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Title: An Advanced English Grammar with Exercises
Author: Kittredge, George Lyman, Farley, Frank Edgar
Language: English
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AN ADVANCED ENGLISH GRAMMAR

WITH EXERCISES


BY

GEORGE LYMAN KITTREDGE

GURNEY PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH LITERATURE IN
HARVARD UNIVERSITY

AND

FRANK EDGAR FARLEY

PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH LITERATURE IN
WESLEYAN UNIVERSITY


GINN AND COMPANY

BOSTON · NEW YORK · CHICAGO · LONDON
ATLANTA · DALLAS · COLUMBUS · SAN FRANCISCO


COPYRIGHT, 1913, BY GEORGE LYMAN KITTREDGE
AND FRANK EDGAR FARLEY
ENTERED AT STATIONERS’ HALL
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
424.2

The Athenæum Press

GINN AND COMPANY · PROPRIETORS
· BOSTON · U.S.A.



PREFACE


This grammar is intended for students who have already received
instruction in the rudiments. Still, every such textbook must begin
at the beginning. Part One, therefore, which occupies pp. 1–24, gives
a succinct treatment of the Parts of Speech in the Sentence and of
their substitutes, the Phrase and the Clause, concluding with a Summary
of Definitions. Thus it clears the way for what follows, and may be
utilized as a review, if the student needs to refresh his memory.

Part Two deals specifically and fully with Inflections and Syntax (pp.
25–182). It includes also a chapter on the use of subordinate clauses
as nouns, adjectives, and adverbs (pp. 157–162), as well as a chapter
in which such clauses are logically classified in accordance with their
particular offices in the expression of thought (pp. 163–182).

Part Three (pp. 183–226) develops the subject of Analysis in its
natural order, first explaining how sentences are put together, and
then illustrating the process by which they may be resolved into their
constituent parts. Modifiers and Complements are classified, and the
so-called Independent Elements are discussed. There is added a special
chapter on Combinations of Clauses, in which the grammatical and
logical relations of coördination and subordination are set forth, and
their functions in the effective use of language are considered. This
portion of the book, it is hoped, will be especially useful to students
of English composition.

The Appendix furnishes lists of verbs, tables of conjugation, rules
for capitals and marks of punctuation, a summary of important rules of
syntax, and a brief history of the English language.

The Exercises (pp. 227–290) are collected at the end of the text, so
as not to break continuity. References prefixed to each, as well as
page-numbers in the Table of Contents, enable the teacher to attach
them, at will, to the topics which they concern. The passages for
parsing, analysis, etc., have been carefully selected from a wide
range of eminent British and American writers. The name of the author
is often appended to the quotation, when the passage is particularly
noteworthy either for its contents or its form. In most cases, however,
this has not been done; but the student may always feel confident that
he is occupying himself with specimens of English as actually composed
by distinguished authors. The constructive exercises call particular
attention to those matters in which error is especially prevalent.

An advanced grammar must aim to be serviceable in two ways. It should
afford the means for continuous and systematic study of the subject
or of any part of it; and it should also be useful for reference in
connection with the study of composition and of literature. With this
latter end in view, many notes and observations have been included,
in smaller type, to show the nature and development of the various
forms and constructions, and to point out differences between the
usage of to-day and that which the student observes in Shakspere and
other English classics. The fulness of the index makes it easy to find
anything that the volume contains.

In accordance with the desire of many teachers, certain topics of
importance have been treated with unusual thoroughness. Among these may
be mentioned the uses of _shall_ and _will_, _should_ and _would_, the
infinitive and the infinitive clause, conditional sentences, indirect
discourse, and the combination of clauses in sentences of different
kinds.

The authors are indebted to several teachers for suggestions and
criticism. Particular acknowledgment is due to Mr. Theodore C.
Mitchill, of the Jamaica High School, New York, and Mr. C. L. Hooper,
of the Chicago Normal School.



CONTENTS


[_The numbers in the first column refer to the pages of the text; those
in the second column to the pages of the Exercises._]

INTRODUCTION

                                                         TEXT  EXERCISES

  Language and Grammar                                     xi
  Grammar and Usage                                        xv
  Summary of General Principles                          xvii


ENGLISH GRAMMAR

PART ONE--THE PARTS OF SPEECH IN THE SENTENCE

  The Sentence--Subject and Predicate                       1        227
  Kinds of Sentences                                        2        227
  The Eight Parts of Speech Defined                         3        228
  The Same Word as Different Parts of Speech                9        229
  Infinitives and Participles                              11        229
  Comparative Importance of the Parts of Speech            13
  Simple and Complete Subject and Predicate                14        230
  Compound Subject and Predicate                           15        230
  Substitutes for the Parts of Speech                      16        231
  Phrases--Noun, Verb, Adjective, Adverbial                16        231
  Clauses--Independent and Subordinate                     16        232
  Compound and Complex Sentences                           17        232
  Compound Complex Sentences                               18        232
  Clauses as Parts of Speech                               19        232
  Summary of Definitions                                   21


PART TWO--INFLECTION AND SYNTAX

CHAPTER I--INFLECTION

  Inflection in General                                    25
  Summary of Inflections                                   26

CHAPTER II--NOUNS

  Classification--Common Nouns and Proper Nouns            27        233
  Special Classes--Abstract, Collective, Compound          29        234
  Inflection of Nouns                                      30        235
  Gender                                                   31        235
  Number                                                   34        235
  Person                                                   39        236
  Case                                                     40        237
  Nominative Case                                          41        237
  Possessive Case                                          43        238
  Objective Case                                           47        239
  Parsing of Nouns                                         54        240

CHAPTER III--PRONOUNS

  Personal Pronouns                                        55        241
  Gender and Number of Personal Pronouns                   56        241
  Case of Personal Pronouns                                57        241
  The Self-Pronouns (Compound Personal Pronouns)           60        241
  Adjective Pronouns--Demonstratives                       62        243
  Adjective Pronouns--Indefinites                          64        243
  Relative Pronouns                                        66        244
  The Relative Pronoun _What_                              71        246
  Compound Relative Pronouns                               72        246
  Interrogative Pronouns                                   73        246
  Parsing of Pronouns                                      74        247

CHAPTER IV--ADJECTIVES

  Classification of Adjectives                             75        248
  Adjectives--the Articles                                 77        248
  Comparison of Adjectives                                 79        249
  Irregular Comparison                                     81        249

CHAPTER V--ADVERBS

  Classification of Adverbs                                83        250
  Relative and Interrogative Adverbs                       86        251
  Comparison of Adverbs                                    87        252
  Use of the Comparative and Superlative                   88        252
  Numerals--Adjectives, Nouns, Adverbs                     89        252

CHAPTER VI--VERBS

  Classification of Verbs                                  91        253
  Auxiliary Verbs--Verb-Phrases                            91        253
  Transitive and Intransitive Verbs                        92        253
  Copulative Verbs                                         93        253
  Inflection of Verbs                                      94        254
  Tense of Verbs                                           94        254
  Present and Past Tenses                                  94        254
  Weak (Regular) and Strong (Irregular) Verbs              95        254
  Person and Number                                        97        254
  The Personal Endings                                     97        254
  Conjugation of the Present and the Past                  98        254
  Special Rules of Number and Person                      100        254
  The Future Tense--_Shall_ and _Will_                    102        256
  Complete or Compound Tenses                             106        258
  Voice--Active and Passive                               107        258
  Conjugation of the Six Tenses                           108        258
  Use of the Passive Voice                                110        258
  Progressive Verb-Phrases                                113        260
  Emphatic Verb-Phrases                                   114        260
  Mood of Verbs                                           115        261
  Indicative Mood                                         115        261
  Imperative Mood                                         116        261
  Subjunctive Mood--Forms                                 118        261
  Uses of the Subjunctive                                 119        261
  Potential Verb-Phrases (Modal Auxiliaries)              124        262
  Special Rules for _Should_ and _Would_                  127        264
  The Infinitive                                          132        266
  The Infinitive as a Noun                                134        266
  The Infinitive as a Modifier                            136        266
  The Infinitive Clause                                   137        267
  Participles--Forms and Constructions                    140        268
  Nominative Absolute                                     144        269
  Verbal Nouns in _-ing_ (Participial Nouns)              145        269

CHAPTER VII--PREPOSITIONS

  List of Prepositions                                    148        270
  Special Uses of Prepositions                            149        270

CHAPTER VIII--CONJUNCTIONS

  Coördinate (or Coördinating) Conjunctions               151        270
  Subordinate (or Subordinating) Conjunctions             153        270
  Correlative Conjunctions                                153        270

CHAPTER IX--INTERJECTIONS

  Interjections                                           155        272
  Exclamatory Expressions                                 155        272

CHAPTER X--CLAUSES AS PARTS OF SPEECH

  Clauses as Parts of Speech                              157        272
  Adjective Clauses                                       157        272
  Adverbial Clauses                                       158        272
  Noun (or Substantive) Clauses                           159        272

CHAPTER XI--THE MEANINGS OF SUBORDINATE CLAUSES

  Clauses of Place and Time                               163        272
  Causal Clauses                                          164        272
  Concessive Clauses                                      164        272
  Clauses of Purpose and Result                           166        274
  Conditional Sentences                                   167        274
  Forms of Conditions                                     169        274
  Present and Past Conditions                             170        274
  Future Conditions                                       171        274
  Clauses of Comparison                                   173        275
  Indirect Discourse                                      173        277
  _Shall_ and _Will_, _Should_ and _Would_
      in Indirect Discourse                               177        278
  Indirect Questions                                      179        280
  _Shall_ and _Will_, _Should_ and _Would_
      in Indirect Questions                               182        281


PART THREE--ANALYSIS

CHAPTER I--THE STRUCTURE OF SENTENCES

  Analysis--the Elements                                  183        282
  Simple Sentences                                        184        282
  Compound Sentences                                      185        282
  Complex Sentences                                       186        282
  Compound and Complex Clauses                            186        287
  Compound Complex Sentences                              187        283

CHAPTER II--ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES

  Simple Sentences                                        188        283
  Compound Sentences                                      188        283
  Complex Sentences                                       189        283
  Compound Complex Sentences                              190        283

CHAPTER III--MODIFIERS

  Modifiers in General                                    191        283
  Modifiers of the Subject                                192        283
  Modifiers of the Predicate                              196        284

CHAPTER IV--COMPLEMENTS

  Use of Complements                                      200        285
  The Direct Object                                       201        285
  The Predicate Objective                                 202        285
  The Predicate Nominative                                202        285
  The Predicate Adjective                                 203        285

CHAPTER V--MODIFIERS OF COMPLEMENTS AND OF MODIFIERS

  Modifiers of Complements                                205        286
  Modifiers of Other Modifiers                            207        286

CHAPTER VI--INDEPENDENT ELEMENTS

  Four Kinds of Independent Elements                      209        286
  Parenthetical Expressions                               209        286

CHAPTER VII--COMBINATIONS OF CLAUSES

  General Principles                                      210        287
  Coördination and Subordination                          210        287
  Clauses--Simple, Compound, Complex                      211        287
  Complex Sentences                                       186        282
  Simple Sentences with Compound Subject or Predicate     212        287
  Compound and Complex Sentences                          213        287
  Compound Complex Sentences                              215        287
  Varieties of the Complex Sentence                       216        287
  Special Complications in Complex Sentences              220        288
  Special Complications in Compound Complex Sentences     222        288

CHAPTER VIII--ELLIPTICAL SENTENCES

  Ellipsis in Clauses and Sentences                       224        288
  Varieties of Ellipsis                                   225        288
  Examples of Elliptical Constructions                    226        288


EXERCISES

  Exercises on Part One                                              227
  Exercises on Part Two                                              233
  Exercises on Part Three                                            282


APPENDIX

  Lists of Verbs                                                     291
  Conjugation of the Verb _to be_                                    300
  Conjugation of the Verb _to strike_                                301
  Use of Capital Letters                                             305
  Rules of Punctuation                                               306
  Rules of Syntax                                                    311
  The English Language                                               316


INDEX                                                                321



INTRODUCTION


LANGUAGE AND GRAMMAR


I. THE NATURE OF LANGUAGE

Language is the expression of thought by means of spoken or written
words.

The English word _language_ comes (through the French _langue_) from
the Latin _lingua_, “the tongue.” But the tongue is not the only organ
used in speaking. The lips, the teeth, the roof of the mouth, the soft
palate (or uvula), the nose, and the vocal chords all help to produce
the sounds of which language consists. These various organs make up one
delicate and complicated piece of mechanism upon which the breath of
the speaker acts like that of a musician upon a clarinet or other wind
instrument.

Spoken language, then, is composed of a great variety of sounds made
with the vocal organs. A word may consist of one sound (as _Ah!_ or _O_
or _I_), but most words consist of two or more different sounds (as
_go_, _see_, _try_, _finish_). Long or short, however, a word is merely
a sign made to express thought.

Thought may be imperfectly expressed by signs made with the head, the
hands, etc. Thus, if I grasp a person’s arm and point to a dog, he may
understand me to ask, “Do you see that dog?” And his nod in reply may
stand for “Yes, I see him.” But any dialogue carried on in this way
must be both fragmentary and uncertain. To express our thoughts fully,
freely, and accurately, we must use words,--that is, signs made with
the voice. Such voice-signs have had meanings associated with them by
custom or tradition, so that their sense is at once understood by all.
Their advantage is twofold: they are far more numerous and varied than
other signs; and the meanings attached to them are much more definite
than those of nods and gestures.

Written words are signs made with the pen to represent and recall
to the mind the spoken words (or voice-signs). Written language
(that is, composition) must, of necessity, be somewhat fuller than
spoken language, as well as more formal and exact. For the reader’s
understanding is not assisted by the tones of the voice, the changing
expressions of the face, and the lively gestures, which help to make
spoken language intelligible.

Most words are the signs of definite ideas. Thus, _Charles_, _captain_,
_cat_, _mouse_, _bread_, _stone_, _cup_, _ink_, call up images or
pictures of persons or things; _strike_, _dive_, _climb_, _dismount_,
express particular kinds of action; _green_, _blue_, _careless_,
_rocky_, _triangular_, _muscular_, enable us to describe objects with
accuracy. Even general terms like _goodness_, _truth_, _courage_,
_cowardice_, _generosity_, have sufficiently precise meanings, for
they name qualities, or traits of character, with which everybody is
familiar.

By the use of such words, even when not combined in groups, we can
express our thoughts much more satisfactorily than by mere gestures.
The utterance of the single word “Charles!” may signify: “Hullo,
Charles! are you here? I am surprised to see you.” “Bread!” may suggest
to the hearer: “Give me bread! I am very hungry.” “Courage!” may be
almost equivalent to, “Don’t be down-hearted! Your troubles will soon
be over.”

Language, however, is not confined to the utterance of single words.
To express our thoughts we must put words together,--we must combine
them into groups; and such groups have settled meanings (just as words
have), established (like the meanings of single words) by the customs
or habits of the particular language that we are speaking or writing.
Further, these groups are not thrown together haphazard. We must
construct them in accordance with certain fixed rules. Otherwise we
shall fail to express ourselves clearly and acceptably, and we may even
succeed in saying the opposite of what we mean.

In constructing these groups (which we call +phrases+, +clauses+, and
+sentences+) we have the aid of a large number of short words like
_and_, _if_, _by_, _to_, _in_, _is_, _was_, which are very different
from the definite and picturesque words that we have just examined.
They do not call up distinct images in the mind, and we should find
it hard to define any of them. Yet their importance in the expression
of thought is clear; for they serve to join other words together, and
to show their relation to each other in those groups which make up
connected speech.

Thus, “box heavy” conveys some meaning; but “_The_ box _is_ heavy” is
a clear and definite statement. _The_ shows that some particular box
is meant, and _is_ enables us to make an assertion about it. _And_, in
“Charles and John are my brothers,” indicates that Charles and John are
closely connected in my thought, and that what I say of one applies
also to the other. _If_, in “If Charles comes, I shall be glad to see
him,” connects two statements, and shows that one of them is a mere
supposition (for Charles may or may not come).

In grouping words, our language has three different ways of indicating
their relations: (1) the forms of the words themselves; (2) their
order; (3) the use of little words like _and_, _if_, _is_, etc.

I. +Change of form.+ Words may change their form. Thus the word _boy_
becomes _boys_ when more than one is meant; _kill_ becomes _killed_
when past time is referred to; _was_ becomes _were_ when we are
speaking of two or more persons or things; _fast_ becomes _faster_ when
a higher degree of speed is indicated. Such change of form is called
+inflection+, and the word is said to be +inflected+.

Inflection is an important means of showing the relations of words
in connected speech. In “Henry’s racket weighs fourteen ounces,”
the form _Henry’s_ shows at once the relation between Henry and the
racket,--namely, that Henry owns or possesses it. The word _Henry_,
then, may change its form to _Henry’s_ to indicate ownership or
possession.

II. +Order of words.+ In “John struck Charles,” the way in which the
words are arranged shows who it was that struck, and who received the
blow. Change the order of words to “Charles struck John,” and the
meaning is reversed. It is, then, the +order+ that shows the relation
of _John_ to _struck_, and of _struck_ to _Charles_.

III. +Use of other words.+ Compare the two sentences:

  The train _from_ Boston has just arrived.

  The train _for_ Boston has just arrived.

Here _from_ and _for_ show the relation between the _train_ and
_Boston_. “The Boston train” might mean either the train _from_ Boston
or the train _for_ Boston. By using _from_ or _for_ we make the sense
unmistakable.

Two matters, then, are of vital importance in language,--the forms of
words, and the relations of words. The science which treats of these
two matters is called +grammar+.

+Inflection is a change in the form of a word indicating some change in
its meaning.+

+The relation in which a word stands to other words in the sentence is
called its construction.+

+Grammar is the science which treats of the forms and the constructions
of words.+

+Syntax is that department of grammar which treats of the constructions
of words.+

Grammar, then, may be said to concern itself with two main
subjects,--inflection and syntax.

English belongs to a family of languages--the Indo-European
Family[1]--which is rich in forms of inflection. This richness may
be seen in other members of the family,--such as Greek or Latin. The
Latin word _homo_, “man,” for example, has eight different inflectional
forms,--_homo_, “a man”; _hominis_, “of a man”; _homini_, “to a
man,” and so on. Thus, in Latin, the grammatical construction of a
word is, in general, shown by that particular inflectional ending
(or termination) which it has in any particular sentence. In the
Anglo-Saxon period,[2] English was likewise well furnished with such
inflectional endings, though not so abundantly as Latin. Many of these,
however, had disappeared by Chaucer’s time (1340–1400), and still
others have since been lost, so that modern English is one of the
least inflected of languages. Such losses are not to be lamented. By
due attention to the order of words, and by using _of_, _to_, _for_,
_from_, _in_, and the like, we can express all the relations denoted by
the ancient inflections. The gain in simplicity is enormous.


II. GRAMMAR AND USAGE

Since language is the expression of thought, the rules of grammar
agree, in the main, with the laws of thought. In other words, grammar
is usually logical,--that is, its rules accord, in general, with the
principles of logic, which is the science of exact reasoning.

The rules of grammar, however, do not derive their authority from
logic, but from good usage,--that is, from the customs or habits
followed by educated speakers and writers. These customs, of course,
differ among different nations, and every language has therefore its
own stock of peculiar constructions or turns of expression. Such
peculiarities are called +idioms+.

Thus, in English we say, “It is I”; but in French the idiom is “C’est
moi,” which corresponds to “It is me.” Many careless speakers of
English follow the French idiom in this particular, but their practice
has not yet come to be the accepted usage. Hence, though “C’est moi” is
correct in French, we must still regard “It is me” as ungrammatical in
English. It would, however, become correct if it should ever be adopted
by the great majority of educated persons.

Grammar does not enact laws for the conduct of speech. Its business is
to ascertain and set forth those customs of language which have the
sanction of good usage. If good usage changes, the rules of grammar
must change. If two forms or constructions are in good use, the
grammarian must admit them both. Occasionally, also, there is room
for difference of opinion. These facts, however, do not lessen the
authority of grammar in the case of any cultivated language. For in
such a language usage is so well settled in almost every particular
as to enable the grammarian to say positively what is right and what
is wrong. Even in matters of divided usage, it is seldom difficult to
determine which of two forms or constructions is preferred by careful
writers.

Every language has two standards of usage,--the colloquial and
the literary. By “colloquial language,” we mean the language of
conversation; by “literary language,” that employed in literary
composition. Everyday colloquial English admits many words, forms,
phrases, and constructions that would be out of place in a dignified
essay. On the other hand, it is an error in taste to be always “talking
like a book.” Unpractised speakers and writers should, however, be
conservative. They should avoid, even in informal talk, any word or
expression that is of doubtful propriety. Only those who know what they
are about, can venture to take liberties. It is quite possible to be
correct without being stilted or affected.[3]

Every living language is constantly changing. Words, forms, and
constructions become +obsolete+ (that is, go out of use) and others
take their places. Consequently, one often notes in the older English
classics, methods of expression which, though formerly correct, are
ungrammatical now. Here a twofold caution is necessary. On the one
hand, we must not criticise Shakspere or Chaucer for using the English
of his own time; but, on the other hand, we must not try to defend our
own errors by appealing to ancient usage.

