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Title: History of the Union Jack and Flags of the Empire
Author: Cumberland, Barlow
Language: English
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produced from images generously made available by The
Internet Archive/Canadian Libraries)



[Illustration: I.

ENGLISH JACK--ST. GEORGE'S CROSSE

2

SCOTCH JACK--ST. ANDREW'S CROSSE

3

IRISH JACK--ST. PATRICK'S CROSSE]



  HISTORY OF THE
  UNION JACK

  AND

  FLAGS OF THE EMPIRE


  Their Origin, Proportions and Meanings as tracing the Constitutional
  Development of the British Realm, and with References
  to other National Ensigns


  BY
  BARLOW CUMBERLAND, M.A.

  Past President of the National Club, and of the Sons of England,
  Toronto; President of the Ontario Historical
  Society, Canada


  With Illustrations and Nine Coloured Plates


  THIRD EDITION, REVISED AND EXTENDED, WITH INDEX


  TORONTO
  WILLIAM BRIGGS
  Booksellers' Row, Richmond Street West
  1909



  Copyright, Canada, 1909, by
  BARLOW CUMBERLAND.



  TO

  THE FLAG ITSELF

  THIS STORY OF THE

  Union Jack

  IS DEDICATED WITH MUCH RESPECT

  BY

  ONE OF ITS SONS.



PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION.


This history of the Union Jack grew out of a paper principally
intended to inform my boys of how the Union Jack of our Empire grew
into its present form, and how the colours and groupings of its parts
are connected with our government and history, so that through this
knowledge the flag itself might speak to them in a way it had not done
before.

A search for further information, extended over many varied fields,
gathered together facts that had previously been separated, and grouped
them into consecutive order; thus the story grew, and having developed
into a lecture, was afterwards, at the suggestion of others, launched
upon its public way.

The chapters on the history of the Jacks in the Thirteen American
Colonies and in the United States are also new ground and may be of
novel interest to not a few. The added information on the proper
proportions of our Union Jack, and the directions and reasons for the
proper making of its parts, may serve to correct some of the unhappy
errors which now exist and may interest all in the observation and
study of flags.

An Index has been added, and a record of the "Diamond Anthem" is also
appended.

I would acknowledge the criticisms and kindly assistance of many,
particularly of Mr. James Bain, Public Librarian of Toronto, who
opened out to me the valuable collection in his library; of Mr. J. G.
Colmer, C.M.G., Secretary to the Canadian High Commissioner, London,
who assisted in obtaining material in England; and of Mr. W. Laird
Clowes, Sir James Le Moine, Sir J. G. Bourinot and Dr. J. G. Hodgins,
Historiographer of Ontario, who have made many valuable and effective
suggestions.

  BARLOW CUMBERLAND.

  TORONTO, _October 1, 1900_.



PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION.


The celebration of EMPIRE DAY and of other National and Historic
Anniversaries, accompanied by appropriate addresses, has greatly
developed at home and abroad. The instructing value of Flags as the
visible evidences of the progressive periods of National history,
and the concentration of patriotic remembrance, having become more
appreciated, have led, no doubt, to the request for a re-issue of this
book, which had been for some time out of print.

For such purposes, and as an assistance to Readers and Teachers, the
material has been practically recast and new matter incorporated,
so that with the collations in the Index the phases of the various
portions of the Flags, both of the British and other nationalities, may
be more conveniently traced and connected.

Much additional information, particularly in the designing and creation
of the Flags, has been sought out and, with additional illustrations,
recorded with a view that the intentions expressed in their forms
may be more clearly evidenced, their meanings realized, and their
connection with Constitutional movements developed.

The suggestions and assistance of many correspondents, to this end, has
been much availed of and is thankfully acknowledged.

During the interval since the last issue the Liberties and Methods
of the British Constitution have still further expanded. Additional
Daughter-Parliaments in the Dominions over-seas have been empowered,
and their Union Flags created. To these, as also added information on
other Ensigns, is due the addition to the Title.

The references in stating the progress of our National Flag are,
of necessity, much condensed, but the writer trusts that with the
instructing aid and narrations of its exponents, the information here
put together may be found of help in causing the study of Flags, and
the stories which they voice, to be of increasing interest, and their
Union Jack and Ensigns more intimately known to our youth as the living
emblems of our British History and Union.

  PORT HOPE, _September, 1909_.



CONTENTS.


  CHAPTER                                                           PAGE

  A Poem--The Union Jack                                              11

  Notes on Flags                                                      12

  I. Emblems and Flags                                                13

  II. The Origins of National Flags                                   21

  III. The Origin of the Jacks                                        32

  IV. The English Jack                                                41

  V. The Supremacy of the English Jack                                53

  VI. The Scottish Jack                                               64

  VII. The "Additional" Union Jack of James I.                        71

  VIII. The English Jack Restored                                     81

  IX. The Evolution of the Red Ensign                                 92

  X. The Sovereignty of the Seas--The Fight for the
  Flag                                                               102

  XI. The Sovereignty of the Seas--The Fight for the
  Trade                                                              111

  XII. The Union Jack of Queen Anne, 1707                            118

  XIII. The Two-Crossed Jack in Canada                               132

  XIV. The Irish Jack                                                140

  XV. The Jacks in the Thirteen Colonies of North America            153

  XVI. The Union Flags of the United States                          170

  XVII. The Jack and Parliamentary Union in Britain                  182

  XVIII. The Jack and Parliamentary Union in Canada                  189

  XIX. The Union Jack of George III., 1801                           199

  XX. The Lessons of the Crosses                                     215

  XXI. The Proportions of the Crosses                                222

  XXII. Under the Three Crosses in Canada                            235

  XXIII. The Flag of Freedom                                         243

  XXIV. The Flag of Liberty                                          253

  XXV. The Union Jack as a Single Flag                               264

  XXVI. The Jacks in Red, White and Blue Ensigns                     272

  XXVII. The Union Ensigns of the British Empire                     280

  Appendix A. The Maple Leaf Emblem                                  295

  Appendix B. Letters from the Private Secretary of His
  Majesty King Edward VII.                                           298

  Appendix C. Canadian War Medals                                    299

  Appendix D. A Record of the "Diamond Anthem"                       300

  Index                                                              313



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


  NO.                                                               PAGE

  1. Assyrian Emblems                                                 15

  2. Eagle Emblems                                                    16

  3. Tortoise Totem                                                   18

  4. Wolf Totem                                                       18

  5. The Hawaiian Ensign                                              30

  6. A Red Cross Knight                                               35

  7. Colours of 10th Royal Grenadiers, Canada                         39

  8. St. George's Jack                                                41

  9. The Borough Seal of Lyme Regis, 1284                             46

  10. Brass in Elsing Church, 1347                                    49

  11. The _Henri Grace à Dieu_, 1515                                  60

  12. St. Andrew's Jack                                               64

  13. Scotch "Talle Shippe," 16th Century                             67

  14. Royal Arms of England, Henry V., 1413, to Elizabeth             71

  15. Royal Arms of James I., 1603                                    72

  16. Jack of James I., 1606                                          74

  17. The _Sovereign of the Seas_, 1637                               85

  18. Commonwealth Twenty-Shilling Piece                              87

  19. Commonwealth Boat Flag                                          88

  20. The _Naseby_. Charles II.                                       95

  21. Medal of Charles II., 1665                                      98

  22. Whip-lash Pennant, British Navy                                108

  23. Union Jack of Anne, 1707                                       118

  24. Draft "C," Union Jack, 1707                                    121

  25. The Red Ensign in "The Margent," 1707                          125

  26. Fort Niagara, 1759                                             128

  27. The Assault at Wolfe's Cove, Quebec, 1759                      130

  28. St. Patrick's Jack                                             141

  29. Labarum of Constantine                                         142

  30. Harp of Hibernia                                               143

  31. Seal of Carrickfergus, 1605                                    148

  32. Royal Arms of Queen Victoria                                   148

  33. Medal of Queen's First Visit to Ireland                        149

  34. The Throne of Queen Victoria in the House of Lords, 1900       150

  35. Arms of the Fitzgeralds                                        151

  36. Medal of Louis XIV., "_Kebeca Liberata_," 1690                 165

  37. New England Ensign                                             166

  38. The Louisbourg Medal, 1758                                     168

  39. The First Union Flag, 1776                                     174

  40. The Pennsylvania Flag, 1776                                    176

  41. Arms of the Washington Family                                  177

  42. Washington's Book-Plate                                        178

  43. Washington's Seals                                             179

  44. Fort George and the Port of New York in 1770                   187

  45. Royal Arms of George II.                                       190

  46. The Great Seal of Upper Canada, 1792                           195

  47. Upper Canada Penny                                             198

  48. Draft "C" of Union Jack, 1800                                  200

  49. Royal Arms of George III., 1801                                202

  50. Union Jack of George III., 1801                                203

  51. Outline Jack--The Proper Proportions of the Crosses            209

  52. The Union Jack and Shackleton at Farthest South                213

  53. Square Union Jack                                              219

  54. Oblong Union Jack                                              220

  55. Flag of a French Caravel, 16th Century                         223

  56. The Colonial Jack, 1701                                        226

  57. Jack of England, 1711                                          227

  58. Jack in Carolina, 1739                                         228

  59. The Combat between _La Surveillante_ and the _Quebec_, 1779    229

  60. Ensign of 7th Royal Fusiliers, 1775                            230

  61. "King's Colour," 1781                                          231

  62. The War Medal, 1793-1814                                       236

  63. The Service Medal, Canada, 1866-1870                           237

  64. The North-West Canada Medal, 1885                              240

  65. Flag of the Governor-General of Canada                         259

  66. Flag of the Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec                      260

  67. Australian Emblems                                             283

  68. Australian Federation Badge                                    287

  69. Suggested Canadian Union Ensign                                297



COLOURED PLATES.



  PLATE I.      _Frontispiece_
  1. English Jack--St. George's Crosse.
  2. Scottish Jack--St. Andrew's Crosse.
  3. Irish Jack--St. Patrick's Crosse.

  PLATE II.      22
  1. Germany.    2. Italy.
  3. Greece.    4. Hawaii.
  5. Champlain, 1608.    6. French from 1794.

  PLATE III.      76
  1. The Percys' Ensign, 1560.
  2. Union Jack of James I., 1606.
  3. Colonial Union Jack, 1701.

  PLATE IV.      92
  1. Commonwealth Ensign, 1648.
  2. Cromwell's "Great Union," 1658.
  3. Ensign Red--Charles II., 1660.

  PLATE V.      118
  1. Union Jack of Anne, 1707.
  2. Red Ensign of Anne, 1707.
  3. Union Jack of George III., 1801.

  PLATE VI.      174
  1. Grand Union, 1776.
  2. United States, 1777.
  3. United States, 1909.

  PLATE VII.      218
  1. Present Union Jack upside down.
  2. Jack wrongly made.
  3. Jack wrongly made.

  PLATE VIII.      272
  1. Red Ensign.
  2. White Ensign.
  3. Blue Ensign.

  PLATE IX.      280
  1. Canadian Union Ensign.
  2. Australian Union Ensign.
  3. New Zealand Union Ensign.

[Illustration: ST. GEORGE.]



THE UNION JACK.


  "It's only a small bit of bunting,
    It's only an old coloured rag,
  Yet thousands have died for its honour
    And shed their best blood for the flag.

  "It's charged with the cross of St. Andrew,
  Which, of old, Scotland's heroes has led;
  It carries the cross of St. Patrick,
  For which Ireland's bravest have bled.

  "Joined with these is our old English ensign,
    St. George's red cross on white field,
  Round which, from King Richard to Wolseley,
    Britons conquer or die, but ne'er yield.

  "It flutters triumphant o'er ocean,
    As free as the winds and the waves;
  And bondsmen from shackles unloosened
    'Neath its shadows no longer are slaves.

  "It floats over Cypress and Malta,
    O'er Canada, the Indies, Hong Kong;
  And Britons, where'er their flag's flying,
    Claim the rights which to Britons belong.

  "We hoist it to show our devotion
    To our Queen, to our country, and laws;
  It's the outward and visible emblem
    Of advancement and Liberty's cause.

  "You may say it's an old bit of bunting,
    You may call it an old coloured rag;
  But Freedom has made it majestic,
    And time has ennobled the flag."

  --"ST. GEORGE."



NOTES ON FLAGS.


NAMES OF PARTS.

Particular names are given to the several parts of a flag.

The part next the flagstaff, or width, Is called the "_hoist_."

The outer part, or length, is termed the "_fly_," and also the
"_field_."

These parts are further divided into "_quarters_," or "_cantons_": two
"_next the staff_," two "_in the fly_."

These descriptive terms should be noted, as they will be in constant
use in the pages which follow.


USAGE.

A flag at half-mast is a sign of mourning.

A flag reversed is a signal of distress.

The lowering of a flag is a signal of surrender.

The raising of the victors' flag in its place is a signal of capture.

The nationality of a country is shown by its flag.

The nationality of a vessel is made known by the flag she flies at the
stern.

To hoist the flag of one nation under that of another nation, on the
same flag-staff, is to show it disrespect.



History of the Union Jack

And Flags of the Empire.



CHAPTER I.

_EMBLEMS AND FLAGS._


There is an instinct in the human race which delights in the flying of
flags--a sentiment which appears to be inborn, causing men to become
enthusiastic about a significant emblem raised in the air, whether as
the insignia of descent, or as a symbol of race, or of nationality;
something which, being held aloft before the sight of other men,
declares, at a glance, the side to which the bearer belongs, and serves
as a rallying point for those who think with him.

The child chortles at a piece of riband waved before him; a boy marches
with head erect and martial stride as bearer of the banner at the
head of his mimic battalion; the man, at duty's call, rallies to his
national standard, and leaving home and all, stakes his life for it in
his country's cause; and when the battle of life is closing and steps
are homeward bound, the gray-beard, lifting his heart-filled eyes,
blesses the day that brings him back within sight of his native flag.

At all ages and in all times has it been the same. The deeper we go
into the records of the past the more evidence do we find that man,
however varied his race or primitive his condition, however cultured
his surroundings or rude his methods, has universally displayed this
innate characteristic instinct of delighting and glorifying in some
personal or national emblem.

To search for and discover the emblems which they bore thus discloses
to us the eras of a people's history, and, therefore, it is that
the study of a nation's flag is something more than a mere passing
interest, and becomes one of real educational value, meriting our
closest investigation, for _the study of Flags is really the tracing of
History by sight_.

In ancient Africa, explorations among the sculptured antiquities on
the Nile have brought to light a series of national and religious
emblem-standards, which had meaning and use among the Egyptians
long before history had a written record. The fans and hieroglyphic
standards of the Pharaohs are the index to their dynasties.

The Israelites, at the time of the Exodus, had their distinctive
emblems, and in the Book of Numbers (ch. ii. 2), it is related how
Moses directed that in their journeyings, "_Every man of the children
of Israel shall pitch by his own standard, with the ensign of their
father's house_."

So it came that to every Jewish child, in all the subsequent centuries,
the emblem on the standard of his tribe recalled the history and the
trials of his ancestors and fortified his faith in the God of their
Deliverance.

From the lost cities of Nineveh have been unearthed the ensign of the
great Assyrian race, the "Twin Bull" (1), sign of their imperial might,
and the records of their warriors are thus identified.

[Illustration: 1. ASSYRIAN EMBLEMS.]

In Europe in later times there were few parts of the continent which
did not become acquainted with the metal ensigns of the great Roman
Empire. The formidable Legions of their armies, issuing from the centre
of the realm, carried the Imperial Eagle at their head, and setting
it in triumph over many a subjugated state, established its supremacy
among the peoples as a sign of the all-conquering power of their mighty
Empire. To this eagle of the Roman legions may be traced back the crop
of eagle emblems (2), which are borne by so many of the nationalities
of Europe at the present day. The golden eagle of the French
battalions, the black eagle of Prussia, the white eagle of Poland, and
the double-headed eagles of Austria and Russia, whose two heads typify
claim to sovereignty over both the ancient Eastern and Western sections
of the Roman Empire, are all descendants from the Imperial Eagle of
ancient Rome.

[Illustration: 2. EAGLE EMBLEMS.


  _Austrian._  _Roman._  _Russian._
  _Prussian._                 _French._]

As these nationalities of modern Europe have successively arisen and
developed into their separate existence, the emblem of their ancient
subjugation has been raised by them as the emblem of their power, just
as the Cross, which was once the emblem of the degradation and death
of the Christ, has been accepted as the signal and glory of the nations
which have come under the Christian sway.

As on the Eastern, so also on the Western hemisphere. On all continents
the rainbow in the heavens is a perpetual memorial of the covenant
made between God and man--the sign that behind the wonders of nature
dwells the still more wonderful First Cause and Author of them all.
The Peruvians, far back in the centuries of existence on the continent
of South America, had preserved a tradition of a great event which,
although it had taken place on another hemisphere, yet had been, by
some means, transmitted to theirs, and, tracing from it the story of
their national origin, they carried this emblem as sign of the lineage
which they claimed as being, as they called themselves, "_The Children
of the Skies_." Thus it was that under the standard of a "_Rainbow_"
the armies of the Incas of Peru valiantly resisted the invasions of
Pizzaro when, in the sixteenth century, the South American Continent
came under the domination of Spain.

National emblems were borne farther north on the Northern continent
by another nation, even yet more ancient than the Peruvians. Embedded
in the ruins of buried cities of the Aztecs, in Mexico, are found the
memorials of a constructive and artistic people, whose emblem of the
"_Eagle with outstretched wings_," repeated with patriotic iteration
in the stone carvings of their buildings, has thus come down to us the
mute declarant of their national aspirations. The nation itself as a
power has long since passed away, but the outlines of their emblem
still preserve the ideals of the vanished race.

[Illustration: 3. TORTOISE TOTEM.]

A living instance of much interest also evidences the adherence to
national emblems among the earlier inhabitants of North America. Long
before the invading Europeans first landed on the shores of the North
Atlantic coasts, the nomad Red Indian, as he travelled from place to
place through the fastnesses of the forests, along the shores of the
great lakes, over the plains of vast central prairies, or amid the
mountains that crown the Pacific slope, everywhere attested the story
of his descent by the "Totem" of his family. This sign of the Tortoise
(3), the Wolf (4), the Bear, or the Fish, painted or embroidered on
his trappings or carved upon his weapons, was displayed as evidence of
his origin, and whether he came as a friend or advanced as a foe, its
presence nerved him to maintain the reputation of his family and the
honour of his tribe.

[Illustration: 4. WOLF TOTEM.]

To-day the Red Man slowly yields to the ever-advancing march of the
dominant and civilizing white; his means of sustenance by the chase,
or of livelihood by his skill as a trapper, have been destroyed. The
Indian tribes are, under the Indian treaties, required to remain
within large blocks of territory called "Reserves," so that now in
his poverty he is maintained upon these "reservations" solely by the
dole of the peoples by whom his native country has been absorbed;
yet, though so changed in their circumstances, his descendants still
cling with resolute fortitude and pathetic eagerness to these ancient
insignia of their native worth. These rudely-formed emblems, in outline
and shape mainly taken from the animals and birds of the plain and
forest, are the memorials in his decadence of the long past days
when his forefathers were the undisputed monarchs of all the wilds
and possessors of its widest domains. They are the Indian patents of
nobility, and thus are clung to with all the pride of ancient race.

This Instinct in man to attach a national meaning to some vital emblem,
and to display it as evidence of his patriotic fervour, is thus found
to be all-pervading. The accuracy of its form may not be exact--it may,
indeed, be well-nigh indistinguishable in its outlines--but whenever
it be raised aloft, the halo of patriotic meaning, with which memory
has illumined it, is answered by the flutterings of the bearer's
heart; self is lost in inspiring recollection; clanship, absorbing the
individual, enfolds him as one of a mighty whole, and the race-blood
that is deep within him springs quick into action, obedient to the
stirring call.

The fervour of this manifestation was eloquently expressed by Lord
Dufferin in narrating some incidents which had occurred during one
of his official tours through Canada, when Governor-General of the
country, the greatest daughter-nation among the children of the Union
Jack:

 "Wherever I have gone, in crowded cities, in the remote hamlets, the
 affection of the people for their Sovereign has been blazoned forth
 against the summer sky by every device which art could fashion or
 ingenuity invent. Even in the wilds and deserts of the land, the most
 secluded and untutored settler would hoist some cloth or rag above
 his shanty, and startle the solitude of the forest with a shot from
 his rusty firelock and a lusty cheer from himself and his children
 in glad allegiance to his country's Queen. Even the Indian in his
 forest and on his reserve would marshal forth his picturesque symbols
 of fidelity in grateful recognition of a Government that never broke
 a treaty or falsified its plighted word to the Red Man, or failed to
 evince for the ancient children of the soil a wise and conscientious
 solicitude."[1]

[1] Lord Dufferin, Toronto Club, 1874.

Of all emblems, a Flag is the one which is universally accepted among
men as the incarnation of their intensest sentiment, and when uplifted
above them, concentrates in itself the annals of a nation and all the
traditions of an empire.

A country's flag becomes, therefore, of additional value to its people
in proportion as its symbolism is better understood and its story
is more fully known. Its combinations should be studied, its story
unfolded--for in itself a flag is nothing, but in its meaning it is
everything.

  "What is a riband worth?
  Its glory is priceless!"[2]

[2] Bulwer Lytton.

So long, then, as pride of race and nation exists among men, so long
will a waving flag command all that is strongest within them, and stir
their national instincts to their utmost heights.



CHAPTER II.

_THE ORIGINS OF NATIONAL FLAGS._


With such natural emotions stirring within the breasts of its people,
one can appreciate the fervid interest taken by each nation in its own
national flag, and understand how it comes that the associations which
cluster about its folds are so ardently treasured up.

Flags would at first sight appear to be but gaudy things, displaying
contrasts of colour or variations of shape or design, according to the
mood or the fancy of some enterprising flagmaker. This, no doubt, is
the case with many signalling or mercantile flags. On the other hand,
there is, in not a few of the flags known as "national flags," some
particular combination of form or of colourings which, if they were
but known, indicates the reason for their origin, or which marks some
historic memory. There has been, perhaps, some notable occasion on
which they were first displayed, or they may have been formed by the
joining together of separate designs united at some eventful epoch, to
signalize a victorious cause, or to perpetuate the memory of a great
event. These great stories of the past are thus brought to mind and
told anew by the coloured folds each time they are spread open by the
breeze; for of most national flags it can be said, as was said by an
American orator[3] of his own, "It is a piece of bunting lifted in the
air, but it speaks sublimity, and every part has a voice." It is to see
these colours and hear these voices in the British national flags that
is our present undertaking.

[3] Sumner.

Before tracing the history of our British Union Jack, some instances
may be briefly mentioned in which associations connected with the
history of some other nations are displayed in the designs of their
national flags.

The colours of the German national banner are black, white and red
(Pl. II., fig. 1). Since 1870, when, at the conclusion of
the French war, the united German Empire was formed, this has been
the general Standard for all the states and principalities that were
then brought into imperial union; although each of these lesser states
continues to have, in addition, its own particular flag. This banner
of United Germany introduced once more the old German colours, which
had been displayed from 1184 until the time when, in 1806, the empire
was broken up by Napoleon I. Tradition is extant that these colours
had their origin as a national emblem at the time of the crowning of
Frederic I. (Barbarossa) in 1152, as ruler of the countries which are
now largely included in Germany. On this occasion the pathway to the
cathedral at Aix-la-Chapelle was laid with a carpeting of black, gold
and red, and the story goes that after the ceremony this carpet was cut
by the people into strips which they then displayed as flags. Thus by
the repetition of these historic colours in their ensign the present
union of the German Empire is connected with the early history of more
than seven centuries before.

[Illustration: PLATE II.

1

GERMANY

2

ITALY

3

GREECE

4

HAWAIIAN

5

CHAMPLAIN 1608

6

FRENCH FROM 1794]

The national ensign of United Italy (Pl. II., fig. 2) is a
flag having three parallel vertical stripes, green, white and red, the
green being next the flagstaff. Upon the central white stripe there
is shown a red shield, having upon it a white cross. This national
flag was adopted in 1870, after the Italian peoples had risen against
their separate rulers, and the previously separated principalities and
kingdoms had, under the leadership of Garibaldi, been consolidated into
one united kingdom under Victor Emmanuel, the then reigning king of
Sardinia. The red shield here displayed on the centre of the Italian
flag designates the arms of the House of Savoy, to which the Royal
House of Sardinia belonged, and which had been gained by the following
ancient and honourable event:

The island of Rhodes, an Italian colony in the Eastern Mediterranean,
had, in 1311, been in deadly peril from the attacks of the Turks. In
their extremity the then Duke of Savoy came to the aid of the Knights
Hospitallers of St. John, who were defending the island, and with his
help they were able to make a successful resistance. In record and
acknowledgment of this great service the Knights of St. John granted to
the House of Savoy the privilege of wearing upon their royal arms the
white cross on a red shield, which was the badge of their order of St.
John.

So it happened when, nearly six centuries afterwards, the Sardinians
again came to the aid of their southern brethren, and the King of
Sardinia was crowned as ruler over the new united Italian kingdom, the
old emblem won in defence of ancient liberties was further perpetuated
on the banner of the new kingdom of liberated and united Italy.

The colours of the Greek flag preserve the memory of a dynasty. In
1828, the Greeks, after rising in successful rebellion, had freed
their land from Mohammedan domination and the power of the Sultan of
Turkey. The several States formed themselves into one united kingdom,
and seeking a king from among the royal houses of Europe, obtained, in
1832, Otho I., a scion of the ruling house of Bavaria. The dynasty at
that time set upon the throne of Greece has since been changed, the
Bavarian having parted company with the kingdom in 1861. The throne
was then offered to Prince Alfred of England, but declined by him. The
present king, chosen in 1863, after the withdrawal of his predecessor,
is a member of the Royal House of Denmark; yet, notwithstanding this
change in the reigning family, the white Greek Cross upon a light blue
ground in the upper quarter, and the four alternate stripes of white
on a light blue ground in the field, which form the national flag of
Greece (Pl. II., fig. 3), still preserve the blue and white
colours of Bavaria, from whence the Greeks had obtained their first
king.

The Tri-colour as displayed by the present Republic in France (Pl.
II., fig. 6) has been credited with widely differing
explanations of its origin, as its plain colours of blue, white and red
admit of many different interpretations.

One story of its origin is, that its colours represent those of
the three flags which had been carried in succession in the early
centuries of the nation. The early kings of France carried the plain
blue banner of St. Martin. To this succeeded, in A.D. 1124, the flaming
red flag, or Oriflamme, of St. Denis, to be afterwards superseded, in
the fifteenth century, by the white "Cornette Blanche," the personal
banner of the heroic Joan of Arc.

It was under this royal white flag (Pl. II., fig. 5), bearing upon it
the lilies of ancient France, that Cartier, in 1534, had sailed up the
St. Lawrence, and Champlain, in 1608, had founded Quebec. Under this
flag Canada was colonized; to it belonged the glories of the Jesuit
Fathers and Dollard; with it La Salle and Marquette explored the far
West, planting three _fleur-de-lis_ as the sign of their discoveries.
Under it Frontenac, Montcalm and Levis[4] achieved their renown, and
all the annals of early Canada are contained under its régime until, in
1759, after the assault by Wolfe, it was exchanged, at the cession of
Quebec, for the British Union Flag.

[4] The colours carried by the Royal French regiments are described by
Capt. Knox to have been: "A white silk flag with three _fleur-de-lis_
within a wreath or circlet in the centre part of gold." ("The Fall of
New France"--HART.)

The tri-colour of Republican France was never carried by the
forefathers of the French Canadians of the Province of Quebec, nor has
it any connection with the French history of Canada. In fact, it did
not make its appearance as an emblem until the time of the revolution
in France in 1789, or thirty years after the original French régime in
Canada had closed its eventful period.

More detailed evidence of the origin of this flag states that the
creation of the tri-colour arose from the incident that, when the
revolutionary militia were first assembled in the city of Paris, at
the revolution of 1789, they had adopted blue and red, which were the
ancient colours of the city of Paris, for the colours of their cockade;
between these they placed the white of the soldiery of the Bourbon
régime, who afterwards joined their forces, and thus they had combined
the blue, white and red in the "tri-colour" as their revolutionary
signal.[5]

[5] Thiers: "History of the French Revolution," Vol. I., p. 74.

Whether or not its colours record those of the three ancient
monarchical periods, or those of the revolution, the tri-colour as a
French ensign for use by the people of France, as their national flag
both on land and sea, was not regularly established until a still later
period, in 1794. Then it was that the Republican Convention passed the
first decree[6] authorizing an ensign and directing that the French
national flag (Pl. II., fig. 6) shall be formed of the three
colours placed vertically in equal bands--that next the staff being
blue, the centre white, and the fly red.

[6] Decree of Feb. 15, 1794.

This was the flag under which Napoleon I. won his greatest victories,
both as General and Emperor; but whatever glories may have been won
for it by France, yet many years before it had been even designed, or
the prowess of Napoleon's armies had created its renown, the French
Canadian had been fighting under the Union Jack as his patriotic
ensign and adding to the history of its valiant glory by victory won
by himself in defence of his own Canadian home.[7] When in Canada the
tri-colour is seen flying it is raised solely out of compliment and
courtesy to the French-speaking friends in modern France. The fact that
the tri-colour has received any acceptance with the French-speaking
Canadian may have arisen from the reason that, side by side with the
Union Jack, it had participated in all the struggles and glories of the
Crimea, when the two flags, the tri-colour and the Union Jack, were
raised together above Sebastopol.

[7] Defence of Quebec, 1775.

It is interesting to note how it is stated to have first arrived.[8]
The _Canadiens-Français_ being, by lineage and temperament,
Monarchists, had shown no regard or liking for the early Revolutionary
and Republican emblem, and had never raised it in Canada.

[8] Benjamin Suite: "Le Drapeau Tri-colore en Canada."

In 1853, under Victoria and Napoleon III., an _entente cordiale_ had
been established between England and France, and in that same year
arrangements had been completed with the Allan Line to build new
steamers and perform a regular service direct between Liverpool and
Montreal. Actuated, no doubt, by the prevailing fervour, they had
selected as the distinguishing, or "house," flag of their line one of
the same shape and colours as the French flag, but with the broad bands
reversed, the red being next the mast instead of the blue as in the
French ensign.

In the spring of 1854, as their first steamer was seen entering the
St. Lawrence, this flag so nearly resembled the French ensign as to
cause surprise to be expressed. "What," said the older heads, "the flag
of the Revolution on an English ship!" It was a novel sight, but great
were the rejoicings over the establishment of the new line.

Their second ship came in dressed with many French and English flags,
for war had been declared by the alliance of England and France against
Russia, this being the first announcement in Canada, for there were no
telegraph cables in those days.

Following this came the exploits of the allied armies in the Crimea,
bringing with them the consequent profusion and intertwining of the
English and French flags with which ships and business buildings were
decorated to celebrate their combined victories.

Such was the entry of the tri-colour into Canada, not being introduced
by the Canadians, speaking French, but by their English friends.

A quaint suggestion has been made to the writer by no less an authority
than Sir James Le Moine, the historian of Quebec: "The French Canadian
is very partial to display, but is primarily economical. While the
simple colours of the tri-colour can be conveniently made by the most
inexperienced, the details of the Union Jack are very difficult to cut
and to correctly sew together. The _bonne mère_ can easily provide
out of her household treasures the materials for the one, but she
must purchase the other, and this, therefore, is the reason why the
tri-colour is so frequently seen in French-speaking Quebec."

The tri-colour, having never been the flag of his forefathers, carries
neither allegiance nor loyalty to the French Canadian. His people have
never fought under it, while many a gallant French Canadian son has
poured out his blood for the Union Jack at home in defence of Canada
or upon foreign shores in service in the British armies. It has never
brought him liberty or protection as has his Union Jack, which has been
his British flag for a century and a half, and for more than a quarter
of a century before the tri-colour of the European French ever came
into existence.

Another flag--although it has ceased to be a national flag, and is now
the flag of a possession of the United States--should yet be mentioned
by reason of the history which was told in its folds.

The Hawaiian national ensign (5) was at first composed of nine
horizontal stripes of equal width, alternating white, red and blue, the
top stripe being white and the bottom blue.[9]

[9] Preble: "History of the Flag of the United States," p. 85.

Afterwards the lowest stripe was taken off and the new flag (Pl.
II., fig. 4) adopted, in which there are eight stripes, the
bottom stripe being red and the British Union Jack placed in the upper
corner.

The Sandwich Islands, made known to the world mainly by the tragic
death of Captain Cook, in 1778, and now known as the Hawaiian Islands,
had been fused into a single monarchy by the impetuous valour of King
Kamehama, who, in 1794, admitted Christian missionaries to his kingdom.
Its existence as an independent monarchy was thereafter maintained and
was recognized by the great powers.

Internal difficulties having arisen in the kingdom and an insult been
given to a British consul, the islands were ceded and the sovereignty
offered to Great Britain in 1843, when, on 12th February, the Union
Jack was raised on all the islands, the understanding being that the
natives were to be under the protection of the flag of Great Britain,
and internal order to be guaranteed pending the final disposition which
might be arrived at in England between the representatives of the
Hawaiians and the British Government.[10]

[10] The Annual Register, 1843, Vol. 85.

[Illustration: 5. THE HAWAIIAN ENSIGN.]

The British did not accept the proffered transfer of the islands, but
returned the sovereignty to the native government, which was thereafter
to continue as an independent monarchy under the protection of Great
Britain; and by an accompanying treaty all British manufactures and
produce were to be admitted duty free. On July 31st, 1843, the British
flag was lowered and the new Hawaiian ensign raised in its place.[11]
It was in recognition of this event that the Union Jack was placed in
the Hawaiian ensign.

[11] Bird: "Six Months among the Sandwich Islands," 1875.

In the same year France and England agreed never to take possession of
the islands either by protectorate or in any other form.

The natives steadily decreased in number and in power, and the trade
and commerce of the islands had passed almost entirely into American
hands.

Dissensions had afterwards arisen under the subsequent native
sovereigns, and in 1893 the Queen, Liliuokalani, was deposed by a
revolution, and a republican government formed under President Dole, an
American citizen.

Cession of the islands was offered in 1896 to the American Government
and was refused, but in 1898 the islands were finally annexed to the
United States and the American ensign raised; but the Hawaiian flag,
with its Union Jack in the upper corner, continued as a local flag, and
was so displayed on June 14th, 1900, at the inauguration of President
Dole as Governor of the new-formed "Territory of Hawaii," among the
Territories of the United States.

These instances of the origin of some of the national flags of other
nations show how history is interwoven in their folds, and how they
perpetuate the memories of past days or of the men who have dominated
vital occasions. A singularly similar origin is associated with the
creation of the Stars and Stripes, the ensign of the United States
of North America (Pl. VI., fig. 3), which is treated of in
Chapter XVI.



CHAPTER III.

_THE ORIGIN OF THE JACKS._


It is quite evident, then, that national flags are not merely a
haphazard patchwork of coloured bunting, nor by any means "meaningless
things." Their combinations have a history, and, in many cases, tell a
story; but of all the national flags there is none that bears upon its
folds so interesting a story, nor has its history so plainly written in
its parts and colourings, as has our British "Union Jack."

Our present enterprise is to search out whence it got its name, how it
was built up into its present form, and what is the meaning of each of
its several parts. This is not only an enquiry of deepest interest, but
is of practical and educational value, for to trace the story of the
successive combinations of our national flags is to follow the history
of the British race.

The flags of other nations have mostly derived their origin from
association with some dominant personage, or with a particular epoch.
They are, as a rule, the signal of a dynasty or the record of some
revolution; but our British Union Jack records in its folds the steady
and continuous growth of a great nation, and traces, by the changes
made in it during centuries of adventure and progress, and by the flags
in which it has been successively combined, the gradual extension of
its union and methods of Constitutional Government over a world-wide
Empire.

The origin of the name "Union Jack" has given rise to considerable
conjecture and much interesting surmise; in the proclamation of Charles
I., 1634, it is called the "Union Flagge"; in the treaty of peace made
with the Dutch in 1674, in the reign of Charles II., it is mentioned as
"His Majesty of Great Britain's flag or Jack," and in the proclamation
of Queen Anne, in 1707, as "Our Jack, commonly called the Union Jack."

The most generally quoted suggestion given for the origin of the name
is that it was acquired from the fact that the first proclamation
which authorized a flag, in which the national crosses of England and
Scotland were for the first time combined, was issued by James VI. of
Scotland, after he had become James I. of England, and that as King
James frequently signed his name in the French manner as "Jacques,"
this was abbreviated into "Jac," and thus his new flag came to be
called a "Jack."

The derivation suggested is ingenious and interesting, but cannot be
accepted as correct, for the simple reason that there were "Jacks" long
before the time and reign of James I., and that their prior origin may
be clearly traced.

In the earliest days of chivalry, long before the time of the Norman
conquest of England, both the knights on horseback and the men on foot
of the armies in the field wore a surcoat or "Jacque" (whence our
word "Jacket"), extending over the body from the neck to the thighs,
bearing upon it the blazon or sign either of their lord or of their
nationality. Numberless examples of these are to be seen in early
illuminated manuscripts, or on monuments erected in many cathedrals and
sanctuaries.

In the time of the Crusaders, during the eleventh and twelfth
centuries, when the Christian nations of Europe were combined together
to rescue Jerusalem and the Holy Land from the rule of the Mohammedan,
the warrior pilgrims, recruited from the different countries, wore
crosses of different shapes and colours upon their surcoats, to
indicate the nationalities to which they belonged, and to evidence
the holy cause in which they were engaged. It was from wearing these
crosses that they gained their name of "Crusaders," or cross-bearers.

The cross worn by each of the nationalities was of a different
colour--that of France being red; Flanders, green; Germany, black, and
Italy, yellow.

In the earlier crusades the cross worn by the English was white, but in
later expeditions the red cross of St. George was adopted and worn upon
the Jacque as the sign of the English, in the same way as shown in the
accompanying knightly figure (6).

The continuing use of this St. George cross, and the reason for
wearing it as an identification of English forces is well shown in the
following extracts from the "Ordnaunces," issued to the army with which
Richard II. of England invaded Scotland in 1386:

 "... Also that everi man of what estate, condicion or nation thei
 be of, so that he be of oure partie, bere a signe of the armes of
 Saint George, large, bothe before and behynde upon parell, that yf
 he be slayne or wounded to deth, he that has so doon to hym shall
 not be putte to deth for defaulte of the crosse that he lacketh, and
 that non enemy do here the same token or crosse of Saint George,
 notwithstanding yf he be prisoner upon payne of deth."[12]

[12] Harleian MSS.

[Illustration: 6. A RED CROSS KNIGHT.]

A fuller understanding is afforded of the character of this "parell,"
as also of the early adoption of its name by references to it given in
1415:

 "At those days the yoemen had their lymmes at lybertie, and their
 jackes were longe and easy to shote in."[13]

[13] Fabyan, 1415.

The sailors of the "Cinque Ports" of Hastings, Sandwich, Hythe, Romney
and Dover, on the east of England, to which Winchelsea and Rye were
subsequently added, and by whose municipalities, in consideration of
certain privileges granted them, the royal navies were in early days
principally manned, are recorded to have worn as their uniform, in
1513, "_a cote of whyte cotyn, with a red crosse and the armes of ye
Ports underneathe_."

In the time of Queen Mary the continuation of the custom is further
evidenced by entries in a contemporary diary of 1588:

 "... The x day of January hevy news came to London that the French had
 won Cales _(Calais)_, the whyche was the hevest tydings to England
 that ever was herd of.

 "The xj day of January the Cete of London took up a thousand men and
 made them whytt cotes and red crosses and every ward of London found
 men.

        *       *       *       *       *

 "The xviij day of May there was sent to the shyppes men in whytt cotes
 and red crosses, and gones to the Queen's shyppes."[14]

[14] Machyn's Diary.

These "surcoats" or "Jacques" came in time to be known as the "Jacks"
of the various nationalities they represented, and it was from the
raising of one of these upon a lance or staff at the bow of a ship, in
order that the nationality of those on board might be made known, that
a single flag bearing on it only the cross of St. George, or the cross
of St. Andrew, came to be known as a "Jack." From this origin, too, the
small flag-pole at the bow of a ship is still called the "Jack-staff,"
and similarly the short flag-pole at the stern of vessels, upon which
the distinguishing Ensign of the nationality of the ship is displayed,
is called the "Ensign-staff."

This custom of wearing the national Jack at the bow had not only been
early established by usage, but had also been officially recognized.
On the great seal of the first Lord Admiral of England, in 1409, under
Henry IV., a one-masted galley is shown.[15] At the stern of the ship is
the Royal Standard of the King, and at the bow a staff bearing on it
the square banner or Jack of St. George, the sign of England.

[15] Bloomfleld: "The National Flag."

Another instance of the use of these national Jacks as a sign of
national union is to be noted.

During the feudal period of European history, when armed forces were
called into the field, each of the nobles and leaders, as in duty
bound, furnished to the cause his quota of men equipped with complete
armament. These troops bore upon their arms and banners the heraldic
device or coat-of-arms of their own liege lord, as a sign of "the
company to which they belonged"; and in such way the particular
locality from which they came, and the leadership under which they were
marshalled could at once be recognized.

The Sovereigns also in their turn displayed the banner of the kingdom
over which each reigned, such as the fleur-de-lis for France, the cross
of St. George for England, the cross of St. Andrew for Scotland; and
this banner of the king formed the ensign under which the combined
forces of the royal adherents and their supporters served.

As the forces collected together came to be more the national army
of the nation and less the personal adherents of their chief, it was
provided in England that the liege lord of each local force should bear
on his banner the cross of St. George, as well as his own coat-of-arms,
the ordinance being:

 "Every Standard, or Guydhome, is to hang in the chiefe the crosse of
 St. George and to conteyne the crest or supporter and devise of the
 owner."[16]

[16] Harleian MSS.

An excellent example of this is given in the standard or ensign
of the forces of the Earls of Percy in the sixteenth century (Pl.
III., fig. 1). In the chief is the red cross of St. George,
as the sign of allegiance to King and nation; in the fly is the crest
of the Percys, a blue lion with other insignia, and their motto,
"_Esperance en Dieu_," the signs of their liege lord and local country.

This flag declared its bearers to be the men of the Percy contingent,
Englishmen, and soldiers of the King.

[Illustration: 7. COLOURS OF THE 10TH ROYAL GRENADIERS,
CANADA.]

A survival of this ancient custom exists to this day in our British
military service, both in the Colonial and Imperial forces. Rifle
regiments do not carry "colours," but all infantry regiments are
entitled, upon receiving the royal warrant, to carry two flags, which
are called "Colours" (7).

The "First," or "King's Colour," is the plain "Union Jack," in sign
of allegiance to the Sovereign, and upon this, in the centre, is the
number or designation of the regiment, surmounted by a royal crown. The
"Second," or "Regimental Colour," has a small Union Jack in the upper
corner. The body of the flag is of the local colour of the facings of
the regiment. If the facings are blue, as in all "Royal" regiments,
the flag is blue; if they are white, then the flag is white, having
on it a large St. George's cross in addition to the small Union Jack
in the upper corner. On the body of this colour are embroidered the
regimental badge, the names of actions in which it has taken part,
and any distinctive emblems indicating the special history of the
regiment itself, and in territorial regiments the locality from which
they are recruited. In this way both the national and local methods of
distinction are to-day preserved and displayed in the same way as they
were in original times; the Union Jack of the present day having been
substituted for the St. George's cross of the first period.

Such, then, was the origin of the name Jack, and it is from the
combination of the three national "Jacks" of England, Scotland and
Ireland, at successive periods in their history, into one flag, that
the well-known "Union Jack" of our British nation has gradually grown
into its present form.



CHAPTER IV.

_THE ENGLISH JACK._

A.D. 1194-1606.


The original leader and dominant partner in the three kingdoms, which
have been the cradle of the British race throughout the world, was
England, and it is her flag which forms the groundwork upon which our
Union Flag has been built up.

The English Jack (Pl I., fig. 1) is described in simple
language as a white flag having upon it a plain red cross.

[Illustration: 8. ST. GEORGE'S JACK.]

This is the banner of St. George (8), the patron saint of England, and
in heraldic language is described as "_Argent, a cross gules_" (on
silver-white a plain red cross).

The great Christian hero, St. George, is stated by those who have
made most intimate search into his legend and history[17] to have been
descended from a noble Cappadocian Christian family, and to have
been beheaded for his faith on the 23rd April, A.D. 303, during
the persecution of the Christians by the Emperor Diocletian. The
anniversary of that day is for that reason celebrated as St. George's
Day. He was a soldier of highest renown, a knight of purest honour, and
many exploits of his heroism and courage are narrated in ancient prose
and poetry.

[17] Gordon: "Saint George, Champion of Christendom."

About three miles north along the shore of the Mediterranean, from the
city of Beyrut (Beyrout), there was in the time of the Crusaders, and
still remains, an ancient grotto cut into the rock, and famous as being
the traditional place where the gallant knight St. George,

  "Y' cladd in mightie armes and silver shielde,
  As one for knightly giusts and fierce encounters fitt."[18]

[18] Spenser: "Faerie Queene."

was reputed to have performed one of his most doughty deeds, and had
"_redeemed the King's daughter out of the fiery jaws of a dreadful
dragon_.[19]

[19] Ludovicus Patricius: "Book of Travels."

The memory of St. George has always been greatly revered in the East,
particularly by the Christian Greek Church, by which he was acclaimed
as the "Victorious One," the "Champion Knight of Christendom," and
early accepted as the protector saint of soldiers and sailors. One of
the first churches erected by Constantine the Great, about A.D. 313,
and many other Eastern churches, were dedicated to him.

It is to be noted, however, that St. George has never been canonized
by the Roman Church, nor his name placed in her calendar of sacred
saints. His name, like those of St. Christopher, St. Sebastian and
St. Nicholas, was only included in a list issued in A.D. 494, by Pope
Gelasius, as being among those "_whose names are justly reverenced
among men, but whose actions are known only to God_.[20]

[20] Jameson: "Sacred and Legendary Art."

The form of his cross is that known as the Greek Cross, the four arms
being at right angles to each other, and in this form is displayed in
the upper corner of the national Greek ensign, in this case as a white
cross on a blue ground. (Pl II., fig. 3.)

This Greek religious connection has also caused the adoption of the
cross of St. George in the insignia of other nations. The Czar of
Russia is not only the "Autocrat of the People of the Empire of all
the Russias," but he is also the "Supreme Head of the Orthodox Faith,"
which in Russia is represented by the Greek Church. His Imperial
Standard is a yellow flag upon which is displayed a black two-headed
eagle bearing upon its breast a red shield on which is emblazoned in
white the figure of St. George slaying a dragon. This same colouring,
white on red, is followed in the decoration of the Order of St. George,
which is the second order of knighthood in Russia, and in the white
cross of St. George, as shown in the official flags of the Russian
ambassadors.

On the royal arms of Austria the black two-headed eagle bears on its
breast a shield with a red ground having on it a white St. George's
cross.

