annoie him,
till they might vnderstand more of his purposed meaning. The king,
perceiuing how the people were bent, noised abroad that hée came to
make none other chalenge but to his inheritance of the duchie of Yorke:
and withall ment to passe first into the citie of Yorke, and so forward
towards London, to incounter with his aduersaries that were in the
south parts.

For although his néerest waie had béene through Lincolneshire: yet
bicause in taking that waie hée must haue gone againe to the water, in
passing ouer Humber; he doubted least it would haue bin thought that he
had withdrawne himselfe to the sea for feare. And to auoid the rumors
that might haue beene spred thereof, to the hinderance of his whole
cause, he refused that waie, and tooke this other, still bruting it (as
before we said) that his comming was not to chalenge the crowne, but
onelie to be restored vnto his fathers right and inheritance of the
duchie of Yorke, which was descended to him from his father. And here
it séemed that the colour of iustice hath euer such a force in it selfe
amongst all men, that where before few or none of the commons could be
found that would offer themselues to take his part: yet now that he did
(as they thought) claime nothing but that which was his right, they
began streight to haue a liking of his cause.

[Sidenote: Martine de la Mare or Martine of the sea.]

[Sidenote: He passeth toward Yorke.]

And where there were gathered to the number of six or seuen thousand
men in diuerse places, vnder the leading chieflie of a priest and of
a gentleman called Martine de la Mare, in purpose to haue stopped his
passage: now the same persons tooke occasion to assist him. And when
he perceiued mens minds to bée well qualified with this feined deuise,
he marched foorth till he came to Beuerleie, which stood in his direct
waie as he passed toward Yorke. He sent also to Kingston vpon Hull,
distant from thence six miles, willing that he might be there receiued:
but the inhabitants, who had bene laboured by his aduersaries, refused
in anie wise to grant therevnto.

[Sidenote: Sée before page 277.]

The earle of Warwike aduertised by messengers of king Edwards arriuall,
and of his turning toward Yorke, with all hast wrote to his brother the
marquesse Montacute, who had laine at the castell of Pomfret all the
last winter with a great number of souldiers, willing him to consider
in what case their affaires stood, and therevpon with all spéed to
set vpon king Edward, or else to keepe the passages, and to staie him
from comming anie further forward, till he himselfe as then being in
Warwikeshire busie to assemble an armie, might come to his aid with the
same. [Thus laboured the earle of Warwike by policie and puissance, as
well of his owne as others power, to further his owne purpose, hauing
sworne in heart a due performance of that, which he had solemnlie vowed
and promised before.]

[Sidenote: K. Edward without interruption passeth forward to Yorke.]

But this notwithstanding, although there were great companies of people
of the countries there abouts assembled, yet they came not in sight of
the king, but suffered him quietlie to passe; either bicause they were
persuaded that he ment (as he in outward words pretended) not to claime
anie title to the crowne, but onelie his right to the duchie of Yorke;
or else for that they doubted to set vpon him, although his number were
farre vnequall to theirs; knowing that not onelie he himselfe, but also
his companie were minded to sell their liues dearlie, before they would
shrinke an inch from anie that was to incounter them. It maie be that
diuerse of the capteins also were corrupted: and although outwardlie
they shewed to be against him, yet in heart they bare him right good
will, and in no wise minded to hinder him. So forward he marched, till
he came to Yorke, on a monday being the eightéenth day of March.

[Sidenote: Thomas Coniers recorder of Yorke.]

Before he came to the citie by the space of thrée miles, the recorder
of Yorke, whose name was Thomas Coniers (one knowne in déed not to
beare him anie faithfull good will) came vnto him; & gaue him to
vnderstand, that it stood in no wise with his suertie, to presume to
approch the citie: for either hée should be kept out by force, or if
he did enter, he shuld be in danger to be cast away by his aduersaries
that were within. King Edward neuerthelesse, sith he was come thus
farre forward, knew well inough there was no going backe for him, but
manfullie to procéed forward with his begun iournie, and therefore kept
on his way. And shortlie after there came to him out of the citie,
Robert Clifford, and Richard Burgh, who assured him that in the quarell
which he pretended to pursue, to wit, for the obteining of his right to
the duchie of Yorke, he should not faile but be receiued into the citie.

[Sidenote: K. Edward commeth to Yorke.]

[Sidenote: He receiueth an oth.]

But immediatlie after came the said Coniers againe, with the like tale
and information as he had brought before. And thus king Edward one
while put in comfort, and another while discouraged, marched foorth
till he came to the gates of the citie, where his people staied;
whilest he and about sixtéene or seuentéene other such as he thought
méetest, went forth and entred the citie with the said Clifford &
Burgh. And (as some write) there was a priest readie to saie masse,
in which masse time the king receiued the sacrament of the communion,
& there solemnlie sware to kéepe and obserue two speciall articles:
although it was farre vnlike that he minded to obserue either of
them: the one was that he should vse the citizens after a gentle
and courteous maner: and the other, that he should be faithfull and
obedient vnto king Henries commandements.

For this wilfull periurie (as hath béene thought) the issue of this
king suffered (for the fathers offense the depriuation not onelie of
lands and worldlie possessions, but also of their naturall liues,)
by their cruell vncle K. Richard the third. [And it may well be.]
For it is not likelie that God, in whose hands is the bestowing of
all souereigntie, will suffer such an indignatie to be doone to his
sacred maiestie, and will suffer the same to passe with impunitie. And
suerlie, if an oth among priuate men is religiouslie to be kept, sith
in the same is an exact triall of faith and honestie; doubtlesse of
princes it is verie nicelie and preciselie to be obserued: yea they
should rather susteine a blemish and disgrace in their roialtie, than
presume to go against their oth and promise, speciallie if the same
stand vpon conditions of equitie: otherwise they prooue themselues to
be impugners of fidelitie, which is a iewell surpassing gold in price
and estimation, as the poet prudentlie saith:

    Charior est auro non simulata fides.

[Sidenote: The marques Montacute suffereth king Edward to passe by him.]

When king Edward had thus gotten into the citie of Yorke, he made such
meanes among the citizens, that he got of them a certeine summe of
monie; and leauing a garison within the citie contrarie to his oth, for
fear least the citizens after his departure, might happilie mooue some
rebellion against him, he set forward the next day toward Todcaster, a
towne ten miles from thence, belonging to the earle of Northumberland.
The next day he tooke his waie toward Wakefield and Sendall, a castell
and lordship belonging to the inheritance of the dukes of Yorke,
leauing the castell of Pomfret vpon his left hand, where the marques
Montacute with his armie laie, and did not once offer to stop him.

Whether the marques suffered him to passe by so, with his good will or
no, diuerse haue diuerslie coniectured. Some thinke that it lay not in
the power of the marques greatlie to annoie him, both for that the king
was well beloued in those parties; & againe, all the lords & commons
there for the most part were towards the earle of Northumberland, and
without him or his commandement they were not willing to stirre. And
therefore the earle in sitting still and not moouing to and fro, was
thought to doo king Edward as good seruice as if he had come to him,
and raised people to assist him; for diuerse happilie that should haue
come with him, remembring displeasures past, would not haue béene so
faithfull as the earle himselfe, if it had come to the iumpe of anie
hazard of battell.

[Sidenote: K. Edward commeth to Northampt[=o].]

[Sidenote: _Edw. Hall._]

About Wakefield and the parts there adioining, some companie of his
freends came to him, whereby his power was increased; but nothing in
such numbers as he looked for. From Wakefield he crossed on the left
hand, so to come againe into the high waie, and came to Doncaster, and
from thence vnto Notingham. Here came to him sir William Parre, and sir
Iames Harrington, with six hundred men well armed and appointed also
there came to him sir Thomas Burgh, & sir Thomas Montgomerie with their
aids, which caused him at their first comming to make proclamation in
his owne name, to wit, of K. Edward the fourth, boldlie affirming to
him, that they would serue no man but a king.

[Sidenote: The duke of Excester with a power at Newarke.]

Whilest he remained at Notingham, and also before he came there, he
sent abroad diuerse of his auaunt courrers to discouer the countrie,
and to vnderstand if there were anie power gathered against him. Some
of them that were thus sent, approached to Newarke, and vnderstood that
within the towne there, the duke of Excester, the earle of Oxenford,
the lord Bardolfe, and other were lodged with a great power to the
number of foure thousand men, which they had assembled in Essex,
Norffolke, Suffolke, and in the shires of Cambridge, Huntington, and
Lincolne. The duke of Excester, and the earle of Oxenford, with other
the chéefe capteins, aduertised that king Edwards foreriders had béene
afore the towne in the euening, supposed verelie that he and his whole
armie were comming towards them.

Héerevpon, they not thinking it good to abide longer there, determined
with all spéed to dislodge, and so about two of the clocke after
midnight they departed from Newarke, leauing some of their people
behind, which either stale awaie from them, and taried of purpose, or
could not get awaie so soone as their fellowes. In déed the foreriders
that so discouered them within the towne of Newarke, aduertised the
king thereof in all post hast, who incontinentlie assembled his people,
and foorthwith marched towards them: but before he came within thrée
miles of the towne, he had knowledge that they were fled and gone from
Newarke. Whervpon he returned againe to Notingham, intending to kéepe
on his néerest waie towards the earle of Warwike, whome he vnderstood
to be departed from London, and to be come into Warwikeshire, where &
in the countries adioining he was busied in leuieng an armie, with the
which he purposed to distresse him.

[Sidenote: K. Edward commeth to Leicester.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Warwike in Couentrie.]

The king then from Notingham came to Leicester, where three thousand
able men, and well furnished for the warre came vnto him. These were
such as he knew would liue and die in his quarrell, the most part of
them belonging vnto the lord Hastings, the kings chamberlaine. And
thus he, being more stronglie accompanied than before, departed from
Leicester, and came before the wals of the citie of Couentrie, the nine
and twentith daie of March. The earle of Warwike was withdrawne into
this citie, kéeping himselfe inclosed therein with his people, being
in number six or seauen thousand men. The king sent to him, and willed
him to come foorth into the field, and there to make an end of the
quarell in plaine battell: but the earle at that present refused so to

[Sidenote: K. Edward prouoketh the earle of Warwike to fight.]

[Sidenote: He c[=o]meth to Warwike.]

For although, vnder pretense of king Henries authoritie, he was reputed
the kings generall lieutenant of the whole realme, whereby he had got
such power togither, as was thought able inough to match with the king
for number; yet bicause he doubted how they were bent in his fauour, he
durst not commit the matter vnto the doubtfull chance of battell, till
he had more of his trustie fréends about him. The king therefore thrée
daies togither prouoked him to come foorth, but when he saw it would
not be, he remooued to Warwike an eight miles from Couentrie, where
he was receiued as king, and so made his proclamations from that time
foorth in all places where he came vnder his accustomed name and title
of king.

[Sidenote: A treatie for peace.]

He lodged héere at Warwike, the rather (as was thought) to prouoke the
earle to issue foorth of Couentrie to giue him battell, howbeit that
deuise nothing auailed. But yet there came dailie diuerse persons on
the earls behalfe to treat with the king about a peace, that some good
composition might haue béene concluded; & the king for the aduancement
of peace and tranquillitie within the realme, offered large conditions;
as a frée pardon of life to the earle, and all his people, with manie
other beneficiall articles on their behalfes, which to manie seemed
verie reasonable, considering their heinous offenses. But the earle
would not accept anie offers, except he might haue compounded so as it
pleased himselfe, & as was thought in no wise to stand with the king
honour, and suertie of his estate.

[Sidenote: The duke of Clarence.]

In this meane while, the earle of Warwike still looked for the duke
of Clarence, who by the said earls appointment had assembled a power
of men of war about London: but when the earle perceiued that the
duke lingered foorth the time, and did not vse such diligence as was
requisit, as one that had béene in doubt of warre or peace, he began
to suspect that the duke was of his brother corrupted, and therein he
was nothing deceiued. For true it is, that whilest the king was as yet
beyond the seas, in the dominion of the duke of Burgognie, the duke
of Clarence began to weie with himselfe the great inconuenience into
the which as well his brother king Edward as himselfe and his yoonger
brother the duke of Glocester were fallen, through the dissention
betwixt them: (which had beene compassed and brought to passe by the
politike working of the earle of Warwike and his complices.)

As first the disheriting of them all from their rightfull title to
the crowne; secondlie the mortall and detestable war that could not
but insue betwixt them, to such mischéefe, that to whether part the
victorie inclined, the victor should remaine in no more suertie of
his owne person or estate after the vpper hand got, than before;
and thirdlie he well perceiued alreadie, that he was had in great
suspicion, and not heartilie belooued of anie the lords and rulers that
were assured partakers with king Henrie and the Lancastrian faction:
insomuch they sticked not dailie to go about to breake and make void
the appointments, articles, and couenants, made and promised to him,
and of likelihood would dailie more and more intend thereto: for in
truth he saw, that they purposed nothing so much as the destruction
both of him and all his bloud.

[Sidenote: Préests vsed for priuie messengers.]

All which things throughlie considered, with manie other as they were
laid afore him by right wise and circumspect persons, which in this
behalfe had conference with him, he consented that by some secret waies
and meanes a reconciliation might be had betwixt him and his brethren,
the king and the duke of Glocester. The which to bring to some good
and full effect, these honorable personages following became dealers
therein. First of all the duches of Yorke their mother, the duches of
Excester and the duches of Suffolke their sisters; the lord cardinall
of Canturburie, the bishop of Bath, the earle of Essex; but most
speciallie the duches of Burgognie their sister also, and diuerse other
right wise and prudent personages, who wrought by mediation of certeine
preests, and others, such as they vsed for messengers betwixt them.

[Sidenote: K. Edward and his brother of Clarence reconciled vnwitting
to the earle of Warwike.]

Finallie, by the earnest trauell and diligence shewed by the said
duches of Burgognie (who incessantlie sent to and fro such hir trustie
messengers now to the king being on that side the seas, and then to
the duke remaining héere in England) at length they were made fréends,
and a perfect agréement concluded and ratified, with assurance betwixt
them so stronglie as might be. To the furthering whereof the kings
chamberlaine the lord Hastings failed not to doo his best, so as by
his good diligence, it was thought the king was the sooner induced
to with to ioine eftsoones in true fréendship with his said brother
of Clarence. And as it well appeared, the duke of Clarence acquitted
himselfe faithfullie therein.

[Sidenote: The dissimulation of the duke of Clarence.]

For hearing now that his brother king Edward was landed and comming
forward towards London, he gathered his people, outwardlie pretending
to passe with them to the aid of the earle of Warwike against his
brother: although inwardlie he meant the contrarie, and so accompanied
with aboue foure thousand men, he marched foorth towards the place
where he thought to find his brother. King Edward being then at
Warwike, and vnderstanding that his brother of Clarence approched, in
an afternoone issued foorth of that towne with all his forces, and
passed on till he came into a faire large field thrée miles distant
from Warwike towards Banburie, where he might behold his brother of
Clarence in good arraie of battell, comming towards him.

[Sidenote: The brethren méet louinglie togither.]

When they were now within halfe a mile approched togither, the king
placed his people in order of battell vnder their baners, and so
left them standing still, and appointed them to kéepe their ground,
whilest he taking with him his brother of Glocester, the lord Riuers,
the lord Hastings, & a few other, went foorth to méet his brother of
Clarence: and in like sort the duke of Clarence tooke with him a few
of the nobilitie that were about him, and leauing his armie in good
order, departed from them to meet the king, and so they met betwixt
both the hosts, with so swéet salutations, louing demeanor, and good
countenances, as better might not be deuised betwixt brethren of so
high and noble estate. O what a hearts ioy was this to the people, to
sée such an accord and mutuall attonement betweene these péeres! It was
the onelie pleasure in the world, to the which all other compared are
but counterfet, and that dooth the psalmist testifie,

[Sidenote: _Buchan. in psal. 133._]

    Nil charitate mutua fratrum, nihil
    Iucundius concordia.

Besides this the like fréendlie intertainment, and courteous
demeanour appeared in the salutings of other noble men that were on
them attendant; wherof all such as saw it, and loued them, greatlie
reioised; giuing God thankes for that ioifull méeting, vnitie, and
concord, appearing thus manifestlie betwixt them: and herewith the
trumpets and other instruments sounded, & the king withall brought the
duke vnto his armie, whome he saluting in most courteous wise, welcomed
them into the land; and they humblie thanking him, did to him such
reuerence as apperteined to the honour of such a worthie personage.
This was a goodlie and a gratious reconcilement, beneficiall to the
princes, profitable to the péeres, and pleasurable to the people, whose
part had beene déepest in dangers and losse, if discord had not beene

This doone, the king leauing his hoast againe, keeping their ground
with the same few persons which he tooke with him before, went with
his brother of Clarence vnto his armie, and saluting them with swéete
and courteous words, was ioifullie of them welcomed: and so after
this, they all came togither ioining in one. And either part shewing
themselues glad thus to méet as fréends with the other, they went
louinglie togither vnto Warwike with the king, where and in the
countrie thereabouts they lodged, as they thought stood most with their
ease and safeties. Herewith the duke of Clarence desired aboue all
things to procure some good and perfect accord betwixt his brother the
king, and the earle of Warwike.

[Sidenote: The duke of Clarence séeketh to make peace betwixt the king
and the earle of Warwike.]

In this was he the more studious, bicause he saw that such an
accord should bring great quietnesse to the land, and deliuer the
common-wealth of manie dangers that might insue by reason of such
numbers of partakers, as well lords as other that were confederat
with the earle. The said duke treated with the king present, and sent
messengers vnto Couentrie to the earle, moouing as well the one as
the other most instantlie to frame their minds vnto a pacification.
The king at the instance of his brother was contented to offer large
conditions, and verie beneficiall for the earle and his partakers, if
they would haue accepted them.

But the earle, whether vtterlie despairing of his owne safetie, if he
should agrée to anie peace; or else happilie for that he thought it
stood with his honour to stand vnto such promises and couenants as he
had made with the French king, and with the quéene Margaret, and hir
sonne prince Edward (to whome he was bound by oth not to shrinke or
swarue from the same) he refused all maner of such conditions as were
offered. Insomuch that when the duke had sent to him, both to excuse
himselfe of the act which he had doone, and also to require him to
take some good waie with king Edward, now while he might, the earle
(after he had patientlie heard the dukes message) he séemed greatlie to
abhorre his vnfaithfull dealing, in turning thus from his confederats
and alies contrarie to his oth and fidelitie.

[Sidenote: The earle of Warwiks answer to the duke of Clarence message.]

To the messengers (as some write) he gaue none other answer but this,
that he had rather be like himselfe, than like a false and periured
duke; and that he was fullie determined neuer to leaue warre, till he
had either lost his owne life, or vtterlie subdued his enimies. At it
was thought, the earle of Oxenfords persuasion wanted not, to make him
the more stiflie to hold out; and rather to trie the vttermost hazard
of warre, than to agrée to acknowledge king Edward for his lawfull
souereigne lord and king. Whervpon no appointment nor anie agréement at
all could be brought to passe; and so all that treatie, which the duke
of Clarence had procured, brake off & tooke none effect. There came
to the earle of Warwike, whilest he laie thus at Couentrie (besides
the earle of Oxenford) the duke of Excester, and the lord marquesse
Montacute, by whose comming that side was greatlie strengthened, and
the number much increased.

[Sidenote: K. Edward passeth London.]

The king, vpon consideration hereof and perceiuing he could not get the
earle to come foorth of Couentrie, departed from Warwike, and eftsoones
shewing himselfe with his people before the citie of Couentrie, desired
the earle and his power to come foorth into the fields, that they might
end their quarrell by battell: which the earle and the other lords
with him vtterlie refused as then to doo. This was the fift of Aprill
being fridaie. The king herevpon was resolued to march towards London,
where his principall aduersarie king Henrie remained, vsing his kinglie
authoritie by diuerse such of the nobilitie as were about him, whereby
king Edward was barred and disappointed of manie aids and assistants,
which he was sure to haue, if he could once breake that force of the
roiall authoritie, that was still thus exercised against him in king
Henries name.

Wherefore (by the aduise of his brethren and others of his councell)
accordinglie as it had beene ordeined before this his last setting
foorth from Warwike, he kept on his waie towards London, comming to
Dantrie on the saturdaie at night: & on the morow being Palmesundaie,
he heard seruice in the church there, & after rode to Northhampton,
where he was ioifullie receiued. From thense he tooke the next way
towards London, leauing continuallie behind him (as he passed foorth) a
competent band of speares and archers, to beat backe such of the earle
of Warwiks people, as peraduenture he might send abroad to trouble
him and his armie by the waie. Which prouidence and foresight it not
vnnecessarie to vse; for that he knew well enough, that the heart of
an enimie, frieng in the fire of hatefull hostilitie, will pretermit
no opportunitie either of time or place to laie in wait for his
destruction, against whom he beareth an inward grudge, with a desire of
vengeance to the death.

In this meane while, that things passed in maner (as before ye haue
hard) Edmund duke of Summerset, & his brother Iohn marquesse Dorset,
Thomas Courtneie earle of Deuonshire, and others being at London,
had knowledge by aduertisements out of France, that quéene Margaret
with hir sonne prince Edward, the countesse of Warwike, the prior of
S. Iohns, the lord Wenlocke, and diuerse others their adherents and
partakers, with all that they might make, were readie at the sea side,
purposing with all spéed to saile ouer into England, and to arriue
in the west countrie. Wherevpon they departed foorth of London, and
with all hast possible drew westward, there to raise what forces they
could, to ioine with those their fréends, immediatlie after they should
once come on land, and so to assist them against king Edward and his

True it is, that the quéene with hir sonne, and the other persons
before mentioned, tooke their ships, the foure and twentith daie of
March, continuing on the seas before they could land (thorough tempests
and contrarie winds) by the space of twentie daies, that is, till the
thirtéenth of Aprill: on which daie, or rather on the fourtéenth, they
landed at Weimouth, as after shall appeare. But now touching king
Edwards procéeding forward on his iournie toward London, ye haue to
vnderstand, that vpon the tuesdaie the ninth of Aprill he came to saint
Albons, from whense he sent comfortable aduertisements to the queene
his wife remaining within the sanctuarie at Westminster, and to others
his faithfull fréends in and about London, to vnderstand by couert
meanes how to deale to obteine the fauour of the citizens, so as he
might be of them receiued.

[Sidenote: The archbishop of Yorke.]

The earle of Warwike, vnderstanding all his dooings and purposes, wrote
to the Londoners, willing & charging them in anie wise to keepe king
Edward out of their citie, and in no condition to permit him to enter:
and withall he sent to his brother the archbishop of Yorke, willing
him by all meanes possible to persuade the Londoners not to receiue
him; but to defend the citie against him for the space of two or thrée
daies at the least: promising not to faile but to come after him, and
to be readie to assaile him on the backe, not doubting but wholie to
distresse his power and to bring him to vtter confusion. The archbishop
herevpon, on the ninth of Aprill, called vnto him at Paules, all such
lords, knights, and gentlemen, with others that were partakers on that
side, to the number in all of six or seauen thousand men in armour.

[Sidenote: King Henrie sheweth himselfe to the Londoners.]

Herewith also he caused king Henrie to mount on horssebacke, and to
ride from Paules thorough Cheape downe to Walbroke, & so to fetch a
compasse (as the custome was when they made their generall processions)
returning backe againe to Paules vnto the bishops palace, where at that
time he was lodged. The archbishop supposed, that shewing the king thus
riding thorough the stréets, he should haue allured the citizens to
assist his part. True it is, the maior & aldermen had caused the gates
to be kept with watch and ward: but now they well perceiued that king
Henries power was too weake, as by that shew it had well appeared, to
make full resistance against king Edward, and so not for them to trust
vnto, if king Edward came forward, and should attempt to enter the
citie by force: for it was not vnknowne vnto them, that manie of the
worshipfull citizens, and others of the commons in great numbers, were
fullie bent to aid king Edward, in all that they might, as occasion

[Sidenote: The Londoners resolue to receiue king Edward.]

[Sidenote: The archbishop of Yorke.]

Thus, what thorough loue that manie bare to king Edward, and what
thorough feare that diuerse stood in, least the citie being taken
by force might happilie haue beene put to the sacke, with the losse
of manie an innocent mans life; the maior, aldermen, and others the
worshipfull of the citie fell at a point among themselues, to kéepe the
citie to K. Edwards vse, so as he might haue free passage and entrie
into the same at his pleasure. The archbishop of Yorke, perceiuing the
affections of the people, and how the most part of them were now bent
in fauour of king Edward vpon the said kings approch towards the citie,
he sent foorth secretlie a messenger to him, beséeching him to receiue
him againe into his fauour, promising to be faithfull to him in time
to come, and to acquit this good turne hereafter with some singular
benefit and pleasure.

[Sidenote: The Tower recouered to king Edwards vse.]

[Sidenote: K. Edward entereth into London.]

[Sidenote: King Henrie is deliuered to him.]

The king, vpon good causes and considerations therevnto him moouing,
was contented to receiue him againe into his fauour. The archbishop
hereof assured, reioised greatlie, well & truelie acquiting him
concerning his promise made to the king in that behalfe. The same night
following was the Tower of London recouered to king Edwards vse. And
on the morow being thursdaie, and the eleuenth of Aprill, king Edward
quietlie made his entrie into the citie with his power, hauing fiue
hundred smokie gunners marching foremost, being strangers, of such
as he had brought ouer with him. He first rode vnto Paules church, &
from thense he went to the bishops palace, where the archbishop of
Yorke presented himselfe vnto him, and hauing king Henrie by the hand,
deliuered him vnto king Edward, who being seized of his person, and
diuerse other his aduersaries, he went from Paules to Westminster,
where he made his deuout praiers, giuing God most heartie thanks for
his safe returne thither againe.