  Examples of constructions once in good use, but no longer admissible,
  are: “the best of the two” (for “the better of the two”); “the most
  unkindest cut of all”; “There’s two or three of us” (for _there
  are_); “I have forgot the map” (for _forgotten_); “Every one of these
  letters are in my name” (for _is_); “I think it be” (for _is_).

The language of poetry admits many old words, forms, and constructions
that are no longer used in ordinary prose. These are called +archaisms+
(that is, ancient expressions). Among the commonest archaisms are
_thou_, _ye_, _hath_, _thinkest_, _doth_. Such forms are also common in
prose, in what is known as the +solemn style+, which is modelled, in
great part, on the language of the Bible.[4]

In general, it should be remembered that the style which one uses
should be appropriate,--that is, it should fit the occasion. A short
story and a scientific exposition will differ in style; a familiar
letter will naturally shun the formalities of business or legal
correspondence. Good style is not a necessary result of grammatical
correctness, but without such correctness it is, of course, impossible.


SUMMARY OF GENERAL PRINCIPLES

1. Language is the expression of thought by means of spoken or written
words.

2. Words are the signs of ideas.

Spoken words are signs made with the vocal organs; written words are
signs made with the pen to represent the spoken words.

The meanings of these signs are settled by custom or tradition in each
language.

3. Most words are the signs of definite ideas: as,--_Charles_,
_captain_, _cat_, _strike_, _dive_, _climb_, _triangular_, _careless_.

Other words, of less definite meaning, serve to connect the more
definite words and to show their relations to each other in connected
speech.

4. In the expression of thought, words are combined into groups called
phrases, clauses, and sentences.

5. The relation in which a word stands to other words in the sentence
is called its construction.

The construction of English words is shown in three ways: (1) by their
form; (2) by their order; (3) by the use of other words like _to_,
_from_, _is_, etc.

6. Inflection is a change in the form of a word indicating some change
in its meaning: as,--_boy_, _boy’s_; _man_, _men_; _drink_, _drank_.

7. Grammar is the science which treats of the forms and the
constructions of words.

Syntax is that department of grammar which treats of the constructions
of words.

8. The rules of grammar derive their authority from good usage,--that
is, from the customs or habits followed by educated speakers and
writers.



ENGLISH GRAMMAR



PART ONE

THE PARTS OF SPEECH IN THE SENTENCE

  +Summary.+ The Sentence: Subject and Predicate; Kinds of
  Sentences.--Use of words in the Sentence: the Eight Parts of Speech;
  Infinitives and Participles.--Comparative Importance of the Parts
  of Speech in the Sentence: the Subject Noun (or Simple Subject);
  the Predicate Verb (or Simple Predicate); Compound Subject and
  Predicate.--Substitutes for the Parts of Speech: Phrases; Clauses;
  Compound and Complex Sentences.


THE SENTENCE

+1.+ +A sentence is a group of words which expresses a complete
thought.+

  Fire burns.

  Wolves howl.

  Rain is falling.

  Charles is courageous.

  Patient effort removes mountains.

  London is the largest city in the world.

  A man who respects himself should never condescend to use slovenly
  language.

Some of these sentences are short, expressing a very simple thought;
others are comparatively long, because the thought is more complicated
and therefore requires more words for its expression. But every one
of them, whether short or long, is complete in itself. It comes to a
definite end, and is followed by a full pause.

+2.+ Every sentence, whether short or long, consists of two parts,--a
+subject+ and a +predicate+.

+The subject of a sentence designates the person, place, or thing that
is spoken of; the predicate is that which is said of the subject.+

  Thus, in the first example in § 1, the subject is _fire_ and the
  predicate is _burns_. In the third, the subject is _rain_; the
  predicate, _is falling_. In the last, the subject is _a man who
  respects himself_; the predicate, _should never condescend to use
  slovenly language_.

Either the subject or the predicate may consist of a single word or of
a number of words. But neither the subject by itself nor the predicate
by itself, however extended, is a sentence. The mere mention of a thing
(_fire_) does not express a complete thought. Neither does a mere
assertion (_burns_), if we neglect to mention the person or thing about
which the assertion is made. Thus it appears that both a subject and a
predicate are necessary to make a sentence.

+3.+ +Sentences may be declarative, interrogative, imperative, or
exclamatory.+

1. +A declarative sentence declares or asserts something as a fact.+

  Dickens wrote “David Copperfield.”

  The army approached the city.

2. +An interrogative sentence asks a question.+

  Who is that officer?

  Does Arthur Moore live here?

3. +An imperative sentence expresses a command or a request.+

  Open the window.

  Pronounce the vowels more distinctly.

4. +An exclamatory sentence expresses surprise, grief, or some other
emotion in the form of an exclamation or cry.+

  How calm the sea is!

  What a noise the engine makes!

A declarative, an interrogative, or an imperative sentence is also
+exclamatory+, if it is uttered in an intense or excited tone of voice.

+4.+ In imperative sentences, the subject (_thou_ or _you_) is almost
always omitted, because it is +understood+ by both speaker and hearer
without being expressed.

  Such omitted words, which are present (_in idea_) to the minds of
  both speaker and hearer, are said to be “understood.” Thus, in “Open
  the window,” the subject is “_you_ (understood).” If expressed, the
  subject would be emphatic: as,--“_You_ open the window.”

+5.+ The subject of a sentence commonly precedes the predicate, but
sometimes the predicate precedes.

  Here comes Tom.

  Next came Edward.

  Over went the carriage.

A sentence in which the predicate precedes the subject is said to be in
the +inverted order+. This order is especially common in interrogative
sentences.

  Where is your boat?

  When was your last birthday?

  Whither wander you?--SHAKSPERE.


THE PARTS OF SPEECH

+6.+ If we examine the words in any sentence, we observe that they have
different tasks or duties to perform in the expression of thought.

  Savage beasts roamed through the forest.

In this sentence, _beasts_ and _forest_ are the +names+ of objects;
_roamed_ +asserts action+, telling us what the beasts _did_; _savage_
+describes+ the beasts; _through_ shows the +relation+ in thought
between _forest_ and _roamed_; _the_ +limits+ the meaning of _forest_,
showing that one particular forest is meant. Thus each of these words
has its +special office+ (or +function+) +in the sentence+.

+7.+ +In accordance with their use in the sentence, words are
divided into eight classes called parts of speech,--namely, nouns,
pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and
interjections.+


I. NOUNS

+8.+ +A noun is the name of a person, place, or thing.+

  EXAMPLES: Lincoln, William, Elizabeth, sister, engineer, Chicago,
  island, shelf, star, window, happiness, anger, sidewalk, courage,
  loss, song.


II. PRONOUNS

+9.+ +A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun. It designates a
person, place, or thing without naming it.+

  In “_I_ am ready,” the pronoun _I_ is a convenient substitute for
  the speaker’s name. In “_You_ have forgotten _your_ umbrella,”
  the pronouns _you_ and _your_ designate the person to whom one is
  speaking.

  Other pronouns are: _he_, _his_, _him_; _she_, _hers_, _her_; _it_,
  _its_; _this_, _that_; _who_, _whose_, _whom_, _which_; _myself_,
  _yourself_, _himself_, _themselves_.

Since pronouns stand for nouns, they enable us to talk about a person,
place, or thing without constantly repeating the name.

+10.+ +Nouns and pronouns are called substantives.+

Nouns and pronouns are very similar in their use. The difference
between them is merely that the noun designates a person, place, or
thing by +naming+ it, and that the pronoun +designates+, but does not
+name+. Hence it is convenient to have a general term (+substantive+)
to include both these parts of speech.

+11.+ +The substantive to which a pronoun refers is called its
antecedent.+

  _Frank_ introduced the boys to _his_ father. [_Frank_ is the
  antecedent of the pronoun _his_.]

  _Eleanor_ is visiting _her_ aunt.

  The _book_ has lost _its_ cover.

  The _trappers_ sat round _their_ camp fire.

  _Washington_ and _Franklin_ served _their_ country in different ways.
  [_Their_ has two antecedents, connected by _and_.]


III. ADJECTIVES

+12.+ +An adjective is a word which describes or limits a
substantive.+[5]

This it usually does by indicating some quality.

+An adjective is said to belong to the substantive which it describes
or limits.+

+13.+ An adjective limits a substantive by restricting the range of its
meaning.

  The noun _box_, for example, includes a great variety of objects. If
  we say _wooden_ box, we exclude boxes of metal, of paper, etc. If we
  use a second adjective (_small_) and a third (_square_), we limit the
  size and the shape of the box.

Most adjectives (like _wooden_, _square_, and _small_) +describe+ as
well as limit. Such words are called +descriptive adjectives+.

We may, however, limit the noun _box_ to a single specimen by means of
the adjective _this_ or _that_ or _the_, which does not +describe+, but
simply points out, or +designates+. Such words are called +definitive
adjectives+.[6]


IV. VERBS

+14.+ +A verb is a word which can assert something (usually an action)
concerning a person, place, or thing.+[7]

  The wind _blows_.

  The horses _ran_.

  The fire _blazed_.

  Her jewels _sparkled_.

  Tom _climbed_ a tree.

  The dynamite _exploded_.

Some verbs express state or condition rather than action.

  The treaty still _exists_.

  The book _lies_ on the table.

  Near the church _stood_ an elm.

  My aunt _suffers_ much from headache.

+15.+ A group of words may be needed, instead of a single verb, to make
an assertion.

+A group of words that is used as a verb is called a verb-phrase.+

  You _will see_.

  The tree _has fallen_.

  We _might have invited_ her.

  Our driver _has been discharged_.

+16.+ Certain verbs, when used to make verb-phrases, are called
+auxiliary+ (that is, “aiding”) +verbs+, because they help other verbs
to express action or state of some particular kind.

  Thus, in “You _will see_,” the auxiliary verb _will_ helps _see_
  to express +future+ action; in “We _might have invited_ her,” the
  auxiliaries _might_ and _have_ help _invited_ to express action that
  was +possible+ in past time.

The auxiliary verbs are _is_ (_are_, _was_, _were_, etc.), _may_,
_can_, _must_, _might_, _shall_, _will_, _could_, _would_, _should_,
_have_, _had_, _do_, _did_. Their forms and uses will be studied in
connection with the inflection of verbs.

The auxiliary verb regularly comes first in a verb-phrase, and may be
separated from the rest of it by some other word or words.

  Where _was_ Washington _born_?

  The boat _was_ slowly but steadily _approaching_.

+17.+ _Is_ (in its various forms) and several other verbs may be
used to frame sentences in which some word or words in the predicate
describe or define the subject.

  1. Gold _is_ a metal.

  2. Charles _is_ my friend’s name.

  3. The colors of this butterfly _are_ brilliant.

  4. Iron _becomes_ red in the fire.

  5. Our condition _seemed_ desperate.

  6. Bertram _proved_ a good friend in this emergency.

  7. My soul _grows_ sad with troubles.--SHAKSPERE.

In the first sentence, the verb _is_ not only +makes an assertion+,
but it also +connects+ the rest of the predicate (_a metal_) with the
subject (_gold_) in such a way that _a metal_ serves as a description
or definition of _gold_.

In sentences 4–7, _becomes_, _seemed_, _proved_, and _grows_ are
similarly used.

In such sentences _is_ and other verbs that are used for the same
purpose are called +copulative+ (that is, “joining”) +verbs+.

  _Is_ in this use is often called the +copula+, that is, the “joiner”
  or “link.”

The forms of the verb _is_ are very irregular. Among the commonest are:
_am_, _is_, _are_, _was_, _were_, and the verb-phrases _has been_,
_have been_, _had been_, _shall be_, _will be_.[8]


V. ADVERBS

+18.+ +An adverb is a word which modifies a verb, an adjective, or
another adverb.+

  To +modify+ a word is to change or affect its meaning in some way.
  Thus in “The river fell _rapidly_,” the adverb _rapidly_ modifies
  the verb _fell_ by showing _how_ the falling took place. In “I am
  _never_ late,” “This is _absolutely_ true,” “That is _too_ bad,”
  the italicized words are adverbs modifying adjectives; in “He came
  _very_ often,” “He spoke _almost_ hopefully,” “The river fell _too_
  rapidly,” they are adverbs modifying other adverbs.

Most adverbs answer the question “How?” “When?” “Where?” or “To what
degree or extent?”

+19.+ Observe that adverbs modify verbs in much the same way in which
adjectives modify nouns.

  ADJECTIVES               ADVERBS

  A _bright_ fire burned.  The fire burned _brightly_.
  A _fierce_ wind blew.    The wind blew _fiercely_.

+A word or group of words that changes or modifies the meaning of
another word is called a modifier.+

Adjectives and adverbs, then, are both +modifiers+. Adjectives modify
substantives; adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.


VI. PREPOSITIONS

+20.+ +A preposition is a word placed before a substantive to show its
relation to some other word in the sentence.+

+The substantive which follows a preposition is called its object.+

A preposition is said to +govern+ its object.

  In “The surface _of_ the water glistened,” _of_ makes it clear that
  _surface_ belongs with _water_. In “Philip is _on_ the river,” _on_
  shows Philip’s position with respect to the river. _In_, or _near_,
  or _beyond_ would have indicated a different relation. _Water_ is
  the object of the preposition _of_, and _river_ is the object of the
  preposition _on_.

+21.+ A preposition often has more than one object.

  Over _hill_ and _dale_ he ran.

  He was filled with _shame_ and _despair_.


VII. CONJUNCTIONS

+22.+ +A conjunction connects words or groups of words.+

A conjunction differs from a preposition in having no object, and in
indicating a less definite relation between the words which it connects.

  In “Time _and_ tide wait for no man,” “The parcel was small _but_
  heavy,” “He wore a kind of doublet _or_ jacket,” the conjunctions
  _and_, _but_, _or_, connect single words,--_time_ with _tide_,
  _small_ with _heavy_, _doublet_ with _jacket_. In “Do not go _if_ you
  are afraid,” “I came _because_ you sent for me,” “Take my key, _but_
  do not lose it,” “Sweep the floor _and_ dust the furniture,” each
  conjunction connects the entire group of words preceding it with the
  entire group following it.


VIII. INTERJECTIONS

+23.+ +An interjection is a cry or other exclamatory sound expressing
surprise, anger, pleasure, or some other emotion or feeling.+

Interjections usually have no grammatical connection with the groups of
words in which they stand; hence their name, which means “thrown in.”

  EXAMPLES: _Oh!_ I forgot. _Ah_, how I miss you! _Bravo!_ _Alas!_


THE SAME WORD AS DIFFERENT PARTS OF SPEECH

+24.+ +The meaning of a word in the sentence determines to what part of
speech it belongs.+

+The same word may be sometimes one part of speech, sometimes another.+

Words of entirely separate origin, meaning, and use sometimes look and
sound alike: as in “The minstrel sang a plaintive _lay_,” and “He _lay_
on the ground.” But the following examples (§ 25) show that the same
word may have more than one kind of grammatical office (or function).
It is the +meaning+ which we give to a word +in the sentence+ that
determines its classification as a part of speech.

+25.+ The chief classes of words thus variously used are (1) nouns
and adjectives, (2) nouns and verbs, (3) adjectives and adverbs, (4)
adjectives and pronouns, (5) adverbs and prepositions.


I. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES

  NOUNS                        ADJECTIVES

  _Rubber_ comes from South    This wheel has a _rubber_ tire.
  America.

  That _brick_ is yellow.      Here is a _brick_ house.

  The _rich_ have a grave      A _rich_ merchant lives here.
  responsibility.

The first two examples show how words that are commonly nouns may
be used as adjectives; the third shows how words that are commonly
adjectives may be used as nouns.


II. NOUNS AND VERBS

  NOUNS                           VERBS

  Hear the _wash_ of the tide.    _Wash_ those windows.
  Give me a _stamp_.              _Stamp_ this envelope.
  It is the _call_ of the sea.    Ye _call_ me chief.

  Other examples are: act, address, ally, answer, boast, care, cause,
  close, defeat, doubt, drop, heap, hope, mark, offer, pile, place,
  rest, rule, sail, shape, sleep, spur, test, watch, wound.


III. ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

  ADJECTIVES                        ADVERBS

  That is a _fast_ boat.            The snow is melting _fast_.
  Draw a _straight_ line.           The arrow flew _straight_.
  _Early_ comers get good seats.    Tom awoke _early_.

  For an explanation of the form of these adverbs, see § 191.


IV. ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS

  ADJECTIVES                            PRONOUNS

  _This_ man looks unhappy.             _This_ is the sergeant.
  _That_ book is a dictionary.          _That_ is a kangaroo.
  _Each_ day brings its opportunity.    I received a dollar from _each_.

  For further study of this class of words, see pp. 62–65.


V. ADVERBS AND PREPOSITIONS

  ADVERBS                        PREPOSITIONS

  Jill came tumbling _after_.    He returned _after_ the accident.
  We went _below_.               _Below_ us lay the valley.
  The weeds sprang _up_.         We walked _up_ the hill.

  Other examples are: aboard, before, beyond, down, inside, underneath.

Miscellaneous examples of variation are the following:--

  NOUN.       The _calm_ lasted for three days.
  ADJECTIVE.  _Calm_ words show quiet minds.
  VERB.       _Calm_ your angry friend.

  Other examples are: iron, stone, paper, sugar, salt, bark, quiet,
  black, light, head, wet, round, square, winter, spring.

  NOUN.          _Wrong_ seldom prospers.
  ADJECTIVE.     You have taken the _wrong_ road.
  ADVERB.        Edward often spells words _wrong_.
  VERB.          You _wrong_ me by your suspicions.

  NOUN.          The _outside_ of the castle is gloomy.
  ADJECTIVE.     We have an _outside_ stateroom.
  ADVERB.        The messenger is waiting _outside_.
  PREPOSITION.   I shall ride _outside_ the coach.

  ADJECTIVE.     _That_ boat is a sloop.
  PRONOUN.       _That_ is my uncle.
  CONJUNCTION.   You said _that_ you would help me.

  ADJECTIVE.     _Neither_ road leads to Utica.
  PRONOUN.       _Neither_ of us arrived in time.
  CONJUNCTION.   _Neither_ Tom nor I was late.

  PREPOSITION.   I am waiting _for_ the train.
  CONJUNCTION.   You have plenty of time, _for_ the train is late.

  INTERJECTION.  _Hurrah!_ the battle is won.
  NOUN.          I heard a loud _hurrah_.
  VERB.          The enemy flees. Our men _hurrah_.


INFINITIVES AND PARTICIPLES

+26.+ Two classes of verb-forms illustrate in a striking way the fact
that the same word may belong to different parts of speech; for they
really belong to two different parts of speech at one and the same
time. These are the +infinitive+ (which is both +verb+ and +noun+) and
the +participle+ (which is both +verb+ and +adjective+).

+27.+ Examples of the +infinitive+ may be seen in the following
sentences:

  _To struggle_ was useless.

  _To escape_ is impossible.

  _To exercise_ regularly preserves the health.

_To struggle_ is clearly a +noun+, for (1) it is the subject of the
sentence, and (2) the noun _effort_ or _exertion_ might be put in
the place of _to struggle_. Similarly, the noun _escape_ might be
substituted for _to escape_; and, in the third sentence, _regular
exercise_ (a noun modified by an adjective) might be substituted for
_to exercise regularly_.

But these three forms (_to struggle_, _to escape_, and _to exercise_)
are also +verbs+, for they express action, and one of them (_to
exercise_) is modified by an adverb (_regularly_). Such forms,
therefore, are noun-forms of the verb. They are classed with verbs, and
are called +infinitives+.

+28.+ +The infinitive is a verb-form which partakes of the nature of a
noun. It is commonly preceded by the preposition _to_, which is called
the sign of the infinitive.+

+29.+ The infinitive without _to_ is used in a great variety of
verb-phrases.

  I _shall go_.

  John _will win_.

  Mary _may recite_.

  Jack _can swim_.

Such phrases will be studied in connection with the inflection of verbs.

  NOTE. That _go_, _win_, _recite_, and _swim_ are infinitives may be
  seen by comparing the following sentences:--“I intend _to go_,” “John
  is sure _to win_,” “Mary is permitted _to recite_,” “Jack is able _to
  swim_.”

+30.+ The following sentence contains two +participles+:--

  _Shattered_ and slowly _sinking_, the frigate drifted out to sea.

In this sentence, we recognize _shattered_ as a form of the +verb+
_shatter_, and _sinking_ as a form of the +verb+ _sink_. They both
express action, and _sinking_ is modified by the adverb _slowly_. But
_shattered_ and _sinking_ have also the nature of +adjectives+, for
they are used to describe the noun _frigate_. Such words, then, are
adjective forms of the verb. They are classed as verbs, and are called
+participles+, because they share (or participate in) the nature of
adjectives.