The insignia of eight nations bear the Greek cross of the St. George
shape, but in four different colours on grounds of three different
colours:

  Greece      a white  cross  on a  blue  ground.
  Russia      a   "      "      "   red      "
  Austria     a   "      "      "     "      "
  Denmark     a   "      "      "     "      "
  Switzerland a   "      "      "     "      "
  Norway      a  blue    "      "     "      "
  Sweden      a  yellow  "      "   blue     "
  England     a  red     "      "   white    "

England is, however, the only nation which has adopted the _Red cross
of St. George_ as its special national ensign.

The cry of "St. George for Merrie England" has re-echoed through so
many centuries that his place as the patron saint of the kingdom is
firmly established. Wherever ships have sailed, there the red cross of
St. George has been carried by the sailor-nation who chose him as their
hero.

The incident from which came his adoption as patron saint is thus
narrated in the early chronicles. In 1190, Richard I., _C[oe]ur de
Lion_, of England, had joined the French, Germans and Franks in the
third great crusade to the Holy Land; but while the other nations
proceeded overland to the seat of war, Richard built and engaged a
great fleet, in which he conveyed his English troops to Palestine by
sea. His armament consisted of "254 talle shippes and about three score
galliots." Sailing down the eastern shore with these and arriving off
the coast, he won a gallant sea-fight over the Saracens near Beyrut,
and the grotto of St. George, and by this victory intercepted the
reinforcements which their ships were carrying to the relief of Acre,
at that time being besieged by the combined armies of the Crusaders.

St. George, the redresser of wrongs, the protector of women, the model
of Christian chivalry, and the tutelary saint of England, was not a
seafaring hero, nor himself connected with the sea, but it was after
and in memory of their sailors' victory near the scene of his exploits
that the seafaring nation adopted him as their patron saint.

The red cross emblem of St. George is stated by the chroniclers to have
been at once thereafter adopted by Richard I., who immediately placed
himself and his army under the especial protection of the Saint, raised
his banner at their head, and is reported to have introduced the emblem
into England itself after his return in 1194. Further evidence of its
introduction and its continued use is given by the record that in 1222
St. George's Day was ordered to be kept as a holiday in England.[21]

[21] Butler: "Lives of the Fathers and Martyrs."

Some aver that the emblem was not generally accepted until under
Edward I., in 1274. This prince, before his accession to the throne,
had served in the last Crusades, and during that time had visited the
scene of the victory and the grotto of the Saint. It is pointed out
that this visit of Prince Edward to Palestine coincided with the change
made in their badge by the English Order of the Knights of St. John of
Jerusalem from an eight-pointed Maltese cross to a straight white Greek
cross, and that at the time of this change came the appearance upon the
English banners of the St. George's cross, but of the English national
colour red,[22] therefore they deduce that the further employment of the
emblem as the national flag was then additionally authorized by Edward
I.

[22] Bloomfield: "The National Flag."

[Illustration: 9. THE BOROUGH SEAL OF LYME REGIS, 1284.]

From this last date (1274) onward the St. George's cross and the
legend of "St. George and the Dragon" in England are, at all events,
in plain evidence. An early instance is that found in the borough of
Lyme Regis, in Dorset, to which Edward I., in 1284, granted its first
charter of incorporation and its official seal. A photo reproduction
of a wax impression of this borough seal (9), taken from an old "Toll
lease" is here given. The flag of St. George is seen at the mast-head,
and below it the Royal Standard of Richard I., with its three lions
for England, carried by Edward in Palestine during the lifetime of his
father. At the bow of the ship is the figure of the Saint represented
in the act of slaying the dragon, and having on his shield the St.
George's cross.

  "And on his breast a bloodie crosse he bore,
  The deare remembrance of his dying Lord,
  For whose sweete sake that glorious badge he wore,
  And dead, as living, ever Him adored:
  Upon his shield the like was also scor'd,
  For soveraine hope which in his helpe he had.
  Right faithful true he was in deede and word."[23]

[23] Spenser: "Faerie Queene."

The religious and Christian attributes of St. George are commemorated
on the seal by the representation of the Crucifixion and by the Saint,
the head of whose spear is a St. George's cross, being shown as in
angel form. The sea tradition of his adoption is also sustained by the
characteristic introduction of the "galley" into the design.

Around the edge of the seal is the rude lettering of the inscription
in Latin: "_Sigillum: Comune: De: Lim_" ("The common seal of Lyme").
Near the top may be seen the "star and crescent" badge of Richard I.,
adopted by him as a record of his naval victory, and which is still
used as an "admiralty badge" upon the epaulettes of admirals of the
British navy.

This seal of Lyme Regis is said to be the earliest representation of
St. George and the dragon known in England.

The same form of cross was placed by Edward I., in 1294, upon the
monumental crosses which he raised at Cheapside, Charing Cross and
other places, in memory of his loved Queen Eleanor, to mark the spots
at which her body rested during the funeral procession when her remains
were carried from Lincoln through Northampton to London.

Another instance of a later date is found on a "sepulchral brass" (10),
placed to the memory of Sir Hugh Hastings in Elsing Church, Norfolk,
and dated 1347.

These plates of engraved brass, inserted in the stone coverings of
so many graves in the interior of the churches in England, are most
interesting examples of early memorial art. The figure of the deceased
is usually drawn in full length upon them in lines cut deeply into the
metal, and is accompanied by an inscription setting forth his deeds and
his name.

In the upper part of the architectural tracery surrounding the figure
on the brass in question is a circle 8-1/4 inches in diameter, in
which the figure of St. George is as shown. The Saint here appears as
a knight, clad in full armour and mounted upon horseback, representing
him in his character as the leader of chivalry and knightly manhood.
A further development of the attribute of manly vigour will be noted
in that, instead of being shown as piercing, as previously, the fiery
dragon of the ancient legend, he is now represented as slaying the
equally typical two-legged demon of vice. This representation still
further exemplifies the teaching and allegory of the emblem of "St.
George and the Dragon."

[Illustration: 10. BRASS IN ELSING CHURCH, 1347. ]

St. George represents the Principle of Good, the Dragon the Principle
of Evil. It is the contest between virtue and vice, in which the
knight by his virtues prevails--a splendid emblem for a Christian
people.

This photo reproduction is from a "rubbing" in black lead recently
taken from the brass, and shows, so far as the reduced scale will
permit, the St. George's crosses upon the surcoat and shield of the
knight and the trappings of his horse.

In 1350, on St. George's Day, the "most noble Order of the Garter"
was instituted by Edward III., with magnificent ceremony in the
St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. This is the highest order of
knighthood in the kingdom. Its jewel, called "The George," is a
representation of St. George and the Dragon, and in the centre of the
"Star" of the Order is the red cross of St. George.

So onward through all the centuries, and now St. George is the
acclaimed patron saint of England and all Englishmen.

It was under this red cross banner of St. George that Richard I., the
Lion-hearted, after proving their seamanship in victory and giving
his men their battle-cry, "Saint George--forward!"[24] showed the
mettle of his English Crusaders in the battles of the Holy Land, and
led them to the walls of Jerusalem. With it the fleets of Edward I.
claimed and maintained the "lordship of the Narrow Seas." Under this
single red cross flag the ships of England won the epochal naval
victory of _Sluys_, where the English bowman shot his feathered shafts
from shipboard as blithely as when afterwards on land the French
battlefields resounded to the cry of "England and St. George," when
the undying glories of Cressy and Poictiers were achieved, and again
at Agincourt when Henry V. led on his men to victory. Under it, too,
Cabot discovered Cape Breton, Drake sailed around the world, Frobisher
sought the Northwest passage, Raleigh founded Virginia, and the navy of
Elizabeth carried confusion into the ill-fated Spanish Armada.

[24] Orton: "Saint George."

This is a "glory roll" which justifies the name of England as "Mistress
of the Seas." Her patron saint was won as a record of naval victory.
With this red cross flag of St. George flying above them, her English
sailors swept the seas around their white-cliffed coasts, and made the
ships of all other nations do obeisance to it. With it they penetrated
distant oceans, and planted it on previously unknown lands as signs
of the sovereignty of their king, making the power of England and
England's flag known throughout the circle of the world.

All this was done before the time when the sister-nations had joined
their flags with hers, and it is a just tribute to the seafaring
prowess of the English people, and to the victories won by the English
Jack, that the single St. George's cross is in the British fleets the
_Admiral's Flag_, and flies as his badge of rank; that it is in the
_Command Pennant_ of all captains and officers in command of ships,
and that the English red cross flag is the groundwork of the White
Ensign of the British navy (Pl. VIII. , fig. 2). This is the
"distinction flag" of the British navy, allowed to be carried only by
His Majesty's ships-of-war, and restricted, except by special grant,
solely to those bearing the Royal commission.[25]

[25] A special permission has been granted to the yachts of the "Royal
Yacht Squadron," of England, to use the white ensign. A penalty of £500
may by law be imposed for hoisting on any ship or boat belonging to any
of His Majesty's subjects any flag not permitted in accordance with the
Admiralty's Regulations. (See Art. 86, "Admiralty Instructions.")


Thus has the memory of Richard I. and his men been preserved, and all
honour done to the "Mariners of England," the sons of St. George, whose
single red cross flag, the English Jack, has worthily won the poet's
praise:

  "Ye mariners of England!
    That guard our native seas,
  Whose flag has braved a thousand years
    The battle and the breeze.

         *       *       *       *       *

  "The meteor flag of England
    Shall yet terrific burn,
  Till danger's troubled night depart,
    And the star of Peace return."[26]

[26] Campbell.



CHAPTER V.


_THE SUPREMACY OF THE ENGLISH JACK._

A.D. 871-1606.


While it is true that flags and banners had grown up on land from the
necessity of having some means of identifying the knights and nobles,
whose faces were encased and hidden from sight within their helmets,
yet it was at sea that they attained to their greatest estimation.
There the flag upon the mast became the ensign of the nation to which
the vessel belonged, and formed the very embodiment of its power.
To fly the flag was an act of defiance, to lower it an evidence of
submission, and thus the motions of these little coloured cloths at sea
became of highest importance.

The supremacy of one nation over another was measured most readily
by the precedence which its flag received from the ships of other
nationalities. National pride, therefore, became involved in the
question of the supremacy of the flag at sea, and in this contest the
English were not behindhand in taking their share, for the supremacy
of the sea meant to England something more than the mere precedence of
her flag. It meant that no other power should be allowed to surpass her
as a naval power; not that she desired to carry strife against their
countries, but esteemed it more for the protection of her own shores
at home, and the preservation of peace along the confines of her island
seas.

This faith in the maintenance of the Supremacy of the Seas remains
potent to this present day, as is shown by the demand of the British
people that their navy shall be maintained at a two-power standard,
and so be equal in strength to the navies of any other two of the
nations which sail the oceans. It is no new ardour, nor the outcome
of any modern development or exigency, but is the outgrowth of the
determination of the nation from its earliest days to maintain the
supremacy of its flag, and is strengthened by the lessons learned in
those centuries.

Alfred the Great of England (871-901) was the first to establish any
supremacy for the English flag, and to him is attributed the first
gathering together of a Royal navy, the creation of an efficient force
at sea being a portion of that sea-policy which he so early declared,
and which has ever since been the ruling guide of the English people.
The true defence of England lay, Alfred considered, in maintaining a
fleet at sea of sufficient power to stretch out afar, rather than in
trusting to fortifications for effective land resistance when the enemy
had reached her shores; that it was _better to beat the enemy at sea
before he has a chance to land_, and thus to forestall invasion before
it came too near--a policy which in these days of steam is simply being
reproduced by the creation of "Dreadnoughts," swift and strong, to hit
hard on distant seas. The bulwarks of England were considered in his
time, as they are still considered, to be her ships at sea rather than
the parapets of her forts on land.

   "Britannia needs no bulwarks,
    No towers along the steep;
  Her march is o'er the mountain waves,
    Her home is on the deep."[27]

[27] Campbell.

Introducing galleys longer and faster than those of the Danes,[28]
Alfred kept his enemies at a respectful distance, and, dwelling
secure under the protection of his fleet, was thus enabled to devote
himself with untrammelled energy to the establishment of the internal
government of his kingdom.

[28] "Sax. Chron."

His successors followed up his ideas, and under Athelstane (901)
the creation of an English merchant navy was also developed. Every
inducement was offered to merchants who should engage in maritime
ventures. Among other decrees then made was one that, "_if a merchant
so thrives that he pass thrice over the wide seas in his own craft he
was henceforth a Thane righte worthie_."[29] Thus honours were to be
won as well as wealth, and in pursuit of both the merchants of England
extended their energies to wider traffic on the seas.

[29] "Canciam," IV.

King Edgar (973-75), by virtue of his navy, won and assumed the title
of "Supreme Lord and Governor of the Ocean lying around about Britain."
Thus did the English flag, carried by its navies, sail the seas. But
Harold, the last of the Saxon kings, instead of maintaining his ships
in equipment and fitness to protect his shores, allowed them, for want
of adequate provisions, to be dispersed from their station behind the
Isle of Wight, and so, forgetting the teachings of Alfred, left his
southern coasts unguarded and let the Norman invader have opportunity
to land, an opportunity which was promptly seized.

The Norman monarchs of England held in their turn to the supremacy
which the early Saxon kings had claimed for her flag at sea.

When the conquest of England, in 1066, had been completely effected by
the Norman forces, the shores on each side of the "narrow seas" between
England and Normandy were combined under the rule of William the
Conqueror, communication by water increased between the two portions
of his realm, and the maritime interests of the people were greatly
extended and established.

Richard I. showed England to the other nations, during the Crusades, as
a strong maritime power. King John followed in his footsteps, and in
1200, the second year of his reign, issued his declaration directing
that ships of all other nations must honour his Royal flag:

 "If any lieutenant of the King's fleet in any naval expedition, do
 meet with on the sea any ship or vessels, laden or unladen, that will
 not vail and lower their sails at the command of the Lieutenant of the
 King or the King's Admiral, but shall fight with them of the fleet,
 such, if taken, shall be reported as enemies, and the vessels and
 goods shall be seized and forfeited as the goods of enemies."

The supremacy which King John thus claimed, his successors afterwards
maintained and extended, so that under Edward I., Spain, Germany,
Holland, Denmark, and Norway, being all the other nations, except
France, which bordered on the adjacent seas, joined in according to
England "possession of the sovereignty of the English seas and the
Isles therein,"[30] together with admission of the right which the
English had of maintaining sovereign guard over these seas, and over
all the ships of other Dominions, as well as their own, which might be
passing through them.

[30] Southey: "British Admirals."

Edward II. was given, in 1320, the title of "Lord of the Seas."[31]

[31] Sir Harris Nicholas.

Edward III., himself a sailor-king and commander of his fleets, was
fully imbued with the force of the Alfred maxim, so that when invasion
threatened England he said, "_he deemed it better with a strong hand to
go seek the enemy in his own country than wait ignobly at home for the
threatened danger_."[32] Putting his maxim into action he led his fleet
across the Channel, and his victory over the French fleet at Sluys, off
Flanders, on the 24th June, 1340, was the Trafalgar of its day, and the
resulting supremacy of the English Jack on the narrow seas enabled him
to land his forces on the foreign shores, when he subsequently invaded
France to establish his claim to the French throne.

The prowess of himself and of his seamen in their victory over the
French and Spanish fleets won for Edward the proud title of "King of
the Seas," in token of which he was represented upon his gold coinage
standing in a ship "full royally apparelled."[33]

[32] Rymer.


[33] Aubrey: "Gold Noble, Ed. III."

During the Wars of the Roses less attention was given by the nation
to maritime matters, and while the English were so busily engaged in
fighting amongst themselves, the Dutch of the Netherlands, under the
Duke of Burgundy, developed a large carrying trade, and so increased
their fleets that, in 1485, at the accession of Henry VII., they had
become a formidable shipping rival of England, and were a thorn in the
side of France. Over the ships of the French the Dutch so lorded it on
the narrow seas that, to quote Philip de Commines, their

 "navy was so mighty and strong, that no man durst stir in these narrow
 seas for fear of it making war upon the King of France's subjects and
 threatening them everywhere."

Two flags, the striped standard of the Dutch and the red cross Jack of
the English, were now rivalling each other on the adjacent seas and
on the Atlantic. The contest for the supremacy which had begun was
continued for nearly two hundred years thereafter.

In the time of Henry VII. more attention was given to merchant shipping
and foreign adventure. Cabot carried the English flag across the
Atlantic under the license which he and his associates received from
Henry VII., empowering them

 "to seek out and find whatsoever isles, countries, regions, or
 provinces of the heathen and infidels, whatsoever they might be; and
 set up his banner on every isle or mainland by them newly found."

With this authority for its exploits the red cross of St. George was
planted, in 1497, on the shores of Newfoundland and Florida, and the
English Jack thus first carried into America formed the foundation for
the subsequent British claim to sovereignty over all the intervening
coasts along the Atlantic.

Under Henry VIII. England began to bestir herself in making provision
for a regular navy. A drawing in the Pepysian Library gives the details
of the _Henri Grace à Dieu_ (11), built in 1515 by order of Henry
VIII., which was the greatest warship up to that time built in England,
and has been termed the "parent of the British Navy." At the four
mastheads fly St. George's ensigns, and from the bowsprit end and from
each of the round tops upon the lower masts are long streamers with the
St. George's cross, very similar in form to the naval pennants of the
present day. The castellated building at the bow, and the hooks with
which the yards are armed, tell of the derivation of the nautical terms
"forecastle" and "yard arm" still in use.

With such improved armament the cross of St. George continued to ruffle
its way on the narrow seas, and widened the scope of its domain.

The supremacy claimed for the English Jack never lost anything at the
hands of its bearers, and an event which occurred in the reign of Queen
Mary gives a vivid picture of the boldness of the sea-dogs by whom it
was carried, and of how they held their own over any rival craft:

[Illustration: 11. THE "HENRI GRACE À DIEU," 1515.

(From the Pepysian collection.)]

The Spanish fleet, of one hundred and sixty sail, was escorting Philip
II., of Spain, when coming to his marriage with the English Queen, in
1554. It was met off Southampton by the English fleet, of twenty-eight
sail, under Lord William Howard, who was then "Lord High Admiral in the
narrow seas." The Spanish fleet, with their King on board, was flying
the Royal flag of Spain, and was proceeding to pass the English ships
without paying the customary honours. The English admiral promptly
fired a shot into the Spanish admiral's ship, and the whole fleet was
obliged to strike their colours and lower their topsails in homage to
the English flag. Not until this salute had been properly done would
Howard permit his own squadron to salute the Spanish King.[34]

[34] Preble: "Flag of the United States."

Under Elizabeth seamanship mightily increased. Her merchant fleets,
from being mere coasters, extended their ventures to far distant
voyages, in some of which the Queen herself was said to have had an
interest; and while before her time soldiers had exceeded seamen in
numbers, the positions were now reversed.

The defeat of the Spanish Armada, in 1588, was one of the crowning
achievements of the supremacy of the English Jack, yet it would almost
seem as though the glorious flag had, in the never-to-be-forgotten
action of the undaunted _Revenge_, kept for the closing years of its
single cross period the grandest of all the many strifes in which it
had been engaged.

England and Spain were then at open war. The English fleet, consisting
of six Queen's ships, six victuallers of London, and two or three
pinnaces, was riding at anchor near the island of Flores, in the
Azores, waiting for the coming of the Spanish fleet, which was expected
to pass on its way from the West Indies, where it had wintered the
preceding year. On the 1st September, 1591, the enemy came in sight,
numbering fifty-three sail, "the first time since the great Armada that
the King of Spain had shown himself so strong at sea."[35]

[35] Monson.

The English had been refitting their equipment, the sick had all
been sent on shore, and their ships were not in readiness to meet so
overwhelming an armament. On the approach of the Spaniards, and to
save the fleet from being penned in by them along the coast, five of
the English ships slipped their cables, and together with the consorts
sailed out to sea. Sir Richard Grenville, in the _Revenge_, was left
behind to collect the men on shore and bring off the sick, and so,
after having done this duty, came out alone to meet the enemy, which
was marshalled in long extended line outside the port. He might have
sailed around their wing, but this would have been an admission of
inferiority, and, bold to recklessness, he thrust his little ship
right through the centre of their line. Rather than strike his flag,
he withstood the onset of all the Spanish fleet, which closed in
succession around him, and thus this century of the red cross Jack
closed with a sea-fight worthy of its story, and one which has been
preserved by a Poet Laureate in undying verse, whose lines ought to be
known by every British boy:

  "He had only a hundred seamen to work the ship and to fight,
  And he sailed away from Flores till the Spaniard came in sight,
  With his huge sea-castles heaving upon the weather bow.
          'Shall we fight or shall we fly?
            Good Sir Richard, tell us now,
          For to fight is but to die!
            There'll be little of us left by the time this sun be set,'
  And Sir Richard said again: 'We be all good English men.
  Let us bang these dogs of Seville, the children of the devil,
  For I never turn'd my back upon Don or devil yet.'

         *       *       *       *       *

  And the sun went down, and the stars came out far over the summer sea,
  But never a moment ceased the fight of the one and fifty-three.
  Ship after ship, the whole night long, their high-built galleons came,
  Ship after ship, the whole night long, with her battle-thunder and flame;
  Ship after ship, the whole night long, drew back with her dead and her
    shame.
  For some were sunk, and many were shatter'd, and so could fight us no
    more--
  God of battles, was ever a battle like this in the world before?"[36]

[36] Tennyson: "The Revenge."

In such way, audacious in victory and unconquered in defeat, the
English sailors, beneath their English Jack, held for the mastery of
the oceans from Alfred to Elizabeth, and laid the foundations of that
maritime spirit which still holds for Great Britain the proud supremacy
of the seas.



CHAPTER VI.

_THE SCOTTISH JACK._


From a very early period St. Andrew has been esteemed as the patron
saint of Scotland, and held in veneration quite as strong as that
entertained in England for St. George. The "saltire," or diagonal cross
of St. Andrew (12), shaped like the letter X is attributed
to the tradition that the saint, considering himself unworthy to be
crucified on a cross of the same shape as that on which his Saviour
had suffered, had, by his own choice, been crucified with legs and
arms extended upon a cross of this shape, and, therefore, it has been
accepted as the emblem of his martyrdom.

[Illustration: 12. ST. ANDREW'S JACK.]

The "Scottish Jack" (Pl I., fig. 2) is a white oblong cross
upon a blue ground. This is the banner of St. Andrew (12), and in
heraldic language is described as "_Azure, a saltire argent_" (on azure
blue, a silver-white saltire).

How St. Andrew came to be adopted as the patron saint of Scotland is
a subject of much varying conjecture. It is said that in the early
centuries, about A.D. 370, some relics of the apostle St. Andrew were
being brought to Scotland by some Greek monks, and although the vessel
carrying them was wrecked and became a total loss, the sacred bones
were brought safe to shore at the port in the County of Fife, still
called _St. Andrews_, where a church was erected to his memory.

The most favoured tradition as to the date of his authorized adoption
as a patron saint is that it occurred in A.D. 987, when Hungus, king
of the Picts, was being attacked by Athelstane, the king of the West
Saxons,[37] Achaius, king of the Scots, with 10,000 of his Scottish
subjects, came to the relief of Hungus, and the two kings joined their
forces to repel the Southern invaders. The Scottish leaders, face to
face with so formidable a foe, were passing the night in prayer to
God and St. Andrew, when upon the background of the blue sky there
appeared, formed in white clouds, the figure of the white cross of the
martyr saint. Reanimated by this answering sign, the Scottish soldiers
entered the fray with enthusiastic valour, and beset the English with
such ardour as to drive them in confusion from the field, leaving their
king, Athelstane, behind them dead among the slain. Since that time the
white saltire cross, upon a blue ground, the banner of St. Andrew, has
been carried by the Scots as their national ensign.

[37] Sir Harris Nicholas: "History of the Order of the Thistle."

This was the flag carried by the great Scottish national hero,
Robert-the-Bruce, whose valour won for him the crown of Scotland,
and whose descendants, the earls of Elgin, still bear his banner on
their coatof-arms. At Bannockburn, in 1314, this emblem of Bruce rose
victorious over Edward II. and his stolid Englishmen. Its use was
continued in 1385, when the Scots, stirred up and aided by Charles VI.
of France, invaded and despoiled the border counties of England, in
which expeditions both they and their French auxiliaries wore a white
St. Andrew's cross upon their jacques, both before and behind, in order
that they might distinguish the soldiers of their combined companies
from the forces of the foe.[38]

[38] Perry: "Rank and Badges."

But St. Andrew's flag was not always victorious. At Chevy Chase and
Flodden Field it suffered defeat, but only in such wise as to prove the
truth of the warning motto of the prickly Scotch thistle, "_Nemo me
impune lacessit_"--(No one may touch me with impunity).

The Scottish Jack in all these early centuries, unlike its English
compeer, does not appear to have been carried by Scotsmen far afield,
nor in expeditions across the seas. On land, the Scots used it mainly
as a sign of recognition during the forays which they kept up with
unceasing vigour on the neighbouring kingdoms of England and Ireland;
and at sea its scene of action was kept measurably near to their own
shores.

Scotland, being so far removed from the fleets of the southern nations
of Europe, did not need a regular navy, and never had one of any
size,[39] but her far northern coasts, indented with deep bays and
bordered by wild fastnesses, adapted themselves admirably to the use
to which they were mainly put, of being the lair from which hardy,
venturesome freebooters, in those times called "sea rovers," sailed
forth in their "talle shippes" (13), and pounced down upon the vessels
of the passersby. The exploits of some of these sailors, under the St.
Andrew's Jack, crop out from time to time with splendid audacity in
the history of the centuries. One "Mercer, a Scottish rover," during
the reign of Richard II. of England, so harried the merchant shipping
of England that, in 1378, Alderman John Philpot, "a worshipful citizen
of London," equipped an expedition at his own expense to cramp the
energies of the marauder, and meeting Mercer and fifteen Spanish ships,
which were acting with him, brought the whole fleet, "_besides great
riches which were found on board_," in triumph into port at Scarborough
in Yorkshire. Philpot was haled before the English royal authorities
for having dared "_to set forth a navy of men-of-war without the
advice of the King's Council_," but the end was considered to have
justified the means, and the bold citizen, who by his own action had
put down the annoyance with which the officers of the realm should have
dealt, was, after having himself stoutly berated the Council for their
sluggishness, let go free.

[39] In 1707, when, at the time of the completed union under Queen
Anne, the whole navy of the Scots was transferred to the navy of Great
Britain, it consisted of only "three small ships."

[Illustration: 13. SCOTCH "TALLE SHIPPE," 16TH CENTURY.

(From a painting by Vandyck.)]

Sir Andrew Wood, of Leith, who for a long time pillaged the English
ships and set the navy of Henry VII. at defiance, was another doughty
champion of the St. Andrew's cross.

Growing bolder in his defiance, he challenged the English Royal Navy
to a contest. The challenge was accepted, and three chosen ships were
sent to meet him. These he overmastered, and carried off his prizes and
their crews to Dundee, from where, after the wounded had been cared
for, and the damages of the vessels repaired, James IV. of Scotland
returned the ships and their men to Henry, saying, "_the contest had
been for honour, not for booty_."[40]

[40] Pinkerton: "History of Scotland."

But the greatest hero of them all, the one whose deeds have woven
themselves into the folklore of the Scottish race, was Sir Andrew
Barton, who in the time of Henry VIII. not only plundered his English
neighbours, but also took toll of the ships of all other nations
without regard to their flag, making himself the terror of the North
Seas. An old ballad tells in quaint style what an English merchant of
Newcastle, whose ships had fallen into the hands of Barton, is said to
have reported to the English Admiral, who was in charge of the "Narrow
Seas":

  "Hast thou not herde, Lord Howard bold,
    As thou hast sailed by day and by night,
  Of a Scottish rover on the seas?
    Men call hym Sir Andrewe Barton, Knyte?

  "He is brasse within and steel withoute,
    With bemes on his toppe-castle strong,
  And eighteen piece of ordnaunce
    He carries on each side along.

  "And he hath a pinnace derely dight,
    St. Andrew's cross yat is his guide;
  His pinnace bereth nine score men
    And fifteen cannons on each side.

  "Were ye twenty ships and he but one,
    I swear by kirk, and bower and hall,
  He would overcome them every one
    If once his bemes they do down fall."

Sir Andrew was the last of the freebooters, as the rise of the navy of
Henry VIII., and the union of the two kingdoms of England and Scotland
by James I. under one crown, put an end to these reprisals by the
subjects of the one nation on the other; yet, as we shall see, it was
the remnants of these very rivalries thus engendered between the single
cross flags of St. Andrew and St. George which led to these national
Jacks of the two nations being afterwards joined together to form one
flag.

St. Andrew is also venerated by the Russians as a national saint, their
tradition being that it was through the Apostle St. Andrew that the
gospel of Christianity had been brought to their people. Their highest
order of knighthood, created by Peter the Great, in 1698, is the Order
of St. Andrew, and the national flag of Russia, borne by all their
people and on their imperial navy, is the St. Andrew's cross. It is
also used on the masthead of their war vessels to indicate the rank of
an admiral.

It will be remembered that the Russians have transposed the colours of
the banner of St. George from a red cross on a white ground, as on the
English Jack, to be on theirs a white cross on a red ground. So also
they have transposed the colours on their St. Andrew's flag to be a
blue cross on a white ground instead of a white cross on a blue ground
as on the Scottish flag.



CHAPTER VII.

_THE "ADDITIONAL" UNION JACK OF JAMES I._

A.D. 1606-1648.


[Illustration: 14. ROYAL ARMS OF ENGLAND, HENRY V., 1413, TO
ELIZABETH.]

The kingdoms of England and Scotland had passed through their centuries
of dissension and conflict when at length, in March, 1603, upon the
death of his second cousin, Elizabeth, Queen of England, James VI.,
King of Scotland, succeeded to her throne, and became also King James
I. of England. Before entering upon the subject of the joining of
the two national Jacks in one flag, it may be well to consider the
changes then made in the Royal Standard in consequence of this union
of the crowns. The Royal Standard is the special personal flag of the
Sovereign, and wears upon it his Royal arms emblazoned with "devise"
or insignia of the kingdoms over which he rules. James, upon ascending
the throne of England, immediately issued a proclamation instructing a
change to be made in its then existing form (14). Richard I., _C[oe]ur
de Lion_, had displayed on his Royal Standard the three golden lions
on a red ground, the sign of England. To these Henry V. had added
three golden _fleur-de-lis_ on a blue ground, typifying his right to
the throne of France. This standard was used thereafter by all his
successors, the sovereigns of England, and by Elizabeth. A change was
now made by James to represent his additional sovereignties. To the
standard of Elizabeth he added the lion rampant of Scotland and also
the harp of Ireland, which had not previously been included in the
Royal Arms (15), thus placing the three lions for England and three
_fleurs-de-lis_ for France in the first and fourth quarters; the lion
rampant for Scotland in the second, and the harp for Ireland in the
third quarter.

[Illustration: 15. ROYAL ARMS OF JAMES I., 1603.]

While he changed the English Royal Standard, no change was instructed
to be made, nor was evidently considered to be necessary, in the
English national flag of St. George, which continued to be used as
previously on the English ships by his new subjects. Thus in the early
years of the reign of James, the English and Scotch ships continued to
use their respective "red crosse" and "white crosse" Jacks, exactly as
they had done prior to his accession to the English throne.

The nations had now been brought into closer contact, and the movement
of shipping along their shores much increased as each was relieved from
any fear of attack by the other.

Each nation, no doubt, retained a predilection for its own national
flag--a preference which its adherents expressed each in their own
way, and most probably in terms not untinged by caustic references to
controversies and contentions of previous days.

When James had ascended the throne of England, it was his great desire
to be styled King of "Great Britain," as well as of "France and
Ireland." He had caused himself at the outset to be so proclaimed,
and afterwards used the phrase in his proclamations, but without due
authority. During the first year of his reign opinions on the point
were asked of the Judges of the courts, and also of the Lords and
Commons of England, but the replies of all were unanimously against his
right to the assumption of any such title, as being one which might
seem to indicate a fusion of the two kingdoms.

The fact was, that although the two kingdoms of Scotland and England
had been joined in allegiance to the same sovereign, who was equally
king of each, yet as each kingdom still retained its own separate
parliament, their union had not been made adequately complete. The King
had particularly desired to complete this union. In a proclamation
he issued, he states he had found among the "better disposed" of his
subjects

 "a most earnest desire that the sayd happy union should be perfected,
 the memory of all preterite discontentments abolished, and all the
 inhabitants of both the realms to be the subjects of one kingdom."

He says he will himself use every diligence to have it perfected,

 "with the advice of the states and parliament of both the kingdoms,
 and in the meantime till the said union be established with due
 solemnite aforesaid, His Majesty doth repute, hold and esteem both the
 two realms as presently united, and as one realm and kingdome, and the
 subjects of both the realms as one people, brethren and members of one
 body."

But charm he never so wisely, the King could not get his subjects to
see matters in the same light as himself, nor was he able to get their
Parliaments to unite.

Thus it occurred that in 1606, in the fourth year after the joining
of the two thrones, the King, finding that difficulties kept arising
about their flags between the subjects of his two adjacent kingdoms,
considered it advisable to issue a proclamation declaring the manner
in which they were in future to display their national Jacks, and also
authorizing a new flag, which was to be used by each in addition to
their own national flag. This flag was the "additional" Jack of James
I. (16).

[Illustration: 16. JACK OF JAMES I., 1606.]

It is probable that the English sailor had objected to seeing the
Scottish cross raised on the mast above his English flag, and the
Scotsman, on his part, too, did not like to see St. Andrew below St.
George. The additional flag was designed for the purpose of meeting
this difficulty, and was ordered to be raised by itself upon the
mainmast. It is evident that some ships had been flying both the
national flags, for, as a further precaution, particular instruction
was given that each ship should fly only one national cross, and this
was to be only the cross of its own nationality. All controversy as to
the precedence of the respective Jacks was thus intended to be brought
to an end.

This proclamation of 1606, as copied from an original issue in the
British Museum, reads as follows:

 "_A proclamation declaring what Flagges South and North Britaines
 shall beare at Sea._

 "BY THE KING:

 "Whereas, some difference hath arisen between our subjects of South
 and North Britaine travelling by Seas, about the bearing of their
 Flagges: For the avoiding of all such contentions hereafter wee have,
 with the advice of Our Councell, ordered: That from henceforth all
 our subjects of this Isle and Kingdome of Great Britaine, and all our
 members thereof, shall beare in their _maine toppe_ the Red Crosse,
 commonly called St. George's Crosse, and the White Crosse, commonly
 called St. Andrew's Crosse, _joyned together according to the forme
 made by our heralds_, and sent by us to our Admerell to be published
 to our subjects; and in their _fore-toppe_ our Subjects of South
 Britaine shall weare the Red Crosse onely as they were wont, and our
 Subjects of North Britaine in their _fore-toppe_ the White Crosse
 onely as they were accustomed.

 "Wherefore wee will and command all our Subjects to be conformable
 and obedient to this our Order, and that from henceforth they do not
 use to beare their flagges in any other sort, as they will answere to
 contrary at their peril.

 "Given at our Palace of Westminster, the twelfth day of April, in the
 fourth yere of our Reine of Great Britaine, France and Ireland, etc.
 God save the King."

This King's Jack, which subsequently came to be commonly known as
the "Union Flagge," was, it will be noted, not intended to supersede
the existing national Jacks, for it was directed to be displayed in
addition to, and at the same time with, the Jack of each nation. The
new flag of the King was to be raised by itself on the mainmast, and
the old national flag on the foremast, so that each of these flags
should be kept separate from one another.

The reason for this separate use of two flags is evident, one which is
fully confirmed in the creation of the Union Jacks which succeeded one
another in subsequent reigns.

The reason was that the two Parliaments of the nations had not been
united in one, and, therefore, it was that each nation continued to
retain its own distinctive national cross, which it flew on the
flagstaff as the sign of its own particular nationality, and which was,
therefore, not displaced by the King's newly created flag.

[Illustration: PLATE III.

1

THE PERCYS' ENSIGN 1560

2

UNION JACK OF JAMES I-1606

3

COLONIAL UNION JACK-1701]

The position of the flag was, in 1606, regulated to be:

  A.D., 1606.
  ROYAL NAVY--
                              Maintop, King's Jack.

  MERCHANTMEN--
          _English Subjects_--Maintop, "additional" King's Jack.
                              Foretop, English Jack.

         _Scottish Subjects_--Maintop, "additional" King's Jack.
                              Foretop, Scottish Jack.

The construction of the new flag presents some peculiarities.

In this "additional" Jack of James I. (Pl. III., fig. 2), the
red cross of St. George and its white ground, being the "St. George's
crosse," had been ordered by the proclamation to be united with the
white cross of St. Andrew and its blue ground, being the "St. Andrewe's
crosse," the two flags being "_joyned together according to the forme
made by our heralds_." In this "joining" the white ground of St.
George's flag was reduced almost to a nullity.

As the form was the creation of heralds, it was made according to the
strict heraldic rules of their highly technical craft. In heraldry,
a narrow border of white or gold, termed a "fimbriation," is always
introduced where colour would otherwise touch on colour for the purpose
of keeping the colours separate, the technical statement of the rule
being, "metal cannot be placed upon metal, nor colour upon colour."
The heralds, therefore, in conformity with their tendencies, reduced
the white ground of the St. George flag until it became only a narrow
margin of white, just sufficient to keep the red of the cross of St.
George from touching the blue ground of St. Andrew's flag upon which it
was laid, or so that the white ground became simply "_a fimbriation to
the red cross of St. George_."

The union of the two flags resulted in the Scotsman getting a good
share of all that was going. It is true the crosses of the two flags
were given equal display, but the white ground of the St. George's
English Jack had entirely disappeared, while the blue ground of the St.
Andrew's had been left in occupation of all the remaining space. No
wonder that an English admiral of the "narrow seas," hankering after
his old St. George Jack, says, a few years afterwards, of this new
flag: "Though it may be more honour to both the kingdoms to be thus
linked and united together, yet, in view of the spectators, it makes
not so fair a show, if it would please His Majesty."[41]

[41] Sir William Monson.

The Scotsmen also raised objection to the cross of St. George having
been placed over and in front of that of St. Andrew.[42] With, what
appears to us now, much quaintness of language, the Scottish Privy
Council made its formal complaint to His Majesty in a letter of 7th
August, 1606, saying that,

 "the forme and patrone of the flagges of schippis sent down heir and
 commandit to be ressavit and used be the subjectis of both kingdomes
 is vereie prejudicial to the fredome and dignitie of this Estate,
 and wil gif occasion to reprotche--becaus as your Sacred Majestie
 may persave, the Scottis Croce, callit Sanctandrois Croce, is troyse
 dividit, and the English Croce, called Sanct George, drawne through
 the Scottis Croce, which is thereby obscurit."

[42] Hulme: "Flags of the World."

Either one or the other of the crosses had to be in front, but as the
whole of their blue ground had been retained, while the Englishman
had lost all the white ground of his flag, the objection was not
entertained.

This two-crossed Jack of James I., 1606, continued in use in the
Royal Navy for over a century, with the exception of its retirement
during the changes which, as we shall hereafter note, were made under
Cromwell. During its term the British kingdom, which had already under
the English Jack colonized the mainland of America from Massachusetts
to Virginia, became more than ever an American power; for, under
this new Jack, the islands which surrounded the coast, namely, the
West Indies, Barbadoes, Bermuda, the Bahamas, Antigua and Jamaica,
were added to the British Crown. On the continent of Europe as well,
the victorious movements of the flag did not slacken, for under it
Gibraltar was pounced upon and taken by Admiral Rooke, and Blenheim,
the master victory of the great Marlborough, was won. This was a record
and "glory roll" on both the continents worthy of the two races, whose
forces had been joined at its creation.

Its position was, however, not throughout continuous, for successive
changes were introduced in the regulations regarding its use during
the century within which it achieved its varied career. All these
changes, its alternating disappearances and reappearances, show that
this King's Jack of James I. was not a flag which denoted a completed
union, although by habit it came to be called the "Union Flagge," and
subsequently the "Union Jack," of the nations, but was one which was
introduced for another purpose, and carried a different signification,
being that of the union of the thrones in one sovereign. Usage has,
however, so long attached the name to this two-crossed flag of James
I., that it may be well to consider it our first Union Jack.



CHAPTER VIII.

_THE ENGLISH JACK RESTORED._

  AS A SINGLE JACK                  1648-1660
  IN THE CORNER OF THE ENSIGN RED   1648-1707


The new two-crossed flag of King James had, in 1606, been authorized
to be used by the ships of all his subjects, by the merchantmen as
well as on the men-of-war. This order caused many heart-burnings among
the admirals of the Royal Navy, and especially to the Admiral of the
Narrow Seas, whose particular right it was to fly His Majesty's ensign
on these much-frequented waters, and whose principal prerogative it
was to see that the ships of other nations observed the courtesies
and accorded the privileges due to the British flag in its claim to
the Sovereignty of the Seas. Under this new arrangement other ships,
as well as the ships of the Royal Navy, were carrying the King's Jack
at the main, and the officers of the navy felt that their official
prominence was thereby much diminished, for, as they said, how were
foreigners to distinguish a merchantman from a man-of-war? Sir John
Penington, Narrow Seas Admiral, in 1633, sent in his remonstrances, and
pressed for the

 "altering the Coullers, whereby His Majestie's own ships may be known
 from the subjectes."

It will be remembered that the ships of foreign nations were required,
when meeting any of the Royal ships of the King of England, to dip
their colours and topsails. This change the Admiral, therefore,
considered,

 "to bee very materiale and much for His Majestie's honour; and,
 beside, will free dispute with strangers; for when they omitt doing
 theyr respects to His Majestie's shippes till they be shott att, they
 alledge they did not know it to be ye King's shippe."

The Royal Navy kept up a constant agitation for the repeal of the
order, until at length, in 1634, being the thirty-eighth year of the
flag from its first establishment by James I., their claim was acceded
to by Charles I., and a proclamation was duly issued:


 "BY THE KING:

 "_A Proclamation appointing the flags as well for our Navie Royall as
 for the ships of our subjects of South and North Britaine._

 "We taking into our Royal Consideration it is Meete for the honour
 of Oure Shipps in our Navie Royall and of such other shipps as are
 or shall be employed in Our immediate service that the same bee, by
 their flags distinguished from the shipps of any other of Our Subjects
 doe herebye straitly prohibite and forbid that none of our Subjects
 of any of our Nations and Kingdoms shall from henceforth presume to
 carry the Union Flagge in the maintoppe or other part of any of their
 shipps that is the St. George's Crosse and the St. Andrew's Crosse
 joyned together upon pain of Our High displeasure; but that the same
 Union Flagge be still reserved as an ornament proper for _Our Owne
 Shipps_ and shipps in our immediate service and pay and none other.
 And likewise Our further will and pleasure is that all the other
 shipps of Our subjects of England or South Britaine bearing flags,
 shall from henceforth Carry the _Red Crosse_ commonly called _St.
 George his Crosse_ as of olde time hath been used; and also that
 all the other shipps of Our Subjects of Scotland or North Britaine
 shall from Henceforth carry the _White Crosse_ commonly called _St.
 Andrew's Crosse_. Whereby the several shippes may be distinguished,
 and wee thereby better discerne the number and goodness of the same;
 Wherefore wee will and straitly command all Our Subjects foorthwith to
 be conformable and obedient to this Our Order, as they will answer the
 contrary at their perill.

 "Given at our Court at Greenwich this 5th day of May in the tenth
 yeare of Oure Reigne of England, Scotland, France and Ireland,
 Defender of the Faith, etc. God Save the King."

 Imprinted at London by Robert Barker, printer to the King's Most
 Excellent Majestie, and by the Assignee's of John Bill, 1634.

This proclamation of Charles I. made a very great change in the
position of the "Union Flagge" of James, by restricting its use to
one class of ships. That it had never been intended at that time to
serve as a "national" flag is again clearly evidenced by the renewed
declaration that it was the special signal of the Sovereign, to be
used exclusively on the ships of the Royal Navy. Further, the merchant
vessels owned by "subjects of any of our Nations and Kingdoms," which
had thus lost the "additional" Jack, were ordered to continue to use,
as of "olde time hath been used," their distinctive national flags.
For the continued preservation of the peace, it was again required
that each ship should display only the flag of the nation to which it
belonged, namely, the St. George's crosse, or old English Jack, on
English merchant ships, and St. Andrew's crosse, or Scotch Jack, on the
Scotch merchant ships.

The position of the three flags at this time was thus clearly
distinguished:

  A.D. 1634.
  _The Royal Navy_            The two-crossed Jack.
  _English Merchantmen_       The St. George crosse.
  _Scotch Merchantmen_        The St. Andrew crosse.

This first change in the position in the using of this first
two-crossed Jack is shown in a drawing given of the "King's ships."

The battleship _Sovereign of the Seas_, which was built in 1637, was
the glory of the fleet of Charles I., and proved herself, during her
sixty years of active service, one of the best men-of-war of the time,
and "so formidable to her enemies that none of the most daring among
them would willingly lie by her side."[43]

[43] Phineas Pett: "Journal," 1696.

[Illustration: 17. THE "SOVEREIGN OF THE SEAS," 1637.

(From a painting by Vandervelt.)]

The drawing (17) here shown of this ship is copied from a contemporary
painting by Vandervelt. At the stern is the Royal Standard of Charles
I.; on the two masts ensigns with royal ciphers; and the two-crossed
"Union Flagge," which from 1634 was to be the "ornament proper for our
owne shipps," is flying on the "Jack staff" at the bow. It was the
"King's Flag" calling for the obeisance of foreign vessels.

But another change was yet to come, and after fourteen more years had
passed away another Jack was flying at the bow, and the Royal Standard
of the King had disappeared from the stern of the gallant vessels.
Premonitory symptoms of this impending change had been given even so
early as January, 1645, when the headings of the official lists of the
ships of the navy had been altered by order of Parliament, so that the
ships were officially entered as "The Parliament's Ships," instead of
being described, as previously, "His Majesty's Ships."[44]

[44] Hallam.

In February, 1648, the Revolutionary Parliament of England abolished
the office of King, and by this and the subsequent execution of King
Charles they cancelled the allegiance of Scotland and dissolved the
connection between the kingdoms. A change was made in the Jacks which
were to be worn on the men-of-war. The Parliament did not consider the
Stuart kingdom of Scotland to be a portion of their State, and ordered
that its recognition should be removed from the flags then used on
their ships. An order of the Council was therefore passed, February
23rd, 1648, signed by John Bradshaw, "in ye name of ye Counsell of
State," which was communicated in a letter to the Commissioners of the
Navy, directing the change and ordering that "_the ships that are in
the service of the State shall beare the Red Crosse only in a white
flagg, quite through the flagg_." Up to that time carvings of the royal
arms had been carried on the stern of all royal ships, so the order
further directed that these also should be altered, and that "_upon the
Sterne of the Shippes there shall be the Red Crosse in one Escotcheon
and the Harpe in one other, being the Armes of England and Ireland,
both Escotcheons joined according to the pattern herewith sent unto
you_."

[Illustration: 18. COMMONWEALTH TWENTY-SHILLING PIECE.]