This doone, he went to the quéene to comfort hir, who with great
patience had abidden there a long time, as a sanctuarie woman, for
doubt of hir enimies; and in the meane season was deliuered of a
yoong prince, whom she now presented vnto him, to his great hearts
reioising & comfort. From Westminster the king returned that night vnto
London againe, hauing the quéene with him, and lodged in the house of
the duchesse his moother. On the morow being good fridaie, he tooke
aduise with the lords of his bloud, and other of his councell, for
such businesse as he had in hand; namelie, how to subdue his enimies
as sought his destruction. Thus with consultation preuenting his
actions, he obteined fortunate successe, wherwith his hart was the more
aduanced to ioine issue with his aduersaries, whome (rather than they
should triumph ouer him) he was resolutelie minded to vanquish, if his
procéedings might proue prosperous as his present good lucke.

[Sidenote: The earle of Warwike followeth the king.]

The earle of Warwike, calling himselfe lieutenant of England, vnder the
pretensed authoritie of King Henrie, hoping that king Edward should
haue much a doo to enter into London, marched foorth from Couentrie
with all his puissance, following the king by Northhampton, in hope to
haue some great aduantage to assaile him, speciallie if the Londoners
kept him out of their citie, as he trusted they would; for then he
accounted himselfe sure of the vpper hand: or if he were of them
receiued, yet he hoped to find him vnprouided in celebrating the feast
of Easter; and so by setting vpon him on the sudden, he doubted not by
that meanes to distresse him. But king Edward, hauing intelligence of
the earles intention, prouided all things necessarie for battell; &
hearing that the earle of Warwike was now come vnto S. Albons with his
armie, he determined to march foorth to incounter him before he should
approch neere the citie.

[Sidenote: _Edw. Hall._]

The earle of Warwike accompanied with Iohn duke of Excester, Edmund
duke of Summerset, Iohn earle of Oxford, and Iohn Neuill marquesse
Montacute his brother, vnderstanding that king Edward was not onelie
receiued into London, but also had got king Henrie into his hands,
perceiued that the triall of the matter must néeds be committed to
the hazard of battell; and therefore being come to the towne of saint
Albons, he rested there a while, partlie to refresh his souldiers, and
partlie to take counsell how to procéed in his enterprise. At length,
although he knew that his brother the marquesse Montacute was not
fullie well persuaded with himselfe, to like of this quarell which they
had in hand; yet the brotherlie affection betwixt them tooke awaie all
suspicion from the earle, and so he vtterlie resolued to giue battell,
meaning to trie whereto all this tumult would grow; and counting it a
blemish to his honor, not to prosequute that with the sword, which he
had solemnelie vowed to doo on his word.

[Sidenote: Gladmore heath.]

[Sidenote: The ordering of the kings armie.]

Hervpon remoued they towards Barnet, a towne standing in the midwaie
betwixt London and saint Albons aloft on a hill; at the end whereof
towards saint Albons there is a faire plaine for two armies to meet
vpon, named Gladmore heath. On the further side of which plaine towards
saint Albons the earle pight his campe. king Edward on the other part,
being furnished with a mightie armie (hauing ioined to that power
which he brought with him certeine new supplies) upon Easter euen the
thirtéenth of Aprill in the after noone marched foorth, hauing his said
armie diuided into foure battels. He tooke with him king Henrie, and
came that euening vnto Barnet, ten small miles distant from London; in
which towne his foreriders finding certeine of the earle of Warwikes
foreriders, beat them out, & chased them somewhat further than halfe
a mile from the towne, where, by an hedge side they found readie
assembled a great number of the earle of Warwiks people.

[Sidenote: K. Edward lodged before his enimies.]

The king after this comming to Barnet, would not suffer a man to
remaine in the towne (that were of his host) but commanded them all to
the field, and with them drew toward his enimies, and lodged with his
armie more neere to them than he was aware of, by reason it was darke,
so as he could not well discerne where they were incamped, fortifieng
the field the best he could for feare of some sudden inuasion. He tooke
his ground not so euen afore them as he would haue doone, if he might
haue discouered the place where they had lien; and by reason thereof
he incamped somewhat aside slips of them, causing his people to kéepe
as much silence as was possible, [least making anie noise with the
busseling of their armour and weapons or otherwise with their toongs,
the enimie might haue come to some knowledge of the kings priuie
purpose, and so by preuention haue disappointed his policie by some
prouident deuise; which bicause they wanted for the present time, it
turned to their disaduantage; after the old prouerbe:

    Nescit prodesse qui nescit prouidus esse.]

[Sidenote: Artillerie.]

[Sidenote: A good policie.]

They had great artillerie on both parts, but the earle was better
furnished therewith than the king, and therefore in the night time
they shot off from his campe in maner continuallie; but dooing little
hurt to the kings people, still ouershooting them, by reason they laie
much néerer than the earle or anie or his men did estéeme. And such
silence was kept in the kings campe, that no noise bewraied them where
they laie. For to the end it should not be knowne to the enimies, how
neere the king with his armie was lodged vnto them, the king, would
not suffer anie of his gunnes in all that night to be shot off, least
thereby they might haue gessed the ground, and so leuelled their
artillerie to his annoiance.

[Sidenote: _Edw. Hall_.]

[Sidenote: The order of battell of both sides.]

Earelie on the next morning betwixt foure and fiue of the clocke,
notwithstanding there was a great mist that letted the sight of both
parts to discouer the fields, the king aduanced his banners, and caused
his trumpets to sound to the battell. On the other part, the earle of
Warwike, at the verie breake of the daie, had likewise set his men
in order of battell in this maner. In the right wing he placed the
marquesse Montacute, and the earle of Oxford with certeine horssemen,
and he with the duke of Excester tooke the left wing. And in the
middest betweene both, he set archers, appointing the duke of Summerset
to guide them as their chiefteine. King Edward had set the duke of
Glocester in the fore-ward. The middle-ward he himselfe with the duke
of Clarence, hauing with them king Henrie, did rule & gouerne. The lord
Hastings led the rere-ward, and beside these thrée battels, he kept a
companie of fresh men in store, which did him great pleasure before the
end of the battell.

[Sidenote: The valiancie of the earle of Oxford.]

Here is to be remembered, that aswell the king on his part, as the
earle of Warwike on his, vsed manie comfortable words to incourage
their people, not forgetting to set foorth their quarels as iust and
lawfull; the king naming his aduersaries traitors and rebels, & the
earle accounting him a tyrant, & an iniurious vsurper. But when the
time came that they once got sight either of other, the battell began
verie sharpe and cruell, first with shot, and after by ioining at
hand blowes. Yet at the first they ioined not front to front, as they
should haue doone, by reason of the mist that tooke awaie the sight
of either armie, and suffered the one not to discerne perfectlie the
order of the other; insomuch that the one end of the earle of Warwikes
armie ouer-raught the contrarie end of the kings battell which stood
westward, and by reason thereof (through the valiancie of the earle
of Oxford that led the earles voward) the kings people on that part
were ouermatched, so that manie of them fled towards Barnet, and so to
London, bringing newes that the erle of Warwike had woone the field.

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl. ex I. S. pag. 727._]

[Which report happilie might haue béene iustified and fallen out to
be true, had not preposterous fortune happened to the earle of Oxford
and his men, who had a starre with streames on their liueries; as king
Edwards men had the sunne with streames on their liueries: wherevpon
the earle of Warwiks men, by reason of the mist not well discerning the
badges so like, shot at the earle of Oxfords men that were on their
owne part, and then the earle of Oxford and his men cried treason, and
fled with eight hundred men.]

But touching the kings people which were pursued in the chase as they
fled, and were put to the worst, manie were wounded, and manie slaine
outright. But the residue of those that fought in other parts could not
perceiue this distresse of the kings people, bicause the thicke mist
would not suffer them to sée anie space farre off, but onelie at hand:
and so the kings battell that saw not anie thing what was doone beside
them, was nothing discouraged. For (a few excepted that stood next to
that part) there was not anie one that wist of that discomfiture; and
the other of the earle of Warwikes men, that fought in other places
somewhat distant from them, were nothing the more incouraged by this
prosperous successe of their fellowes, for they perceiued it not. And
in like case as at the west end the earles battell ouer-reached the
kings, so at the east end the kings ouer-reached the earls, and with
like successe put the earls people in that place to the worse.

[Sidenote: The manfull courage of the earle of Warwike.]

At length after sore fight, and greater slaughter made on both sides,
king Edward hauing the greater number of men (as some write, though
other affirme the contrarie) began somewhat to preuaile: but the earle
on the other side remembring his ancient fame and renowme, manfullie
stucke to it, and incouraged his people, still supplieng with new
succors in places where he saw expedient, and so the fight renewed
more cruell, fierce, & bloudie than before, insomuch that the victorie
remained still doubtfull, though they had fought from morning till it
was now far in the daie. K. Edward therefore willing to make an end of
so long a conflict, caused new power of fresh men (which he had for
this purpose kept in store) to set on his enimies.

[Sidenote: The earle of Warwike slaine.]

The earle of Warwike was nothing abashed herewith, but vnderstanding
that this was all the residue of king Edwards power, comforted his men
to beare out this last brunt, and in so dooing the victorie was sure
on their side, and the battell at an end: but king Edward so manfullie
and valiantlie assailed his aduersaries, in the middle and strongest
part of their battell, that with great violence he bare downe all that
stood in his waie; for he was followed and assisted by a number of most
hardie and faithfull men of warre, that shewed notable proofe of tried
manhood in that instant necessitie. The earle of Warwike (when his
souldiers all wearied with long fight, and sore weakened with woundes
and hurts receiued in the battell) gaue little héed to his words (being
a man of an inuincible stomach) rushed into the middest of his enimies,
whereas he (aduenturing so farre from his companie, to kill and slea
his aduersaries, that he could not be rescued) was amongst the preasse
of his enimies striken downe and slaine.

[Sidenote: The marquesse Montacute slaine.]

[Sidenote: _Abr. Flem._]

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl. ex I. S. pag. 727._]

The marquesse Montacute, thinking to succour his brother, was likewise
ouerthrowne and slaine, with manie other of good calling, as knights
and esquiers, beside other gentlemen. [But some saie that the said
marquesse, hauing agreed priuilie with king Edward, did weare his
liuerie, whome one of his brother the earle of Warwiks men espieng,
fell vpon him and killed him outright.] Some write that this battell
was so driuen to the vttermost point, that king Edward was constreined
to fight in his owne person, and that the earle of Warwike, which
was wont euer to ride on horse-backe from place to place, and from
ranke to ranke, comforting, his men, was now aduised by the marquesse
his brother, to leaue his horsse, and to trie the extremitie by hand
strokes, [which may be probable & likelie. But by the report of some
it séemeth that he was not slaine in the heat of the conflict, among
the rout of the fighting men, but afterwards in this sort. For when he
saw the kings power preuaile and his owne sore impaired and past hope
of good speed, with the slaughter of his adherents (gentlemen of name)
and himselfe in the verie mouth of the enimie in possibilitie to be
deuoured, he lept vpon a horsse to flie, and comming into a wood where
was no passage, one of king Edwards men came to him, killed him, and
spoiled him to the naked skin. Sir William Tirrell knight was killed on
the earle of Warwikes part.]

[Sidenote: The number slaine at Barnet field.]

On both parties were slaine (as Ed. Hall saith) ten thousand at the
least, where Fabian saith but fifteene hundred and somewhat aboue.
Other write that there died in all about three thousand. Vpon the kings
part were slaine, the lord Crumwell, the lord Saie, the lord Montiois
sonne and heire, sir Humfrie Bourchier sonne to the lord Berners, and
diuerse other knights, esquiers, and gentlemen. The battell indured
the space of thrée hours verie doubtfull by reason of the mist, and in
skirmishing and fighting, now in this place, now in that, but finallie
the victorie fell on the kings side; and yet it could not be estéemed
that his whole armie passed nine thousand fighting men (as some write)
where his aduersaries (as by the same writers appeareth) were farre
aboue that number. But bicause those that so write, séeme altogither to
fauor king Edward, we maie beléeue as we list.

[Sidenote: The duke of Summerset and the earle of Oxford.]

[Sidenote: _Hall._]

[Sidenote: The duke of Excester.]

[Sidenote: _Abr. Flem._]

The duke of Summerset, and the earle of Oxford fled in companie of
certeine northerne men, which had béene at the battell; and (as some
write) the earle of Oxford kept foorth with them, and retired after
into Scotland. But yet as well the duke of Summerset, as the said earle
of Oxford, in fléeing toward Scotland, changed their purpose vpon the
waie, and turned into Wales to Iasper earle of Penbroke. The duke of
Excester being striken downe and sore wounded, was left for dead in
the field, amongst other the dead bodies, bicause he was not knowne,
and by reason thereof comming to himselfe, got vp, and in great danger
escaped vnto Westminster, and there tooke sanctuarie. [But some say,
that after hée had lien in the field, spoiled, wounded, and (to sée
to) void of life, from seuen of the clocke in the morning, till foure
at after noone, he was caried to a seruants house of his there by
(named Ruthland) where (after his wounds were searched and dressed by a
surgian) he was conueied into Westminster sanctuarie.]

[Sidenote: _Edw. Hall._]

King Edward hauing got this victorie, refreshing himselfe and his
people a while at Barnet, returned the same daie vnto London, like
a triumphant conqueror, leading with him king Henrie as a captiue
prisoner: & so making a solemne entrie at the church of saint Paule,
offred his standard. The dead bodies of the earle and marques were
brought to London in a coffin, & before they were buried, by the
space of thrée daies laie open visaged in the cathedrall church of S.
Paule, to the intent that all men might easilie perceiue, that they
vnfeinedlie were dead. The common brute ran, that the king was not so
ioious of the erles death, as sorowfull for the losse of the marques,
whom he full well knew (and no lesse was euident to other) to be his
faithfull friend and well-willer; for whose onelie sake, he caused
both their bodies to be buried with their ancestors in the priorie of

[Sidenote: Quéene Margaret landeth with a power out of France.]

On the tuesdaie in Easter wéeke came knowledge to king Edward, that
quéene Margaret the wife of king Henrie, with hir sonne prince Edward
was landed vpon Easter day at Weimouth in Dorsetshire, accompanied
with Iohn Longstrother prior of saint Iohns, commonlie called lord
treasuror of England, who went ouer into France to fetch them; also
the lord Wenlocke, a man made onelie by king Edward, beside diuerse
other knights and esquiers, of whome part had béene long foorth of
the realme, and part newlie gone ouer thither to them, in companie of
the lord treasuror. They tooke their ships at Hunflue, the foure and
twentith of March (as before you haue heard) but through contrarie
winds and tempests, they were driuen backe, and constreined to abide
for conuenient wind.

[Sidenote: The countesse of Warwike taketh sanctuarie.]

Now, although it came sometimes about fit for their purpose, yet it
continued not long in that end; so as if therevpon they tooke the sea
at anie time, they were forced to returne backe againe to land yer they
could passe halfe the way ouer. And thus being diuerse times vnder
saile, in hope to passe the seas hither into England, they were still
driuen backe againe, till the thirtéenth of Aprill being Easter éeuen;
on which day the wind comming fauorablie about, they tooke the seas,
and sailed forward towards this land. The countesse of Warwike, hauing
a ship of aduantage, arriued before the other at Portesmouth, and from
thence she went to Southampton, meaning to haue gone to Weimouth, where
she vnderstood that the quéene was landed: but here had shee knowledge
of the losse of Barnet field, and that hir husband was there slaine.
Wherevpon she went no further towards the quéene, but secretlie got hir
ouer the water into the new forest, and tooke sanctuarie within the
abbeie of Beaulieu.

[Sidenote: The duke of Summerset, and the earle of Deuonshire c[=o]fort
quéene Margaret.]

Quéene Margaret, and hir sonne prince Edward, with the other that
landed at Weimouth, went from thence to an abbeie néere by called
Ceerne. Thither came vnto them Edmund duke of Summerset, and Thomas
Courtneie earle of Deuonshire, with others, and welcommed them into
England, comforting the quéene in the best maner they could, and willed
hir not to despaire of good successe; for albeit they had lost one
field (whereof the queene had knowledge the same day being mondaie
in easter wéeke, the fiftéenth of Aprill, and was therefore right
sorrowfull) yet they doubted not but to assemble such a puissance (and
that verie shortlie) foorth of diuerse parts of the realme, as being
faithfull, and wholie bent to spend their liues, and shed the best
bloud in their bodies for hir sake, & hir sonnes, it should be hard for
king Edward to resist them with all the power he had or could make.

[Sidenote: _Edw. Hall._]

[Sidenote: The feare which quéene Margaret had for hir sonne.]

The presence of these noble men greatlie comforted hir, and relieued
hir of the sorrowes that in maner ouerwhelmed hir pensiue heart: for
she doubted sore the end of all these procéedings, the which they
concluded to follow vpon the aduancement of hir and hirs. Speciallie
it misgaue hir, that some euill should chance to hir sonne prince
Edward for shee greatlie weied not of hir owne perill (as she hir selfe
confessed) and therefore she would gladlie haue had them either to haue
deferred the battell till a more conuenient time: or else that hir
sonne might haue béene conueied ouer into France againe, there to haue
remained in safetie, till the chance of the next battell were tried:
but they being of a contrarie mind, and namelie the duke of Summerset,
she at length consented vnto that which they were resolued vpon.

Thus euerie man being bent to battell, gathered his power by himselfe,
first in Summersetshire, Dorsetshire, and part of Wiltshire, and
after in Deuonshire and Cornewall. For the better incouraging of
which countries to ioine with them in their quarrell, they repaired
to Excester. Here they sent for sir Iohn Arundell, and sir Hugh
Courtenie, and manie other in whom they had anie confidence. To be
short, they wrought so, that they raised the whole powers of Cornewall
and Deuonshire, and with a great armie departing foorth of Excester,
they tooke the right waie to Glastenburie, and from thence to Bath,
raising the people in all parts where they came: for those countries
had bene so laboured, first by the earle of Warwike, and after by the
duke of Summerset, and the earle of Deuonshire (which two noble men
were reckoned as old inheritors of the same countries) that the people
séemed there greatlie inclined to the fauor of king Henrie.

[Sidenote: K. Edward setteth forward against his enimies.]

King Edward, being at London, was dailie aduertised by faithfull
espials of all the dooings of his aduersaries, and was in no small
agonie, bicause he could not learne what waie his enimies ment to take;
for he purposed to incounter them in one place or other before they
should approch neere to London. And vpon such resolution, with such an
armie as he had got about London, furnished with all artillerie and
other prouisions necessarie, he set forward the nintéenth of Aprill,
and came to Windsor, where he staied a season, as well to celebrate
the feast of saint George, as to abide the comming of such bands as he
had appointed to repaire thither vnto him, making there his generall

The enimies to masker him the more, sent foorth their foreriders vnto
sundrie townes, both aswell to raise people in the countries about, as
to make the king beléeue that their purpose was to passe those waies,
where they ment not once to come. And herevpon when they departed from
Excester, they sent first their foreriders streight to Shaftesburie,
and after to Salisburie, and then they tooke the streight waie to
Taunton, Glastenburie, and after to Wels, where houering about in
the countrie, they sent another time their foreriders to a towne
called Yuell, and to Bruton, as if their meaning had béene to draw
towards Reading, and so through Barkeshire, and Oxfordshire to haue
marched streight to London, or else to haue set vpon the king at some
aduantage, if it were offered.

But king Edward, considering aduisedlie of the matter, perceiued well
that they being in an angle of the realme, if they ment to go to
London, they must either hold the streight waie foorth by Salisburie,
or else drawing vp to the sea side, passe alongst through Hampshire,
Sussex and Kent; or happilie if they mistrusted their owne strengths,
as not able to match with his puissance, they would then slip on
the left hand, and draw towards Chesshire, and Lancashire, there to
increase their forces, and peraduenture by the waie to ioine with a
power of Welshmen, vnder the leading of Iasper earle of Penbroke, who
had béene sent into Wales long afore, to frame and put in a readines
the people there to asist king Henries friends at their comming
thitherwards. And such was their purpose in deed, for they had great
confidence in such aid, as they trusted to haue of the Chesshire and
Lancashire men.

King Edward, meaning to approch néerer vnto them, that he might the
sooner make waie to stop them of their passage, on which hand soeuer
they drew, departed from Windesore the morrow after saint Georges
day, being the foure and twentith day of Aprill, kéeping foorth his
iournie, till on saturdaie the twentie and seuenth of Aprill he came to
Abington, where he laie sundaie all daie. On mondaie he marched forward
to Chichester, where he had sure aduertisement, that they intended to
be at Bath the next daie being tuesdaie, and on wednesdaie to come
forward to giue him battell. Wherevpon king Edward, desirous to sée his
people in order of battell, drew them foorth of the towne, and incamped
in the field three miles distant from thence, still busieng himselfe
about his necessarie affaires affording no time to idlenesse or
loitering: for he knew that there was no waie more expedite and readie
to tire him in trauell, than to be giuen to negligence and slouth, the
two weariers of well dooing, as the old saieng is:

    Desidia pressus erit in studio citó fessus.

[Sidenote: Sudburie. hill.]

On the morrow, hearing no certeintie of their comming forward, he
marched to Malmesburie, still seeking to incounter them: but héere
he had knowledge, that they hauing changed their purpose, meant not
to giue him battell; and therefore were turned aside, and gone to
Bristow, where they were receiued, reléeued and well refreshed by
such as fauoured their cause, as well with vittels, men, and monie,
as good store of artillerie. Wherevpon they were so incouraged,
that the thursdaie after they tooke the field againe, purposing to
giue king Edward battell indéed; and for the same intent had sent
their foreriders to a towne, distant from Bristow nine miles, called
Sudburie, appointing a ground for their field, a mile from the same
towne, toward the kings campe, called Sudburie hill.

The king heereof aduertised, the same thursdaie, being the first of
Maie, with his armie faire ranged in order of battell, came towards
the place by them appointed for their field: but they came not there.
For hearing that king Edward did thus approach vpon a new change of
resolution, they left that waie: albeit some of their herbingers were
come as farre as Sudburie towne, and there surprised fiue or six of the
kings partie, which were rashlie entred that towne, attending onelie to
prouide lodgings for their maisters. The lords thus hauing eftsoones
changed their purpose, not meaning as yet to fight with the king,
directed their waie streight towards Berkelie, trauelling all that
night. From Berkelie they marched forward towards Glocester.

The king in the meane time, on the thursdaie in the afternoone, came
to the same ground called Sudburie hill, and there staied a certeine
space, sending foorth scowriers, to hearken what they might vnderstand
of the enimies, whome he tooke to be somewhere at hand. But when he
could not heare anie certeintie of them, he aduanced forward, lodging
his vant-gard in a vallie beyond the hill, towards the towne of
Sudburie, and laie himselfe (with the residue of his people) at the
same place, called Sudburie hill. About thrée of the clocke after
midnight, he was aduertised, that his enimies had taken their waie by
Berkeleie, towards Glocester. Héerevpon, taking aduise of his councell
what was best to doo, he was counselled to send some of his seruants
with all spéed vnto Glocester, to Richard Beauchampe, sonne and heire
to the lord Beauchampe of Powike, to whome he had (before this present)
committed the rule and custodie of the towne and castell of Glocester.

The king sent therefore with all spéed vnto him, commanding him to
doo his best to defend the towne and castell against his enimies, if
they came to assaile the same, as it was supposed they intended: and
if they so did, he promised to come with his whole armie presentlie to
the rescue. The messengers did their diligence, and so being ioifullie
receiued into Glocester, the towne and castell, by the vigilant regard
of the said Richard Beauchampe, was put in safe keeping. And this
message was doone in good time, for true it is, there were diuerse in
the towne, that could haue béene well contented that the quéene, and
the lords with hir, should haue béene receiued there, and would haue
aduentured to haue brought it to passe, if they had not béene thus

Againe, the quéene and the lords with hir had good intelligence, with
diuerse in the towne, so as they were put in great hope to haue entred
the same: wherevpon they trauelled their people right sore all that
night and morning, comming before the towne of Glocester vpon the
fridaie about ten of the clocke. And when they perceiued that they
were disappointed of their purpose, and their entrie flatlie denied,
they were highlie therewith displeased; for they knew verie well, that
diuerse within the towne bare their good willes towards them: but after
they had vsed certeine menacing braueries, and made a shew as if they
had meant to assalt the gates and walles, & so to haue entred by force,
they departed their waies, marching with all speed possible towards

[Sidenote: Glocester whie it was not assaulted.]

[Sidenote: A long march.]

It might be maruelled at, whie they attempted not the winning of
Glocester indéed, considering the freends which they knew they had
within it. But the cause which mooued them cheeflie to forbeare, was,
for that as well they without, as the other within the towne, knew
that king Edward approached at hand, and was readie to set vpon them
on the backes, if they had once begun to haue assaulted the towne; and
so, neither they within the towne that were the kings freends doubted
the enimies forces, nor the enimie indéed durst attempt anie such
enterprise against them. About foure of the clocke in the afternoone,
they came to Teukesburie, hauing trauelled that night last past, and
that daie, six and thirtie long miles, in a foule countrie, all in
lanes and stonie waies, betwixt woods, without anie good refreshing, so
that as well the men as the horsses were right wearie.

[Sidenote: The place where the lords incamped.]