+31.+ +The participle is a verb-form which has no subject, but which
partakes of the nature of an adjective and expresses action or state in
such a way as to describe or limit a substantive.+

A participle is said to +belong to+ the substantive which it describes
or limits.

+32.+ The chief classes of participles are +present participles+ and
+past participles+, so called from the time which they denote.

All present participles end in _ing_. Past participles have several
different endings, which will be studied in connection with the
inflection of verbs (§ 334).

+33.+ Participles are used in a variety of verb-phrases.

  Tom _is coming_.

  Our boat _was wrecked_.

  I _have sent_ the money.

  He _has brought_ me a letter.

  Your book _is found_.

  They _have sold_ their horses.

  You _have broken_ your watch.

  The ship _had struck_ on the reef.

Such phrases will be studied in connection with the inflection of verbs.

  NOTE. The double nature of the infinitive (as both verb and noun)
  and the participle (as both verb and adjective) almost justifies
  one in classifying each as a distinct part of speech (so as to make
  ten parts of speech instead of eight). But it is more convenient to
  include them under the head of verbs, in accordance with the usual
  practice.


SIMPLE AND COMPLETE SUBJECT AND PREDICATE

+34.+ Our survey of the eight parts of speech has shown, (1) that these
have very different offices or functions in the sentence, and (2) that
their functions are not of equal importance.

Clearly, the most important parts of speech are +substantives+ (nouns
and pronouns) and +verbs+.

Substantives enable us to +name or designate+ persons, places, or
things, and verbs enable us to +make statements+ about them. Both
substantives and verbs, then, are absolutely necessary in framing
sentences. Without a substantive, there can be no +subject+; without a
verb, there can be no +predicate+: and both a subject and a predicate,
as we have seen, are needed to make a sentence.

+Adjectives+ and +adverbs+ are less important than substantives and
verbs. Their function is to +modify+ other parts of speech, that is, to
change their meaning in some way. Thus adjectives modify substantives
(by describing or limiting), and adverbs usually modify verbs (by
indicating _how_, _when_, or _where_ the action took place). Without
substantives, there would be no use for adjectives; without verbs,
there would be little use for adverbs.

+Prepositions+ and +conjunctions+ are also less important than
substantives and verbs. Their office is to connect and to show
relation. Of course, there would be no place for connectives if there
were nothing to connect.

+Interjections+ are the least important of all. They add liveliness to
language, but they are not actual necessities. We could express all the
thoughts that enter our minds without ever using an interjection.

+35.+ A sentence may consist of but two words,--a noun or pronoun (the
subject) and a verb (the predicate). Thus,--

  Charles | swims.

Commonly, however, either the subject or the predicate, or both, will
contain more than one word. Thus,--

  Young Charles | swims slowly.

Here the +complete subject+ (_young Charles_) consists of a noun
(_Charles_) and an adjective (_young_), which describes _Charles_.
The +complete predicate+ consists of a verb (_swims_) and an adverb
(_slowly_), which modifies _swim_ by indicating _how_ the action
is performed. The subject noun (_Charles_) and the predicate verb
(_swims_) are the chief words in the sentence, for neither could be
omitted without destroying it. They form, so to speak, the frame or
skeleton of the whole. Either of the two modifiers, the adjective or
the adverb, or both, might be omitted, without destroying the sentence;
for this would still exist as the expression of a thought (_Charles
swims_), though the thought would be less definite and exact than it is
when the modifiers are included.

+36.+ +The simple subject of a sentence is a noun or pronoun.+

+The simple predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb-phrase.+

+The simple subject, with such words as explain or complete its
meaning, forms the complete subject.+

+The simple predicate, with such words as explain or complete its
meaning, forms the complete predicate.+

In each of the following sentences the +complete subject+ and the
+complete predicate+ are separated by a vertical line, and the +simple
subject+ and the +simple predicate+ are printed in italics:--

  The _spider_ | _spreads_ her web.

  The fiery _smoke_ | _rose_ upward in billowing volumes.

  A nameless _unrest_ | _urged_ me forward.

  Our frantic _horses_ | _swept_ round an angle of the road.

  The _infirmities_ of age | _came_ early upon him.

  The general _feeling_ among the English in Bengal | _was_ strongly in
  favor of the Governor General.

  _Salutes_ | _were fired_ from the batteries.

  The _Clives_ | _had been settled_ ever since the twelfth century on
  an estate of no great value near Market Drayton in Shropshire.

  _I_ | _have written_ repeatedly to Mr. Hobhouse.

+37.+ Two or more simple subjects may be joined to make one +compound
subject+, and two or more simple predicates to make one +compound
predicate+.

  1. _Charles_ and _Henry_ | play tennis well.

  2. _Moore_ and _I_ | passed some merry days together.

  3. _Frances_ and _she_ | are friends.

  4. _Hats_, _caps_, _boots_, and _gloves_ | were piled together in
  confusion.

  5. The watch | _sank_ and _was lost_.

  6. The balloon | _rose_ higher and higher and finally _disappeared_.

  7. He | neither _smiled_ nor _frowned_.

  8. _Snow_ and _ice_ | _covered_ the ground and _made_ our progress
  difficult.

+38.+ +A compound subject or predicate consists of two or more simple
subjects or predicates, joined, when necessary, by conjunctions.+

+Either the subject or the predicate, or both, may be compound.+

In the first example in § 37, two simple subjects (_Charles_ and
_Henry_) are joined by the conjunction _and_ to make a compound
subject. In the fourth, four substantives (_hats_, _caps_, _boots_,
_gloves_) form a series in which the last two are joined by _and_. In
the fifth, sixth, and seventh, the predicates are compound; in the
eighth, both the subject and the predicate.

+39.+ The following conjunctions may be used to join the members of a
compound subject or predicate: _and_ (_both_ ... _and_), _or_ (_either_
... _or_; _whether_ ... _or_), _nor_ (_neither_ ... _nor_).


SUBSTITUTES FOR PARTS OF SPEECH


PHRASES

+40.+ A group of words may take the place of a part of speech

  _The Father of Waters_ is the Mississippi.

  A girl _with blue eyes_ stood _at the window_.

  You _are looking_ well.

  _The Father of Waters_ is used as a noun, since it names something.

  _With blue eyes_ takes the place of an adjective (_blue-eyed_), and
  modifies _girl_.

  _At the window_ indicates, as an adverb might, where the girl stood,
  and modifies _stood_.

  _Are looking_ could be replaced by the verb _look_.

+41.+ +A group of connected words, not containing a subject and a
predicate, is called a phrase.+

+A phrase is often equivalent to a part of speech.+

1. A phrase used as a noun is called a +noun-phrase+.

2. A phrase used as a verb is called a +verb-phrase+.

3. A phrase used as an adjective is called an +adjective phrase+.

4. A phrase used as an adverb is called an +adverbial phrase+.

  In the examples in § 40, _The Father of Waters_ is a noun-phrase;
  _with blue eyes_, an adjective phrase; _at the window_, an adverbial
  phrase; _are looking_, a verb-phrase.

+42.+ Many adjective and adverbial phrases consist of a +preposition
and its object+, with or without other words.

  Your umbrella is _in the corner_.

  He has a heart _of oak_.

  A cup _with a broken handle_ stood _on the shelf_.

  My house _of cards_ fell _to the floor in a heap_.

+Adjective or adverbial phrases consisting of a preposition and its
object, with or without other words, may be called prepositional
phrases.+


CLAUSES--COMPOUND AND COMPLEX SENTENCES

+43.+ Phrases must be carefully distinguished from +clauses+. The
difference is that a clause contains a subject and a predicate and a
phrase does not.

+44.+ +A clause is a group of words that forms part of a sentence and
that contains a subject and a predicate.+

  The lightning flashed | and | the thunder roared.

  The train started | when the bell rang.

Each of these sentences contains two clauses; but the relation between
the clauses in the first sentence is very different from that between
the clauses in the second.

In the first example, each of the two clauses makes a separate
and distinct statement, and might stand by itself as a simple
sentence,--that is, as a sentence having but one subject and one
predicate. These clauses are joined by the conjunction _and_, which is
not a part of either. No doubt the speaker feels that there is some
relation in thought between the two statements, or he would not have
put them together as clauses in the same sentence. But there is nothing
in the form of expression to show what that relation is. In other
words, the two clauses are grammatically +independent+, for neither of
them modifies (or affects the meaning of) the other. The clauses are
therefore said to be +coördinate+,--that is, of the same “order” or
rank, and the sentence is called +compound+.

In the second example, on the contrary, the relation between the two
clauses is indicated with precision. One clause (_the train started_)
makes the main statement,--it expresses the chief fact. Hence it is
called the +main+ (or +principal+) +clause+. The other clause (_when
the bell rang_) is added because the speaker wishes to +modify+ the
main verb (_started_) by defining the time of the action. This clause,
then, is used as a +part of speech+. Its function is the same as that
of an adverb (_promptly_) or an adverbial phrase (_on the stroke of the
bell_). For this purpose alone it exists, and not as an independent
statement. Hence it is called a +dependent+ (or +subordinate+)
+clause+, because it +depends+ (that is, “hangs”) upon the main clause,
and so occupies a lower or “subordinate” rank in the sentence. When
thus constructed, a sentence is said to be +complex+.

+45.+ An ordinary +compound sentence+ (as we have seen in § 44) is made
by joining two or more simple sentences, each of which thus becomes an
+independent coördinate clause+.

In the same way we may join two or more +complex sentences+, using them
as clauses to make one compound sentence:--

  The train started when the bell rang, | and | Tom watched until the
  last car disappeared.

This sentence is manifestly +compound+, for it consists of two
+coördinate clauses+ (_the train started when the bell rang_; _Tom
watched until the last car disappeared_) joined by _and_. Each of these
two clauses is itself +complex+, for each could stand by itself as a
complex sentence.

Similarly, a +complex+ and a +simple+ sentence may be joined as
coördinate clauses to make a compound sentence.

  The train started when the bell rang, | and | Tom gazed after it in
  despair.

Such a sentence, which is +compound in its structure+, but in which one
or more of the coördinate clauses are +complex+, is called a +compound
complex sentence+.[9]

+46.+ +A clause is a group of words that forms part of a sentence and
that contains a subject and a predicate.+

+A clause used as a part of speech is called a subordinate clause. All
other clauses are said to be independent.+

+Clauses of the same order or rank are said to be coördinate.+

+Sentences may be simple, compound, or complex.+

1. +A simple sentence has but one subject and one predicate, either or
both of which may be compound.+

2. +A compound sentence consists of two or more independent coördinate
clauses, which may or may not be joined by conjunctions.+

3. +A complex sentence consists of two or more clauses, one of which is
independent and the rest subordinate.+

+A compound sentence in which one or more of the coördinate clauses are
complex is called a compound complex sentence.+


I. SIMPLE SENTENCES

  Iron rusts.

  George V is king.

  Dogs, foxes, and hares are quadrupeds. [Compound subject.]

  The defendant rose and addressed the court. [Compound predicate.]

  Merton and his men crossed the bridge and scaled the wall. [Both
  subject and predicate are compound.]


II. COMPOUND SENTENCES

  Shakspere was born in 1564; he died in 1616. [Two coördinate clauses;
  no conjunction.]

  A rifle cracked, and the wolf fell dead. [Two clauses joined by the
  conjunction _and_.]

  You must hurry, or we shall lose the train. [Two clauses joined by
  _or_.]

  James Watt did not invent the steam engine, but he greatly improved
  it. [Two clauses joined by _but_.]

  Either you have neglected to write or your letter has failed to reach
  me. [Two clauses joined by _either_ ... _or_.]

The following conjunctions may be used to join coördinate clauses:
_and_ (_both_ ... _and_), _or_ (_either_ ... _or_), _nor_ (_neither_
... _nor_), _but_, _for_.


III. COMPLEX SENTENCES

Examples will be found in §§ 48–50.


CLAUSES AS PARTS OF SPEECH

+47.+ +Subordinate clauses+, like phrases, are used as +parts of
speech+. They serve as substitutes for +nouns+, for +adjectives+, or
for +adverbs+.

1. +A subordinate clause that is used as a noun is called a noun (or
substantive) clause.+

2. +A subordinate clause that modifies a substantive is called an
adjective clause.+

3. +A subordinate clause that serves as an adverbial modifier is called
an adverbial clause.+

+48.+ I. NOUN (OR SUBSTANTIVE) CLAUSES.

  {_Success_ | _That we should succeed in this plan_} is improbable.

The thought in these two sentences is the same, but in the second it
is more fully expressed. In the first sentence, the subject is the
noun _success_; in the second, the subject is the noun clause, _that
we should succeed in this plan_. This clause is introduced by the
conjunction _that_; the simple subject of the clause is the pronoun
_we_, and the simple predicate is the verb-phrase _should succeed_. The
first sentence is +simple+; the second is +complex+.

Substantive clauses are often introduced by the conjunction _that_.

+49.+ II. ADJECTIVE CLAUSES. The following sentences illustrate the use
of (1) an +adjective+, (2) an +adjective phrase+, (3) an +adjective
clause+, as a modifier of the subject noun.

  {An _honorable_ man | A man _of honor_ | A man _who values his
  honor_} will not lie.

  {A _seasonable_ word | A word _in season_ | A word _that is spoken at
  the right moment_} may save a soul.

  {My _native_ land | The land _of my birth_ | The land _where I was
  born_} lies far across the sea.

The first two sentences in each group are +simple+, the third is
+complex+.

+50.+ III. ADVERBIAL CLAUSES. The following sentences illustrate the
use of (1) an +adverb+, (2) an +adverbial phrase+, (3) an +adverbial
clause+, as a modifier of the predicate verb (or verb-phrase).

  The lightning struck {_here_. | _on this spot_. | _where we stand_.}

  Mr. Andrews lives {_near_. | _in this neighborhood_. | _where you see
  that elm_.}

  The game began {_punctually_. | _on the stroke of one_. | _when the
  clock struck_.}

  The banker will make the loan {_conditionally_. | _on one condition_.
  | _if you endorse my note_.}

The first two sentences in each group are +simple+, the third is
+complex+.

+51.+ Adjective clauses may be introduced (1) by the pronouns _who_,
_which_, and _that_, or (2) by adverbs like _where_, _whence_,
_whither_, _when_.

Adverbial clauses may be introduced (1) by the adverbs _where_,
_whither_, _whence_, _when_, _while_, _before_, _after_, _until_,
_how_, _as_, or (2) by the conjunctions _because_, _though_,
_although_, _if_, _that_ (_in order that_, _so that_), _lest_, etc.

  NOTE. The use of +phrases+ and +clauses+ as +parts of speech+
  increases enormously the richness and power of language. Though
  English has a huge stock of words, it cannot provide a separate noun
  or adjective or adverb for every idea. By grouping words, however, in
  phrases and clauses we, in effect, make a great variety of new nouns,
  adjectives, and adverbs, each precisely fitted to the needs of the
  moment in the expression of thought.


SUMMARY OF DEFINITIONS


THE SENTENCE

1. Language is thought expressed in words.

2. To express thought words are combined into sentences.

3. A sentence is a group of words which expresses a complete thought.

4. Sentences may be declarative, interrogative, imperative, or
exclamatory.

(1) A declarative sentence declares or asserts something as a fact.

(2) An interrogative sentence asks a question.

(3) An imperative sentence expresses a command or a request.

(4) An exclamatory sentence expresses surprise, grief, or some other
emotion in the form of an exclamation or cry.

A declarative, an interrogative, or an imperative sentence may also be
exclamatory.


SUBJECT AND PREDICATE

5. Every sentence consists of a subject and a predicate.

The subject of a sentence designates the person, place, or thing that
is spoken of; the predicate is that which is said of the subject.

6. The simple subject of a sentence is a noun or pronoun.

The simple predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb-phrase.

7. The simple subject, with such words as explain or complete its
meaning, forms the complete subject.

The simple predicate, with such words as explain or complete its
meaning, forms the complete predicate.

8. A compound subject or predicate consists of two or more simple
subjects or predicates, joined, when necessary, by conjunctions.

Either the subject or the predicate, or both, may be compound.


THE PARTS OF SPEECH

9. In accordance with their use in the sentence, words are divided
into eight classes called parts of speech,--namely, nouns, pronouns,
adjectives, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and
interjections.

(1) A noun is the name of a person, place, or thing.

(2) A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun. It designates a person,
place, or thing without naming it.

Nouns and pronouns are called substantives.

The substantive to which a pronoun refers is called its antecedent.

(3) An adjective is a word which describes or limits a substantive.

This it usually does by indicating some quality.

An adjective is said to belong to the substantive which it describes or
limits.

An adjective which describes is called a descriptive adjective; one
which points out or designates is called a definitive adjective.

(4) A verb is a word which can assert something (usually an action)
concerning a person, place, or thing.

Some verbs express state or condition rather than action.

A group of words that is used as a verb is called a verb-phrase.

Certain verbs, when used to make verb-phrases, are called auxiliary
(that is, “aiding”) verbs, because they help other verbs to express
action or state of some particular kind.

_Is_ (in its various forms) and several other verbs may be used to
frame sentences in which some word or words in the predicate describe
or define the subject. In such sentences, _is_ and other verbs that are
used for the same purpose are called copulative (that is, “joining”)
verbs.

(5) An adverb is a word which modifies a verb, an adjective, or another
adverb.

A word or group of words that changes or modifies the meaning of
another word is called a modifier.

Adjectives and adverbs are both modifiers.

(6) A preposition is a word placed before a substantive to show its
relation to some other word in the sentence.

The substantive which follows a preposition is called its object.

(7) A conjunction connects words or groups of words.

(8) An interjection is a cry or other exclamatory sound expressing
surprise, anger, pleasure, or some other emotion or feeling.

10. The meaning of a word in the sentence determines to what part of
speech it belongs.

The same word may be sometimes one part of speech, sometimes another.

11. The infinitive is a verb-form which partakes of the nature of a
noun. It is commonly preceded by the preposition _to_, which is called
the sign of the infinitive.

12. The participle is a verb-form which has no subject, but which
partakes of the nature of an adjective and expresses action or state in
such a way as to describe or limit a substantive.

A participle is said to belong to the substantive which it describes or
limits.

The chief classes of participles are present participles and past
participles, so called from the time which they denote.


SUBSTITUTES FOR THE PARTS OF SPEECH


PHRASES

13. A group of connected words, not containing a subject and a
predicate, is called a phrase.

A phrase is often equivalent to a part of speech.

(1) A phrase used as a noun is called a noun-phrase.

(2) A phrase used as a verb is called a verb-phrase.

(3) A phrase used as an adjective is called an adjective phrase.

(4) A phrase used as an adverb is called an adverbial phrase.

14. Adjective or adverbial phrases consisting of a preposition and
its object, with or without other words, may be called prepositional
phrases.


CLAUSES

15. A clause is a group of words that forms part of a sentence and that
contains a subject and a predicate.

16. A clause used as a part of speech is called a subordinate clause.
All other clauses are said to be independent.

17. Clauses of the same order or rank are said to be coördinate.

18. Sentences may be simple, compound, or complex.

(1) A simple sentence has but one subject and one predicate, either or
both of which may be compound.

(2) A compound sentence consists of two or more independent coördinate
clauses, which may or may not be joined by conjunctions.

(3) A complex sentence consists of two or more clauses, one of which is
independent and the rest subordinate.

A compound sentence in which one or more of the coördinate clauses are
complex is called a compound complex sentence.

19. Subordinate clauses, like phrases, are used as parts of speech.
They serve as substitutes for nouns, for adjectives, or for adverbs.

(1) A subordinate clause that is used as a noun is called a noun (or
substantive) clause.

(2) A subordinate clause that modifies a substantive is called an
adjective clause.

(3) A subordinate clause that serves as an adverbial modifier is called
an adverbial clause.



PART TWO

INFLECTION AND SYNTAX



CHAPTER I

INFLECTION


+52.+ +Inflection is a change of form in a word indicating some change
in its meaning. A word thus changed in form is said to be inflected.+

  Thus the nouns _man_, _wife_, _dog_, may change their form to
  _man’s_, _wife’s_, _dog’s_, to express possession; or to _men_,
  _wives_, _dogs_, to show that two or more are meant.

  The pronouns _I_, _she_, may change their form to _our_, _her_.

  The adjectives _large_, _happy_, _good_, may change their form to
  _larger_, _happier_, _better_, to denote a higher degree of the
  quality; or to _largest_, _happiest_, _best_, to denote the highest
  degree.

  The verbs _look_, _see_, _sing_, may change their form to _looked_,
  _saw_, _sang_, to denote past time.

The examples show that a word may be inflected (1) by the addition of
a final letter or syllable (_dog_, _dogs_; _look_, _looked_), (2) by
the substitution of one letter for another (_man_, _men_), or (3) by a
complete change of form (_good_, _better_, _best_).