The form of these escutcheons is well shown in the twenty-shilling
piece (18) issued during the Commonwealth, and also on a Parliamentary
flag (19) then in use which had on the fly the same two emblems.
One of these flags is still preserved in the house of the Admiralty
Superintendent at Chatham, the colour of the ground of the flag being
red.[45]

[45] W. Laird Clowes: "History of the English Navy."

Thus the two-crossed Union Jack of James ceased to be used and
disappeared from the navy, as it already had from the merchantmen, and
the single red cross Jack of England was restored to its position as
the only Jack carried on the men-of-war of the State, or on any English
ship sailing the seas.

The merchant vessels of the two nationalities continued to use their
English and Scottish national Jacks as before, but the Scottish ships
were especially warned that they must not carry either the King's arms
or the red cross of St. George, and in case any of these Scottish ships
should be met so doing, the State's colonel-admirals were ordered to
"_admonish them not to do it in future_."

[Illustration: 19. COMMONWEALTH BOAT FLAG.]

The position of the Jacks was now:

  A.D. 1648.
  _The State Ships_            The St. George crosse.
  _English Merchantmen_        The St. George crosse.
  _Scottish Merchantmen_       The St. Andrew crosse.

This position the English St. George Jack continued to hold on the
ships of the State navy until 1660, when another change took place,
and, at the "Restoration" of Charles II., the two-crossed "Union
Flagge" returned, without any proclamation, to the places where it had
been displayed before the change made by the Commonwealth Parliament.

On the _Naseby_ (20) it will be noticed that the two-crossed Jack is
flying at the bow and on the mizzen, instead of the single red cross
flag ordered by Parliament. How this came about is told in the next
chapter.

Here, then, ended the period during which the English Jack, having been
restored as a single flag, had continued to be, from 1648 to 1660, the
only Jack authorized to be used on the men-of-war.

After the return of the King his subjects evidently began, in their
enthusiasm, to make such indiscriminate use of this "King's Jack"
instead of the single St. George Jack that they needed, a few years
afterwards, to be reminded of the special instructions respecting the
flag which had been given in the previous reign. In consequence of
this, in 1663, another proclamation was issued, under Charles II., from
which the following extract is made:

 "_A proclamation for the regulating the colours to be worn on merchant
 ships.--Charles R._

 "Whereas by ancient usage no merchants' ships ought to bear the Jack,
 which is for distinction appointed for His Majesty's ships:

 "His Majesty strictly charges and commands all his subjects, that from
 henceforth they do not presume to wear _His Majesty's Jack, commonly
 called the Union Jack_, on any of their ships or vessels, without
 particular warrant for their so doing from His Majesty, or the Lord
 High Admiral of England. And His Majesty doth further command all
 his loving subjects without such warrant they presume not to wear
 on board their ships or vessels any Jacks made in imitation of His
 Majesty's, or any other flags, Jacks or ensigns whatsoever, than those
 usually heretofore worn on merchants' ships, viz., the flag and _Jack
 white_, with a red cross, commonly called St. George's cross, passing
 quite through the same, and the _Ensign red_ with the like cross in a
 canton white at the upper corner thereof next to the staff."

The distinctive order of the flags was this time arranged to be:

  A.D. 1663.
  THE ROYAL NAVY--
      "His Majesty's Jack," commonly called "The Union
          Jack."

  ALL MERCHANTMEN--
      I. The "Jack White," or plain St. George Jack.
     II. The "Ensign Red," or red flag, with the "Jack
          White" in the upper corner.

From the time of this proclamation of Charles II. the Jack of King
James regained its officially authorized position, but only as a
single flag, and even then was ordered to be used only on the royal
men-of-war. The merchant ships, however, began again so frequently
to fly this Jack instead of their single-cross Jacks, that in the
reign of William III., and again in the reign of Queen Anne (prior to
the creation of her own two-crossed Jack), it was found necessary to
issue special proclamations reiterating the official restriction of
this two-crossed Jack of James to the ships of the Royal Navy, and
forbidding any other ships to use it.

Although the merchantmen were not always using the single St. George
Jack, which had been restored to them, and it had given way in the
Royal Navy to the two-crossed Jack, yet it had always continued to be
used in the Ensign Red referred to in the proclamation. The creation
of this Ensign Flag, in 1648, is told in the next chapter, and in this
form the restoration of the English Jack was extended for a further
period to 1707, and reserved for a special further honour in later
times.

In the British Navy of the present day the St. George Jack has become,
and is ordered to be, the distinctive flag of an Admiral. According
to the mast upon which it is raised his rank is indicated, and the
ship on which it is carried is termed the "Flag Ship." These flags are
displayed as follows:

  ADMIRAL           St. George at main.
  VICE-ADMIRAL      St. George at fore.
  REAR-ADMIRAL      St. George at mizzen.

Thus has the English Jack been once more restored, and being the signal
of command in the British Navy, it is a continuing memorial of the
prowess of the seamen of England, whose ships so early won the sea
command for the united empire.



CHAPTER IX.

_THE EVOLUTION OF THE RED ENSIGN._


The history of the Jacks as single flags having been traced through
these periods, we may revert to the changes brought about by their
being made part of a larger flag, and note how the exalted position
at the stern of the ships was transferred to a new flag, a National
Ensign, in the upper corner of which the English Jack was placed alone,
when this flag was first created.

Under James I. and Charles I., as also under the previous sovereigns
of England, the flag flown at the stern of the men-of-war had been the
Royal Standard of the Sovereign, of which an example is given in the
drawing of the _Sovereign of the Seas_ (17).

The Royal Standard bearing upon it then, as it does now, the armorial
bearings or "arms" of the Sovereign, was the banner of the King,
and, as then placed at the stern of the ships, signified his direct
management and control of the royal fleet.

Before the close of the reign of Charles I. the money control of the
Royal Navy had been jealously assumed by Parliament, and the ships had
been enrolled as "the Parliament ships." With the advent of the
Commonwealth the ships of the navy were no longer the ships of the
King, but became the ships of the State.

[Illustration: PLATE IV.

1

COMMONWEALTH ENSIGN 1649

2

CROMWELL'S "GREAT UNION" 1658

3

ENSIGN RED--CHARLES II.--1660]

It was to take the place of the King's Standard at the stern that the
Commonwealth Parliament created a flag, called the Commonwealth Ensign
(Pl. IV., fig. 1), to be carried on their men-of-war. This was
a red flag, having in the fly a yellow Irish harp, and in the upper
corner next the staff the St. George cross upon a white ground. Ireland
had early been overrun by the Commonwealth armies, so her emblem was
included in the flag, but Scotland had warmly espoused the cause of the
Stuarts, and was, therefore, not recognized.

Cromwell, after he had been raised to the position of Protector, and
had dragooned Scotland into submission, put out, in 1658, another flag
as the "Great Union," or banner of the Commonwealth (Pl. IV.,
fig. 2), in which the crosses of St. George and St. Andrew were shown
for England and Scotland, and the harp, on a blue ground, for Ireland;
but they were each placed in separate quarters of the flag, instead of
being joined together in one union, and on a black shield in the centre
he caused to be displayed a lion rampant, as representing his own
coat-of-arms and himself.

This "Great Union" of Cromwell does not appear to have entered into
much use, although it certainly was displayed at his funeral.

The fleets of the navy were then flying ensigns of three different
colours--red, blue and white--according to the rank of the admirals who
were in command, red being the colour of the admirals of highest rank
and the typical colour of England.[46]

[46] Langton: "Heraldry of the Sea."

Contemporary paintings also show that red, blue and white ensigns were
in use under the Commonwealth, with a single harp in the fly, and a
Dutch medal, struck to commemorate the death of Admiral Tromp, also
shows the same design of flag.

The "Commonwealth Ensign," now having the Irish harp inserted in the
flag, was the official flag flown at the stern of the ships of the
States Navy during the period of the Commonwealth.

The rule of the Commonwealth party having, shortly after the death of
Cromwell, come to its sudden termination, the Royalist supporters of
the absent King did not take time or wait for any formal proclamation
authorizing a change in flags which had come into existence under the
order of the Commonwealth Council.

Pepys tells in his "Diary" of how this change was begun. Being "Clerk
of the Acts of the Navy," he had been deputed to read the proclamation
of Parliament declaring the restoration of the King to the crews on
board those ships of the Navy which had been appointed to cross over to
The Hague and bring Charles II. to England.

Under the Commonwealth successful generals and officers on land had
been appointed to commands as admirals and officers in the navy, and
the military titles were still retained, the official title of the
officers in highest command in the navy of the Commonwealth being
"Admirals and Generals at Sea."

While lying at anchor in the Downs, waiting for the high officials who
were to accompany the fleet, Pepys records how the "General of the
fleet" went from ship to ship in a small boat, telling them to "alter
their Arms and flagges."

[Illustration: 20. THE "NASEBY." CHARLES II.

(From a painting by Vandervelt.)]

On 13th May, 1660, being on board the _London_, one of the ships of
this squadron, he makes the following entries of his day's doings,
and tells of the making of these changes: "To their quarterdeck, at
which the taylers and painters were at work, cutting out some pieces of
yellow cloth in the fashion of a crown and 'C.R.' to be put up instead
of the State's arms." He also records that meetings of the officers
were held, and that he had attended "in the afternoon a council of war
only to acquaint them that the harp must be taken out of all their
flags, it being very offensive to the King."

When, therefore, the harp had been removed from their flags, there
remained the simple "Ensign Red," having the St. George cross in the
upper white canton.

The _Naseby_ (20)--afterwards re-named the _Royal Charles_--was one of
the ships of the squadron which crossed to The Hague, and the actual
ship on which Charles II. came over to England. The drawing shows
the Ensign Red flying at the stern. There had not been sufficient
opportunity for the obtaining of new flags, and, therefore, those which
they had in use were altered on board the ships, as Pepys has told, and
this flag is a Commonwealth "Ensign Red," with the Irish harp cut out
(Pl. IV., fig. 3).

A very great deal of dependence cannot, as a rule, be placed on the
form of the flags introduced into their pictures by artists even of the
highest rank. When painting flags more attention is frequently given by
them to the colour effect desired to be produced than to the accurate
drawing of the details.

Some instances of unworthy errors in the drawing of national flags
may be mentioned. In a painting by Leutze, now in the Metropolitan
Museum of Art, New York, a representation is shown of "Washington
crossing the Delaware, on December 25th, 1776." In this a flag with
the stars and stripes is prominently shown, although no such flag had
any existence until a year and a half afterwards,[47] an error which
has been perpetuated by a copy of this painting on a series of the
national bank-notes issued by the United States Government. In the
Capitol of the United States at Washington there is a picture of the
"Battle of Lake Erie," fought in 1814, in which the flag on Commodore
Perry's boat has only thirteen stars and thirteen stripes, although the
United States ensign had been changed twenty years before, in 1794, to
have fifteen stars and fifteen stripes. On the walls of the Commons
Corridor in the British Houses of Parliament at Westminster is a fresco
representing the landing of Charles II., in 1660, in which the Union
Jack is depicted as having three crosses, the red cross of St. Patrick
being included, although it was not entered in the flag until 1801, or
140 years afterwards.

[47] The United States national ensign has at the different dates been
composed as follows:

1776--The Union Jack of Queen Anne and thirteen stripes.

1777--Thirteen stars and thirteen stripes.

1794--Fifteen stars and fifteen stripes.

1818--Fifteen stars and thirteen stripes.

Thereafter an additional star was added as each new State was created
out of the western territories, the stripes for the original thirteen
colonies remaining the same.

1896--Forty-five stars and thirteen stripes.

1909--Forty-six stars and thirteen stripes.

In each of these instances the artist was painting from his
imagination, but Vandervelt, who painted the picture from which our
illustration of the _Naseby_ is taken, was himself present on the
occasion he recorded, and, seeing that he was the most celebrated
marine artist of his day, the details of the flags can be taken to be
correct.

The subsequent proclamation of Charles II., in 1663 (page 89), shows
that this flag not only continued to be used on the royal ships, but
that also all the merchant ships had adopted it and were flying the
"Ensign Red" at the stern in the same way as on the _Naseby_, and
thus it was that this flag, having become established by usage as the
national ensign, was then confirmed in its position by the proclamation
of the King.

[Illustration: 21. MEDAL OF CHARLES II., 1665.]

Further confirmation of its use is given by the medals issued in 1665
by Charles II., which he granted to his followers in recognition of
service. One of these is given in fig. 21. On the reverse is a ship in
full sail. On the flag at the mainmast head are the letters "C.R.,"
being the abbreviation of CAROLUS REX, and intended to indicate that
the flag was the Royal Standard; at the bow the two-crossed Jack,
and at the stern the Red Ensign with the St. George Jack in the upper
corner.

The place of distinction at the stern had been occupied, as under
Charles I., by the Royal Standard of the reigning kings. To this
position the Commonwealth ensign had been installed as being the
ensign of the State, and then by the unpremeditated transition at the
"Restoration" the Red Ensign succeeded to the post of honour as the
ensign of the nation.

The story of this flag again exemplifies its harmony with the peculiar
genius of the British constitution, for it attained to its position,
not by a single verbal enactment, but by force of unwritten usage, and
its gradual acceptance by the will of the people, after which it was
confirmed by the Act of the sovereign.

It will also be noted in the drawing of the _Naseby_, and on the medal,
that the Royal Standard of Charles II. is shown flying at the main.
This was the position at which it had, under previous sovereigns,
been displayed by the Lord High Admiral of the Navy to indicate his
rank. The Earl of Warwick, who was Lord High Admiral under Charles
I., continued to fly it at the main even after the death of the King;
but when Warwick was dismissed from his post by the Commonwealth, the
Royal Standard was no longer used as the distinction flag of the Royal
High Admiral. When the Commonwealth ended and a new King returned, it
was again raised to the place where it had been displayed by the last
Royalist admiral.

At the present day the Royal Standard, being the personal flag of the
Sovereign, is only shown to indicate the royal presence or that of some
member of the Royal Family, or raised in recognition of some special
royal day. On shipboard it is raised on the mainmast immediately the
royal personages come alongside, and is lowered the moment that they
leave, the national ensign being still displayed at the stern.

It was the St. George cross which had been placed in the upper corner
of the Commonwealth ensign; from here it had passed into the Ensign
Red of Charles II., thereafter borne at the stern on both merchantmen
and men-of-war. In the paramount ensign of the nation the single-cross
English Jack was thus carried from 1648 to 1707, when its place in the
national ensign was taken for the first time by a two-crossed Jack, and
then only by the first _real_ Union Jack, the Jack of Queen Anne.

In all the series of changes mentioned in this and the previous chapter
direct evidence is given that the "commonly called Union Jack" of James
was only an "additional" flag; that having been considered the "King's
Jack," it had not officially displaced the local national Jacks, and
that, although it had superseded them as a single flag on the Royal
Navy, it had never been introduced into the paramount and national
ensign of the nation.

Such, then, was the origin and evolution of the Ensign Red, the
national ensign of the British people, and which formed, with the
changes made in the Jack in the subsequent reigns of Queen Anne and
George III., the basis of the present "Red Ensign" of the British
Empire.

Our national ensign tells us how from its very origin it signified the
progress of constitutional rule. The Royal Standard of Charles I. at
the stern was the expression of absolute rule by the King without the
control of Parliament; the Commonwealth Ensign told of the absolute
rule of Parliament without the King; the Ensign Red at the stern
recorded the coming of constitutional government by both King and
Parliament; and so our Red Ensign still tells the story of British
constitutional rule by sovereign and people, represented in their
united power by this Union Ensign flying at the stern of all British
ships and over all the British lands which bear it united allegiance.



CHAPTER X.

_THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE SEAS._

THE FIGHT FOR THE FLAG.


At the close of the first historic period of the St. George Jack we saw
it reigning supreme upon the seas around the shores of England. The
great Armada had, in 1588, been met and shattered, and its squadrons
so relentlessly pursued around the British Isles that but a remnant
remained to struggle back to Spain and tell the story of their defeat.

After such a victory as this the red cross flag of the "Navie Royall"
sailed the Narrow Seas with more assurance than ever, claiming and
receiving the obeisance of all vessels that were passing by. The
ancient policy of Alfred and of John had been as much esteemed during
this Elizabethan period, and its principles adhered to as earnestly
and for the same reason as in the earliest days; but the increase
of merchant shipping and the rise of the business fleets of England
now gave a new reason for its being maintained beyond the old one of
self-defence. With the advent of long-distance voyages riches were
now to be found beyond the confines of the Narrow Seas. Sir Walter
Raleigh stated the new reason with a terseness which four centuries of
phrase-making has not since excelled. Said he: "_Whosoever commands
the sea commands the trade; whosoever commands the trade of the world
commands the riches of the world, and consequently the world itself_."

The sovereignty of the seas had in this way developed a trade value;
yet, whatever may have been the real and underlying causes, the
contests for the supremacy which for the next hundred years kept
simmering between the nations, bursting out at times into blasts of
open war, arose ostensibly from disputes between the guardians of the
rival fleets regarding the honourable precedence to be accorded to
their respective flags.

The sea-rovers of Elizabeth had developed into something very like
"gentleman-buccaneers." They ranged the oceans, preying upon the
Spanish and Portuguese ships wherever they were to be found, and
returned in joyousness, bringing home their booty. The maritime
eagerness of the people was whetted by these prizes, and it is said
that even the Queen herself was not averse to accepting from her good
subjects, Drake and Hawkins, a share of the proceeds of their prowess.
The reign of the Jack of James I. had scarce begun when a neighbouring
maritime rival arose to assume formidable proportions. Nurtured in
the hardy school of their fishing fleets, and practised in distant
voyages by traffic with their possessions in the East Indies, the Dutch
merchantmen not only copied the English methods of preying abroad
on the ships of other nations, but also began to employ themselves
actively in carrying the water-borne business of their own merchants,
and next, which was an intrusion much more objectionable, to enter
into competition with the English ships in carrying the merchandise for
the other nations of Europe. Thus the passage of the Dutch fleets along
the coasts of Europe greatly increased. As soon as the Spanish war was
over, Sir William Monson, the Admiral of the Narrow Seas, demanded that
the ships of all other nations should, as of old, lower their flags in
the presence of his own, "a courtesy which could not," he announced,
"be challenged by right, but now that the war was ended, His Majesty
James I. demanded the full recognition of such rights and duties as
belonged to his predecessors."[48]

[48] Monson's "Naval Tracts."

These old rights the Admiral and his officers accordingly proceeded to
enforce.

The spirit of the British sailors under the King's new two-crossed
Jack was still the same as under the English Jack, and one is reminded
of the old pride in the flag by an instance which is narrated as
having occurred under James I. One of the ministers of Henry IV. of
France had embarked at Calais to cross to England in a French ship
wearing the French flag at the main. The commander of the English
despatch boat, which had been sent to escort him, on meeting him in the
channel, ordered the French ship to lower her flag. "The Duke of Sully,
considering that his quality freed him from such an affront, boldly
refused, but this refusal was followed by his receiving three cannon
shots which pierced his ships. Might forced him to yield what right
forbade, and for all the complaints he made he could get no better
reply from the English captain than this: '_That just as his duty
obliged him to honour the ambassador's rank, so it also obliged him
to exact the honour due to the flag of his master as Sovereign of the
Seas_.'"[49]

[49] Richelieu.

The "rufflings" increased in frequency, and the contest went merrily
on, as the Dutch, increasing in enterprise and volume of shipping,
chafed still more under the domination of the English admirals. In
this restlessness they were encouraged by the differences which were
raging between King Charles I. and his Parliament. The latter thwarted
the King's efforts at sea and refused to contribute to the levy of
"ship-money," declaring it to be an "insufferable tax"; while he,
without their concurrence, was attempting to strengthen the navy, which
he had created to assert the King of England's right to the sovereignty
of the seas and for the protection of his shores, by the maintenance of
the old Alfred policy. The King's sailors felt keenly the increasing
insolence of the passing Dutch ships, as wrote one old salt:

 "What affront can be greater, or what can make a man valianter, than a
 dishonour done to prince and country, especially by a people that was
 wont to know no more than how to catch, pickle, and feed fish."[50]

[50] Monson.

Notwithstanding the Parliament's objections, an English navy was at one
time collected of sufficient strength that, when the Dutch and French
fleets joined together in 1635 with the avowed intention of contesting
the command of the sea, its simply sailing out to meet them overawed
their forces, as reports Monson:

 "It is to be observed that the greatest threateners are the least
 fighters; and so it fared with them; for they no sooner heard of our
 readiness to find them, but they plucked in their horns and quitted
 our coast, never more repairing to it."

The King's opponents averred that the quarrels with the Dutch over the
honour due to the flag were fomented only for the purpose of forming
an excuse for extorting more money by the objectionable ship-money,
whose proceeds, they alleged, were expended for very different purposes
than the maintenance of the navy. So the people resisted, while the
King persisted. Later on, during the Civil War, English ships, manned
by Royalist supporters of the King, were engaged in fighting against
English ships manned by supporters of the Parliament, and each party
was preying upon the merchant adherents of the other. Meantime, the
Dutch maritime power continued to grow. The struggle between the
Parliament and the King resulted in the defeat and execution of
Charles, and the weakening of the fleet by these dissensions brought on
the humiliation of the English flag during the first Dutch war.

Under Cromwell, in 1648, the St. George cross had been restored.

The Council of State took heart, and showed by their actions that once
more the homage due the national flag was held by them in as great
esteem as it had been by the King and his party in the royal days. The
orders to their naval commanders were explicit:

 "And, whereas, the dominion of these seas has, time out of mind,
 undoubtedly belonged to this nation, and the ships of all other
 nations, in acknowledgment of that dominion, have used to take down
 their flags upon sight of the Admiral of England, and not to bear
 it in his presence, you are, as much as in you lies, to endeavour
 to preserve the dominion of the sea, and to cause the ships of all
 other nations to strike their flags and not to bear them up in your
 presence, and to compel such as are refractory therein by seizing
 their ships and sending them to be punished, according to the Laws
 of the Sea, unless they yield obedience and make such repair as you
 approve."[51]

[51] Bloomfield: "The National Flag."

The Commonwealth of England, in self-defence of their shipping, and as
a direct blow against the Dutch, enacted the celebrated Navigation Act
of 1651, directing that all goods imported into the Kingdom of Britain,
or into her colonies, must be carried either in English ships or in
those of the country whence the cargo was obtained.

The Dutch and English navies sailed the seas watching the movements of
each other's flags, and minding the welfare of their merchant marine.
Bickerings were frequent, but in May, 1652, off Dover, Tromp brought
the right to salute to a crisis. The nations were then at peace, when
the Dutch fleet bore down in strength upon the English without lowering
their colours. As soon as Tromp was within musket-shot the English
Admiral gave orders to fire at his flag. At the third shot Tromp
answered by a broadside. In such way, through an episode regarding a
flag, the first Dutch War began.[52] Although the Parliament had become
alive to the value of a navy, yet the unpreparedness of the previous
years now told its tale, for when the season of 1652 had closed, the
Dutch had swept the English flag from the Narrow Seas, and Tromp is
traditionally reported to have triumphantly carried a broom at his
masthead as a sign of his complete success.

[52] Hannay: "Short History of the Royal Navy."

[Illustration: 22. WHIP-LASH PENNANT, BRITISH NAVY.]

Tromp's glory was of but short duration, for the Roundhead dragoon,
Blake, nicknamed "The cavalryman at sea," soon clipped his wings.
In return for the compliment of the previous year, Blake, after his
victory, ran up a pennant on his mast, long and narrow like a whiplash,
to show that he had in his turn driven the Dutchman off the seas;
and the whiplash masthead pennants, with the St. George cross in the
white ground at the head (22), borne on all His Majesty's ships in
commission, serve as reminders of the story of this exploit to the
present day.[53]

[53] These masthead pennants, with the St. George cross at the head,
are worn on all His Majesty's ships in commission. They vary in length
from 9 to 60 feet, and in width 2-1/2 inches to 4 inches, and are worn
as a sign of command both night and day.

Peace followed in 1654. In this treaty of peace the Dutch agreed that:

 "The ships of the Dutch--as well in ships of war as others--meeting
 any of the ships of war of the English Commonwealth in the British
 Seas, shall strike their flags and lower their topsail in such manner
 as hath ever been at any time heretofore practised under any form of
 government."

Thus had the old sea supremacy of the nation of England, claimed by
King John, been again acknowledged; but on this occasion it was for the
first time accorded to England by the terms of a formal treaty.

It was the red cross Jack of St. George, introduced by Richard I.,
and raised as his "Royal Flag" by King John, which had in previous
times received the honour of the "Sovereign Lordship of the seas." We
have seen how for a while its place had been shared by the additional
two-crossed Jack of James: but now, by the incident of the temporary
dissolution with Scotland under the Commonwealth, the English Jack was
once more reigning in sole possession of the flag-staff, to receive by
the terms of this treaty the renewal of that proud homage which its
single red cross had received four centuries before. It was a happy
coincidence which the flag of the seafaring Englishman most fully
deserved.

Afterwards when the Jack of Queen Anne had taken its place in the Union
Ensign, the same claim of supremacy was upheld. Under George III. the
instructions issued to the British navy for salutes to be given and
received stated:

 "When any of His Majesty's ships shall meet with any ship belonging to
 any Foreign Prince or State within His Majesty's seas (which extend
 to Cape Finisterre), it is expected that the said Foreign ships do
 strike their topsail, and take in their flag in acknowledgment of His
 Majesty's Sovereignty in those seas."[54]

[54] Regulations and instructions relating to His Majesty's Service at
sea, 1790.

This sovereignty so valiantly for so many centuries maintained was
again gloriously achieved when Nelson at Trafalgar swept the combined
forces of the French and Spanish navies from the seas, and made his
nation the dominant power on the oceans--a dominance since maintained,
not by conflict in attack, but by power and preparation for defence, in
which the parent kingdom is now being joined by the daughter dominions
in the outer Empire for maintaining inviolate the supremacy of the
seas.



CHAPTER XI.

_THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE SEAS._

THE FIGHT FOR THE TRADE.


Notwithstanding the check which they had received in their career, the
marine power--both naval and merchant--of the Dutch kept on increasing.
The hostilities against Spain, conducted under Cromwell, had
transferred the Spanish carrying trade to the Dutch from the English
ships, which had previously enjoyed it. The Dutch had also challenged
the English merchantman in his own carrying trade, as well as becoming
general carriers for all Europe; so much so that they were termed "The
wagoners of all the seas."

It was the contest for the money value of the "command" of the seas
which was really being waged, and the commerce of distant continents
was the prize which would fall to the victor's share. Vessels of the
Dutch and other nations were ordered to heave to, or were stopped by a
shot across their bows, not only to compel observance of the supremacy
of the flag, but also for opportunity to search their holds for the
goods which the searchers might consider should have been carried in
English ships.

The Dutch had agreed to acknowledge the English flag in the British
seas, but the English claimed it should be saluted on all. In 1663,
De Ruyter and Admiral Lawson had almost come to cannon shots in the
Mediterranean over salutes claimed for the flag, and recriminations and
searchings had extended to the waters of the far East Indies, where the
Dutch, who had taken the Cape of Good Hope from the Portuguese, were
competing with the English ships for the merchant trade.

Soon, under Charles II., another Dutch war (1665-67) blazed out, during
which De Ruyter sailed up the Thames to Gravesend and destroyed the
ships at Chatham and in the Medway, and London was for the first time
startled by the sound of an enemy's guns. Again the success was but
temporary, for at the close of the war New Amsterdam in America, and
with it the command of the Hudson River, was ceded to the English. The
name of the new territory then obtained was changed to New York, in
honour of the Duke of York, the King's brother, which English and royal
name it still retains, although now forming the principal maritime
city of the Republic of the United States. With the booty came, in
the articles of peace, the old-time ascription of sovereignty to the
British flag. It was again agreed by one of the articles of the treaty:

 "That the ships and vessels of the so United Provinces, as well
 men-of-war as others, meeting any man-of-war of the said King of Great
 Britain in the British seas, shall strike their flag and lore the
 topsail in such manner as the same hath been formerly observed in any
 times whatsoever."[55]

[55] Treaty of Breda, 1667.

But the rivalry was too intense to continue much longer without
coming to a definite climax. The "command" foreseen by Raleigh was at
stake. Both nations had the maritime instinct, and both the genius of
colonizing power, so that one or the other of them must give place and
leave to the survivor the supreme possession of all that this command
implied.

Formal negotiations between the governments had been rife, but the
vital test was the supremacy due to the flag. An English royal yacht
was ordered to sail through the Dutch men-of-war in the channel and to
fire on them if they did not strike their flags. An ultimatum was sent
summoning Holland to acknowledge the right of the English crown to the
sovereignty of the British seas and to order its fleets to lower their
flags to the smallest English man-of-war.[56]

[56] Mahan.

Thus the third and final war came on in 1672 and continued until 1674.

The plain red fighting flag of the English navy of the day was flying
at the fore on the men-of-war as the signal to "engage the enemy," and
the ensign red was at the stern of both men-of-war and merchantmen as
the national ensign. War immediately commenced, and while the Royal
Navy was battling with its guns, the merchant navy of England was
cutting into the carrying trade of the Dutch, so much so that at its
close the British merchant ships had captured the greater part of the
foreign business of the enemy, and by thus exhausting their earnings,
and reducing the fighting resources of the Dutch, contributed to the
final victory almost equally with the exploits of the men-of-war.

The contest, though short, was very sharp. The strife had been for
the merchant carrying trade of the world, and when it was won, whole
colonies were transferred with it to the victorious English.

During the interval which had followed since the previous war the
English had returned to the Dutch their newly-acquired possession
of New York in exchange for the Dutch possessions in Guiana, the
boundaries of whose territories then transferred formed the subject
of the Venezuela excitement of 1896; but now they took both these
countries back, while the Island of St. Helena, which, in the beginning
of the war had been captured by the Dutch by an expedition sent from
their colony at the Cape of Good Hope, was again recovered to the
British flag. These possessions formed only a portion of the victor's
spoil. Above all of these and other great money results, the old sea
spirit again asserted itself, and setting into inferior position the
additions to the realm, or the compensations exacted for the expenses
of the war, the final treaty declares among its first clauses the
lordly renewal of the centuries-old right of the respect and salute due
to the nation's flag:

 "In due acknowledgment on their part of the King of Great Britain's
 right to have his flag respected in the seas hereafter mentioned,
 shall and do declare and agree, that whatever ship or vessels
 belonging to the said United Provinces, whether vessels of war or
 others, or whether single or in fleets, shall meet in any of the seas
 from Cape Finisterre to the middle point of the land Van Staten, in
 Norway, with any ships or vessels belonging to His Majesty of Great
 Britain, whether these ships be single or in great number, if they
 carry His Majesty's of Great Britain flag or Jack, the aforesaid Dutch
 vessels or ships shall strike their flag and lower their topsail in
 the same manner and with as much respect as hath at any time, or in
 any place, been formerly practised towards any ships of His Majesty of
 Great Britain or his predecessors, by any ships of the States General
 or their predecessors."[57]

[57] Treaty of Westminster, Charles II. and Holland, 1674.

The "Jack" of His Majesty Charles II., which was the sign of His
Majesty's ships, was the two-crossed "additional" Jack of his father,
which had been restored to the navy at the Restoration, and as shown on
the _Naseby_ (20).

This Jack was flying at the bow and on the mizzen of the ships of war,
and at the stern was the sign of nationality, the "ensign red" with the
St. George cross.

The ensign red which the ships of that royal navy bore when they thus
won the final supremacy of the sea from the navy of Holland, was the
flag worn also by the British merchantmen of the time, and on them
witnessed the obtaining of that other command, then won from the Dutch,
"_the command of the trade, which is the command of the riches of the
world_." To this victory the merchant mariner, by his seamanship and
energy, had done his full share, and had won his right to wear it as
his own. Worthily, therefore, at this present day do the merchant
ships of Britain wear the red ensign on every sea, in every clime, in
rightful acknowledgment of the part their predecessors played in the
gaining of the supremacy of the sea.

This supremacy, and still more the spirit of sea supremacy, has ever
remained dominant in the souls of British seamen.

When in March, 1889, the harbour of Apia, in Samoa, was devastated by
a terrific cyclone, and all the ships of other nations dragged their
anchors and were driven ashore, it was with this native spirit that the
British sailors slipped their cables and set out for their ocean home
on the open sea. As the British man-of-war breasted the hurricane and
battled through the breakers at the harbour mouth, the American sailors
on their flagship _Rodney_, sinking with fires extinguished[58] inside
the bar, cheered her as she passed, a cheer which rang round the world,
and the bold _Calliope_, with her British ensign above her, and her
"hearts of oak" within, won her way to safety far out in the wildest
storm.

[58] R. L. Stevenson: "Letters from Samoa."

With such widespread venture in her people, such spirit in her ships
and record in her flag, no wonder is it that the British Navy and the
British merchant marine exceed in number and in power those of any
other nation on the globe. Well, therefore, with lusty throats and
cheerful hearts, Britannia's children sing:

  "_Rule, Britannia;
  Britannia rules the waves!_"



CHAPTER XII.

_THE UNION JACK OF QUEEN ANNE, 1707._

THE SECOND UNION JACK.


The story of the flag now brings us to the creation of the second
two-crossed Jack, being the first _real_ "Union Jack" (23).

[Illustration: 23. UNION JACK OF QUEEN ANNE, 1707.]

In the year 1707, being the sixth year of the reign of Queen Anne, the
Parliaments of England and Scotland were at length brought into Union
in one Parliament. Up to this time there had not been one distinctive
"Union Jack" to represent both the kingdoms--no one flag taking the
place of the separate national Jacks of St. George and St. Andrew,
which the English and Scotch subjects of the Sovereign had each been
instructed and continued to use, according to their nationality.

In Acts of Parliament which had been passed in the Parliaments of
England and Scotland, prior to their ceasing to act and becoming merged
in the one "Union Parliament of Great Britain," authority had been
given to the Queen to create a flag, in which the two national flags,
the "_Crosse of St. George_" and the "_Crosse of St. Andrew_," should
be joined together to form a _Union Flag_.

[Illustration:

PLATE V.


1

UNION JACK OF ANNE--1707

2

RED ENSIGN OF ANNE--1707.

3

UNION JACK OF GEORGE III.--1801]

The Queen accordingly called her councillors together, and a Committee
of the Lords of the Privy Council was appointed "_to consider of
several matters in Execution of the Act lately pass'd for the uniting
of the two Kingdoms of England and Scotland_."

Instructions were given by this Committee to the Right Honourable the
Earl of Bindon, Deputy Earl Marshal of England,

 "to give Direction to the Kings of Arms and ye Heralds to consider of
 the Alterations to be made in the Ensigns Armorial and the Conjoyning
 the Crosses of St. George and St. Andrew to be used in all Flags,
 Banners, Standards and Ensigns at _Sea and Land_, and that they lay
 before the Committee Drafts of the present Flags of England and of
 Scotland, and of such alterations as they propose for the Flags of the
 United Kingdom."[59]

[59] Minute of Council, 17 March, 1707.

These directions were carried out and various designs prepared by
the Heralds and the Committee were thereafter presented for final
adjudication and authority at a meeting of the Privy Council, as
recorded in the Minutes:

 "At the Court at Kensington, the 17 day of April, 1707.

 "Present:

 "The Queen's Most Excellent Majesty in Council:

 "Whereas upon a Report from the Lords of Her Majesty's most Honourable
 Privy Council appointed to consider of divers matters in execution of
 the late Act for Uniting the Two Kingdoms, who were attended by the
 Kings of Arms and Heralds with divers Drafts proposed by them relating
 to the Ensigns Armorial for the United Kingdom and for adjoining the
 Crosses of St. George and St. Andrew pursuant to the said Act, Her
 Majesty is pleased to approve of the following particulars, viz.:

 "That the Draft marked A be made use of for the manner of bearing Arms
 for the said United Kingdom.

        *       *       *       *       *

 "That the Flaggs be according to the Draft marked C, wherein the
 Crosses of St. George and St. Andrew are Conjoyned."[60]

[60] Minute of the Privy Council, 17 April, 1707.

Copies of the minute and of the drafts were transmitted under seal to
the College of Arms, London. A careful copy of the drawing of Draft C,
as attested by a certificate of the York _Herald_, is given (fig. 24).

Formal and important promulgation of the Orders and Flags was ordered
by another paragraph of this same minute of April:

 "And Her Majesty is pleased to Order, That these Minutes be put
 into the Hands of Her Majesty's Principal Secretarys of State, who
 are to Receive Her Majesty's Pleasure thereupon, And to signify the
 same within the United Kingdom of great Britain and in Ireland, Her
 Majesty's Plantations in America, the Islands of Jersey and Guernsey
 and all other Her Majesty's Dominions."[61]

[61] Minute of the Privy Council, 17 April, 1707.

[Illustration: 24. DRAFT "C," UNION JACK, 1707.]

This _Draft C_, so prepared by the Committee and Heralds, and selected
and approved by Her Majesty the Queen and Her Privy Council, was duly
transmitted to be the form of the new "_Flagg_," which was to be used
on all "_Flags and Ensigns at sea and on land_," and not only by Her
Majesty's subjects in the Home Kingdoms, but in all the Islands and
Dominions beyond the seas.

Thus was formed the "Union Jack" of Queen Anne, which, taking the place
of the Jack of James I., "_commonly called the Union Jack_," was the
second two-crossed Jack, and the first fully authorized "Union Jack."

In the July following, the Queen issued a proclamation regarding "Our
Jack" and the "Ensign" of the now completely United Kingdom, and
defining more particularly how these flags were to be used at sea:

 ROYAL ARMS.


 _Three lions for England_, _red lion for Scotland_, _harp for
 Ireland_, _three fleurs-de-lis for France_, _and the motto, "Semper
 Eadem."_

 "BY THE QUEEN.

 "_A Proclamation_--_Declaring what ensign or colours shall be
 worn at sea in merchant ships or vessels belonging to any of Her
 Majesty's subjects of Great Britain and the Dominions thereunto
 belonging._--ANNE R.

 "Whereas, by the first article of the Treaty of Union, as the same
 hath been ratified and approved by several Acts of Parliament, the one
 made in our Parliament of England, and the other in our Parliament
 of Scotland, it was provided and agreed that the ensigns armorial of
 our Kingdom of Great Britain be such as we should appoint, and the
 crosses of Saint George and Saint Andrew _conjoyned in such manners
 as we should think fit_, and used in all flags, banners, standards
 and ensigns both at sea and land; we have, therefore, thought fit, by
 and with the advice of our Privy Council, to order and appoint _the
 ensign described on the side or margent hereof_, to be worn on board
 all ships or vessels belonging to any of our subjects whatsoever; and
 to issue this, our Royal Proclamation, to notifie the same to all our
 loving subjects, hereby strictly charging and commanding the masters
 of all merchant ships and vessels belonging to our subjects, _whether
 employed in our service or otherwise_, and all other persons whom it
 may concern, to wear the said ensign on board the ships or vessels."

After creating the _Ensign_, which was to be used by all ships, warning
was given, so that Her Majesty's ships might be the more easily
distinguished, against the using of the single Jack, or of any of the
distinctive flags of the Royal Navy, without permission.

 "And whereas, divers of our subjects have presumed on board their
 ships to wear our flag, Jacks and pendants, which, according to
 ancient usage, have been appointed as a distinction for our ships,
 and have worn flags, Jacks and pendants in shape and mixture of
 colours so little different from ours as not without difficulty to be
 distinguished therefrom. We do, therefore, with the advice of our
 Privy Council, hereby strictly charge and command all our subjects
 whatsoever, that they do not presume to wear in any of their ships
 _Our Jack, commonly called the 'Union Jack_,' nor any pendants, nor
 any such colours as are usually worn by our ships without particular
 warrant for their so doing from us."

The proclamation then stated that no other ensign was to be used, and
that it was to take the place of the ensign red up to that time used by
merchant ships:

 "And to hereby further command all our loving subjects that without
 such warrant as aforesaid they presume not to wear on board their
 ships _any other ensign_ than the ensign described on the side or
 _Margent hereof_, which shall be _worn instead of_ the ensign before
 this time usually worn on merchant ships.

 "Given at our Court at Windsor, the 28th day of July, in the sixth
 year of our reign.

 "_God Save the Queen._"

[Illustration: 25. THE RED ENSIGN IN "THE MARGENT," 1707.]

Here, then, we have the establishment of a new flag in accordance with
the intention of the Treaty of Union. In this flag the "crosses" of
St. George and St. Andrew were conjoined; the new flag was called "Our
Jack" (Pl. v., fig. 1), which in its simple form, as a single Jack,
was not to be used afloat on any other ships than Her Majesty's Royal
Navy without particular warrant. A notable change was now made in the
Ensign. We have seen how, in 1660, the English St. George cross had
remained alone in possession of the upper corner of the "ensign red."
Although the St. George cross continued, as it still does, in the
"command pennant" of all officers of the Royal Navy, its place in the
Ensign was now taken by the new "Union Jack," in the form as shown "in
the margent" (25).

The "Red Ensign," thus formed, was authorized to be worn thereafter on
all ships, both merchantmen and those in Her Majesty's service; and,
further, that no other Ensign was to be worn except this "Red Ensign,"
with the new Union Jack in the upper corner, which was to take the
place of the separate national Jacks and of the "Ensign Red" previously
used on the merchant ships of the subjects of the Sovereign.

Here, then, ceased the official authority on ships as national flags of
the separate crosse-flags of St. George and St. Andrew, and began the
reign of the first "Union Jack" of the United Kingdoms. Then, too, was
first raised the British Union Ensign, the "meteor flag" of the realm,
to be worn by all subjects of Britain's Queen, whether on land or on
sea, at home or abroad, on merchant ships or on men-of-war, so that
wherever the blood-red flag should fly the world would know the nation
to which its bearers belonged. In this _red ensign_ (Pl. V.,
fig. 2), the paramount flag of the nation, the new "Union Jack" was
placed; a position which, although so long enjoyed by the "English
Jack," had never been occupied by the "additional" Jack of James I.,
whose term was now brought to a close.

The proclamation and drawing of the ensign, as shown (25), are taken
by photo reproduction from the upper corner of an original in the
British Museum, London, and verified with the copy of the flag in the
College of Arms.

A very noticeable difference will be seen to exist between "our" new
Jack of Queen Anne, of 1707, and the "additional" Jack of James, of
1606, as usually given.

The white border surrounding the St. George cross has been enlarged,
and is no longer a mere margin or "fimbriation," but has become a broad
white border, distinctive in size and appearance.

In the King James I. flag the crosses were "_joyned according to the
forme made by our heralds_";[62] in the Queen Anne flag they are to be
"_conjoyned in such manners as we should think fit"_,[63] in accordance
with the request of the Parliaments of the two kingdoms. This time the
designers of the "drafts," to whom the two then "_present flags of
England and of Scotland_"[64] had been committed, were not thinking so
much of heraldry as of making, as they were instructed, a union flag,
and, while combining the two crosses, of making the two flags into one.

[62] Proclamation, p. 75.

[63] Proclamation, p. 123.

[64] Instructions, p. 119.

We have seen with what carefulness the combined Committee of the Privy
Council and of the Heralds had proceeded, and when the new flagmakers
thus broadened the white, they did it, it has been considered, for the
purpose of representing in the Union flag a part of the white ground
of the St. George Jack, which had previously been entirely effaced,
but which by the broad white border was now given its place in the new
"Union," as well as, and in company with, that of the blue ground of
the St. Andrew flag.

[Illustration: 26. FORT NIAGARA, 1759.

(Reproduced from an old print.)]

A confirmation of this intention will be found in the annals of the
next change in the Union Jack, which was made almost a century later.
It is possible, too, that the views of the designers were affected by
the relative proportions of some of the King James Jacks, which were in
official use and will be referred to later.

It may have been that some of the Queen's advisers and designers were
sailors, who had carried the red cross of St. George, and now that
it was being withdrawn from the Ensign of the nation in favour of
the newcomer, felt, like the admiral of old, that it was but due to
its centuries of glorious service that evidence of the whole English
Jack--its white ground as well as its red cross--should be displayed in
the new national emblem.

There the broad white band appeared in this two-crossed Jack, and has
ever since remained, showing the red cross and white ground of St.
George's Jack, combined, with the white cross and blue ground of St.
Andrew's Jack, into one "Union Jack," which was hereafter to be the
"sole ensign" of British rule.

It was this two-crossed Union Jack of Queen Anne which was raised at
Plassey, when Clive won India, and at Pondicherry and at Seringapatam.
Nova Scotia and Newfoundland were early (1713) transferred to it from
the _fleur-de-lis_, and Sir William Johnson raised it in Canada above
the old Fort Niagara, on the shores of Lake Ontario[65] (26), when

[65] The artist would appear to have altered the flag shown on the
flagstaff in a sketch which he had made the previous year. The sketch
was made in 1758, and the Fort taken in 1759. A "colonial escutcheon"
will be noted in the centre Union.

  "The last day came, and Bois Le Grand
    Beheld with misty eyes
  The flag of France run down the staff,
    And that of England rise."[66]

[66] Kirby: "Spina Christi."

Under it Wolfe stormed _Louisbourg_, the key fortress of Cape Breton,
and, following up his victory, climbed the Heights, and died victorious
on the Plains of Abraham (27), when, in 1759, _Quebec_ was gained and
all Canada came under the realm of British law.

[Illustration: 27. THE ASSAULT AT WOLFE'S COVE, QUEBEC, 1759.

(From an old print published in London, 1760.)]

The youthful Nelson saw it fly aloft when he served as captain's
coxswain on a British man-of-war searching for the North Pole, and
twenty-five years later when in glorious action he won his title as
Baron Nelson of the Nile.

The _Cape Colony_ was first acquired, and the _West Coast of Africa,
New South Wales and Vancouver Island_ were all added under its display,
showing how the mariners of Britain were carrying it far across the
distant seas, more distant then than now, for those sea-dogs of the
"sceptred isles," boldly raising their new Union Jack upon the mast,
braved the unknown oceans, and sailed their ships wherever billows
rolled or winds could waft them.

So it came that, as its "glory roll" so vividly tells, it was under
this second Union Jack the colonial possessions which dot the world
around were either occupied by doughty Britons or were wrested from the
flags of other nations to form the foundation of that Greater Britain
which, from these beginnings, has since grown up in all the regions
beyond the seas.



CHAPTER XIII.

_THE TWO-CROSSED JACK IN CANADA._


Although the Union Jack has been built up on the local Jacks of
the three island kingdoms, its greatest glories have been won in
expeditions sent far across the seas to other lands. The people of the
parent isles have never needed to raise it as their signal in driving
invaders from their own shores, and in this way it does not bear that
added vitality to them which it bears to the resident Canadian, that
of being associated with brave defence of home and native land. To the
Englishman, Irishman or Scotsman, in his own island home, it is an
emblem of foreign conquest; to the immigrant and to the Canadian-born
it is much more, as being the patriot signal of his national defence.