And where the more part of their armie consisted of footmen, the
capteins could not haue gone anie further, except they would haue left
their footmen behind them, and so of necessitie they were driuen to
staie there, determining to abide the aduenture that God would send
them. For well they knew that the king followed them verie néere at
hand, so as if they should haue gone further, and left the most part
of their companie behind, as it could not otherwise haue chanced, he
would haue béene readie to haue taken the aduantage wholie, so to
distresse them. Héerevpon they pight their field in a close, euen hard
at the townes end, hauing the towne and the abbeie at their backes; and
directlie before them, and vpon each side of them, they were defended
with cumbersome lanes, déepe ditches, and manie hedges, beside hils and
dales, so as the place séemed as noisome as might be to approach vnto.

[Sidenote: The painfull march of king Edward with his armie.]

The king on this fridaie, verie erlie in the morning, aduanced his
standards and in good order of battell hauing diuided his armie into
thrée wards, marched through the plaines of Cotteswold. The daie was
verie hot, and hauing in his armie aboue thrée thousand footmen, he
trauelled with them and the residue thirtie miles and more. By all
which waie, they could find neither horssemeat, nor mans meat, no not
so much as water for their horsses, except one little brooke, of the
which they receiued no great reléefe; for what with the horsses and
carriages that passed thorough it, the water became so troubled, that
it serued them to no vse: and still all that daie king Edward with his
armie was within fiue or six miles of his enimies, he in the plaine
countrie, and they among the woods.

[Sidenote: Chiltenham.]

King Edward had euer good espials, to aduertise him still what his
enimies did, and which waie they tooke. At length he came with all
his armie vnto a village called Chiltenham, like a fiue miles distant
from Teukesburie, where he had certeine knowledge that his enimies
were alreadie come to Teukesburie, and were incamped there, purposing
to abide him in that place, and to deliuer him battell. King Edward
therevpon made no long delaie, but tooke a little refection himselfe,
and caused his people to doo the like, with such prouision of vittels
as he had appointed to be conueied foorth with him for the reléefe of
himselfe and his armie. This doone, he set forward towards his enimies,
and lodged that night in a field not past thrée miles distant from them.

[Sidenote: The ordering of king Edwards battell.]

On the morrow being saturdaie, and fourth of Maie, he drew towards his
enimies, and marshalled his armie, diuided into thrée battels in this
sort. He put his brother the duke of Glocester in the fore-ward, and
himselfe in the midle-ward. The lord Marques, and the lord Hastings
led the rere-ward. Heerwith he approached the enimies campe, which was
right hard to be assailed, by reason of the déepe ditches, hedges,
trées, bushes, and cumbersome lanes, wherewith the same was fensed,
both a front, and on the sides, so as the king could not well approach
them to anie aduantage: and to be the better in a readinesse to beat
backe the kings power, when he should come to assault them, they were
imbattelled in this order.

[Sidenote: The ordering of the lords hoast.]

[Sidenote: The duke of Glocester.]

[Sidenote: Teukesburie field.]

The duke of Summerset, and his brother the lord Iohn of Summerset
led the fore-ward. The middle-ward was gouerned by the prince, vnder
the conduct of the lord of saint Iohn, and the lord Wenlocke (whome
king Edward had aduanced to the degrée of a baron.) The rere-ward
was appointed to the rule of the earle of Deuonshire. Thus may yée
perceiue, that king Edward was put to his shifts, how (to anie
aduantage) to assault his enimies. Neuerthelesse, he being well
furnished with great artillerie, the same was aptlie lodged to annoie
the enimies, that they receiued great damage thereby; and the duke of
Glocester, who lacked no policie, galled them gréeuouslie with the shot
of arrowes: and they rewarded their aduersaries home againe with like
paiment, both with shot of arrowes, and great artillerie, although they
had not the like plentie of guns as the king had. The passages were so
cumbersome, that it was not possible to come vpon anie euen hand, to
ioine at handblowes.

[Sidenote: The duke of Summerset.]

The duke of Glocester, vpon a politike purpose (as some haue written)
reculed backe with all his companie, which when the duke of Summerset
perceiued, either mooued therewith, or else bicause he was too sore
annoied with the shot in that place where he and his fore-ward stood,
like a knight more couragious than circumspect, came out of his
strength with his whole battell, and aduanced himselfe somewhat aside
slips the kings voward, and by certeine passages aforehand, and for
that purpose prouided (to the kings part, although vnknowne) he passed
a lane, and came into a faire open close right before the king, where
he was imbattelled, not doubting but the prince and the lord Wenlocke,
with the midle-ward, had followed iust at his backe. But whether the
lord Wenlocke dissembled the matter for king Edwards sake, or whether
his hart serued him not, still he stood, and gaue the looking on.

[Sidenote: _Edw. Hall._]

[Sidenote: The politike foresight of the king.]

The king, or (as other haue) the duke of Glocester, taking the
aduantage that he aduentured for, turned againe face to face vnto the
duke of Summerset his battell, and winning the hedge and ditch of
him, entred the close, and with great violence put him and his people
vp towards the hill from whence they were decended. Héere is to be
noted, that when the king was come before his enimies, yer he gaue the
onset, he perceiued that vpon the right hand of their campe there was a
parke, and much store of wood growing therein; and doubting least his
aduersaries had laid an ambush within that wood, he chose foorth of
his companies two hundred speares, commanding them to kéepe a stale,
like a quarter of a mile from the field, to attend vpon that corner
of the wood out of the which the ambush, if anie were, was to issue,
and to incounter with them, as occasion serued: but if they perceiued
that there was no ambush at all, then to imploie their seruice as they
should see it expedient and behouefull for the time.

[Sidenote: The v[=a]tgard of the lords distressed.]

This politike prouision for danger that might haue insued (although
there was none that waie foorth) serued yet before the end of the
battell, to great good purpose. For when those speares perfectlie
vnderstood that there was no ambush within the wood, and withall saw
conuenient time to imploie themselues, they came and brake with full
randon vpon the duke of Summerset and his voward a flanke, in so
violent wise vpon the sudden, that where they had before inough to doo
with those with whom they were first matched, now with this new charge
giuen on them by those two hundred speares, they were not a little
dismaied; and to conclude, so discouraged, that streightwaie they tooke
them to flight. Some fled into the parke, other into the meadow there
at hand, some into the lanes, & some hid them in ditches, each one
making what shift he could, by the which he hoped best to escape: but
manie neuerthelesse were beaten downe, slaine, and taken prisoners.

[Sidenote: A terrible stroke.]

[Sidenote: _Abr. Flem._]

The duke of Summerset séeing this vnfortunate chance, as some write,
turned to the midle-ward, and there finding the lord Wenlocke standing
still, after he had reuiled him, and called him traitor, with his ax
he stroke the braines out of his head. The duke of Glocester pursuing
after them that fled with the duke of Summerset to their campe, where
the rest of their armie stood, entred the trench, and after him the
king, where he bare himselfe so knightlie, that therevpon the quéenes
part went to wracke, and was put to flight; the king and other falling
in chase after them, so that manie were slaine, but especiallie at a
mill in the meadow fast by the towne a great sort were drowned. Manie
ran towards the towne, some to the church, and diuerse to the abbeie,
and other to other places, where they thought best to saue themselues.
[This was the last fought field or pight battell tried betwéene the
potentats of this land in king Edward the fourths daies (which chanced
on the fourth of Maie, being saturdaie, in the eleauenth yeare of his
reigne, and in the year of Lord, 1471) as Anglorum prælia affirmeth,

    Vltima postremæ locus est Teuxburia pugnæ.]

[Sidenote: _Edw. Hall._]

[Sidenote: Prince Edward taken.]

[Sidenote: Nobles slaine.]

[Sidenote: Sir Richard Crofts deliuereth the prince in hope that his
life should haue beene saued.]

In the winning of the campe, such as stood to it were slaine out of
hand. Prince was taken as he fled towards the towne, by sir Richard
Crofts, and kept close. In the field and chase were slaine, the lord
Iohn of Summerset, called marquesse Dorset, Thomas Courtenie earle of
Deuonshire, sir Iohn Delues, sir Edward Hampden, sir Robert Whitingham,
and sir Iohn Leukener, with thrée thousand others. After the field
was ended, proclamation was made, that whosoeuer could bring foorth
prince Edward aliue or dead, should haue an annuitie of a hundred
pounds during his life, and the princes life to be saued, if he were
brought foorth aliue. Sir Richard Crofts, nothing mistrusting the kings
promise, brought foorth his prisoner prince Edward, being a faire and
well proportioned yoong gentleman; whom when king Edward had well
aduised, he demanded of him, how he durst so presumptuouslie enter into
his realme with banner displaied.

[Sidenote: Prince Edward murthered.]

Wherevnto the prince boldlie answered, saieng; "To recouer my fathers
kingdome & heritage, from his father and grandfather to him and from
him after him to me lineallie desended." At which words king Edward
said nothing, but with his hand thrust him from him, or (as some saie)
stroke him with his gantlet; whome incontinentlie, George duke of
Clarence, Richard duke of Glocester, Thomas Greie marquesse Dorcet, and
William lord Hastings that stood by, suddenlie murthered: for the which
cruell act, the more part of the dooers in their latter daies dranke of
the like cup, by the righteous iustice and due punishment of God. His
bodie was homelie interred with the other simple corpses, in the church
of the monasterie of blacke monks in Teukesburie.

After the victorie was thus atchiued, the king repaired to the abbeie
church there, to giue God thanks for that good successe, which it had
pleased him to blesse him with: and there finding a great number of his
enimies, that were fled thither to saue themselues, he gaue them all
his free pardon; albeit there was no franchise there for rebels, but
that he might haue commanded them to haue béene drawen foorth without
breach of anie liberties of that church. He granted also that the dead
bodies, as well of the lords as other, slaine in that battell, might
be buried in the same church, or else where it pleased their friends
or seruants, without anie quartering & heading, or setting vp heads
or quarters in any publike places. O the patience and clemencie of
this good king, who (besides the putting vp of wrongs doone to him by
violence of foes without vengeance) fréelie forgaue the offenders, and
did so honorablie temper his affections!

[Sidenote: The duke of Summerset & others beheaded.]

There were found in the abbeie and other places of the towne, Edmund
duke of Summerset, Iohn Lonstrother lord prior of S. Iohn, sir Thomas
Tressham, sir Gerueis Clifton, and diuerse other knights and esquiers,
which were apprehended, and all of them being brought before the
duke of Glocester, sitting as constable of England, and the duke
of Norffolke, as marshall in the middest of the towne, they were
arreigned, condemned, and iudged to die; and so vpon the tuesdaie,
being the seuenth of Maie, the said duke and the lord prior, with the
two forenamed knights, and twelue other knights, were on a scaffold,
set vp in the middle of the towne for that purpose, beheaded, and
permitted to be buried, without anie other dismembring, or setting vp
of their heads in anie one place or other.

[Sidenote: Quéene Margaret taken.]

The same tuesdaie, the king departed from Teukesburie towards
Worcester, and by the waie had knowledge that quéene Margaret was found
in a poore house of religion, not far from thence, into the which she
was withdrawen for safegard of hir selfe, on saturdaie in the morning,
being the daie of the battell. She was after brought to London as
prisoner, and so kept, till hir father ransomed hir with great summes
of monie, which he borowed of Lewes the eleuenth king of France. And
bicause he was not able to make repaiment thereof, he sold vnto the
said Lewes (as the French writers affirme) the kingdomes of Naples,
and both the Sicils, with the countie of Prouance. King Edward being
at Worcester, had aduertisements brought foorth of the north parts,
that the people there were about to assemble in armour against him, in
fauour of king Henrie: wherevpon he left the right way to London, and
rode to Couentrie, meaning to increase the number of his people, and so
with a puissant armie to go northwards.

Herevpon, comming to Couentrie the eleuenth of Maie, and remaining
there thrée daies, he well refreshed such as had béene with him at
Teukesburie field. Hither was brought to him queene Margaret, from
whence she was conueied to London, there to remaine in safe keeping (as
before you haue hard.) Whilest he was busie in sending abroad vnto his
friends to leauie an armie, he was aduertised that the commotion in the
north was pacified. For after it was knowen abroad, how he obteined the
victorie, as well at Teukesburie, as at Barnet, and in manner subdued
all his enimies, the capteins that had stirred the people to that
rebellion, began to quaile, and forsooke their companies.

[Sidenote: Rebellion in the north pacified.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Northumberland.]

Diuerse of them made sute to the earle of Northumberland, that it might
please him to be a mediator to the king for their pardon; so that now,
there was no rebellion in all the north parts, but that as well the
citie of Yorke, as all other places, were at the kings commandement,
readie in all things to obei him as true and loiall subiects. And this
was confirmed by the earle of Northumberlands owne mouth, who on the
fouretéenth of Maie came to the king, as yet remaining at Couentrie:
by reason whereof it was not thought néedfull, that the king should
trauell anie further northward at that time, either about the pacifieng
of the people, or to see execution doone vpon the offendors, sith all
was there in good tranquillitie and quiet.

[Sidenote: Thomas Nevill bastard Fauconbridge.]

But now when all things séemed to be at rest, and no rebellion after
so happie victories doubted, newes came to him before his c[=o]ming to
Couentrie, from the lords of his bloud, abiding at London, that one
Thomas Neuill, bastard sonne to that valiant capteine the lord Thomas
Fauconbridge (who had latelie before beene sent to the sea by the earle
of Warwike, and after fallen to practise pirasie) had spoiled diuerse
merchants ships, Portingals and others, in breach of the ancient amitie
that long had continued betwixt the realms of England and Portingale;
and furthermore, had now got to him a great number of mariners, out
of all parts of the land, and manie traitors and misgouerned people
from each quarter of the realme, beside diuerse also foorth of other
countries that delighted in theft and robberies, meaning to worke some
exploit against the king.

[Sidenote: The bastard Fauconbridge before London with an armie.]

And verelie, his puissance increased dailie, for hauing béene at Calis,
and brought from thence into Kent manie euill disposed persons, he
began to gather his power in that countrie, meaning (as was thought)
to attempt some great and wicked enterprise. After the kings comming
to Couentrie, he receiued aduertisements, that this bastard was come
before London, with manie thousands of men by land, and also in ships
by water, purposing to rob and spoile the citie. Manie Kentishmen
were willing to assist him in this mischieuous enterprise, and other
were forced against their wils to go with him, or else to aid him
with their substance and monie, insomuch that within a short time, he
had got togither sixtéene or seuentene thousand men, as they accomted

With these he came before the citie of London the twelfe of Maie, in
the quarrell (as he pretended) of king Henrie, whom he also meant to
haue out of the Tower, & to restore him againe vnto his crowne & roiall
dignitie. And for that intent, he required to enter the citie with
his people, that receiuing king Henrie foorth of the Tower, they might
passe with him through the citie, and so to march streight towards
king Edward, whose destruction they vowed to pursue, with all their
vttermost indeuors. But the maior and aldermen of the citie would not
in anie wise agree to satisfie their request herein, vtterlie refusing
to receiue him or anie of his companie into the citie.

[Sidenote: Succours sent to the citie of London.]

King Edward from time to time by posts was informed of all these
dooings, & by aduise of his councell, the fouretéenth of Maie, sent
to the succors of the maior and aldermen fiftéene hundred of the
choisest souldiers he had about him, that they might helpe to resist
the enimies, till he had got such an armie togither as was thought
necessarie, meaning with all conuenient spéed to come therewith to the
rescue of the citie, and preseruation of the quéene, prince, and his
daughters, that were within the Tower, not in verie good safegard,
considering the euill dispositions of manie within the citie of London,
that for the fauour they had borne to the earle of Warwike, and desire
to be partakers of the spoile, cared not if the bastard might haue
atteined to his full purpose and wished intent.

[Sidenote: The bastards purpose to spoile the suburbs of London.]

On the sixtenth of Maie, king Edward set foorth of Couentrie towards
London. But here ye haue to vnderstand, that when the bastard could
not be receiued into the citie, neither by gentle persuasions, nor
gréeuous threatnings, he made semblance to passe ouer the Thames at
Kingston bridge, ten miles from London, and thitherwards he drew with
his whole power by land, leauing his ships afore saint Katharines and
thereabouts. His pretense was, to spoile and destroie Westminster, and
the suburbs of the citie on that side, and after to assault the citie
it selfe, to trie if he might enter by force, and so be reuenged of the
citizens that had refused to receiue him. [Notwithstanding all which
stirring of coles & proud port, with haughtinesse of hart & violence of
hand thinking to beare downe the people, as an inundation or flowing of
water streams dooth all before it: yet he came short of his purpose,
and pulled vpon his owne pate finall destruction: though he thought
himselfe a man ordeined to glorie, & was tickled with the like flatring
persuasion that one had in his hart, who said:

[Sidenote: _Prop. lib. 4._]

    Magnum iter ascendo, sed dat mihi gloria vires.]

[Sidenote: The dastard altereth his purpose.]

Now as he was onwards vpon his iornie, he was aduertised, that king
Edward was preparing to come forwards against him, assisted in manner
with all the great lords of the realme, and others in great number,
more than he had beene at anie time before. By reason whereof, doubting
what might follow, if passing the riuer he should fortune so to be
inclosed, that he should be driuen thereby to incounter with the kings
power at such ods, he thought it best to alter his purpose; and so
returning, came backe againe before London, & mustered his people in S.
Georges field, ranged and placed in one entier battell.

And to the intent they might worke their purposed feat, before the
kings comming to the rescue, they resolued with all their forces to
assault the citie, and to enter it if they could by plaine strength,
that putting it to the sacke, they might conueie the riches to their
ships, which laie in the riuer betwixt saint Katharins and Blackewall,
neere to Ratcliffe. Herevpon hauing brought certeine peeces of
artillerie foorth of their ships, they planted the same alongst the
water side, right ouer against the citie, and shot off lustilie, to
annoie them within so much as was possible.

[Sidenote: The bastard meaneth to enter the citie by force.]

But the citizens on the other side lodged their great artillerie
against their aduersaries, and with violent shot therof so galled
them, that they durst not abide in anie place alongst the water side,
but were driuen euen from their owne ordinance. Yet the bastard not
meaning to leaue anie waie vnassaied that might aduance his purpose,
appointed a great number of his retinue to set fire on the bridge, so
to open the passage, and to enter into the citie that way forth; and
withall, he caused aboue thrée thousand other to passe by ships ouer
the Thames; giuing order, that when they were got ouer, they should
diuide themselues into two battels, the one to assault Algate, and the
other Bishops gate, which order accordinglie was executed.

[Sidenote: Algate and Bishops gate assaulted.]

[Sidenote: Houses burnt on the bridge.]

For they did their best at both places to force the gates, not sparing
to bend and discharge such guns as they had brought with them against
the same, nor ceassing with arrowes to annoie those that there stood
at defense: whereby much hurt was doone, as well at the one place as
the other, fire being set on both the gates in purpose to haue burnt
them vp, and so to haue entered. The fire which they had kindled on the
bridge little auailed them, although they burnt there to the number of
a thréescore houses. For the citizens had laid such péeces of ordinance
directlie in their waie, that although the passage had béene wholie
open, they should haue had hard entering that waie foorth. The maior,
aldermen, and other worshipfull citizens were in good arraie, and each
man appointed and bestowed where was thought néedfull.

The earle of Essex, and manie knights, esquiers, and gentlemen, with
their fréends and seruants, came to aid the citizens, taking great
paine to place them in order, for defense of the gates and walles:
and furthermore, deuised how and in what sort they might make a
sallie foorth vpon the enimies to distresse them: and suerlie, by the
intermingling of such gentlemen and lords seruants in euerie part with
the citizens, they were greatlie incouraged to withstand their enimies.
Yet the rebels, vnder the leading of one Spising, bare themselues so
stoutlie at Algate, that they wan the bulworks there, and droue the
citizens backe within the portculice, & entered with them, to the
number of six or eight: but some of them were slaine with the fall of
the portculice that was let downe vpon them, to kéepe the residue out,
and those that were entered within the gate were suddenlie dispatched.

[Sidenote: The valiancie of Robert Basset alderman.]

Héerewith they lashed fréelie the one part at the other with guns and
bowes, although no great hurt was doone with shot; till at length
Robert Basset alderman (that was appointed to the kéeping of this
gate), with the most part of the citizens, and the recorder, named
Ursewike, either of them being well armed in strong iackes, commanded
the portculice to be drawen vp, and maintenantlie rushed foorth vpon
their enimies, putting them backe vnto saint Bothulpes church. At the
same instant, the earle Riuers, hauing got togither a foure or fiue
hundred men, well chosen and apparelled for the warre, issued foorth at
the posterne by the Tower, and assailing the Kentishmen, euen vpon the
point as they were thus put backe, mightilie laid vpon them.

And first he plaged them with the swift and thicke flight of his
arrowes, and after ioining with them at handstrokes, slue and tooke
manie of them prisoners; so that the rebels were fullie put to flight,
and followed first to Mile-end, and from thense some vnto Poplar,
some to Stratford, and Stepnith, and in maner each waie foorth about
that part of the citie, the chase being followed for the space of
two miles in length. Manie of them were of Essex, and so made their
course homewards; but the more part of them fled to the water side, and
getting to their ships, passed ouer the Thames to the rest of their
companie. The other likewise that were busie to assault Bishops gate,
when they vnderstood that their fellowes were discomfited and fled from
Algate, they likewise slipped awaie, and made the best shift they could
to saue themselues.

[Sidenote: Rafe Iosselin.]

There were a seauen hundred of them that fled from Algate, and other
places, slaine outright, beside the prisoners. And yet there were fiers
burning all at once at Algate, Bishops gate, & on the bridge, and manie
houses consumed with the same fiers. But now the bastard, vnder whome
that companie was directed that had set fire on the bridge, when he
saw that he might not preuaile, and vnderstood the euill succes of
those which he had set ouer the Thames, he withdrew also, and left the
bridge. Here the hardie manhood of Rafe Iosselin alderman is not to be
passed with silence; who (after he had valiantlie resisted the bastard
& his band that assaulted the bridge) vpon their retire sallied foorth
vpon them, and following them in chase alongst the water side, till
they came beyond Ratcliffe, slue and tooke verie manie of them.

[Sidenote: The bastard incampeth on Blackeheath.]

The bastard notwithstanding gathered his companies togither, and with
such as were willing to remaine with him incamped on Blackeheath,
by the space of thrée daies next insuing, to wit, the sixteenth,
seauentéenth, and eightéenth of Maie, vtterlie despairing of his wished
preie, sith he had béene repelled from London, to his vtter confusion.
And now to conclude, hearing that king Edward was comming with a
right puissant armie, the said bastard and his people durst no longer
abide; but brake vp and dispersed themselues, some one waie, and some
an other. They of Calis got them thither againe with all spéed, and
such as were of other countries repaired likewise to their homes, and
manie of the Kentishmen went also to their houses. The bastard with
his mariners, and such riotous rebels, robbers, and wicked persons, as
sought nothing but spoile, got them to shipboord, and with all their
vessels drew downe to the coast.

[Sidenote: _Edw. Hall._]

[Sidenote: King Henrie the sixt murthered in the Tower.]

King Edward, hauing assembled an armie of thirtie thousand men (as
some write) and accompanied in maner with all the great lords of
England, came to London the one and twentith of Maie, being tuesdaie,
where he was honourablie receiued by the maior, aldermen, and other
worshipfull citizens: where euen vpon their first méeting with him he
dubbed diuerse of them knights; as the maior, the recorder, & other
aldermen, and worshipfull commoners of the citie, which had manfullie
and valiantlie acquit themselues against the bastard Fauconbridge &
his wicked companie of rebels. Moreouer, here is to be remembred, that
poore king Henrie the sixt, a little before depriued (as ye haue heard)
of his realme and imperiall crowne, was now in the Tower spoiled of his
life, by Richard duke of Glocester (as the constant fame ran) who (to
the intent that his brother king Edward might reigne in more suertie)
murthered the said king Henrie with a dagger.

[Sidenote: The nine and twentith of Maie.]

Howbeit, some writers of that time, fauoring altogither the house of
Yorke, haue recorded, that after he vnderstood what losses had chanced
vnto his fréends, and how not onelie his sonne, but also all other his
chéefe partakers were dead and dispatched, he tooke it so to hart, that
of pure displeasure, indignation, and melancholie, he died the three
and twentith of Maie. The dead corps on the Ascension euen was conueied
with billes and glaucs pompouslie (if you will call that a funerall
pompe) from the Tower to the church of saint Paule, and there laid on a
beire or coffen bare faced, the same in presence of the beholders did
bléed; where it rested the space of one whole daie. From thense he was
caried to the Blackfriers, and bled there likewise: and on the next
daie after, it was conueied in a boat, without priest or clerke, torch
or taper, singing or saieng, vnto the monasterie of Chertseie, distant
from London fiftéene miles, and there was it first buried: but after,
it was remooued to Windesor, and there in a new vawt, newlie intoomed.
He reigned eight and thirtie yeares, six moneths and od daies, and
after his readeption of the crowne six moneths. He liued two and fiftie
yeares, hauing by wife one onelie sonne, called Edward, prince of Wales.

He was of a séemelie stature, of bodie slender, to which proportion
all other members were answerable; his face beautifull, wherein
continuallie was resident the bountie of mind with the which he was
inwardlie indued. Of his owne naturall inclination he abhorred all
the vices as well of the bodie as of the soule. His patience was such
that of all the iniuries to him doone (which were innumerable) he
neuer asked vengeance, thinking that for such aduersitie as chanced to
him, his sinnes should be forgotten and forgiuen. What losses soeuer
happened vnto him, he neuer esteemed, nor made anie account therof; but
if anie thing were doone, that might sound as an offense towards God,
he sore lamented, and with great repentance sorowed for it.