+53.+ The inflection of a substantive is called its +declension+; that
of an adjective or an adverb, its +comparison+; that of a verb, its
+conjugation+.

  NOTE. Some forms which we regard as due to inflection are really
  distinct words. Thus _we_ is regarded as a form of the pronoun _I_,
  but it is in fact an altogether different word. Such irregularities,
  however, are not numerous, and are properly enough included under the
  head of inflection.

The table below gives a summary view of inflection, and may be used for
reference with the following chapters.

  SUBSTANTIVES (NOUNS AND PRONOUNS)

    Gender { Masculine (_male_)
           { Feminine (_female_)
           { Neuter (_no sex_)

    Number { Singular (_one_)
           { Plural (_more than one_)

    Person { First (_speaker_)
           { Second (_spoken to_)
           { Third (_spoken of_)

    Case   { Nominative (_subject case_)
           { Possessive (_ownership_)
           { Objective (_object case_)

  ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

    Comparison { Positive Degree
               { Comparative Degree
               { Superlative Degree

  VERBS

    Number { Singular }
           { Plural   }
                      } _Verb agrees with Subject_
    Person { First    }
           { Second   }
           { Third    }

    Tense  { Simple Tenses { Present
           {               { Past
           {               { Future
           {
           { Compound Tenses { Perfect (or Present Perfect)
           {                 { Pluperfect (or Past Perfect)
           {                 { Future Perfect

    Mood   { Indicative (_all six tenses_)
           { Imperative (_Present Tense only_)
           { Subjunctive (_Present_, _Past_, _Perfect_, _Pluperfect_)

    Voice  { Active (_Subject acts_)
           { Passive (_Subject receives the action_)

    Infinitives (Present and Perfect)
    Participles (Present, Past, and Perfect)



CHAPTER II

NOUNS


CLASSIFICATION--COMMON NOUNS AND PROPER NOUNS

+54.+ +A noun is the name of a person, place, or thing.+

+55.+ +Nouns are divided into two classes--proper nouns and common
nouns.+

1. +A proper noun is the name of a particular person, place, or thing.+

  EXAMPLES: Lincoln, Napoleon, Ruth, Gladstone, America, Denver,
  Jove, Ohio, Monday, December, Yale, Christmas, Britannia, Niagara,
  Merrimac, Elmwood, Louvre, Richardson, Huron, Falstaff.

2. +A common noun is a name which may be applied to any one of a class
of persons, places, or things.+

  EXAMPLES: general, emperor, president, clerk, street, town, desk,
  tree, cloud, chimney, childhood, idea, thought, letter, dynamo,
  cruiser, dictionary, railroad.

Proper nouns begin with a capital letter; common nouns usually begin
with a small letter.

  NOTE. Although a proper noun is the name of a particular person,
  place, or thing, that name may be given to more than one individual.
  More than one man is named _James_; but when we say _James_, we think
  of one particular person, whom we are calling by his own name. When
  we say _man_, on the contrary, we are not calling any single person
  by name: we are using a noun which applies, in common, to all the
  members of a large class of persons.

Any word, when mentioned merely +as a word+, is a noun. Thus,--

  _And_ is a conjunction.

+56.+ A common noun becomes a proper noun when used as the particular
name of a ship, a newspaper, an animal, etc.

  Nelson’s flagship was the _Victory_.

  Give me this evening’s _Herald_.

  My dog is named _Rover_.

  The _Limited Express_ is drawn by the _Pioneer_.

+57.+ A proper noun often consists of a group of words, some of which
are perhaps ordinarily used as other parts of speech.

  EXAMPLES: James Russell Lowell, Washington Elm, Eiffel Tower, Firth
  of Clyde, North Lexington Junction, Stony Brook, Westminster Abbey,
  Measure for Measure, White House, Brooklyn Bridge, Atlantic Railroad,
  Sherman Act, The Return of the Native, Flatiron Building.

  NOTE. These are (strictly speaking) noun-phrases (§ 41); but, since
  all are particular names, they may be regarded as proper nouns.

+58.+ A proper noun becomes a common noun when used as a name that may
be applied to any one of a class of objects.

  The museum owns two _Rembrandts_ and a _Titian_.

  I exchanged my old motor car for a new _Halstead_.

  My fountain pen is a _Blake_.

  Lend me your _Webster_.

  He was a _Napoleon_ of finance.

  I am going to buy a _Kazak_.

+59.+ Certain proper nouns have become common nouns when used in a
special sense. These generally begin with a small letter.

  EXAMPLES: macadam (crushed stone for roads, so called from Macadam,
  the inventor), mackintosh (a waterproof garment), napoleon (a coin),
  guinea (twenty-one shillings), mentor (a wise counsellor), derringer
  (a kind of pistol).

+60.+ A lifeless object, one of the lower animals, or any human quality
or emotion is sometimes regarded as a person.

This usage is called +personification+, and the object, animal, or
quality is said to be +personified+.

  Each old poetic _Mountain_
  Inspiration breathed around.--GRAY.

  Who’ll toll the bell?
  “I,” said the _Bull_,
  “Because I can pull.”

  His name was _Patience_.--SPENSER.

  Smiles on past _Misfortune’s_ brow
  Soft _Reflection’s_ hand can trace;
  And o’er the cheek of _Sorrow_ throw
    A melancholy grace.--GRAY.

  _Love_ is and was my lord and king,
    And in his presence I attend.--TENNYSON.

  _Time_ gently shakes his wings.--DRYDEN.

The name of anything personified is regarded as a proper noun and is
usually written with a capital letter.

  NOTE. The rule for capitals is not absolute. When the personification
  is kept up for only a sentence or two (as frequently in Shakspere),
  the noun often begins with a small letter.


SPECIAL CLASSES OF NOUNS

+61.+ +An abstract noun is the name of a quality or general idea.+

  EXAMPLES: blackness, freshness, smoothness, weight, height, length,
  depth, strength, health, honesty, beauty, liberty, eternity,
  satisfaction, precision, splendor, terror, disappointment, elegance,
  existence, grace, peace.

Many abstract nouns are derived from adjectives.

  EXAMPLES: greenness (from _green_), depth (from _deep_), freedom
  (from _free_), wisdom (from _wise_), rotundity (from _rotund_),
  falsity or falseness (from _false_), bravery (from _brave_).

+62.+ +A collective noun is the name of a group, class, or multitude,
and not of a single person, place, or thing.+

  EXAMPLES: crowd, group, legislature, squadron, sheaf, battalion,
  squad, Associated Press, Mediterranean Steamship Company, Senior
  Class, School Board.

The same noun may be +abstract+ in one of its meanings, +collective+ in
another.

  They believe in _fraternity_. [Abstract.]

  The student joined a _fraternity_. [Collective.]

+63.+ Abstract nouns are usually common, but become proper when the
quality or idea is personified (§ 60).

Collective nouns may be either proper or common.

+64.+ +A noun consisting of two or more words united is called a
compound noun.+

  EXAMPLES: (1) common nouns,--tablecloth, sidewalk, lampshade,
  bedclothes, steamboat, fireman, washerwoman, jackknife, hatband,
  headache, flatiron, innkeeper, knife-edge, steeple-climber,
  brother-in-law, commander-in-chief, window curtain, insurance
  company; (2) proper nouns,--Johnson, Williamson, Cooperstown,
  Louisville, Holywood, Elk-horn, Auburndale, Stratford-on-Avon, Lowell
  Junction.

As the examples show, the parts of a compound noun may be joined (with
or without a hyphen) or written separately. In some words usage is
fixed, in others it varies. The hyphen, however, is less used than
formerly.

  NOTE. The first part of a compound noun usually limits the second
  after the manner of an adjective. Indeed, many expressions may be
  regarded either (1) as compounds or (2) as phrases containing an
  adjective and a noun. Thus _railway conductor_ may be taken as a
  compound noun, or as a noun (_conductor_) limited by an adjective
  (_railway_).


INFLECTION OF NOUNS

+65.+ In studying the inflection of nouns and pronouns we have to
consider +gender+, +number+, +person+, and +case+.

1. +Gender is distinction according to sex.+

2. +Number is that property of substantives which shows whether they
indicate one person or thing or more than one.+

3. +Person is that property of substantives which shows whether they
designate (1) the speaker, (2) the person spoken to, or (3) the person
or thing spoken of.+

4. +Substantives have inflections of case to indicate their grammatical
relations to verbs, to prepositions, or to other substantives.+

  These four properties of substantives are included under inflection
  for convenience. In strictness, however, nouns are inflected for
  number and case only. Gender is shown in various ways,--usually by
  the meaning of the noun or by the use of some pronoun. Person is
  indicated by the sense, by the pronouns used, and by the form of the
  verb.


I. GENDER

+66.+ +Gender is distinction according to sex.+

+Nouns and pronouns may be of the masculine, the feminine, or the
neuter gender.+

1. +A noun or pronoun denoting a male being is of the masculine gender.+

  EXAMPLES: Joseph, boy, cockerel, buck, footman, butler, brother,
  father, uncle, he.

2. +A noun or pronoun denoting a female being is of the feminine
gender.+

  EXAMPLES: girl, Julia, hen, waitress, maid, doe, spinster, matron,
  aunt, squaw, she.

3. +A noun or pronoun denoting a thing without animal life is of the
neuter gender.+

  EXAMPLES: pencil, light, water, star, book, dust, leaf, it.

A noun or pronoun which is sometimes masculine and sometimes feminine
is often said to be of +common gender+.

  EXAMPLES: bird, speaker, artist, animal, cat, European, musician,
  operator, they.

+67.+ +A pronoun must be in the same gender as the noun for which it
stands or to which it refers.+

Each of the following pronouns is limited to a single gender:

  MASCULINE: _he_, _his_, _him_.
  FEMININE:  _she_, _her_, _hers_.
  NEUTER:    _it_, _its_.

All other pronouns vary in gender.

  _Robert_ greeted _his_ employer. [Masculine.]

  A _mother_ passed with _her_ child. [Feminine.]

  This _tree_ has lost _its_ foliage. [Neuter.]

  _Who_ laughed? [Masculine or feminine.]

  How do _you_ do? [Masculine or feminine.]

  _They_ have disappeared. [Masculine, feminine, or neuter.]

  I do not care for _either_. [Masculine, feminine, or neuter.]

+68.+ A neuter noun may become masculine or feminine by
+personification+ (§ 60).

  Thou who didst waken from his summer dreams
  The blue Mediterranean.--SHELLEY.

  Stern daughter of the Voice of God!
  O Duty!--WORDSWORTH.

           Nature from her seat
  Sighing through all her works, gave signs of woe.--MILTON.

+69.+ In speaking of certain objects, such as a ship and the moon, it
is customary to use _she_ and _her_. In like manner, _he_ is used in
speaking of the sun and of most animals, without reference to sex,
although _it_ often designates an insect or other small creature, and
even a very young child.

_Who_ and _which_ are both used in referring to the +lower animals+.
_Which_ is the commoner, but _who_ is not infrequent, especially if the
animal is thought of as an intelligent being.

  Thus one would say, “The dog _which_ is for sale is in that kennel,”
  even if one added, “_He_ is a collie.” But _which_ would never be
  used in such a sentence as, “I have a dog _who_ loves children.”

+70.+ The +gender+ of masculine and of feminine nouns may be shown in
various ways.

1. The male and the female of many kinds or classes of living beings
are denoted by different words.

  MASCULINE    FEMININE

  father       mother
  husband      wife
  uncle        aunt
  king         queen
  monk         nun
  wizard       witch
  lord         lady
  horse        mare
  gander       goose
  drake        duck
  cock         hen
  ram          ewe
  bull         cow
  hart         hind
  buck         doe
  fox          vixen[10]

2. Some masculine nouns become feminine by the addition of an ending.

  MASCULINE        FEMININE

  heir             heiress
  baron            baroness
  lion             lioness
  prince           princess
  emperor          empress
  tiger            tigress
  executor         executrix
  administrator    administratrix
  hero             heroine
  Joseph           Josephine
  sultan           sultana
  Philip           Philippa

  NOTE. The feminine gender is often indicated by the ending _ess_.
  Frequently the corresponding masculine form ends in _or_ or _er_:
  as,--actor, actress; governor, governess; waiter, waitress. The
  ending _ess_ is not so common as formerly. Usage favors _proprietor_,
  _author_, _editor_, etc., even for the feminine (rather than the
  harsher forms _proprietress_, _authoress_, _editress_), whenever
  there is no special reason for emphasizing the difference of sex.

3. A few feminine words become masculine by the addition of an ending.
Thus,--_widow_, _widower_; _bride_, _bridegroom_.

4. Gender is sometimes indicated by the ending _man_, _woman_, _maid_,
_boy_, or _girl_.

  EXAMPLES: salesman, saleswoman; foreman, forewoman; laundryman;
  milkmaid; cash boy, cash girl.

5. A noun or a pronoun is sometimes prefixed to a noun to indicate
gender.

  EXAMPLES: manservant, maidservant; mother bird; cock sparrow, hen
  sparrow; boy friend, girl friend; he-wolf, she-wolf.

6. The gender of a noun may be indicated by some accompanying part of
speech, usually by a pronoun.

  My _cat_ is always washing _his_ face.

  The _intruder_ shook _her_ head.

  I was confronted by a pitiful _creature_, haggard and _unshaven_.

  NOTE. The variations in form studied under 2 and 3 (above) are often
  regarded as inflections. In reality, however, the masculine and the
  feminine are different words. Thus, _baroness_ is not an inflectional
  form of _baron_, but a distinct noun, made from _baron_ by adding
  the ending _ess_, precisely as _barony_ and _baronage_ are made from
  _baron_ by adding the endings _y_ and _age_. The process is rather
  that of +derivation+ or noun-formation than that of inflection.


II. NUMBER

+71.+ +Number is that property of substantives which shows whether they
indicate one person, place, or thing or more than one.+

+There are two numbers,--the singular and the plural.+

+The singular number denotes but one person, place, or thing. The
plural number denotes more than one person, place, or thing.+

+72.+ +Most nouns form the plural number by adding _s_ or _es_ to the
singular.+

  EXAMPLES: mat, mats; wave, waves; problem, problems; bough, boughs;
  John, Johns; nurse, nurses; tense, tenses; bench, benches; dish,
  dishes; class, classes; fox, foxes.


SPECIAL RULES

1. If the singular ends in _s_, _x_, _z_, _ch_, or _sh_, the plural
ending is _es_.

  EXAMPLES: loss, losses; box, boxes; buzz, buzzes; match, matches;
  rush, rushes.

2. Many nouns ending in _o_ preceded by a consonant also take the
ending _es_ in the plural.

  EXAMPLES: hero, heroes; cargo, cargoes; potato, potatoes; motto,
  mottoes; buffalo, buffaloes; mosquito, mosquitoes.

3. Nouns ending in _o_ preceded by a vowel form their plural in _s_:
as,--_cameo_, _cameos_; _folio_, _folios_.

4. The following nouns ending in _o_ preceded by a consonant also form
their plural in _s_:--

  banjo
  bravo
  burro
  cantocasino
  chromo
  contralto
  duodecimo
  dynamo
  halo[11]
  junto
  lasso
  memento[11]
  octavo
  piano
  proviso
  quarto
  solo
  soprano
  stiletto
  torso
  tyro
  zero[11]

+73.+ In some nouns the addition of the plural ending alters the
spelling and even the sound of the singular form.

1. Nouns ending in _y_ preceded by a consonant change _y_ to _i_ and
add _es_ in the plural.

  EXAMPLES: sky, skies; fly, flies; country, countries; berry, berries.
  (Contrast: valley, valleys; chimney, chimneys; monkey, monkeys; boy,
  boys; day, days.)

Most proper names ending in _y_, however, take the plural in _s_.

  EXAMPLES: Mary, Marys; Murphy, Murphys; Daly, Dalys; Rowley, Rowleys;
  May, Mays.

2. Some nouns ending in _f_ or _fe_, change the _f_ to _v_ and add _es_
or _s_.

  EXAMPLES: wharf, wharves; wife, wives; shelf, shelves; wolf, wolves;
  thief, thieves; knife, knives; half, halves; calf, calves; life,
  lives; self, selves; sheaf, sheaves; loaf, loaves; leaf, leaves; elf,
  elves; beef, beeves.

+74.+ A few nouns form their plural in _en_.

  These are: ox, oxen; brother, brethren (_or_ brothers); child,
  children.

  NOTE. Ancient or poetical plurals belonging to this class are: _eyne_
  (for _eyen_, from _eye_), _kine_ (cows), _shoon_ (shoes), _hosen_
  (hose).

+75.+ A few nouns form their plural by a +change of vowel+.

  These are: man, men; woman, women; merman, mermen; foot, feet; tooth,
  teeth; goose, geese; mouse, mice; louse, lice. Also compound words
  ending in _man_ or _woman_, such as fireman, firemen; saleswoman,
  saleswomen; Dutchman, Dutchmen.

  NOTE. _German_, _Mussulman_, _Ottoman_, _dragoman_, _firman_, and
  _talisman_, which are not compounds of _man_, form their plurals
  regularly: as,--_Germans_, _Mussulmans_. _Norman_ also forms its
  plural in _s_.

+76.+ A few nouns have the same form in both singular and plural.

  EXAMPLES: deer, sheep, heathen, Japanese, Portuguese, Iroquois.

  NOTE. This class was larger in older English than at present.
  It included, for example, _year_, which in Shakspere has two
  plurals:--“six thousand _years_,” “twelve _year_ since.”

+77.+ A few nouns have two plurals, but usually with some difference in
meaning.

  SINGULAR     PLURAL

  brother    { brothers (relatives)
             { brethren (members of the same society)

  horse      { horses (animals)
             { horse (cavalry)

  foot       { feet (parts of the body)
             { foot (infantry)

  sail       { sails (on vessels)
             { sail (vessels in a fleet)

  head       { heads (in usual sense)
             { head (of cattle)

  fish       { fishes (individually)
             { fish (collectively)

  penny      { pennies (single coins)
             { pence (collectively)

  cloth      { cloths (pieces of cloth)
             { clothes (garments)

  die        { dies (for stamping)
             { dice (for gaming)

  The _pennies_ were arranged in neat piles.

  English money is reckoned in pounds, shillings, and _pence_.

+78.+ When +compound nouns+ are made plural, the last part usually
takes the plural form; less often the first part; rarely both parts.

  EXAMPLES: spoonful, spoonfuls; bathhouse, bathhouses; forget-me-not,
  forget-me-nots; editor-in-chief, editors-in-chief; maid-of-honor,
  maids-of-honor; gentleman usher, gentlemen ushers; Knight Templar,
  Knights Templars; Lord Justice, Lords Justices; manservant,
  menservants.

+79.+ Letters of the alphabet, figures, signs used in writing, and
words regarded merely as words take _’s_ in the plural.

  “Embarrassed” is spelled with two _r’s_ and two _s’s_.

  Your _3’s_ look like _8’s_.

  Tell the printer to change the §’s to ¶’s.

  Don’t interrupt me with your _but’s_!

+80.+ Foreign nouns in English sometimes retain their foreign plurals;
but many have an English plural also.

Some of the commonest are included in the following list:[12]

  SINGULAR               PLURAL

  alumna (feminine)      alumnæ
  alumnus (masculine)    alumni
  amanuensis             amanuenses
  analysis               analyses
  animalculum            animalcula[13]
  antithesis             antitheses
  appendix             { appendices
                       { appendixes
  axis                   axes
  bacillus               bacilli
  bacterium              bacteria
  bandit               { banditti
                       { bandits
  basis                  bases
  beau                 { beaux
                       { beaus
  candelabrum            candelabra
  cumulus                cumuli
  cherub               { cherubim
                       { cherubs
  crisis                 crises
  curriculum             curricula
  datum                  data
  ellipsis               ellipses
  erratum                errata
  formula              { formulæ
                       { formulas
  genius               { genii
                       { geniuses
  genus                  genera
  gymnasium            { gymnasia
                       { gymnasiums
  hippopotamus           hippopotami
  hypothesis             hypotheses
  larva                  larvæ
  memorandum           { memoranda
                       { memorandums
  nebula                 nebulæ
  oasis                  oases
  parenthesis            parentheses
  phenomenon             phenomena
  radius                 radii
  seraph               { seraphim
                       { seraphs
  species                species
  stratum                strata
  synopsis               synopses
  tableau                tableaux
  tempo                  tempi
  terminus               termini
  thesis                 theses
  trousseau              trousseaux
  vertebra               vertebræ

The two plurals sometimes differ in meaning: as,--

  Michael Angelo and Raphael were _geniuses_.

  Spirits are sometimes called _genii_.

  This book has two _indices_.

  The printer uses signs called _indexes_.

+81.+ When a +proper name+ with the title _Mr._, _Mrs._, _Miss_, or
_Master_, is put into the plural, the rules are as follows:--

1. The plural of _Mr._ is _Messrs._ (pronounced _Messers_[14]). The
name remains in the singular. Thus,--

  _Mr. Jackson_, plural _Messrs._ (or the _Messrs._) _Jackson_.