After the events of 1759 and of 1760, when Levis at St. Foy nearly won
back Quebec, and the cession of the rule of France in Canada had been
agreed upon, Canada had settled down into the paths of peace; soldier
and _habitant_ vied in binding up one another's wounds, and evidencing
all the pleasantries of reconciliation.[67]

[67] The nuns of the convents of Quebec sewed together blankets to make
trousers for the 78th Fraser Highlanders, who otherwise would have
had no protection against the snows during the first winter of their
occupation of the citadel of Quebec. The soldiers of this regiment
were given grants of land, and settled on the north shore of the
St. Lawrence, below Quebec, where they intermarried with the French
Canadians. It is a striking instance of the amalgamating influence of
the _habitant_ that the descendants of the Frasers are now _Frasiers_,
and speak French as their native tongue.

A memorial, the like of which has never been known elsewhere, either in
history or the world, has been erected in the square of "The Governor's
Garden," at Quebec, to the two heroes, Montcalm and Wolfe, equal in
valour, equal in fame. A united sentiment raised this single monument
to their united memory, bearing upon it the noble inscription:

 MORTEM, VIRTUS, COMMUNEM FAMAM, HISTORIA MONUMENTUM, POSTERITAS DEDIT.

 "Valour gave them a common death, history a common fame, posterity a
 common monument."

As the glory of their champions was thus intertwined, so the patriotism
of the old French occupants and of the newcomers to Canada began from
this splendid example to blend more closely in fraternal union.

The Treaty of Paris, in 1763, confirmed the Union Jack in its position
of being the successor to the _fleur-de-lis_ of France and the three
castles of Castile of Spain over all the territory on the continent of
America, stretching from Labrador along the Atlantic coast southward to
Florida, and inland westward as far as the waters of the Mississippi
from their highest sources to its mouth on the shores of the Gulf of
Mexico.[68]

[68] The Treaty of Paris was concluded at Paris, 10th February, 1763,
by George III. of Great Britain, Louis XV. of France, Charles III. of
Spain, and Joseph of Portugal. France ceded to Britain all countries
east of the Mississippi except the town of New Orleans; and Spain,
in consideration of the return to her of Havana and the Island of
Cuba--which had been captured during the war by the English--ceded
Florida with the Bay of Pensacola and all her territories in North
America to the east or south-east of the Mississippi.

In pursuance of this treaty, King George III. issued his proclamation
(October, 1763) creating four provinces and governments, named Quebec,
East Florida, West Florida, and Granada, this last consisting of the
islands of the West Indies. Of these four the Province of Quebec
comprised the territory lying adjacent to the St. Lawrence River
system, along its whole length to the head waters on the watersheds of
the farthest inland lakes.

By this proclamation French Canada ceased to be a conquered country,
and became a fully established colony of the British King. It was
to be governed by a governor and an assembly, entitled to arrange
its own taxation, have control of its own internal welfare and local
government, and empowered to institute its own courts of law; but to
every subject, new or old, of the King, there was reserved the right of
appeal to the foot of the throne itself in the Privy Council of Great
Britain, should any person think himself aggrieved by the decision of
his own locally appointed courts.[69]

[69] Royal Proclamation under Treaty of Paris, 1763.

The French Canadian subject soon began to find for himself the
beneficent character of British rule. He was no longer harried by an
irresponsible governor nor a grasping "intendant" for the enrichment
of a far-distant court, but was assisted in every way in the local
development of his country. His personal property was assured, and he
soon became sensible of the certainty of English law.

An Act of Parliament followed, formally and still further guaranteeing
to the French-speaking subjects the quiet continuance of their most
cherished customs.[70]

[70] Quebec Act, 1774, Section 11.

The Quebec Act of 1774 confirmed the _habitant_ in the free exercise of
his Roman Catholic religion, and restored to him his old French civil
law (_Code Civile_), but provided that in all criminal matters the law
of England, which had been found so satisfactory, was to remain in
force.

Content with his lot, secure in his home, and sure that good faith
would ever be kept with him and his descendants, the French Canadian
proved loyal to the trust which was now confided to him.

After having been for sixteen years an English colony, Canada was
invaded in 1775 by the forces of the thirteen older English colonies to
the south, which, after a series of altercations and misunderstandings,
due largely to their refusal in the past days to contribute toward
the expense of the military forces which had been maintained on their
frontiers "at England's cost to defend her American children against
the French and their Indian allies",[71] had consorted together in
revolution against their parent State. After entering Montreal, which
had been abandoned to them, the Revolutionary forces concentrated
around the walls of Quebec for an assault upon the citadel. Below were
the rebels against the British crown; above, upon the King's bastion on
Cape Diamond, flew the two-crossed Union Jack, and within the fortress,
under Sir Guy Carleton, the friend and fellow-soldier of Wolfe, was a
garrison of 1,800 men, one-third of whom were French Canadian militia,
headed by Colonel Lecompte Dupré. The invaders from New York were,
however, reckoning without their host. They had expected to find the
French Canadians dissatisfied with their lot; but, instead, they found
them standing side by side with their British friends, and joining with
them in common defence of their native Canadian land.

[71] Goldwin Smith: "The United States' Political History."

The assault commenced on the night of December 31st, 1775. At the point
of attack at Près-de-Ville, in lower town, the guard was under the
command of Captain Chabot and Lieutenant Picard, of the French Canadian
militia, and the guns were served by sailors from the British ships,
with Sergeant Hugh McQuarters, of the Royal Artillery, in charge. The
attack was boldly met. General Montgomery, the leader of the United
States forces, was killed; General Arnold, his second in command,
wounded, and the whole invading force was put to rout.

Thus were the historic heights and ramparts of old Quebec again crowned
with a British victory, but this time with one in which the French
Canadians were themselves the brave defenders of the Union Jack.

No wonder the French-speaking Canadian looks upon his British flag
with pride, and, as one of his compatriots, Sir Adolphe Chapleau, the
Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec in 1897, has so well said, "is French in
nationality, but British in patriotism"--for beneath the Union Jack he
dwells secure in possession of his dearest rights, and under it has
victoriously driven the United States invaders back each time they have
ventured to attack his loved Canadian soil.

While such loyalty to the national flag was shown in Eastern Canada, so
was it also displayed later on in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, and in
the country of Canada yet farther to the West.

The thirteen southern colonies had completed their revolution in 1783.
Immediately thereafter the "coming of the Loyalists" had commenced to
the districts of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, but was principally
directed to the Western Province of Upper Canada, all three of these
Provinces being now in the Dominion, or Union, of Canada.

These western lands were then uninhabited save by the native Indian
tribes and a few white settlers who had been attracted to the districts
by the chances of trapping for furs or of trading with the Indians.

The gallantry of the French-speaking Britons at Quebec, in 1775,
had kept the Union Jack flying above Canadian soil, and to Canada's
unbroken forests the English-speaking Loyalists therefore came,
leaving the old colonies because they would have their loved flag once
more float above them.

Never does history relate such devoted loyalty to a flag as was shown
by this migration of the U. E. Loyalists[72]--men giving up homes,
farms, companionship and wealth, and with their wives and little ones
following a flag for conscience' sake into an undeveloped and almost
unknown land.

[72] "United Empire Loyalists," so called because they preferred to
remain united with the parent Empire rather than become citizens of
another State.

  "Right staunch and true to the ties of old,
    They sacrificed their all,
  And into the wilderness set out,
    Led on by duty's call.
  The aged were there with their snow-white hair,
    And their life-course nearly run,
  And the tender, laughing little ones
    Whose race had just begun."[73]

[73] Jakeway: "The Lion and the Lilies."

It was enough for them that the Union Jack was the flag of Canada; so
they followed it to the far north. Here they lived out the balance of
their days, and, dying, have been buried in the sacred soil beneath its
folds. Certain it is that their descendants will ever prove true to
their loyal faith, that no other realm shall possess their bones nor
other nation's flag fly above their graves.

Such, then, was the esteem in which Canadians of both races held the
two-crossed Union Jack. Before the century of 1800 had commenced, the
French-speaking Loyalist of Quebec had laid down his life in its
defence; and having, by this loyalty, preserved it to the country, the
English-speaking Loyalist here sought a new home in the far-off forests
of Canada, so that he and his loved ones might continue to live again
beneath its sway.

Truly was this two-crossed Union Jack the flag of Canada and the
Canadians, and as truly is its three-crossed successor, our present
Union Jack, the native birthright of the sons of its defenders and the
successors of those patriot pioneers.



CHAPTER XIV.

_THE IRISH JACK._


The lineage of the Irish Jack is not so clearly defined as is that of
the other Jacks. Although "Paddy" has always been so ready for a shindy
that fighting has come to be considered his "natural diversion," he has
never found himself particularly at home on the sea. It is on land that
he has found play for his fierce delight in mingling where the fray is
thickest. It is as a soldier that the Irishman has always excelled.
Wellington, Wolseley and Roberts attest his power in command, and in
many a forlorn hope the wild energy of the Irish blood in the ranks has
scaled the breach and carried the stormers past the anxious moments
of the onset, displaying that same "eager, fierce, impetuous valour"
with which, in the charge of the Heavy Brigade at Balaclava, the
"Inniskillings went into the massive Russian column with a cheer."[74]

[74] Kinglake: "Invasion of the Crimea."

It may be that as Ireland was at no time distinguished as a maritime
nation, and its local shipping not developed to any great extent, the
display of her national Jack had not been so much in evidence among
the sailors of the early days as were the Jacks of the two sister
nations.

The banner of St. Patrick (28), which is the "Irish Jack," is a white
flag, having on it a red cross of the same saltire or diagonal shape as
St. Andrew's cross, the heraldic description being, "_Argent, a saltire
gules_," red saltire cross on a white ground (Pl. I., fig. 3).

[Illustration: 28. ST. PATRICK'S JACK.]

St. Patrick was the Christian apostle of the Irish, and thus became
their traditional patron saint. The story of his life is that he was
born in Scotland, at Kilpatrick, near Dunbarton on the Clyde, and being
taken prisoner by pirates when a child, was carried into Ireland and
sold there as a serf. Having acquired the native language, he escaped
to the continent, and afterwards becoming a Christian and having been
ordained to service in the Church, returned to Ireland for the purpose
of converting the people. The British name said to have been given him
in his youth was _Succeath_ (valiant in war), a temperament which he
certainly impressed upon the Irish. This name was afterwards, when he
returned to Ireland, changed to _Patricius_, in evidence of his noble
family descent, and to add importance to his mission.[75]

[75] Smith: "Religion of Ancient Britain."

The legends of the saint date back to A.D. 411, when he is reported
to have commenced his mission, and to have afterwards devoted his
life to the increase of the well-being of the people and the spread
of Christianity throughout Ireland. Tradition reports, although some
do not put much faith in it, that the saint suffered martyrdom upon
a cross of the shape of this red cross, and thus, when he became the
patron saint of Ireland, it was held in recognition as his emblem, and
for that reason was adopted as the Irish cross.

On the other hand, some people declare that the cross of the saltire
shape is sacred only to St. Andrew.

[Illustration: 29. LABARUM OF CONSTANTINE.]

Another suggestion is that the shape of the saltire cross, both
of the Irish and the Scotch, is derived from the Labarum (29), or
Sacred Standard, which was raised by Constantine the Great, the first
Christian emperor of Rome, as the imperial standard of his armies.
On this he had placed a monogram composed of the first two letters,
[Greek: CHR] (ChR), of the Greek form of the sacred name of Christ
([Greek: CHRISTOS]), and the saltire cross is reputed to be the
repetition of the [Greek: CH] of the lower part of the Christian
emblem.

The Labarum was the official standard of the Emperor of Rome, and
upon it were displayed the "insignia" of the emperor of the day.
Constantine, after his conversion to Christianity, had changed his
previous insignia to the Christian emblem.

Should this latter suggestion of the origin of the cross of the
saltire shape be accepted as the preferable one, this saltire cross has
yet a most interesting and particular connection with the early history
of Ireland.

The Roman Governor of Britain, under the Emperor Diocletian, when, in
A.D. 301, the pacification of IBERNIA (Ireland) had been completed, was
Constantius Chlorus, the father of Constantine.

[Illustration: 30. HARP OF HIBERNIA.]

The goddess of the pagan islanders was the Goddess Hibernia, whose
emblem was a harp, and this Hibernian Irish harp (30) Constantius had
in testimony of his success adopted as the insignia for his standard.

After the resignation of Diocletian, Constantius Chlorus and Galerius
were created joint emperors of Rome, and, dividing the empire between
them, Galerius took the East and Constantius the West.

The death of Constantius occurred soon afterwards in England, at the
city of York (Eboracum), and there he was succeeded as Emperor of Rome
by his son Constantine.

Constantius had in some degree restrained the persecution of the
Christians in Britain, which had raged under Diocletian, but it was now
completely suppressed by the new emperor. Carrying with him his faith
in Christianity, which he had learned in Britain, Constantine removed
to the continent to engage in the contest for the command of the
empire to which he had fallen heir, and in the battle of the Milvian
Bridge, near Rome, in A.D. 312, he defeated the opposing eastern forces
under Maxentius, and entered into undisputed possession of his position
as sole emperor. It was just before this engagement that Constantine is
reported to have seen a cross shining in the heavens at midday, having
on it the inscription, [Greek: EN TOUTÔ NIKA] ("In this conquer"--"_In
hoc signo vinces_"), and, therefore, recognizing the Christian emblem,
he adopted the Christian cross as his standard and placed the sacred
monogram upon his Labarum. This victory resulted in the official
recognition of the Christian religion, and the attaching to it of all
the political power of the Emperor of Rome.

Constantius had lived, and Constantine the Great had been born
and brought up, in the north of England, which, during the Roman
occupation, had been converted to Christianity by missionaries from
Scotland, whence St. Patrick afterwards also went to Ireland; and
as it was to Constantine that the Christians owed their rescue from
persecution, his insignia would, therefore, be heartily received. The
early Christians, through this source, may have adopted the X cross,
the lower part of Constantino's Christian monogram, as their emblem,
and thus it had become associated in Ireland with the Christian labours
of St. Patrick, their apostle and patron saint. In this "story of
the Irish Jack," it is a notable transition that the harp emblem of
Hibernia, carried by Constantius, and transmitted by him to his son,
and by Constantine changed to the Christian Labarum, should in this
diagonal cross of St. Patrick have been returned to become the emblem
of Ireland.

Whichever may have been the source of its origin, the saltire cross, in
its form of the red cross of St. Patrick, is by both lines of descent
intimately associated with the history of Ireland, and is rightfully
claimed as one of its national emblems.

The harp, too, has its story much later than that of St. Patrick's
cross, but yet bringing an interesting connection with the patron saint.

The ancient arms of Ireland, from the time of Henry II., in 1172, had
been three golden crowns set upon a blue ground.[76]

[76] "The Book of Public Arms."

These ancient arms of Ireland are the arms of the Province of Munster,
and are now worn on the helmet plate and glengarry of the Royal Munster
Fusiliers regiment of the British army.

Henry VIII. was the first English king who used an Irish emblem. When
he was proclaimed King of Ireland, he placed the harp of Hibernia upon
the coinage which he then issued, instead of the "three crowns" which
had been used under his predecessors, but he did not introduce the harp
into his royal arms, nor place the red cross of St. Patrick upon his
banner.

The first English monarch to insert an Irish emblem in the official
insignia of the sovereign was Queen Elizabeth, who introduced one in
the design of her "Great Seal." Instead of using the three Irish
crowns, she inserted a harp as the emblem of the Irish nation, and
among the banners displayed at her funeral Ireland was represented by a
blue flag having upon it a golden harp surmounted by a crown.[77] James
I., her successor, was the first king to introduce an Irish emblem
into the "royal standard," and from that time onward the golden harp
of Hibernia, on the ancient blue ground of the three Irish crowns, has
been shown in one of the quarters of the British standard as the emblem
of Ireland. In the arms of all the sovereigns, from James I., 1603
(15), to and including William IV., 1837, the front of the harp was
formed by the female figure representing the goddess Hibernia. During
the Victorian period a change was introduced in the shape of the harp,
which has been altered to that of the ancient Irish harp, connected in
form and legend with King Brian Boru (Boroimhe).

[77] Hulme: "Flags of the World."

The exploits of this most noted of the early kings of Ireland had been
mainly devoted to the defence of his kingdom against the invasions of
the Danes during the period when, under Canute, they had well-nigh
conquered all England.

Although in the main successful, he was slain in battle, according to
some, in 1039,[78] or, as others report, in the hour of victory over the
Danes at Clontarf, near Dublin, in 1014.[79]

[78] King: "National Arms."

[79] "Hadyn's Index."

The king, having accepted Christianity, presented, in 1004, a golden
votive offering upon the altar of the church at Armagh, and here, in
accordance with his dying request, his body was buried after the battle
of Clontarf.[80]

[80] "Ulster Journal of Archæology," Vol. I., September, 1894.

This city of Armagh is reputed to have been founded about A.D. 445,
by St. Patrick, and to this account is accredited the ecclesiastical
pre-eminence which has always enshrined the city, for the Bishop of
Armagh is the "Archbishop and Primate of all Ireland" of the Protestant
Church, and it is the See city also of the "Primate of Ireland" of the
Roman Catholic Church.

Of all the traditional patrons of Irish music, King Brian Boru was the
most renowned, and thus in poetry and song his name became identified
with the Irish harp.

The minstrelsy of the Irish harper has held sway and been cherished
through all the ages by the Irish people, whose temperament may have
been affected, or else has been most touchingly expressed, by its
strange and mystic cadences. The sweet pathos of these ancient melodies
has given tone and inspiration to most of the Irish songs, markedly
to those of the sweet singer Moore, whose music has installed in
affectionate memory,

  "The harp that once through Tara's halls
    The soul of music shed."

In the old seal of Carrickfergus (31), granted by James I., the form of
this ancient harp of Brian Boru is excellently displayed.

Within the circle are the initials of the King, I.R. (_Jacobus Rex_),
and the date 1605, and on the shield in the centre are three Irish
harps, having the rounded front pillar and the curious upper sweep of
the neck, termed the "harmonic curve," of the type known as the Irish
harp of Brian Boru.

[Illustration: 31. SEAL OF CARRICKFERGUS, 1605.]

Although this Irish harp was introduced in the seal of the Irish city
during his reign, the emblem which had been placed in his royal arms by
James I. as the emblem of Ireland was the angelic harp of Hibernia, and
in this form it remained on the royal standards of all the succeeding
sovereigns until Queen Victoria, in whose royal arms (32) the Irish
harp was displayed.

[Illustration: 32. ROYAL ARMS OF QUEEN VICTORIA.]

In 1849, when Queen Victoria first visited Ireland, being the first
occasion upon which a British Queen had ever visited the Island, a
medal was struck to commemorate the event. On this are the profiles of
Her Majesty the Queen and the Prince Consort, and on the reverse (33)
is the old Irish harp surmounted by the royal crown.

It is true that the angelic harp is frequently to be seen upon the
flags flown as royal standards, but the Irish harp is most beautifully
shown in the coat-of-arms upon the back of Her Majesty's royal throne
in the House of Lords at Westminster (34).

As the harp of the pagan goddess Hibernia had been changed to the
Christian cross of St. Patrick, so now again it had been followed by
the Irish harp of the Christian King, Brian Boru, and through his
grave at St. Patrick's ancient city of Armagh is again connected with
Ireland's patron saint. Thus, whether it be cross or harp, both the
official emblems of Ireland are associated with St. Patrick.

[Illustration: 33. MEDAL OF QUEEN'S FIRST VISIT TO IRELAND.]

During only one period in the early story of our Flag had Ireland been
represented on its folds, as is shown in Cromwell's Jacks and in the
Commonwealth Ensign (Pl. IV., figs. 1 and 2), but it had not
been by a cross, as were the other nationalities, but by a golden harp
on a blue ground.

Another emblem of Ireland, the green shamrock, is also connected in
legend with St. Patrick, as having been used by him, through the lesson
of its three leaves joined in one, in explaining the doctrine of the
Trinity. Thus both the shamrock and the red saltire cross form the
salient features of the insignia of the "Most Illustrious Order of St.
Patrick," the Irish order of knighthood.

[Illustration: 34. THE THRONE OF QUEEN VICTORIA IN THE HOUSE OF
LORDS, 1900.]

The Irish red cross on a white ground had been the ancient banner of
the Irish family of the Fitzgeralds before the time of the conquest
of Ireland under Henry II., and it still appears in the arms of their
descendants (35). It appears to have been used as a flag at Cromwell's
funeral, but notwithstanding its still earlier associations the red
cross of St. Patrick does not seem to have been formally recognized as
the general national emblem for Ireland until about the close of the
seventeenth century. Its entrance into the Union Jack had long been
delayed for reasons which will be pointed out.

[Illustration: 35. ARMS OF THE FITZGERALDS.]

Though the kings of England had, since Henry II., in 1172, been "lords
paramount," and since Henry VIII. been "kings of Ireland," the national
Jack of Ireland had not been joined with the other Jacks. When the
crosses of St. George and St. Andrew were combined in the "additional"
Jack of James, in 1606, it was not included, nor was it afterwards,
in the first Union Jack of Queen Anne, in 1707; so that for all these
centuries the red cross of St. Patrick had continued alone. At length,
the time was coming when another change was to be made in the Union
Jack, and it was in 1801, under George III., that the red saltire cross
of Ireland first joined the two sister crosses. For the immediately
previous two hundred years the Irishman had gallantly contributed his
prowess to the glories won under the two-crossed Jack, in which his
nation had not been represented; but from this time onward his own
Irish cross entered into its proper place in the national Union Jack,
and received its acknowledged position as the emblem of the Irish
kingdom.



CHAPTER XV.

_THE JACKS IN THE THIRTEEN COLONIES OF NORTH AMERICA._


We now turn to the history of the Jacks in the country to the south
of Canada, where immigration from England had been building up the
thirteen English colonies which subsequently became the United States
of America. The Spanish flag had been planted in 1492 by Columbus upon
San Salvador in the Bahamas. In 1497, Cabot had placed the St. George
cross, the English Jack of Henry VII., on the North Atlantic shores,
and the English claim by right of first discovery was thereafter laid
to Newfoundland, Labrador, and the coast of America, from Cape Breton
to Maine. Under Elizabeth, Raleigh, in 1584, expanded the claim of
the St. George cross in Virginia far to the south, and in 1602, under
the same flag, Bartholomew Gosnold, sailing out for the merchant
adventurers of Bristol, exploited the shores of Nantucket, Martha's
Vineyard, and Elizabeth, which still retain the names he then gave
them. Other adventurers, too, there were, who were searching the
unknown resources of the new continent. Jacques Cartier, in his second
voyage, had, in 1535, occupied Stadacona (Quebec), and the French flag
had been established on the shores of the St. Lawrence, the permanent
settlement at Quebec being founded by Champlain, in 1608. For more
than two hundred years the cross of St. George had been prospecting
along the Atlantic coasts and laying claim to their possession, but no
settlements were permanently established on these shores by any except
the Frenchman, De Monts, who raised the white flag of France at Port
Royal, on the Bay of Fundy, and laid the foundations of the town in
1605, and from this time on began the contest for their final ownership.

The sovereigns of France and England had with profuse liberality given
royal grants of American territory to their venturesome merchant
seamen, and in this manner James I., in 1605, partitioned off the
larger part of these shores to the two merchant-adventurer companies of
London and Plymouth.

The Plymouth Company was granted the country between what is now known
as New Brunswick and Long Island, to be called Northern Virginia, and
the London Company from the Potomac to Cape Fear in Carolina, to be
called Southern Virginia--the two hundred miles intervening between
them being left unoccupied in order to separate their boundaries,
and so ensure peace between the rival companies, each company being
warned not to make any occupation beyond the limits of the territory so
allotted to them.

The London Company in 1607 established themselves in Virginia, where
their Capt. Newport, after a weary and wave-tossed voyage, named their
first shelter and landing place "Point Comfort," and the river the
"James," and their settlement "Jamestown," in honour of his King.

It was into this interval between the two English companies that
Hendrick Hudson sailed in 1609, and planted the Dutch flag, with its
three lengthwise stripes of orange, white and blue, the orange being
the uppermost, over New Amsterdam (now New York).

To these English colonists fell the honour of the first contest for the
flag.

The French had occupied Acadia, and were quietly extending southward,
when, in 1613, Commander Samuel Argall, of Southern Virginia,[81]
finding them trading off Mount Desert, in what is now Maine, captured
and destroyed their new shore settlement of St. Sauveur, and next
year, heading an expedition sent out by his Colony, advanced farther
northward, and destroyed their headquarters at Port Royal. Thus the
colonists of Virginia, acting for their nation, defended the English
claim, and repelled the interference made with the cross of St. George
in its rights of prior discovery under Cabot.

[81] Afterwards Governor of Virginia in 1618.

The Plymouth Company had not been so energetic as were the London
Company in the occupying of their "plantations," but, in 1614, Captain
John Smith, on their behalf, settled a port which he called "New
Plymouth," and gave the name of "New England" to the surrounding
country.

While these things were going on in America the migration of the
Puritans from England to Holland had taken place. These non-conforming
Independents left their homes in England, in 1609, not from any
disloyalty to their native land, but because their religious views
forbade them to bend to what they considered were the unbiblical
Church requirements of James I. To his ritual regulations they would
not conform, so they removed themselves and their families to Holland.
Strong in their English nationality they remained for ten years
at Leyden, an isolated and unsettled colony in a foreign land. To
England they could not return, no place in Europe was open to them
for settlement without losing their language and changing their flag,
and they must, therefore, leave Holland and seek the New World lands
across the ocean. The Dutch offered them assistance and favourable
arrangements for colonization in their Dutch possessions in America.
They were also offered inducements by the London Company to settle on
the Delaware, in their colony of Virginia. As it was considered that
complications might arise if an English colony were to proceed across
the seas under the Dutch flag, they declined the offer of Holland and
accepted the English proposition, and the consent of King James was
obtained to their repatriation in the English territory in America
without conforming to the religious conditions to which they had so
devotedly objected in the Old Land.

Thus they sought the new land, not as rebels, but as loyalists
returning in gladness to their nation's flag.

Forming the "Pilgrim Company," in which they all took shares, a vessel
named the _Speedwell_ was purchased at Delft-Haven in Holland, and
another named the _Mayflower_ in London. The two parties joined at
Southampton. After leaving the shores of England the _Speedwell_ was
found to be unseaworthy, and the two vessels, therefore, returned to
England, when it was determined that the _Mayflower_ should proceed
alone. There not being sufficient accommodation on the one ship for
the combined expeditions, a number were left behind. The _Mayflower_,
a vessel of only 180 tons, sailed from Plymouth with about 100 of
the "Pilgrims" crowded on board. On reaching the shores of America
in November, 1620, after a voyage of two months and five days, they
found that they were far to the north of the Virginia Colony to which
they had been commissioned. Tired of the sea, but being hopeful that
they would receive, as they subsequently did, a grant of land from
the Plymouth Company, and being without a charter for the territory
on which they were about to land, it became necessary to make a new
agreement between themselves for the government of their colony. A
"_compact_" was accordingly drawn up on board the _Mayflower_ "off
Cap-Codd," and signed by all the heads of families. In this document
they described themselves as

 " ... the loyall subjects of our dread Soveraigne Lord King James by
 the grace of God of Gt. Britaine, France and Ireland, King-defender of
 ye faith, &c., having undertaken for the glory of God, and advancement
 of ye Christian faith and honour of our King & Countrie a voyage to
 plant ye first colonie in ye Northerne parts of Virginia,"

and the date of the year is given as

 "the eighteenth of 'Our Soveraigne Lord King James.'"[82]

[82] Macdonald: "Charters Illustrative of American History, 1606-1775."

As the _Mayflower_ was an English ship she would carry the St. George
cross flag on the foremast, and as they declared themselves to be loyal
subjects of King James it is most probable that the "additional" Union
Jack of James I. was also displayed at the main.

Such was the beginning of the migration of the Puritans from England,
which, following this first colony, continued during the remainder of
the century.

That the Pilgrims carried the English Jack is plainly shown by the
controversies which arose from time to time in this "New England"
district upon the subject of the use of the cross of St. George, not
for want of any loyalty to it, but from their strict religious views.

John Endicott, and the Puritans who subsequently settled at Salem,
objected to the cross in the flag as being an "_idolatrous emblem_,"
and, in 1634, "_defaced the ensign by taking out one part of the red
cross_."[83]

[83] _Winthrop's Journal_, November 5, 1634, Vol. I., p. 175.

Much discussion ensued upon these conscientious scruples, and the
offenders were summoned to appear before the Court of Assistants, but
decision was deferred for several meetings, "_because the Court could
not agree about the thing, whether the ensigns should be laid by, in
regard that many refused to follow them_." It was, however, ordered by
the Commissioners for military affairs that all the ensigns should in
the meantime be laid aside.

Endicott was finally tried at a general court held at Newtown, and
"_his offence found great; he judging the cross to be a sin, did not
content himself to have it reformed at Salem, not taking care that
others might be brought out of it; also laying a blemish on the other
magistrates, as if they would suffer idolatry, and giving occasion to
England to think ill of us_." He was, however, lightly sentenced by
suspension for one year of right to hold civil office, because "_he did
it out of tenderness of conscience and not of any evil intent_."[84]

[84] _Winthrop's Journal_, March, 1635.

A suggestion was made that red and white roses should be inserted in
the flag, instead of the cross, as being English emblems, and the
ministers were "_to write to England and consult the most wise and
godly_;" but nothing came of this suggestion.

Opinions must have continued strong in the controversy, for at the
close of the year the commissioners appointed colours for the military
companies, but left out the cross in them all, leaving the space blank,
but they ordered that the King's arms were to be inserted in the flag
which was to be used on the fort on Castle Island, at Boston.[85]

[85] _Winthrop's Journal_, December, 1635.

In the following year (1636) much heart-burning was occasioned by the
masters of several ships trading to Boston declaring that because the
King's colours were not displayed at the fort the colonists were all
traitors and rebels. This imputation was most warmly resented by the
people, and the captains were promptly tried by the Massachusetts court
for this defamation of the loyalty of the colony.

The offenders acknowledged their error and made humble apology in open
court, but in doing so suggested that the King's colours ought to be
shown on the fort. To this answer was made, "_that 'we had not the
King's colours'; thereupon two of them did offer them freely to us.
We replied that, for our part, we were fully persuaded that the cross
in the ensign was idolatrous, and, therefore, might not set it in our
ensign, but because the fort was the King's and maintained in his name,
we thought that his own colours might be spread there._"[86]

[86] _Winthrop's Journal_, March, 1636.

The King's own colours would be the two-crossed Jack of James, which
Charles I. had, in 1634, declared as His Majesty's Jack to be the
"ornament proper for our owne ships." This Jack was ordered to be
thereafter displayed at the fort, lest it might again be thought that
the colony had abated its allegiance.

In 1643, the colonies of Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay and Connecticut
formed themselves for defence against the French and the Dutch into an
alliance as the "United Colonies of New England."

That their forces had continued to use the two-crossed "King's Jack" of
Charles I. is proved by the fact that they found it necessary, owing
to the change of sovereignty in the Mother Country, to pass an order
authorizing a change in their own flag. The Commonwealth of England
had, in 1648, abolished the use of the two-crossed Jack. In 1651, the
fleet of Cromwell which crossed the Atlantic was to be seen flying the
single English Jack of St. George and the new Commonwealth Ensign at
Barbadoes and in Virginia. Following the action of the Home Government,
the General Court of Massachusetts overcame their local scruples and
passed an order adopting the English ensign:

 "Forasmuch as this Court conceives the old English colours now used
 by the Parliament of England to be a necessary badge of distinction
 between the English and other nations in all places in the world, till
 the State of England shall alter the same, which we much desire, we
 being of the same nation, have therefore ordered that the Captain of
 the Castle shall presently advance the aforesaid colours of England
 upon the Castle upon all necessary occasions."[87]

[87] Massachusetts Records, Vol. I. Order of General Court at Boston,
May 7, 1651.

So the English Jack took the place of the Jack of James in America.

Under this St. George Jack, with its red cross and white ground, the
colonists not only organized and defended their own territories, but
also carried on active operations against the French. As in its earlier
years, so also throughout the century, the extensions southward of the
French settlements in Cape Breton and Acadia had been a menace to the
colonies. The colony of Massachusetts itself took the matter in hand,
and organized an expedition which it sent out under the leadership of
Major Sedgwick, in 1654, when Port Royal was taken from the French,
but, much to the chagrin of the colony, only to be restored to France,
in 1667, by the peace of Breda.

The old controversy about the cross in the flag had by no means been
settled by the decision of the General Court of Massachusetts, in 1651,
and although it was so displayed officially, yet many individuals still
held to the original religious objections.

In 1663, the "Ensign Red," with the plain red cross of St. George in
the upper corner, had been ordered by Charles II. to be used.

Thomas Singleton, master of the ship _Charles_, notes (when off Boston)
in his diary of a voyage to the American coast in 1679-80: "_I observed
that while the English flag or colour has a red ground with a small
white field in the uppermost corner where there is a red cross, they
have here dispensed with this cross in their colours and preserved the
rest_."[88]

[88] Journal of Voyage to the New Netherlands, 1679-80, translated from
the original manuscript, Long Island Historical Society, 1867.

The New England colonists were evidently flying the Ensign Red, but had
taken the red cross out of the Jack in its upper corner, leaving only
the white ground. It was in this it had been suggested that the roses
of England should be introduced, and in which the "pine-tree" emblem
was afterwards placed.

The importance of the particular flags which were to be used along
these Atlantic coasts, where the nationalities were constantly coming
into contact, was eminently increased by the terms of a treaty, made
in 1686, between James II. and Louis XIV., providing "for rights and
pre-eminences in the American seas." Under this it was agreed that,

 "the British shall not trade nor fish in the havens, bays, creeks,
 roads, shoals or places of the French in Canada,"

and _vice versa_, the French were not to interfere with the British;
and further,

 "that whensoever the subjects of either king shall be forced to enter
 with their ships into the other's ports, they shall be obliged at
 their coming in to hang out their flag or colours of their nation, and
 give notice of their coming by thrice firing a cannon, and if they
 have no cannon by thrice firing a musket, which if they shall omit to
 do, and, however, send their boat on shore, they shall be liable to
 confiscation."[89]

[89] Treaty of Whitehall, November, 1686.

Governor Andros brought out with him from England, in 1686, his
official flag as Governor of New England. A drawing of this in the
British State papers office[90] shows it to have been a large St.
George Jack, having on the centre of the red cross a royal crown, and
underneath the initials of the King, I.R. (_Jacobus Rex_), in gold.
This Governor's flag was officially used by Governor Andros in the
colonies of Massachusetts and Connecticut.

[90] British State papers, New England. Vol. 12.

The united colonies of New England, moved, no doubt, by the necessities
of the Treaty of Whitehall, passed an Order-in-Council, in 1686,
directing the cross to be restored to their Colours. In this way the
red cross of St. George came back into the blank white space which had
been left in the upper corner of the Ensign Red.

We get some glimpse of the mental difficulties of the times from the
diary of Samuel Sewall, an officer in the colonial forces. On August
20th, 1686, he writes:

 "I was and am in great exercise about the cross to be put into the
 colours, and afraid that if I should have a hand in it whether it may
 not hinder my entrance into the Holy Land."

He even contemplated the necessity of retiring from the service, and
enters:

  "Sabbath day, August 22.

 "In the evening seriously discoursed with Captain Eliot and Frary
 signifying my inability to hold, and reading Mr. Cotton Mather's
 arguments to them about the cross, and say'd that to introduce it into
 Boston at this time was much, seeing that it had been kept out more
 than my lifetime, and now the cross much set by in England and here;
 and it scarce could be put in, but I must have a hand in it. I fetch
 home the silk Elizur Holyoke had of me to make the cross, last Friday
 morn, and went and discourse Mr. Mather. He judged it sin to have it
 put in, but the captain not in fault, but I could hardly understand
 how the command of others could wholly excuse them, at least me who
 had spoken so much against it in April, 1681, and that summer and
 forward, upon occasion of Captain Walley's putting the cross in his
 colours."[91]

[91] Sewall Papers, Massachusetts Historical Collections, Fifth Series,
Vol. V.

[Illustration: 36. MEDAL OF LOUIS XIV., "_Kebeca Liberata_,"
1690.]

But the crosses were restored, and it was under this single cross
Ensign Red that, during the war between William III. and Mary and Louis
XIV., the nine colonies[92] united together, and, in 1690, of their own
motion and at their own expense,[93] sent out a naval expedition from
Boston, under Admiral William Phips, against the French in Canada.
The fleet successfully attacked and again captured Port Royal,[94] but
arriving before Quebec, above whose ramparts was flying the white
flag and _fleur-de-lis_ of France, was repulsed by the redoubtable
Count Frontenac. The records of the expedition, and of the episode of
the capture of the flag of the Admiral, which, being shot away from
its halliards and falling into the water, was swum after and brought
to shore by the venturesome French,[95] attest that this fleet of the
United Colonies was sailing under the cross of St. George. A copy of
the medal (36), issued by Louis XIV. of France in commemoration of the
event, is given in the narrative,[96] showing three _fleur-de-lis_ of
France, and the cross of St. George on a flag reversed.

[92] Massachusetts, Virginia, Maryland, the two Jerseys, New York,
Connecticut, and Plymouth and Rhode Island.

[93] Sir Wm. Phips: "Account of Expedition against Quebec." Colonial
Entry Books. London.

[94] Acadie was restored to the French by the Treaty of Ryswick, 25th
September, 1697.

[95] It was afterwards placed, with much ceremony, in the Cathedral.

[96] Ernest Myrand: "Phips devant Quebec," p. 341.

[Illustration: 37. NEW ENGLAND ENSIGN.

(From a Dutch publication of 1711.)]

While the forces of the United Colonies thus used, in common,
the English ensign, some of the colonies had distinctive flags.
Massachusetts at times displayed the red ensign with a "pine-tree" on
the white ground in the upper corner instead of the cross to which
so much objection had been made. The flag of New England (37) was the
English red ensign with the pine-tree, or else a globe signifying the
New World, in the upper corner of the white canton bearing the cross of
St. George. The instance given is taken from the old Dutch publication
of 1711.[97]

[97] P. Schenk, Amsterdam, 1711. See p. 227.

This New England ensign was in continuous local use from 1686 to 1775.

The change in the English flag, made under Queen Anne, from the cross
of St. George to the two-crossed Jack, brought a corresponding change
in the union flag in America.

The narrative of the change in Massachusetts, in 1701, is given in
Chapter XXVII. (page 280). In 1709, similar instructions were sent out
to Governor Hunter for the Province of New York, and the drawing of the
flag[98] which is attached to the documents is the same in 1709 as in
the instructions of 1701.

[98] New York Colonial manuscripts, Vol. V., p. 137.

Under this Queen Anne Union Jack, Port Royal was once more taken by
the forces of the United Colonies, sent out from Boston under General
Nicholson, in 1710, and its name changed in honour of their Queen to
Annapolis, where both Royal name and British ensign have ever since
remained.

The colonists had in all these expeditions stoutly proved their share
in the prowess of the British Jacks. Acadia,[99] by the Treaty of
Utrecht (1713), had been ceded to Britain, but Cape Breton had remained
in the hands of the French, and Louisbourg having been created by
them the strongest fortress in the New World, the British colonists
determined upon its reduction.

[99] Practically our present Nova Scotia.

[Illustration: 38. THE LOUISBOURG MEDAL, 1758.]

In 1745, an expedition, entirely colonial, organized by General
Shirley, of Massachusetts, and William Vaughan, of New Hampshire,
sailed from Boston under General Pepperell. After a siege of forty days
Louisbourg surrendered. In 1748, the fortress was again restored to the
_fleur-de-lis_ by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, but only to be retaken
by Wolfe, in 1758, and the Queen Anne Jack, which the United Colonies
had before placed above it, was restored and is shown again in the
Louisbourg medal,[100] used to commemorate Wolfe's victory (38).

[100] Bourinot: "Island of Cape Breton."

On yet another field the United Colonists carried the Union Jack. In
1762, when Havana was captured from the Spanish by Lord Albemarle,
there were in his fleet of 203 vessels, and among his land forces of
12,000 men, alongside the men from across the sea, colonial contingents
sent by the colonies of Connecticut, New York, Rhode Island, New Jersey
and Maine.[101]

[101] _Graham's Journal_, published by the Society of the Colonial
Wars, in New York.

When Cuba was thus gained for the Union Jack the colonists of America
were joined with their British brothers from the Old Land in lowering
the flag of Spain, but the island was restored to Spain by the Treaty
of Paris, February 10th, 1763.[102]

[102] When, in the Spanish-American war of 1899, the forces of the
United States placed the American ensign, containing the thirteen
stripes of the old colonies, above the flag of Spain, in Cuba, Great
Britain stood by the descendants of her men of 1762 and kept the field
clear from interference by other nations.

Thus for over two and a half centuries (1497-1762) had the English
Jacks wrestled with the forests and battled along the shores of
America, carried first by the merchant adventurers, and afterwards
by the several and the United Colonies, as sign of their origin and
allegiance. For yet another long period was the two-crossed Jack to be
carried by those who had so manfully won competence and glory beneath
it, so that at length, even when joining for contest with their parent
realm, the Thirteen Colonies held its past and record in such esteem
that they placed the Union Jack of Queen Anne in their new Union Ensign
as a sign and remembrance of their common history.



CHAPTER XVI.

_THE UNION FLAGS OF THE UNITED STATES._


The thirteen English colonies which in succession had been planted
in North America, along the shores of the Atlantic from the French
possessions in Acadia to the Spanish possessions in Florida, had each
its own "colony flag"; the "United Colonies of New England" had devised
the New England flag to distinguish their particular union; but the
national flag which declared the union of all the colonies with one
another, and with the Motherland beyond the seas, was the "Union Jack"
of Great Britain.

It was under the Union Jack that the forces of the colonies of
Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania and Virginia had marshalled in
1755, and with the English regulars had advanced, under the leadership
of Braddock and Washington, to drive the French out of the Ohio Valley,
but to meet with such signal disaster on the banks of the Monongahela.

In the same year, under the cross of St. George in their United
Colonies flag, the colonists of New England joined in the victories
over the French, and changed the name of the lake, by whose shores they
fought, from "St. Sacrament" to "Lake George."

Under the successive Jacks the colonies had grown into commonwealths,
had expanded their territories, and their sons had written their names
in British history by gallant deed and notable achievement.

Thus the crosses in the Union Jack had a vivid meaning, and their local
historic record had won for them the attachment of the people in the
colonies.

The occupation of Quebec by Wolfe in 1759 and the subsequent retirement
of French rule from Canada and the valley of the North Mississippi had
freed the colonies from conflict with the power which had hitherto
opposed their expansion beyond the Alleghanies. They were now free to
exploit the West, which this victory of the parent realm had gained
for them, and which was to be the wide field for their subsequent
expansion. Combining together for these adventures had brought the
separate colonies more into contact with each other and created points
of internal union. At length the time came when rifts in the methods of
government on this continent began to show themselves.

Troubles had been brewing between the colonies and the Home Government
ever since the passing of the obnoxious Stamp Act of 1765, but,
although the friction had at times been great, there was no intention
on the part of the colonists of severing their allegiance from the
parent realm. The cause of the colonists in America was largely
espoused among the English people. Lord Effingham, upon his regiment
(the 22nd) being ordered to America, resigned his commission in
the British army, "rather than consent to bear arms against my
fellow-subjects in America."[103]

[103] Letter to Lord Barrington, Secretary of War, April 12, 1775.

No more ardent adherents or outspoken advocates for the self-government
of the colonies were to be found in America than were Chatham, Burke,
and Charles James Fox in the Parliament of England, and under the
later and better conditions which have since governed the relations
between Great Britain and her outlying colonies there would, in all
probability, have been no breaking of the old home ties.

Engaged in the throes of a great European war, Britain had poured
her men into Spain and could spare but few of her own for service in
America. Forces, consisting largely of hired Hanoverian and Hessian
soldiers, had been sent across the sea to enforce the objectionable
enactments, and hostilities had broken out in June, 1775, between the
resident citizens and these imported "regulars"; but even after this
entanglement, the flag, which was introduced for the "United Colonies,"
was raised, not for the purpose of indicating any alteration in
allegiance, but to evidence the local union of the still loyal colonies
against the dictation of the impracticable home ministry.

That these were their views towards Great Britain they most plainly
stated in the address they sent to the King immediately after their
armies had been placed in the field:

 "We not only most ardently desire that the former harmony between
 her and these Colonies may be restored, but that a concord may be
 established between them as to perpetuate its blessings uninterrupted
 to succeeding generations in both countries."[104]

[104] Address of the General Congress of the Colonies in America to the
King, September 1, 1775.

As in previous wars of defence or of adventure, the separate colonial
forces were again brought together into one army. On their assembling
at Cambridge, in July, 1775, they were mustered into one service under
General Washington. As was recorded in a local paper, "None of the men
who have been raised by this (Massachusetts) and several other colonies
are in future to be distinguished as the troops of any particular
colony, but as the forces of 'The United Colonies of North America,'
into whose joint service they have been taken by the Continental
Congress."[105]

[105] _New England Chronicle_, July 6, 1775.

As early as October, Washington found the necessity of having some
"continental flag" which should identify the whole of the forces of
"The United Colonies of North America" thus assembled together under
his command, instead of having the military detachment from each colony
continuing to use its own individual flag.

An existing ensign used by the Colony of Pennsylvania was at first
proposed by him for this purpose, having a white ground with a tree in
the middle, and the motto, "Appeal to Heaven."[106]

[106] "Washington Letters," Vol. I., p. 84.

This was succeeded by a new design, devised for the Continental
Union flag (39), which, to the accompanying salute of thirteen guns,
was raised by Washington over the camp of his army at Cambridge,
Massachusetts, on the 1st January, 1776, being the occasion of its
first appearance.

[Illustration: 39. THE FIRST UNION FLAG, 1776.]

This flag was called "The Grand Union" (Pl. VI., fig. 1). It
was composed of thirteen stripes of alternate white and red--one for
each colony--and in the upper corner was the British Union Jack of that
period, displaying the two crosses of St. George and St. Andrew, as
introduced in 1707.

There existed at the time a flag which had been carried by the English
East India Company over their British possessions in India since 1704.
This was composed of thirteen stripes, red and white alternately, and
had the single red cross of St. George upon a white ground (the old
English Jack) in the upper corner. This flag might have been seen
on the vessels trading to America and exchanging products between
the English East Indian and the American colonies, and thus being
recognized as a "colonial flag" it may, with the change of form of the
Union Jack, have suggested the new ensign.

[Illustration: PLATE VI.

1

GRAND UNION 1776

2

UNITED STATES 1777

3

UNITED STATES 1909]

There is no direct evidence as to the flag which had been raised by
General Putnam at the outbreak of hostilities at Bunker Hill, June
17th, 1775, but tradition reports[107] that it was the ensign of the
colony of New England (37), which, like the East India ensign, had the
St. George's cross on a white ground in the upper corner; but the whole
fly of the flag was red.

[107] Lossing.

In the selection of a new flag for the combined forces of the united
colonies, what design could be more reasonable or more appropriate
than the selection of that Union Jack under which their united armies
had so often fought, together with the addition of thirteen stripes to
indicate the number of colonies then assembled together?