So then verie vnlike it is, that he died of anie wrath, indignation,
and displeasure bicause his businesse about the kéeping of the crowne
on his head tooke no better successe: except peraduenture ye will
saie, that it gréeued him, for that such slaughters and mischéeues
as had chanced within this land, came to passe onelie through his
follie and default in gouernment: or (that more is) for his fathers,
his grandfathers, and his owne vniust vsurping and deteining of the
crowne. But howsoeuer it was, for these before remembred, and other the
like properties of reputed holinesse, which was said to rest in him,
it pleased God to worke miracles for him in his life time as men haue
listed to report.

[Sidenote: Canonizing of kings, déere.]

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl. ex I. S. pag. 730, 731, &c._]

By reason whereof, king Henrie the seauenth sued to Pope Iulio the
second, to haue him canonized a saint. But for that the canonizing
of a king séemed to be more costlie than for a bishop, the said king
left off his sute in that behalfe; thinking better to saue his monie,
than to purchase a new holie daie of saint Henrie with so great a
price, remitting to God the iudgement of his will and intent. ¶ But
bicause princes princelie qualified, can not be too highlie praised, I
will here record a collection of his commendable conditions, dooings,
and saiengs, as I find them set downe to my hand, to his perpetuall
renowme; and right worthie of imitation, not onelie of such as are
singled out from among infinite thousands, to be magnified with
roialtie; but also of priuat and meane men that conuerse and liue one
with an other in the world.

This king hauing inioied as great prosperitie as fauourable fortune
could afoord, & as great troubles on the other side as she frowning
could powre out; yet in both the states he was patient and vertuous,
that he maie be a patterne of most perfect vertue, as he was a worthie
example of fortunes inconstancie. He was plaine, vpright, farre from
fraud, wholie giuen to praier, reading of scriptures, and almesdeeds;
of such integritie of life, that the bishop which had béene his
confessour ten yeares, auouched that he had not all that time committed
anie mortall crime: so continent, as suspicion of vnchast life neuer
touched him: and hauing in Christmasse a shew of yoong women with their
bare breasts laid out presented before him, he immediatlie departed
with these words: "Fie, fie, for shame; forsooth you be too blame."

Before his marriage, he liked not that women should enter his chamber,
and for this respect he committed his two brethren by the moothers
side, Iasper and Edmund to most honest & vertuous prelats to be brought
vp. So farre he was from couetousnesse, that when the executors of his
vncle the bishop of Winchester, surnamed the rich cardinall, would haue
giuen him two thousand pounds, he plainelie refused it, willing them
to discharge the will of the departed, and would scarselie condescend
at length to accept the same summe of monie toward the indowing of his
colleges in Cambridge & Eaton. He was religiouslie affected (as the
time then was) that at principall holidaies, he would weare sackecloth
next his skin. Oth he vsed none, but in most earnest matters these
words: Forsooth and forsooth.

He was so pitifull, that when he saw the quarter of a traitor against
his crowne ouer Criplegate, he willed it to be taken awaie, with these
words: "I will not haue anie christian so cruellie handled for my
sake." Manie great offenses he willinglie pardoned and receiuing at a
time a great blow by a wicked man which compassed his death, he onelie
said; "Forsooth forsooth, yée doo fowlie to smite a king annointed
so." Another also which thrust him into the side with a sword when he
was prisoner in the Tower, was by him pardoned when he was restored
to his state and kingdome. Not long before his death, being demanded
whie he had so long held the crowne of England vniustlie; he replied:
"My father was king of England, quietlie inioieng the crowne all his
reigne: and his father my grandsire was also king of England, and I
euen a child in my cradell was proclamed and crowned king without anie
interruption; and so held it fortie yeares well-neere, all the states
dooing homage vnto me, as to my antecessors: wherefore I maie saie with
king Dauid; The lot is fallen vnto me in a faire ground; yea, I haue a
goodlie heritage, my helpe is from the Lord which saueth the vpright in

[Sidenote: The kings colledge in Cambridge.]

This good king being of himselfe alwaies naturallie inclined to doo
good, and fearing least he might séeme vnthanke full to almightie God
for his great benefits bestowed vpon him, since the time he first
tooke vpon him the regiment of his realme, determined about the six
and twentith yeare of his reigne, for his primer notable worke (as by
the words of his will I find expressed) to erect and found two famous
colledges in the honor and worship of his holy name, and for the
increase of vertue, the dilatation of cunning, and establishment of
christian faith, whereof the one in Cambridge to be called his colledge
roiall of our ladie and saint Nicholas: and the other at Eaton beside
Windsore, to be called his colledge of our blessed ladie.

And for the performance of this his deuout purpose, he infeoffed
certeine bishops, with other noble and worshipfull personages, by his
letters patents, with lands and possessions, parcell of his inheritance
of the duchie of Lancaster, to the cleare value of well néere foure
& thirtie hundred pounds by yéere. Which letters patents he after
confirmed by his act of parlement, declaring also by his will vnto his
said feoffées, his intent and meaning, how the same shuld be imploied
vpon the edifications of his said two colledges. Whereof (in my
iudgement) the deuise is so excellent, and the buildings so princelie
and apt for that purpose, as I cannot omit to set foorth vnto you the
verie plot of the whole colledge in Cambridge, euen as I find mentioned
almost verbatim in his will, supposing that if the rest of the house
had procéeded according to the chappell alreadie finished (as his full
intent and meaning was) the like colledge could scant haue béene found
againe in anie christian land. The words of the will are thus.

[Sidenote: The chappell.]

[Sidenote: The bodie of the church.]

[Sidenote: The quiere.]

[Sidenote: The roodloft.]

[Sidenote: The height of the chappell.]

[Sidenote: The east window.]

As touching the dimensions of the church of my said colledge of our
ladie and S. Nicholas of Cambridge, I haue deuised and appointed,
that the same church shall conteine in length 288 foot of assise,
without anie Iles, and all of the widenesse of fortie foot. And the
length of the same church from the west end vnto the altars at the
quiere doore, shall conteine an hundred and twentie foot. And from the
prouosts stall, vnto the gréece called Gradus chori ninetie foot; for
thirtie six stalles on either side of the same quiere, answering to
threescore and ten fellowes, and ten priests conducts, which must be De
prima forma. And from the said stalles vnto the east end of the said
church, threescore & two foot of assise. Also a reredosse bearing the
roodloft, departing the quiere and the bodie of the church conteining
in length fortie foot, and in breadth fourtéene foot. The walles of
the same church to be in height ninetie foot imbattelled, vawted and
charerooffed, suffcientlie butteraced, and euerie butterace fined with
finials. And in the east end of the same church, shall be a window of
nine daies, and betwixt euerie butterace a window of fiue daies.

[Sidenote: The side chappels.]

[Sidenote: The vestrie.]

[Sidenote: The cloister.]

And betwixt euerie of the same butteraces in the bodie of the church,
on both sides of the same church, a closet with an altar therein,
conteining in length twentie foot, and in breadth ten foot, vawted and
finished vnder the soile of the Ile windowes. And the pauement of the
church to be inhanced foure foot and aboue the ground without. And
the height of the pauement of the quiere one foot and an halfe aboue
the pauement of the church. And the pauement of the altar thrée foot
aboue that. And on the north side of the quiere a vestrie conteining in
length fiftie foot, and in breadth twentie and two foot, departed into
two houses beneath, & two houses aboue, which shall conteine in height
twentie two foot in all, with an entrie from the quiere vawted. And at
the west end of the church a cloister square, the east pane conteining
in length an hundred seuentie and fiue foot, and the west pane as much.
The north pane two hundred foot, and the south pane as much, of the
which the deambulatorie thirtéene foot wide, and in height twentie foot
to the corbill table, with cleare stories and butteraces with finials,
vawted & imbattelled. And the ground thereof foure foot lower than the
church ground.

[Sidenote: The stéeple.]

[Sidenote: The base court.]

[Sidenote: The east pane.]

[Sidenote: The great gate.]

And in the middle of the west pane of the cloister a strong tower
square, conteining foure and twentie foot within the walles. And in the
height one hundred and twentie foot to the corbill table. And foure
small turrets ouer that fined with pinacles. And a doore into the said
cloister inward, but outward none. And as touching the dimensions of
the housing of the said colledge, I haue deuised and appointed in
the southside of the said church a quadrant, closing to both ends of
the same church; the east pane whereof shall conteine two hundred
and thirtie foot in length, and in breadth within the walles two and
twentie foot. In the same panes middle, a tower for a gatehouse,
conteining in length thirtie foot, and in breadth two and twentie, and
in height thréescore foot, with thrée chambers ouer the gate, euerie
one ouer the other. And on either side of the same gate foure chambers,
euerie one conteining in length fiue & twentie foot, and in bredth two
and twentie foot. And ouer euerie of these chambers, two chambers aboue
of the same measure or more, with two towers outward, and two towers

[Sidenote: The south pane.]

[Sidenote: The west pane.]

[Sidenote: The librarie.]

[Sidenote: The disputation house.]

The south pane shall conteine in length two hundred thirtie and eight
foot, and in breadth two and twentie foot within, in which shalbe seuen
chambers, euerie one conteining in length nine and twentie foot, and
in breadth twentie and two, with a chamber parcell of the prouosts
lodging, conteining in length thirtie and fiue foot, and with a chamber
in the east corner of the same pane, conteining in length twentie and
fiue foot, and in breadth thirtie and two foot. And ouer euerie of all
these chambers, two chambers, and with fiue towers outward, and thrée
towers inward. The west pane shall conteine in length two hundred and
thirtie foot, and in breadth within twentie & foure foot, in which at
the end toward the church shall be a librarie, conteining in length an
hundred and ten foot, and in breadth twentie and foure foot. And vnder
it a large house for reading and disputations, conteining in length
eleuen foot. And two chambers vnder the same librarie, each conteining
twentie and nine foot in length, and in breadth foure and twentie foot.

[Sidenote: The wardrobe.]

[Sidenote: The hall.]

[Sidenote: The pantrie and butterie.]

[Sidenote: The colledge kitchin.]

And ouer the said librarie a house of the same largenesse, for diuerse
stuffe of the said colledge. In the other end of the same pane a hall,
conteining in length an hundred foot, vpon a vawt of twelue foot high,
ordeined for the cellar and butterie: and the breadth of the hall
six and thirtie foot. On euerie side thereof a baie window. And in
the nether end of the same hall toward the middle of the same pane,
a pantrie & butterie, euerie of them in length twentie foot, and in
breadth seuentéene foot. And ouer that two chambers for officers. And
at the nether end of the hall toward the west, a goodlie kitchin. And
the same pane shall haue inward two towers, ordeined for the waies into
the hall and librarie. And in euerie corner of the said quadrant, shall
be two corner towers, one inward, and one outward, more than the towers
aboue rehearsed.

[Sidenote: The prouosts lodging.]

[Sidenote: The bakhouse and brewhouse.]

[Sidenote: The woodyard.]

[Sidenote: The water conduit.]

And at the vpper end of the hall, the prouosts lodging, that is to
wit, more than the chambers for him aboue specified, a parlour on the
ground, conteining six and thirtie foot in length, and two and twentie
foot in breadth, & two chambers aboue of the same quantitie. And
westward closing thereto a kitchin for him, a larderhouse, stables, and
other necessarie housings and ground. And westward beyond these houses,
and the said kitchin ordeined for the hall, a bakehouse, brewhouse, and
other houses of office: betwixt which there is left a ground square
of fourscore foot in euerie pane for wood and such stuffe. And in the
middle of the said large quadrant, shall be a conduit, goodlie deuised
for the ease of the same colledge. And I will, that the edification
proceed in large forme of my said colledge cleane and substantiall,
setting apart superfluitie of so great curious workes of intaile and
busie moulding.

[Sidenote: The precinct of the colledge.]

[Sidenote: The water gate.]

And I haue deuised and appointed that the precinct of my said colledge,
as well on both sides of the garden from the colledge to the water,
as in all other places of the same precinct, be inclosed with a
substantiall wall, of the height of fourtéene foot, with a large tower
at the principall entrie against the middle of the east pane, out of
the high stréet. And in the same tower a large gate, and another tower
in the middle of the west end at the new bridge. And the same wall to
be creasted, imbattelled, and fortified with towers, as manie as shall
be thought conuenient therevnto. And I will that my said colledge be
edified of most substantiall & best abiding stuffe, of stone, lead,
glasse, and iron, that maie best be had and prouided thereto. ¶ Thus
much I haue inlarged by occasion of reading this good kings will: the
cunning deuise whereof I leaue to the considerate iudgement of such as
be expert in architecture, heartilie desiring almightie God to put into
the heart of some noble prince of this land, one day to make perfect
this roiall worke so charitablie begun.

[Sidenote: Sandwich kept by the rebels.]

But now to returne to king Edward. Ye shall vnderstand, that after his
comming to London, hée rested there but one daie, or two at the most,
taking his iournie foorthright into Kent with all his armie, folowing
the bastard, and other his complices, to suppresse them, if they were
in anie place assembled againe to resist him. But after they were once
dispersed, they durst not shew themselues againe in armor, those onlie
excepted that were withdrawne vnto Sandwich with the bastard; which
for the more part were mariners, about eight or nine hundred, beside
certeine other euill disposed persons, that accompanied him as his
souldiers, and men of warre, with whose assistance the bastard kept
that towne by strength, hauing in the hauen seuen and fortie ships
great and small, vnder his gouernance.

[Sidenote: The rebels sue for pardon.]

But vpon the kings approching néere vnto those parties, they sent to
him for pardon, promising that vpon a reasonable appointment, for the
safegard of their liues, and other indemnities to be had for their
benefit, they would become his faithfull subiects, and deliuer into his
hands all the ships. Their offer the king vpon great considerations,
and by good deliberate aduise of counsell, thought best to accept: and
therevpon (being at that time in Canturburie) hée granted to their
petitions, and sent immediatlie vnto Sandwich his brother Richard duke
of Glocester, to receiue them to mercie, togither with all the ships,
which according to their promise they deliuered into his hands.

[Sidenote: The bastard of Fauconbridge beheaded.]

[Sidenote: Roger Vaughan taken and beheaded.]

But notwithstanding that (as some write) the bastard Fauconbridge, and
other of his companie that were got to Sandwich, had thus their pardons
by composition at the kings hand; we find neuerthelesse, that the said
bastard Fauconbridge, being afterwards at sea (a rouing belike, as he
had vsed before) came at length into the open hauen at Southhampton,
and there taking land, was apprehended, and shortlie after beheaded.
This chanced (as should appeare by Fabian) about the latter end of
October. Moreouer, Roger Vaughan that had béene sent by king Edward
into Wales, anon after Teukesburie field (being a man of great power in
that countrie) to intrap and surprise by some secret sleight the earle
of Penbroke, the said earle being thereof aduertised, tooke the same
Roger, and without delay stroke off his head.

[Sidenote: Dauid Thomas.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Penbroke with his nephue the earle of Richmond
passe ouer into Britaine.]

[Sidenote: Execution.]

After this, was the earle besieged in the towne of Penbroke by Morgan
Thomas; but the siege was raised by Dauid Thomas, brother to the said
Morgan, a faithfull friend to the earle; and then the earle by his
helpe was conueied to Tinbie, where he got ships, and with his nephue
the lord Henrie earle of Richmond sailed into Britaine, where, of the
duke they were courteouslie interteined; with assurance made, that no
creature should doo them anie wrong or iniurie within his dominions.
King Edward visiting diuerse places in Kent, sate in iudgement on such
as had aided the bastard in the last commotion, of whome diuerse were
condemned and executed, as Spising one of the capteins that assaulted
Algate, whose head was set vp ouer the same gate: and so likewise
was the head of one Quintine, a butcher, that was an other capteine
amongest them, and chiefe of those that assaulted Bishops gate, as some

Moreouer, at Canturburie the maior of that citie was executed, and
diuerse other at Rochester, Maidston and Blackeheath: for the lord
marshall and other iudges, being appointed to hold their oier and
determiner in that countrie of Kent, there were aboue an hundred
indicted and condemned. Diuerse also of Essex men that had béene
partakers in this rebellion with the bastard, & holpe to set fire on
Bishops gate and Algate, were hanged betwixt Stratford and London.
Manie also of the wealthie commons in Kent were put to grieuous fines.

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: The archbishop of Yorke.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Oxford.]

[Sidenote: 1472.]

Now when the king had made an end of his businesse in that countrie, he
returned to London, comming thither againe vpon Whitsun éeuen, being
the first of Iune. And hauing thus within the space of eleuen wéekes
recouered in maner the whole possession of his realme, being relieued
of the most part of all his doubtfull feare, he ment to remooue all
stops out of the waie. Wherefore he sent the archbishop of Yorke,
brother to the earle of Warwike, and to the marques Montacute ouer to
Guisnes, there to be kept in safe custodie within the castell, where he
continued a long season, till at length he was by friendship deliuered,
and shortlie after (through verie anguish of mind) departed this life;
whome Laurence Bath, and after him Thomas Rotheram in the sée of Yorke,
did ordinarilie succéed. Beside this, Iohn earle of Oxford, which after
Barnet field both manfullie and valiantlie kept saint Michaels mount in
Cornewall, either for lacke of aid, or persuaded by his friends gaue vp
the mount, and yeelded himselfe to king Edward (his life onelie saued)
which to him was granted. But to be out of all doutfull imaginations,
king Edward also sent him ouer the sea to the castell of Hammes, where,
by the space of twelue yeeres hée was in strong prison shut vp and
warilie looked to.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 12.]

[Sidenote: Messengers sent to the duke of Britaine.]

King Edward was not a litle disquieted in mind, for that the earls of
Penbroke & Richmond were not onlie escaped out of the realme, but also
well receiued and no woorsse interteined of the duke of Britaine: he
sent therefore in secret wise graue & close messengers to the said
duke, the which should not sticke to promise the duke great and rich
rewards, so that he would deliuer both the earles into their hands and
possession. The duke, after he had heard them that were sent, made
this answer, that he could not with his honor deliuer them, to whome
he had giuen his faith to sée them preserued from all iniurie: but
this (he said) he would doo for the king of England, that they should
be so looked vnto, as he néeded not to doubt of any attempt to be made
against him by them, or by their meanes.

[Sidenote: 1473.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 13.]

[Sidenote: A parlement.]

The king receiuing this answer, wrote louinglie to the duke of Britaine
that he would consider his fréendship with conuenient rewards, if it
should please him to be as good as his promise. The duke, perceiuing
gaine comming by the abode of the two English earles in his countrie,
caused them to be separated in sunder, and all their seruants being
Englishmen to be sequestred from them, and in their places appointed
Britains to attend them. In the thirtéeenth yeare of his reigne, king
Edward called his high court of parlement at his palace of Westminster,
in the which all lawes and ordinances made by him before that daie
were confirmed, and those that king Henrie had abrogated, after his
readeption of the crowne, were againe reuiued. Also lawes were made for
the confiscation of traitors goods, and for the restoring of them that
were for his sake fled the realme, which of his aduersaries had béene
atteinted of high treason, and condemned to die.

[Sidenote: A subsidie.]

[Sidenote: A pardon.]

[Sidenote: Ambassadors from the duke of Burgognie.]

Moreouer, towards his charges of late susteined, a competent summe
of monie was demanded, and fréelie granted. There was also a pardon
granted almost for all offenses; and all men then being within the
realme, were released and discharged of all high treasons and crimes,
although they had taken part with his aduersaries against him. In this
season the duke of Burgognie had sore wars with the French king; and to
be the more spéedelie reuenged on his aduersarie, he sent ambassadors
into England, to persuade king Edward to make warre also on the French
king, for the recouerie of his ancient right to the realme of France,
by the same French king against all equitie withholden and deteined.
In which atttempt of his, there was some fauour of discréet policie,
and a prouident forecast for his greater safetie, besides the likelie
possibilitie to obteine that whereto he made chalenge: sith the huger
hosts (if the hardier hearts) are of most force, according to that

    Virtus vnita fortior.

And therefore, by procuring the king of Englands power to ioine with
his, he supposed his purpose atchiueable with the more facilitie. King
Edward not so much for the loue he bare to the duke of Burgognie, as
for desire to be reuenged on the French king, whome he tooke to be
his enimie for aiding the earle of Warwike, quéene Margaret, and hir
sonne prince Edward, with their complices, gaue good eare to the duke
of Burgognie his messengers, and finallie (after he had taken aduise
of his councell) the said messengers were answered, that king Edward
in the beginning of the next yeare would land at Calis with a puissant
armie, both to reuenge such injuries as he had receiued at the French
kings hands, and also to recouer his right, which he wrongfullie
deteined from him.

[Sidenote: Opportunitie not to be neglected.]

[Sidenote: The earle of S. Paule.]

In déed the time serued verie well for the Englishmen to atchiue some
high enterprise in France at that present. For not onelie the duke of
Burgognie as then made warre against the French king, but also manie
great men within the realme of France, misliking the manners of their
king, began to haue secret intelligence with the said duke; and namelie
Lewes of Lutzenburgh earle of saint Paule constable of France, was
secretlie confederate with the duke of Burgognie, intending verelie
to bring the French king to some great hinderance, the better to haue
his purpose accomplished in certeine weightie matters. King Edward
vnderstanding all these things, was greatlie incouraged to make a
iournie into France, and therevpon with all diligence prepared all
things readie for the same.

[Sidenote: A shift to recouer monie.]

But bicause he wanted monie, and could not well charge his commons with
a new subsidie, for that he had receiued the last yeare great summes of
monie granted to him by parlement, he deuised this shift, to call afore
him a great number of the wealthiest sort of people in his realme;
and to them declaring his néed, and the requisite causes thereof, he
demanded of euerie of them some portion of monie, which they sticked
not to giue. And therefore the king willing to shew that this their
liberalitie was verie acceptable to him, he called this grant of monie,
A beneuolence: notwithstanding that manie with grudge gaue great sums
toward that new found aid which of them might be called, A meleuolence.
But the king vsed such gentle fashions toward them, with freendlie
praier of their assistance in his necessitie, that they could not
otherwise doo, but franklie and fréelie yéeld and giue him a reasonable
and competent summe.

[Sidenote: _Abr. Flem. ex. Edw. Hall. fol._ Ccxxvj.]

[Sidenote: _Iohn Stow._]

¶ But here I will not let passe a pretie conceipt that happened in
this gathering, in the which you shall not onelie note the humilitie
of a king, but more the fantasie of a woman. King Edward had called
before him a widow, much abounding in substance, and no lesse growne
in yeares, of whome he merilie demanded what she gladlie would giue
him toward his great charges? By my trueth quoth she, for thy louelie
countenance thou shalt haue euen twentie pounds. The king looking
scarse for the halfe of that summe, thanked hir, and louinglie kist
hir. Whether the flauor of his breath did so comfort hir stomach,
or she esteemed the kisse of a king so pretious a iewell, she swore
incontinentlie, that he should haue twentie pounds more, which she
with the same will paied that she offered it. ¶ This yeare the duke of
Excester was found dead in the sea betwéene Douer and Calis, but how he
came there the certeintie could not be knowne.

[Sidenote: 1474.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 14.]

[Sidenote: The K. with an armie passeth ouer into France.]

When all things conuenient for such an enterprise were in a readinesse,
the king came to Douer, where he found fiue hundred ships and hoies
readie to transport him and his armie. And so the fourth daie of Iulie
he passed ouer, and landed at Calis with great triumph; but his armie,
horsses, and munitions of war scarse passed ouer in twentie daies.
In this armie (being one of the best appointed that had passed out
of England into France in manie yeares before) were fifteene hundred
men of armes well horssed, of the which the most part were barded and
richlie trapped, and manie of them trimmed in one sute. There were also
fiftéene thousand archers with bowes and arrowes, of the which a great
number were on horsbacke. There were also a great companie of other
fighting men, and of such as serued to set vp tents and pauilions, to
attend the artillerie and to inclose their campe, and otherwise to
labour and be imploied in seruice.

[Sidenote: The siege of Nusse.]

[Sidenote: The lord Scales.]

In all this armie was there not one page. The king of England was at
his ariuall highlie displeased with the duke of Burgognie, who in the
word of a prince had promised to meet him at his landing, with two
thousand men of armes and light horssemen, besides a great number of
lanceknights and halberdiers, and that he would haue begun the war
three moneths before the kings transporting; whereas contrarilie the
duke laie lingering at the siege of Nusse, and let passe the occasion
of atchiuing a more profitable enterprise. King Edward incontinentlie
dispatched the lord Scales in post vnto the duke, to put him in
remembrance of his promise, and to aduise him to come and ioine with
him before the summer were spent.

[Sidenote: A defiance sent to the French king.]

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl. ex Edw. Hall. fol._ Ccxxvij.]

Before king Edward departed from Douer, he sent an officer of armes
vnto the French king with a defiance. The French king, receiuing the
king of Englands letters at the messengers hand, read the same; and
after he had considered thereof at leasure, he called the English
herald aside, and to him declared the little trust that was to be put
in the duke of Burgognie and the constable, by whose procurement he
knew that king Edward was procured to come at that season into France;
and therefore it should be better for him to haue peace with an old
enimie, than to staie vpon the promises and familiaritie of a new
dissembling freend, which peace did highlie please God, & was the thing
that he most desired. ¶ But to giue the greater grace to the matter in
hand, it is good to laie downe the forme of the French kings spéech to
the said herald, to whome he vttered these words in his wardrobe, as
Edward Hall reporteth.

"Sir I know and well wot, that the king of England your maister, is
neither decended in these parts of his owne frée motion, nor yet of vs
required; but onelie entised and prouoked by the duke of Burgognie, and
somewhat inforced by the commons of his realme. But now you may sée
that the season of the yeare passeth, and the duke of Burgognie is in
poore estate, returning from Nusse almost discomforted. The constable
also, with whome the king your souereigne lord (I am sure) hath some
intelligence, for fauour that your maister hath maried his néece, is
not so sure a freend as he is taken for. And if all the world knew
how I haue promoted him, and what I haue doone for him, they would
little thinke, that he would so vntrulie handle me as he dooth. For I
assure you, he is a déepe dissembler, & in continuall dissimulation
intendeth to lead his life, interteining all men for his owne profit.
And although the king your maister be vnsure of all his other promises,
yet of one thing he shall be sure, that is, he shall be euer dissembled
withall. And therefore I saie to you, and not to your maister, that
he were better haue a peace with an old enimie, than the promises and
familiaritie of a new dissembling fréend, which peace most pleaseth
God, and is the thing that I most doo desire."