2. _Mrs._ has no plural. The name itself takes the plural form. Thus,--

  _Mrs. Jackson_, plural _the Mrs. Jacksons_.

3. In the case of _Miss_, sometimes the title is put into the plural,
sometimes the name. Thus,--

  _Miss Jackson_, plural _the Misses Jackson_ or _the Miss Jacksons_.

  The latter expression is somewhat informal. Accordingly, it would not
  be used in a formal invitation or reply, or in addressing a letter.

4. The plural of _Master_ is _Masters_. The name remains in the
singular. Thus,--

  _Master Jackson_, plural _the Masters Jackson_.

  Other titles usually remain in the singular, the name taking the
  plural form: as,--_the two General Follansbys_. But when two or more
  names follow, the title becomes plural: as,--_Generals Rolfe and
  Johnson_.

+82.+ Some nouns, on account of their meaning, are seldom or never used
in the plural.

  Such are many names of qualities (as _cheerfulness_, _mirth_), of
  sciences (as _chemistry_[15]), of forces (as _gravitation_).

Many nouns, commonly used in the singular only, may take a plural in
some special sense. Thus,--

  earth (the globe)     earths (kinds of soil)
  ice (frozen water)    ices (food)
  tin (a metal)         tins (tin dishes or cans)
  nickel (a metal)      nickels (coins)

+83.+ Some nouns are used in the plural only.

  Such are: annals, athletics, billiards, dregs, eaves, entrails, lees,
  nuptials, oats, obsequies, pincers, proceeds, riches, scissors,
  shears, suds, tweezers, tongs, trousers, victuals, vitals;

  and (in certain special senses)

  ashes, goods, links, scales, spectacles, stocks.

+84.+ A few nouns are plural in form, but singular in meaning.

  Such are: gallows, news, measles, mumps, small pox (for _small
  pocks_), politics, and some names of sciences (as, civics, economics,
  ethics, mathematics, physics, optics).

  NOTE. These nouns were formerly plural in sense as well as in form.
  _News_, for example, originally meant “new things.” Shakspere uses it
  both as a singular and as a plural. Thus,--“_This news_ was brought
  to Richard” (_King John_, v. 3. 12); “But wherefore do I tell _these
  news_ to thee?” (_1 Henry IV_, iii. 2. 121). In a few words modern
  usage varies. The following nouns are sometimes singular, sometimes
  plural: _alms_, _amends_, _bellows_, _means_, _pains_ (in the sense
  of “effort”), _tidings_.


III. PERSON

+85.+ +Person is that property of substantives which shows whether they
denote (1) the speaker, (2) the person spoken to, or (3) the person
spoken of.+

+A substantive is in the first person when it denotes the speaker, in
the second person when it denotes the person spoken to, in the third
person when it denotes the person or thing spoken of.+

  I, the _king_, command his presence. [First person.]

  You, _Thomas_, broke the window. [Second person.]

  _Charles_, come here. [Second person.]

  He, the _fireman_, saved the train. [Third person.]

  The _diver_ sinks slowly from our view. [Third person.]

  The _tower_ suddenly collapsed. [Third person.]

The examples show (1) that the person of a noun has nothing to do with
its form, but is indicated by the sense or connection; (2) that certain
pronouns denote person with precision. Thus, _I_ is always of the first
person; _you_ of the second; and _he_ of the third. These personal
pronouns will be treated in Chapter III.


IV. CASE

+86.+ +Substantives have inflections of case to indicate their
grammatical relations to verbs, to prepositions, or to other
substantives.+

There are three cases,--the +nominative+, the +possessive+, and the
+objective+.

  The possessive case is often called the +genitive+.

The nominative and the objective case of a noun are always alike in
form. In some pronouns, however, there is a difference (as,--_I_, _me_;
_he_, _him_).


DECLENSION OF NOUNS

+87.+ The inflection of a substantive is called its +declension+. To
+decline+ a noun is to give its case-forms in order, first in the
singular number and then in the plural. Thus,--

  SINGULAR

  _Nominative_    boy        horse      fly       chimney
  _Possessive_    boy’s      horse’s    fly’s     chimney’s
  _Objective_     boy        horse      fly       chimney

  PLURAL

  _Nominative_    boys       horses     flies     chimneys
  _Possessive_    boys’      horses’    flies’    chimneys’
  _Objective_     boys       horses     flies     chimneys

  SINGULAR

  _Nominative_    calf       lass       man       deer
  _Possessive_    calf’s     lass’s     man’s     deer’s
  _Objective_     calf       lass       man       deer

  PLURAL

  _Nominative_    calves     lasses     men       deer
  _Possessive_    calves’    lasses’    men’s     deer’s
  _Objective_     calves     lasses     men       deer


NOMINATIVE CASE

+88.+ The +nominative case+ is used in the following constructions:
(1) the subject, (2) the predicate nominative, (3) the vocative, (or
nominative of direct address), (4) the exclamatory nominative, (5)
appositive with a nominative, (6) the nominative absolute.

1. +The subject of a verb is in the nominative case.+

  _Water_ freezes.

  _Charles_ climbed the mountain.

  The boy’s _face_ glowed with health and exercise.

  A thousand _men_ were killed in this battle.

In the third example, _face_ is the simple subject; the complete
subject is _the boy’s face_. In the fourth, _men_ is the simple
subject; the complete subject is _a thousand men_. Both _face_ and
_men_ are in the nominative case; _face_ is in the singular number;
_men_ in the plural.

2. +A substantive standing in the predicate, but describing or defining
the subject, agrees with the subject in case and is called a predicate
nominative.+

  A predicate nominative is also called a +subject complement+ or an
  +attribute+.

  Lobsters are _crustaceans_.

  A good book is a faithful _friend_.

  Shakspere was a _native_ of Stratford-on-Avon.

  Arnold proved a _traitor_.

  Adams was elected _president_.

The rule for the case of the predicate nominative is particularly
important with respect to pronouns (§ 119).

  I am _he_.    Are you _she_?

  It is _I_.    It was _we_ who did it.

The predicate nominative is commonest after the copula _is_ (in
its various forms). It will be further studied in connection with
intransitive and passive verbs (§§ 214, 252).

3. +A substantive used for the purpose of addressing a person directly,
and not connected with any verb, is called a vocative.+

A vocative is in the nominative case, and is often called a +nominative
by direct address+ or a +vocative nominative+.

  Come, _Ruth_, give me your hand.

  Turn to the right, _madam_.

  _Herbert_, it is your turn.

  Come with me, my _child_.

  NOTE. A vocative word is sometimes said to be +independent by direct
  address+, because it stands by itself, unconnected with any verb.
  That a vocative is really in the nominative case may be seen in the
  use of the pronoun _thou_ in this construction: as,--I will arrest
  thee, _thou_ traitor (see § 115).

4. +A substantive used as an exclamation is called an exclamatory
nominative (or nominative of exclamation).+

  _Peace_, be still.

  Fortunate _Ruth_!

  A _drum_! a _drum_! Macbeth doth come.

  Look! a _balloon_!

  The _sun_! then we shall have a fine day.

  Certain exclamatory nominatives are sometimes classed as
  interjections (§ 375).

5. +A substantive added to another substantive to explain it and
signifying the same person or thing, is called an appositive and is
said to be in apposition.+

+An appositive is in the same case as the substantive which it limits.+

Hence a substantive in apposition with a nominative is in the
nominative case.

  Mr. Scott, the _grocer_, is here. [Apposition with subject.]

  Tom, old _fellow_, I am glad to see you. [Apposition with vocative.]

  The discoverer of the Pacific was Balboa, a _Spaniard_. [Apposition
  with predicate nominative.]

  NOTE. _Apposition_ means “attachment”; _appositive_ means “attached
  noun or pronoun.” An appositive modifies the noun with which it
  is in apposition much as an adjective might do (compare “Balboa,
  a _Spaniard_” with “_Spanish_ Balboa”). Hence it is classed as an
  adjective modifier.


POSSESSIVE CASE

+89.+ +The possessive case denotes ownership or possession.+

  _John’s_ yacht lies at her moorings.

  The _duck’s_ feet are webbed.

  The _mutineer’s_ pistol burst when he fired.

  NOTE. Most uses of the possessive come under the general head of
  +possession+ in some sense. Special varieties of meaning are +source+
  (as in “_hen’s_ eggs”) and +authorship+ (as in “_Wordsworth’s_
  sonnets”).

  A possessive noun or pronoun modifies the substantive to which it
  is attached as an adjective might do. Hence it is classed as an
  adjective modifier.


Forms of the Possessive Case

+90.+ +The possessive case of most nouns has, in the singular number,
the ending _’s_.+

  EXAMPLES: the owl’s feathers, Elizabeth’s hat, the officer’s name.

+Plural nouns ending in _s_ take no further ending for the possessive.
In writing, however, an apostrophe is put after the _s_ to indicate the
possessive case.+

  EXAMPLES: the owls’ feathers, the officers’ names, the artists’
  petition, the engineers’ ball.

+Plural nouns not ending in _s_ take _’s_ in the possessive.+

  EXAMPLES: the firemen’s ball, the policemen’s quarters, the
  children’s hour.

  NOTE. In older English the possessive of most nouns was written as
  well as pronounced with the ending _-es_ or _-is_. Thus, in Chaucer,
  the possessive of _child_ is _childës_ or _childis_; that of _king_
  is _kingës_ or _kingis_; that of _John_ is _Johnës_ or _Johnis_. The
  use of an apostrophe in the possessive is a comparatively modern
  device, due to a misunderstanding. Scholars at one time thought the
  _s_ of the possessive a fragment of the pronoun _his_; that is, they
  took such a phrase as _George’s book_ for a contraction of _George
  his book_. Hence they used the apostrophe before _s_ to signify
  the supposed omission of part of the word _his_. Similarly, in the
  possessive plural, there was thought to be an omission of a final
  _es_; that is, such a phrase as _the horses’ heads_ was thought to be
  a contraction of the _horseses_ heads. Both these errors have long
  been exploded.

+91.+ Nouns like _sheep_ and _deer_, which have the same form in both
the singular and the plural, usually take _’s_ in the possessive plural.

  Thus, _the deer’s tracks_ would be written, whether one deer or more
  were meant.

+92.+ POSSESSIVE SINGULAR OF NOUNS ENDING IN _S_.

1. Monosyllabic nouns ending in _s_ or an _s_-sound usually make their
possessive singular by adding _’s_.

  EXAMPLES: Charles’s hat, Forbes’s garden, Mr. Wells’s daughter,
  Rice’s carriage, Mrs. Dix’s family, a fox’s brush.

  NOTE. Most of these monosyllabic nouns in s are family names. The
  rule accords with the best usage; but it is not absolute, for usage
  varies. Hence forms like _Charles’_ and _Wells’_ cannot be condemned
  as positively wrong, though _Charles’s_ and _Wells’s_ are preferable.
  In speaking, the shorter form is often ambiguous, for there is no
  difference in sound between _Dix’_ and _Dick’s_, _Mr. Hills’_ and
  _Mr. Hill’s_, _Dr. Childs’_ and _Dr. Child’s_.

2. Nouns of two or more syllables ending in _s_ or an _s_-sound, and
not accented on the last syllable, may make their possessive singular
by adding _’s_, or may take no ending in the possessive.

In the latter case, an apostrophe is added in writing, but in sound
there is no difference between the possessive and the nominative.

  EXAMPLES: Burrows’s (_or_ Burrows’) Hotel, Æneas’s (_or_ Æneas’)
  voyage, Beatrice’s (_or_ Beatrice’) gratitude, Felix’s (_or_ Felix’)
  arrival, for conscience’s (_or_ conscience’) sake.

Most of the nouns in question are proper names. In speaking, one must
often use the longer form to prevent ambiguity; for _Williams’_ and
_William’s_, _Roberts’_ and _Robert’s_, _Robbins’_ and _Robin’s_, are
indistinguishable in sound.

  NOTE. Nouns of two or more syllables ending in _s_ or an _s_-sound
  and accented on the last syllable, follow the rule for monosyllables.
  Thus,--_Laplace’s_ mathematics (not _Laplace’_); _Alphonse’s_ father
  (not _Alphonse’_).

  When final _s_ is silent (as in many French names), _’s_ must of
  course be added in the possessive. Thus,--_Descartes’s_ philosophy
  (pronounced _Daycárt’s_).


Use of the Possessive Case

+93.+[16] Possession may be denoted by a phrase with _of_ as well as by
the possessive case. The distinction between the two forms cannot be
brought under rigid rules, but the following suggestions will be of use.

I. In older English and in poetry the possessive case of nouns is
freely used, but in modern prose it is rare unless the possessor is a
living being. A phrase with _of_ is used instead.

  The mayor _of Detroit_ (NOT _Detroit’s_ mayor).

  The top _of the post_ (NOT the _post’s_ top).

  The prevalence _of the epidemic_ (NOT the _epidemic’s_ prevalence).

Contrast the poetic use:--

  _Belgium’s_ capital had gathered then
  Her beauty and her chivalry.--BYRON.

  Other prepositions are sometimes used: as,--“the explosion in _New
  York_” (NOT “_New York’s_ explosion”), “the station _at Plymouth_.”

II. When the possessor is a living being, good usage varies.

  1. If there is actual ownership or possession of some material thing,
  the possessive case is generally used in the singular: as,--“John’s
  _hat_” (not “the hat _of John_”). The possessive plural, however,
  is often replaced by a phrase with _of_, to avoid ambiguity or
  harshness: as,--“the jewels _of the ladies_” (rather than “the
  _ladies’_ jewels”)[17], “the wings _of the geese_” (rather than “the
  _geese’s_ wings”).

  2. With nouns denoting a quality, an act, or the like, either the
  possessive or the _of_-phrase is proper: as,--“_John’s_ generosity,”
  or “the generosity _of John_”; “_John’s_ condition,” or “the
  condition _of John_”; “the _guide’s_ efforts,” or “the efforts _of
  the guide_”; “_Cæsar’s_ death,” or “the death _of Cæsar_.”

  When there is any choice, it usually depends on euphony (that is,
  agreeable sound), and is therefore a question of style. Sometimes,
  however, there is a distinction in sense. “_John’s_ fear,” for
  example, indicates that John is afraid; but “the fear _of John_”
  means the fear which John inspires in others.

III. The following phrases are established idioms with the possessive.
In some of them, however, the possessive may be replaced by _of_ and
its object.

  (1) The earth’s surface, the sun’s rays, the moon’s reflection, the
  pit’s mouth, a rope’s end, his journey’s end, at his wit’s end, the
  ship’s keel, the water’s edge, the cannon’s mouth, out of harm’s
  way, at swords’ points, for pity’s sake, for conscience’ sake; (2)
  a moment’s pause, a year’s time, a hand’s breadth, a boat’s length,
  a month’s salary, a week’s notice, a night’s rest, a day’s work, a
  stone’s throw, a feather’s weight, an hour’s delay, a dollar’s worth,
  not a foot’s difference.

  In the second group of phrases (“a moment’s pause,” etc.), the
  possessive denotes not ownership, but +measure+ or +extent+.

IV. The possessive case of certain pronouns (_my_, _our_, _your_,
_his_, _her_, _its_, _their_) is more freely used than that of nouns in
expressions that do not denote actual ownership.

  I know him to _my_ sorrow. [Compare: to his loss, to our detriment,
  to his advantage.]

  The brass has lost _its_ polish.

  This question must be decided on _its_ merits.

  His arguments did not fail of _their_ effect.

  For the inflection of these pronouns, see § 115. For the use of
  _whose_, see § 152.

+94.+ When a thing belongs to two or more +joint owners+, the sign of
the possessive is added to the last name only.

  Brown, Jones, and Richardson’s factories. [Brown, Jones, and
  Richardson are partners.]

  It is George and William’s turn to take the boat. [George and William
  are to go in the boat together.]

  On the other hand, in order to avoid ambiguity we should say,
  “Brown’s, Jones’s, and Richardson’s factories,” if each individual
  had a factory of his own; and “George’s and William’s answers were
  correct,” if each boy answered independently of the other.

+95.+ In +compound nouns+ the last part takes the possessive sign. So
also when a phrase is used as a noun.

  My _father-in-law’s_ home is in Easton.

  We had _a quarter of an hour’s_ talk.

Other examples are the following:--

  My brother-in-law’s opinion; the commander-in-chief’s orders; the
  lady-in-waiting’s duties; the coal dealer’s prices; Edward VII’s
  reign; the King of England’s portrait; half a year’s delay; in three
  or four months’ time; a cable and a half’s length; the pleasure of
  Major Pendennis and Mr. Arthur Pendennis’s company (THACKERAY).

  NOTE. Noun-phrases often contain two substantives, the second of
  which is in apposition with the first. In such phrases, _of_ is
  generally preferable to the possessive. Thus, we may say either “Tom
  the blacksmith’s daughter” or “the daughter of Tom the blacksmith”;
  but “the son of Mr. Hill the carpenter” is both neater and clearer
  than “Mr. Hill the carpenter’s son.” The use of _’s_ is also avoided
  with a very long phrase like “the owner of the house on the other
  side of the street.”

  An objective may stand in apposition with a possessive, the latter
  being equivalent to _of_ with an object. Thus,--“I am not yet of
  Percy’s mind [= of the mind of Percy], the _Hotspur_ of the North”
  (SHAKSPERE).

+96.+ The noun denoting the object possessed is often omitted when it
may be readily understood, especially in the predicate.

  _Conant’s_ [shop] is open until noon.

  I buy my hats at _Bryant’s_ [shop].

  We will dine at _Pennock’s_ [restaurant].

  That camera is _mine_. (See § 122.)

This construction is common in such expressions as:--

  He was a relative of _John’s_.

  That careless tongue of _John’s_ will get him into trouble.

  In the first example, “a relative of John’s” means “a relative of
  (= _from among_) John’s relatives.” The second example shows an
  extension of this construction by analogy. See § 122.


OBJECTIVE CASE

+97.+ The +objective case+, as its name implies, is the case of the
+object+. Most of its uses are covered by the following rule:--

+The object of a verb or preposition is in the objective case.+

The object of a preposition has already been explained and defined (§§
20–21).

+98.+ The +object of a verb+ may be (1) the direct object, (2) the
predicate objective, (3) the indirect object, (4) the cognate object.
Of these the direct object is the most important.

The objective is also used (5) adverbially (§ 109), (6) in apposition
with another objective (§ 110), and (7) as the subject of an infinitive
(§ 111).


1. Direct Object

+99.+ +Some verbs may be followed by a substantive denoting that which
receives the action or is produced by it. These are called transitive
verbs. All other verbs are called intransitive.+

  1. That man _struck_ my _dog_.

  2. The arrow _hit_ the _target_.

  3. Cæsar _conquered Gaul_.

  4. Mr. Holland _sells flour_.

  5. The farmer _raises corn_.

  6. Mr. Eaton _makes stoves_.

  7. My grandfather _built_ that _house_.

In Nos. 1–4, the verb is followed by a noun denoting the +receiver
of the action+. Thus, in the first sentence, the _dog_ receives the
blow; in the second, the _target_ receives the action of hitting. In
Nos. 5–7, the verb is followed by a noun denoting the +product+ of the
action. For example, the _corn_ is +produced+ by the action expressed
by the verb _raises_.

In each example, the noun that follows the verb +completes the sense+
of the verb. “That man _struck_ ----.” “Struck _whom_?” “He struck
the _dog_.” Until _dog_ is added the sense of the verb _struck_ is
incomplete.

+100.+ +A substantive that completes the meaning of a transitive verb
is called its direct object, and is said to be in the objective case.+

  Thus, in the examples above, _dog_ is the direct object of the
  transitive verb _struck_; _target_ is the direct object of
  _hit_,--and so on. Each of these nouns is therefore in the +objective
  case+.

  +The direct object is often called the object complement, or the
  object of the verb.+

+101.+ Intransitive verbs have no object.

  The lion _roared_.

  The visitor _coughed_ gently.

  The log _drifted_ downstream.

  We all _listened_ intently.

Compare these sentences with those in § 99. We observe that the verbs
(unlike those in § 99) admit no object, since their meaning is complete
without the addition of any noun to denote the receiver or product
of the action. “The man _struck_----” prompts the inquiry, “Struck
_whom_?” But no such question is suggested by “The lion _roared_”; for
“Roared _what_?” would be an absurdity.

+102.+ The +predicate nominative+ (§ 88, 2) must not be confused with
the +direct object+. They resemble each other in two particulars: (1)
both stand in the predicate, and (2) both complete the meaning of the
verb. But they differ utterly in their relation to the subject of the
sentence. For--

The +predicate nominative+ describes or defines the +subject+. Hence
both substantives denote the same person or thing.

  Charles [SUBJECT] {is | was | became | was elected} _captain_
  [PREDICATE NOMINATIVE].