This retention of the Union Jack in the new flag was designedly
intended to signify that the American colonies retained their
allegiance to their Motherland of Great Britain, although they were
contesting the methods of taxation promulgated by its Government.

By this flag the thirteen colonies testified that, though in arms, they
still claimed to be Britons, and were demanding for themselves all the
rights of citizenship which such relation conferred.

It was, as one of their orators has well said, "the flag of the
British colonies in arms to secure the rights and liberties of British
subjects."[108]

[108] General Schuyler Hamilton: "Addresses on the Flag," p. 18.

The first Union flag raised by Washington over the armies of the united
colonies thus displayed the British Union Jack.

Another flag (40) bearing the Union Jack is still extant.[109] It is
a crimson red flag, having a rattlesnake painted upon it, and in the
upper corner is the Union Jack of 1707. This was carried by a regiment
of the colony of Pennsylvania, and was used at the Battle of Trenton,
December 26th, 1776, and in subsequent engagements with the British
regular forces.

[109] Preble: "The Flag of the United States."

[Illustration: 40. THE PENNSYLVANIA FLAG, 1776.]

The intention to cure the troubles by constitutional means had become
unhappily merged in the appeal to arms.[110] As the hostilities proceeded
rancour grew, and then a new flag was sought for, which should typify
the changed conditions. The source from which arose the idea of this
final design we shall presently see.

[110] Benjamin Franklin's only son bitterly resented his father's
abandonment of peaceful and constitutional methods, and himself left
the country in 1782, and died a U. E. Loyalist in 1813.

On July 4th, 1776, the Declaration of Independence followed,[111] but
the "Grand Union" still continued to be used by the thirteen colonies,
which had now become thirteen States. It was not until June 14th,
1777, or almost a year after the Declaration, that a new national flag
was fully developed.

[111] Carried in Congress only by the casting vote of the chairman.

The Congress of the United States, then in session at Philadelphia,
approved of a report made by a committee[112] which had been appointed to
consider the selection of a Union flag, and enacted,

 "That the flag of the thirteen United States be thirteen stripes,
 alternate red and white; that the Union be thirteen stars, white in a
 blue field, representing a new constellation."

[112] Franklin, Adams and Washington.

The new enactment was not at once put in force and a still further
delay ensued, but at length, on September 3rd, 1777, this flag was
officially proclaimed as the Union Ensign of the United States (Pl.
VI., fig. 2), and was the first national flag which was
officially adopted by the authority of Congress.

[Illustration: 41. ARMS OF THE WASHINGTON FAMILY.]

As Washington himself suggested the first design, and had introduced
the second, it is not improbable, and, indeed, it is recorded that he
actually had somewhat to do with the designing of the final one.[113]
However this last report may be, his friends and admirers most
certainly had, and the similarity between the design of the final flag
and the coat-of-arms of the Washington family points to the source
from which they deduced the completed design.

[113] Preble: "Ross episode."

Upon the tombstones of the family in Sulgrave Church, Northamptonshire,
England, and upon the old manor house occupied by them in the time of
Henry VIII., is to be seen the shield (41) of the Weshyntons,[114] or
Washingtons, an old English county family, who traced their lineage
back into the fifteenth century.

[114] Also spelled "Wessingtons."

[Illustration: 42. WASHINGTON'S BOOK-PLATE.]

John Washington, a descendant of this family, had been a loyal
cavalier, standing staunchly by his King, Charles I. When Cromwell and
the Roundheads came into power, the Royalist Washington emigrated, in
1657, to Virginia, bringing out his family, and with them his family
shield, on which are shown three stars, above alternate stripes of
red and white. Having settled upon considerable estates, he and his
descendants kept up the old ways, and maintained the style and country
standards of their English forefathers.

George Washington, the subsequent President, was the great-grandson
of the old loyalist colonist. He, too, served in the forces of his
sovereign, King George III., and maintained the old family traditions
and habits in the same way as did all the "first families" of Virginia.

On the panels of his carriage were painted his family coat-of-arms.
It appeared on the book-plate (42) of the books in his library, and
the first commissions which, as commander-in-chief, he issued to the
officers of the Continental army were sealed with his family seal (43).

[Illustration: 43. WASHINGTON'S SEALS.]

Thus the suggestion for the further alteration was ready to hand. The
similarity of one portion of the design already existing could not fail
to have been noticed, for the stripes on the Washington coat-of-arms
were alternately red and white, as were also those on the Grand Union.

It had been suggested that the idea of the "new" constellation was
derived from the analogy of the "old" constellation of Orion containing
thirteen stars, and that the form of the stars was taken from a seal
said to have belonged to John Adams, one of the committee for designing
the flag.[115]

[115] "Magazine of American History," Vol. XIX., p. 151.

Reference to the details of this seal shows an eagle bearing in its
claws the lyre of Orion, both being surrounded by a circle of thirteen
stars; but the stars on the seal are all shown as sidereal six-pointed
stars, and not five-pointed as are the Washington stars.

The stars which were inserted in the flag when the Union Jack
was withdrawn were not the six-pointed stars which would be used
heraldically if representing a "sidereal constellation," but are the
five-pointed stars of the Washington armorial bearings.

So it happened that the stars and stripes of the coat-of-arms of the
old loyalist English family, to which the successful Revolutionary
general belonged, and of the seal with which he had attested the
commissions which his officers had received from him, formed the
basis for the design of the new American flag, and through them the
memory of the great leader and first President of the United States
is indissolubly connected with the Stars and Stripes, the national
ensign (Pl. III., fig. 3) of the nation which he brought into
existence.

The American had good right to be proud of that Jack, in whose glories
he had so valiantly borne his part, and when as Englishmen battling
for the rights of Englishmen the united colonies formed their colonial
ensign they had rightly placed the Union Jack in its upper canton as
evidence of those glories and of that claim.

Afterwards, when their new nation had been framed, and the Washington
stars had marked the new allegiance, the thirteen stripes of the
old thirteen English colonies still remained to attest to himself
and to the world the Americans' share in the preceding centuries of
Anglo-Saxon adventure and their heritage in all the liberties and
literature of the English tongue. The rights won by the Barons from
John, the works of Chaucer, Shakespeare, Milton, are still theirs by
hereditary right, and the thirteen Anglo-Saxon stripes in his national
emblem proclaim this to the American of to-day as they did to his
forefathers in the thirteen colonies who first placed them in his union
ensign.

The bitternesses arising out of a fratricidal contest fanned by the
misrepresentations of fervid orators have for long decades misread the
events and obscured the history of that dividing strife, but British
law and the English tongue still speak in the flag of the old English
colonies which continues to form part of the national ensign of the
United States.



CHAPTER XVII.

_THE JACK AND PARLIAMENTARY UNION IN BRITAIN._


The history of the flag, so far as we now have followed it, has been
the story of martial or naval prowess and of the extension of its
power and command around the world; but there is another story told in
its combinations which is even greater in power, and has still deeper
meaning in the welfare of the peoples who have come beneath its sway.

The kingdom of England for centuries had its own St. George's Jack,
and the kingdom of Scotland its cross of St. Andrew. These red and
white crosses had been the accepted symbols of their respective
nationalities. Each of the kingdoms had its own separate Parliament,
differing, it is true, from that of the other in methods and in many
details, but representing the constitutional machinery adopted in each
community for consultation between the King and his subjects, who,
through their representatives, were advised upon matters connected with
the government of their country, whether in its internal laws or in its
relations with foreign powers. In course of time the same sovereign,
in the person of James I., had by virtue of his birth succeeded to the
throne of England, as well as to that of Scotland. The kingly office
in both the kingdoms had thus been merged in the person of one and the
same King. A new flag had been created representing the allegiance
which had then been joined in the one sovereign. In this the crosses
of the two kingdoms had been joined together in one design, but the
separate national Jacks of each had been still retained and their use
continued in force.

These separate national Jacks were certainly intended to evidence the
continued separate national existence of each kingdom, while the new
personal Jack or banner of the King would appear to have evidenced the
union of the thrones in one person, and to represent the united fealty
offered to the one King. Yet it is fairly open to question whether
this Union Jack of James I. was at first created to mean as much as
this, or whether it was not, after all, introduced more for the purpose
of avoiding trouble between the sailors of the two nations, and only
intended at first to be a local convenience for the preventing of
dissensions.

The new Union Jack certainly did not represent a union of the nations,
else why did the two national Jacks still remain? If it had been
intended to represent the fealty of his subjects to their King, why was
it not introduced immediately upon his accession, and why was not the
red cross of the Irish included as well as the crosses of the English
and Scots, for the Irish were equally at the time subjects of James I.?

The Irish had, in fact, been subjects of his predecessors for many
centuries. In 1171, after the conquest of the island had been
effected by Henry II. of England, the native princes of Ireland had
declared fealty to the prince--not in his capacity as king, but in
acknowledgment of his position as having become by conquest the "Lord
of Ireland." The country had from very early days been governed by its
own Parliaments, whose meetings are recorded as having taken place as
early as 1295; but it was not until 1522 that Ireland was raised to the
rank and designation of a kingdom. In this year an Act was passed by
the Parliament of Ireland declaring Henry VIII., the King of England,
to be also the King of Ireland, and it was by virtue of this Act
that the King of England first assumed the additional title of King
of Ireland. The flag of England was at this same time the single St.
George Jack; yet, although the crowns were thus formally united, the
cross of St. Patrick was not added to the red cross of St. George as a
Union Jack in sign of fealty to the one sovereign.

After this, the Kingdom of Ireland owned fealty to three more
sovereigns of England in succession;[116] yet under none of them were the
crosses of the two national flags joined together. It was not until a
Scotch king, the great-grandson of Henry VIII., became King of England,
that any of the three national crosses were combined. In 1603, James
I. became King of Ireland and England, as well as of Scotland; yet
notwithstanding that the three sister kingdoms were thus united in
allegiance under his united crown, the three separate crosses of the
national Jacks of each were not united in one flag. James I. on his
accession had at once added the Irish harp to the quarterings of his
Royal Standard (15), but three more years passed before he entered the
red cross of St. George in the "additional" two-crossed Union Jack
which he then created. All these incidents point, evidently, to the
view that the union of the crosses of St. George and St. Andrew in the
new flag of 1606 did not arise as an emblem of the union of thrones,
but was mainly devised, as the King's proclamation distinctly stated,
for the special and local purpose of keeping the sailors of the two
nations most interested in shipping at peace, and thus to prevent their
crews from quarrelling with one another as they sailed their ships
around the shores of Great Britain.

[116] Edward VI., Mary, Elizabeth.

It required, in fact, something more than a mere union of allegiance to
create a real Union Jack, and to entitle the national crosses of the
kingdoms to be entered upon its folds; and what this requirement was
the history of the entry of the St. Patrick cross into the Union flag
enables us to see even yet more clearly.

It will be remembered that a change in the "additional" Jack of James
was made in the sixth year of the reign of Queen Anne, and that the
occasion of this change was coincident with the union of the separate
Parliaments of England and Scotland into one British Parliament.

It was so soon as this occurred, but not until then, that the flag in
which the two national crosses were blended was made the sole national
ensign.

It was in 1707 that this first Union Jack was created. Queen Anne was
at the time Queen of Ireland as well as Queen of England and Scotland.
She had quartered the harp of Ireland in her Royal Standard five years
previously, at the time when she had commenced her reign; yet the
Queen, when forming the new flag, did not join the cross of St. Patrick
in her Union Jack any more than had King James when forming his.

For ninety-four years longer the red cross Irish Jack continued in its
separate existence. The reign of Queen Anne had come to its close;
three more sovereigns[117] in succession had ascended the united throne
of Great Britain and Ireland, and successive changes had been made
in the emblazonings on the Royal Standard, yet in all these reigns
the Union Jack, which had been declared to be the only flag of the
realm to be worn by their subjects, and which was raised over the new
dependencies which the united valour of all three nationalities won for
the crown, contained only the crosses of St. George and St. Andrew,
representing but two of the kingdoms included under its rule (44).

[117] George I., George II., George III.

At last, in 1801, during the forty-first year of the reign of George
III., the Irish Parliament was united with the Union Parliament of
England and Scotland, and then, and not till then, was the red cross of
St. Patrick blended with the other two national crosses.

The emblem of Scotland had not been blended with that of England in one
Union Jack until their Parliaments had been united; so the emblem of
Ireland was not added to the other two until her Parliament had also
been joined with theirs. So soon, then, as the three kingdoms were
joined in union under one Parliament, for the first time the three
crosses of the three national Jacks were united in one three-crossed
Union Jack.

[Illustration: 44. FORT GEORGE AND THE PORT OF NEW YORK IN
1770.

(From an old print.)]

We thus have learned what was the necessary qualification to entitle a
national cross to be entered in the union ensign.

It needed a union of Parliaments to create a real Union Jack--a flag
in which the national crosses should each continue to retain their
national significance, and, when joined together in union, be still
accorded the same precedence which had previously attached to each when
separately displayed.

The history of these successive blendings shows most plainly that
the triune flag arose, not from union under one sovereign, but from
legislative union under one Parliament. The Union Jack, therefore, has
become the emblem of the British Constitution and the British race.
It is now the signal of loyalty to one Sovereign and the existence of
Government under British parliamentary union, and, therefore, wherever
displayed, it indicates the presence of British liberties and British
law.



CHAPTER XVIII.

_THE JACK AND PARLIAMENTARY UNION IN CANADA._


In addition to its harmony with the story of the union and the growth
of the Constitution in the Motherland, the Union Jack has also an
interesting connection with the extension of the powers and advantages
of the British Constitution in Canada, and particularly with the
establishment of responsible parliamentary government among its people.

In 1759, the seeds of the new nationality had been sown upon the Plains
of Abraham, where the blood of Wolfe and Montcalm had mingled to enrich
the soil, and the power of European France in Canada became merged in
the power of England.

The French forefathers of the new subjects of King George II. had
come largely from those very portions of old France, whose people had
crossed over to England with William the Conqueror, and given the
British their King.

As says one of our French Canadian historians:

 "The immigration of the French, extending from 1634 to 1720, was
 almost entirely from among the Normans of Dieppe and Rouen, so that
 the settled portion of Canada was to all intents and purposes a
 reproduction of a Norman province. The subsequent settlers were mainly
 selected in Rochelle, Poictou, Paris and Normandy, to the exclusion of
 persons from the south and east, and coming out single, they married
 the daughters of the settled Normans. This accounts for the marked
 absence of any but the Norman accent and form of speech throughout the
 French-speaking communities of Canada at the present day."[118]

[118] Benjamin Sulte: "The Origin of the French Canadians."

[Illustration: 45. ROYAL ARMS OF GEORGE II.]

Thus the new French-speaking subjects in Canada were only returning
in allegiance to the sovereignty of a king whose ancestors had been
placed upon the English throne by their own Norman forefathers; upon
whose royal arms (45) were displayed the three _fleurs-de-lis_ as sign
of his claim, through his ancestors, to the throne of France (14);
upon whose crown was the motto in their own French language, "_Dieu et
Mon Droit_,"[119] and who by the retention of old customs still gave his
consent to the laws enacted in his British Parliament in the same old
Norman phrase, "_Le Roi le veult_" ("The King wills it"), which had
been used by his Norman forefathers.[120]

[119] First used at Gisors, in Normandy, in 1198.

[120] The custom is still continued. The consent of Queen Victoria to
Acts passed by Parliament was given in Norman French, "_La Reyne le
veult_."

The French _habitant_ felt how easy was the renewal of the old
relationship, and accepted the change in the way so well expressed in
his Canadian voyageur patois:

  "An' dat was de way we feel, w'en de ole régime's no more,
  An' de new wan come, but don't change moche; w'y its jus' lak' it be
    before,
  Spikin' _Francais_ lak' we alway do, an' de English dey mak' no fuss,
  An' our law de sam', wall, I don't know me, 'twas better mebbe for
    us."[121]

[121] W. H. Drummond: "The Habitant."

There now commenced in Canada an evolution of internal government
of the people similar to that which had taken place in the old land
of England, but under reversed conditions, beginning here with the
incoming of English rule, while there it had commenced with the Norman
conquest of England. An eminent French authority[122] has stated his
belief that England owed her liberties to her having been conquered
by the Normans, and to this we may add the statement of a no less
important English author,[123] that "assuredly England was gainer by the
conquest." As the advent of Norman rule to England had resulted in such
privileges to the English people, so assuredly the cession of Quebec
and the introduction of English government into Canada brought equal
blessings to the descendants of those selfsame Normans.

[122] Guizot: "Essais sur l'Histoire de France."

[123] Gibbon.

The French Canadian found that under his new Union Jack his property
was secure. Under the old régime the French Canadian had practically
no voice in the government of his country. There was no system of
elective municipal government, no freedom for public meetings, all the
legislative and executive power, even to its extremest details, being
centralized through the Governor and Intendant in the person of the
King of France, who was two thousand miles away. Finding his religious
faith untrammelled, his freedom unimpaired, his language preserved, the
_habitant_ soon settled down without objection to his new sovereignty.

In 1774, the British Parliament passed the Act known as the "Quebec
Act," which granted an increased share of local government to the
people of the great province comprising all Canada which was then set
apart, and the greater portion of which is now within the present
Dominion. This measure of self-government still further assured the
French-descended Canadians of the protection of their liberties, so
that when the English-descended colonists of the thirteen English state
colonies to the south of them revolted from their British allegiance in
1775, French Canada stood firm by the British crown. The descendants
of the Normans in Canada were true to the government which their
forefathers had helped to create in England.

The march of events now brought an additional set of new subjects to
the British Constitution as it had then been established in Canada.

The granting of separation to the thirteen United States, in 1783, was
followed by the immigration to Canada of those loyal souls whose hearts
revolted at the action of their old colonies in taking down the Union
Jack, and who refused to separate themselves from the United Empire, in
whose ultimate justice they had unwavering faith.

These "United Empire Loyalists" settled mainly in the parts now known
as Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Ontario. Of the quarter of a million
souls who then formed the total population of Canada, about a hundred
and forty thousand were of French language and descent, living in the
counties adjacent to the St. Lawrence River; and of the forty to fifty
thousand Loyalists who, it is estimated, reached the northern colonies
during or immediately after the rebellion of 1775, over twenty-five
thousand had, by 1786, settled along the western lakes.

Government in Canada had hitherto been conducted by a Governor and a
Legislative Council appointed by the Crown, there being no elected
representative. A further advance in constitutional self-government
was now considered desirable, and the "Constitutional Act of 1791" was
passed by the parent Parliament in Great Britain. The ancient Province
of Quebec was divided into two provinces, called Lower Canada and Upper
Canada, very fairly representing the localities occupied, the one by
the older or French-speaking subjects of His Majesty, and the other by
the newcoming English-speaking Loyalists, who had followed their old
flag into the forests of the northland.

This Act of 1791 gave the right of Parliamentary government to the
people of Canada. A Legislative Council and a House of Assembly were
created for each Province, the members of the latter house being
elected by the votes of people in the counties and towns of each.

The Legislature of Upper Canada held its first session at Newark (now
Niagara-on-the-Lake) in 1792, summoned, as said Lieutenant-Governor
Simcoe in his opening speech, "Under the authority of an Act of
Parliament of Great Britain, passed in the last year, which has
established the British Constitution in this distant country." To this
he added:

"The wisdom and beneficence of our Most Gracious Sovereign and the
British Parliament have been eminently proved not only in imparting to
us the same form of government, but in securing the benefit of the many
provisions which guard this memorable Act, so that the blessings of our
invulnerable constitution, we hope, will be extended to the remotest
posterity."

As a sign of this self-government under the British Crown, the King
issued his warrant from the Court of St. James on March 4th, 1792,
authorizing a "_Great Seal for the Province of Upper Canada_," to be
used in sealing all public instruments. The engraving (46), which is a
photo reproduction of the seal attached to the Crown Patent of a grant
of one hundred acres of land near Port Hope, Upper Canada, made to a U.
E. Loyalist, shows the details of the design, being, as described in
the royal warrant, "an anchor and sword crossed on a calumet of peace,
encircled by a wreath of olives, surmounted by an imperial crown and
the Union of Great Britain."

[Illustration: 46. THE GREAT SEAL OF UPPER CANADA, 1792.]

This "Union," which will be seen in the upper right-hand corner of the
seal, was the Union Jack of Queen Anne.

The United Empire Loyalists sought their loved two-crossed Union Jack
in Canada. They found it not only flying on the flagstaff, but also
impressed on the seals of the Grants of land which were made to them
in recognition of their loyalty. On these it came to them as a sign
of the surety of their legal rights under British law and their full
protection under the administration of British justice.

The introduction of this Union Jack had been the result of an Act
passed by the British Parliament, that "mother of parliaments," which
continues to this day to have vested in it the ultimate political
sovereignty of every local Parliament which it has created.

This Union Jack on the Great Seal is in this way the emblem of
parliamentary union between Great Britain and Canada, and the sign of
the spread of British constitutional government to the continent of
America.

But the French Canadian has also an interest in this same _Great Seal_,
for on its reverse side it bore the royal coat-of-arms of the reigning
sovereign, and in this were still shown the three lilies of France, in
the same way as in the arms of his predecessor, George II. (45). What
the Union Jack on the one side was to the English-speaking Canadian,
the "_fleurs-de-lis_" on the other was to the French-Canadian--a
visible sign of his own personal connection with the glories of his
forefathers, and the evidence of his glad allegiance to the Sovereign
whose connection with the ancient realm of France was represented by
these emblems, and with whose realm he was now reunited.

In drawings of the arms of the Province of Ontario (the new name given
to the Province of Upper Canada at the time of Confederation, in 1867),
the Jack has frequently been shown as containing three crosses. A
reference to the impressions made by the seal itself upon the great
pieces of white wax, four and a half inches broad by three-quarters of
an inch in thickness, which were attached by bands of parchment or of
tape to the official documents, shows, as is seen in the photograph,
that the "Union" contained two crosses only, namely, the cross of St.
George and the cross of St. Andrew.

This Union Jack of 1707 was also shown in the arms of the Department of
Education of Upper Canada, from 1844 to 1876, during the régime of Dr.
Ryerson as Superintendent. In these the design was the same as on the
Great Seal, but the Union Jack was removed from the upper corner and
placed upon a shield in the centre, upon which the two crosses of Queen
Anne are plainly shown.

In earlier stained glass windows placed in the Normal School, Toronto,
the head offices of the Department of Education of Ontario, the
three-crossed flag had been shown, but this, on the suggestion of the
writer, has been corrected in the new windows placed in the library in
1896.

A further adoption of the national emblem is shown in the design on the
early currency, which was coined for use in the Province. The "penny"
of the Bank of Upper Canada (47) shows on the one side St. George and
the dragon, and on the other the arms of the Great Seal, having on it
the Union Jack,[124] which good national emblem, no doubt, made the money
that the Canadian Loyalist earned more acceptable to him. These must
have been happy reminders to the patriot, for on the coins which passed
current among his people, and on the seal of the deed of the grant of
land which his Loyalist father or himself had received for his new
home, was the imprint of the old Union Jack, placed there by an Act of
the Union Parliament of Great Britain, as the sign of his parliamentary
union with that United Empire which ever commanded his allegiance.

[124] The design of this Bank of Upper Canada penny was made by F. W.
Cumberland, the father of the writer.

[Illustration: 47. UPPER CANADA PENNY.]



CHAPTER XIX.

_THE UNION JACK OF GEORGE III., 1801._

THE PRESENT UNION JACK.


We come now to the formation of the first, and present, three-crossed
Jack, the "Red, White and Blue," of story and of song, being the third
Union Jack.

For forty years King George III. had reigned as King of Great Britain
and Ireland. The Union Parliament, created under Queen Anne, had
administered the affairs of England and of Scotland, but the Parliament
of Ireland had continued meeting separately, and the two-crossed Union
Jack of 1707 had been the only Union Jack authorized to be raised in
the British realm. In the forty-first year of the King's reign an Act
was passed in the Parliament of Ireland, whereby it became, as had
the Parliaments of the two other kingdoms, incorporated in the one
Union Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
As previously, so now again the Parliamentary and completed union of
the kingdoms having been arrived at, the Irish Jack was directed to be
joined with the Jacks of England and Scotland.

The same deliberate procedure for making an alteration in the Union
flag was followed as under Queen Anne: First, an Act of Parliament
creating a further union, the call of the Sovereign as the supreme head
of the nations, the appointment of a Committee of the Privy Council
to consider the drafts of the changes to be made, then an Order in
Council, and, finally, the issue of a proclamation by the King.

The record[125] states: "On the 5th November, 1800, the King in Council
was pleased to approve the report of a Committee of the Privy Council,
that the Union Flag should be altered according to the draft marked
'C,' in which the cross of St. George is conjoined with the crosses of
St. Andrew and St. Patrick."

[125] Memorandum of the Admiralty.

[Illustration: 48. DRAFT "C" OF UNION JACK, 1800.]

This draft "C" (48) was duly transmitted to the College of Arms,
London, and an exact tracing of it as recorded in the books of the
college has been made.[126]

[126] "Genealogical Magazine," 1899.

The designers of this new Union Jack of 1801 had this time to join
three flags together, instead of, as in 1707, only joining two; the
problem set before them being the union of the three national Jacks of
the sister nations into one grand Union Jack (Pl. v., fig. 3).

The three flags now to be formed into one Union flag were the incoming
Irish Jack, having a red diagonal saltire cross and white ground, to be
joined with the "white crosse, commonly called St. Andrew's crosse,"[127]
of Scotland, with its blue ground, and the "Jack white with a red
cross, commonly called St. George's cross"[128] of England, with its
white ground.

[127] Proclamation, Charles I., 1634, p. 83.

[128] Proclamation, Charles II., 1663, p. 90.

The latter two had already been joined in the Union Jack of 1707. The
draft "C" (48) gives the method in which the designers proposed the
three flags should be combined, and the proportions to be given to
each in the new flag, which then received the approval of the King in
Council.

Thereafter, on January 1st, 1801, King George III. issued his Royal
proclamation from St. James' Palace, declaring His Majesty's pleasure
concerning the Royal style and titles appertaining to the Imperial
crown of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and its
dependencies, and also the ensigns armorial, flags and banners thereof.

The clause respecting the Royal coat-of-arms states:

 "And that the arms or ensigns armorial of the said United Kingdoms
 shall be quarterly; first and fourth England, second Scotland, third
 Ireland; and it is our will and pleasure that there shall be borne
 therewith on an escutcheon of pretence the arms of our Dominions in
 Germany."

The result of this clause was that the lilies of France, which had been
quartered in the Royal arms since Edward III., 1327, were altogether
removed, and the whole four quarters were appropriated--two quarters
to the three golden lions of England, and one quarter each to the red
lion of Scotland and the golden harp of Ireland--and upon a shield on
the centre was to be placed the arms and white horse of Hanover, to
indicate the other countries over which the King also reigned (49).

[Illustration: 49. ROYAL ARMS OF GEORGE III., 1801.]

The next clause refers to the Royal Standard or flag of the sovereign:

 "... And it is our will and pleasure that the standard of the said
 united kingdoms shall be the same quarterings as are hereinbefore
 declared to be the arms or ensigns armorial of the said united
 kingdoms...."

Although the Royal arms contained a recognition of the King's
Hanoverian kingdom, the flag to be used as the "Royal Standard" is
ordered to have on it only the arms of the three united kingdoms of
England, Scotland and Ireland.

In the clause of this proclamation the Union flag (50), which had
already been designed and approved, was described as follows:

 "And that the union flag shall be azure, the crosses saltires of St.
 Andrew and St. Patrick, quarterly per saltire counterchanged, argent
 and gules; the latter fimbriated of the second, surmounted by the
 cross of St. George of the third fimbriated as the saltire."

This description defines, with respect to the crosses, that the white
cross of Scotland and the red cross of Ireland were joined together
quarterly and "_counterchanged_" and that the red cross of St. George
is to "_surmount_"--that is, to be laid upon the surface of them both.
With respect to the grounds of the flag, it is described as being blue,
and that the cross of St. George is "fimbriated as the saltire." Much,
and almost continuous, controversy early arose upon this heraldic
description of the Union flag, particularly with respect to the
proportion of the crosses, and specially to the width of the white
border to the St. George.

[Illustration: 50. UNION JACK OF GEORGE III., 1801.]

It is to be remembered that heraldry does not, except when specifically
given, deal with exact dimensions, but gives the general appearance and
particular colourings of the shield or banner. If, as in this case,
the arrangement of the flag selected may have been in the opinion of
some of the heraldically inclined, "an extraordinary amalgamation,"[129]
and by others not made in accord with the heraldic "blazon" or
description given of it in the proclamation, yet this division of its
parts is not to be attributed to the "officers of arms" of that day,
for it has been expressly put on record that "in this allotment they
were not allowed the exercise of their own judgment."[130] Suggestions
have constantly since been made that the forms in the flag should be
changed, because, as is reiterated, "the guide to all heraldic devices
is the verbal blazon of the heralds," and with this, they say, the flag
does not agree, for the saltire crosses do not bear the appearance of
having been "counterchanged"--that is, alternated, share and share
alike; and that the "fimbriation" to the red cross of St. George is
wider than an "heraldic fimbriation," which on an heraldic shield is
only a very narrow edging or border for the purpose of separating one
colour from another.

[129] _Gentleman's Magazine_, January. 1801.

[130] _Naval and Military Magazine_, 1827, p. 182.

These are objections arising only from the wording of the "blazon" and
not from the flag itself; to the description given of it and not to the
design.

We have seen that, both in 1707 and in 1801, the changes made in
the "Union Jacks" proceeded by a regular and formal progression of,
consideration by Sovereign, Committee of Enquiry, Order in Council and
registration of the drafts of design then selected and approved, and
the promulgation of the Royal proclamation for its use.

_The design of the flags preceded the blazon_, or description given
of them in the proclamations. We must, therefore, refer to the flags
themselves as the guide to their proportions and to the intentions of
their designers.

It does not appear that any "draft" of the first flag of James I.,
1606, was fyled, but a formal proclamation authorizing it was made by
the King "according to the form made by our heralds."

On reference to the "Draft C, 1707," of Queen Anne, for the conjoining
of the two flags, it will be noted that the crosses of St. George and
St. Andrew are of _equal width_, and that the white border to the St.
George is one-third of the width of either of the crosses. The red and
white crosses of the two national flags are thus represented, and the
whole of the "crosse-flags" by the blue ground of the Scottish flag in
the angles, and the white ground of the English flag in the broad white
border.

Queen Anne and her Councillors had in mind the union of the two
nations, but there was no "verbal blazon" made or issued, the order
being that "the flaggs be according to the 'Draft marked C,'" and as
"shown on the margent" of the proclamation.

This authorized Union Jack of 1707 was the basis upon which the
designers of George III. began when, in 1800, they were instructed to
conjoin the cross of St. Patrick, which was to be added to the union
flag.

Comparison of the "Draft marked C, 1800," shows that the broad white
border of St. George is retained of the same width as in the "Draft C,
1707," being approximately _one-third_ of the width of the red cross
of St. George and of the saltire cross, both of which remain of the
same size as previously. The form authorized by the Order in Council of
1707 was adopted and repeated by the Order in Council of 1800.

In the bringing in of the additional red saltire cross of Ireland, the
diagonal space previously allotted in "Draft C, 1707," to a saltire
cross is now equally divided between the white and the red saltire
crosses of the kingdoms, and to give them equal recognition and honour,
the edging of white necessary to separate the red saltire of St.
Patrick from the blue ground of the flag is taken from its own half of
the diagonal space allotted to it instead of from the Scotland's blue,
and this was duly balanced by the retention of the full broad white
border space around the St. George, which in the new flag represented
both the white grounds of the St. Patrick and the St. George, as the
blue ground did that of St. Andrew's flag.

Thus the intentions of the designers of 1707 were followed, confirmed
and extended by the designers of 1800. The drafts and orders in Council
issued in pursuance of them are the authority which must be recognized
in the making of the flag, and not the interpretation of a description
or "blazon" given of it in the proclamation issued after the Union Jack
had already been approved and adopted.

It has been said that the wording of the blazon, "the cross of St.
George fimbriated as the saltire," is to be taken as indicating
the "width" as well as the "colour" of the fimbriation, and that,
therefore, it should be reduced to a narrow heraldic edging. Others
consider that as heraldry does not deal with sizes as exact dimensions,
the wording means simply, "of the same _colour_ as the saltire," and
has no reference to the width, and some criticisms have described the
"blazon" as being "very obscure."[131]

[131] _Naval and Military Magazine_, 1827.

In consequence of these interpretations, proposals have, at times,
been made for altering the Union Jack, "so as to bring it more into
accordance with the blazon and with heraldic rules," but as has been
well said, "flag making is not pure heraldry; it is affected by
considerations of symmetry, proportion and in no small measure of usage
and prescription."[132]

[132] _Times_, September 17, 1903.

Our Union Jack, in its present form, has unquestionably been made as
it was ordered to be made in 1707 and in 1800, and proclaimed in 1801,
whether the description in the proclamation be correctly expressed or
not.

But in addition to the general form of the design, as given in the
"Draft C, 1800," there were also detailed regulations issued for the
making of the flag, which are the same as the rules prescribed by the
Admiralty of the present day[133] for the several proportions of the
Union Jack as always and now issued.

[133] Admiralty Memorandum relative to the Union Jack, 1907.

From these regulations it is clearly evident that the recognition
which the white ground of St. George's Jack had been given in the
flag of 1707 was intended to be continued. While the pattern drafts
of the Councils were of square form, the Admiralty adopted a longer
form, as "the practice has been, in regard to the dimensions of flags
generally, to make the length twice the breadth at the head." This
is the usual length adopted for flags which are not square, although
the flag of an admiral, which is the old English St. George, still
continues to be one and a half times as long as it is broad.

The dimensions are given in full detail in the regulations.

An outline drawing (51) of the flag of the same form as the Admiralty
pattern is given for convenience of reference. The proportions of the
several crosses and borders are directed in the regulations to be made
according to the measurement called the "width of the flag," being the
measurement on the "halliard" or "hoist," which is the side next to the
flagstaff, and are as follows:


REGULATIONS FOR THE SIZES OF THE PARTS OF THE UNION JACK,

  Whether square or oblong, in which latter case the length
  to be twice as long as the width.

  Red cross of St. George        1/5 of width of flag.
  White border to St. George     1/3 of red of St. George.
  Red cross of St. Patrick       1/3   "       "      "
  White border to St. Patrick    1/6   "       "      "
  Broad white of St. Andrew      1/2   "       "      "

The paramount cross of St. George is to be one-fifth of the width of
the flag on the flagstaff, and its width is made the factor by which
the measurements of all the other parts are to be regulated in flags of
varying sizes.

The crosses of the two other Jacks, which were to be joined, are each
allotted a proportion of _one-third_ the width of the cross of St.
George.

The divisions of the parts for the Irish Jack are stated separately,
being _one-third_ for the red cross of St. Patrick, and _one-sixth_ for
its white border; the two measurements, when added together, amounting
to a proportion of one-half.

The proportion of one-half allotted to the "broad white of St. Andrew"
comprises the due share of _one-third_ for the Scotch cross, and
_one-sixth_ for its border, being an exact equality to the proportions
given to the Irish cross and its border.

[Illustration: 51. OUTLINE JACK--THE PROPER PROPORTIONS OF THE CROSSES.]

At first sight it would appear that the "broad white of St. Andrew"
was given a larger proportion of the flag, but the measurements of the
"cross" and its "border" of the Scotch Jack are stated in one figure,
because their colours are the same, while those of the Irish Jack are
given separately, because the colours are different, the cross being
red and its border white.

The saltire space of the Union Jack of Queen Anne has been divided
equally, and the national banners of St. Patrick and St. Andrew are
thus given each a proportion of _one-third_ for its CROSS and
_one-sixth_ for its BORDER or "fimbriation."

The description given in the "blazon" respecting the red cross of St.
George, stated that it was "fimbriated as the saltire." The regulations
defined this as "for the white border to the cross of St. George,"
and there was allotted, not simply a one-sixth proportion due a
"fimbriation," but the full proportion of _one-third_, equal to that of
a national cross, and in this way the white border to the cross of St.
George is as wide as the cross of each of the other nations.

The width of the border cannot this time, as was said of the change
of 1707, be the result of the "carelessness of a draughtsman,"[134] for
it is made with premeditated carefulness, and, more than that, the
measurements are set down in exact figures. Thus the reason for the
broadening of the border in the flag of 1707 has been justified by the
flag of 1801 and its authority confirmed.

[134] McGeorge: "Flags."

This broad white border, given to surround the red cross of St. George,
is not only the formal recognition of the white ground of the English
Jack, which had been placed in the flag of 1707, but it is also a
recognition of the white ground of the Irish Jack, which was now for
the first time entering the Union Jack, so that the broad border in the
flag of 1801 represents the grounds of two national Jacks.

The practical proportions of the pattern drafts are thus fully carried
out in the Admiralty pattern. Some twenty years ago the Garter King of
Arms had his attention drawn to the Admiralty flag as used in the navy,
and he was asked to suggest an alteration. He declined, because, he
said, "the flag was made according to the drawing, and it was exhibited
in the same way on the colours of the Queen's Infantry Regiments."

It is a serious thing to deface or alter the national flag of a nation,
and if any changes have been made in any individual instances they
are the result of error, and have not been made with such paramount
authority of Sovereign, Parliament and Council, as have been the Union
Jacks of Queen Anne and King George III.

In this Union Jack of 1801 we have, then, plainly displayed a complete
representation of the three separate crosses, and of the white and blue
grounds of the three national Jacks which were then combined together
to form our Union Jack.

Since 1801 no change had been made in this Union Jack of George III.,
which was the first three-crossed Jack of its race, and is our present
Union Jack.

From 1801 onward dates this glorious flag, in which all three nations
are represented. It was born when the power of Great Britain seemed
almost wrecked. Reverses had accumulated upon her. In America many
of her possessions among the West Indies and on the surrounding
coasts[135] had been wrested from her flag, and thirteen of her longest
established and most populous colonies, becoming the United States, and
aided by men, money and fleet from the French in Europe, had revolted
from her sway and abandoned their allegiance. In Europe the nations of
France, Spain and Holland were united in arms against her, and she was
battling almost single-handed against the power of the great Napoleon;
yet, undaunted by these trials, the sons of the united nation ran their
new Union Jack up aloft, and started out to frame that marvellous
career which it has since achieved.

[135] In 1781 England lost Tobago, St. Eustachius, Demerara, Essequibo,
St. Christopher, Nevis, and Montserrat.

  "For England's courage flames
    The fiercest in defeat,
  And in the day she stands at bay
    Most dangerous to meet."[136]

[136] Kirby: "Canadian Idylls."

This third Union Jack flew at Aboukir when Abercrombie drove Napoleon
out of Egypt; with it were won the triumphs of Wellington, from Assaye
in India, through Badajoz and Spain, to the crowning victory at
Waterloo. It was the flag which floated in the "white ensign" on all
the ships at Trafalgar,[137] and on the _Victory_ when Nelson sent aloft
his British watchword:

 "England expects every man will do his duty."

[137] Nelson, in order to have the British ships easily recognized by
one another in the action, had ordered that instead of wearing (in
accordance with regulations) the flags of their respective red, white
or blue squadrons, all the ships should wear the same flag (the white
ensign) as himself.

The halo of that signal shone around it at Balaclava, when the heroes
of the valley-charge proved it was

  "Theirs not to reason why,
  Theirs not to make reply;
  Theirs but to do and die";

and again above the _Birkenhead_, at sea, when five hundred steadfast
men went down beneath its folds, inspired by its duty-call.

[Illustration: 52. THE UNION JACK AND SHACKLETON AT FARTHEST
SOUTH.

(From a photograph taken at the spot.)]

In Africa, Melville and Coghill wrapped it around their bodies at
Isandula, and won death to save it from the foe; for it the forty
mounted riflemen of Matabeleland died in their tracks, singing "God
Save the Queen," and yet again at the call of the race the sons of the
Flag from all around the world hastened to help it to hold its own upon
the veldt.

On the continent of America the impetuous Brock, facing enormous
odds, and leading his Canadian volunteers in defence of their native
land, gave up his life for it on the cedar-clad slopes of Queenston
Heights, and beneath it the French Canadians of Beauharnois knelt on
the battlefield, and rising, won, with the brave De Salaberry as their
leader, the victory of glorious Chateauguay.[138]

[138] "Captain Langtin caused his men of the Beauharnois militia to
kneel, went through a short prayer with them, and then, rising, said:
'_Now that they had fulfilled their duty to their God, they would
fulfil that to their King._'"--LIGHTHALL: "The Battle of Chateauguay."

It was carried far to the Arctic north by Sir John Franklin, in 1846,
and in October, 1908, Shackleton planted this ancient Union Jack, with
all its crosses and broad white border,[139] upon the farthest Antarctic
south (52).

[139] A Union Jack given him by Her Majesty Queen Alexandra.

Such a flag with such a history should be held sacred and inviolable.



CHAPTER XX.

_THE LESSONS OF THE CROSSES._


The combinations of the Jacks have at length been completed, and the
three crosses placed together in the one flag of 1801.

If some of the heralds are not entirely satisfied with the way the
divisions are made, due honour has at least been done to each of the
Jacks of the three kingdoms, while at the same time the historical
value of the "Union" has been greatly enhanced, and its beauty as
a flag most certainly increased. If the object of heraldry is the
teaching of lessons by the combinations of colour and of forms, then
the flag as made is yet more heraldically successful.

In the heraldic and traditional interpretations of colours, red
indicates courage, white is the emblem of purity, and blue the emblem
of truth.

  "Red, white and blue,
  Brave, pure and true."

By this better and more equal division of the colours in the flag much
additional emphasis is given to the story which those colours tell.

Lessons are taught which may be deeply impressed upon the minds of
our children, so that by reading the history of their nation in its
folds they may endeavour to live lives worthy of the ideals of their
national flag, and frame their own characters and the character of
their empire by its lofty teachings.

That it is a beautiful and easily distinguished flag is admitted on
all hands, but it has the still further quality, of immeasurable value
in a national flag, that its parts and colours tell the history of the
nation whose emblem it is. To those who have acquainted themselves with
the story of the three separate national flags, the Union Jack, with
its three crosses, its broad white borders and eight blue triangles,
tells the story of the influences under which the present Empire has
been built up by the three kingdoms which were combined to make it.

Laid broadly upon the whole combination, and "surmounting" it, and also
forming the basis for all its measurements, is the plain red cross
of St. George, indicating, in such a way as the simplest mind can
understand, the leading part which the English nation has taken in the
creation of the Union, and the powerful position which it holds in its
councils.

Under this cross, and supporting it, are the white and red crosses of
the two junior nations, which are themselves, in their turn, supported
on the white and blue grounds, which form the basis foundations of the
flag, the whole being embraced and bound together by the broadspread
arms of the plain red cross.

Thus clearly does the position of the crosses and their grounds teach
the vivid lesson of how the three sister nations, supporting each
other, are all united by _Courage_ in building their realm upon the
sure foundations of _Purity_ and _Truth_.

The position of the red cross of St. George, in front and full view,
tells plainly how England was the first of the nations to enter the
lists and lead the way in acquiring the glories of the Empire.

Another lesson there is which the crosses also plainly tell respecting
the relations between the Scotch and Irish nations themselves.

The flag is divided by the cross of St. George into four quarters, in
all of which the saltire crosses of St. Andrew and St. Patrick, as the
heraldic blazon of the proclamation says, are "quarterly per saltire
counterchanged."

Discussions have arisen between heraldic experts as to whether
the descriptive word in the blazon should be "countercharged" or
"counterchanged." The latter is the word given in this proclamation,
and although at first sight it looks as though the red cross only had
been "charged"--that is, been placed upon the original white diagonal
cross--it is to be remembered that the saltire cross has been equally
divided between the two nations.

It will be noted that the broad white of the cross of Scotland occupies
the higher position in the first and third quarters, which are next the
flagstaff, and the red cross of Ireland is in the higher position in
the second and fourth, which are the quarters at the end or fly of the
flag; the relative position of the Irish and Scotch crosses, as they
are placed in the first and third quarters, are reversed in the second
and fourth quarters; that is to say, the positions of the crosses are
alternately changed about, or "counterchanged."

The quarters of the flag next the flagstaff are considered to be
of higher importance than the others, and in these more important
quarters the cross of St. Andrew and its border is thus given
precedence over the red cross of St. Patrick and its border.

The lesson intended to be taught by the position of the crosses is
plain. The kingdom of Scotland had entered into the union with England
before the kingdom of Ireland, and, therefore, as being the senior, the
white cross of St. Andrew is given the precedence over the red cross of
St. Patrick, but this, in its turn, is given the upper position in the
remaining quarters.

The utmost care must, therefore, be taken to see that the Union Jack
is correctly raised on the flagstaff, with the broad white of the St.
Andrew uppermost.

When the Red Ensign, or any similarly quartered flag, is reversed
on the flagstaff--that is to say, displayed with the Union down--it
becomes a signal of distress. Union Jacks are often seen hoisted
upside down (Pl. VII., fig. 1). No more distressing act can
be done to the Union Jack than to thus carelessly reverse its crosses
by putting the wrong end next the staff, with the broad white saltire
down, nor greater indignity be done to its supporters than by thus
reversing the correct positions of their national Jacks.

Flags are sometimes to be seen (Pl. VII., fig. 2) in which the
white border around the red cross of St. George is reduced to the same
narrow size as the border of St. Patrick, and thus the white ground of
the Jacks of England and Ireland has been wiped out.

[Illustration: PLATE VII.

1

PRESENT UNION JACK UPSIDE DOWN

2

JACK WRONGLY MADE

3

JACK WRONGLY MADE]

Still more often the red cross of St. Patrick is set full in the centre
of the diagonal cross, and thus the cross of St. Andrew is completely
expunged, for its white is reduced to only two narrow white margins
on both sides of the Irish red cross. The broad white of St. Andrew has
thus been entirely lost. (Pl. VII., fig. 2).

Such errors as have been mentioned cannot be too greatly lamented, or
be too carefully avoided, for by them dishonour is done to the memory
of the nations whose prowess has ennobled their national emblems,
and the beautiful story of the Union Jack is utterly marred; for the
positions of the crosses and borders cease to tell the consecutive
history of the empire nation whose combined union emblem they form.

In Pl. VII., fig. 3, a further error will be noted, that the
opposite ends of the combined saltires are not in continuous line with
one another, as in the correctly made Jack (Pl. V., fig. 3).
This has occurred from the centre lines of the combined saltires having
been drawn directly from the inner corners of St. George to the outer
corners of the oblong flag.

We have seen that as the space of the one saltire of 1707 was to be
divided equally between the two saltires of 1801, the two ends of the
saltire should be in line, and the division run equally through the
centre.

[Illustration: 53. SQUARE UNION JACK.]

In view of these errors it may be well to give some simple instructions
by which the flags may always be correctly made, and which are in
accordance with the Admiralty regulations.

Union Jacks must be made either square (53), or oblong (54), in which
latter shape the length must always be twice the width on the staff.

[Illustration: 54. OBLONG UNION JACK.]

It will be noticed that in the square Jack (53) the diagonal lines
drawn from the opposite corners of the flag intersect the corners of
the white border of St. George and of the cross, which latter is shown
in dotted lines, and that in the oblong Jack (54) they do not. It is
this difference which has usually created the difficulty.