[Sidenote: The office of an herald.]

[Sidenote: The duke of Burgognie commeth to king Edward.]

When he had thus said, he gaue the herald thrée hundred crownes,
promising him a thousand crownes if anie good appointment came to
passe. This herald was borne in Normandie, who being more couetous
of the crownes than secret (according as of dutie by his office he
ought to haue beene) promised to doo all things that in him laie, and
further shewed waies by the which the French king might enter into the
port of treatie for peace, the which he doubted not would sort to a
good conclusion. The French king glad to heare these things, gaue to
the herald when he should depart, beside the other reward, a péece of
Crimson veluet of thirtie yards long. The lord Scales, comming to the
duke of Burgognie before Nusse, could not persuade him to raise his
field, and (as it stood him vpon) to come and ioine with king Edward,
till at length constreined thereto by other means, he left Nusse
vnconquered and sending the most part of his armie into Lorraine, came
with a small companie to king Edward lieng before Calis.

King Edward at the first comming of the duke vnto him, séemed much to
reprooue his vnwise dealing, in making so slow hast to ioine with him
at this time, sith for his sake, and at his sute, he had passed the
seas with his armie, to the intent to make wars in France in reuenge
of both their iniuries; the time seruing their turnes so well as they
could wish or desire, the opportunitie whereof could neuer happilie
be recouered againe. The duke after he had excused himselfe, with
alledging the dishonour that should haue redounded to him, if he had
left the siege of Nusse without meane of some shew of composition,
incouraged king Edward to aduance forward with manie golden promises,
aswell of his owne part, as of the constable. The king agréed to the
dukes persuasion, and so set forward.

[Sidenote: The constable of France a déepe dissembler.]

But yet when he was entred into the dukes countries, the Englishmen
were not so freendlie interteined as they looked to haue béene: for at
their comming to Peronne, there were but a few suffered to enter the
gates, the remnant were driuen to lodge in the fields, better purueied
of their owne, than of the dukes prouision. And at their comming before
saint Quintines (which towne the constable had promised to deliuer
into the hands of the duke of Burgognie) the artillerie shot off, and
they of the towne came foorth both on horssebacke and foot to skirmish
with them that approached, of the which two or three were slaine. This
interteinment seemed strange to king Edward, pondering the last daies
promise with this daies dooing. But the duke excused the matter, and
would haue persuaded him to make countenance to besiege the towne,
that the constable might haue a colour to render it into his hands, as
though he did it by constraint.

[Sidenote: The duke of Burgognie departeth.]

But the king, remembring what had béene told to his herald by the
French K. how he should be dissembled with, perceiued the French kings
words to be too true, and therefore thought it more sure to heare
the faire words of the constable and the duke, than to giue credit
to their vntrue and deceitfull dooings. The Englishmen returned vnto
their campe in a great chafe towards the constable; and the next daie
to increase their displeasure, an other corosiue was ministred, that
smarted sorer. For duke Charles of Burgognie tooke his leaue suddenlie
of king Edward, alledging that he must néeds see his armie in Artois,
promising shortlie with all his puissance to returne againe to the
great commoditie of them both. This departing much troubled the king
of England, bicause he looked for no such thing; but thought rather
that he should haue had the duke his continuall fellow in armes: and
therefore this dissembling and vnstedfast working caused the king to
thinke that he neuer thought, and to doo that he neuer intended.

The French king in this meane while had assembled a mightie power; ouer
the which he had made monsieur Robert de Estoutuile capteine, whome
he sent to Artois, to defend the frontiers there against the king of
Englands entrie, and he himselfe tarried still at Senlis: but though
he shewed countenance thus of warre, yet inwardlie desirous of peace,
according to the aduise giuen him by the English herald, he caused a
varlet or yeoman (as I may call him) to be put in a coat of armour of
France, which for hast was made of a trumpet baner. For king Lewes was
a man nothing precise in outward shewes of honor, oftentimes hauing
neither officer of armes, trumpet in his court, nor other roiall
appurtenances belonging to the port of a prince, which should be
glorious and replenished with pompe, as the poet saith:

    Regia mirifici fulgent insignia regis.

[Sidenote: A messenger sent to the king of England.]

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl. ex. Edw. Hall. fol._ Ccxxix, ccxxx.]

This counterfeit herald, being throughlie instructed in his charge, was
sent to the king of England, and so passing foorth: when he approched
the English campe, he put on his coat of armes, & being espied of the
outriders, was brought to a tent, where the lord Howard and the lord
Stanleie were at dinner, of whome he was courteouslie receiued, and by
them conueied to the kings presence, vnto whom he declared his message
so wittilie, that in the end he obteined a safe conduct for one hundred
horsses, for such persons as his maister should appoint to meet, as
manie to be assigned by king Edward in some indifferent place betwéene
both armies, to haue a like safe conduct from his said maister, as he
receiued from him. ¶ The words of which herald are woorth the noting,
reported in writers as followeth.

  The heralds oration to the king vttered with boldnesse of face and
  libertie of toong.

  Right high and mightie prince, right puissant and noble king, if
  your excellent wisedome did perfectlie know, or your high knowledge
  did apparantlie perceiue, what inward affection and feruent desire
  the king my maister hath alwaies had, to haue a perfect peace, a
  sure vnitie, & a brotherlie concord betweene your noble person
  and your realme, and his honorable personage and his dominions,
  you would & (for truths sake) should confesse and saie, that
  neuer christian prince more thirsted for an amitie, nor yet no
  louer hath more sought to atteine to the fauour of his paramor,
  than he hath sought to haue with you a perpetuall fréendship,
  amitie, and aliance: to the intent that the subiects of both the
  relms, quietlie liuing vnder two princes, confederate and combined
  togither in an indissoluble confederacie and league, may mutuallie
  imbrace ech other in their harts, may personallie haue resort and
  frequent each others princes territories and dominions, with their
  merchandizes and wares: and finallie, the one to liue with the
  other, as freend with freend, brother with brother, companion with
  companion, in continuall loue, rest, and tranquilitie. And for his
  part he dooth affirme & saie, that since he receiued first the
  crowne of his kingdome, and was annointed with the holie ampull,
  he neuer attempted, nor yet once imagined anie war, or thing
  preiudiciall toward your roiall person, your realme, or your people.

  If you peraduenture will saie, that he supported & mainteined the
  earle of Warwike against your maiestie, he suerlie that dooth &
  will denie: for he aided him against the duke of Burgognie, whome
  he knew not onelie to be his extreame enimie, but also to laie
  in wait (both by sea and land) either to take him, or vtterlie
  to destroie him. Which duke of Burgognie, onelie for his owne
  cause, hath excited and solicited your highnesse to come ouer the
  troublous and tempestuous seas, to the intent to cause (yea in
  maner to compell) the king my master, to condescend to such treatie
  and appointment, as should be to his onlie profit, and neither to
  your honour, nor yet to your game. For if he & such other as dailie
  flattered him for their peculiar profits (as he had manie in deed
  that dailie sucked at his elbow) had once obteined the thing that
  they breathed for, all your affaires were put in obliuion, and
  left at large for them, or their assistants, euen as they be at
  this daie. Hath not the duke of Burgognie caused you first to come
  into France; after to set forward your armie; and in conclusion,
  for lacke of his promise, to loose the faire season of the yeare,
  and to lie in the fields in winter. Which warre (if it continue)
  shall neither be profitable to you, nor to your nobilitie, nor
  yet pleasant but painefull to your communaltie: and finallie to
  both the realmes, and especiallie to merchant men shall bring both
  miserie, pouertie, and calamitie.

  Came the duke of Burgognie from Nusse to Calis, onlie to visit
  you? Rode he all that post hast onelie to blind you? Returned he
  backe into Loraine againe for anie cause but onelie to leaue you
  desolate, & to abandon you? Did he or the constable keepe anie one
  promise with you? Why doo you then beleeue, and yet still trust
  them, in whome you neuer found faith nor fidelitie? But if God
  will it so ordeine, that you and my master may ioine in league and
  amitie, I dare both saie and sweare, that the fine steele neuer
  cleaued faster to the adamant stone than he will sticke & claspe
  with you, both in wealth and wo, in prosperitie and aduersitie.
  And if it shall please you, to harken to anie reasonable treatie,
  I being a poore man, shall (on ieopardie of my life which is my
  chiefe treasure) vndertake, that this communication shall sort and
  come to such an effect, that both you & your nobilitie shall be
  glad and reioise, and your commons shall be contented and pleased;
  and they that haue deceiued you, shall be both abashed and ashamed.
  Most humblie beséeching your highnesse, if your pleasure shall
  incline this waie, that I may haue a sure safe conduct for one
  hundred horsses, for such personages as the king my master shall
  send vnto you with further intimation of his mind and purpose. And
  if your pleasure shall be to haue the communication in anie place
  indifferent betweene both the armies, then shall I warrant you the
  like safe conduct for your men, as you doo send for ours.

When he had accomplished his message and instructions, the king of
England and his councell highlie commended his audacitie, his toong,
and his sobernesse, giuing to him in reward a faire gilt cup, with a
hundred angels: deliuering him a safe conduct according to his request
and demand, with the which he with speed departed, hauing with him an
English herald to bring a like safe conduct from the French king.

[Sidenote: Commissioners appointed to treat of peace.]

After that the safe conducts were deliuered on both parts, the
ambassadours met at a village beside Amiens. On the king of Englands
side, the lord Howard; sir Thomas Saintleger; doctor Morton after
bishop of Elie, & chancellor of England, were cheefe. For the French
king, the bastard of Burbon admerall of France; the lord Saint Pierre;
& the bishop of Eureux called Heberge, were appointed as principall.
The Englishmen demanded the whole realme of France, or at the least
Normandie and whole Aquitaine. The allegations were proued by the
Englishmen, and politikelie defended by the Frenchmen, so that with
arguments, without conclusion, the day passed, and the commissioners
departed, and made relation to their maisters. The French king and his
councell would not consent, that the Englishmen should haue one foot of
land within France; but rather determined to put him selfe & the whole
realme in hazard and aduenture.

[Sidenote: Articles of agréement betwéene king Edward and the French

[Sidenote: Want of monie procureth peace.]

At the next méeting the commissioners agréed vpon certeine articles,
which were of both the princes accepted and allowed. It was first
accorded, that the French king should paie to the king of England
without delaie seauentie & fiue thousand crownes of the sunne; and
yearelie fiftie thousand crownes to be paid at London during king
Edwards life. And further it was agréed, that Charles the Dolphin
should marrie the ladie Elizabeth, eldest daughter to king Edward, and
they two to haue for the maintenance of their estates the whole duchie
of Guien, or else fiftie thousand crownes yearelie to be paid within
the Tower of London by the space of nine yeares; and at the end of that
terme, the Dolphin and his wife to haue the whole duchie of Guien, and
of the charge the French king to be cléerelie acquit. And it was also
concluded, that the two princes should come to an interview, and there
take a corporall oth for the performance of this peace, either in sight
of other.

On the king of Englands part were comprised as alies (if they would
thereto assent) the dukes of Burgognie and Britaine. It was also
couenanted, that after the whole summe aforesaid of seuentie and fiue
thousand crownes were paid to king Edward, he should leaue in hostage
the lord Howard, and sir Iohn Cheinie maister of his horsse, vntill
he with all his armie was passed the seas. This agréement was verie
acceptable to the French king; for he saw himselfe and his realme
thereby deliuered of great perill that was at hand: for not onelie he
should haue béene assailed (if this peace had not taken place) both by
the power of England and Burgognie, but also by the duke of Britaine,
and diuerse of his owne people, as the constable and others. The king
of England also vnderstanding his owne state, for want of monie, to
mainteine the warres, if they should long continue (though otherwise he
desired to haue attempted some high enterprise against the Frenchmen)
was the more easilie induced to agrée by those of his councell, that
loued peace better than warre, and their wiues soft beds better than
hard armor and a stonie lodging.

[Sidenote: The duke of Glocester an enimie to peace.]

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl. ex Edw. Hall. fol._ Ccxxxj.]

But the duke of Glocester & others, whose swords thirsted for French
bloud, cried out on this peace; saieng that all their trauell, paines,
& expenses were to their shame lost and cast awaie, and nothing
gained but a continuall mocke [and dailie derision of the French king
and all his minions. This imagination tooke effect without delaie.
For a gentleman of the French kings chamber, after the peace was
concluded, did demand of an Englishman, how manie battels king Edward
had vanquisht? He answered, nine: wherein he himselfe personallie had
béene. "A great honoure" said the Frenchman. "But I praie you (quoth
he smiling) how manie hath he lost?" The Englishman perceiuing what
he meant, said: "one, which you by policie, and by no strength, haue
caused him to loose."

"Well" said the Frenchman, "you maie ponder in a paire of balance, the
gaine of nine gotten battels, and the rebuke of this one in this maner
lost: for I tell you, that we haue this saieng; the force of England
hath and dooth surmount the force of France: but the ingenious wits of
the Frenchmen excell the dull braines of Englishmen. For in all battels
you haue béene the gainers, but in leagues and treaties our wits haue
made you loosers: so that you maie content your selues with the losse
in treaties, for the spoile that you gat in warres and battels." This
communication was reported to the French king, who priuilie sent for
the Englishman to supper, and not onlie made him good cheere, but
also gaue him a thousand crownes, to praise the peace and to helpe to
mainteine the same. Yet neuerthelesse, he being not a little mooued
with these brags, declared all the communication to the duke of
Glocester; who sware, that he would neuer haue set foot out of England,
if he had not thought to haue made the Frenchmen once to assaie the
strength & puissance of the Englishmen: but what so euer he thought,
all things were transferred vnto an other end than he could imagine.]

[Sidenote: The duke of Burgognie commeth in hast to the king of

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl. ex Edw. Hall. fol._ Ccxxxj.]

When the duke of Burgognie heard that there was a peace in hand
betwixt king Edward and the French king, he came in no small hast from
Lutzenburg, onelie accompanied with sixteene horsses into the king of
Englands lodging, and began as one in a great chafe sore to blame his
dooings, declaring in plaine termes how dishonorable this peace should
be vnto him, hauing atchiued nothing of that about the which he came.
The king of England, after he had giuen him leaue to speake his fansie,
answered him somewhat roundlie againe, openlie reproouing him for his
promise-breaking and vncourteous dealing with him: where for his cause
cheeflie he had passed the seas, and now found him not to keepe touch
in anie one point which he had couenanted. ¶ But to adde more weight
to the matter in hand, sith it was so seriouslie debated betwéene the
two potentats, let vs heare what talke historiens report to haue béene
interchanged betwéene them. The king of England (saith mine author)
not a little abashed both at the dukes sudden comming, and his fierce
countenance, like one that would rather bite than whine, demanded of
him the cause of his sudden comming. The duke sharpelie answered, to
know whether he had either entered into anie communication, or onelie
had absolutelie concluded a peace betwéene the French king and him.
King Edward declared how that for sundrie and diuerse great and vrgent
causes, touching as well the vniuersall publike wealth of the whole
christianitie, as their owne priuate commoditie and the quietnesse of
their realmes, he and the French king had concluded a peace and amitie
for terme of nine years, in the which were comprised, as fellowes and
fréends, both he and the duke of Britaine, requiring him to condescend
and agrée to the same.

"Oh Lord, oh saint George (quoth the duke of Burgognie) haue you thus
doone in deed? Haue you passed the seas, entered into France, and
without killing of a poore flie, or burning of a séelie shéepecote,
and haue taken a shamefull truce? Did your noble ancestor, K. Edward
the third, euer make armie into France (as he made manie) in the which
he did not either game victorie in battell, or profit in conquering
cities, townes, and countries? That victorious prince, as neere kin to
me, as you to king Henrie the fift, I meane whose bloud you haue either
rightfullie or wrongfullie (God knoweth) extinguished & destroied,
with a small puissance entered into France, conquered whole Normandie,
and not alonelie conquered it, but peaceablie kept it, and neuer would
either commen or agrée to anie league, vntill he had the whole realme
of France offered him; & was thereof made regent and heire apparant.
And you without anie thing dooing, or anie honour or profit gaining,
haue condescended to a peace, both as honourable and as profitable to
you as a peasecod, and not so wholesome as a pomegranat. Think you
that I either mooued you, or once intised you to take this iournie
for my peculiar aduantage or commoditie (which of my power am able to
reuenge mine owne causes, without helpe of others) but onelie to haue
you recouer your old rights and possessions, which were from you both
tortiouslie and wrongfullie withholden? And to the intent that you
shall know that I haue no néed of your aid, I will neither enter into
your league, nor take truce with the French king, till you be passed
the sea, and haue beene there thrée moneths."

When duke Charles had thus said, he furiouslie threw downe his chaire,
and would haue departed. But the king him staid and said: "Brother
Charles, sith you haue spoken at leasure what you would, you must and
shall heare again what you would not. And first, as concerning our
entrie into France, no man liuing knoweth that occasion, neither so
well, nor hath cause halfe so well to remember it as you: for if you
haue not fullie put your greatest things (to be had in memorie) in
your box of obliuion, you be not yet out of mind how the French king,
for all your power, tooke from you the faire towne of Amiens, and the
strong pile of saint Quintins, with diuerse other townes, which you
neither durst nor yet were able either to rescue or defend. Since which
time, how he hath plagued you, how he hath taken from you your fréends;
yea, of your priuie chamber and secret councell (by whome all your
secrets be to him reuealed and made open) you know or haue better cause
to remember, and not to forget them. And when you determined to besiege
the towne of Nusse, you thought your selfe in a great doubt, whether
you should loose more at home by your absence (the French king dreaming
and waiting like a fox for his preie) or gaine more in Germanie by
your power and presence. And to kéepe the woolfe from the fold, that
is, the French king from your castels and dominions, was the cheefe
and principall cause whie you so faire praid me, so sore laboured and
intised me to passe ouer the sea, promising mounteins of gold, which
turned into snow and wasted into water, boasting and craking to send
horssemen and footmen; and yet shewing neither lackie nor page. If we
had made our enterprise for our selfe solie and in our owne quarell,
thinke you that we would haue expected your comming? If the aduenture
had béene for to haue recouered our right, imagine you that we would
haue passed the sea so slenderlie as we did, looking for your aid?
Nay, nay, you should haue well knowen, if we had intended a conquest,
that we would haue so stronglie inuaded & set on the realme of France,
that what with sauour of burning of townes, and infection of the aier,
corrupted by the multitude of dead carcases of our slaine enimies, your
countries of Flanders & Brabant should haue had causes enow to wonder
at: trusting that that which we had gotten, we would haue kept as well
as anie of our ancestors haue doone.

"But bicause the verie occasion of the warre was yours, and that you
wilfullie (I will not saie cowardlie) did not prosecute the same,
the French king, who neuer offended me nor my subiects (except in
mainteining the earle of Warwike, for the displeasure that you bare him
against me) offered me, being destitute of all your succour and aid,
both honourable and honest ouertures of peace, which offers I was in
maner inforced (by verie reason) to incline to and accept, and so haue
concluded a truce, which (God willing) I will both keepe and obserue."
"God send you ioy" (quoth the duke) and so abruptlie ended his talke
for that time.

[Sidenote: He departeth from the king in a rage.]

[Sidenote: The constable of France his offer to K. Edward.]

Heerwith (being in a great rage) he bad the king of England farewell,
and suddenlie tooke his horsse, and rode againe to Lutzenburgh,
promising not to enter into anie league with the French king, till
king Edward was passed the seas againe into England, and had béene
there thrée moneths: but this promise was not performed, for of
necessitie he tooke a wiser waie, and agréed with the French king vpon
a truce immediatly after the departure of the English armie out of his
countrie. The constable of France also, doubting that his vntruth would
be disclosed to his destruction, by means of this agréement betwéene
the kings of England and France, as soone as he heard they were entred
into communication thereof, sent to king Edward, requiring him not to
credit the French kings promises, which he would no longer obserue,
than vntill he should once vnderstand, that he was on the other side of
the sea: and rather than he should agrée for want of monie, he offered
to lend him fiftie thousand crownes. But the king of England, sith
the accord was passed and agréed, would not change anie thing for the
promises of so slipper a merchant as he knew the constable to be.

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl. ex Edw. Hall. fol._ Ccxxxij, Ccxxxiij.]

¶ Then was the constable in maner on all sides in despaire, but yet
he wrote to the French king by his messengers, beséeching him to giue
no credit or beléefe to anie tale told or fained against him, without
hearing his answer, affirming that the king had alwaies knowen his
truth and fidelitie toward the crowne of France, and so should he still
find him till his dieng daie; promising and warranting him, if that it
should stand with his pleasure, that he would so compasse the duke of
Burgognie, that they two should vtterlie destroie the king of England
and his armie yer they returned. The councellors of the French king
made answer, that their master and the king of England were ioined and
confedered in a sure amitie. Wherfore they would in no wise know nor
condescend to anie thing that might be either preiudiciall, or once
sound to the detriment of the Englishmen: but they said, that the king
their master much trusted the constable, and that for his sake he would
talke with them in his priuie chamber. The French king, before their
entrie into his chamber, caused the lord of Contaie, seruant vnto the
duke of Burgognie, accompanied with the lord of Argenton, one of his
priuie councell, to stand secretlie behind a séeling or hanging in his
chamber, & he himselfe sat in a chaire directlie before that place, so
that what soeuer were purposed to him, they standing behind the cloth,
might plainlie sée and easilie heare the same.

[Sidenote: Shamefull & slanderous words against the K. of England.]

Lewes de Creuell and his fellow entered into the kings chamber, of
nothing thinking lesse than of the spirits inclosed. They declared
what paine their master had taken for the French kings sake, to send,
mooue and entise the duke of Burgognie to leaue, and cléerelie to
forsake the king of England, which duke they found in such a rage and
furie against the Englishmen, that at their request he was not onelie
vtterlie determined to forsake and refuse their amitie, but also would
send out aduenturers and lanceknights, to rob and spoile them in their
returning. And in speaking these words (thinking suerlie much to please
the king) the said Lewes counterfeited the fashion and gesture of the
duke of Burgognie, and began to stampe with his foot on the ground,
and beat with his fist on the table, swearing by saint George that
the king of England was not extracted of anie noble house, but was a
yeomans sonne; and that when he was not woorth one halfepenie, he was
restored to his kingdome, and made king onelie by his aid, reprouing
and reuiling him with such ill words, and so shamefuii termes, that all
the hearers abhorred it.

The French king, faining that he was thicke of hearing, caused him to
reiterate his saieng againe, who so counterfeited the verie gesture
of the dukes angrie countenance and roring voice, that no man hath
séene a better counterfeiter or actor in anie comedie or tragedie. The
lord of Contaie was sore displeased to sée his master made a iesting
stocke; but he kept all these things secret, till his returne to his
master. When the pageant was plaied, the king bad the messengers of
the constable to haue him commended to his brother their master; and
to declare to him that as newes rose & grew, he would therof aduertise
him, & so gaue them licence to depart to their master, who thought
himselfe now to be in great suertie of his estate, when in déed he was
neuer so neere his fall and perdition: estéeming the duke of Burgognie
to be his assured fréend, who hated him more than a Painime or Turke,
accompting also the French king to haue no ill suspicion in him, who
neither trusted nor yet beléeued anie word, writing or message that
was either written or sent from him. Such end hath dissimulation, such
fruit springeth of double dealing and craftie conueieng. For if either
the constable had béene faithfull to the king his master, as of bounden
dutie and allegiance he ought to be, or else had kept his promise made
to the king of England and duke of Burgognie, and not dallied and
dissembled with them, he had suerlie in his extremitie béene aided,
succoured and comforted of one of these three at the least; where now
he was of all three forsaken, and yet not forsaken, but sought for,
looked for, and watched for; not for his profit or promotion, but for
his vndooing and destruction: whereof he was the principall procurer,
as manie a one besides; wherto the poet had an eie, when he made this
outcrie of inward gréefe seasoned with sorrow and repentance:

    Heu patior telis vulnera facta meis.

[Sidenote: _Abr. Flem. ex Edw. Hall. fol._ Ccxxxiiji.]

After the peace was concluded, the Englishmen were permitted to enter
into the towne of Amiens, and there to buie all such necessarie
things as they wanted, and had plentie of wine (for the French king
had sent into their armie a hundred carts of the best wine that could
be gotten) and good cheere made them of his owne costs. For at the
enterie of euerie gate, there were two long tables set on euerie side
of the street where they should passe; and at euerie table fiue or six
gentlemen of the best companions of all the countrie were appointed
to interteine the Englishmen as they entered, not onelie to sée them
serued without lacking [but also to drinke and make good cheere, and
kéepe companie with them. And euer as they entered into the towne, they
were taken by the bridels and in maner inforced to drinke, wheresoeuer
they came they paied no monie, but were sent scot free.] This chéere
lasted thrée or foure daies not onelie to the French kings cost, but
also to his vnquietnesse at length, doubting to haue béene dispossessed
of his towne.