The +direct object+ neither describes nor defines the subject. On the
contrary, it designates that upon which the subject acts. Hence the two
substantives regularly[18] denote different persons or things.

  Charles [SUBJECT] {struck _James_ [OBJECT]. | threw a _stone_
  [OBJECT]. | built a _boat_ [OBJECT].}

Both the direct object and the predicate nominative are classed as
+complements+, because they are used to complete the sense of the
predicate verb (§ 483).

+103.+ A verb of _asking_ sometimes takes +two direct objects+, one
denoting the +person+ and the other the +thing+.

  She asked the _boy_ his _name_.

  Ask _me_ no _favors_.

  I asked the _lawyer_ his _opinion_.


2. Predicate Objective

+104.+ +Verbs of _choosing_, _calling_, _naming_, _making_, and
_thinking_ may take two objects referring to the same person or thing.+

+The first of these is the direct object, and the second, which
completes the sense of the predicate, is called a predicate objective.+

  We chose Oscar _president_. [_Oscar_ is the direct object of _chose_;
  _president_ is the predicate objective.]

  I call John my _friend_.

  They thought the man a _coward_.

  Make my house your _home_.

  The predicate objective is often called the complementary object or
  the objective attribute. It is classed as a complement.

An adjective may serve as predicate objective.

  I call this ship _unseaworthy_.

  Your letter made your sister _anxious_.

  What makes Edwin so _careless_?


3. Indirect Object and Similar Idioms

+105.+ +Some verbs of _giving_, _telling_, _refusing_, and the like,
may take two objects, a direct object and an indirect object.+

+The indirect object denotes the person or thing toward whom or toward
which is directed the action expressed by the rest of the predicate.+

  DIRECT OBJECT ONLY        DIRECT OBJECT AND INDIRECT OBJECT

  Dick sold his bicycle.    Dick sold _John_ his bicycle.
  I gave permission.        I gave this _man_ permission.
  He paid a dollar.         He paid the _gardener_ a dollar.
  She taught Latin.         She taught my _children_ Latin.

Most of the verbs that admit an indirect object are included in the
following list:--

  allot, allow, assign, bequeath, bring, deny, ensure, fetch, fling,
  forbid, forgive, give, grant, guarantee, hand, lease, leave, lend,
  let, owe, pardon, pass, pay, refund, refuse, remit, restore, sell,
  send, show, sing, spare, teach, tell, throw, toss, vouchsafe.

Pronouns are commoner as indirect objects than nouns.

  They denied _her_ the necessities of life.

  I guaranteed _them_ a handsome profit.

  The king vouchsafed _them_ an audience.

+It is always possible to insert the preposition _to_ before the
indirect object without changing the sense.+

Since the indirect object is equivalent to an adverbial phrase, it is
classed as a modifier of the verb.

  Thus, in “Dick sold _John_ his bicycle,” _John_ is an adverbial
  modifier of the predicate verb _sold_.

The indirect object is sometimes used without a direct object
expressed. Thus,--

  He paid the hatter.

  Here _hatter_ may be recognized as an indirect object by inserting
  _to_ before it and adding a direct object (“his _bill_,” “his
  _money_,” or the like).

+106.+ The objective case sometimes expresses the person _for whom_
anything is done.

  William made his _brother_ a kite [= made a kite for his brother].

  Sampson built _me_ a boat [= built a boat for me].

This construction may be called the +objective of service+.

  NOTE. The objective of service is often included under the head of
  the indirect object. But the two constructions differ widely in
  sense, and should be carefully distinguished. To do an act _to_ a
  person is not the same thing as to do an act _for_ a person. Contrast
  “John paid the money _to_ me,” with “John paid the money _for_ me”;
  “Dick sold a bicycle _to_ me,” with “Dick sold a bicycle _for_ me.”

+107.+ The objective case is used after _like_, _unlike_, _near_,
and _next_, which are really adjectives or adverbs, though in this
construction they are often regarded as prepositions.

  She sang like a _bird_. [_Like_ is an adverb.]

  The earth is like a _ball_. [_Like_ is an adjective.]

  My office is near the _station_. [_Near_ is an adjective.]

  That answer was unlike _Joseph_. [_Unlike_ is an adjective.]

  This man walks unlike _Joseph_. [_Unlike_ is an adverb.]

  A stream ran near the _hut_. [_Near_ is an adverb.]

The use of the objective after these words is a peculiar idiom similar
to the indirect object (§ 105). The nature of the construction may be
seen (as in the indirect object) by inserting _to_ or _unto_ (“She sang
_like unto_ a bird”).

  NOTE. The indirect object, the objective of service, and the
  objective after _like_, _unlike_, and _near_ are all survivals of old
  dative constructions. Besides the case of the direct object (often
  called +accusative+), English once had a case (called the +dative+)
  which meant _to_ or _for_ [somebody or something]. The dative case is
  easily distinguished in Greek, Latin, and German, but in English it
  has long been merged in form with the ordinary objective.


4. Cognate Object

+108.+ +A verb that is regularly intransitive sometimes takes as object
a noun whose meaning closely resembles its own.+

+A noun in this construction is called the cognate object of the verb
and is in the objective case.+

  He ran a _race_.

  The mayor coughed a dubious, insinuating _cough_.

  A scornful _laugh_ laughed he.

  The trumpeter blew a loud _blast_.

  She sleeps the _sleep_ of death.

  NOTE. _Cognate_ means “kindred” or “related.” The cognate object
  repeats the idea of the verb, often with some modification, and
  may be classed as an adverbial modifier. Its difference from the
  direct object may be seen by contrasting “The blacksmith struck the
  _anvil_” with “The blacksmith struck a mighty _blow_” (cf. “struck
  _mightily_”). For the pronoun _it_ as cognate object, see § 120.


5. Adverbial Objective

+109.+ +A noun, or a phrase consisting of a noun and its modifiers, may
be used adverbially. Such a noun is called an adverbial objective.+

  We have waited _years_ for this reform.

  I am _years_ older than you are.

  The river is _miles_ away.

  The water rose _three feet_.

  This is _an inch_ too long.

  My brother is _twenty years_ old.

  I will stay a _short time_.

  Wait _a moment_.

  Come here _this instant_!

  Turn your eyes _this way_.

  This silk is _several shades_ too light.

A group of words consisting of an adverbial object with its modifier or
modifiers forms an +adverbial phrase+ (§ 41).


6. Objective in Apposition

+110.+ A substantive in apposition with an objective is itself in the
objective case.

  Yesterday I saw Williams the _expressman_. [Apposition with the
  direct object of _saw_.]

  Tom gave his friend _John_ a book. [Apposition with the indirect
  object _friend_.]

  He lives with Andrews the _blacksmith_. [Apposition with the object
  of the preposition _with_.]

This rule follows from the general principle that an appositive is in
the same case as the substantive to which it is attached (§ 88, 5).


7. Subject of an Infinitive

+111.+ The subject of an infinitive is in the objective case.

This construction will be treated in connection with the uses of the
infinitive (§ 325).


Parsing

+112.+ To +parse+ a word is to describe its grammatical form and to
give its construction.

In parsing a +noun+, we mention the class to which it belongs, give
its gender, number, person, and case, and tell why it is in that case.
Thus,--

  1. Frank shot a wolf.

  _Frank_ is a proper noun of the masculine gender, in the singular
  number and third person. It is in the nominative case, because it is
  the subject of the verb _shot_.

  _Wolf_ is a common noun of the masculine or feminine [or common]
  gender, in the singular number and third person. It is in the
  objective case, because it is the object [or direct object] of the
  transitive verb _shot_.

  2. Jane, come here.

  _Jane_ is a proper noun of the feminine gender, in the singular
  number and second person. It is in the nominative case, being used as
  a vocative (or in direct address).

  3. The rope is fifteen feet long.

  _Feet_ is a common noun of the neuter gender, in the plural number
  and third person. It is in the objective case, being used as an
  adverbial modifier of the adjective _long_.

  4. Edgar’s boat is a sloop.

  _Edgar’s_ is a proper noun of the masculine gender, in the singular
  number and third person. It is in the possessive case, modifying the
  noun _boat_.



CHAPTER III

PRONOUNS


+113.+ +A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun. It designates a
person, place, or thing without naming it.+

+The substantive to which a pronoun refers is called its antecedent.+

+A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in gender, number, and
person+ (§ 11).

Pronouns have in general the same constructions as nouns.

+114.+ Pronouns may be classified as (1) +personal+, (2) +adjective+,
(3) +relative+, and (4) +interrogative+.

Under adjective pronouns are included (_a_) +demonstrative pronouns+
and (_b_) +indefinite pronouns+.


PERSONAL PRONOUNS

+115.+ +The personal pronouns serve to distinguish (1) the speaker, (2)
the person spoken to, and (3) the person, place, or thing spoken of+ (§
85).

They are declined as follows:--

  THE PRONOUN OF THE FIRST PERSON: _I_

  SINGULAR                        PLURAL

  _Nominative_    I               _Nominative_    we
  _Possessive_    my _or_ mine    _Possessive_    our _or_ ours
  _Objective_     me              _Objective_     us

  THE PRONOUN OF THE SECOND PERSON: _thou_

  SINGULAR                          PLURAL

  _Nominative_    thou              _Nominative_    you _or_ ye
  _Possessive_    thy _or_ thine    _Possessive_    your _or_ yours
  _Objective_     thee              _Objective_     you _or_ ye

  THE PRONOUN OF THE THIRD PERSON: _he_, _she_, _it_

             SINGULAR                            PLURAL

             MASCULINE  FEMININE       NEUTER    MASCULINE, FEMININE,
                                                      and NEUTER

  _Nominative_  he        she            it            they
  _Possessive_  his       her _or_ hers  its           their _or_ theirs
  _Objective_   him       her            it            them

Unlike nouns, most of the personal pronouns have distinct forms for the
nominative and the objective.

  NOTE. The possessive case of personal pronouns never has the
  apostrophe. Thus,--_its_, _yours_, _theirs_.

  The form _it’s_ is proper only as a contraction of _it is_.


GENDER AND NUMBER

+116.+ The pronouns of the first and second persons (_I_ and _thou_)
may be either masculine or feminine.

The pronouns of the third person have different forms for masculine,
feminine, and neuter in the +singular+ (_he_, _she_, _it_); but in the
+plural+ the form _they_ serves for all three genders.

  NOTE. In the oldest English _his_ was both masculine and neuter. The
  neuter use lasted until the seventeenth century. Thus,--

  That same eye whose bend doth awe the world
  Did lose _his_ lustre.--SHAKSPERE, _Julius Cæsar_, i. 2. 123.


+117.+ _Thou_, _thy_, _thine_, _thee_, and _ye_ are old forms still
found in poetry and the solemn style.

In ordinary prose, _you_, _your_, and _yours_ are the only forms used
for the second person, whether singular or plural. Yet _you_, even when
denoting a single person, always takes the verb-forms that go with
plural subjects. Thus,--

  My friend, _you were_ [NOT _was_] in error.

Hence _you_ may best be regarded as always plural in form, but may be
described as singular in sense when it stands for one person only.

  NOTE. Members of the Society of Friends (commonly called Quakers) and
  of some other religious bodies use _thee_ and _thy_ in their ordinary
  conversation.

  _Ye_ was formerly the regular nominative plural, and _you_ the
  objective; but the forms were afterwards confused. _Ye_ has gone out
  of use except in poetry and the solemn style, and _you_ is now the
  regular form for both nominative and objective.

  Where an objective form _ye_ is found printed instead of _you_ (as
  often in Shakspere,--“A southwest blow on _ye_”), it represents an
  indistinct pronunciation of _you_ rather than the old nominative
  _ye_. This indistinct sound may still be heard in rapid or careless
  speech (“I’ll tell yer the truth”).

  _Ye_ as an abbreviation for _the_ (as in “_ye_ old town”) has nothing
  to do with the pronoun _ye_. The _y_ simply stands for the character
  þ (an old sign for _th_), and the abbreviation was pronounced _the_,
  never _ye_.

+118.+ _They_, _you_, and _we_ are often used indefinitely for “one” or
“people in general.”

  _They_ say that Joe has gone to sea.

  To shut off the steam, _you_ close both valves of the radiator.

  NOTE. _We_, _our_, and _us_ are used in editorial articles instead
  of _I_, _my_, and _me_, because the writer represents the whole
  editorial staff. This practice should not be followed in ordinary
  composition.

  A sovereign ruler may use _we_, _our_, and _us_ when speaking
  of himself in proclamations and other formal documents. This
  construction is often called “the plural of majesty.” Thus,--

  Know that _we_ have divided
  In three _our_ kingdom.--SHAKSPERE.

  The form _’em_ (as in “Tell me your counsels; I will not disclose
  _’em_,” in _Julius Cæsar_) is not a contraction of _them_, but of
  _hem_, an old objective plural of _he_.


CASE OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS


NOMINATIVE CASE

+119.+ +Nominative constructions+ of the personal pronouns are the same
as those of nouns (§ 88).

  _I_ am ready. [Subject.]

  It is _I_. [Predicate nominative.]

  Here, _you_ rascal, what are you about? [Vocative, direct address.]

  Poor _you_! [Nominative of exclamation.]

  General Austin, _he_ and no other, won the battle. [Apposition.]

  For the +nominative absolute+, see § 345.

Care must be taken not to use an objective form when a predicate
nominative is required.

  It is _I_ [NOT _me_].

  It is _we_ [NOT _us_] who did it.

  It was _he_ [NOT _him_] who told us.

  It was _they_ [NOT _them_] who were to blame.

+120.+ _It_ has several peculiar uses in the nominative.

1. _It_ is used as the subject in many expressions like “It rains,”
“It snows,” “It lightens,” “It is cold,” where no definite subject is
thought of. In this use, _it_ is said to be +impersonal+.

  NOTE. An impersonal _it_ also occurs as a cognate object (§ 108)
  in colloquial language: as,--“Hang it!” “Go it!” “He went it.”
  “He farmed it for a year.” Other examples of the indefinite and
  impersonal _it_ in various constructions are: “We are roughing _it_.”
  “Keep _it_ up.” “You’ll catch _it_.” “Let _it_ all go.” “He made a
  poor job of _it_.” “He made a success of _it_.”

2. _It_ often serves as grammatical subject merely to introduce the
verb _is_, the real subject of the thought standing in the predicate.
In this use _it_ is called an +expletive+ (or “filler”).

  _It_ is he.

  _It_ is Christmas.

  _It_ was a tiresome ride.

In these examples, the subject of the thought (_he_, _Christmas_,
_ride_) appears as a predicate nominative.

3. The antecedent of _it_ is often a group of words.

  Wearing tight shoes is foolish. _It_ deforms the feet.

+121.+ In +imperative sentences+ the subject (_you_) is commonly
omitted: as,--“Shut the door.”

  NOTE. The subject _I_ is sometimes omitted in wishes (as, “_Would_ he
  were here!” for “I would that he were here”). So also in “Thank you,”
  “Pray tell me” (compare _prithee_ for “I pray thee”).

  Expressions like “Canst tell?” (for “Canst thou tell?”), “Art there?”
  (for “Art thou there?”) are common in poetry and older English. These
  come from the gradual wearing away and final disappearance of the
  pronoun _thou_ (_canst thou_, _canstow_, _canstë_, _canst_).


POSSESSIVE CASE

+122.+ The +possessive+ forms _my_, _thy_, _our_, _your_, _her_, and
_their_ are used when a noun follows; _mine_, _thine_, _ours_, _yours_,
_hers_, and _theirs_ cannot be followed by a noun, and stand commonly
in the predicate. _His_ may be used in either way.

  _My_ brother has arrived.    The fault is _mine_.

  _Our_ work is done.          Those seats are _ours_.

  I have torn _your_ glove.    This pencil is _yours_.

  _Their_ turn has come.       That field is _theirs_.

  _His_ hair is black.         The book is not _his_.

Examples of _mine_, _yours_, etc. not in the predicate are:

  _Mine_ was a terrier; _yours_ was a pointer.

  _Theirs_ is a red motor car.

  _Ours_ broke down last night.

  _His_ leaked badly.

  _His_ name is Martin; _hers_ is Smith.

  In such cases the pronoun is always emphatic. The construction is
  chiefly colloquial.

  NOTE. In older English and in poetry _mine_ and _thine_ are common
  instead of _my_ and _thy_ before words beginning with a vowel or _h_:
  as,--

  _Mine_ eyes dazzle: she died young.--JOHN WEBSTER.

  The very minute bids thee ope _thine_ ear.--SHAKSPERE.

_Mine_ is sometimes used after a vocative noun: as,--_brother mine_.

For expressions like “a friend of _mine_,” “that unruly tongue of
_yours_,” see § 96.

+123.+ When two or more separate objects are spoken of as possessed,
a possessive should precede the name of each if there is danger of
ambiguity.

  I will send for our secretary and our treasurer. [Two persons.]

  I will send for our secretary and treasurer. [One person.]

  I have called for my bread and my milk. [Two things.]

  I have called for my bread and milk. [A mixture.]

  Have you Bacon’s “Essays and Apophthegms”? [One book.]

  Have you Bacon’s “Essays” and his “Advancement of Learning”? [Two
  books.]


OBJECTIVE CASE

+124.+ The commonest constructions in which personal pronouns take the
+objective case+ are the following:--

1. Object of a preposition (§ 97): as,--

  Take it from _him_.

2. Direct object of a transitive verb (§ 99): as,--

  I will find _you_.

3. Indirect object of a transitive verb (§ 105): as,--

  He gave _me_ a dollar.

4. Subject of an infinitive (see § 325).

  NOTE. In poetry the objective _me_ is sometimes used in exclamations:
  as,--“_Me_ miserable!” (MILTON).

  In _methinks_ and _meseems_ (“it seems to me”), _me_ is a remnant of
  the old dative, as in the indirect object (see § 107).

  The compounds _thereof_, _therewith_, _therefrom_, etc., are
  equivalent to _of it_, _with it_, _from it_, etc.: as,--“Proclaim
  liberty throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants _thereof_”
  (_Leviticus_ xxv. 10).

  For the impersonal _it_ as cognate object, see § 120.


THE _SELF_-PRONOUNS (COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS)

+125.+ The three +compound personal pronouns+ are made by adding the
word _self_ to certain forms of the personal pronouns. Thus,--

  myself, _plural_ ourselves;

  thyself _or_ yourself, _plural_ yourselves;

  himself, herself, itself, _plural_ themselves.

  To these may be added the indefinite _oneself_, more commonly written
  as two words, _one’s self_ (§ 139).

Observe that _yourself_ is singular, and _yourselves_ plural. _Hisself_
and _theirselves_ are incorrect forms. _Ourself_ (not _ourselves_) is
the compound pronoun corresponding to the royal _we_ (§ 118).

  What touches us _ourself_ shall be last served.--SHAKSPERE.

+126.+ 1. +The compound personal pronouns may be used to emphasize
substantives.+

+In this use they are called intensive pronouns.+

  I _myself_ will go.

  King Alfred _himself_ took the field.

  They did the work _themselves_.

An intensive pronoun is in apposition with the substantive to which it
refers.

2. +The compound personal pronouns may be used as the objects of
transitive verbs or of prepositions when the object denotes the same
person or thing as the subject.+

+In this use they are called reflexive pronouns.+

  I have hurt _myself_.

  King Alfred interested _himself_ in his subjects.

  These schemers deceived _themselves_.

  Mary was talking to _herself_.

  He gave _himself_ a holiday. [Indirect object.]

These pronouns are called +reflexive+ (that is, “bending back”) because
they +refer back+ to the subject and repeat its meaning in an object
construction.

  NOTE. A reflexive pronoun sometimes refers to a substantive in the
  objective case: as,--“Our captors left _us_ to _ourselves_.”

  In older English the simple personal pronouns _me_, _thee_, etc.,
  were often used reflexively: as,--“I held _me_ [= _myself_] still”;
  “Yield _thee_ [= _thyself_] captive”; “They built _them_ [= for
  _themselves_] houses” (see § 106). This idiom survives in colloquial
  language (as, “I have hurt _me_,” “I have bought _me_ a rifle”), but
  it is avoided in writing except in a few expressions such as: “I must
  look about _me_”; “We gazed about _us_”; “Look behind _you_.”

+127.+ The adjective _own_ is sometimes inserted between the first and
the second part of the _self_-pronouns for emphasis.

  EXAMPLES: my own self, your own self, his own self, our own selves,
  their own selves.

  In this use, _self_ is in strictness a noun limited by the possessive
  and by the adjective _own_, but the phrases may be regarded as
  compound pronouns. Other adjectives are sometimes inserted between
  the possessive and _self_: as,--my _very_ self, his _worthless_ self.

+128.+ The intensive pronouns are sometimes used without a substantive.
Thus,--

  It is _myself_. [_Myself_ = _I myself_.]

  You are hardly _yourself_ to-day.

  In poetry and older English, the intensives are even found as
  subjects: as,--“_Ourself_ will mingle with society” (_Macbeth_).