Having decided the size, either square or twice as long as wide (1 ×
2), then draw two diagonal lines from corner to corner upon the shape
of flag selected, then place the St. George cross and its border upon
the flag according to the measurements in the "Outline Jack" (51),
the red of St. George being one-fifth of the height or width of the
flag. The diagonal lines will be the centre and dividing lines of the
saltires, as shown by the dotted lines which are thus in continuous
line from one corner to the other. The St. Patrick and St. Andrew
saltires and their borders are then to be added according to the
proportions shown in (51), the red saltire being placed touching the
diagonal, below it in the first and third quarters of the flag, and
above it in the second and fourth. The St. Andrew, being in one colour
and above the diagonal in the first and third, and below it in the
second and fourth, completes the combined saltire.

By following these directions the making of a Union Jack is much
simplified.

That the utmost care should be exercised in the making of our flag is
beyond all question. It is the record of our history, the flag of our
British nation; to display one in incorrect form is to do dishonour to
it, to our history and to our nationality. No patriot would do this
intentionally, and yet some may do this ignorantly. It would be well
for their help and the avoidance of error that they should be taught
how to make their flag correctly, and be educated in the lessons which
it conveys.

Once these have been learned, the amount of increased interest in our
flags is immeasurably advanced. Each flag as it comes before the eye
becomes a study and a lesson, an historic reminder and a patriotic
inspiration.

If those crosses could themselves but speak, what glories they could
tell; and yet the outlines of the flag, when they are properly
displayed, signal the stories of their colours and their crosses as
plainly and as eloquently as if they voiced it in burning words.



CHAPTER XXI.

_THE PROPORTIONS OF THE CROSSES._


The division of proportions allotted to the crosses and to the white
border of St. George in the Union Jack has hitherto been treated solely
by inference and also by comparison of the "drafts" selected and
regulations which were issued for the construction of the flag. It may
be well now to revert to some actual examples showing the details of
flags early in use, which will further substantiate the reasons which
led to the proportionate division of the spaces when the Union Jack of
1707 was altered in 1801, and our present Union Jack was designed to
record the addition of Ireland to the Union.

It has sometimes been stated that the red cross and white border of St.
George indicate the presence of two crosses, the impression, formed
by those who, as they admit, were "better acquainted with heraldic
definitions than historic expression," being that they give the
appearance of a red English cross placed over a white French cross.

As reason for this, they point out that King James I. and all his
successors until King George III. had been styled "Kings of Great
Britain, France and Ireland." The successive Union Jacks had been
created during the existence of this royal title, and, therefore, it
is suggested that two crosses had been placed upon this part of the
flag, one being the white cross of France, upon the face of which the
red cross of St. George had been laid to thus present the ancient and
long-past union of the kingdoms of France and England under the one
sovereignty.

The white cross of France, however, was not a straight-sided cross,
such as that of St. George, but one of Maltese shape, being wider at
the ends than at the centre.

An instance of this flag is given in the copy (55) of the flag shown on
the mainmast of a French caravel of the sixteenth century, as drawn in
an old manuscript illustration.[140]

[140] Caravelle Francaise tirée des "Ouvres Pilote du Havre," MSS. du
XVI. Siecle.

[Illustration 55: FLAG OF A FRENCH CARAVEL, 16TH CENTURY.]

It is quite evident that the rectangular white border to
the St. George could not be formed by a cross of this shape, and,
therefore, this suggestion for the origin of the white border must be
taken as erroneous.

Further, it was not unreasonable, seeing that the Royal Standard is
composed of the personal arms of the sovereign, that the successive
kings and queens of England should have continued the _fleur-de-lis_
in one of the quarterings of their royal arms, as a sign of family
succession, and as evidence of personal claim by descent to the old
sovereignty of France; but the British nations brought into union did
not themselves claim any such sovereignty, Calais, the last foothold of
England in France, won by Edward III. in his claim to the succession of
the throne of France, having been lost in 1558 under Queen Mary. There
would, therefore, be no corresponding reason for inserting the French
cross in the union flag, nor any historical connection which would
justify its being so used.

In the illustrations given of the two-crossed Jack of 1606 (Pl.
III., fig. 2, and cut 16), the white saltire of St. Andrew is
represented as of the full size of a wide saltire cross; so also in the
Jack of Queen Anne, 1707 (Pl. V., fig. 1), in which the broad
white of St. George was first given its full width.

This is the proportion of size which is given to it in heraldic
drawings, and the way in which it is usually drawn in later
representations, the white saltire cross of St. Andrew being thus shown
broader than the white border to St. George; but the earlier practice
in the actual making of flags appears to have been different.

In the allotment of the proportions in the new three-crossed Jack of
1801, when the cross of St. Patrick was added to the flag, it has been
pointed out that the white border to St. George was continued in its
full width, as in the previous flag of 1707, and was given the same
width as each of the two national crosses, which were then first placed
side by side, and between which the saltire space was then divided.

It will be interesting to show, by reference to early original
documents and flags, that this was the same equality as had previously
existed between the cross of St. Andrew and the border of St. George in
the old two-crossed Jacks of James I. and of Queen Anne.

In the time of William III. it appears that objections had been raised
in England to the using of the King's two-crossed Jack by merchant
ships of the American colonies, permission to do this having been
granted to the colonial ships by the Governors of the colonies.

The English Lords Justices in Council at Whitehall, on 31st July, 1701,
considered these objections to the using of what their report termed
"the King's Colours," and thereupon issued an order that the ships of
the colonies shall

 "wear no other Jack than that hereafter mentioned, namely, that worne
 by His Majesty's ships, with the Distinction of a _White Escutcheon_
 in the middle thereof, and that the said Mark of Distinction may
 extend itself to one-half of the depth of the Jack, and one-third part
 of the Fly thereof, according to the _sample hereunto annexed_."

The Lords Commissioners of Trade were accordingly instructed to write
to the Governors of His Majesty's plantations,

 "that they do oblige the commanders of such merchant ships to which
 they grant commissions to _wear no other Jack_ than according to what
 is proposed."

An exact tracing of the "_sample hereunto annexed_," taken from the
original manuscript report,[141] which was sent to the then Governor of
the colony of Massachusetts, is shown in fig. 56, and in colours in Pl.
III., fig. 3.

[141] Archives Rooms, Massachusetts. Vol. 62, Fol. 449-490. Boston.

This flag is the Jack of James I., which is still described in this
report of July, 1701, as it had been of old, as the "King's Colours."
It will be noted that the white cross of St. Andrew is a narrow cross,
and that the white border to St. George is of the same width as the St.
Andrew's cross.

[Illustration: 56. THE COLONIAL JACK, 1701.]

In the centre of the Jack is the "white escutcheon" described in the
report, to be used on the colonial flags. This is the first instance of
the creation of a special flag for the overseas colonies, and reference
to it will be made in a subsequent chapter. Similar instructions were
sent to the Governor of the colony of New York in 1709, and the flag is
repeated with an escutcheon in the same form.

[Illustration: 57. JACK OF ENGLAND, 1711.

(From an old Dutch sheet of flags.)]

A coloured sheet, "Schouw-Cart Aller Scheeps Vlaggen" (Examples of
all ships' flags), was published in 1711 by P. Schenk, at Amsterdam,
"correcting errors in previous editions." In an old atlas[142] of maps,
which were bound together in "old Amsterdam," in 1763, there is
included one of these sheets. Among the flags represented on it is the
"Jack of England" (57), showing the white of St. George of the same
width as the St. Andrew's cross.

[142] New York Colonial Society Manuscripts, New York.

References to many drawings of Union Jacks, as used on the American
side of the Atlantic, show similar proportions, of which some examples
may be given.

Fig. 58 is a copy of the Jack on the bowsprit of a three-masted ship
shown in a large three-sheet engraving, entitled "A Prospect of
Charleston, Carolina," published by R. Roberts, June 9th, 1739.[143]

[143] In Emmet Collection, Lennox Library, New York.

On page 187, a view of the port of New York (44) shows the flag as
used in 1770. Both on the ship and on the King's fort is the narrow St.
Andrew.

[Illustration: 58. JACK IN CAROLINA, 1739.]

Fig. 59 is a portion of an old engraving of the combat between the
French frigate, _La Surveillante_, and the English frigate, _Quebec_,
6th October, 1779.[144] This was one of the most gallantly contested
actions of the many engagements between single ships during the
progress of the war. The two frigates met in the English Channel, and
flying at one another at sight they battled hand to hand. All their
masts had been carried away, both ships were on fire, more than half
of the crew on either side had been killed or wounded. All the boats
except one on the French ship had been destroyed, when the _Quebec_
blew up, and Captain Farmer, her commander, went down in her with
nearly all who were left alive of his crew. The French captain, de
Coudic, who was himself severely wounded, received the forty-three
survivors, with a seaman's gallantry, on board the _Surveillante_,
saying that "as their ship had perished with her colours flying, they
would be treated, not as prisoners, but as brothers rescued from
shipwreck."

[144] In Collection of Chateau de Ramezay, Montreal.

The white flag with the _fleurs-de-lis_ is at the stern of the French
ship, and at the stern of the English ship is the red ensign on which
the St. Andrew cross and the white border of St. George are still shown
of equal width.

[Illustration: 59. THE COMBAT BETWEEN "LA SURVEILLANTE" AND THE
"QUEBEC," 1779.]

In addition to these instances from illustrations, reference to actual
flags of these early periods, and which are still in existence, proves
that the Union flags carried by regiments of the British army were made
on these same proportions.

The drawing (60) is reproduced from a photograph of the King's colour
of the 7th Royal Fusiliers, which is stated to have been obtained at
the capture of Fort Chambly, in 1775, and is now deposited in the
chapel of the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York,
and shows its present appearance.[145]

[145] Avery: "History of the United States," Burrows Bros.: Cleveland,
Ohio.

A further example is given in the drawing (61) made from a regimental
flag[146] surrendered by the British forces at the capitulation of
Yorkton, by Lord Cornwallis, on 20th October, 1781. This is the "King's
colour" of one of the British regiments. These flags had most probably
been given to the regiments at much earlier dates, and had still
continued in use. In both the cross of St. Andrew and the border to St.
George are of the same width.

[146] Now in the Museum at Alexandria, Virginia, U.S.A.

[Illustration: 60. ENSIGN OF 7TH ROYAL FUSILIERS, 1775.]

These instances could not all be incorrect, and their similarity shows
that the form and proportions of the Union Jack of James I., as given
in the Massachusetts document, were those which were subsequently used
in the actual flags officially displayed at sea and on shore.

In all these Union Jacks the white of St. George is of the same width
as the cross of St. Andrew, and from these evidences of the form of the
flag, derived from such varied sources, we may fairly conclude that the
allotment to the white border to St. George in the Union Jack, of a
proportion equal to that then given to a national cross, had not only
early authority, but also wide usage.

[Illustration: 61. "KING'S COLOUR," 1781.]

These were two-crossed Jacks. When the time came, in 1800, for the
construction of the three-crossed Union Jack, the designers of the
"_draft_" and the committee of selection would have been acquainted
with the details of those previous flags. It is, indeed, stated that
the various existing flags were submitted for their inspection. When,
therefore, they gave the broad white border to St. George the same
width as that of each of the crosses of St. Andrew and St. Patrick,
namely, as the instructions stated, one-third of the red cross, they
were only continuing the width and proportion allotted to it in the
Union Jacks which had preceded, and with the actual examples to which
they were accustomed.

The broad white of St. George, as we now see it, was not dependent
upon any heraldic description, but is an heirloom of national descent,
and was evidently continued by the designers of 1801 in its full
proportion of the Union flag, not only to represent, as previously, the
white ground of the English Jack, but also for the additional reason
that it represents the white ground of the Irish Jack, which they
were then adding to the Union flag. By this method the proportionate
representation of the Jacks of the three kingdoms was intended and
justified.

Another objection raised to the proportions of the present flag, by
those on the side of the heraldic interpretation of the "blazon," is
that the individual crosses are of less width in proportion to the size
of the flag than they should be according to heraldic rules, and that,
therefore, the dividing of the flag is incorrect.

We need again to be reminded that the flag makers were not simply
placing three "crosses" upon a single flag, but were joining three
"Jacks" into one Union Jack; yet it may be satisfactory to see that in
the doing of this they have really fulfilled the rules of heraldry.

According to the received rules of strict heraldry, in emblazoning a
shield or a banner, a cross should be given one-third, and a saltire
be given one-fifth of the width. On a shield this measurement of width
is taken across the top, and on a banner or a flag it is measured
perpendicularly along the flagstaff.

Applying this rule and measurement to our present Union Jack, and
taking, as in fact they are, the red cross of St. George and its two
borders as _one cross_, and the two saltire crosses of St. Andrew and
St. Patrick and their two borders as _one saltire_, we shall find that
the heraldic rules have been actually complied with by the official
"draft" and by the regulations (Fig. 51), and that the combined cross
is _one-third_, and the combined saltire _one-fifth_, of the width of
the flag.

SIZES OF THE CROSSES ACCORDING TO THE ADMIRALTY REGULATIONS.

ONE COMBINED CROSS:

  Red Cross of St. George, 1/5 of width     3/15
  Upper white border, 1/3 of 3/15           1/15
  Lower white border, 1/3 of 3/15           1/15
                                            ----
                                            5/15 = 1/3 (One-third.)

ONE COMBINED SALTIRE:

  Red of St. Patrick, 1/3 of 3/15           1/15
  White border of St. Patrick, 1/6 of 3/15  1/30
  Broad white of St. Andrew, 1/2 of 3/15    3/30
                                            ----
                                            6/30 = 1/5 (One-fifth.)

 It may be convenient to state these proportions as they would be in a
 Union Jack, of which the width on the flagstaff is 5 feet:

  Red of St. George, 1/5 of 5 feet          1 ft. 0 in.
  Upper white border                              4 in.
  Lower white border                              4 in.
                                            -----------
                                            1 ft. 8 in. or 1/3 of 5 ft.

  Red of St. Patrick                              4 in.
  White of St. Patrick                            2 in.
  Broad white of St. Andrew                       6 in.
                                            -----------
                                            1 ft. 0 in. or 1/5 of 5 ft.

It is possible that this form of compliance with the heraldic rules was
fully intended; yet, even were it not so, it is at all events a happy
coincidence which might be taken as a conformity to these rules, and
thus the flag which has been confirmed in its shape by the usage and
glory of centuries should be cheerfully accepted by the heraldically
inclined as being completely satisfactory.

It is not to the point for them to say it might look better if it were
made some other way, for that would be merely a matter of opinion; or
that if the heralds had had the making of it they would have made it
differently, but it was not of their making, that having been settled
by the Council in the selected draft of which the heralds worded a
description, or, as some state, a misdescription; but it cannot fail
to be admitted by all, that, as now made, it has been made, in all its
parts, in the way ordered by the successive Councils, in whom authority
was vested for its designing and issue.

The proportions of the crosses and of the borders of our Union Jack are
thus not only technically correct, but, of still higher importance,
they also preserve in detailed sequence the historical proportions of
the three nations and of the three national Jacks, which were, in 1801,
joined together in completed union.

Our noble flag, with its centuries of loyal history, might well,
therefore, be held sacred and free from any objections on theoretical
proportions.



CHAPTER XXII.

_UNDER THE THREE CROSSES IN CANADA._


In 1801 the "new" three-cross union had entered into the upper corner
of the red ensign of British rule. The Canadians, both French and
English, had been faithful to its two-crossed predecessor, and now
again their patriotism was to be put to the test.

The parent kingdom of Great Britain had for nineteen years been engaged
in its mighty struggle with the great Napoleon for the supremacy of
Europe, and the time seemed opportune to a section of the people of the
United States for gaining an advantage over the nation from which they
had separated their allegiance, and also for striking a blow at the
neighbouring people who had refused to become absorbed with them, and
had so successfully resisted their previous invasion.

The quarrel was none of Canada's making, nor was it one in which she
had any share, yet, although the ostensible reason which had been
alleged as the cause of offence was repealed before hostilities had
been commenced, war was declared at Washington on the 18th of June,
1812.[147]

[147] The British Orders in Council respecting the "right of search,"
to which the United States made objection, and had been given as their
reason for war, had been repealed in England the day before war was
declared.

The population of the United States at that time amounted to no less
than eight millions, while in Canada, from end to end, there were but
four hundred thousand souls, all told.

The Canadians did not hesitate, though their country was to be the
scene of war, and their homes to be the stake for which the nations
were to strive. Aid they could not expect from their British friends
across the sea, already strained to the utmost in the long conflict
with the armies of Europe; their reliance must be upon their own stout
hearts and strong right arms. But this was enough, for

 "Odds lie not in numbers, but in spirit, too."

So they rallied with eagerness beneath their Country's and Britain's
Union flag.

[Illustration: 62. THE WAR MEDAL, 1793-1814.]

Only four thousand five hundred regular trained soldiers were in Canada
in 1812, and in them are included men of the Newfoundland and Glengarry
regiments, recruited locally in the colonies; and thus the brunt of
the defence was to fall upon the stalwart but untrained militia of the
countryside.

[Illustration: 63. THE SERVICE MEDAL, CANADA, 1866-70.]

The tide of invasion advanced north against Canada from the United
States. For three years, from 1812 to 1815, the contest went on. Our
French Canadians again bravely took up their arms, and this time,
under the new three-crossed Jack, again drove the United States
invaders back, making the names of Chateauguay and Chrystler's Farm
ring down through history in token of the victories which they won
beneath it in defence of their Canadian liberties and homes. So, too,
their English-speaking brothers of Upper Canada won equal victories
for this same Union Jack. At Mackinac, Captain Roberts,[148] with his
Indians and Canadian voyageurs, raised it above the captured American
fort. At the capitulation of Fort Detroit to Brock and Tecumseh, the
American soldiers laid down their arms before it, and all Michigan was
surrendered. At Queenston Heights, under the glorious Brock, at Stoney
Creek and Beaver Dams, Niagara and Lundy's Lane, the American invader
was sent in quick retreat from Canadian soil, and at the conclusion of
the three years' war, after all the varying fluctuations in reverse and
success between the contending forces, there was, at its end, not a
foot of Canada, occupied or sullied by the foot of the foreign foe.

[148] An ancestor of Lord Roberts of Kandahar and Pretoria.

Thus all along their frontier shores, from Mackinac to far St. John,
the Canadians stood shoulder to shoulder in one bold, united line, and
held the larger half of North America for the British crown.

Again, when Fenian hordes and restless soldiers, who had been disbanded
from the armies of the American Civil War, were assembled and drilled
under the protection of the United States, and launched in raids
against Canadian homes, the Canadian volunteers mustered around their
Union Jack, and along the Niagara frontier, in 1866, and at Eccles
Hill, in the Province of Quebec, in 1870, again drove the southern
invader back, and held their native soil inviolate beneath its
three-crossed folds.

  "Since when has a Southerner placed his heel
    On the men of the northern zone?

  "Shall the mothers that bore us bow the head
    And blush for degenerate sons?
  Are the patriot fires gone out and dead?
    Ho! brothers, stand to the guns!
      Let the flag be nailed to the mast,
      Defying the coming blast!
  For Canada's sons are true as steel,
    Their metal is muscle and bone,
  The Southerner never shall place his heel
    On the men of the northern zone.

  "Oh, we are the men of the northern zone,
    Where the maples their branches toss;
  And the Great Bear rides in his state alone,
    Afar from the Southern Cross.
      Our people shall aye be free,
      They never shall bend the knee,
  For this is the land of the true and leal,
    Where freedom is bred in the bone--
  The Southerner never shall place his heel
    On the men of the northern zone."[149]

[149] Kernighan ("The Khan"): "The Men of the Northern Zone."

Such was the British patriotism of which the flag was the Union signal,
and now another parliamentary union is to be included in the career of
the Union Jack in Canada.

Up to 1867 the Eastern British Provinces in North America had remained
under separate local governments, such as had been established in the
previous century; but in this year Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Upper
and Lower Canada were all united in the one "Dominion" of Canada, then
extending only as far as Lake Superior. This "Act of Confederation" was
passed in London, at Westminster, by the Parliament of Great Britain,
and thus again the Union Parliament of the Union Jack was parent to
a new Union Parliament established in united Canada. Each Province
continues to have its own "Provincial Assembly," in which legislation
is conducted on matters pertaining to its own local or home rule, but
all general powers are centred in the Dominion Parliament of Canada.
Hitherto the spirit of the flag had been solely that of union with
the Motherland; thereafter it had an added and local meaning, for it
became also the symbol of Canadian union, the patriot flag of the new
daughter nation which had thus been brought into existence in the outer
British American realm. Inspired by this union, the older Provinces
thus combined began to extend their borders, and soon Manitoba and the
Hudson Bay Territories of the central prairies[150] were added, in 1869,
and British Columbia joined in 1871, followed by Prince Edward Island
in 1873, to make the enlarged Dominion of Canada, now stretching across
the continent of America from sea to sea.

[150] Out of a part of these the Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan
were created in 1905.

[Illustration: 64. THE NORTH-WEST CANADA MEDAL.]

Difficulties, of course, were met in this consolidating of the
territories, but the sign of Union was flying from the flagstaff, and
the new-born patriotism surmounted them all. In March, 1885, when the
spirit of discontent arose among the Metis of the North-West, and a
rebellion broke out, the courage of the united Canadians was aroused
with electric flash, and the volunteer battalions from the Maritime
Atlantic shores, from French-speaking Quebec, from the great Ontario
lakes, and from all parts of the Dominion, vied with one another in
bearing the privations of forced marches across the frozen lakes, or
over the pathless prairies, to reach the scene of action, and join in
maintaining the supremacy of their native union. The rebellion was
quickly suppressed; but the events at Fish Creek, Batoche and on the
banks of the Saskatchewan left gaps in the loyal ranks.

  "Not in the quiet churchyard, near those who loved them best,
  But by the wild Saskatchewan we laid them to their rest;
  A simple soldier's funeral in that lonely spot was theirs,
  Made consecrate and holy by a nation's tears and prayers.
  Their requiem, the music of the river's singing tide;
  Their funeral wreaths, the wild flowers that grew on every side;
  Their monument, undying praise from each Canadian heart
  That hears how, for their country's sake, they nobly bore their part."

Three medals[151] have been granted by their sovereign to commemorate the
gallantry of the Canadians who thus fought beneath the Union Jack: In
1812-15, for union with the Motherland (62); in 1866-70, for service in
defence of their country during the Fenian raids (63); and in 1885, for
union within Canada itself (64). Such are some of the events which have
given rise to the stirring patriotism evinced by Canadians for their
national flag, and which have kept aflame the passionate fervour of
their loyalty not only at home, but when they joined hands in 1900 with
their brothers-in-arms from British Isles and Colonies to fight and die
for union in South Africa.

[151] See Appendix C--"Canadian War Medals."

Four times within the century--in 1775, 1812, 1866, and 1870--have
Canadians raised their Union Jack in defence of home and native land,
and once, in 1885, for maintenance of union within themselves.

As Canadians see it waving above their school-houses, and on the ships,
or over their homes, they read in the crosses the stories that they
tell, and remember that the deep red tones in its folds have been
freshened and coloured by the heart-blood of Canada's sons, poured out
for it in ungrudging loyalty on their own loved soil. The sons of the
parent nations have carried it in many a far-off strife, but in their
own island homes, "compassed by the inviolate sea," they sleep secure,
and never have had to fight beneath it in defence of native land. It
is in this regard that Canadians can cherish this flag even more than
they who first carried it, and their sons may now rightly wear it as
their very own, for the Union Jack is so bound up with love of country,
defence of home, and all that is glorious in Canada's history, that it
is the union flag of Canada itself.



CHAPTER XXIII.

_THE FLAG OF FREEDOM._


These stories of martial and constitutional advance are not all the
story that this Union Jack tells. There is something more than mere
valorous devotion which should be aroused in the expression of loyalty
for a flag. Such a devotion might be found even under a despot's sway,
for racial and reckless valour may, with some, take the place of
thoughtful allegiance.

The story of an ideal flag should declare a supreme idea, an idea
which has been so well expressed as being the "divine right of liberty
in man. Not lawlessness, not license, but organized institutional
liberty--liberty through law, and law for liberty."[152]

[152] Henry Ward Beecher.

When a flag records, by the unmistakable story of its life, how this
desired freedom has been not simply alleged, but granted in actual fact
to all who have reached the soil of its dominion, and, further, tells
how the amplest dream of self-government is realized by those who dwell
beneath its sway, then, indeed, is that flag to be cherished with the
most passionate devotion, and valued in the most critical estimation.

Such a flag becomes an inspiration not only to the heart, but to the
mind, and men may well be willing to risk their all, and life itself,
for the maintenance of its unsullied honour. Such a flag is the Union
Jack in Canada.

This three-crossed Jack in Canada is not only the national ensign of
the British race, but it is more, for Canadians have made it the real
"flag of freedom in America."

It is the proudest ascription of the Union Jack of the Empire that

  "Though it may sink o'er a shot-torn wreck,
  It never flies over a slave."

This fact is true to-day of the Jack throughout all the British
territories, but it has not always been so, and we may, with much
interest, trace the condition of the slave under the flag in Great
Britain, in the Colonies, in the United States, and in Canada.

It has been the happy lot of the Motherland, the cradle of the
liberties of the earth, that freedom has been enjoyed for many
centuries upon her own home soil; but even there legal doubts existed
until 1772 about the position of persons who, being slaves in other
lands, had reached her shores, when the notable decision of Lord
Mansfield declared that, "_When a slave has landed on the soil of the
British Isles that slave is free_." Although this legal definition
had been reached, the abolition, by statute, of slavery under the
Union Jack was not enacted by the British Parliament until 1811; and
even after that, as this Act did not apply outside the British Isles,
slavery continued in the outer realms to such an extent that in 1820
there were no fewer than 340,000 slaves under British rule in the
Island of Jamaica alone.

At last, in 1833, the glorious _Act of Emancipation_ was passed by the
British Parliament, and the same freedom which had existed on the soil
of the parent kingdom was extended to all races who lived anywhere
under the Union Jack. The people of the parent isles gave further proof
that this was done, not solely in the pursuit of an ideal, but out of
real good-will, for they were not content with proclaiming freedom to
the slave, but themselves purchased his emancipation by paying one
hundred million dollars to his owners in those colonies in which, up to
that time, slavery had existed with their consent. In the true spirit
of British fair-play they thus scouted the idea of exercising their own
compassion and good-will at any other person's expense.

                       Number      Indemnity
                     of Slaves.      paid.

  [153]Jamaica          311,700     £6,152,000
  Barbadoes            83,000      1,721,000
  Trinidad             22,300      1,039,000
  Antigua, etc.       172,093      3,421,000
  Guiana               84,900      4,297,000
  Mauritius            68,600      2,113,000
  Cape of Good Hope    38,400      1,247,000
                      -------    -----------
      Total           780,993    £20,000,000

Such has been the story of freedom under the Union Jack on the other
continents. Let us see how its history compares with that of other
flags on the continent of America.

[153] Extract from Dictionary of Statistics, p. 541, "Abolition of
Slavery."

The stories of the flags of Mexico and the republics of South America
are so changing and unsettled that they may not be counted in the
consideration, and the flag of Spain in Cuba never became an exponent
of freedom. The sole competitor for the title of "the flag of the free"
is the Stars and Stripes of the United States of North America.

The thirteen colonies of North America were, at the time of Lord
Mansfield's decision in 1772, colonies of the British crown, and moved,
no doubt, by a desire to emulate their brothers in Great Britain, and
following their example, the representatives of the colonies met at
Philadelphia, on 27th September, 1774, and in Continental Congress
"declared against the slave-trade, and forbade any further importation
of slaves into British America." Being supporters of the Union Jack,
and following its ideals, they made, as Britons, a first step in the
right direction, but no freedom was given to those already in the
country.

It was, no doubt, under the influence of this spirit of British
freedom, and with British hearts, that, when they were separating
from their British allegiance, they stated in their Declaration of
Independence (4th July, 1776):

 "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created
 equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable
 rights; that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of
 happiness."

Yet at the very time when this claim was made, that all men were born
equal, well-nigh a million blacks were held in these same States in
bondage,[154] and this sounding declaration of "liberty" did not bring
freedom to a single slave.

[154] In 1780 there were 1,191,000 slaves in the United States, and as
late as 1860 more than 4,000,000.

Indeed, when, eleven years afterwards, in 1787, the representatives
of the thirteen States met[155] in federal convention, and adopted the
"Constitution of the United States," the existence of slavery under the
Stars and Stripes was recognized and its continuance guaranteed.

[155] 25th May, 1787, at Philadelphia.

The framers of the constitution were evidently conscious of the
fact that the statements of their "declaration" were not in actual
accordance with their actions, and therefore the provisions in their
"constitution" concerning slavery were stated in a veiled and secret
form, the words "slave" and "slavery" being carefully excluded. In
this way the clauses of the American constitution have a different
interpretation from that which their wording would apparently convey,
for the existence of one class of their population in slavery was duly
recognized, although not specifically mentioned.

The leaven of English freedom evinced in 1774 had continued to work
among some of the States, even after their separation from the Crown,
and emancipation had been begun in Vermont in 1777, in Pennsylvania in
1780, and was impending in some of the others, but had by no means been
accepted in all.[156]

[156] Emancipation was effected in New Jersey in 1804; New York, 1827.

In arranging the proportionate representation of the several States
in the union congress it became necessary to apportion the number of
members of congress to be elected by each State, and in arranging this
representation a concession was made to the slave-owning States whereby
their slaves were to be recognized in estimating the number of their
population.

The Article[157] enacts:

 "Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States which
 may be included within this union according to their respective
 numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of
 free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years,
 and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons."

[157] Article I., Section 2, Constitution of United States, 1787.

By the apparently simple but very pregnant words, "all other persons,"
of whom three-fifths were to be added, were meant the slaves, who,
although they were not themselves accorded any citizenship or
right to vote, were thus counted in determining the number of the
representatives who were to be accredited to and elected by the State
in which they were held in slavery.

As slavery was, in 1787, legal in some of the States and illegal in
others, it also became necessary, in order to gain the acceptance of
the union by the slave-owning States, that provision should be made for
the legal return to their owners of any slaves who might escape from a
slave-owning to a free State, and a clause guaranteeing the rendition
of fugitive slaves was therefore embodied in the constitution. It was
enacted:

 "No person held to service or labour in one State--under the laws
 thereof--escaping to another shall, in consequence of any law or
 regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labour, but
 shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service of
 labour may be due."[158]

[158] Article IV., Section 2, Constitution of United States, 1787.

It is stated on the authority of Madison,[159] "the father of the
constitution," that the words used in each case in the original drafts
of these clauses was "servitude," but it was afterwards changed to
"service."

[159] James Madison, subsequently twice President of the United States,
1809 and 1813.

The expulsion of the words, although it might appear better to the eye,
did not alter the fact that the whole of the States, which then framed
their Union, although they did not all practise slavery, yet every one
of them then consented to its perpetuation. Thus it came that slavery
existed legally under the Stars and Stripes from 1787 until 1865, when
happily it was terminated[160] by the proclamation of Lincoln and the
constitutional amendment.

[160] Constitutional amendment abolishing slavery, January 31st, 1865.

Such is the story of the slave's "freedom" under the national flag of
the United States.

We may now turn to the story of his freedom under the Union Jack in
Canada.

We have seen that slavery, excepting on the soil of Great Britain, was
not abolished in all other parts of the British Empire until 1833, and
not in the United States until 1865. In 1792, long before either of
these dates, self-government had been granted to Canada, and, under
the two-crossed Jack, at the first meetings which were held by the
parliament in Upper Canada, slavery was abolished on July 9th, 1793.[161]
This was before our present Union Jack came into existence, so that in
Canada alone, of all the outer lands over which this flag of 1801 has
ever been raised, beginning from the very day on which it first was
displayed, this three-crossed Jack has always, as in the Motherland,
proclaimed freedom to the slave.

[161] There were a few isolated instances of slaves who continued for
a short time in the possession of their previous owners, but after
this date any slave who came to the country, and every child born of
coloured parents, was free.

Canadians in this way feel added honour in the flag, and that it is
more particularly their own; for on the continent of America, whether
he came from the British West Indies, from the southern continent, from
Cuba, or the United States, in all of which he was still the chattel of
his owner, so soon as the slave reached the soil of Canada, and came
under the colours of our Union Jack, that moment he was free.

The deep significance which this early law of Canada had given
to the flag has often been attested by coloured men before their
fellow-citizens and the world, and particularly by Frederick Douglas,
the great coloured orator of the United States. While dilating upon the
great advantage which had come to his own people since freedom had at
last been granted to them in the United States, he would nevertheless
contrast their condition with that existing in the neighbouring
Canadian land, where the black child sits in the public schools by
the side of his little white brother, and travels with him in the
same carriage on the trains, and where the law is administered with
impartiality for both white and black alike.[162]

[162] Speaking in the Exposition Hall, at the great Columbian
Exhibition, Chicago, on August 25th, 1893, Douglas said of his people:
"To-day we number 8,000,000 (coloured) people in the United States.
To-day a desperate effort is being made to blacken the character of the
negro and to brand him as a moral monster. In fourteen States of this
Union wild mobs have taken the place of the law. They hang, shoot and
burn men of my race without law and without right."

In telling words he would revert to the time "when there was but one
flag in America under which the fugitive slave could be secure. When
the slave had escaped from the control of his owner, and was making
his way through the intervening States to the free land of the north,
whether he gained the summit of the highest mountains or hid in the
recesses of the deepest valleys, the fugitive could find no safe
resting place. If he mingled in the teeming throngs of their busiest
cities, he feared detection; if he sought solitude on their widest
prairies, beneath the silent stars, he was in dread of being tracked;
not until he had sighted the red-crossed Jack, and, crossing the
northern lakes, had touched the strand of Canada's shore, could the
slave fall upon his knees and know that at last he was free."

Thus pure, unsullied in its life-story, this three-crossed Union Jack
of Canada is the only flag on the continent of America which has always
and ever been the "flag of freedom," a flag under which all men, as
their birthright, have been born equal and free.

Canadians may well, therefore, be proud of their flag, for what truer
glory can be claimed for any other flag--than this, which spells out
FREEDOM in its every fold?



CHAPTER XXXIV.

_THE FLAG OF LIBERTY._


There is yet the other ideal phase in which the Union Jack in the outer
realms of the Empire and in Canada reigns supreme--that of "liberty
to the people." The inborn hope which buds and blossoms in the hearts
of a growing people as their energies evolve and their circumstances
advance, finds its fruitage in the possession of mastery over their own
homes, and thus a nation's desire for liberty is concentrated in the
absorbing dream of self-government.

It was this spirit which spoke in the old English colonies in America
when they averred, in their address to King George III., that they were
"being degraded from the pre-eminent rank of _English_ freemen." The
condition of a citizen in the old homeland was their highest ideal of
the liberties of a people, and the only one with which, even in those
times, they considered comparison could worthily be made.

The history of the Union Jack in the parent land has been connected, as
we have seen, not solely with national allegiance, but yet more with
parliamentary government; and its several parts have been combined in
union to evidence the advent of union under representative institutions.

Such, too, has been the history of its expansion among the great
groups of colonies of the British Empire which dot the outer world, a
development of true democratic government which can best be realized by
a comparison between the forms of government in Canada and that in the
United States.

The creation of the constitution of England was not confined to a
single date, nor was it the product of the men of a single period;
its growth has been spread, like that of its flag, over century after
century, as each successive phase of the ideal dream has become
harmonized with the existing requirements of the day. Formed largely
upon usage and upon precedent, it reflects the current views of the
people, and, therefore, has never been restricted to invariable forms
of words.

There are milestones such as Magna Charta, the Petition of Rights, the
Habeas Corpus Act, the Act of Settlement, and the other landmarks which
measure the way towards constitutional liberty; but as with the Union
Jack, so, too, with the liberties of the British form of government,
the story of the combinations is not the record of a revolution, but
the gradual process of a reasoning evolution.

When, at the end of the eighteenth century, our neighbours in the
United States framed their new constitution, they based it on the
information and usages of that day when responsible government was
almost unknown. Creating an elective King under the name of President,
they endowed him with distinct and executive powers, which, as then,
he still exercises, largely of his own private will, or only in
consultation with a Cabinet which is nominated by and is responsible
only to himself, whose members are not members of the House of
Representatives, nor are they elected by the people.

How entirely he acts of his own motion, without the instructions or
the initiation of Congress, was only too evidently shown in the recent
Venezuela-Guiana incident,[163] when President Cleveland's message was
promulgated with all the individual vehemence of an autocrat, and if it
had not been for the temperate forbearance of the British Cabinet, war
would have resulted.

[163] 1896.

The President of the United States, having been elected for a definite
term of years, represents the opinion which prevailed at the time of
his election; and no matter how much the opinion of the nation may
change in the interval, or his policy be objected to, he continues to
rule until his allotted term of four years shall have expired, even
though he and his Cabinet be in absolute conflict with the expressed
will of the people, as indicated in the elections which are constantly
in progress.[164]

[164] In the United States the members of the Senate are elected by the
Legislatures of the States, one for each State, and sit for six years.
The members of the House of Representatives are elected by popular vote
of the electors, the number for each State being determined by its
proportional population, and each sits for a fixed term of two years.

It is true there are provisions in the constitution for checking his
course, or for his impeachment, but in cases in which this has been
attempted to be enforced the trial has lasted longer than his term.
His appointment as chief of the nation having been the result of an
election contest, the President represents not the whole people, but
only the political party which happened to be in the majority at the
time of his election.

Being, then, the elected representative of a definite political party,
his acts are expected by those who have elected him to be used towards
continuing their party in power, and thus the person from time to
time holding the position of President becomes a distinct vehicle for
the exercise of party political warfare instead of being an impartial
administrator.

His veto being thus supreme, all legislation has to be conducted with
a view to what will meet, or will not meet, the personal views of the
President, as has been most plainly shown in the framing of Tariffs for
Customs and Taxation.

This written constitution of the United States, admirable though it
may have been thought at the time, and an improvement upon the then
existing state of things, was born over a century ago, in the times of
autocratic government, and though thus out of date, it has remained
ever since practically unchanged; in fact, with the exception of the
amendment respecting slavery, it is identically the same.

During this same hundred years, as civilization has advanced, education
enlightened the masses, intelligence expanded among the people, and
experience been gained, there has grown up that marvellous form of
self-government under which we Canadians and our brother colonists
live--the British Constitutional Monarchy. In this British Empire,
in the colonial parliaments, as in the Imperial Parliament, the King
or Sovereign represents all the people, not a party, and is the
permanent chairman of the nation. The will of Parliament, tempered by
his continued counsel, is his will. The ministers of the Crown, who,
with the Premier as their head, form the Executive, are elected by the
people, and sit in the same House of Commons with the other elected
representatives. Debating with them on the issues of the day, they
are responsible to their fellow-members for the measures which they
introduce;[165] and when they fail to carry these measures, and cease to
secure the support of the majority of the people's representatives, as
then sitting in Parliament, the ministry must resign, and is succeeded
at the call of the sovereign, or in a self-governed Dominion, of the
Governor-General, by another Cabinet, which shall represent that
majority; or, should the matter be considered of sufficient importance,
the whole Parliament is forthwith dissolved by the Sovereign, or his
representative, as the neutral and unbiased centre of impartial power.
All the members return for re-election by their constituencies, and
the question at issue is quickly submitted for decision by the ballots
of the electors. Thus the acts of the Premier or chief minister, and
of his Cabinet, and also of the party of which he is leader, and the
whole Parliament, are at once subject to the opinion of the people
without waiting for the completion of their term.[166]

[165] No Bill for the expenditure of any money or for a change in
taxation can be introduced except by a member of the Cabinet.

[166] The life of a Parliament in Canada is limited to five years,
and, unless it has been dissolved in the interval, must return for
re-election at the end of that term. An entire new parliament can be
re-elected any time in about six weeks.

Further, indeed, than this, if a member of the Cabinet should die or
resign during the term of any parliament his successor must, upon his
appointment, return to his individual constituency and be re-elected,
so that the opinion of the people may be taken upon the general policy
of the Cabinet and upon his own special fitness for his appointment.

The Governor-General of Canada, as also the governors in the other
self-governed colonies, does not, as so many of the people of the
United States imagine, govern the country, acting with absolute power
under the direction of the Government of Great Britain; for in every
way, except for the purposes of imperial advice and the declaration of
war, Canada is practically an Independent Dominion, as sings the empire
poet,[167]

  "Daughter am I in my mother's home,
  But mistress in my own."

[167] Rudyard Kipling.

By virtue of his office, a Governor-General represents the person of
the sovereign of the empire in the local government in his portion
of the British realm, and is the connecting link between the mother
parliament in Great Britain and the parliament in the colony. He can
influence but does not direct, he can advise but does not determine,
for as has been well said of the British Monarchy: "Le Roi regne mais
ne gouverne pas"--The King reigns, but does not govern. As in the
parent kingdom the Sovereign is secured in impartiality by the grace
of birth, so in the daughter realm the Governor-General is dissociated
from all local entanglements or party feelings by virtue of being
selected for his particular abilities and appointed from another
portion of the Empire by the central source of honour and power. The
distinctive flag (65) of the Governor-General of Canada is the "Union
Jack," having on its centre the arms of Canada, surrounded by a wreath
of maple leaves, the whole being surmounted by a royal crown.

[Illustration: 65. FLAG OF THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF CANADA.]

The flag of the governor or administrator in all other British colonies
and dependencies is also the Union Jack, having upon it the arms or
badge of the colony on a white shield, surrounded by a green garland of
laurel leaves, surmounted by a crown.

In 1870, as a special honour, the imperial sanction was given to Canada
to place a garland of maple leaves--its national emblem[168]--instead of
the laurel upon the flag of its Governor-General.

[168] Appendix A.--"The Maple Leaf Emblem."

The Lieutenant-Governors of the Provinces of Canada also wear the Union
Jack as their distinctive flag, bearing upon it the arms of their
respective Provinces, surrounded by a similar garland of maple leaves;
but as they are appointed by the Government of the Dominion, and not by
the King, the garland is not surmounted by a crown (66).

[Illustration: 66. FLAG OF THE LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR OF QUEBEC.]

In this governor-general's flag, with its royal crown, its maple
leaves, and Canadian coat-of-arms, as also in the lieutenant-governors'
flags, backed up by the Union Jack, is symbolized the existence of
British constitutional government in Canada. In this the reigning King
or Queen is the whole Canadian people, and the Premier and his Cabinet
are the representatives of the political party for the time being in
power.[169] The Cabinet is responsible to Parliament for the policy which
they introduce, and for which they, as well as all the other members of
the Parliament, are immediately answerable to the electors, who are the
original source of their power.

[169] Legal documents issued under legislation in Canada are issued
in the name of the "King," as representing the whole people, as in
the United States the expression is in the name of "The people of the
United States."

This modern flexible system of responsible government in Canada, so
closely in touch with the people, in contrast with the irresponsible
and rigid system in the United States, was neatly brought out by Lord
Dufferin during his term as Governor-General of Canada, in a speech he
delivered at Toronto, in 1874, after his visit to Chicago:

 "More than once," said he, "I was addressed with the playful
 suggestion that Canada should unite her fortunes with those of the
 great Republic. (Laughter.) To these invitations I invariably replied
 by acquainting them that in Canada we were essentially a democratic
 people--great laughter--that nothing would content us unless the
 popular will could exercise an immediate and complete control over the
 executive of the country--renewed laughter--that the ministers who
 conducted the government were but a committee of Parliament, which was
 in itself an emanation from the constituencies--loud applause--and
 that no Canadian would be able to breathe freely if he thought the
 persons administering the affairs of the country were removed beyond
 the supervision and contact of our legislative assemblies. (Cheers.)"

It is, then, easily seen why Canadians and our brother Britons love
their Union Jack. It is the signal of parliamentary government by
British constitutional principles. It represents progress and modern
ideas--the rule of the people, for the people, by the people, through
their unbiased King; and, therefore, it is the evidence of their
affectionate and loyal allegiance to that monarchy and system of
government under whose benign sway the colonies have advanced, and
Canada, above all other countries on the continent of America, is the
land of the self-governed and the free.

These are the liberties which the Union Jack signals in all parts of
the British Empire to all the varied nations, with varied tongues,
which have come beneath its sway. It is the consciousness of such
liberty and the enjoyment of such equal rights that impelled Canada,
Australia, New Zealand and all the colonies of the empire to send their
sons to the field of contest in South Africa as a free-will offering
to defend their fellow-men and to spread the blessings of Liberty and
Freedom to the peoples of that continent.

From this has come that most recent acknowledgment of its incomparable
liberties that the peoples of South Africa, the Boers of Dutch and
French descent, so recently warring with their British neighbours of
Cape Colony and Natal, have now[170] united together and, meeting as
brothers, have raised it as the union sign of their united liberty in
the fourth[171] daughter Parliament of the Britains beyond the seas in
our united empire.

[170] Confederation Act, South Africa, 1909.

[171] Canada, New Zealand, Australia, South Africa.

The world over it is the free-will Flag of Liberty.



CHAPTER XXV.

_THE UNION JACK AS A SINGLE FLAG._


This Union Jack, so spread abroad, is in its single form a declaration
and an evidence of British nationality, and is raised every day from
sunrise to sunset over every one of the garrisons of the British
peoples which surround the world. It is the flag which is raised and
saluted whenever formal possession of any new territory is taken
in the name of the Sovereign of Great Britain, and was thus raised
at Khartoum, Bloemfontein, and Pretoria, to signify the success of
the British arms and the accession of British rule, just as its
predecessors had been in Newfoundland, on the shores of America, and
all other colonies and conquests around the seas when each was first
occupied.

Some considerable discussions have taken place as to whether it should
be called the "Union Jack" or the "Union Flag."

This latter is the name usually given in the Official Regulations
respecting the official use of a three-crossed flag of this
description. There is in the navy the rank of "Admiral of the Fleet,"
corresponding to the rank of Field Marshal in the army. The Admiralty
Regulations state that the proper flag of an Admiral of the Fleet is
the "Union Flag," to be worn at the top masthead, and an Admiralty
memorandum further states: "A Jack is a flag to be flown only on the
'Jack' staff, _i.e._, a staff on the bowsprit or forepart of the ship."

The difference in name of the same flag when carried on a ship would
appear to indicate a difference in size appropriate to the different
positions.

In the order in Council[172] directing what flags are to be used by
diplomatic and consular officers, it is stated: "The flag to be used by
Her Majesty's consular officers ashore to distinguish their residences
is the Union flag."

[172] Order in Council, 7th August, 1869.

There is, however, another official name of this flag given in official
instructions which must be noticed.

The Military Regulations (1899) order to be displayed afloat,
by generals and other military officers commanding stations, as
their distinguishing flags, "the Union, bearing in the centre as
a distinguishing mark the Royal Initials, surrounded by a garland
on a blue shield and surmounted by a crown." For Commissioners and
Consuls-general, "the Union, with the Royal Arms in the centre, on a
white shield, surrounded by a green garland."