[Sidenote: The enterview betwixt king Edward the fourth, & the French

For on a daie there entered the number of nine thousand Englishmen well
armed in sundrie companies, so that no Frenchman durst once forbid
them to enter. But finallie, order was taken by the king of England,
who meant no deceit, that no greater number should enter than was
conuenient, and the other were called backe; so that the French king
and his councell were well quieted, and rid of casting further perils
than néed required. After this, both the kings enteruiewed togither
at Picquenie on the water of Some thrée leagues aboue Amiens, shewing
great courtesie either to other. The letters of both their agréements
were opened and red, & then either prince laid his right hand on the
missall, and his left hand on the holie crosse (as it was termed)
and tooke there a solemne oth to obserue and kéepe the treatie for
nine yeares concluded betwéene them, with all their confederates and
alies, comprised, mentioned and specified in the same, and further to
accomplish the marriage or their children.

There was with either prince twelue noble men at this méeting, which
was vpon a bridge cast ouer the water of Some, a grate being set
ouerthwart the same in the midst, so from side to side, that the one
prince could not come vnto the other; but onelie to imbrace ech other,
in putting their armes through the holes of the [2]grate. There were
foure Englishmen appointed to stand with the Frenchmen on the bridge to
sée their demeanour; and likewise foure Frenchmen were appointed to the
Englishmen for the same purpose. There were with the king of England
his brother the duke of Clarence, the earle of Northumberland, the
bishop of Elie his chancellor, the lord Hastings his chamberleine, and
eight others. They had louing and verie familiar talke togither a good
space, both afore their companie, and secretlie alone, whilest their
companie (of courtesie) withdrew somewhat backe.

[2] Of timber like to the grate where the lions be kept in the Tower.

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl. ex Edw. Hall. fol._ Ccxxxiiij.]

¶ But it is noteworthie which I read touching both the kings méeting,
the manner of their attire, and demeanour; namelie that when the token
of méeting by the shot of the artillerie was knowne, the French king
with twelue noble men entered the bridge, and came to the closure, with
whome was Iohn duke of Burbon, and the cardinal his brother, a prelat
more méet for a ladies carpet, than for an ecclesiasticall pulpit, and
ten other, amongst whome the lord of Argenton was in like disguised
attire as the French king ware, for so was his pleasure that daie to
haue him adorned. The king of England and foure other with him were
apparelled in cloth of gold frised, hauing on his bonet of blacke
veluet a flower delice of gold, set with verie rich and orient stones;
he was a goodlie faire and beautifull prince, beginning a litle to
grow in flesh. Now when he approched néere the grate, hée tooke off
his cap, and made a low and solemne obeisance: the French king made
to him an humble reuerence; but after his fashion somewhat homelie.
King Lewes imbraced king Edward through the barriers, saieng: "Coosine
you be right heartilie welcome into these parties, assuring you that
there is no man in the world that I haue more desired to sée and speake
with, than with you: and now lauded be almightie God, we be here met
togither for a good and godlie purpose, whereof I doubt not but that
we shall haue cause to reioise." The king of England thanked him, and
answered to his words so soberlie, so grauelie, and so princelie, that
the Frenchmen thereat not a litle mused. The chancellor of England made
there a solemne oration in laud and praise of peace, concluding on a
prophesie, which said that at Picquenie should be concluded a peace
both honorable and profitable to the realmes of England and France.

[Sidenote: The manerlie English and vnmanerlie French.]

When the oth was taken and sworne (as before you haue heard) the French
king said merilie to king Edward; "Brother, if you will take pains to
come to Paris, you shall be feasted and interteined with ladies; and
I shall appoint you the cardinall of Burbon for your confessor, which
shall gladlie absolue you of such sinnes, if anie be commited." The
king of England tooke these words pleasantlie and thankfullie, for he
was informed that the cardinall was a good companion, and a chapleine
méet for such a dalieng pastime. When this communication was merilie
ended, the French king, intending to shewe himselfe like a maister
amongst his seruants, made all his companie to draw backe from him,
meaning to commune with the king of England secretlie. The Englishmen
withdrew them without any commandement. Then the two kings communed
alone secretlie, I thinke not to the profit of the constable of France.
The French king demanded of king Edward, whether the duke of Burgognie
would accept the truce? King Edward answered that he would once againe
make an offer; and then vpon the refusall, he would referre and report
the truth to them both. Then king Lewes began to speake of the duke
of Britaine, whome he would faine haue excepted out of the league. To
whome the king of England answered: Brother, I require you to mooue no
warre to the duke of Britaine; for on my fidelitie, in the time of my
néed and aduersitie, I neuer found a more friendlie, sure and stedfast
louer than he.

[Sidenote: French loue.]

Then king Lewes called his companie againe, and with most lowlie and
amiable commendations tooke his leaue of the king of England, speaking
certeine friendlie words to euerie Englishman: king Edward dooing
likewise to the Frenchmen. Then both at one time departed from the
barriers, & mounted on horssebacke, and departed; the French king to
Amiens, and king Edward to his armie. To whom was sent out of the
French kings house, all things necessarie for a prince, insomuch that
neither torches nor torchets lacked vnsent. When the French king was
departed from Picquenie, he called to him the lord Argenton, saieng:
"By the peace of God, the king of England is an amorous and a faire
prince, he at the first becke would gladlie see Paris, where he might
fortune to find such pleasant and talkatiue dames, which with faire
words & pleasant pastimes might so allure him to their fantasies, that
it might breed occasion in him to come ouer the sea againe, which I
would not gladlie see. For his progenitors haue beene too long and too
often both in Paris and Normandie. On this side the sea I loue neither
his sight nor his companie; but when he is at home I loue him as my
brother, and take him as my friend."

The French king, after this departing, sore desired to make warre on
the duke of Britaine: which he could not doo, except he were left out
of the treatie. Wherefore he sent the lord of Bouchage, and the lord
of saint Pierre, to the king of England, intreating him by all waies
and motions possible, to leaue the duke of Britaine for his alie,
and not to haue him comprehended in the league. The king of England
hearing them so seriouslie and so feruentlie speake against the duke
of Britaine; with an earnest countenance answered, saieng: "My lords,
I assure you, if I were peaceablie at home in my realme, yet for the
defense of the duke of Britaine and his countrie, I would passe the
seas againe, against all them that either would doo him iniurie, or
make warre vpon him." The French lords nothing further saieng, much
maruelled why the king of England so suerlie claue to the duke of
Britains partie: but they knew not (or else at the least remembred not)
that Henrie earle of Richmond was within the power and dominion of the
duke of Britaine, whome king Edwards phantasie euer gaue him would
make once a title to the crowne of England, as next heire to the house
of Lancaster. For he knew well, that if the duke of Britaine would
transport him into England (where hée had both kinsfolks and friends)
with neuer so small an aid (yea, though it were but the shadow of an
armie) then were he inforced newlie to begin againe a conquest, as
though he had neuer woone the crowne, nor obteined the possession of
the realme, which was the verie cause why he stucke so sore to the duke
of Britains part.

The same night the lords returned to Amiens, and reported to their
maister king Edwards answer, who therewith was not the best pleased.
But pleasure or displeasure, there was no remedie but to dissemble the
matter. This same night also, there came the lord Howard, and two other
of the king of Englands councell, who had béene coadiutors toward the
peace, to the French king to supper. The lord Howard said to the French
king secretlie in his eare, that if it stood with his pleasure, he
could persuade the king of England to come to Amiens, yea, peraduenture
as farre as Paris, familiarlie and friendlie to solace himselfe with
him, as his trustie friend and faithfull brother. The French king, to
whom this motion was nothing pleasant, calling for water, washed, and
rose without anie answer making: but he said to one of his councell,
that he imagined in his owne conceipt, that this request would be made.
The Englishmen began againe to commune of that matter, the Frenchmen
politikelie brake their communication, saieng: that the king with all
celeritie must march forward against the duke of Burgognie.

Although this motion séemed onelie to increase loue and continuall
amitie betwéene the princes; yet the Frenchmen, hauing in their
perfect remembrance the innumerable damages and hurts, which they of
late daies had susteined by the English nation (whereby continuall
hatred increased against them in France) thought by policie and
wisedome, with faire words and friendlie countenance, to put by
this request, and to motion them rather to depart homeward, than to
pricke them forward to Paris; where peraduenture they might be so
interteined at this time, that they would at another come thither, both
vndesired and vnwelcomed. This peace was said to be made onelie by the
Holie-ghost, bicause that on the daie of méeting, a white dooue sat on
the top of the king of Englands tent: whether she sate there to drie
hir, or came thither as a token giuen by God, I referre it to your
iudgment. At this treatie and méeting was not the duke of Glocester,
nor other lords which were not content with this truce, but the duke
came afterwards to Amiens, with diuerse other lords of England, to the
French king, which both highlie feasted them, and also presented them
with plate and horsses well garnished.

King Lewes, considering what gaine the Englishmen had gotten by
making warre in France; and what miserie, what calamitie, and what
pouertie the French nation had suffered, and manie yeares susteined,
by reason of the said warres; determined clearelie rather to pacifie
and interteine the English nation by faire words and great rewards
(although it were to his great charge) than by too much hardinesse to
put himselfe, his nobilitie & realme in hazard, by giuing them battell,
as his predecessors had vnwiselie doone at Poitiers, and at Agincourt.
Wherefore to buie peace, he granted king Edward for a yearelie tribute
fiftie thousand crownes, to be paied at London; which, accounting
a crowne at foure shillings, amounteth to ten thousand pounds. And
to haue the fauour and good will of his chiefe councellors, he gaue
great pensions, amounting to the summe of sixteene thousand crownes a
yeere, that is to saie: to his chancellor, to the lord Hastings his
chiefe chamberleine, a man of no lesse wit than vertue, and of great
authoritie with his maister, and that not without cause; for he had as
well in time of aduersitie, as in the faire flattering world, well and
trulie serued him: and to the lord Howard, to sir Thomas Montgomerie,
to sir Thomas Sentleger, to sir Iohn Cheinie maister of the kings
horsses, to the marques Dorsset, sonne to the queene, and diuerse
other, he gaue great and liberall rewards, to the intent to keepe
himselfe in amitie with England, while he wan and obteined his purpose
and desire in other places.

These persons had giuen to them great gifts, beside yearelie pensions.
For Argenton his councellor affirmed of his owne knowledge, that the
lord Howard had in lesse than the tearme of two yeares, for reward
in monie and plate, foure and twentie thousand crownes; & at the
time of this méeting, he gaue to the lord Hastings the kings chiefe
chamberleine, (as the Frenchmen write) an hundred markes of siluer,
made in plate, whereof euerie marke is eight ounces sterling. But the
English writers affirme, that he gaue the lord Hastings foure and
twentie doozen bolles, that is to saie, twelue doozen gilt, & twelue
doozen vngilt, euerie cup weieng seuentéene nobles: which gift, either
betokened in him a great liberall nature, or else a great and especiall
confidence that he had reposed in the said lord chamberleine. Beside
this, he gaue him yearelie two thousand crownes pension, the which
summe he sent to him by Piers Cleret, one of the maisters of his
house, giuing him in charge to receiue of him an acquittance for the
receipt of the same pension, to the intent that it should appeare in
time to come, that the chancelor, chamberleine, admerall, maisters of
the horsses to the king of England, and manie other of his councell,
had bin in fée and pensionaries of the French king, whose yearelie
acquittances (the lord Hastings onelie excepted) remaine of record to
be shewed in the chamber of accounts in the palace of Paris.

When Piers Cleret had paied the pension to the lord Hastings, he
gentlie demanded of him an acquittance for his discharge. Which request
when he denied, he then onlie asked of him a bill of thrée lines to
be directed to the king, testifieng the receipt of the pension: to the
intent that the king your maister should not thinke the pension to be
imbeselled. The lord Hastings, although he knew that Piers demanded
nothing but reason, answered him: "Sir this gift commeth onelie of the
liberall pleasure of the king his maister, and not of my request: if
it be his determinat will that I shall haue it, then put you it into
my sléeue; and if not, I praie you render to him his gift againe: for
neither he nor you shall haue either letter, acquittance, or scroll
signed with my hand of the receipt of anie pension, to the intent to
brag another daie, that the kings chamberleine of England hath béene
pensionarie with the French king, & shew his acquittance in the chamber
of accounts, to his dishonor." Piers left his monie behind, and made
relation of all things to his maister: which although that he had not
his will, yet he much more praised the wisdome and policie of the lord
Hastings, than of the other pensionaries, c[=o]mmanding him yearlie to
be paied, without anie discharge demanding.

[Sidenote: K. Edward returneth into England.]

[Sidenote: _Edw. Hall fol._ Ccxxxvj.]

[Sidenote: _Edw. Hall fol._ Ccxxxvj.]

When the king of England had receiued his monie, and his nobilitie
their rewards, he trussed vp his tents, laded his baggage, and departed
towards Calis. [But yer he came there, he remembring the craftie
dissimulation, and the vntrue dealing of Lewes earle of saint Paule,
high constable of France, intending to declare him to the French king
in his verie true likenesse and portrature, sent vnto him two letters
of credence, written by the said constable, with the true report of
all such words and messages as had béene to him sent, and declared by
the said constable and his amdassadours. Which letters the French king
gladlie receiued, and thankefullie accepted, as the cheefe instrument
to bring the constable to his death; which he escaped no long season
after, such is the end of dissemblers.] When king Edward was come to
Calis, and had set all things in an order, he tooke ship, and sailed
with a prosperous wind into England, and was roiallie receiued vpon
Blackheath by the maior of London and the magistrates, and fiue hundred
commoners apparrelled in murrie, the eight and twentith daie of
September, and so conueied through the citie of Westminster, where for
a while (after his long labour) he reposed himselfe [euerie daie almost
talking with the queene his wife of the marriage of his daughter,
whome he caused to be called Dolphinesse: thinking nothing surer than
that mariage to take effect, according to the treatie. The hope of
which marriage caused him to dissemble, and doo things which afterward
chanced greatlie to the French kings profit, & smallie to his.]

[Sidenote: Sir Thomas M[=o]tgomerie.]

About the same season, the French king, to compasse his purpose for
the getting of the constable into his hands, tooke truce with the duke
of Burgognie for nine yeares as a contractor in the league, and not
comprehended as an other princes alie. The king of England aduertised
hereof, sent ouer sir Thomas Montgomerie to the French king, offering
to passe the seas againe the next summer in his aid, to make warres on
the duke Burgognie; so that the French king should paie to him fiftie
thousand crownes for the losse which he should susteine in his custome,
by reason that the woolles at Calis (bicause of the warres) could haue
no vent, and also paie halfe the charges and halfe the wages of his
souldiers and men of warre. The French king thanked the king of England
for his gentle offer, but he alledged that the truce was alreadie
concluded, so that he could not then attempt anie thing against the
same without reproch to his honour.

[Sidenote: 1475.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 15.]

[Sidenote: Henrie earle of Richmond.]

But the truth was, the French king neither loued the sight nor liked
the companie of the king of England on that side the sea; but when he
was here at home, he both loued him as his brother, and tooke him as
his freend. Sir Thomas Montgomerie was with plate richlie rewarded, and
so dispatched. There returned with him the lord Howard and sir Iohn
Cheinie, which were hostages with the French king, till the English
armie were returned into England. King Edward, hauing established all
things in good order, as men might iudge, both within his realme and
without, was yet troubled in his mind, for that Henrie the earle of
Richmond (one of the bloud of king Henrie the sixt) was aliue, and
at libertie in Britaine: therefore to attempt eftsoones the mind of
Francis duke of Britaine, he sent ouer vnto the said duke, one doctor
Stillington, and two other his ambassadors laden with no small summe of

[Sidenote: Ambassadors into Britaine.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Richmond taketh sanctuarie.]

These ambassadors, declaring their message, affirmed that the king
their maister willed to haue the earle of Richmond onelie for this
purpose, to ioine with him in aliance by marriage, and so to plucke vp
all the leauings or discord betwéene him and the contrarie faction. The
duke gentlie heard the orators. And though at the first he by excuses
denied their request, yet at the length, beléeuing that king Edward
would giue to the earle his eldest daughter, the ladie Elizabeth in
marriage, he consented to deliuer him, and receiued of the English
orators a great summe of monie. But yer they were imbarked with their
preie, the duke being aduertised, that the earle of Richmond was not
so earnestlie sought for, to be coupled in mariage with king Edwards
daughter; but rather that his head might be chopped off with an
hatchet, caused his treasuror Peter Landoise to conueie the said earle
of Richmond into a sanctuarie at S. Malo, where the English ambassadors
then laie, onelie staieng for a conuenient wind: who complained, that
they were euill vsed, to be spoiled both of their monie and merchandize.

Yet bicause the matter was so handled, that it séemed the earle
escaped into the sanctuarie through their owne negligence, after they
had receiued him into their hands; they were soone answered: but yet
promise was made, that the earle should be safelie kept, either in the
sanctuarie, or else as prisoner in the dukes house, that they should
not néed to feare him more than his shadow. And thus the king of
England purchased for his monie the kéeping of his enimie, the space
onelie of three daies and no more. King Edward was somewhat displeased
with this chance, but yet trusting that the duke of Britaine would
(according to promise) see the earle of Richmond safelie kept from
dooing anie gréeuance to him or his subiects, put all doubts therof
out of his mind, and began to studie how to kéepe a liberall princelie
house, and therevpon storing his chests with monie, he imploied no
small portion in good housekéeping.

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl. ex Edw. Hall fol._ Ccxxxvij.]

¶ But hauing spoken thus much of the earle of Richmond, whome Edward
Hall compareth to a shéepe betraied into the téeth and clawes of
the woolfe, you shall vnderstand, that at such time as his troubles
were set fresh abroach, and he knowing that he was going towards his
death, for verie pensifenesse and inward thought, fell into a feruent
and sore ague. In which verie season, one Iohn Cheulet, so estéemed
among the princes of Britaine as few were in all the countrie, and in
much credit, and well accepted with the duke, was (when these things
were thus concluded) for his solace in the countrie. Who being hereof
certified, was chafed with the abhomination of the fact, resorted to
the court, and familiarlie came to the dukes presence, where he stood
so sadlie and so palie, without anie word speaking, that the duke
was much abashed, and suddenlie maruelled at his sad and frowning
countenance, and demanded of him what should signifie that dumpishnesse
of mind, and inward sighing, the which by his countenance manifestlie
appeared and was euident? He modestlie answered; "Most noble and
redoubted lord, this palenesse of visage and deadlie looke dooth
prognosticate the time of my death to approach and be at hand, which
if it had chanced to me before this daie, I assure you, it had much
lesse hurt me. For then had I not beene reserued to féele the dolorous
pangs and sorowfull sighings, which a fact by you doone (that I thought
impossible to be obteined) hath printed in my stomach and in my heart
deeplie grauen: so that I well perceiue, that either I shall lose my
life, or else liue in perpetuall distresse and continuall miserie.

"For you my singular good lord, by your vertuous acts and noble feats,
haue gotten to you in manner an immortall fame, which in euerie mans
mouth is extolled & aduanced aboue the high clouds. But alas me séemeth
(I praie you pardon me my rudenesse) that now that you haue obteined
so high praise and glorie, you nothing lesse regard than to kéepe and
preserue the same inuiolate, considering that you, forgetting your
faith and faithfull promise made to Henrie earle of Richmond, haue
deliuered the most innocent yoong gentleman to the cruell tormentors,
to be afflicted, rent in péeces, and slaine. Wherefore all such as loue
you, of the which number I am one, cannot choose but lament & be sorie,
when they sée openlie the fame and glorie of your most renowmed name,
by such a disloialtie and vntruth against promise, to be both blotted
and stained with a perpetuall note of slander and infamie." "Peace mine
owne good Iohn (quoth the duke) I praie thée, beléeue me there is no
such thing like to happen to the earle of Richmond: for king Edward
hath sent for him, to make of him, being his suspected enimie, his good
and faire sonne in law."

"Well well (quoth Iohn) my redoubted lord, giue credence vnto me: the
earle Henrie is at the verie brinke to perish, whome if you permit
once to set but one foot out of your power and dominion, there is no
mortall creature able héereafter to deliuer him from death." The duke
being mooued with the persuasions of Iohn Cheulet, which either little
beléeued, or smallie suspected king Edward, to desire the earle for
anie fraud or deceipt, or else seduced by blind auarice and loue of
monie, more than honestie, fidelitie, or wisedome would require, did
not consider what he vnaduisedlie did, or what he aduisedlie should
haue doone. Wherefore, with all diligence he sent foorth Peter Landoise
his chéefe treasuror, commanding him to intercept and slaie the earle
of Richmond, in all hast possible, as before you haue heard.

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl. ex. I. S. pag. 752._]

[Sidenote: Sir Iohn Crosbie his gift to the citie.]

¶ In this yeare deceassed sir Iohn Crosbie knight, (not long before
this, maior of London) and was buried in the parish church of saint
Helen in Bishops gate stréet, vnto the reparing of which parish church
he gaue fiue hundred marks, and thirtie pounds to be distributed to
poore housholders in the ward of Bishops gate: to the reparing of the
parish church at Heneworth in Middlesex fortie pounds: to the repairing
of London wall one hundred pounds: toward the making of a new tower
of stone at the southend of London bridge, if the same were begun by
the maior and communaltie within ten yeares next after his deceasse,
one hundred pounds: to the reparations of Rochester bridge ten pounds:
to euerie the prisons in and about London liberallie. Also he gaue to
the wardens and communaltie of the grocers in London two large pots of
siluer chased halfe guilt, weieng thirtéene pounds and fiue ounces of
Troie weight, to be occupied in their common hall, and elsewhere, at
their discretions.

[Sidenote: _I. S. pag._ 745.]

[Sidenote: Knights made by the king.]

[Sidenote: Litilton]

In this yeare were inhanced to the honour of knighthood, after the
custome of England, in the time of peace the kings eldest son Edward
prince of Wales, duke of Cornewall, and earle of Chester, his second
sonne the duke of Yorke, and with them the earle of Lincolnes sonne
and heire, the duke of Suffolke, the lord Thomas Greie, the quéenes
sonne, and Richard his brother, the earle of Shrewesburie, the earle of
Wilshire, master Edward Wooduile, the lord Neuill, the lord Barkleis
sonne and heire, the lord Audelies sonne and heire, the lord saint
Amand, the lord Stanleis sonne and heire, the lord Suttons sonne and
heire, the lord Hastings sonne and heire, the lord Ferrers of Charleis
sonne and heire, master Herbert brother to the earle of Penbroke,
master Vaughan Brian chiefe iudge, Litilton one of the iudges of the
common plées, master Bodringham, master Brian Stapleton, Kneuit,
Pilkinton, Ludlow, Charleton &c. The same daie the king created the
lord Thomas marquesse Dorset before dinner, and so in the habit of
a marquesse aboue the habit of his knighthood he began the table of
knights in saint Edwards chamber. At that time he ordeined that the
kings chamberleine should go with the ancient and well nurtered knight,
to aduertise and teach the order of knighthood to the esquiers, being
in the baine. The king himselfe came in person and did honour to all
the companie with his noble councell.

[Sidenote: 1476]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 16.]

[Sidenote: The death of the duke of Burgognie.]

This yeare the duke of Burgognie was slaine by the Switzers, before
the towne of Nancie in Lorraine, after whose death the French king wan
all the townes which the said duke held in Picardie and Artois. And
bicause that the towne of Bullen and countie of Bullenois apperteined
by right of inheritance vnto the lord Berthram de la Toure, earle of
Auuergne, the French king bought of him his right and title in the
same, and recompensed him with other lands in the countie of Forests,
and in other places. And bicause the forenamed towne and countie were
holden of the earledome of Artois he changed the tenure, and auowed to
hold the same towne & countie of our ladie of Bolongne and therof did
homage to the image in the great church of Bolongne, offering there an
hart of gold, weieng two thousand crownes; ordeining further, that his
heires and successors at their entrie into their estates, by themselues
or their deputies should offer an hart of like weight and value, as a
reliefe and homage for the same towne and countie.

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl. ex I. S. pag. 745._]

[Sidenote: Agnes Daintie on the pillorie.]

¶ This yeare was Robert Basset maior of London, who did sharpe
correction vpon bakers, for making of light bread, he caused diuerse of
them to be set on the pillorie in Cornehill. And also one Agnes Daintie
a butterwife for selling of butter new and old mingled togither, being
first trapped with butter dishes, was then set on the pillorie. ¶
The countesse of Oxford deceassed and was buried at Windsore. ¶ Also
this yeare Richard Rawson one of the shiriffes of London, caused to
be builded one house in the church yard of S. Marie hospitall without
Bishops gate of London, where the maior of that citie and his brethren
the aldermen vse to sit and heare the sermons in the Easter holiedaies,
as in times past appeared by an inscription on the front of the same
house, now by wethering defaced, which I haue read in these words:
Praie for the soules of Richard Rawson late Mercer and alderman of
London, and Isabell his wife, of whose goods this worke was made and
founded. Anno Dom. 1488.

[Sidenote: 1477]

[Sidenote: Part of L[=o]don wall new builded.]

[Sidenote: _Iohn Rouse._]

[Sidenote: Bishops gate new builded.]

By the diligence of Ralph Iosseline maior of London the wall about
London was new made betwixt Algate and Creplegate: he caused the Moore
field to be searched for claie, and bricke to be made and burnt there:
he also caused chalke to be brought out of Kent, and in the same Moore
field to be burnt into lime, for the furtherance of that worke. The
maior with his companie of the drapers made all that part betwixt
Bishops gate and Alhalowes church in the same wall. Bishops gate it
selfe was new built by the merchants Almans of the Stilliard, and
from Alhalowes church toward Moore gate a great part of the same was
builded of the goods, & by the executors of sir Iohn Crosbie somtimes
an alderman of London, as may appeare by his armes in two places fixed.
The companie of Skinners made that part of the wall betweene Algate
and Buries markes towards Bishops gate, as may appeare by their armes
in thrée places fixed: the other companies of the citie made the other
deale of the said wall, which was a great worke to be doone in one

[Sidenote: Burdet for a word spoken beheaded.]