+129.+ The intensive pronouns should not be used as simple personal
pronouns.

  Thus we should say:--“He was kind to Mary and _me_” (NOT _myself_);
  “They invited my wife and _me_ (NOT _myself_).”


ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS

+130.+ +Some words are used either as adjectives or as pronouns. Such
words are called adjective pronouns.+

Adjective pronouns are classified, according to their meaning, as (1)
+demonstrative pronouns+ and (2) +indefinite pronouns+.


I. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS

+131.+ +The demonstratives are _this_ (plural, _these_), _that_
(plural, _those_). They point out persons or things for special
attention.+

The demonstratives may be used either as adjectives or as pronouns.

I. As adjectives:--

  _This_ sailor saved my life.    _These_ girls are energetic.

  Be kind to _this_ child.        I am not alarmed by _these_ threats.

  Give _this_ boy a dime.         _These_ cherries are sour.

  _This_ fire is too hot.         Look at _these_ acorns.

  _That_ saw is dull.             _Those_ trees are dying.

  We must cross _that_ stream.    Take _those_ dishes away.

  _That_ train is late.           Who are _those_ strangers?

  Send _that_ dog home.           Do you see _those_ rocks?

  I am tired of _that_ tune.      I am sorry for _those_ children.

II. As pronouns:--

  _This_ is a fine morning.[19]    _These_ are cowboys.

  _This_ is my uncle.              Robert gave me _these_.

  Can you do _this_?               I never saw _these_ before.

  _This_ is the road.              Who are _these_?

  Look at _this_.                  _These_ are our rackets.

  _That_ is Ellen in the canoe.    _Those_ are deer.

  _That_ would please him.         _Those_ are nasturtiums.

  _That_ must be he.               What are _those_?

  What is _that_?                  _Those_ are kangaroos.

  If the demonstrative is followed by a noun which it limits (as in
  “_this_ sailor”), it is an adjective. If the demonstrative points out
  something which it does not name (as in “_This_ is a fine morning”),
  it takes the place of a noun and is therefore a pronoun. The simple
  subject of the sentence “This camera is expensive” is the noun
  _camera_, which is modified by the adjective _this_. The subject of
  the sentence “_This_ is expensive” is the pronoun _this_.

  NOTE. _Yon_, _yond_, and _yonder_ are common as demonstratives in
  older English and in poetry. Thus,--“Nerissa, cheer _yon_ stranger”
  (_Merchant of Venice_). “Question _yond_ man” (_As You Like It_). “Is
  not _yond_ Diomed?” (_Troilus and Cressida_). “Call _yonder_ fellow
  hither” (_Henry V_). “Is _yonder_ the man?” (_As You Like It_).

+132.+ Demonstratives have only the inflection of number. They have the
same form for all three genders. The nominative and objective cases are
alike; the possessive is replaced by _of_ with the objective.

  SINGULAR                      PLURAL

  _Nom. and Obj._  this         _Nom. and Obj._  these
  _Possessive_     [of this]    _Possessive_     [of these]

  _Nom. and Obj._  that         _Nom. and Obj._  those
  _Possessive_     [of that]    _Possessive_     [of those]

  _Yon_, _yond_, and _yonder_ are not inflected.

+133.+ A demonstrative pronoun may be used to avoid the repetition of a
noun.

  My dog and _that_ [= the dog] of my friend John have been fighting.

  Compare these maps with _those_ [= the maps] on the blackboard.

+134.+ The singular forms _this_ and _that_ (not the plurals _these_
and _those_) are used with the nouns _kind_ and _sort_.

  I like _this_ kind of grapes.

  I have met _this_ sort of people before.

  _That_ kind of apples grows in Idaho.


II. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS

+135.+ +The indefinite pronouns point out objects less clearly or
definitely than demonstratives do.+

  EXAMPLES: each, every, either, both, neither, some, any, such, none,
  other, another, each other, one another.

  _Each_ has its merits.

  _Some_ are missing.

  I cannot give you _any_.

  _Either_ is correct.

  He knows _neither_ of you.

  I like _both_.

+136.+ Most indefinites may be either +pronouns+ or +adjectives+. But
_none_ is always a substantive in modern use, and _every_ is always an
adjective.

+137.+ _None_ may be either singular or plural. When it means
distinctly _not one_, it is singular. In many instances either
construction is permissible.

  _None_ of us has the key.

  _None_ was (_or_ were) left to tell the tale.

+138.+ _Each other_ and _one another_ are regarded as +compound+
pronouns. They designate related persons or things.

  My neighbor and I like _each other_.

  We must bear with _one another_.

  The relation indicated by these pronouns is that of reciprocity.
  Hence they are often called reciprocal pronouns.

  There is no real distinction between _each other_ and _one another_.
  The rules sometimes given for such a distinction are not supported by
  the best usage.

+139.+ _One_ (possessive _one’s_) is often used as an indefinite
personal pronoun. Thus,--

  _One_ does not like _one’s_ [NOT _his_ or _their_] motives to be
  doubted.

  The use of _his_ (for _one’s_) to refer back to a preceding _one_ is
  found in respectable writers, but is contrary to the best usage.

  For the indefinite use of _we_, _you_, _they_, see § 118.

+140.+ _All_, _several_, _few_, _many_, and similar words are
often classed as indefinites. They may be used as adjectives or as
substantives. _Everybody_, _everything_, _anybody_, _anything_,
_somewhat_, _aught_, _naught_,[20] etc., are called indefinite nouns.

+141.+ Care should be taken in framing such sentences as the
following:--

  Everybody has _his_ [NOT _their_] faults.

  If anybody wishes to go, _he_ [NOT _they_] may.

  If anybody objects, let _him_ [NOT _them_] speak.

  Every member of this class must hand in _his_ [NOT _their_]
  composition to-day.

  Each hurries toward _his_ [NOT _their_] home.

  Each of us must lead _his_ [NOT _their_] own life.

In sentences of this kind, the personal pronoun (_he_, _his_, _him_)
must be in the singular to agree with its antecedent (_everybody_,
_anybody_, etc.) (see § 113).

  NOTE. When the antecedent is of common gender (as in the last
  example), the personal pronouns (_he_, _his_, _him_) may be regarded
  as of common gender also. In very precise or formal language, one may
  say _he or she_, _his or her_: as,--“Each of us must lead _his or
  her_ own life”; but this form of expression is to be avoided unless
  the distinction is clearly necessary.

+142.+ When used as adjectives, none of the indefinites have any forms
of inflection. The same is true when they are pronouns, except as
follows:--

  _Others_ is used as the plural of _another_. The possessive forms
  are:--singular, _another’s_; plural, _others’_. _The other_
  (possessive, _the other’s_) has in the plural _the others_
  (possessive, _the others’_). _Each other_ and _one another_ add _’s_
  in the possessive. _One_ has a possessive _one’s_; _the one_ becomes
  _the ones_ in the plural.


RELATIVE PRONOUNS

+143.+ +Relative pronouns+ have a peculiar function in the sentence,
since they serve both as +pronouns+ and as +connectives+. Their use may
be seen by comparing the two sentences that follow:--

  1. This is the sailor, and he saved my life.

  2. This is the sailor who saved my life.

Each consists of two parts or clauses (§ 44). In No. 1, the two clauses
are connected by the conjunction _and_, which belongs to neither; the
pronoun _he_, which stands for _sailor_, is the subject of the second
clause. In No. 2, there is no conjunction; instead, we find the word
_who_, which replaces _and he_. This _who_ is a +pronoun+, since it
stands for _sailor_ (precisely as _he_ does in No. 1) and (like _he_)
is the subject of the verb _saved_. But _who_ is also a +connective+,
since it joins the two parts of the sentence as _and_ does in No. 1.
Such words (which serve both as pronouns and as connectives) are called
+relative pronouns+.

In No. 1, the two clauses are +coördinate+. Neither serves as a
modifier, and each might stand alone as a complete sentence (“This
is the sailor.” “He saved my life”). The sentence is compound (§
44). In No. 2, on the contrary, the clause _who saved my life_ is a
+subordinate+ or +dependent clause+, for it is used as an adjective
modifier of the noun _sailor_, which it limits by showing what
particular sailor is meant. The sentence is +complex+ (§ 44). The
dependent clause (_who saved my life_) is connected with the main
clause (_this is the sailor_) by the pronoun _who_, which refers to
_sailor_.

+144.+ +Relative pronouns connect dependent clauses with main clauses
by referring directly to a substantive in the main clause.+[21]

+This substantive is the antecedent of the relative+ (§ 11).

Thus in § 143 the noun _sailor_ is the antecedent of _who_.

  _Relative_ means “carrying back.” These pronouns are so called
  because they carry the mind back directly to the antecedent.

+145.+ The simple relative pronouns are _who_, _which_, _that_, _as_,
and _what_.

_Who_ and _which_ are declined as follows in both the singular and the
plural:--

  _Nominative_  who      which
  _Possessive_  whose    whose
  _Objective_   whom     which

_That_, _as_, and _what_ are not inflected. They have the same form for
both nominative and objective and are not used in the possessive case.

+146.+ _As_ may be used as a relative pronoun when _such_ stands in the
main clause.

  Such of you _as_ have finished may go.

  I have never seen such strawberries _as_ these [are].

  Use such powers _as_ you have.

+147.+ _As_ is often used as a relative after _the same_.

  This color is the same _as_ that [is].

Other relatives are also used after _the same_.

  This is the same book _that_ (or _which_) you were reading yesterday.

  This is the same man _that_ (or _whom_) I saw on the pier last Friday.

+148.+ _Who_ is either masculine or feminine; _which_ and _what_ are
neuter; _that_ and _as_ are of all three genders.

  All _who_ heard, approved.

  Here is the lad _whose_ story interested you.

  The first woman _whom_ I saw was Mary.

  He answered in such English _as_ he could muster.

  I saw nobody _that_ I knew.

  This is the road _that_ leads to London.

  In older English _the which_ is often used for _which_: as,--

  Our foster-nurse of nature is repose,
  _The which_ he lacks.--SHAKSPERE.

  For other uses of _as_, see §§ 368, 428–429. For _but_ in such
  sentences as “There was nobody _but_ believed him,” see § 370.

+149.+ +A relative pronoun must agree with its antecedent in gender,
number, and person.+

The sentences in § 148 illustrate the agreement of the relative with
its antecedent in +gender+.

Since relative pronouns have the same form for both numbers and for all
three persons, their +number and person+ must be discovered, in each
instance, by observing the number and person of the +antecedent+.

  It is _I who am_ wrong. [First person, singular number: antecedent,
  _I_.]

  All _you who are_ ready may go. [Second person plural: antecedent,
  _you_.]

  Give help to _him who needs it_. [Third person, singular: antecedent,
  _him_.]

  The _road that leads_ to the shore is sandy. [Third person singular:
  antecedent, _road_.]

  The _roads that lead_ to the shore are sandy. [Third person plural:
  antecedent, _roads_.]

To determine the number and person of a relative pronoun is
particularly necessary when it is the +subject of the clause+, for the
form of the verb varies (as the examples show) according to the number
and person of the subject (§ 222). Hence the rule for the agreement of
a relative with its antecedent is of much practical importance.

+150.+ +The case of a relative pronoun has nothing to do with its
antecedent, but depends on the construction of its own clause.+

  The servant _who_ opened the door wore livery. [_Who_ is in the
  nominative case, being the subject of _opened_.]

  He discharged his servant, _who_ immediately left town. [_Who_ is in
  the nominative case, since it is the subject of _left_, although its
  antecedent (_servant_) is in the objective.]

  The servant _whom_ you discharged has returned. [_Whom_ is in the
  objective case, since it is the direct object of _discharged_. The
  antecedent (_servant_) is, on the other hand, in the nominative,
  because it is the subject of _has returned_.]

  Here is such money _as_ I have. [_As_ is in the objective case, being
  the object of _have_. The antecedent (_money_) is in the nominative.]

+151.+ A relative pronoun in the objective case is often omitted.

  Here is the book _which_ you wanted.      Here is the book you wanted.

  The noise _that_ I heard was the wind.    The noise I heard was the wind.

  The man _whom_ I met was a carpenter.     The man I met was a carpenter.

  NOTE. In older English a relative in the nominative is often omitted:
  as,--“There’s two or three of us _have_ seen strange sights” (_Julius
  Cæsar_), that is, “There are two or three of us _who have_ seen,”
  etc. The same omission is often made in rapid or careless colloquial
  speech. It is approved in clauses with _there_ in such sentences as
  “He is one of the best men there are in the world” (§ 232).

+152.+ Certain questions of +gender+ call for particular attention.

1. _Which_ is commonly used in referring to the lower animals unless
these are regarded as persons. This is true even when _he_ or _she_ is
used of the same animals (§ 69).

  This is the dog _which_ I mentioned. Isn’t _he_ a fine fellow?

  We have one cow _which_ we prize highly. _She_ is a Jersey.

2. The possessive _whose_ may be used of any object that has life.

  This is the man _whose_ watch was stolen.

  I have a cat _whose_ name is Tabby.

  This is the tree _whose_ leaves were destroyed. _It_ is quite dead.

3. In the case of things without animal life, _of which_ and _whose_
are both common. The tendency is to prefer _of which_ in prose, but
_whose_ is often used because of its more agreeable sound. In poetry,
_whose_ is especially frequent.

  A broad river, the name _of which_ I have forgotten, forms the
  northern boundary of the province.

  Jack was fishing with a bamboo rod, to the end _of which_ he had tied
  a short piece of ordinary twine.

  She was gazing into the pool, _whose_ calm surface reflected her
  features like a mirror. [“The surface _of which_” would not sound so
  well.]

  NOTE. In older English, _which_ is often used for _who_ or _whom_:
  as,--“He _which_ hath your noble father slain, pursued my life”
  (_Hamlet_).

  The compounds _whereof_, _wherefrom_, _wherewith_, etc., are
  equivalent to _of which_, _from which_, etc. (cf. § 124).
  Thus,--“Esau hated Jacob because of the blessing _wherewith_ his
  father blessed him” (_Genesis_ xxvii. 41).


DESCRIPTIVE AND RESTRICTIVE RELATIVES

+153.+ The clause introduced by a relative pronoun is an +adjective
clause+, since it serves as an adjective modifier of the antecedent (§
143). There are two different ways in which the antecedent may be thus
modified.

  1. The Italian, _who wore a flower in his coat_, smiled at me.

  2. The Italian _who wore a flower in his coat_ smiled at me.

In the first sentence, the italicized relative clause serves simply
to +describe+ the Italian, not to identify him. The flower is a mere
detail of the picture.

In the second sentence, the relative clause serves not merely to
describe the Italian, but also to distinguish him from all others. The
flower is mentioned as a means of +identification+. The relative clause
confines or +restricts+ the meaning of the antecedent (_Italian_).

+154.+ +A relative pronoun that serves merely to introduce a
descriptive fact is called a descriptive relative.+

+A relative pronoun that introduces a clause confining or limiting the
application of the antecedent is called a restrictive relative.+

Thus in the first example in § 153, _who_ is a descriptive relative; in
the second, it is a restrictive relative.

+155.+ Before a descriptive relative we regularly make a pause in
speaking, but never before a restrictive relative. Hence the rule:--

+A descriptive relative is preceded by a comma; a restrictive relative
is not.+

  Three sailors, _who_ were loitering on the pier, sprang to the rescue.

  A clumsy weapon, _which_ I took for a blunderbuss, hung over the
  fireplace.

  I told the news to the first man _that_ (or _whom_) I met.

  The coins _that_ (or _which_) you showed me are doubloons.

  Nothing _that_ I have ever read has moved me more profoundly than the
  third act of “King Lear.”

+156.+ _Who_, _which_, and _that_ are all used as restrictive
relatives; but some writers prefer _that_ to _which_, especially in the
nominative case.

  NOTE. _That_ is not now employed as a descriptive relative, though
  it was common in this use not very long ago. Thus in 1844 Disraeli
  wrote: “The deer, _that_ abounded, lived here in a world as savage as
  themselves” (_Coningsby_, book iii, chapter 5).

  The omission of the relative (§ 151) is possible only when the
  relative is restrictive.

  The boy [_whom_] I saw at your house has left town. [Restrictive.]

  Charles, _whom_ I saw yesterday, had not heard the news.
  [Descriptive.]


THE RELATIVE PRONOUN _WHAT_

+157.+ The relative pronoun _what_ is equivalent to _that which_, and
has a +double construction+:--(1) the construction of the +omitted+ or
+implied antecedent+ (_that_); (2) the construction of the +relative+
(_which_).

  {_What_ | _That which_} was said is true. [Here _what_, being
  equivalent to _that which_, serves as the subject both of _was said_
  and of _is_.]

  Tom always remembers {_what_ | _that which_} is said to him. [Here
  _what_, being equivalent to _that which_, serves as both the object
  of _remembers_ and as the subject of _is said_.]

  Tom always remembers {_what_ | _that which_} he learns. [Here _what_
  serves both as the object of _remembers_ and as the object of
  _learns_.]

In parsing _what_, mention both of its constructions.

  NOTE. Another method of dealing with the relative _what_ is to regard
  the whole clause (_what was said_; _what is said to him_; _what he
  learns_) as a +noun clause+. Thus the clause _what was said_ in the
  first sentence would be the subject of _is_; in the second and third
  sentences, the clause would be the object of _remembers_. _What_, in
  the first sentence, would be parsed as the subject of _was said_;
  in the second, as the subject of _is said_; and in the third, as
  the object of _learns_. Neither view is incorrect, and each has
  its special advantages. The student may well be familiar with both
  methods, remembering that grammar cannot be treated like mathematics.


COMPOUND RELATIVE PRONOUNS

+158.+ +The compound relative pronouns are formed by adding _ever_ or
_soever_ to _who_, _which_, and _what_.+

They are declined as follows:--

  SINGULAR AND PLURAL

  _Nominative_  whoever (whosoever)      whichever (whichsoever)
  _Possessive_  whosever (whosesoever)      ----        ----
  _Objective_   whomever (whomsoever)    whichever (whichsoever)

_Whatever_ (_whatsoever_) has no inflection. The nominative and the
objective are alike, and the possessive is supplied by the phrase _of
whatever_ (_of whatsoever_).

The phrase _of whichever_ (_of whichsoever_) is used instead of
_whosever_ exactly as _of which_ is used instead of _whose_ (§ 152).

+159.+ +The compound relative pronouns may include or imply their own
antecedents and hence may have a double construction.+

  _Whoever_ calls, _he_ must be admitted. [Here _he_, the antecedent of
  _whoever_, is the subject of _must be admitted_, and _whoever_ is the
  subject of _calls_.]

  _Whoever calls_ must be admitted. [Here the antecedent _he_ is
  omitted, being implied in _whoever_. _Whoever_ has therefore a
  double construction, being the subject of both _calls_ and _must be
  admitted_.]

  He shall have _whatever_ he wishes.

  I will do _whichever_ you say.

In such sentences, care should be taken to use _whoever_ and _whomever_
correctly. The nominative (_whoever_) is required when the relative is
the subject of its own clause.

  He asked _whoever_ came.

  He told the story to _whoever_ would listen.

  He asked _whomever_ he knew.

  He told the story to _whomever_ he met.

+160.+ The compound relatives are sometimes used without an antecedent
expressed or implied.

  _Whoever_ deserts you, I will remain faithful.

  _Whomever_ it offends, I will speak the truth.

  _Whatever_ he attempts, he is sure to fail.

  _Whichever_ you choose, you will be disappointed.

  NOTE. This construction is closely related to that explained in §
  159. “Whoever deserts you, I will remain faithful,” is practically
  equivalent to “Whoever deserts you, let him desert you! I will remain
  faithful.” No antecedent, however, is felt by the speaker, and hence
  none need be supplied in parsing. Compare concessive clauses (§ 401).

+161.+ _Which_, _what_, _whichever_, and _whatever_ are often used as
adjectives.

  Use _what_ (or _whatever_) powers you have.

  _Whichever_ plan you adopt, you have my best wishes.

+162.+ A noun limited by the adjectives _what_, _whichever_, and
_whatever_, may have the same double construction that these relatives
have when they are used as pronouns (§ 159). Thus,--

  Take _whichever_ pen is not in use. [Here _pen_ is both the direct
  object of _take_, and the subject of _is_.]

  _Whoso_ for _whosoever_ and _whatso_ for _whatsoever_ are common in
  older English.


INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS

+163.+ +The interrogative pronouns are _who_, _which_, and _what_. They
are used in asking questions.+[22]

  _Who_ is your neighbor?

  _Who_ goes there?

  _Whom_ have you chosen?

  From _whom_ did you learn this?

  _Whose_ voice is that?

  _Which_ shall I take?

  _Which_ is correct?

  _What_ did he say?

  _What_ is lacking?

  With _what_ are you so delighted?

+164.+ _Who_ has a possessive _whose_, and an objective _whom_. _Which_
and _what_ are not inflected.