This same name "Union" is also given in directions respecting this flag
when included as a part of a larger flag.

The Admiralty Instructions directing what Ensign is to be worn by all
ships of the Royal Navy in commission state that they shall "bear a
White Ensign with the Red St. George's cross, and the Union in the
upper canton."

The Foreign Office Regulations direct that "consular officers when
embarked in boats or other vessels shall use the Blue Ensign with the
Royal Arms in the centre of the fly of the flag, that is, in the centre
of that between the Union and the end of the flag."

Many other instances could be quoted, but these are typical and
sufficient.

Three names are used--the "Union," "Union Flag," and "Union Jack," all
describing the same flag.

It is interesting to note the transition of the names. Under Charles
I., in 1634, it was described as "the Union Flagge"; under Charles
II., in 1663, "His Majesty's Jack, commonly called the Union Jack."
The usage of the name Jack had thus early and largely spread, and it
is further shown by a letter written by Burchett, the Secretary of the
Admiralty, in 1695, regarding the flag carried by the Earl of Pembroke
in the expedition against Cadiz, in which he says: "There was some
doubt as to whether his Lordship should have borne at the maintop
masthead the Royal Standard of England or the Union, or, more properly
speaking in maritime phrase, the Jack flag commonly worn by those
who have under the Lord High Admiral been appointed Admirals of the
Fleet."[173]

[173] Admiral Eardley Wilmot: "Our Flags."

It is not surprising, therefore, that under Queen Anne, in 1707, it is
again described as "Our Jack, commonly called the Union Jack."

This name of the flag had, in fact, become so general that it had
affectionately passed onward to give its name to the gallant sailors
who bore it, as is instanced in nautical ballads:

  "There's a sweet little cherub that sits up aloft,
  To keep watch for the life of poor Jack."[174]

[174] Dibdin, 1755.

Used thus for centuries by sailors in song and on shore, although the
name given in the proclamation of George III., 1801, was the "Union
Flagge," the ancient and loving name of Union Jack has always prevailed
among its upholders.

In the issue of official instructions there is propriety and, perhaps,
necessity for using the different names, but they all contain the
dominant name of "_Union_," and describe the same flag in its single
form--the two-crossed or, in its succession, three-crossed Jack of
united nationality.

There is another and distinctive use of the Union Jack. Surrounded by a
white border of one-fifth of its width, it becomes a "Pilot Jack," and
in this form becomes the official signal for a pilot, and is so used on
all British ships, merchantmen as well as men-of-war, in all parts of
the world. This white-bordered Jack is only appropriately to be used
for this special signal service.

The restrictions given in the early proclamations as to the flying of
the Union Jack at sea, and the official instructions as to its use as a
special distinction on shore, particularly for military garrisons and
official residences, have given rise to questionings as to the right of
its being used by all British private citizens on land. Their authority
to use it afloat has been clearly defined, but not so clearly that of
their right on shore, although such has been the usage and practice of
centuries.

The proclamation of Queen Anne declared the flag which conjoyning the
crosses of St. George and St. Andrew, had been approved to be "used
in all flags and ensigns both at sea and land," and then proceeded to
state restrictions only as to their particular using as insignia at
sea, where as signs of authority and signals on ships such restrictions
were unquestionably necessary.

No restrictions were placed upon their use on land, and thus all
citizens of the United Kingdom were given authority to use on land
"Our Jack, commonly called the Union Jack," the loyal usage which had
grown up under its predecessors being confirmed. This right was not in
any way changed at the time of the creation of the present Union Jack,
which, in 1801, succeeded it, and so to the first century of loyal and
common usage have been further added two centuries of loyal right.

In more recent times additional interesting evidence and authority have
been given, both as to the name of this flag and its use by private
citizens. In reply to an enquiry in 1902 by the Vicar of Folkestone,
England, as to the propriety of the display of the Royal Standard upon
his church at the time of the coronation of His Majesty Edward VII.,
Lord Knollys, Private Secretary to the King, in reply, informed him
that the Standard should not so be used, but "you can always fly the
Union Jack."[175] The name and the propriety of the use of the Jack by
private citizens in the United Kingdom was graciously confirmed.

[175] Lord Knollys, 4th June, 1902. Appendix B.

As there had been considerable discussion as to what flags were proper
to be used on land in Canada, the writer addressed Lord Knollys,
quoting the previous letter, and stating the particular attention given
to the flying of flags in this and the outer realms of the Empire, and
received in reply, that "the Union Jack, being the national flag, may
be flown by British subjects, private or official, on land."[176]

[176] Lord Knollys, 29th December, 1907. Appendix B.

The Colonial Secretary of the Imperial Cabinet, in reply to a question
in the House of Commons (1908), said that the Union Jack could be
flown by every citizen of the Empire, as well as on Government offices
and public buildings; that the Union Jack should be regarded as the
national flag, and undoubtedly might be hoisted on land by all His
Majesty's subjects.

Authority has also been since given by the "Home Office" in England,
stating "that the Union Jack is to be regarded as the national flag,
and may be used generally by British subjects on land".[177]

[177] Letter Under-Secretary of State, Home Office, Whitehall, June 19,
1908.

The three crosses of the three nations whose successive unions it first
typified, have since expanded far beyond the United Kingdom of the
parent isles.

The sons of the Kingdoms have in centuries of prowess carried it far
afield, and bringing distant continents beneath its realm, have built
up the Dominions beyond the seas in Australia, Canada, New Zealand,
India, South Africa, and the myriad islands of the oceans, so that it
has become the Union Jack of the British Empire.

A British subject, wherever he may be on British soil, may, therefore,
always use the Union Jack.

It has already been noted that when flags are to be employed for
official purposes it is desirable that definite regulations shall
be issued for their use. In Canada we raise the Union Jack on our
Parliament and Legislative Buildings, as indicating the presence of
Government under the British Constitution; by Parliaments derived from
and following the precedents of the original Union Parliaments, and on
our law courts, as sign of the administration of British law.

To emphasize and inculcate the world-wide duties that this flag
proclaims, the Union Jack is raised over the Public Schools, so that
the newcomers to our lands from other lands and other nationalities may
know that they and their children have come to enjoy with us allegiance
to King and country, the securities of British protection of person and
property, and the rights and privileges of British citizenship, which
loyal allegiance to it conveys.

Public education in Canada is under the charge of each of the
Provincial Governments, and in Manitoba, Ontario, British Columbia and
the Maritime Provinces the single Union Jack is the flag which has been
instructed to be officially raised daily over the Public Schools.

Whatever flags may be used for other purposes and on other occasions,
it is manifest that to be raised over schools this widely-spread
national Union Jack is the most fitting; telling the children, as
it does, the duties and relations they bear to the other members of
their Empire, and leading them to study, not only the history of the
continent in which they live, but to go far back into the centuries and
learn the growth of the glorious liberties which this flag has brought
them, and the unity which its colours proclaim.

The patriotic celebration of "Empire Bay," which first was originated
in the schools in Canada,[178] has extended through the schools of the
Empire. On this day, as well as on other notable days, appropriate
addresses are given, this Union Jack, the national flag, is reverently
raised and saluted, and the National Anthem and patriotic songs sung
by the scholars. It has been recorded that in the Public Schools in
Canada, Australasia, New Zealand and Great Britain over 8,000,000
children united in this celebration in 1908, and it is still fast
extending.

[178] Initiated by Mrs. Clementina Fessenden, of Hamilton, Canada, in
1898.

It is an inspiration for ourselves to have it thus brought to mind
that our Union flag floats on every sea, and that on one-fifth of the
earth's surface it is hailed as their union emblem by four hundred
millions of fellow-patriots, in every clime, of many languages, and all
religious faiths, each dearly loving their own native land and devoted
to its welfare, but united in loyal brotherhood with their fellow, yet
far-distant, Britons under One King, One Flag, One Empire.



CHAPTER XXVI.

_THE JACKS IN RED, WHITE AND BLUE ENSIGNS._


In its single form the Union Jack has these special duties, which
have been noted, but combined in the upper corner of a larger flag it
creates a general flag of the nation, and thus environed becomes a
Union Ensign.

Although usage has sometimes used the name, yet it is a misnomer to
call a flag of this larger combined form a Union Jack, this being
the proper name solely for the flag containing only the three island
crosses.

The distinction in the names arises from the early days when a smaller
flag--bearing a national emblem or the crest or coat-of-arms of a liege
lord--had been inserted in a larger flag. This larger flag, bearing the
emblem or insignia of its wearers, was termed an "Ensign."

Place our smaller union flag in the upper corner of a larger flag,
and it there becomes the sign of identity, of allegiance, and of the
union of British patriotism with the special story which is told by the
colourings and form of the other parts, or fly, of such Ensign.

[Illustration: PLATE VIII.

1

RED ENSIGN

2

WHITE ENSIGN

3

BLUE ENSIGN]

The Union Jack was first quartered in the upper canton of three flags,
the Red, White and Blue ensigns. These flags have arisen from the
flags which were used of old to distinguish the ships of the respective
squadrons into which British fleets were divided.

Lord Lisle, in the time of Henry VIII., divided his fleet at Shoreham
in 1545 into three squadrons, the _Vanwarde_, _Battle_ and _Wing_,
corresponding in their position to the _van_, _centre_ and _rear_.[179]
These were the germ of the _red_, _white_ and _blue_ squadrons of the
seventeenth century.

[179] Hakluyt.

There were at that time only two distinguishing flags used in the navy,
the Royal Standard and the St. George Jack.

The admirals hoisted their flags in accordance with their rank upon
their flagships, in 1545, in the following order:[180]

     Squadron.        Admirals.

  1. BATTLE     { Royal Standard at main.
                { St. George at fore.

  2. VANWARDE   { St. George at main.
                { St. George at fore.

  3. WING         St. George at mizzen.

The other ships of their respective squadrons displayed:

     Squadron.        Ships.

  1. BATTLE       St. George at main.
  2. VANWARDE     St. George at fore.
  3. WING         St. George at mizzen.

[180] Hannay: "Short History of the British Navy."

Eighty years afterwards, in the time of Charles I., we learn of
another change, when in 1627 the Duke of Buckingham divided his fleet
into squadrons at the Island of Rhe, each designated according to the
flag it carried:

 "Himself ye admirall and general in chief and admirall particular of
 the bloody colours," the "vice-admiral of ye fleete bearing a blew
 flag in his main top and was admiral of the blew colours," and the
 "rear admiral bearing a white flag in the main top and was admirall of
 ye squadron of white colours."[181]


The admirals' flags were, in 1627:

  ADMIRAL           Red flag.
  VICE-ADMIRAL      Blue flag.
  REAR-ADMIRAL      White flag.

[181] Extract from Pepys' Diary.

It was into the upper corner of these red, blue and white flags of the
squadrons that the single-cross St. George's English Jack was placed,
in 1649, when the "Commonwealth Ensign" (Pl. IV., fig. 1) was
formed and the red, white and blue ensigns of the navy first appeared.

Difficulties must have been caused by the fact that from the
"Restoration," in 1660, the English merchantmen were, without
authority, using the Ensign Red at the stern in exactly the same form
as the flag of the red squadron, and still more when the general use
of the Red Ensign on all ships had been officially authorized by Queen
Anne in 1707.

At first the admirals holding the highest position had carried the red,
but afterwards the seniority had been changed.

A rank of admiral, vice-admiral and rear-admiral was appointed for
each colour. Promotion was made from the rank of captain to that of
rear-admiral of the blue, which was the lowest, and upward through the
red to admiral of the white, which had become the highest rank.

There were then nine ranks of admirals carrying the three ensigns:

  ADMIRAL OF THE WHITE           White ensign.
  VICE-ADMIRAL OF THE WHITE      White ensign.
  REAR-ADMIRAL OF THE WHITE      White ensign.

  ADMIRAL OF THE RED             Red ensign.
  VICE-ADMIRAL OF THE RED        Red ensign.
  REAR-ADMIRAL OF THE RED        Red ensign.

  ADMIRAL OF THE BLUE            Blue ensign.
  VICE-ADMIRAL OF THE BLUE       Blue ensign.
  REAR-ADMIRAL OF THE BLUE       Blue ensign.

As merchant ships, which were all flying the red ensign, increased in
size, it became increasingly difficult for foreigners to distinguish
these from the ships of the Royal Navy--a difficulty which was further
intensified for them by the fact that a squadron of the Royal Navy
might be sailing on one coast under the blue ensign, while another
squadron was sailing under the red, and yet another under the white,
according to the rank of the admirals of their respective squadrons.

Confusion and possibility of mistakes in identification in action was
sometimes caused by the ships of one squadron becoming intermingled
with those of another. Nelson solved this difficulty by directing that
only the white ensign, which was the ensign of his own squadron,[182]
should be used on the ships of all the squadrons at the battle of
Trafalgar.

[182] He was at the time a vice-admiral of the white and the senior
officer present.

The three ensigns, with their successive one, two and three-crossed
Jacks, had continued to be used in these varying ways during more than
two hundred years, until 1865, when the positions of the three ensigns
were separated and distinctive duties allotted to each.[183] The number
of the rank of admirals was at the same time reduced to three--admiral,
vice-admiral and rear-admiral. All of these were to fly, as they still
do, the white ensign at the stern, their seniority being indicated by
the position of the St. George Jack at the mast head.[184] These ranks
are in addition to the rank of Admiral of the fleet, which confers the
right to wear the Union Jack instead of the St. George.

[183] Order in Council, October 18th, 1865.

[184] In the present day, when ironclads have not more than two, and
often only one mast, vice-admirals wear the St. George with one red
ball in the upper corner, and rear-admirals with two red balls, to
indicate their respective rank.

The ensigns were described in the Order and directed to be used as
follows:

_The White Ensign_ (Pl. VIII., fig. 2).--A white flag, with
a St. George cross through the whole flag and the Union Jack in the
upper canton, to be used at sea only by ships of the Royal Navy or by
yacht clubs to which special license has been given.

_The Blue Ensign_ (Pl. VIII., fig. 3).--A blue flag, with the
Union Jack in the upper canton, to be used only by ships of the Royal
Naval Reserve, or by merchantmen which are commanded by officers of
the reserve, and have been duly licensed, or by yacht clubs to which
special commission has been granted.

_The Red Ensign_ (Pl. VIII., fig. 1).--A red flag, with a
Union Jack in the upper canton, to be used as a national ensign by all
British merchantmen.

By the Admiralty Regulations, afterwards issued, instructions are given
as to the relative proportions of the parts of these flags.

In the Red and Blue Ensigns the Union Flag in the upper quarter next
the staff is to be "in length half the length of the flag, and in width
half the width of the flag."

In the White Ensign the Red Cross of St. George, which runs through the
whole of the white field, is to be "2-15ths of the width of the flag."
The Union is to occupy the upper quarter next the staff, leaving the
whole Cross intact. This was virtually adding the Union Jack to the
original English Jack of Richard I.

By a special Act it was afterwards more particularly enacted in 1889:

 "The Red Ensign, _usually worn_ by merchant ships without any
 defacement or modification whatsoever, is hereby _declared to be the
 proper national colour_ of all ships and boats belonging to any
 subject of Her Majesty, except in the case of Her Majesty's ships, or
 in the case of any other ships for the time being allowed to wear any
 other national colours in pursuance of a warrant from Her Majesty or
 from the Admiralty."[185]

[185] The Merchant Shipping (Colours) Act, 1889.

It may be that the Red Ensign, which was the common flag of all the
people ashore and afloat and the admiral's flag of highest rank and
worn by the merchant ships, in the time of the Dutch wars, was given
to the merchantmen in recognition of their great services in winning
the supremacy of the sea; that the White Ensign was given to the Royal
Navy in recognition and memory of Trafalgar; and the Blue Ensign to the
Royal Naval Reserve because they were the rear guard to Her Majesty's
ships; but the Union Jack was the binding link between them all, and
established their rank and designation as "Union Ensigns."

The Red Ensign, first with its St. George cross under Charles II.,
afterwards with its two-crossed Union Jack under Queen Anne, and then
with its three-crossed Jack, had thus become the national ensign on
all British ships at sea, and not being restricted to any particular
services, as are the white and blue ensigns, and in its red form,
authorized by Queen Anne for use on land, it increased in its usage,
and has become the Ensign of the British people on shore as well as
afloat.

  "Where is the Briton's land?
    Where'er the blood-red ensign flies,
  There is the Briton's land."

Whether it be in the "right little, tight little islands" of the old
land, or in the greater area of the colonies which stud the globe, the
presence of this Union Ensign proclaims the sovereignty of the united
nations and the presence and protection of the British Empire.

Thus the three crosses in the Union Jack have ceased to have solely
their local meanings, for their story has become merged in the larger
significance which their presence now imparts to the several Dominion
Union Ensigns as being the sign of this greater British Union.



CHAPTER XXVII.

_THE UNION ENSIGNS OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE._


A further evolution in the Union flag has come step after step, by
which the distinguishing emblems of the colonies have become part,
first of the Union Jack, afterwards of the Union ensigns, and then
through the red ensign to unite home and colony in one Imperial Union
ensign.

In the century of the expansion of Raleigh's "trade command," the
governors of the English colonies, principally of those in America,
began giving commissions to their local colonial ships, authorizing
them to engage in the various free and ready methods by which that
trade was being obtained from foreign sources. Some inconvenience seems
to have resulted from this practice, as the colonial ships carrying
the two-crossed Jack were making prizes and taking trade under the
flag which the Old Country merchant ships were directed not to use.
Objection was made by the ships sailing from the home ports, and under
William III. the matter was taken up.

[Illustration: PLATE IX.

1

CANADIAN UNION ENSIGN

2

AUSTRALIAN UNION ENSIGN

3

NEW ZEALAND UNION ENSIGN]

The English Lords Justices in Council considered the question and
reported:

  "_At the Council Chamber, Whitehall, the
  31st day of July, 1701._

 "_Present_--Their Excellencies the Lords Justices in Council.

 "Upon reading this day at the Board a report from the Lords
 Commissioners of the Admiralty in the words following, viz.:

 "Their Excellencies the Lords Justices having been pleased to refer to
 us a Report of the Lords Commissioners of Trade, upon a Memorial from
 this Board, representing the Inconveniences that do attend Merchant
 ships wearing the _King's Colours_, in and among the Plantations
 abroad, under Colour of the Commissions given them by His Majesty's
 Governours of the said Plantations. We do most humbly report to their
 Excellencies that we do agree with the said Lords Commissioners for
 Trade that all such ships to whom the aforesaid Governours shall,
 by the Authority Lodged in them, grant Commissions, ought to wear
 _colours that may distinguish them from private ships_, as is done by
 those employed by the Officers of the Navy, Ordnance Victualling, and
 others, and therefore do humbly propose that all the said Governours
 may be directed to oblige the Commanders of such Merchant ships,
 to which they grant Commissions, to wear no other Jack than that
 hereafter mentioned, namely, that worne by His Majesty's ships with
 the Distinction of a _White Escutcheon_ in the middle thereof, and
 that said mark of Distinction may extend itself to one-half of the
 depth of the Jack, and one-third part of the Fly thereof, according to
 the _sample hereunto annexed_.

  "PEMBROKE.

  "HAVERSHAM.

  "D. MITCHELL."

Directions were accordingly so issued, and of the instructions
transmitted to the governors of the colonies in America originals are
extant of those sent to Massachusetts, in 1701, and New York, in 1709.
Fig. 56 is from an actual tracing from the drawing of the flag on the
margin of the instructions sent to the Governor at Boston.[186] It will
be noted that the white escutcheon on the Jack is perfectly plain and
without any special distinctive emblem, such as those worn on the
escutcheons on the ordnance and other departmental flags.

[186] Massachusetts Archives, Vol. 62, p. 449.

The white escutcheon of the home departmental flags was thus extended
to the Union Jacks used in the colonies, and formed the new and first
"colonial flag" (Pl. III., fig. 3).

The Governors, High Commissioners or Administrators of British colonies
and dependencies were afterwards authorized to place upon this white
escutcheon on the Union Jack the arms or emblem of the colony in which
they served. In this way it has come that the arms of _Canada_, the
southern cross constellation of _Victoria_, the red cross and British
lion of _New South Wales_, the black swan of _Western Australia_ (67),
and the other special distinctive emblems in each of the British
colonies are now displayed upon the centre of the Union Jacks which
form the _Governor's flag_ in each.

[Illustration: 67. AUSTRALIAN EMBLEMS.


_Victoria._ _New South Wales._ _Western Australia._]

In 1865, when Colonial Navies were first established, the vessels of
war maintained by the local governments in Australia were authorized
to use the blue ensign, with the seal or badge of the colony in the
centre of the fly,[187] and thus the escutcheon being transferred from
the centre of the Jack to the centre of the "fly," was given another
position, and the local stories of the Australian colonies, which
established these fleets, became embodied in the British blue ensign.[188]

[187] Colonial Defences Act, 28 Victoria, Cap. 14.

[188] Warrant of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty.

A similar privilege, although they are not commissioned as vessels of
war, was afterwards extended to the "fishery protection" cruisers of
Canada, so that these and all other vessels which are owned by the
Government of the Dominion carry the blue ensign with the arms of
Canada in the centre of the fly.

Authority was also given to all these vessels owned and commissioned
by the colonial governments to fly a blue pennant of the same shape as
that of the British navy (Fig. 22, page 108), with the white ground and
red cross of St. George at the head, but having the fly blue instead of
red.[189]

[189] Pennants having this blue fly were worn by the English navy
almost two hundred years previously, as shown in a picture, painted by
Vandervelt, of the action off the coast of Holland on August 11, 1673,
between the English, French and Dutch, now the property of His Majesty
the King.

By such successive steps the Imperial idea became attached to one of
the ensigns of the British navy.

From the plain white escutcheon in the centre of the colonial Union
Jack, 1701, to the special emblem in the fly of the colonial blue
ensign, 1865, was a long way, but other steps were yet to be taken.

The vessels owned by the governments of the colonies had thus been
given their special British Union flags, but provision had not been
made for those owned by private citizens. The plain red ensign
has, by authority of Queen Anne, become the national right of all
British subjects on all lands as well as on all seas. As the colonies
developed in native energy so their merchant shipping increased, and in
recognition of this advance, and in order that their ports of origin
might be made known, all colonial-owned merchant vessels were accorded,
in 1889,[190] the right of wearing, _together_ with the red ensign, an
_additional_ flag on which might be shown the distinguishing badge
or insignia of their colony, similarly as under James I. direction
had been given to raise the separate national Jack of England or of
Scotland at the same time as the King's Union Jack. In order to
prevent the possibility of mistakes in identification, it was further
directed that any flags of this character were to be made in such a way
as not to resemble any of the existing flags of the Royal Navy.

[190] Merchant Shipping (Colours) Act, 1889.

In some of the Australian colonies local flags of excellent design had
been devised, but these _additional_ flags of entirely separate design
were not all that could be desired, for while the special local flag
might give expression to the local patriotism represented, there might
come with it also an idea of separation, and it did not succeed in
expressing the dominant and prevailing sentiment of allegiance to "One
Empire, One Flag."

It fell to the lot of the statesmen of Canada, who do not seem to be
behindhand in developing new and imperial ideas, to suggest (1890)
another step in the history of the ensign.

The merchant shipping of Canada stands fifth in rank in merchant
shipping among the nations of the world.[191]

[191] The order is British (Home Kingdom), United States, German,
French, Canadian.

The government ships were authorized to use the blue ensign with the
Dominion arms as their distinguishing flag, but as no distinctive
flag had been adopted for Canada, her merchant marine used the same
plain red ensign as worn by the merchant marine of Great Britain, and
Canadian merchant ships were unable to be recognized amidst those of
the Mother Country.

In 1892, to meet this requirement, the Lords Commissioners of the
Admiralty, on the suggestion of the Canadian Department of Marine,
issued a warrant permitting the badge of the arms of Canada to be
inserted in the flag of the red ensign as well as in the blue, and
this new combined red ensign was by this empowered to be used on board
vessels registered in the Dominion of Canada.[192]

[192] Admiralty Warrant, February 2, 1892.

Thus was formed the union ensign of Canada. This Canadian ensign (Pl.
IX., fig. 1) is the British red ensign, having the Union Jack
in the upper corner and the arms of Canada in the fly.[193]

[193] The arms of the four provinces which first united are the
only ones which, up to 1909, have been officially authorized to be
inserted, although the arms of the whole nine provinces, now comprising
the Dominion, are often to be seen. A simple maple leaf on a white
escutcheon would be infinitely preferable, for which see Appendix A and
fig. 69.

This restriction to its being used only afloat has, like the ancient
restriction of the Union Jack, been modified by usage and authorized
by permission. Yet it is also to be remembered that the right of the
red ensign had been conferred by Queen Anne upon all British citizens
whether at sea or on land in all British Dominions, and is rightfully
to be raised by all Canadians. The "Dominion Ensign" is the red ensign
of the Empire with the insignia of Canada on the broad red of the fly,
and, being accorded to Canadians as an evidence of the ownership of
their ships, has passed onward to be an evidence of their country over
their own homes. As they have the right to use the plain red ensign
everywhere, so now they may use its daughter, the Canadian ensign, and
although there was at first a restriction as to its use at sea, this
has been merged in the more widely extended and general usage on land.

[Illustration: 68. AUSTRALIAN FEDERATION BADGE.]

The raising of this ensign does not, any more than the raising
elsewhere of a red ensign in addition to the single Union Jack, suggest
any idea of separation; on the contrary it was designed by the Canadian
statesmen to avoid any such idea which, perhaps, might be attached
to an entirely different flag. The presence of the Union Jack in the
upper corner declares inviolate fidelity to King and Empire, while the
Canadian emblem on its folds gives a recognition of native home. When
an Englishman raises his St. George, the Scotsman his St. Andrew, or
the Irish the St. Patrick or their crown and harp on a blue ground,
it is not taken as a sign of separation, but only as a recognition
and reminiscence of their old homes and ancestry; so, too, with the
Canadian in his special ensign, with its Canadian emblem. All raise
both their native and the Union Empire flags in united fervour.

The federation badge with the stars of the Southern Constellation, worn
during the plebiscite of 1899 in Australia (68), suggested that the
union of the Parliaments of the colonies on that continent might be
followed by the creation of a Union ensign for the new Commonwealth of
Australia.

The union came in 1901, and following on the line of the Canadian
ensign, the Australian ensign was created. This is the British red
ensign with the Union Jack in the upper corner, under this Jack
a six-pointed star signifying the six Provinces or States of the
Australian union, and in the fly the five stars of the constellation
of the Southern Cross,[194] the leading constellation of the Southern
Hemisphere.

[194] Admiralty Order, 11th September, 1902.

By a subsequent enactment another point was added to the star, making a
star of seven points,[195] one for each of the States, New South Wales,
Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia, Tasmania, and
one for the Territories of Papua and Norfolk Island; but the rest of
the ensign remained the same as previously.

[195] Admiralty Warrant, 3rd October, 1908. Colonial Office despatch,
27th October, 1908.

Thus was formed the Australian ensign (Pl. IX., fig. 2).

The Union Ensign of the Dominion of New Zealand contains in the same
way the Union Jack in the upper corner, and a southern constellation of
four stars in the middle of the red fly (Pl. IX., fig. 3).

As the separated colonies of South Africa are now joining together in
a union Parliament under the Union Jack, we may expect another Union
Ensign to be added to the galaxy of these loyal union and native
ensigns.

Like the expansion of the British Constitution to patriot governments
beyond the seas, so has come the extension, step by step, of the old
union flag to the newly-created Dominions. As the spirit of that
constitution has been adapted to the local circumstances in each, so
the red ensign with its Union Jack, which is the embodiment of the
power and glory of the British nation, has been emblazoned with the
local fervour of each young and growing people, who, ardently loving
their new land, yet stand unconquerably in union with the Motherland,
and rejoice at seeing their own emblem set upon the mother flag. Each
such flag tells us its grand story in a way that a national flag ought
to do; for the red ensign of the homeland, with the sign of the colony
added to its folds in these far-off lands, signals to the beholder that
it is an _Imperial Union Ensign of the British Empire_.

These are the union ensigns of the self-governing Dominions of the
outer Empire, which have been adopted in succession in each, as a Union
Parliament for their Dominion has been created, to embrace the several
Provinces or States of their continent, and endowed with powers from
the Union Parliament of the Parent Realm.

As in the sixteenth century the forces of the Percys raised the cross
of St. George in their ensign (Pl. III., fig. 1), to show that
of whatever district they might be they were all _Englishmen_, so the
younger nations of the Britains over the seas raise the Union Jack in
the upper corner of their _Dominion Union Ensigns_ to tell that their
bearers are all _Britons_, sons and daughters of the Family, loyal to
the British Crown.

When the Canadian sees the union crosses displayed on his Canadian
ensign, or the distant brother colonist on that of his colony, it
speaks to each, not only as his own native flag, but yet more as his
sign of brotherhood in an empire wider than his own home, broader than
the continent on which he lives, for it is the visible evidence of his
citizenship in the Empire of Great and Greater Britain.

The fervid eloquence of Daniel Webster, in 1834, described that empire
as "a power dotted over the surface of the whole globe with her
possessions and military posts, whose morning drum-beat, following the
sun and keeping company with the hours, circles the earth with one
continuous and unbroken strain of the martial airs of England."[196]

[196] Speech, May 7, 1834.

If this heart-rousing testimony of the majesty of the empire, of
which the dominions and colonies form a part, had been given by
one of ourselves, it might have been tinged with the suspicion of
self-glorious boasting; but springing from the lips of so distinguished
a citizen of the United States, its fervid utterance is the candid
acknowledgment of a nation wider than his own, whose grandeur compelled
his admiration.

If over half a century ago this ascription was true, how much more so
is it in these later days when the ideal of the "morning drum-beat"
has been transmuted into actual fact in the "continuous and unbroken
strain" of the "_Diamond Anthem_" of the rejoicings at the Jubilee of
Queen Victoria,[197] when, commencing at Suva at 4 p.m. on that Sunday
afternoon, the National Anthem was taken up in the assemblies in almost
every place in the outer British Dominions as the sun came over them in
succession around the world, until it had come back again to Fiji on
the following day.

[197] Appendix D.--The "Diamond Jubilee Anthem" of 1897.

Those "possessions" which fired the statesman's imagination have
marvellously increased; that "power" has expanded beyond his utmost
dreams. Since that time no nation, not even his own, has progressed
like has the British nation. Canada, then lost to view in a solitude of
far-off forests or of pathless plains, has arisen like a young lion,
and carrying the Union Jack in continuous line of government from the
Atlantic to the Pacific, has gripped the American continent from sea
to sea. Australasia and New Zealand have risen beneath the southern
star, India in itself has become an empire, and Africa, youngest born
of all the lion's brood, is welding fast another continent beneath the
imperial sway.

These are the nations of the Union Jack, the galaxy of parliaments of
free men, which have arisen round the centre isles and the throne of
Her who, with Her statesmen,

  "Knew the seasons when to take
  Occasion by the hand and make
  The bounds of freedom wider yet."

In this Nation of nations, brothers join hands with their brothers
around the world, and raise aloft the Union Jack of itself, and in
their ensigns as the glad emblem of their united allegiance, a union
for which the Britains beyond the seas have proved their faith, and
ever stand in foremost rank ready and willing to defend.

There is something marvellous in the world-wide influence of this
three-crossed flag of the parent nation, whose sons have followed its
ideals through all the centuries. Sometimes they have made mistakes, or
blundered into difficulties, but undaunted, masterful and confident,
have profited by the hard-won experience, and progressing with the
march of time, find at the beginning of this twentieth century that
they "have builded better than they knew."

Thus, when in the opening month of 1890 Britain stood alone, as said
a Canadian statesman,[198] in "_splendid isolation_," there was heard
coming, not only from Canada, but from every daughter nation around the
seas, the same brave refrain which had been sung by a Canadian poet in
1861, when the sanctity of the flag had been violated in the stirring
times of the "_Trent_ affair":

  "When recent danger threatened near,
  We nerved our hearts to play our part,
  Not making boast, nor feeling fear;
  But as the news of insult spread,
  Were none to dally or to lag;
  For all the grand old Island spirit
  Which Britain's chivalrous sons inherit
  Was roused, and as one heart, one hand,
  We rallied round our flag."

[198] Hon. G. B. Foster, Minister of Finance of Canada, in a speech in
the House of Commons, Ottawa.

And yet again in 1899, when brother Britons in Africa were suffering
injustice, when our British colonies were being invaded and the Union
Jack attacked by a mistaken foe, the Empire arose, and the bold refrain
passed into chivalrous action.

In ships that ploughed furrows around the world the sons of the Empire
came--colonists, yeomen and imperial forces--"in one united armament
blent," to give their glad devotion in life or death for Queen and
Union Ensign on the South African hills and veldt.

Such, then, is the story, such is the meaning of our Union Jack;
the emblem of combined constitutional government, the proclaimer of
British liberty, the Union sign of British rule, the signal of the
Realm of "_Great Britain and Ireland and of all the Britains beyond the
seas_."[199]

[199] His Majesty King Edward VII. caused himself to be so proclaimed
at his coronation, when he added this recognition of the Britains over
the seas to his title, being the first of our kings to so include them.

Mindful of its story, happy in their lot, facing the World, its sons
and their sons' sons stand up to their Union Colours and encircle the
earth with their glad anthem,

  "_Send him victorious,
  Happy and glorious,
  Long to reign over us_,
    GOD SAVE THE KING."

  "_Qu'il soit victorieux,
  Et que son peuple heureux,
  Le comble de ses v[oe]ux_:
    VIVE LE ROI."



APPENDICES.



APPENDIX A.

_THE MAPLE LEAF EMBLEM._


The maple leaf emblem of Canada, as compared with the rose, shamrock
and thistle of the British Isles, has but so recently entered into the
realm of national emblems that some of the reasons for its adoption may
well be given.

The maple tree is found in luxuriance in every province of the
Dominion. Varieties of it grow, it is true, in other parts of America,
but the tree is in its greatest glory in the northern zones, where
throughout Canada, extended along her line of similar latitude, it
attains to its greatest and most robust development. It flourishes
in Newfoundland, in the Maritime Provinces, and in Quebec. It is the
finest forest tree in Ontario. Manitoba maples form the foliage of the
North-West, and anyone who has seen the giant maple leaves of British
Columbia will say the maple leaf is the natural emblem of Canada.

As well as being the natural emblem, it is also the typical emblem.
It was held in high esteem by the early settlers of Quebec, and was
adopted, in 1836, as the French Canadian emblem for the festival of
St. Jean Baptiste. It was placed on the coinage of New Brunswick early
in the century; a whole maple tree was shown on the coinage of Prince
Edward Island before the time of Confederation, after which event maple
leaves have been used on all coinage issued by the Dominion. At the
creation of the union in Confederation it was placed in the arms of
Quebec and of Ontario, and was heraldically recognized as the "emblem
of Canada."

Maple leaves form the wreaths on the flag of the Governor-General of
the Dominion and on the flags of the Lieutenant-Governors of all the
provinces. The maple leaf was the emblem placed by His Royal Highness
the Prince of Wales on the Colours of the "Royal Canadians," the
100th Regiment, raised in Canada in 1865, and it is still worn as the
regimental badge of their successors, the Royal Leinster Regiment.

It has been worn on the breasts of all the representative champions of
Canada--at the oar, on the yachts, on the athletic fields, in military
contests, and at the rifle ranges--as the emblem of their country.

It is on the "Canada Service" and "North-West" medals, and on the
uniforms and accoutrements of the Canadian Militia, of the North-West
Mounted Police and all official Services.

It was the distinguishing emblem on the uniforms and helmets of the
lusty and loyal sons of the Canadian contingents who served in South
Africa in 1900, where the presence of that emblem reminded them of
their far-off home and nerved their hearts for deeds of duty and
devotion to Canada and their Queen. The wounded Canadian who, lying
wounded on the veldt at Paardeberg, touched the maple leaf upon his
helmet and said to his companion, "_If I die, it may help this to
live_," spoke that which burns within the heart of every Canadian lad
and fires the inborn energy of his race.

It has been extolled in poetry and prose; it is the theme of the songs
of our children; and the stirring strains of "The Maple Leaf" form an
accompaniment to our British national anthem.

Everywhere throughout the world the maple leaf has won recognition as
the emblem of the Canadians, and surely might well be displayed upon
their national flag.

If, instead of the Dominion coat-of-arms, a green maple leaf were
placed on the shield in the Canadian ensign, the flag would be fairer
to see and more easily distinguished. Green is the emblem of youth and
vigour, or, if the colour used were scarlet, the colour of courage,
then in either case the natural and emblematic attributes of the leaf
would be represented.

It was suggested[200] that in that year of the Diamond Jubilee a white
diamond of one-third the size of the "union" should be substituted for
the present shield and coat-of-arms, making a flag (69) which would
signalize an historic epoch. The single maple leaf on the white diamond
in the fly of the red ensign would tell as bravely and more clearly
the story of the "coat-of-arms" on the shield, and it would also be
a national tribute to that Queen under whose commanding influence the
colonies have arisen around the empire, and be a record of that Diamond
Jubilee of Victoria which was the revelation of their union and the
united testimony to their affection and allegiance.

[200] First edition, 1897.

If for similarity with the flags of other branches of the Empire a
white escutcheon or circle should be preferred to the diamond, the
maple leaf upon it would be equally well displayed and the sign of
Canada on the red fly of the ensign be clearly distinguished.

[Illustration: 69. SUGGESTED CANADIAN UNION ENSIGN.]

Flags are signals to be used for conveying information to persons at
a distance; their details should, therefore, be simple in form and be
displayed in simple colours. The multi-coloured quarterings of the
Dominion arms, as shown on the shield upon the Canadian ensign (Pl.
IX., fig. 1), have not been found entirely efficient, for they
fail in being easily recognizable.

Whatever the colour may be or the shape of the escutcheon, the single
maple leaf on a white ground would tell at a glance that the emblem was
the emblem of its people, and that the flag was the Canadian ensign.



APPENDIX B.

_LETTERS FROM THE PRIVATE SECRETARY OF HIS MAJESTY KING EDWARD VII._


  Buckingham Palace, June 4th, 1902.

Dear Sir: In reply to your letter, I am afraid that the Royal
Standard, which is the King's personal flag, can only be hoisted on
the Coronation. If permission were given in one case, it would be
impossible to refuse it in any other. I must remind you that you can
always fly the Union Jack.

  Yours faithfully,

  F. KNOLLYS.

  The Vicar of St. Michael's, Folkestone.


  Sandringham, Norfolk, Dec. 29th, 1907.

Sir: In reply to your letter of the 9th inst., I beg to inform you
that the "Union Jack" being the national flag may be flown by British
subjects, private or official, on land.

  Yours faithfully,

  KNOLLYS.

  Barlow Cumberland, Esq.
  Port Hope.



APPENDIX C.

_CANADIAN WAR MEDALS._


The _War Medal_ (62) was granted in 1848, to be worn by the men of the
British forces who had served in the fleets and armies during the wars
from 1793 to 1814. Among these the Canadian militia was included.

Clasps were granted to those men who had been present at the actions
of St. Sebastian, Vittoria, Salamanca, Talavera and Vimiera, in the
Peninsular campaign; and in the Canadian campaign, for the actions at
Fort Detroit, August 16th, 1812; Chateauguay, October 26th, 1813; and
Chrystler's Farm, November 11th, 1813. The medal from which the drawing
is made is engraved, "A. Wilcox, Canadian Militia," and bears the clasp
"Fort Detroit."

The _Canada General Service Medal_ (63) was granted in 1898 to the
survivors of the Canadian militia and Imperial troops who had been out
in active service in Canada in repelling the Fenian Raids of 1866 and
1870, or in the Red River Expedition under Wolseley in 1870. There are
three clasps--"Fenian Raid, 1866," "Fenian Raid, 1870," "Red River,
1870." Upon the reverse side is the Canadian ensign surrounded by a
wreath of maple leaves. The drawing is made from the medal of the
writer, as engraved, "F. B. Cumberland, Ensign, 10th Royal Reg't."

The _North-West Canada Medal_ (64) was granted in 1886 to all who had
served in the Canadian North-West in 1885. The clasp "Saskatchewan" was
accorded to all who were present at the actions of Fish Creek, April
24th; Batoche, May 12th; and Frenchman's Butte, May 27th, 1885.

The force serving in the operations of 1885 was drawn entirely from the
Canadian militia and the North-West Mounted Police, with the addition
of the Imperial officers on the staff.



APPENDIX D.

_A RECORD OF THE "DIAMOND ANTHEM."_

20TH JUNE, 1897.


  _From Sons of England Record._

The imaginative description given by Daniel Webster in 1834 of the
"_Morning drumbeat which, following the sun and keeping company with
the hours, circles the earth with one continuous strain of the martial
airs of England_" has been for many years the ideal example for
estimating the world-spread area of the British Empire. It seemed at
the time, and was, a poetic fancy, but since that time the domiciles
of the British peoples have been more amply developed and more closely
spread so that the world is now encircled not simply with isolated
military posts, but by a continuous line of happy British homes.

The time for the celebration of the 60th year of the accession of Her
Majesty Queen Victoria, so aptly named, by His Royal Highness Prince of
Wales (now Edward VII), the _Diamond Jubilee_, was approaching and many
projects were rife to give expression to the loyalty and affection of
Her Majesty's subjects.

The official day set for the celebration was Tuesday, June 22nd, 1897,
a date which was preceded by Sunday, June 20th, the actual anniversary
of Her Majesty's accession.

Mr. Barlow Cumberland was then the President, and Mr. Jno. W. Carter
the Secretary, of the Supreme Lodge of the "_Sons of England Benevolent
Society_." This is an organization which had been initiated in Canada
in 1874 for the purpose of joining together colonists who had emigrated
from England, or their descendants, for patriotic, benevolent and
social purposes; to welcome new-comers and be of fraternal assistance
to one another. The Society had flourished and Lodges had been formed
in all parts of Canada. A branch organization had been established
in the Colonies of South Africa and connections had been opened in
Australia. A compact and energetic organization therefore was ready
to hand in the larger parts of the Colonial Empire. The members of
the Society were actively joining in the arrangements for all the
local celebrations for the 22nd, in which they afterwards took fullest
share. Mr. Cumberland made the proposal that they should do something
more and should in addition, organize a world-wide incident which
their far-spread organization would enable them to do, and which would
be the further tribute of the Sons of England to their Queen and a
testimony of the fidelity which they had carried to their new homes
beyond the seas. Besides being President of this, and of other National
Societies, Mr. Cumberland had for many years been actively engaged in
steamship and railway operations, so was peculiarly qualified for the
requirements for completing such an enterprise.

His conception and proposal was the "_Diamond Jubilee Anthem_," to be
sung around the world, following the sun, on Sunday, June 20th, the
actual anniversary day.

His project was that, commencing at the time of the earliest hour in
the morning on the 20th at Windsor Castle, where Her Majesty would be
in residence, the sons and daughters in the Colonies should encircle
their Queen with the never ceasing upraisal of their loyal acclaim and
prayer by taking up the singing of the National Anthem _in succession_
at their far distant homes throughout all the hours of that great day
of her life. It was to be as though deputation after deputation from
the Colonies, each carrying the Union Jack, were presenting themselves
minute after minute and singing below the Castle walls.

On the opposite side of the world from the _Heart of the Empire_ at
Windsor Castle are the _Fiji Islands_, the Colony situate nearest to
longitude 180°, which is 180°, or 12 hours, from the centre of time
at the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, and is the dividing line of
the days of the world's time--where day begins and midnight ends. At
these Islands, being on the opposite side of the world, it is 4 o'clock
in the afternoon at the same moment at which it is 4 o'clock in the
morning of _the same day_ in England. The problem was therefore to have
the National Anthem commenced in Fiji at the beginning of Her Majesty's
day, and arranging to have it sung thereafter precisely at 4 p.m., _as
the sun arrived_ at that moment in succession over each place in the
Colonies and passed onward around the world.

A form of service was devised, suitable for any Sunday afternoon
service to be held in any church, open air service or assembly hall, in
which the National Anthem should be arranged to be sung at the exact
moment of 4 o'clock.

A time-table of longitudes, prepared by the Meteorological Department
of Canada, showing the meridian or _sun time_ at each place, and full
descriptive circulars with forms of service and a time-table showing
the hour at Windsor Castle and the corresponding hour at each place,
were sent in multitude to friends and correspondents in these Colonies
and Dependencies owning allegiance to the Union Jack.

With the co-operation of the Right Rev. the Bishop of Toronto, who was
a member of the Order, and the Heads in Canada of all religious bodies,
communication was opened up with the Colonial bishops and clergy, and
their services were enlisted. Patriotic societies and the secretaries
of the Royal Colonial Institute were asked to assist, and letters were
also sent to the captains of every British passenger ship which would
be at sea on the 20th of June, asking them to sing the Anthem, fire a
gun, and note the position of their ship at 4 p.m. on that day.

The brethren of the Society in Newfoundland and Canada took the service
up with energy and enthusiasm. The Sons of England in South Africa
answered with alacrity, Australia and New Zealand joined in heartily,
and thus, by prompt and efficient action, the organization was
completed and ready for the eventful day.

Copies of the services and time-table beautifully illuminated, were
sent to Her Majesty, by reference to which it could be seen at any hour
how far the Anthem had proceeded on its way and in what Colony it was
at any moment being sung.

In acknowledging receipt the Colonial Secretary, the Right Hon. Joseph
Chamberlain, said to His Excellency Lord Aberdeen: "I have the honour
to acknowledge the receipt of your dispatch of the 24th April, with
its enclosures on the subject of the Continuous Service around the
World which is being arranged by the Sons of England in commemoration
of the 60th Anniversary of the Queen's Accession to the Throne. I have
to inform you that, in accordance with your request, the matter has
been brought before the notice of the Queen, and that Her Majesty was
graciously pleased to express her sincere appreciation of the loyal
feelings that have prompted this interesting method of Commemoration."

Two thousand six hundred personal letters were written, 60,000 copies
of the service sent out, and after months of work the 20th of June
came and the Anthem passed around the world.

Each one knew that they had done their duty, but had others far away
done theirs so that the links might be complete?

The idea when first made met with immediate acceptance as a happy
conception, but many doubts were expressed as to the possibility of
its being actually accomplished, for it seemed to the faint-hearted
almost an impossibility to arrange for a connecting line of services,
which should take place in succession around the whole circle of the
earth for the space of twenty-four hours. Yet the President was able to
inform the Grand Lodge that the Jubilee service had been carried out in
actual fact and in completest detail.

Of this record it is not possible within the limits of this notice to
give more than a sketch.

Reports and letters kept coming in for month after month from the far
distant continents in reply to the request, and giving an account of
the proceedings. A few extracts only can be given here as samples
of many hundreds of similar character which were received from
the continuous line now recorded around the world, telling of how
the Diamond Jubilee Anthem was sung at each place as shown in the
time-table attached.