[Sidenote: _Enguerant._]

[Sidenote: Register of the Greie friers.]

Also this yeare Thomas Burdet an esquier of Arrow in Warwikeshire,
sonne to sir Nicholas Burdet (who was great butler of Normandie in
Henrie the sixt daies) was beheaded for a word spoken in this sort.
King Edward in his progresse hunted in Thomas Burdets parke at Arrow,
and slue manie of his deere, amongst the which was a white bucke,
whereof Thomas Burdet made great account. And therefore when he
vnderstood thereof, he wished the buckes head in his bellie that mooued
the king to kill it. Which tale being told to the king, Burdet was
apprehended and accused of treason, for wishing the buckes head (hornes
and all) in the kings bellie: he was condemned, drawne from the Tower
of London to Tiburne, and there beheaded, and then buried in the Greie
friers church at London. Wherefore it is good counsell that the wiseman
giueth, saieng: Kéepe thy toong & kéepe thy life, for manie times we
sée, that spéech offendeth & procureth mischéefe, where silence is
author neither of the one nor the other, as it is trulie and in praise
of silence spoken by the poet:

    ----nulli tacuisse nocet, nocet esse loquutum.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 17.]

[Sidenote: George duke of Clarence drowned in a butt of malmesie.]

About this season, through great mishap, the sparke of priuie malice
was newlie kindled betwixt the king and his brother the duke of
Clarence, insomuch that where one of the dukes seruants was suddenlie
accused (I can not saie whether of truth, or vntrulie suspected by
the dukes enimies) of poisoning, sorcerie or inchantment, and thereof
condemned, and put to execution for the same; the duke which might not
suffer the wrongfull condemnation of his man (as he in his conscience
iudged) nor yet forbeare but to murmur and reproue the dooing thereof,
mooued the king with his dailie exclamation to take such displeasure
with him, that finallie the duke was cast into the Tower, and therewith
adiudged for a traitor, and priuilie drowned in a butt of malmesie,
the eleuenth of March, in the beginning of the seuententh yeare of the
kings reigne.

[Sidenote: Prophesies diuelish fantasies.]

Some haue reported, that the cause of this noble mans death rose of a
foolish prophesie, which was, that after K. Edward one should reigne,
whose first letter of his name should be a G. Wherewith the king and
quéene were sore troubled and began to conceiue a gréeuous grudge
against this duke, and could not be in quiet till they had brought him
to his end. And as the diuell is woont to incumber the minds of men
which delite in such diuelish fantasies, they said afterward, that
that prophesie lost not his effect, when after king Edward, Glocester
vsurped his kingdome. Other alledged, that the cause of his death was
for that the duke, being destitute of a wife, by the meanes of his
sister the ladie Margaret, duchesse of Burgognie, procured to haue the
ladie Marie, daughter and heire to hir husband duke Charles.

Which marriage king Edward (enuieng the prosperitie of his brother)
both gaine said and disturbed, and thereby old malice reuiued betwixt
them: which the quéene and hir bloud (euer mistrusting, and priuilie
barking at the kings linage) ceassed not to increase. But sure it
is, that although king Edward were consenting to his death; yet he
much did both lament his infortunate chance, & repent his sudden
execution: insomuch that when anie person sued to him for the pardon of
malefactors condemned to death, he would accustomablie saie, & openlie
speake: "Oh infortunate brother, for whose life not one would make
sute." Openlie and apparantlie meaning by such words that by the meanes
of some of the nobilitie he was deceiued and brought to confusion.

[Sidenote: Edward erle of Warwike sonne & heire to George duke of

[Sidenote: Margaret duchesse of Salisburie.]

This duke left behind him two yoong infants begot of the bodie of his
wife, the daughter of Richard late earle of Warwike: which children by
destinie as it were, or by their owne merits, following the steps of
their ancestors, succéeded them in like misfortune and semblable euill
chance. For Edward his heire, whome king Edward had created earle of
Warwike was thrée and twentie yeares after, in the time of Henrie the
seauenth, atteinted of treason, and on the Tower hill lost his head.
Margaret his sole daughter maried to sir Richard Pole knight, and by
Henrie the eight restored to the name, title, & possessions of the
earldome of Salisburie, was at length for treason committed against
the said Henrie the eight atteinted in open parlement; and sixtie two
yeares after hir father had suffered death in the Tower, she on the
gréene within the same place was beheaded. In whose person died the
verie surname of Plantagenet, which from Geffrie Plantagenet so long in
the bloud roiall of this realme had florished and continued.

[Sidenote: A great pestilence.]

After the death of this duke, by reason of great heat and distemperance
of aire, happened so fierce & quicke a pestilence, that fiftéene
yeares warre past consumed not the third part of the people, that
onelie foure moneths miserablie and pitifullie dispatched & brought
to their graues. So that if the number had béene kept by multiplieng
of vnities, & out of them to haue raised a complet number, it would
haue mooued matter of verie great admiration. But it should séeme that
they were infinit, if consideration he had of the comparison, inferred
for the more effectuall setting foorth of that cruell and ceaselesse
contagion. And suerlie it soundeth to reason, that the pestilence
should fetch awaie so manie thousands, as in iudgement by proportion
of fiftéene yeares warre one maie gather; and manie more too. For
euerie man knoweth that in warres, time, place, persons, and meanes are
limited: time of warre begun and ended; place circumscribed; persons
imbattelled, and weapons also whereby the fight is tried: so that all
these haue their limitations, beyond which they haue no extent. But the
pestilence, being a generall infection of the aire, an element ordeined
to mainteine life, though it haue a limitation in respect of the totall
compasse of the world; yet whole climats maie be poisoned: and it
were not absurd to saie, that all and euerie part of the aire maie be
pestilentlie corrupted; and so consequentlie not limited: wherefore
full well it maie be said of the pestilence (procuring so great a
depopulation) as one saith of surfetting:

[Sidenote: _Auson._]

    Ense cadunt multi, perimit sed crapula plures.

[Sidenote: 1478]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 18.]

The councellors of the yoong duchesse of Burgognie sent to K. Edward
for aid against the French king. About the same time had the queene
of England sent to the ladie Margaret duchesse of Burgognie, for the
preferrement of hir brother Anthonie erle Riuers to the yoong damsell.
But the councell of Flanders, considering that he was but an earle of
meane estate, and she the greatest inheritrice of all christendome at
that time, gaue but deafe eare to so vnméet a request. To which desire,
if the Flemings had but giuen a liking eare by outward semblance, and
with gentle words delaied the sute, she had beene both succoured and
defended. Whether king Edward was not contented with this refusall, or
that he was loth to breake with the French king, he would in no wise
consent to send an armie into Flanders against the French king: but yet
he sent ambassadours to him with louing and gentle letters, requiring
him to grow to some reasonable order & agréement with the yoong
duchesse of Burgognie, or at the least to take a truce with hir at his

The ambassadours of England were highlie receiued, bountifullie
feasted, and liberallie rewarded, but answer to their desire had
they none; sauing that shortlie after, the French king would send
ambassadours, hostages, and pledges to the king of England their
maister, for the perfecting and concluding of all things depending
betweene them two; so that their souereigne lord & they should haue
cause to be contented and pleased. These faire words were onelie
delaies to driue time, vntill he might haue space to spoile the yoong
damsell of hir townes and countries. And beside this, to staie king
Edward from taking part with hir, he wrote to him, that if he would
ioine with him in aid, he should haue and inioie to him and his heires
the whole countie & countrie of Flanders, discharged of homage,
superioritie and resort, to be claimed by the French king, or his

[Sidenote: Large offers made to the king of England by the French king.]

He also wrote that he should haue the whole duchie of Brabant, whereof
the French king offered at his owne cost and charge to conquer foure
of the chiefest and strongest townes within the said duchie, & them in
quiet possession to deliuer to the king of England: granting further
to paie him ten thousand angels toward his charges, with munitions
of warre and artillerie, which he promised to lend him, with men and
carriage for the conueiance of the same. The king of England refused
to make anie warres against those countries that were thus offered to
him: but if the French king would make him partner of his conquest
in Picardie, rendering to him part of the townes alreadie gotten, as
Bologne, Monsterell, and Abuile, then he would suerlie take his part,
and aid him with men at his owne costs and charges.

[Sidenote: 1479]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 19]

Thus passed faire words and golden promises betwéene these two princes:
and in the meane time the yoong duchesse of Burgognie was spoiled of
hir townes, castels & territories, till at length for maintenance
she condescended to marrie with Maximilian sonne to the emperour
Frederike, that he might kéepe the woolfe from the fold. King Edward
in the ninetéenth yeare of his reigne began (more than he was before
accustomed) to serch the forfeiture of penall lawes and statutes,
as well of the chéefe of his nobilitie as of other gentlemen, being
proprietaries of great possessions, or abundantlie furnished with
goods; likewise of merchants, and other inferior persons. By reason
whereof, it was of all men iudged that he would proue hereafter a sore
and a rigorous prince among his subiects. But this his new inuented
practise and couetous meaning (by reason of forreine aifaires and
abridgement of his dales in this transitorie life, which were within
two yeares after consumed) tooke some (but not great) effect.

[Sidenote: _Abr. fl. ex I.S. pag. 747, 748._]

[Sidenote: Pestilence.]

[Sidenote: Vnaduised & vnséemelie demeanor punished with a fine.]

[Sidenote: Conduit in Cheape builded.]

¶ In this yeare was great mortalitie and death by the pestilence, not
onelie in London, but in diuerse parts of the realme, which began
in the latter end of September in the yeare last before passed, and
continued all this yeare till the beginning of Nouember, which was
about fourtéene moneths: in the which space died innumerable of
people in the said citie & elsewhere. ¶ This yeare also the maior of
London being in Paules, knéeling in his deuotions at saint Erkenwalds
shrine, Robert Bifield one of the shiriffes vnaduisedlie knéeled downe
nigh vnto the maior: whereof afterward the maior charged him to haue
doone more than becomed him. But the shiriffe answering rudelie and
stubbornlie, would not acknowledge to haue commited anie offense: for
the which he was afterward by a court of aldermen fined at fiftie
pounds to be paid toward the reparations of the conduits in London,
which was trulie paid. ¶ This yeare Thomas Ilam one of the shirifs of
London newlie builded the great conduit in Cheape, of his owne charges.
¶ This yeare also king Edward began his Christmasse at Waking, and at
fiue daies end remooued to Gréenewich, where he kept out the other part
of his Christmasse with great roialtie.

[Sidenote: 1480]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 20.]

Ambassadours were sent to and fro betwixt the king of England and
France, and still the French king fed the king of England with faire
words, putting him in hope to match his sonne and heire the Dolphin
with the ladie Elizabeth daughter to the king of England, according to
the conclusions of agréement had and made at Picquenie betwixt them,
although in verie déed he meant nothing lesse. His ambassadours euer
made excuses if anie thing were amisse, and he vsed to send change of
ambassadours; so that if those which had béene here before, and were
returned, had said or promised anie thing (though they were authorised
so to doo) which might turne to their masters hinderance, the other
that came after, might excuse themselues by ignorance of that matter;
affirming that they wanted commission once to talke or meddle with that
matter: or if he perceiued that anie thing was like to be concluded
contrarie to his mind, for a shift he would call his ambassadours home
in great hast, and after send an other with new instructions nothing
depending on the old.

[Sidenote: The French king féedeth the king of England with faire words
and promises.]

Thus the French king vsed to dallie with king Edward in the case of
this mariage, onelie to kéepe him still in amitie. And certeinelie
the king of England, being a man of no suspicious nature, thought
sooner that the sunne should haue fallen from his circle, than that
the French king would haue dissembled or broken promise with him.
But there is none so soone beguiled, as he that least mistrusteth;
nor anie so able to decieue, as he to whome most credence is giuen.
But as in mistrusting nothing, is great lightnesse; so in too much
trusting, is to much follie: which well appeared in this matter. For
the French king, by cloking his inward determinate purpose with great
dissimulation and large promises, kept him still in fréendship with
the king of England, till he had wrought a great part of his will
against the yoong duchesse of Burgognie. Which king Edward would not
haue suffered, if he had put anie great doubt in the French kings faire
promises, considering that the crowne of France was in this meane time
so much increased in dominions, to the great re-enforcement of that

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl. ex I. S. pag. 746, 749._]

[Sidenote: Fiue théeues for sacrilege seuerelie executed.]

¶ On the two and twentith of Februarie were fiue notable théeues put
to death, for robbing the church called saint Martins le grand in
London, and other places; thrée of them were drawne to the Tower hill,
hanged & burnt, the other two were pressed to death. A sore and seuere
kind of execution no doubt, but yet thought by iustice meritorious
in the malefactors, for their offences of sacrelege. Heinous enough
had it beene to spoile a priuat man of his goods, and by law of
nations punishable with death; but much more horrible, that prophane
persons with polluted hands should priuilie or openlie so touch holie
& consecrated things, as to take them out of a sacred place, whereto
(for holy vses) they were dedicated, & applie them to the satisfieng of
the corrupt concupiscences of their owne hearts, the bottomlesse gulfe
whereof bicause no booties nor spoiles could satisfie; it stood with
the high praise of iustice that they and their ceaselesse desires were
seuered by deserued death; wherefore it is wiselie said by the comicall
poet of such gréedie guts:

[Sidenote: _Plaut. in Rud._]

    Quam quis auidus poscit escam auariter,
    Decipitur in transenna perítque auaritia.

[Sidenote: _Scala temporum._]

In this yeare king Edward required great sums of monie to be lent him.
The citizens of London granted him fiue thousand marks, which were
seized of the fiue and twentie wards: which fiue thousand marks was
trulie repaid againe in the next yeare following. ¶ Also this yeare on
Whitsundaie K. Edward the fourth created the lord Berkleie, vicount
Berkeleie, at Gréenewich. ¶ In this yeare also an house on London
bridge called the common siege, or priuie, fell downe into the Thames,
where thorough it fiue persons were drowned. ¶ This yeare the king with
his quéene kept a roiall Christmas at Windsor.

[Sidenote: The king feasteth the maior and aldermen.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian pag. 512._]

Also this yéere was one Richard Chawrie maior of London, whome king
Edward so greatlie fauoured, that he tooke him (with certeine of his
brethren the aldermen, & commons of the citie of London) into the
forrest of Waltham, where was ordeined for them a pleasant lodge of
gréene boughs, in which lodge they dined with great chéere; & the king
would not go to dinner vntill he saw them serued. Moreouer he caused
the lord chamberlaine, with other lords, to cheere the said maior and
his companie sundrie times whilest they were at dinner. After dinner
they went a hunting with the king, and slue manie deare, as well red
as fallow, whereof the king gaue vnto the maior and his companie good
plentie, and sent vnto the ladie mairesse and hir sisters the aldermens
wiues, two harts, six bucks, and a tun of wine to make them merrie
with, which was eaten in the drapers hall. The cause of which bountie
thus shewed by the king, was (as most men did take) for that the
maior was a merchant of woonderous aduentures into manie and sundrie
countries. By reason whereof, the king had yearelie of him notable
summes of monie for his customes, beside other pleasures that he had
shewed vnto the king before times. ¶ This yéere the Scots began to
stir, against whom the king sent the duke of Glocester & manie others,
which returned againe without any notable battell.

[Sidenote: Ambassadors foorth of Scotland.]

In this verie season Iames the third of that name king of Scots sent
into England a solemne ambassage for to haue the ladie Cicilie, king
Edwards second daughter, to be married to his eldest sonne Iames,
prince of Scotland, duke of Rothsaie, and earle of Caricke. King
Edward and his councell, perceiuing that this affinitie should be both
honourable and profitable to the realme, did not onelie grant to his
desire; but also before hand disbursed certeine summes of monie, to the
onelie intent that the marriage hereafter should neither be hindered
nor broken. With this condition, that if the said mariage by anie
accidentall meane should in time to come take none effect; or that king
Edward would notifie to the king of Scots, or his councell, that his
pleasure was determined to haue the said marriage dissolued: then the
prouost and merchants of the towne of Edenburgh, should be bound for
repaiment of the said summes againe. All which things were with great
deliberation concluded, passed, and sealed, in hope of continuall peace
and indissoluble amitie.

But king Iames was knowne to be a man so wedded to his owne opinion,
that he could not abide them that would speake contrarie to his fansie:
by meanes whereof, he was altogither led by the counsell and aduise
of men of base linage, whome for their flatterie he had promoted vnto
great dignities and honourable offices. By which persons diuerse of
the nobilitie of his realme were greatlie misused and put to trouble,
both with imprisonment, exactions, & death; insomuch that some of them
went into voluntarie exile. Amongst whome Alexander duke of Albanie,
brother to king Iames, being exiled into France, & passing through
England, taried with K. Edward: and vpon occasion mooued him to make
warre against his brother, the said king Iames, for that he forgetting
his oth, promise, and affinitie concluded with king Edward, caused his
subiects to make roads and forraies into the English borders, spoiling,
burning, and killing king Edwards liege people.

[Sidenote: Preparations for warre against Scotland.]

[Sidenote: 1482]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 22.]

[Sidenote: An armie sent into Scotland.]

King Edward, not a little displeased with this vnprincelie dooing,
prouoked and set on also by the duke of Albanie, determined to inuade
Scotland with an armie, as well to reuenge his owne injuries receiued
at the hands of King Iames, as to helpe to restore the duke of Albanie
vnto his countrie and possessions againe. Herevpon all the Winter
season he mustered his men, prepared his ordinance, rigged his ships,
and left nothing vnprouided for such a iournie: so that in the begining
of the yeare, all things appertaining to the warre, and necessarie for
his voiage, were in a readinesse. To be the cheefteine of his hoast,
and lieutenant generall, Richard duke of Glocester was appointed by his
brother king Edward; and with him were adioined as associats, Henrie
the fourth earle of Northumberland, Thomas lord Stanleie lord steward
of the kings house, the lord Louell, the lord Greiestocke, and diuerse
other noblemen and worthie knights.

These valiant capteins came to Alnewike in Northumberland, about the
beginning of Iulie, where they first incamped themselues, & marshalled
their hoast. The fore-ward was led by the earle of Northumberland,
vnder whose standard were the lord Scroope of Bolton, sir Iohn
Middleton, sir Iohn Dichfield, and diuerse other knights, esquiers, &
souldiers, to the number of six thousand and seauen hundred. In the
midle-ward was the duke of Glocester, and with him the duke of Albanie,
the lord Louell, the lord Greiestocke, sir Edward Wooduile, and other,
to the number of fiue thousand & eight hundred men. The lord Neuill was
appointed to follow, accompanied with thrée thousand. The lord Stanleie
led the wing on the right hand of the dukes battell with foure thousand
men of Lancashire & Cheshire. The lord Fitz Hugh, sir William a Parre,
sir Iames Harrington, with the number of two thosand souldiers, guided
the left wing. And beside all these, there were one thousand appointed
to giue their attendance on the ordinance.

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl. ex I. S. pag. 749._]

[Sidenote: Creplegate builded.]

[Sidenote: _Records._]

¶ In this yeare Edmund Shaw goldsmith and maior of London newlie
builded Creplegate from the foundation, which gate in old time had bene
a prison, wherevnto such citizens and other as were arrested for debt
(or like trespasses) were committed, as they be now to the counters,
as maie appear by a writ of king Edward the second, in these words:
Rex vic' London salutem. Ex graui querela capti & detenti in prisona
nostra de Creplegate, prox. li. quas coram Radulpho Sandwico, tunc
custode ciuitatis nostræ London, & I. de Blackewell custode recognit.
debitorum, &c. King Edward held his Christmas at Eltham, and kept his
estate all the whole feast in his great chamber; and the quéene in hir
chamber, where were dailie more than two thousand persons. The same
yeare on Candlemas day, he with his quéene went on procession from
saint Stephans chappell into Westminster hall, accompanied with the
earle of Angus, the lord Greie, & sir Iames Liddall, ambassadors from
Scotland. And at his procéeding out of his chamber he made sir Iohn
Wood vnder-treasuror of England, & sir William Catesbie one of the
iustices of the c[=o]mon plées, knights.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 23.]

[Sidenote: 1483.]

[Sidenote: Berwike woone by the Englishmen.]

But to returne to the kings affaires concerning Scotland. The roiall
armie aforesaid not intending to lose time, came suddenlie by the water
side to the towne of Berwike, and there (what with force, and what
with feare of so great an armie) tooke and entered the towne: but the
earle of Bothwell, being capteine of the castell, would in no wise
deliuer it; wherfore the capteines, vpon good and deliberate aduise,
planted a strong siege round about it. When this siege was laid, the
two dukes and all the other souldiers (except the lord Stanleie, sir
Iohn Eldrington treasurer of the kings house, sir William a Parre, and
foure thousand men that were left behind to keepe the siege before
the castell) departed from Berwike toward Edenburgh; and in marching
thitherward, they burnt and destroied manie townes and bastiles. King
Iames hauing small confidence in his communaltie, and lesse trust in
his nobilitie, kept himselfe within the castell of Edenburgh.

The duke of Glocester entered into the towne, and at the especiall
desire of the duke of Albanie saued the towne, and the inhabitants
from fire, bloud, and spoile, taking onelie of the merchants, such
presents as they gentlie offered to him and his capteins, causing
Gartier principall king at armes to make a publike proclamation at the
high crosse in the market place of Edenburgh; by the which he warned
and admonished king Iames, to kéepe, obserue, and performe, all such
promises, compacts, couenants, and agréements, as he had concluded and
sealed with the king of England, and also to make sufficient recompense
vnto his subiects, for the tyrannic, spoile, and crueltie which he and
his people had committed and doone, contrarie to the league, within the
marches of his realme of England, before the first daie of August next
insuing: and further without delaie to restore his brother the duke of
Albanie to his estate, & all his possessions, offices, and authorities,
in as large maner as he occupied & inioied the same before. Or else
the duke of Glocester, lieutenant generall for the king of England,
was readie at hand to destroie him, his people, and countries, with
slaughter, flame, and famine.

King Iames would make no answer, neither by word nor writing, but kept
himselfe close within the castell. But the lords of Scotland lieng at
Hadington with a great puissance, determined first to practise with
the duke of Glocester for a peace, and after by some meanes to allure
the duke of Albanie from the English amitie. And vpon this motion, the
second daie of August they wrote to the duke of Glocester, requiring
that the mariage betwéene the prince of Scotland, and king Edwards
daughter might be accomplished, according to the couenants: and
further, that a peace from thencefoorth might be louinglie concluded
betwéene both the realmes. The duke of Glocester answered againe vnto
these demands; that for the article of the mariage, he knew not the
king his brothers determinate pleasure, either for the affirmance or
deniall of the same; but neuerthelesse he desired full restitution of
all the sums of monie prested out in lone vpon the same mariage. And
as for peace, he assured them that he wold agrée to none, except the
castell of Berwike might be to him deliuered; or at the least wise,
that he should vndertake that the siege lieng afore the same should not
be troubled by the king of Scots, nor by anie of his subiects, nor by
his or their procurement or meanes.

[Sidenote: The bishiop elect of Murreie sent to the duke of Glocester.]

The Scotish lords, vpon this answer and demands of the duke of
Glocester, sent to him the elect of Murreie, and the lord Dernleie,
which excused the matter touching the repaiment of the monie: for that
the time of the lawfull contract of the said marriage was not yet come,
and no daie appointed for the monie to be paied before the contract
begun. But for further assurance either for the contract to be made,
or for the paiment of the monie, they promised therevnto accordinglie
(as reason should require) to agrée. Secondarilie, as touching the
castell of Berwike, they alledged, that it apperteined to the realme of
Scotland, as the old inheritance of the same.

The duke, notwithstanding all that they could saie, would agrée to no
peace, except the castell of Berwike might be deliuered to the K. of
England. And so the messengers departed. The same daie the archbishop
of S. Andrews, the bishop of Dunkeld, Colin earle of Argile, lord
Campbell, and lord Andrew lord of Anandale chancellor of Scotland,
wrote to the duke of Albanie, a solemne and an autenticall instrument,
signed and sealed with their hands and seales, concerning a generall
pardon to him and his servants, vpon certeine conditions to be
granted; which conditions seemed to be so reasonable, that the duke of
Albanie, desirous to be restored to his old estate, possessions, and
natiue countrie, willinglie accepted the same.

[Sidenote: The duke of Albanie restored home.]

[Sidenote: He is created great lieutenant of Scotland.]

But before he departed from the duke of Glocester, he promised both
by word and writing of his owne hand, to doo and performe all such
things, as he before that time had sworne and promised to king Edward:
notwithstanding anie agréement now made, or after to be made with
the lords of Scotland. And for performance of the effect hereof, he
againe tooke a corporall oth, and sealed the writing before the duke
of Glocester, in the English campe at Leuington besides Hadington,
the third daie of August, in the yeare 1482. After he was restored,
the lords of Scotland proclamed him great lieutenant of Scotland; and
in the kings name made proclamation, that all men within eight daies
should be readie at Craushaus, both to raise the siege before the
castell, and for the recouering againe of the towne of Berwike.

The duke of Albanie wrote all this preparation to the duke of
Glocester, requiring him to haue no mistrust in his dealings. The duke
of Glocester wrote to him againe his mind verie roundlie, promising
that he with his armie would defend the besiegers from all enimies
that should attempt to trouble them, or else die in the quarell. To
be briefe, when the lords of Scotland saw that it booted them not to
assaie the raising of the siege, except they should make account to be
fought withall, they determined to deliuer the castell of Berwike to
the Englishmen, so that therevpon there might be an abstinence of warre
taken for a season.

And herewith they sent to the duke of Glocester a charter indented,
which was dated the foure and twentith daie of August, in the said
yeare 1482 contracted betwéene the duke of Glocester lieutenant
generall for the king of England, & Alexander duke of Albanie
lieutenant for Iames king of Scots; that an especiall abstinence of
warre should be kept betwixt the realmes of England and Scotland, as
well by sea as by land, to begin the eighth daie of September next
comming, & to indure till the fourth daie of Nouember next following.
And in the same season, the towne & castell of Berwike to be occupied
and remaine in the reall possession of such, as by the king of Englands
deputie should be appointed.

[Sidenote: The castell of Berwike deliuered.]

Herevnto the duke of Glocester agreed, and so then was the castell of
Berwike deliuered to the lord Stanleie, and other thereto appointed;
who therein put both Englishmen and artillerie, sufficient to defend it
against all Scotland, for six months. The duke of Albanie also caused
the prouost and burgesses of Edenburgh, to make a sufficient instrument
obligatorie to king Edward, for the true satisfaction and contentation
of the same monie, which he also sent by the said prouost to the duke
of Glocester to Alnewike; the verie copie whereof hereafter followeth.

The true copie of the said instrument obligatorie.

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl. ex Edw. Hall. fol._ Ccxlvj.]

Be it knowne to all men by these present letters, vs Walter Bertraham,
prouost of the towne of Edenburgh in Scotland, and the whole
fellowship, merchants, burgesses, & communaltie of the same towne, to
be bound and obliged by these presents, vnto the most excellent, and
most mightie prince Edward, by the grace of God king of England. That
where it was communed and agreed betweene his excellencie on the one
part, and the right high & mightie prince our souereigne lord, Iames
king of Scots on the other part, that mariage and matrimonie should
haue beene solemnized and had betwixt a mightie and excellent prince
Iames the first begotten sonne and heire apparent to our souereigne
lord aforesaid, & the right noble princesse Cicilie, daughter to the
said Edward K. of England; and for the said mariage to haue beene
performed, certeine and diuerse great summes of monie bene paid and
contented by the most excellent prince, vnto our souereigne lord
aforesaid, as by certeine writings betwixt the said princes therevpon
made more at large plainlie appeares.

That if it be the pleasure of the said Edward king of England, to
haue the said mariage to be performed and completed, according to
the said communication in writing, that then it shall be well and
trulie, without fraud, deceipt, or collusion obserued, kept, and
accomplished on the partie of our souereigne lord aforesaid, & the
nobles spirituall and temporall of the realme of Scotland. And if it be
not the pleasure of the said excellent prince Edward king of England,
to haue the said mariage performed and completed; that then we Walter,
prouost, burgesses, merchants, and commons of the aboue named towne of
Edenburgh, or anie of vs, shall paie and content to the king of England
aforesaid, all the summes of monie that was paied for the said mariage,
at such like termes & daies immediatlie insuing after the refusall of
the said mariage, and in such like maner & forme as the said summes
were afore deliuered, contented and paied; that then this obligation
and bond to be void, and of no strength. Prouided alwaies, that the
said Edward king of England, shall giue knowledge of his pleasure and
election in the premisses in taking or refusing of the said mariage, or
of repaiment of the said sums of monie, to our said souereigne lord, or
lords of his councell, or to vs the said prouost, merchants, or any of
vs, within the realme of Scotland, being for the time, betwixt this &
the feast of Alhalowes next to come.

To the which paiment well and trulie to be made, we bind and oblige vs,
& euerie of vs, our heires, successors, executors, and all our goods,
merchandizes, & things what soeuer they be, where soeuer, or in what
place, by water or by land, on this side the sea or beyond, we shall
happen to be found, anie league, anie truce or safegard made or to be
made, notwithstanding. In witnesse whereof to this our present writing,
and letters of bond, we, the said prouost, burgesses, merchants, and
communitie, haue set our common seale of the said towne of Edenburgh,
the fourth daie of Aueust, the yeare of our Lord God, 1482. Giuen in
the presence of the right miehtie prince Richard duke of Glocester,
Alexander duke of Albanie, the reuerend father in God Iames bishop of
Dunkeld, & the right noble lord Henrie earle of Northumberland, Colin
earle of Argile, Thomas lord Stanleie, maister Alexander English, and
others, &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: Gartier king of armes is sent into Scotland.]

So that you see it was conteined in the said instrument or writing,
that king Edward should intimate his pleasure vnto the said prouost and
burgesses of Edenburgh, before the feast of Alsaints next following,
whether he would the mariage should take place, or that he would haue
the paiment of the monie. According to which article, king Edward
sent Gartier his principall king of armes, and Northumberland herald,
to declare his refusall of the mariage, and the election and choise
of the repaiment of the monie. They came to Edenburgh eight daies
before the feast of Alsaints, where (according to their commission and
instructions) Gartier declared the pleasure of the king his maister
vnto the prouost and burgesses of Edenburgh, to whom he openlie said as

The intimation of Gartier king of armes to the Edenburghers.

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl. ex Edw. Hall. fol._ Ccxlvij.]

I Gartier king of armes, seruant, proctour and messenger vnto the most
high and mightie prince, my most dread souereigne lord Edward, by the
grace of God king of England and of France, and lord of Ireland, by
vertue of certeine letters of procuracie here readie to be shewed to
me, by my said souereigne lord made and giuen, make notice and giue
knowledge vnto you prouost, burgesses, merchants and communaltie
of the towne of Edenburgh in Scotland, that whereas it was sometime
communed and agreed betweene my said souereigne lord on the one partie,
and the right high & mightie prince Iames king of Scots on the other
partie, that mariage and matrimonie should haue beene solemnized, and
had betweene Iames the first begotten sonne of the said king of Scots,
and ladie Cicilie, daughter to my said souereigne lord the king of

And for the said mariage to haue been performed, certeine and diuers
great sums of monie beene paied and contented by my said souereigne
lord, which summes of monie, in case of refusall of the said mariage,
by my said souereigne lord to be made and declared, yée the said
prouost, burgesses, merchants, and communaltie, and euerie one of you
are bound and obliged by your letters, vnder your common seale of your
towne of Edenburgh, to repaie vnto his highness vnder like forme, & at
such termes as they were first paied. So that the king my souereigne
lord would make notice and knowledge of his pleasure and election in
taking or refusing of the said mariage, of the repaiment of the said
sums of monie, before the feast of Alhalowes next to come; like as in
your said letters, bearing date at Edenburgh the fourth daie of August
last past, it was conteined all at large.

The pleasure and election of my said souereigne lord, for diuerse
causes and considerations him moouing, is to refuse the accomplishment
of the said mariage, and to haue the repaiment of all such summes of
monie, as (by occasion of the said betrusted mariage) his highnesse
had paied. The said repaiment to be had of you prouost, burgesses,
merchants, and communaltie, and euerie of you, your heires and
successours, according to your bond and obligation afore rehearsed.
And therefore I giue you notice & knowledge by this writing, which I
deliuer vnto you, within the terme in your said letters limited and
expressed, to all intents and effects, which thereof may insue.

       *       *       *       *       *

When Gartier had thus declared all things giuen to him in charge, the
prouost and other burgesses made answer, that they now knowing the
kings determinat pleasure, would (according to their bond) prepare for
the repaiment of the said summes; and gentlie interteining Gartier
conueied him to Berwike, from whence he departed to Newcastell, to the
duke of Glocester, making relation to him of all his dooings: which
duke with all speed returned to Shrithuton, and there abode. Shortlie
after Gartiers departing, the duke of Albanie, thinking to obteine
againe the high fauour of the king his brother, deliuered him out
of captiuitie and prison, wherin he had a certeine space continued
(not without the dukes assent, which besieged him in the castell of
Edenburgh a little before) and set him at large, of whome outwardlie he
receiued great thanks, when inwardlie nothing but reuenging & confusion
was in the kings stomach fullie setled. So that shortlie after in the
kings presence he was in ieopardie of his life, and all vnprouided
for dread of death, constrained to take a small balinger, and to
saile into France, where shortlie after riding by the men of armes,
which incountered at the tilt, by Lewes then duke of Orleance, after
French king, he was with mischarging of a speare by fortunes peruerse
countenance pitifullie slaine and brought to death, leauing after him
one onelie son named Iohn, which being banished Scotland, inhabited and
maried in France, and there died.

How dolorous, how sorrowfull is it to write, and much more painefull
to remember the chances and infortunities that happened within two
yeares in England and Scotland, betwéene naturall brethren. For king
Edward, set on by such as enuied the estate of the duke of Clarence,
forgetting nature and brotherlie amitie, consented to the death of
his said brother. Iames king of Scots, putting in obliuion that
Alexander his brother was the onelie organ and instrument, by whome he
obteined libertie & fréedome, seduced and led by vile and malicious
persons, which maligned at the glorie and indifferent iustice of the
duke of Albanie, imagined and compassed his death, and exiled him for
euer. What a pernicious serpent, what a venemous toade, and what a
pestiferous scorpion is that diuelish whelpe, called priuie enuie.
Against it no fortresse can defend, no caue can hide, no wood can
shadow, no fowle can escape, nor no beast can auoid. Hir poison is so
strong, that neuer man in authoritie could escape from the biting of
hir téeth, scratching of hir pawes, blasting of hir breth, & filth of
hir taile. Notable therefore is the Gréeke epigram in this behalfe,
touching enuie of this kind, which saith, that a worsse thing than
enuie there is not in the world, and yet hath it some goodnesse in it:
for it consumeth the eies and the hart of the enuious. The words in
their owne toong sententiouslie sound thus:

    ®ho phthonos esi kakiston, echei de ti kalon en autô,
    têka gar phthondrôn ommata kai kradian®

Although king Edward reioised that his businesse came to so good
a conclusion with the Scots, yet he was about the same time sore
disquieted in his mind towards the French king, whome he now perceiued
to haue dallied with him, as touching the agreement of the mariage
to be had betwixt the Dolphin and his daughter the ladie Elizabeth.
For the lord Howard, being as then returned out of France, certified
the king (of his owne knowledge) how that he being present, saw the
ladie Margaret of Austrich daughter to duke Maximilian, sonne to the
emperor Frederike, receiued into France with great pompe and roialtie,
and at Ambois to the Dolphin contracted and espoused. King Edward
highlie displeased with such double and vniust dealing of the French
king, called his nobles togither, and opened to them his gréefes; who
promised him for redresse thereof, to be readie with all their powers
to make warres in France at his pleasure and appointment.

But whilest he was busie in hand to make his purueiance for warres
thus against France, whether it was with melancholie and anger, which
he tooke with the French kings dooings and vncourteous vsage; or were
it by any superfluous surfet (to the which he was verie much giuen) he
suddenlie fell sicke, and was so gréeuouslie taken, that in the end
he perceiued his naturall strength in such wise to decaie, that there
was little hope of recouerie in the cunning of his physicians, whome
he perceiued onlie to prolong his life for a small time. Wherefore he
began to make readie for his passage into another world, not forgetting
(as after shall appeare) to exhort the nobles of his realme (aboue all
things) to an vnitie among themselues. And hauing (as he tooke it) made
an attonement betwixt the parties that were knowne to be scant freends,
he commended vnto their graue wisedoms the gouernment of his sonne the
prince, and of his brother the duke of Yorke, during the time of their
tender yeares. But it shall not be amisse to adde in this place the
words which he is said to haue spoken on his death-bed, which were in
effect as followeth.

The words of king Edward vttered by him on his death-bed.

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl. ex Edw. Hall. fol._ Ccxlviij. Ccxlix.]

My welbeloued and no lesse betrusted fréends, councellors, and alies,
if we mortall men would dailie and hourlie with our selues reuolue,
and intentiuelie in our hearts ingraue, or in our minds seriouslie
ponder, the fraile and fading imbecillitie of our humane nature, and
the vnstablenesse of the same: we should apparantlie perceiue, that we
being called reasonable creatures, and in that predicament compared
and ioined with angels, be more worthie to be named and déemed persons
vnreasonable, and rather to be associate in that name with brute beasts
called vnreasonable (of whose life and death no creature speaketh)
rather than in that point to be resembled to the angelicall societie
and reasonable companie.

For while health in vs florisheth, or prosperitie aboundeth, or the
glosing world laugheth, which is he, so reasonable of vs all, that
can saie (if he will not er from the truth) that he once in a wéeke
remembreth his fatall end, or the prescribed terme of his induring; or
once prouided by labour, studie, or otherwise, to set a stedfast and
sure order for the securitie, profit, and continuance either of his
possessions & dominions, or of his sequele and posteritie which after
him shall naturallie succéed. Such is the blindnesse of our fraile
and weake nature, euer giuen to carnall concupiscence and worldlie
delectations, dailie darkened and seduced with that lithargious and
deceiuable serpent called hope of long life, that all we put in
obliuion our duetie present, and lesse remember the politike purueiance
for things to come: for blindlie we walke in this fraile life, till we
fall groueling, with our eies suddenlie vpon death.

The vanities of this world be to vs so agreeable, that when we begin
to liue, we estéeme our life a whole world; which once ouerpassed, it
sheweth no better but dust driuen awaie with a puffe of wind. I speake
this to you of my selfe, and for your selues to you; sore lamenting
and inwardlie bewailing, that I did not performe & finallie consummate
such politike deuises, & good and godlie ordinances, in my long life
and peaceable prosperitie, which then I fullie determined to haue
begun, set forward, and completlie to haue finished. Which now for the
extreame paines and tortures of my angrie maladie, and for the small
terme of my naturall life, I can neither perform, neither yet liue to
sée either to take effect, or to sort to anie good conclusion.

For God I call to record, my heart was fullie set, and my mind
deliberative determined, so to haue adorned this realme with wholesome
lawes, statutes and ordinances; so to haue trained and brought vp mine
infants and children in vertue, learning, actiuitie, and policie,
that, what with their roiall puissance, & your fréendlie assistance,
the proudest prince of Europe durst not once attempt to mooue anie
hostilitie, against them, you, or this realme. But oh Lord, all things
that I of long time haue in my mind reuolued and imagined, that
stealing théefe death goeth about to subuert, and in the moment of
an houre cléerelie to ouertred. Wherefore (as men saie) I now being
driuen to the verie hard wall, haue perfect confidence and sure hope
in the approued fidelitie, and constant integritie, which I haue euer
experimented and knowne to be rooted and planted in the hearts of your
louing bodies, towards me and mine.

So that I may saie and auouch, that neuer prince bearing scepter and
crowne ouer realmes and regions, hath found or prooued more faithfull
councellors, nor truer subiects, than I haue doone of you; nor neuer
potentate nor gouernour put more affiance and trust in his vassals and
seruants, than I, since the adeption of the crowne, firmelie haue fixed
in your circumspect wisedoms and sober discretions. And now of very
force compelled, lieng in a doutfull hope, betwéene liuing and dieng,
betweene remembrance and obliuion, I doo require you, and instantlie
mooue you, that as I haue found you faithfull, obedient, and to all
my requests and desires (while I was here in health conuersant with
you) diligent and intentiue: so after my death, my hope is with a sure
anchor grounded, & mine inward conceipt vndoubtedlie resolued, that the
especiall confidence and inward fidelitie, which so loag hath continued
betwéene vs, bieing together liuing, shall not wholie by my death be
extinct and vanished like smoke.

For what auaileth fréendship in life, when trust deceiueth after
death? What profiteth amitie in apparent presence, when confidence is
fraudulentlie beguiled in absence? What loue groweth by coniunction of
matrimonie, if the ofspring after doo not agree and accord? Or what
profiteth princes to aduance and promote their subiects, if after
their death, the bountifulnesse by them shewed, be of the receiuers
of the same and their sequele neither regarded nor yet remembred?
The parents make the marriage for an indissoluble amitie. Princes
promote sometime for fauour, sometime for desert, & sometime for
pleasure: yet (if you will consider) the verie scope, to the which
all gifts of promotions doo finallie tend, is to haue loue, fauour,
faithfull counsell, and diligent seruice, of such as be by them
promoted and exalted, not onelie in their owne liues, being but bréefe
and transitorie: but also that they and their progenie, calling to
remembrance the fauor, estimation, and aduancement, which they of so
liberall and munificent a prince had receiued and obteined, should with
speare and shield, toong and wit, hand and pen, continuallie studie to
defend, councell and preferre, not onelie him during his life, but also
to serue, assist, and mainteine his sequele and lineall succession,
as the verie images and carnall portratures of his stirpe, line, and
stemme, naturallie descended.

In this case am I, whome you know, not without vnspeakable trouble &
most dangerous war to haue obteined the scepter and diademe of this
realme and empire. During which reigne, I haue had either litle peace,
or small tranquillitie: and now when I thought my selfe sure of a
quiet life, and worldlie rest, death hath blowne his terrible trumpet,
calling and summoning me (as I trust) to perpetuall tranqaillitie and
eternall quietnesse. Therefore now, for the perfect and vnmoueable
confidence that I haue euer had in you, and for the vnfeined loue
that you haue euer shewed vnto me, I commend and deliuer into your
gouernance, both this noble realme, and my naturall children, and your
kinsmen. My children by your diligent ouersight and politike prouision
to be taught, informed, and instructed, not onelie in the sciences
liberall, vertues morall, and good literature: but also to be practised
in trickes of martiall actiuitie, and diligent exercise of prudent
policie. For I haue heard clarkes saie, although I am vnlettered, that
fortunate is that realme where philosophers reigne, or where kings be
philosophers and louers of wisedome.

In this tender age, you may writh and turne them into euerie forme
and fashion. If you bring them vp in vertue, you shall haue vertuous
princes. If you set them to learning, your gouernours shall be men
of knowledge. If you teach them actiuitie, you shall haue valiant
capteins. If they practise policie, you shall haue both politike and
prudent rulers. On the other side, if by your negligence they fall
to vice (as youth is to all euill prone and readie) not onelie their
honor, but also your honestie shall be spotted and appalled. If they
be sluggards and giuen to slouth, the publike wealth of this realme
must shortlie decaie. If they be vnlearned, they may by flatterie
soone be blinded, and by adulation often deceiued. If they lacke
actiuitie, euerie creature (be he neuer so base of birth) shall foile
and ouerthrow them like dum beasts and beastlie dastards. Therefore
I desire you, and in Gods name adiure you, rather to studie to make
them rich in godlie knowledge, and vertuous qualities; than to take
paine to glorifie them with abundance of worldlie treasure, and mundane

And certeinlie, when they come to ripenesse of age, and shall
peraduenture consider, that by your omission and negligent education,
they haue not such graces, nor are indued with such notable qualities
as they might haue béene, if you had performed the trust to you by me
committed: they shall not onelie deplore and lament their vngarnished
estate, and naked condition; but also it may fortune, that they shall
conceiue inwardlie against you such a negligent vntruth, that the
sequele thereof may rather turne to displeasure than thanks, and sooner
to an ingratitude than to a reward. My kingdome also I leaue in your
gouernance, during the minoritie of my children, charging you (on your
honors oths and fidelitie made and sworne to me) so indifferentlie
to order and gouerne the subjects of the same, both with iustice and
mercie, that the wils of malefactors haue not too large a scope,
nor the harts of the good people by too much extremitie be neither
sorowfulle daunted, nor vnkindlie kept vnder. Oh I am so sléepie,
that I must make an end. And now before you all I commend my soule to
almightie God my sauiour and redéemer, my bodie to the wormes of the
earth, my kingdome to the prince my sonne: and to you my louing fréends
my heart, my trust, and my whole confidence. [And euen with that he
fell on sléepe.]

       *       *       *       *       *

Hauing thus spoken, and set things in good staie, as might be supposed,
he shortlie after departed this life at Westminster the ninth of
Aprill, in the yeare 1483, after he had reigned two and twentie yeares,
one moneth, and eight daies. His bodie was with funerall pompe conueied
to Windsore, and there buried. He left behind him issue by the quéene
his wife two sonnes, Edward and Richard, with fiue daughters; Elizabeth
that was after quéene married to Henrie the seauenth; Cicilie married
to the vicount Welles; Briget a nunne professed in Sion or Dertford,
as sir Thomas More saith; Anne married to the lord Thomas Howard,
after earle of Surrie, and duke of Norffolke; Katherine wedded to the
lord William Courtenie sonne to the earle of Deuonshire. Beside these
he left behind him likewise a base sonne named Arthur, that was after
vicount Lisle. For the description of his person & qualities I will
referre you to that which sir Thomas More hath written of him in that
historie, which he wrote and left vnfinished of his sonne Edward the
fift and of his brother king Richard the third: which we shall (God
willing) hereafter make you partaker of, as we find the same recorded
among his other workes, word for word; when first we haue (according to
our begun order) rehersed such writers of our nation as liued in his

As first, Nicholas Kenton borne in Suffolke a Carmelit frier in
Gippeswich, prouinciall of his order through England; Henrie Parker a
Carmelit frier of Doncaster, preached against the pride of prelats,
and for such doctrine as he set foorth, was imprisoned with his fellow
Thomas Holden, and a certeine blacke frier also for the like cause;
Parker was forced to recant thrée speciall articles, as Bale noteth
out of Leland; Iohn Harding an esquier borne in the north parts, wrote
a chronicle in English verse, and among other speciall points therein
touched, he gathered all the submissions and homages had and made by
the Scotish kings, euen from the daies of king Athelstan [whereby
it euidentlie may appeare, how the Scotish kingdome euen in manner
from the first establishing thereof here in Britaine, hath beene
apperteining vnto the kings of England, and holden of them as their
chéefe, & superior lords.]

William Iue a doctor of diuinitie and prebendarie of saint Paules in
London; Thomas Wilton a diuine, and deane of the said church of Paules
in London; Iulian Bemes, a gentlewoman indued with excellent gifts both
of bodie and mind, wrote certeine treatises of hawking and hunting,
delighting greatlie hir selfe in those exercises and pastimes; she
wrote also a booke of the lawes of armes, and knowledge apperteining
to heralds; Iohn Stamberie borne in the west parts of this realme, a
Carmelit frier, and confessor to king Henrie the sixt, he was also
maister of Eaton colledge, and after was made bishop of Bangor, and
remooued from thence to the sée of Hereford; Iohn Slueleie an Augustine
frier, prouinciall of his order; Iohn Fortescue a iudge and chancellor
of England, wrote diuerse treatises concerning the law and politike

Rochus a Chaterhouse moonke borne in London, of honest parents, and
studied in the vniuersitie of Paris, he wrote diuerse epigrams; Iohn
Phreas borne also in London was fellow of Balioll colledge in Oxenford,
and after went into Italie, where he heard Guarinus that excellent
philosopher read in Ferrara, he prooued an excellent physician and a
skilfull lawier, there was not in Italie (whilest he remained there)
that passed him in eloquence & knowledge of both the toongs, Gréeke
and Latine; Walter Hunt a Carmelit frier, a great diuine, and for his
excellencie in learning sent from the whole bodie of this realme, vnto
the generall councell holden first at Ferrara, and after at Florence
by pope Eugenius the fourth, where he disputed among other with the
Gréekes, in defense of the order and ceremonies of the Latine church;
Thomas Wighenhall a moonke of the order called Premoristratensis in the
abbeie of Durham in Norffolke.

Iohn Gunthorpe went into Italie, where he heard that eloquent learned
man Guarinus read in Ferrara, after his comming home into England he
was deane of Welles, and kéeper of the priuie scale; Iohn Hambois an
excellent musician, and for his notable cunning therein made doctor of
musicke; William Caxton wrote a chronicle called Fructus temporum, and
an appendix ynto Treuisa, beside diuerse other bookes and translations;
Iohn Miluerton a Carmelit frier of Bristow, and prouinciall of his
order through England, Ireland, and Scotland, at length (bicause he
defended such of his order as preached against endowments of the church
with temporall possessions) he was brought into trouble, committed to
prison in castell S. Angelo in Rome, where he continued thrée yeares,
and at length was deliuered through certeine of the cardinals that were
appointed his iudges; Dauid Morgan a Welsh man, treasurer of the church
of Landaffe, wrote of the antiquities of Wales, & a description of the

Iohn Tiptoft, a noble man borne, a great traueller, excellentlie
learned, and wrote diuerse treatises, and finallie lost his head in
the yeare 1471, in time of the ciuill warre betwixt the houses of
Yorke and Lancaster; Iohn Shirwood bishop of Durham; Thomas Kent an
excellent philosopher; Robert Huggon borne in Norffolke in a towne
called Hardingham, wrote certeine veine prophesies; Iohn Maxfield a
learned physician; William Gréene a Carmelit frier; Thomas Norton borne
in Bristow an alcumist; Iohn Meare a moonke of Norwich; Richard Porland
borne in Norffolke a Franciscane frier, and a doctor of diuinitie;
Thomas Milling a moonke of Westminster, a doctor of diuinitie and
preferred to the bishoprike of Hereford; Scogan a learned gentleman
and student for a time in Oxford, of a plesant wit, and bent to meirie
deuises, in respect whereof he was called into the court, where giuing
himselfe to his naturall inclination of mirth & pleasant pastime, he
plaied manie sporting parts, although not in such vnciuill maner as
hath beene of him reported:

Thus farre the prosperous reigne of Edward the fourth, sonne and
heire to Richard duke of Yorke.

  Transcriber's Notes:

  Punctuation normalized.

  Anachronistic, non-standard, and inconsistent spellings retained as

  Italics markup is enclosed in _underscores_.

  Greek text is transliterated and enclosed in ®registered signs®.

  Characters with a macron are indicated as [=x] where "x" is the
  character with a macron.

  While the Greek accentuation is clearly defective, it has been
  retained as found.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland (3 of 6): England (4 of 9) - Edward the Fourth, Earle of March, Sonne and Heire to - Richard Duke of Yorke" ***

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