The service commenced on Sunday afternoon, 20th June, in _Levuka_, Fiji
Islands. Dr. Garner Jones, headmaster of the Levuka Public Schools,
writes: "Owing to geographical position--viz., 178° 51' e. long.--the
inhabitants of Levuka, Fiji Islands, enjoyed the unique honour of
initiating 'The Wave of Song' that hailed the Diamond Jubilee of Her
Majesty's Ascension. The service was an open air one, being held in
the Government school grounds, Rev. W. Floyd, of the English Church,
officiating. The attendance was large and included representatives
of various races who claim Her Majesty as their Sovereign. English,
Scotch, Irish, Australian and New Zealand Colonials, Chinese, Germans,
Swedes, and among them the characteristic bushy hair of the Fijian
and other South Sea Islanders was prominent, there found themselves
shoulder to shoulder in the antipodes of the British Empire earnestly
rolling forth our grand old National Anthem, thus giving the keynote of
thanksgiving to the entire world. The Masons and Oddfellows appeared
in regalia and the Levuka brass band was in attendance. Surrounding
the main body of the assembly were the Levuka school boys, drawn up
with their wooden rifles. Punctually at five minutes to 4 o'clock
the procession of choristers left their temporary vestry and slowly
approached their stand. At 4 o'clock precisely, meridian time, the
British Ensign was hoisted, which was the prearranged signal, the band
immediately struck up, and every throat commenced 'God Save the Queen,'
while the public school guard stood at the 'Present.' Undoubtedly the
occasion was unique, and Levuka never forgot for a moment that her
geographical position was unique also, in so far as she enjoyed the
proud distinction of being allowed to start the wave of song which in
its course would pass over in rotation all the British possessions on
the face of the globe."

At this same moment at which it was _4 p.m. Sunday_ in the Fiji
Islands, and _4 a.m. Sunday_ at Windsor Castle, where Her Majesty was
in residence, the Executive of the Sons of England met at Shaftesbury
Hall, Toronto, it being then precisely _10.55 p.m. on Saturday, June
19th_, and sang the National Anthem, commenced that same minute in
Levuka on Sunday afternoon, and which for the next seventeen and a
quarter hours was to be coming steadily nearer with the sun as it
passed in succession over each of the loyal gatherings in other lands
until it was over Toronto at 4 o'clock (4.18 Standard time) on Sunday
afternoon, when the Sons of England and Britons in Toronto again joined
in the loyal strain as it passed by them onward toward the West.

Three minutes after Levuka had commenced, _Suva_, the Fiji capital,
took up the strain. Mr. Hamilton Hunter says: "I am glad to report that
the Special Jubilee Service was a great success in this Colony. It was
not merely confined to the English Church, but was heartily taken up by
the Roman Catholic, Presbyterian and Wesleyan Churches. The National
Anthem was sung on the stroke of four. I have to thank you for having
enabled us to set 'The Wave of Song' in motion by your timely warning."

Seventeen minutes later, or before the services in the Fijis had
closed, the Anthem was taken up in _Napier, New Zealand_. The
report says: "The Jubilee services at the cathedral yesterday will
be remembered by the Napier people for many a long year, and it is
questionable whether a more imposing ecclesiastical spectacle was ever
witnessed in New Zealand. The cathedral was crowded to excess, all
the friendly societies of Napier being present." The Dean writes: "As
Dean of the easternmost cathedral in the British Empire, the cathedral
upon which the rays of the rising sun first fall, I have to report
that, in accordance with your wishes, we joined in the great circle of
Anthem singing, as arranged for by the Sons of England, at 4 o'clock on
the afternoon of Sunday last. The service was a very magnificent and
enthusiastic one. I convey my most hearty good wishes to you and to the
members of the great organization you represent."

The wave swept across Australia. At _Melbourne, Victoria_, B. Cowderoy,
Esq., Secretary R.C.I., reports: "Both cathedrals (Anglican and Roman
Catholic) were crushingly full. In the Exhibition building several
thousands, after addresses by leading Wesleyans, took up the National
Anthem at our Standard time. In the Town Hall the Anthem was sung
with fervour at 4 p.m. by 4,000 with most impressive effect. I am an
octogenarian, but in this matter I am as young as my eight grandsons,
and thank you, Mr. Cumberland, for your happy suggestion which has
given added interest to all that is being done." _Adelaide, South
Australia_, reports: "The Bishops of the Diocese entered heartily into
the scheme. The Governor and his staff were present. The National
Anthem was sung with intense fervour and most thrilling effect." So it
passed through the other cities and over the continent of Australia.

Across the Indian Ocean.--S.S. _Empress of India_ marked the latitude
26° 6' n.; long. 120° 26' e.: "Rockets fired and National Anthem sung
at 4 p.m. off Alligator Rock."

It first touched Africa and was hailed by the lodge of the Sons of
England at _Durban, Natal_, and then in continuing line across South
Africa, in all the principal cities, and at _Cape Town_ the record was
maintained.

On the Atlantic Ocean it was taken up on many British ships at sea,
among which a few only may be mentioned. R.M.S. _Tantallon Castle_,
lat. 7° 17' n.: long. 14° 33' w., off west coast of Africa: "Guns
fired and Anthem sung at 4 p.m." S.S. _Greek_, lat. 18° 10' n.; long.
17° 38' w.: "Fired rocket and sang National Anthem." S.S. _Numidian_:
"'God Save the Queen' sung precisely at 4 p.m." Ship's position, lat.
54° 42' n.; long. 20° 43' w. S.S. _Catalonia_: "At 4 p.m. I had two
explosive gun signals fired on my ship in lat. 50° 12' n.; long. 22° 6'
w. It was blowing a south-west gale with high seas, and it was a great
disappointment to me that we could not hold the service I had intended,
but all classes of passengers were so seasick."

By the equivalent time of 7.31 o'clock in the evening at Windsor Castle
the Anthem had crossed the Atlantic, and first touched the shores
of America at _St. John's, Newfoundland_, when it was met by Lodge
Dudley S.O.E. assembled, together with the Governor-General and all the
friendly societies in the cathedral. "The service was impressive in
the extreme." From here westward through _Canada_ the records of the
reports in the time-table appended show how that as the sun crossed the
continent the line through the villages, towns and cities of Canada was
so complete that the singing of the Anthem in one place had not ceased
before it was taken up in the next. Brief extracts from the reports of
a few only can be given. _Charlottetown, P.E.I._: "The First Methodist
Church was crowded to the doors with members of the Orangemen, Good
Templars, Oddfellows, Masons and the Mayor and City Officials. At
the proper moment the church rang with the grand old strains of the
National Anthem." _Halifax, N.S._: "St. Paul's Church was filled to its
utmost. Among those present were Countess Aberdeen, General Montgomery
Moore and Admiral Erskine with their staffs. At 4.14 o'clock the Anthem
was sung right loyally." _Montreal, Que._ "Services were held in four
churches and all well attended. At Christ Church Cathedral a large
military church parade was held and as in the others the Anthem sung
at the appointed time." Ottawa: "All the local societies joined in a
church parade to Christ Church Cathedral. At 4.03 o'clock the Guards
Band struck up the National Anthem, which was heartily joined in by
all." _Pembroke_: "The form of union service was held in the Town Hall,
all societies joining. In order to join in the Anthem at the right
moment the Mayor cut down his remarks." _Brockville_: "Every corner
of the church was occupied. As the Town clock struck four the entire
congregation rose and sang. An indefinable emotion passed over the
people as they joined in the continuous hymn of loyalty as it circled
with the sun around the world. Surely in the history of the world no
monarch ever received such a glorious tribute of hearty affection and
respect from her subjects." _Orillia_: "As the familiar words were sung
with lusty fervour by nearly a thousand voices, until the volume almost
raised the roof, the sun passed the hour of four. In imagination the
congregation could hear the strains as they rolled up from the east
and died away into the west." At _Toronto_: "3,000 people were packed
into the cathedral. After completion of the prayers there remained
four minutes before it was our turn to take our place in the circle of
song. By direction of His Lordship the Bishop the congregation knelt
in silent prayer for Her Majesty and the welfare of the Empire. An
immense throng of 6,000 to 7,000 people filled the churchyard and the
adjacent streets outside, and a regimental band had been stationed
outside on the cathedral steps to lead their singing. At the first
stroke of the cathedral bell, which had been arranged to strike at
4.18 p.m., being the real meridian time for 4 p.m. at Toronto, the
congregation rose to their feet and at the second joined with those
outside in uplifting with heart and voice their loyal prayer, '_God
save our gracious Queen_.' Those were moments of a life-time while
we waited in silence for the coming of the Anthem." _Hamilton_: "The
biggest hall in Hamilton is the Armory, but it wasn't big enough to
hold every one who wished to take part, although 5,000 did manage to
pack inside. Precisely at 4.20 o'clock the opening strains of 'God save
the Queen' came from the band and the immense gathering rose and sang
the Anthem with a vigour and earnestness never before heard. It was
a time for everyone's heart to swell with pride that he or she was a
Britisher, although thousands of miles distant from the Mother Land."
_Collingwood_: "When at 4.21 the united choir and congregation joined
in singing the National Anthem every heart responded to the noble
thought that a link was being formed in the chain of prayer for the
Queen that passed round the world that day from sunrise to sunset."
_Owen Sound_: "It was a happy thought that suggested the gathering of
the Fraternal Societies in the Queen's Park. Every face in the great
throng beamed with pleasure as the grand chorus swelled upon the air
from many throats." _London_: "The service was a memorable one, in
every feature it was remarkable. The singing of the National Anthem
which took place exactly at the appointed hour, 4.26 p.m., will not
readily be forgotten by those present." _Winnipeg, Man._: "The Sunday
service surpassed anything ever known here before." _Chilliwack, B.C._:
"The great company joined enthusiastically in singing the National
Anthem, which took place at 4 o'clock, astronomical time."

The utmost enthusiasm was everywhere displayed, the churches were
crowded, and the details of the service faithfully carried out, immense
interest being taken in singing the anthem exactly at the correct
moment.

Thus actually minute after minute the Anthem strain followed the hours
across this continent to the shores of the Pacific at _Victoria,
British Columbia_, where an open-air service was held in the Public
Park at the equivalent of 12.13 midnight at Windsor Castle. "Among
those present at Beacon Hill Park were the Lieutenant-Governor, the
Mayor, the Admiral and crews of the ships in harbour. At 4 o'clock the
bugles rang out, the royal standard was run up to the masthead, and the
National Anthem was sung with full force by an assemblage of 12,000
people."

From here, leaving the land, the Anthem wafted its way back to the
place of beginning, being joined as it passed by the R.M.S. _Aorangi_,
in lat. 32° 25' n., long. 147° 49' w., and by the R.M.S. _Empress of
China_, lat. 41° 16' n., long. 152° 30' w. until at length it came
to the little island which is as far on one side of long. 180°, the
central degree of longitude, as Levuka, from where it had started, is
on the other. Here the West met the East. As it is so typical, and as
the closing report, it may be well to give in full the letter received
from the lighthouse keeper on the island:

  "WAILANGILALA LIGHTHOUSE, FIJI,
  "17° South, 179° 6' West Long.,
  "26th September, 1897.

  "_To Barlow Cumberland, Esq., Toronto._

 "MY DEAR SIR,--As you expressed a wish in your circular
 to hear how the anniversary of the day on which Her Majesty began
 her happy reign was observed in each locality, and also on board
 passenger ships at sea, I hope you will be pleased to hear that all
 your instructions were carried out here, as fully as circumstances
 permitted, my situation here being unique. As this is the connecting
 link between the western and eastern hemispheres it may happen
 that you will find by overlooking the places where the ceremony
 was observed, that my endeavours were successful in commencing or
 finishing the general celebration of the world. Being only 54 minutes
 west of the meridian, all ships passing either way ought to change
 the name of the day on their reckoning while within sight of this
 island. I obtained the correct astronomical time from the captain and
 officers of the steamer that calls here every three months. A doubt
 being expressed about the proper day, and as a good action could not
 be performed too often, I observed both the 20th and 21st June in
 the same way. I also had a bonfire lit on both nights, so that ships
 passing either eastward or westward could see that the anniversary
 was being kept to suit either contingency. I would have written you
 earlier but there has been no means of communication between this
 island since the 16th of June last until to-day.

  "ALFRED FRENCH, _Lighthouse-keeper_."

Here the circle of the world was completed and the Anthem had come back
to the place of beginning.

Thus were the fellow-colonists, hand in hand and voice to voice, linked
in one continuous line around the world, and the historic but ideal
"drumbeat" of the "Martial Airs of England" changed into the absolute
fact of the "_Diamond Anthem_" with which they encircled the earth and
accompanied the hours throughout the Diamond Jubilee Accession Day of
their beloved Queen.

One of the great records of Her Majesty's reign was the marvellous
increase of her colonial kingdom. It was largely through her own
personal influence that during those sixty years it had been extended
and cared for. Gladly has this tribute of affection been given by her
grateful colonists to their Queen by thus joining "_Hands all Round_"
in their rejoicings, in a way which was impossible at the beginning of
her reign, but which, by her broad-minded advance, she had herself made
practicable, and which therefore marks a record of her great life-work.

Thus was completed in every particular the _Diamond Anthem_ of the
Sons of England. A "Service" which was so universally and ardently
adopted, is absolutely unique in history, and one which is capable of
being carried out only by our British Nation, upon whose Sovereign's
Dominions the sun never sets.

A diamond star was added to Mr. Cumberland's Past President's Jewel
as a token of appreciation, and every commendation must be given to
the officers of the Lodges and kindred associations, to the clergy and
municipal, and to the naval and military authorities who so earnestly
co-operated in carrying out the celebrations which will long last in
the thoughts of those who had the happiness of sharing in them. It was
a memorable event.


DIAMOND JUBILEE

OF

HER MAJESTY QUEEN VICTORIA,

SUNDAY, JUNE 20th, 1897.

[Illustration]

DIRECTIONS FOR THE SONS OF ENGLAND JUBILEE SERVICE AROUND THE WORLD.

1. Members of Societies will meet at their lodge rooms, or some
convenient place, and, clad in their regalia, march in procession,
_carrying the Union Jack at their head_, to the church selected.

2. Where there are two or more lodges in the locality they will attend
one combined service, which shall be held in a church or place selected
by the joint committee.

3. The President shall, on arrival, deliver the Union Jack to the
minister, to be draped upon the pulpit or upon the reading desk.

4. The service shall commence at 3.30 p.m.

5. The opening hymn shall be the "Old Hundredth"--"All people that on
earth do dwell."

6. At 4 p.m. precisely, according to astronomical time, being the time
at which the sun passes over each locality, the congregation will stand
and sing the three verses of the National Anthem, "God Save the Queen,"
to be immediately followed by (1) The collect of thanksgiving for Her
Majesty's accession to the throne; (2) The prayer for the Queen and
Royal Family, as formerly used in the thanksgiving service on 20th June.

7. The rest of the service to be a usual Sunday afternoon service, but
with an interval to permit of the National Anthem being sung as above,
at the proper time, according to the time-table herewith.

8. The collection shall be given, as has been desired by Her Majesty,
to some charitable purpose.

9. The closing hymn shall be, "The day thou gavest, Lord, is ended."
No. 477, A. & M.

10. The lodges will invite the colonial and municipal authorities and
all sister societies to attend the service.

  By request,

  BARLOW CUMBERLAND,

  _President Sons of England in Canada_.



TIME-TABLE COMPILED FROM THE REPORTS RECEIVED

OF THE

DIAMOND JUBILEE SERVICES

WHICH WERE HELD AT THE FOLLOWING PLACES IN SUCCESSION

AT 4 P.M. ON SUNDAY, JUNE 20, 1897.


The National Anthem was sung at 4 p.m., local time, or, in Australia
and Canada, where "Standard Time" is used, at the equivalent local
minute as shown, being the time at which the sun passed over each place
at 4 p.m., "Sun Time."

The day commenced at Longitude 180°. The second column gives the
equivalent time at Windsor Castle throughout the twenty-four hours.

  ===================================================
                                 |           |Time at
               PLACE.            |Local Time.|Windsor
                                 |           |Castle.
  -------------------------------+-----------+-------
                                 |    P.M.   |  A.M.
  FIJI ISLANDS:                  |   20th.   | 20th.
      Levuka (Long. 178° 56' E.) |    4.00   |  4.05
      Suva                       |    4.00   |  4.08
                                 |           |
  NEW ZEALAND:                   |           |
      Napier                     |    4.00   |  4.20
      Auckland                   |    4.00   |  4.21
                                 |           |
  AUSTRALIA:                     |           |
      Brisbane                   |    3.50   |  5.50
      Sydney                     |    3.55   |  5.55
      Hobart                     |    4.11   |  6.11
      Melbourne                  |    4.20   |  6.20
      Adelaide                   |    3.46   |  6.46
      Perth                      |    4.16   |  8.16
                                 |           |
                                 | LONGITUDE |
      _Empress of India_         |120° 26' E.|  7.58
                                 |           |
  SOUTH AFRICA:                  |    P.M.   |  P.M.
      Durban (Port Natal)        |    4.00   |  1.56
      Addington                  |    4.00   |  1.57
      East London                |    4.00   |  2.08
      King William's Town        |    4.00   |  2.11
      Graham's Town              |    4.00   |  2.14
      Port Elizabeth             |    4.00   |  2.18
      Cape Town                  |    4.00   |  2.46
                                 |           |
  ATLANTIC OCEAN:                |           |
    SHIPS AT SEA--               | LONGITUDE |
      _Teutonic_                 |  9° 27' W.|  4.37
      _State of Nebraska_        | 11° 18' W.|  4.45
      _Tantallon Castle_         | 14° 33' W.|  4.58
      _Greek_                    | 17° 38' W.|  5.11
      _Lake Huron_               | 20°     W.|  5.20
      _Numidian_                 | 20° 43' W.|  5.23
      _Pavonia_                  | 21° 30' W.|  5.26
      _Catalonia_                | 22°  6' W.|  5.28
      _Mohawk_                   | 22° 40' W.|  5.31
      _Magdalena_                | 27° 22' W.|  5.49
      _St. Paul_ (U.S.M.)        | 33° 12' W.|  6.13
      _Konigen Luise_            | 49° 13' W.|  7.12
      _Berlin_ (U.S.M.)          | 65° 32' W.|  8.22
                                 |           |
  NEWFOUNDLAND:                  |    P.M.   |
      St. John's                 |    4.00   |  7.31
                                 |           |
  CANADA:                        |           |
    CAPE BRETON--                |           |
      Sydney                     |    4.01   |  8.01
                                 |           |
    PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND--       |           |
      Charlotte town             |    4.12   |  8.12
                                 |           |
    NOVA SCOTIA--                |           |
      New Glasgow                |    4.10   |  8.10
      Truro                      |    4.13   |  8.13
      Halifax                    |    4.14   |  8.14
      Springhill                 |    4.17   |  8.17
      Stellarton                 |    4.17   |  8.17
      Windsor                    |    4.17   |  8.17
      Digby                      |    4.23   |  8.23
      Yarmouth                   |    4.24   |  8.24
                                 |           |
    NEW BRUNSWICK--              |           |
      Moncton                    |    3.20   |  8.20
      St. John                   |    3.24   |  8.24
      Fredericton                |    3.27   |  8.27
      Woodstock                  |    3.30   |  8.30
                                 |           |
    QUEBEC--                     |           |
      Sherbrooke                 |    3.48   |  8.48
      Lennoxville                |    3.48   |  8.48
      Richmond                   |    3.49   |  8.49
      Quebec                     |    3.50   |  8.56
      St. Lambert's              |    3.54   |  8.54
      Montreal                   |    3.54   |  8.54
                                 |           |
    ONTARIO--                    |           |
      Cornwall                   |    3.59   |  8.59
      Ottawa                     |    4.03   |  9.03
      Brockville                 |    4.03   |  9.03
      Carleton Place             |    4.04   |  9.04
      Smith's Falls              |    4.04   |  9.04
      Almonte                    |    4.05   |  9.05
      Arnprior                   |    4.05   |  9.05
      Kingston                   |    4.07   |  9.07
      Pembroke                   |    4.08   |  9.08
      Deseronto                  |    4.09   |  9.09
      Belleville                 |    4.10   |  9.10
      Campbellford               |    4.11   |  9.11
      Peterborough               |    4.13   |  9.13
      Port Hope                  |    4.13   |  9.13
      Bowmanville                |    4.14   |  9.14
      Burke's Falls              |    4.15   |  9.15
      Lindsay                    |    4.15   |  9.15
      Oshawa                     |    4.15   |  9.15
      Cannington                 |    4.16   |  9.16
      Whitby                     |    4.16   |  9.16
      Huntsville                 |    4.17   |  9.17
      Bracebridge                |    4.17   |  9.17
      Orillia                    |    4.18   |  9.18
      Aurora                     |    4.18   |  9.18
      Toronto                    |    4.18   |  9.18
      St. Catharines             |    4.18   |  9.18
      Welland                    |    4.18   |  9.18
      Niagara Falls              |    4.18   |  9.18
      Barrie and Allandale       |    4.19   |  9.19
      Grimsby                    |    4.19   |  9.19
      Hamilton                   |    4.20   |  9.20
      Orangeville                |    4.20   |  9.20
      Collingwood                |    4.21   |  9.21
      Guelph                     |    4.21   |  9.21
      Galt                       |    4.21   |  9.21
      Brantford                  |    4.21   |  9.21
      Simcoe                     |    4.21   |  9.21
      Paris                      |    4.22   |  9.22
      Woodstock                  |    4.23   |  9.23
      Sudbury                    |    4.24   |  9.24
      Stratford                  |    4.24   |  9.24
      Ingersoll                  |    4.24   |  9.24
      Owen Sound                 |    4.24   |  9.24
      St. Thomas                 |    4.25   |  9.25
      London                     |    4.26   |  9.26
      Goderich                   |    4.27   |  9.27
      Petrolea                   |    4.28   |  9.28
      Chatham                    |    4.29   |  9.29
      Sarnia                     |    4.30   |  9.30
      Windsor                    |    4.32   |  9.32
      Port Arthur                |    3.57   |  9.57
      Fort William               |    3.57   |  9.57
      Rat Portage                |    4.18   | 10.18
                                 |           |
    MANITOBA AND NORTHWEST       |           |
          TERRITORIES--          |           |
      Winnipeg                   |    4.28   | 10.28
      Carman                     |    4.32   | 10.32
      Brandon                    |    3.40   | 10.40
      Russell                    |    3.45   | 10.45
      Regina                     |    3.58   | 10.58
      Medicine Hat               |    4.22   | 11.32
      Calgary                    |    4.36   | 11.36
                                 |           |
    BRITISH COLUMBIA--           |           |
      Donald                     |    3.40   | 11.49
      Revelstoke                 |    3.53   | 11.53
      Chilliwack                 |    3.58   | 11.58
                                 |           |
                                 |           |  A.M.
                                 |           | 21st.
      Vancouver                  |    4.12   | 12.12
      Victoria                   |    4.13   | 12.13
                                 |           |
  PACIFIC OCEAN:                 |           |
                                 |           |
    SHIPS AT SEA--               | LONGITUDE |
      _Aorangi_                  |147° 49´ W.|  1.51
      _Empress of China_         |152° 39´ W.|  2.11
                                 |           |
  WAILANGILALA ISLAND            |179° 6´ W. |  3.56



INDEX.


  A

  Achaius adopts St. Andrew Cross, 65.

  Acre, Richard I. at siege of, 45.

  Admirals, titles under Commonwealth, 95;
    three ranks, 274;
    nine ranks, 275;
    reduced to three, 276.

  Admiral of Narrow Seas, 60, 104.

  Admiral of fleet, rank and flag, 264.

  Admirals' flags under Henry VIII., 273;
    Commonwealth, 93;
    Charles II., 274;
    subsequent centuries, 274;
    present day, 50, 70, 91, 108;
    on ironclads, 276.

  Admiralty badge on epaulettes, 48.

  Admiralty Regulations, penalty for infraction, 52;
    proportions in Union Jack, 208.

  Alfred the Great collects first navy, 54;
    sea maxim, 54.

  Allan Line House flag, 27.

  Ambassador's flag, Russian, 43;
    British, 265.

  Armada defeated under Cross of St. George, 51, 61, 102.

  Arms, Savoy, 23;
    Earl of Elgin, 65;
    Washington, 177;
    Fitzgeralds, 151;
    Ancient of Ireland, 145;
    Henry V. to Elizabeth, 71;
    James I., 72;
    Anne, 123;
    George II., 190;
    George III., first, 196;
    altered, 202;
    Victoria, 148.

  Assyrian emblems, 15.

  Athelstane, first merchant navy, 55.

  Australian emblems, 283;
    ensign, 288.

  Austria, eagle, 16, 144;
    white cross, 44.

  Aztecs, eagle emblem, 17.


  B

  Banner, feudal period, 38;
    Percy, 39;
    English Sovereigns, 71;
    Commonwealth, 93;
    Joan of Arc, 25;
    St. Martin, 25;
    St. Denis, 25;
    St. George, 41;
    St. Andrew, 64, 70;
    Robert Bruce, 65;
    St. Patrick, 141;
    personal of Sovereign, 92, 99.

  Barbarossa, Emperor, standard, 22.

  Barton, Sir Andrew, 69.

  Bavaria, national colours, 24.

  Beyrut, grotto of St. George, 42.

  Blake carries whip-lash, 108.

  Blazon, heraldic, a description, 204;
    Union Jack, George III., 203;
    controversies, 204, 206, 232;
    design preceded, 205;
    Jack made as ordered, 234.

  Blue ensign, who entitled to use, 277;
    on colonial ships, 277.

  Border to St. George, narrow under James I., 77;
    enlarged, 127;
    represents white ground, 127;
    justified, 210.

  Broad white St. George, in 1707, 127;
    in 1801, 205;
    same size St. Andrew, 210, 226.

  Broad white St. Andrew, 209, 217.

  Bourbon standard, 25, 126.

  Brian Boru, legend, 146;
    harp, 148.

  British Constitution, expansion told by Jack, 186;
    in Canada, 189, 196;
    government under, 253;
    other colonies, 262.

  Broom carried by Tromp, 108.

  Bruce, Robert, banner, 65.

  Bunker Hill, flag raised at, 174.


  C

  Cabot, 51, 58, 153.

  Cambridge, grand union, 97.

  Canada comes under British flag, 25, 132;
    reconciliation, 133;
    invaded, 135;
    evolution of inhabitants, 189;
    wars, 136, 235, 240, 293.

  Canadian Ensign, created, 283;
    full meaning, 287.

  Cantons, quarters of flag, 12.

  Cape of Good Hope, Dutch, 103;
    British, 131.

  Cappadocia, birthplace St. George, 41.

  Champlain, 25, 154.

  Chapleau, Sir Adolphe, 137.

  Chateauguay, battle of, 214, 237.

  Charles I., proclamation, 82.

  Charles II., proclamation, 89;
    flags changed, 95;
    fresco, 97.

  Cockade, origin tricolour, 26.

  College of Arms, draft Queen Anne, 120;
    draft George III., 200.

  Colonial contingents, Havana, 168;
    South Africa, 242.

  Colonial flags, Union Jack, 121;
    first authorized, 280;
    white escutcheon on, 281;
    blue ensign, 283;
    broader significance, 289.

  Colours, British regiments, 40;
    French, 25;
    New England companies, 160.

  Commonwealth Ensign, 93, 101;
    salute claimed, 107;
    in America, 161.

  Constantine the Great, 42, 144.

  Constantius Chlorus, harp on labarum, 143.

  Constitution of United States, adopted, 247;
    government under, 254.

  Consuls' flags, 265.

  Cornette blanche, Joan of Arc, 25.

  Counterchanged Scottish and Irish crosses, 217;
    controversy, 203.

  Cromwell's Jack, 88;
    in America, 161.

  Cross, red, St. George, 34, 41, 44;
    red, France, 34;
    white, France, 223;
    white, Austria, 44;
    white, Greece, 24, 44;
    white, St. John, 23, 45;
    yellow Italy, 34;
    black, Germany, 34;
    yellow, Sweden, 44;
    green, Flanders, 34;
    blue, Norway, 44;
    white saltire, St. Andrew, 64;
    blue saltire, Russia, 70;
    red saltire, St. Patrick, 141.

  Crosses, objections to use in flag, 158, 164;
    requirements for entry in Union Jack, 186;
    proportions in, 127, 205, 232;
    wrongly made, 218;
    how correctly made, 219.

  Crusaders' crosses, 84;
    of nations engaged, 44.


  D

  Declaration of Independence, United States, 177, 246.

  De Salaberry, 237.

  Designers' Union Jack of 1707, 119;
    of 1800, 200.

  Diamond Jubilee Anthem, accompanying the sun, 300;
    places sung at, 311.

  Dominion Ensigns, additional, 284;
    Canadian, 286;
    Australian, 288;
    New Zealand, 288;
    added meanings, 289.

  Douglas, Fredk., contrasts liberty, 251.

  Dragon, legend St. George, 42, 48, 49.

  Drumbeat following the hours, 290;
    ideal changed to fact, 309.

  Dufferin, Lord, 19, 261.

  Dutch, sea rivalry, 58, 105, 111.

  Dutch flag, 58;
    in America, 155.


  E

  Eagle emblems, 15, 43.

  East India Company flag, 174.

  Edgar, Lord of Ocean, 55.

  Edward I. adopts St. George emblem, 45;
    sea titles, 50, 57.

  Edward II., Lord of the Seas, 57.

  Edward III., sea maxim, 57;
    fleur-de-lis in arms, 202.

  Egyptian standards, 14.

  Elizabeth, shipping extended, 61;
    Alfred maxim maintained, 102;
    harp and crown, 145.

  Emancipation slaves in England, 244;
    British colonies, 245;
    United States, 247;
    Canada, 250.

  Emblems, instinct for, 19;
    evidences of patriotism, 19;
    Israelites, 14;
    Christians, 16, 144;
    Assyrians, 15;
    Romans, 15;
    Peruvians, 17;
    Indians, 18, 21;
    English, 159;
    Scottish, 66;
    Irish, 142, 145, 149;
    colonies, 283;
    Australian, 288;
    Canada, 295.

  Empire Day, Union Jack raised, 271.

  Endicott, John, defaces flag, 158.

  England, dominant partner, 41;
    meteor flag, 52.

  English Cross, white changed, 34.

  English Jack, heraldic description, 41;
    groundwork Union Jack, 42;
    Glory Roll, 51;
    established claims in America, 59;
    Armada defeated, 61;
    rivalries with Scotch, 75;
    joined in additional Jack, 77;
    taken from navy, 81;
    restored by Commonwealth, 88;
    succeeded by His Majesty's Jack, 89;
    Admiral's flag, 91;
    succeeds James I. Jack in America, 161;
    inserted in Commonwealth Ensign, 86;
    red ensign, 90, 100, 109;
    prowess recognized, 109;
    term in ensign closed, 126;
    white ground restored, 127.

  Ensigns, Percy, 39;
    first English national, 90, 92;
    ensign, red, 96;
    first British union, land and sea, 119, 126;
    union of 13 colonies, 174;
    United States, 180;
    colonial, 280;
    Imperial union, 289;
    Red, 92, 96, 98, 101, 116, 126;
    White, 265, 276;
    Blue, 95, 277.

  Ensign staff, reason for name, 37.

  Errors in painting flags, 96, 97.

  Escutcheon in Commonwealth flags, 88;
    Union Jack, 225;
    colonial flags, 282;
    transferred to fly, 283.


  F

  Facings, British uniforms, 40.

  Field, portion of flag, 12.

  Fimbriation, heraldic description, 77;
    in Union Jack controversies, 206;
    rules satisfied, 232.

  Flags (_symbolical_), study of educational value, 14;
    tell history, 14, 21, 31, 32, 217;
    valued when meanings known, 20;
    voices in, 22;
    not haphazard, 32;
    followed for conscience' sake, 137, 193;
    sought by Puritans, 156;
    religious objections to cross, 158;
    meanings of colours in Union Jack, 216;
    ideals expressed, 215;
    speak in colours, 221;
    freedom to slave, 243;
    liberty to people, 253;
    raised as sign of taking possession, 51, 59, 129, 153, 264.

  Flags (_actual_), technical divisions, 12;
    measurements, Jacks, 208;
    ensigns, 277;
    meanings of movements on flag staff, 12;
    how use arose on land, 53;
    importance at sea, 53;
    penalty for infraction, 52;
    effect of omission on shore, 160;
    ships confiscated if not shown, 163;
    wars caused by, 104, 108, 113.

  Flag salute, John, 56;
    Edward I., 57;
    Mary, 60;
    James I., 104;
    Charles I., 105;
    Commonwealth, 107;
    George III., 110;
    accorded by Dutch, 109, 112, 114.

  Flag-ships, why so called, 91.

  Fleur-de-lis, emblem of ancient France, 25;
    Canada colonized under, 25;
    Frontenac defends, 166;
    succeeded by Union Jack, 28, 133;
    introduced by Edward III., 202;
    on arms Henry V., 71;
    George II., 190;
    removed, 202;
    why in royal arms, 190, 224;
    on seal, 196;
    on arms Quebec, 260.

  Fly, portion of flag, 12.

  Forecastle, derivation of name, 59.

  Fort Detroit taken by British, 237.

  France, fleur-de-lis in America, 25, 153, 166;
    tri-colour, 24;
    in Canada, 27;
    white cross, 223.

  Franklin, Benjamin, drumbeat, 290.

  French Canadians never raised tri-colour, 25;
    national flag, 29;
    descendants of Normans, 89;
    evolution of government, 190;
    accept changed rule, 192;
    defend Union Jack, 135, 214, 237;
    British in patriotism, 137.

  French language in English Parliament, 190;
    in Canadian, 191.

  Frontenac, 25, 166.


  G

  Generals at Sea, title of Admirals, 94.

  George III., three Parliaments united, 199;
    three-crossed Union Jack, 199.

  Germany, standard of, 22.

  Glory Roll, English Jack, 51;
    Jack James I., 79;
    second Union Jack, 129;
    third Union Jack, 211.

  Governors' flags, 163, 259, 260, 282.

  Governors of colonies, position, 252.

  Grand union ensign, 13 colonies, 173;
    carried after Independence, 177.

  Great seal, Elizabeth, 145;
    Upper Canada, 195.

  Great union, Cromwell, 93.

  Greek national ensign, 24;
    church reverences St. George, 42.

  Greek Cross, 43;
    carried by eight nations, 44.

  Guiana exchanged for New York, 114;
    retaken, 114.


  H

  Harold loses control of seas, 55.

  Harp in royal arms, 72, 146;
    on shillings, 85;
    in flags, 88, 93;
    taken out of flags, 96;
    usage by sovereigns, 145;
    change under Victoria, 148.

  Havana, colonials at capture, 168.

  Hawaii, national ensign, 29.

  _Henri Grace à Dieu_, parent ship of navy, 60.

  Heralds devised Jack of James, 77;
    committee Queen Anne, 119;
    George III., 200;
    objections to Union Jack, 204, 207, 231;
    requirements met, 233.

  Heraldry, rules for fimbriations, 77;
    for crosses, 232.

  Hibernian Harp in labarum, 143;
    changed to cross, 144;
    in royal arms, 146;
    changed to Irish harp, 149.

  Hoist, part of flag, 12.


  I

  Ireland not sea-going nation, 140;
    becomes kingdom, 151, 184.

  Irish harp, Brian Boru, 147.

  Irish Jack, heraldic description, 141;
    not joined with St. George, 151, 184;
    when joined, 186, 199;
    white ground recognized, 206.

  Israelites, standard, 14.

  Italy, national ensign, 23.


  J

  Jacks, erroneous explanation name, 33;
    origin of name, 37, 40;
    why two used under James I., 75;
    regulations James I., 76;
    Charles I., 82;
    Commonwealth, 88;
    Charles II., 89;
    Anne, 118;
    present day, 264.

  Jack at bow, 37, 59, 85, 88, 89, 115.

  Jack of James I., created by rivalries, 70, 75;
    an "additional" Jack, 74, 80;
    proclamation, 75;
    Scots object, 78;
    used on all ships, 77;
    restricted to King's ships, 82;
    abolished, 86;
    restored, 89;
    not a national Jack, 76, 183;
    not a Union Jack, 76, 80, 183;
    never placed in ensign, 100, 126;
    Glory Roll, 79;
    carried on _Mayflower_, 158;
    abolished in New England, 161.

  Jack staff, reason for name, 37.

  Jacques, surcoats, 33;
    by whom worn, 34, 36.

  James I. changes royal standard, 72;
    creates Jack, 74;
    urges union, 73;
    consents to repatriation of Puritans, 156.

  Joan of Arc, banner, 25.


  K

  King of Seas, Edward III., 58.

  King's colours, 38, 160.

  Knights, jacques worn, 34.


  L

  Labarum, Roman emperors, 142.

  Lake George, name changed, 170.

  Le Moine, Sir James, 28.

  Lion of Scotland in royal arms, 72.

  Lord High Admiral, flag of, 99.

  Lord of Oceans, title, 57;
    of Seas, 58.

  Louisbourg medal, Jack on, 165.


  M

  Mackinac, fort taken, 237.

  Maltese Cross, 45.

  Mansfield, decision slavery, 244.

  Maple leaf in governors' flags, 260;
    emblem of Canada, 295.

  Massachusetts ensign, 166;
    Jack authorized, 226, 280.

  _Mayflower_, flags carried by Pilgrims, 157.

  Medals, 98, 168, 299.

  Merchant navy, first developed, 55;
    distant voyages, 58, 103;
    uses King's Jack, 89;
    wins trade, 114;
    accorded red ensign, 116, 123, 278.

  Monson, Sir William, 78, 104, 105.


  N

  Nantucket, Gosnold at, 153.

  Napoleon I., flag, 22, 26.

  _Naseby_, 88, 98, 115.

  National flags, origins, 21;
    signal changes, 31;
    Germany, 22;
    Italy, 23;
    Greece, 24;
    France, 24, 29;
    Hawaii, 29;
    Russia, 70;
    Thirteen Colonies, 174;
    United States, 97, 180;
    evolution British, 100, 182, 188, 269, 280;
    colonies, 280;
    Dominions, 289.

  Navigation Act, Commonwealth, 107.

  Navy, English, first collected, 54;
    constructed, 59;
    weakened, 105;
    defeated, 106;
    wins command, 115;
    Scottish, always small, 66;
    defies English, 68.

  Nelson, 131;
    signal, 212;
    white ensign, 276.

  New England, controversies respecting cross, 162;
    ensign, 166;
    at Quebec, 166;
    Lake George, 170;
    Bunker Hill, 174.

  New South Wales, emblem, 283.

  New York taken, 112;
    exchanged, 113;
    retaken, 113.

  Nineveh, emblems found, 15.

  Normans, ancestors Canadians, 189.


  O

  Orders of Knighthood, 43, 50, 70, 77, 149.

  Oriflamme, St. Denis, 25.


  P

  Parliaments, not united, 76;
    separate flags, 77, 183;
    Irish, 184;
    Union Jack tells union of Scottish, 118;
    of Irish, 186;
    precedence of Union acknowledged, 218;
    Colonial, 194, 261.

  Patron Saints, England, 41;
    Scotland, 64;
    Ireland, 141.

  Pennants, command flags, 51;
    Henry VIII., 59;
    Royal navy, 108;
    Colonial navy, 284.

  Paardeberg, Canadian at, 296.

  Pennsylvania ensign, 176.

  Percy Ensign, 39.

  Peruvians' emblem, 17.

  Philip II. salutes Union Jack, 60.

  Pilgrim Fathers migrate to Holland, 155;
    land in America, 157;
    loyal subjects King James, 157;
    flags carried, 158.

  Pilot Jack, flag, 267.

  Pine tree flag, 162, 166.

  Poland, white eagle, 15.

  President United States, position, 255.

  Prussian, black eagle, 16.

  Puritans, flag carried by, 158;
    object to crosses, 160, 162.


  Q

  Quarters, flags, 12;
    Union Jack, 217.

  Quebec, defended under fleur-de-lis, 25, 166;
    Wolfe and Montcalm, 133;
    under Union Jack, 29, 136, 192.

  Quebec Act, effect of, 135, 192.

  Queen Anne creates Union Jack, 118;
    authority of Parliament, 119;
    designers, 120;
    authorized by Privy Council, 121;
    Draft C, 121;
    promulgated in colonies, 121;
    restricted to navy, 124;
    border St. George enlarged, 127;
    establishes Red Ensign, 122;
    to be used on land and sea, 126, 268.

  Queen Victoria uses Irish harp, 146;
    Diamond Jubilee, 290.

  Queenston Heights, 237.


  R

  Raleigh, sea maxim, 103, 116.

  Red Ensign, see Ensign.

  Red fighting flag of navy, 113.

  Regulations for making Union Jack, 208.

  Responsible government contrasted, 254, 257, 261.

  _Revenge_, glorious contest, 61.

  Richard I. adopts St. George, 44;
    star and crescent badge, 48.

  Rivalries create Jack of James, 70, 74, 80.

  Roman eagle, 15;
    labarum, 143.

  Royal arms standard, 72;
    removed from ships, 96;
    fleur-de-lis, 71, 282;
    harp inserted, 72;
    origin Irish blue, 146, see Arms.

  Royal Standard, flag of sovereign, 71, 92, 202;
    present regulations, 99.

  Royal Standard at main, 98, 99.

  Royal Standard at stern, 37, 92, 99;
    replaced by ensigns, 98;
    meanings of change, 101.

  Royal yacht squadron flag, 52.

  Russian eagle, 16;
    flags, 43, 70.


  S

  Saints, reverenced, not canonized, 42.

  Shackleton, Union Jack, 213.

  St. Andrew, banner and legend, 64;
    why adopted by Scotland, 65;
    Russia, 70.

  St. Andrew Cross, white of Scotland, 38;
    blue of Russia, 70;
    united in James Jack, 77;
    objections to position, 78;
    in great union, 93;
    in Union Jack, 119;
    same size St. George, 205, 224;
    same size St. Patrick, 206;
    counterchanged with, 217;
    why higher position, 218;
    same size border St. George, 210, 225;
    examples narrow form, 225.

  St. Denis, red banner, 25.

  St. George banner and legend, 41;
    adopted by England, 44;
    Christian attributes, 47;
    knightly attributes, 48.

  St. George Cross in crusades, 34;
    in Greek ensign, 24;
    in nobles' standards, 39;
    in white ensign, 51;
    in Great Union, 93;
    receives homage of Dutch, 109;
    united in James Jack, 77;
    in Union Jack, 119;
    surmounts other crosses, 216;
    why surmounts, 216;
    carried on _Mayflower_, 159;
    controversies in New England, 158;
    left out of colonist colours, 160, 162;
    restored, 166;
    taken at Quebec, 166.

  St. George Jack, see English Jack.

  St. George and dragon, early instances, 46, 49.

  St. George's Day, origin, 41;
    in England, 45.

  St. John, Knights of, 23, 45.

  St. Martin, blue banner, 25.

  St. Patrick, banner and legends, 141;
    adopted by Irish, 144;
    emblems of, 142, 145, 149.

  St. Patrick Cross, red of Ireland, 141;
    origin, 141;
    first used as banner, 151;
    not sign of fealty, 151;
    when placed in Union Jack, 199;
    same size as St. Andrew, 206;
    why counterchanged, 218.

  Saltire Cross, shape, 64;
    origin, 142;
    errors in Union Jack, 218.

  Sardinia royal arms, 23.

  Scottish Jack, heraldic description, 64;
    flag of Bruce, 65;
    forays, 66;
    national flag, 75;
    united in James Jack, 76;
    in Union Jacks, 119, 185.

  Sea maxims, Alfred, 54;
    Edward III., 57;
    Raleigh, 103.

  Sewall, Samuel, troubles over cross, 164.

  Shamrock Emblem, 149.

  Slavery under various flags, 243.

  Sluys, naval victory, 50, 57.

  South Africa deeds, 213;
    contingents, 262.

  Sovereign of Britain, position of, 257.

  Spanish flag, 133, 153, 169.

  Stars, Washington, 178;
    Orion, 179;
    in United States Ensign, 180.

  Stars and Stripes, United States, 31;
    form in successive periods, 77;
    stripes, 174;
    origin, 177;
    heritage, 180.

  Stern, place of honour, 94, 99;
    marks constitutional change, 101.

  Supremacy of Seas, 53, 63, 111, 116.

  Surcoats, 33, 34, 36.

  Switzerland, white cross, 44.


  T

  Thane, reward of merchants, 55.

  Thirteen American Colonies, flags
    raised, 153;
    troubles, 171;
    fight under Union Jack, 169;
    Union Flag, 170;
    Grand Union, 174;
    heritage in U. S. ensign, 180, 253.

  Trafalgar, white ensign, 212, 278.

  Tri-colour, origin, 24;
    English introduce to Canada, 27;
    why displayed, 28;
    carries no allegiance, 29.

  Tromp, Admiral, 108.


  U

  Union Jack, First, 74;
    Glory Roll, 79;
    Second, 118;
    Glory Roll, 129;
    Present day, 199;
    Glory Roll, 211.

  Union Jack (_form_), tells history of nations, 32;
    origin of name, 33;
    combinations, 40, 74, 126, 205;
    designers, 119, 200;
    designs precede blazon, 205;
    regulations for making, 208;
    fimbriations, 77, 206;
    errors, 218;
    how to make correctly, 220;
    proportions, 220;
    reasons for proportions, 231;
    heraldic requirements met, 232.

  Union Jack (_significance_), displaces national Jacks, 118;
    requirements entry of cross, 76, 151, 186;
    more than union of thrones, 185;
    emblem of Parliamentary union, 76, 188, 194;
    lessons taught, 215;
    democratic expansion, 253;
    freedom, 243;
    liberty, 253;
    equal rights, 262;
    on schools, 270;
    in Dominion ensigns, 287.

  Union Jack (_progress design_), two crosses, James I. heralds, 75;
    two crosses, Anne, committee, 119;
    Draft C approved, 120;
    white border enlarged, 127, 205;
    three crosses, George III., committee, 199;
    draft approved, 200;
    white border maintained, 205;
    crosses counterchanged, 217;
    blazon, 203, 205;
    regulations issued, 208;
    change declined, 211;
    made as ordered, 234.

  Union Jack (_variations use_), James, 1606, on all ships, 74;
    Charles I., restricted to navy, 82;
    abolished by Commonwealth, 87;
    Charles II. restored restricted to navy, 89;
    William III. restricts, 90;
    Anne, 1707, on land, all subjects, 119, 268;
    at sea, navy, 124;
    George III., 1801, all subjects, 268;
    Edward VII., all subjects, land or sea, 268;
    successive names, 264.

  Union Jack (_in other flags_), King's colours, 40;
    Hawaii, 29;
    Thirteen Colonies Ensign, 174;
    raised by Washington, 175;
    Pennsylvania Ensign, 176;
    Red, White and Blue Ensigns, 272;
    Dominion Ensigns, 286.

  United Empire Loyalists, 137, 193.

  United States Ensign, 77, 177.


  V

  Venezuela, 114.

  Victoria Colony Emblem, 283.

  Virginia defends English Jack, 170.


  W

  War of 1812, 214, 235.

  Washington, ancestry, 178;
    stars, 179;
    Ensign, 180.

  Webster, Daniel, 290.

  Western Australia Emblem, 283.

  White Ensign, see Ensign.

  Whip-lash flag, 108.


  Y

  Yard-arm, origin of name, 59.





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