_Who_ may be either masculine or feminine; _which_ and _what_ may be of
any gender.

+165.+ The +objective+ _whom_ often begins a question (as in the third
example in § 163). Care should be taken not to write _who_ for _whom_.

+166.+ _Which_ and _what_ are used as +interrogative adjectives+.

  _Which_ street shall I take?

  _What_ village is this?

+167.+ The interrogative adjective _what_ may be used in a peculiar
form of exclamatory sentence. Thus,--

  _What_ a cold night this is!

  _What_ courage he must have had!

  _What!_ by itself often serves as an exclamation: as,--“_What!_
  do you really think so?” In this use _what_ may be regarded as an
  interjection.

+168.+ In +parsing pronouns+ the following models may be used:--

  1. _He_ was my earliest friend.

  _He_ is a personal pronoun of the third person. It is in the
  masculine gender, the singular number, and the nominative case, being
  the subject of the verb _was_.

  2. A policeman _whom_ I met showed me the house.

  _Whom_ is a relative pronoun of the masculine gender, singular
  number, and third person, agreeing with its antecedent, _policeman_.
  It is in the objective case, being the direct object of the
  transitive verb _met_.

  3. The corporal, _whose_ name was Scott, came from Leith.

  _Whose_ is a relative pronoun of the masculine gender, singular
  number, and third person, agreeing with its antecedent, _corporal_.
  It is in the possessive case, modifying the noun _name_.

  4. _Whose_ birthday do we celebrate in February?

  _Whose_ is an interrogative pronoun in the masculine or feminine
  gender, singular number, and possessive case, modifying the noun
  _birthday_.

  5. He injured _himself_ severely.

  _Himself_ is a compound personal pronoun of the third person, used
  reflexively. It is of the masculine gender, singular number, and
  third person, agreeing with its antecedent, _he_. It is in the
  objective case, being the direct object of the transitive verb
  _injured_.



CHAPTER IV

ADJECTIVES


CLASSIFICATION OF ADJECTIVES

+169.+ +An adjective is a word which describes or limits a substantive.+

+An adjective is said to belong to the substantive which it describes
or limits.+

+An adjective which describes is called a descriptive adjective; one
which points out or designates is called a definitive adjective+ (§ 13).

Most adjectives are descriptive: as,--_round_, _cold_, _red_, _angry_,
_graceful_, _excessive_, _young_, _sudden_, _Roman_.

  NOTE. Many descriptive adjectives are +compound+ (see § 64):
  as,--steadfast, lionlike, fireproof, downright, heartsick,
  everlasting, brown-eyed, broad-shouldered, ill-tempered, dear-bought,
  far-fetched, never-ending, self-evident, self-important. “He was
  a _matter-of-fact_ person.” “Tom is _hail-fellow-well-met_ with
  everybody.” “This is an _out-of-the-way_ place.” “A dashing,
  _down-at-the-heel_ youth answered my knock.”

+170.+ A proper noun used as an adjective, or an adjective derived from
a proper noun, is called a +proper adjective+ and usually begins with a
capital letter.

  EXAMPLES: a _Panama_ hat, _Florida_ oranges, a _Bunsen_ burner;
  Virginian, Spenserian, Newtonian, Icelandic, Miltonic, Byronic,
  Turkish, English, Veronese.

  NOTE. Many so-called proper adjectives begin with a small letter
  because their origin is forgotten or disregarded: as,--_china_
  dishes, _italic_ type, _mesmeric_ power, a _jovial_ air, a
  _saturnine_ expression, a _mercurial_ temperament, a _stentorian_
  voice.

+171.+ +Definitive adjectives+ include:--pronouns used as adjectives
(as, _this_ opportunity; _those_ pictures; _either_ table; _what_ time
is it?); numeral adjectives (as, _two_ stars; the _third_ year); the
+articles+, _a_ (or _an_) and _the_.

Pronouns used as adjectives (often called pronominal adjectives) have
been studied under Pronouns--demonstratives (§§ 131–134), indefinites
(§§ 135–142), relatives (§§ 143–162), interrogatives (§§ 163–167).

Numeral adjectives will be treated, along with other numerals (nouns
and adverbs), in §§ 204–208.

The articles will be treated in §§ 173–180.

+172.+ Adjectives may be classified, according to their position in the
sentence, as +attributive+, +appositive+, and +predicate adjectives+.

1. An +attributive adjective+ is closely attached to its noun and
regularly precedes it.

  The _angry_ spot doth glow on Cæsar’s brow.

  O you _hard_ hearts, you _cruel_ men of Rome!

  _Yond_ Cassius has a _lean_ and _hungry_ look.

2. An +appositive adjective+ is added to its noun to explain it, like a
noun in apposition (§ 88, 5).

  NOUN IN APPOSITION                APPOSITIVE ADJECTIVE

  The castle, a _ruin_,             The castle, _ancient_ and _ruinous_,
    stood on the edge of the cliff.   stood on the edge of the cliff.

  Bertram, the _ringleader_,        Bertram, _undaunted_,
    refused to surrender.             refused to surrender.

3. A +predicate adjective+ completes the meaning of the predicate verb,
but describes or limits the subject.

Predicate adjectives are common after _is_ (in its various forms) and
other copulative verbs, particularly _become_ and _seem_ (§ 17).

  The sea is _rough_ to-day.

  Burton soon became _cautious_ in his judgments.

  You seem _anxious_ about your future.

  The air grew _hot_ and _sultry_.

  Our first experiment proved _unsuccessful_.

  The milk turned _sour_.

  Our agent proved _trustworthy_.

  NOTE. The construction of the predicate adjective is similar to
  that of the predicate nominative (§ 88, 2). Both are known as
  +complements+, because they complete the meaning of a verb.

After _look_, _sound_, _taste_, _smell_, _feel_, a predicate adjective
is used to describe the subject. Thus,--

  Your flowers look _thrifty_. [NOT: look thriftily.]

  Their voices sound _shrill_. [NOT: sound shrilly.]

  This apple tastes _sweet_. [NOT: tastes sweetly.]

  The air smells _good_. [NOT: smells well.]

  The patient feels _comfortable_. [NOT: feels comfortably.]

  For predicate adjectives after passive verbs, see § 492.

  For the use of an adjective as predicate objective, see § 104.


THE ARTICLES

+173.+ +The adjectives _a_ (or _an_) and _the_ are called articles.+

1. +The definite article _the_ points out one or more particular
objects as distinct from others of the same kind.+

  _The_ train is late.

  Here is _the_ key.

  _The_ children are in _the_ next room.

2. +The indefinite article _a_ (or _an_) designates an object as merely
one of a general class or kind.+

  Lend me _a_ pencil.

  I have _a_ cold.

  _A_ young man answered my knock.

The article _a_ is a fragment of _ān_ (pronounced _ahn_), the ancient
form of the numeral _one_; _an_ keeps the _n_, which _a_ has lost.
_The_ is an old demonstrative, related to _that_.

+174.+ _The_ with a singular noun sometimes indicates a +class+ or
+kind+ of objects.

  _The scholar_ is not necessarily a dryasdust.

  _The elephant_ is the largest of quadrupeds.

  _The aëroplane_ is a very recent invention.

  Resin is obtained from _the pine_.

  NOTE. In this use _the_ is often called the +generic article+ (from
  the Latin _genus_, “kind” or “sort”). The singular number with the
  generic _the_ is practically equivalent to the plural without an
  article. Thus in the first example the sense would be the same if we
  had, “_Scholars_ are not necessarily dryasdusts.”

+175.+ An adjective preceded by _the_ may be used as a plural noun.

  _The brave_ are honored.

  _The rich_ have many cares.

  _The strong_ should protect _the weak_.

+176.+ +_An_ is used before words beginning with a vowel or silent _h_;
_a_ before other words.+ Thus,--

  _an_ owl; _an_ apple; _an_ honest man; _a_ stone; _a_ pear.

+177.+ Special rules for _a_ or _an_ are the following:--

1. Before words beginning with the sound of _y_ or _w_, the form _a_,
not _an_, is used.

  EXAMPLES: a union, a university, a yew, a ewe, a eulogy, a Utopian
  scheme, such a one.

  This rule covers all words beginning with _eu_ and many beginning
  with _u_. Note that the initial sound is a consonant, not a vowel.
  _An_ was formerly common before such words (as,--_an_ union, such
  _an_ one), but _a_ is now the settled form.

2. Before words beginning with _h_ and not accented on the first
syllable, _an_ is often used. Thus, we say--

  _a_ his´tory; BUT, _an_ histor´ical novel.

  In such cases, the _h_ is very weak in sound, and is sometimes quite
  silent, so that the word practically begins with a vowel. Usage
  varies, but careful writers favor the rule here given. _An_ was
  formerly more common before _h_ than at present.

+178.+ With two or more connected nouns or adjectives the article
should be repeated whenever clearness requires (cf. § 123).

  I have consulted _the_ secretary and _the_ treasurer. [“The secretary
  and treasurer” would imply that the same person held both offices.]

  I found _an_ anchor and _a_ chain. [“An anchor and chain” would
  suggest that the chain was attached to the anchor.]

  In some towns there are separate schools for _the_ boys and _the_
  girls; in others _the_ boys and girls attend the same schools.

  He waved _a_ red and white flag.

  He waved _a_ red and _a_ white flag.

+179.+ _A_ is often used distributively, in the sense of _each_.

  I paid five dollars _a_ pair for my shoes.

  The letter-carrier calls twice _a_ day.

  My class meets three times _a_ week.

  In such phrases _a_ is better than _per_, except in strictly
  commercial language.

+180.+ When used with adjectives, the articles precede, except in a few
phrases: as,--

  Such an uproar was never heard.

  Many a man has tried in vain.

  For the adverb _the_, which is quite distinct from the article in use
  and meaning, see § 195.

  For the preposition _a_ (as in “He went _a_-fishing”), see § 352.


COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

+181.+ In +comparing+ objects with each other, we may use three
different forms of the same adjective.

  Thomas is _strong_.

  William is _stronger_ than Thomas.

  Herbert is _strongest_ of the three.

This inflection of adjectives is called +comparison+, and the three
forms are called +degrees of comparison+.

+182.+ +The degrees of comparison indicate by their form in what degree
of intensity the quality described by the adjective exists.+

+There are three degrees of comparison,--the positive, the comparative,
and the superlative.+

1. +The positive degree is the simplest form of the adjective, and has
no special ending.+

It merely describes the quality, without expressing or suggesting any
comparison.

  Thomas is _strong_.

Thus, the positive degree of the adjective _strong_ is _strong_.

2. +The comparative degree of an adjective is formed by adding the
termination _er_ to the positive degree.+

It denotes that the quality exists in the object described in a higher
degree than in some other object.

  William is _stronger_ than Thomas.

Thus, the comparative degree of the adjective _strong_ is _stronger_.

3. +The superlative degree is formed by adding _est_ to the positive
degree.+

It denotes that the quality exists in the highest degree in the object
described.

  Herbert is _strongest_ of the three.

Other examples of the +comparison of adjectives+ are:--

  POSITIVE DEGREE    COMPARATIVE DEGREE    SUPERLATIVE DEGREE

  rich               richer                richest
  poor               poorer                poorest
  fast               faster                fastest
  firm               firmer                firmest

+183.+ RULES OF SPELLING.

1. Adjectives ending in silent _e_ drop this letter before the
comparative ending _er_ and the superlative ending _est_. Thus,--

  wise, wiser, wisest; pure, purer, purest; handsome, handsomer,
  handsomest.

2. Most adjectives ending in _y_ change _y_ to _i_ before the endings
_er_ and _est_. Thus,--

  silky, silkier, silkiest; glossy, glossier, glossiest; sorry,
  sorrier, sorriest.

3. Adjectives having a short vowel and ending in a single consonant
double this before the endings _er_ and _est_. Thus,--

  dim, dimmer, dimmest; sad, sadder, saddest; fit, fitter, fittest;
  big, bigger, biggest; red, redder, reddest; hot, hotter, hottest.

+184.+ +Many adjectives are compared by prefixing the adverbs _more_
and _most_ to the positive degree.+

Many adjectives of two syllables and most adjectives of three or more
syllables are so compared. Thus,--

  recent, more recent, most recent; terrible, more terrible, most
  terrible; triumphant, more triumphant, most triumphant; economical,
  more economical, most economical.

Some adjectives may be compared in either way.

  EXAMPLES: intense, intenser, intensest; OR intense, more intense,
  most intense. So also--profound, sublime, unkind.

  NOTE. The adverbs _less_ and _least_ may be used with an adjective,
  if one wishes to run _down_ the scale of comparison: as,--_terrible_,
  _less terrible_, _least terrible_. This idiom, however, should not
  be regarded as comparison of the adjective. “Superlative” means “in
  the highest degree,” and is not applicable to _least terrible_, which
  means “terrible in the _lowest_ degree.”


IRREGULAR COMPARISON

+185.+ Several adjectives have irregular comparison.[23]

  POSITIVE            COMPARATIVE            SUPERLATIVE

  bad (evil, ill)     worse                  worst
  far                 farther                farthest
  ----                further                furthest
  good                better                 best
  late                later, latter          latest, last
  well (in health)    better                 ----
  little              less, lesser           least
  much, many          more                   most

_Old_ has comparative _older_ or _elder_, superlative _oldest_ or
_eldest_. _Elder_ or _eldest_ may be used with certain nouns of
relationship, or in the phrases _the elder_ and _the eldest_.

  This is my _elder_ brother.    My brother is _older_ than yours.
  Jane was the _eldest_          I shall wear my _oldest_ clothes.
    of six children.

  _Elder_ is also used as a noun: as,--“You should respect your
  _elders_.”

_Next_ is a superlative of _nigh_. It is used only in the sense of “the
very nearest.”

  I live in the _next_ street.

  The _next_ time he comes, I shall refuse to see him.

+186.+ A few superlatives end in _-most_. With these, one or both of
the other degrees are commonly wanting.

  POSITIVE             COMPARATIVE        SUPERLATIVE

  ----                 (former)           foremost
  hind                 hinder             hindmost
  ----                 inner              inmost, innermost
  (out, _adverb_)    { outer              outmost, outermost
                     { (utter)            utmost, uttermost
  (up, _adverb_)       upper              uppermost
  ----                 ----               endmost
  ----                 nether             nethermost
  top                  ----               topmost
  ----                 ----               furthermost
  north                ----               northmost
  northern             (more northern)    northernmost
  south                ----               southmost
  southern             (more southern)    southernmost
  east, eastern        (more eastern)     easternmost
  west, western        (more western)     westernmost

  NOTE. The ending _-most_ is not the adverb _most_. It is a very old
  superlative ending _-mest_ changed under the influence of the adverb
  _most_.

+187.+ For adjectives incapable of comparison, see § 202. For special
rules for the use of comparative and superlative, see §§ 199–203.

+188.+ In +parsing+ an adjective, tell whether it is descriptive or
definitive, mention the substantive to which it belongs, and specify
the degree of comparison.



CHAPTER V

ADVERBS


+189.+ +An adverb is a word which modifies a verb, an adjective, or
another adverb.+

  The storm ceased _suddenly_.

  A _very_ disastrous storm swept the coast.

  The storm ceased _very_ suddenly.

+190.+ Adverbs are classified according to their meaning as: (1)
adverbs of +manner+; (2) adverbs of +time+; (3) adverbs of +place+; (4)
adverbs of +degree+.[24]

1. Adverbs of manner answer the question “How?” “In what way?”

They modify verbs or adjectives, rarely adverbs. Most of them are
formed from adjectives by adding _ly_.

  Tom answered _courageously_.

  The poor child looked _helplessly_ about.

  _Softly_ and _silently_ fell the snow.

  The pain was _terribly_ severe.

  The river rose _surprisingly_ fast.

2. Adverbs of time answer the question “When?” They usually modify
verbs. Thus,--

  The old castle is _now_ a museum.

  He was _recently_ promoted.

  I have been disturbed _lately_.

  My friend arrives _to-day_.

  James was _then_ a boy of seven.

  I have _already_ rung the bell.

  _Afterwards_ he regretted his haste.

3. Adverbs of place answer the question “Where?” They usually modify
verbs. Thus,--

  Come _here_.

  _Yonder_ stands the culprit.

  An old sailor came _forward_.

  My sister is _out_.

  I was _abroad_ that winter.

4. Adverbs of degree answer the question “To what degree or extent?”
They modify verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. Thus,--

  Arthur is _rather_ tall.

  Father was _much_ pleased.

  Father was _very much_ pleased.

  The task seemed _utterly_ hopeless.

  That is _hardly_ possible.

  That is _not_ possible.

+191.+ Some adverbs have the same form as the corresponding adjectives.

  You have guessed _right_.

  How _fast_ the tide ebbs!

  The horse was sold _cheap_.

  Tired men sleep _sound_.

  Other examples are:--wrong, straight, early, late, quick, hard, far,
  near, slow, high, low, loud, ill, well, deep, close, just, very,
  much, little.

Under this head come certain adverbs of degree used to modify
adjectives.

  His eyes were _dark_ blue. [Compare: _very_ blue.]

  That silk is _light_ yellow. [Compare: _rather_ yellow.]

  These flowers are _deep_ purple. [Compare: _intensely_ purple.]

  The water was _icy_ cold. [Compare: _extremely_ cold.]

  That _dark_, _light_, etc., are adverbs in this use appears from
  the fact that they answer the question “How?” Thus,--“His eyes were
  blue.” “_How_ blue?” “_Dark_ blue.”

  NOTE. In the oldest English many adverbs ended in _-ë_, as if formed
  directly from adjectives by means of this ending. Thus, the adjective
  for _hot_ was _hāt_, side by side with which was an adverb _hātë_
  (dissyllabic), meaning _hotly_. In the fourteenth century this
  distinction was still kept up. Thus, Chaucer used both the adjective
  _hōt_ and the dissyllabic adverb _hōtë_, meaning _hotly_. Between
  1400 and 1500 all weak final _e_’s disappeared from the language. In
  this way the adverb _hotë_, for example, became simply _hot_. Thus
  these adverbs in _-ë_ became identical in form with the corresponding
  adjectives. Hence in the time of Shakspere there existed, in common
  use, not only the adjective _hot_, but also the adverb _hot_
  (identical in form with the adjective but really descended from
  the adverb _hotë_). One could say not only “The fire is _hot_”
  (adjective), but “The fire burns _hot_” (adverb of manner).

  The tendency in modern English has been to confine the form without
  ending to the adjective use and to restrict the adverbial function
  to forms in _-ly_. Thus, a writer of the present time would not say,
  in prose, “The fire burns _hot_,” but “The fire burns _hotly_.”
  Nevertheless, a number of the old adverbs without ending still remain
  in good use, and must not be regarded as erroneous.

  In poetry, moreover, such adverbs are freely employed; as,--“The boy
  like a gray goshawk stared _wild_.” [In prose: stared _wildly_.]

For adverbial phrases, see §§ 41–42, 475.

For the adverbial objective, see § 109.

+192.+ _Yes_ and _no_ are peculiar adverbs used in assenting and
denying. Thus,--

  Are you hungry?
  No.

  NOTE. As now used, _yes_ and _no_ stand for complete sentences.
  Originally, however, they were modifiers, and hence they are still
  classed as adverbs. The original meaning of _no_ was “never.” Compare
  _never_ as an emphatic negative in modern English: as,--“Will you
  surrender?” “_Never!_” The oldest affirmative adverb was _yea_. _Yes_
  was originally a compound of _yea_ with a form of _so_, and was used
  in emphatic affirmatives (like our _just so!_).

  Other adverbs or adverbial phrases are sometimes used like _yes_ or
  _no_. Such are _certainly_, _assuredly_, _by no means_, _not at all_.
  In these cases, however, the modifying effect of the word or phrase
  may easily be seen when the sentence is supplied. Thus,--“Will you
  help me?” “_Certainly_ [I _will help_ you].”

+193.+ _There_ is often used merely to introduce a sentence in the
inverted order (§ 5).

  There is a hole in my shoe.

  There are many strangers in town.

  There rose a thick smoke from the volcano.

In this use, _there_ is sometimes called an +expletive+ (or “filler”).
It is unemphatic, and has lost all its force as an adverb of place.
Contrast “THERE [emphatic] stood an Indian under a tree” with, “There
[unemphatic expletive] stood an Indian under a tree.”


RELATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE ADVERBS

+194.+ +Relative adverbs introduce subordinate clauses and are similar
in their use to relative pronouns.+

  I know a farmhouse {in which | _where_} we can spend the night.

_Where_ is an adverb of place, modifying _can spend_. But it also
introduces the subordinate clause, as the relative pronoun _which_
does. Hence _where_ is called a +relative adverb+.

+195.+ The principal relative adverbs are:--_where_, _whence_,
_whither_, _wherever_, _when_, _whenever_, _while_, _as_, _how_, _why_,
_before_, _after_, _till_, _until_, _since_.

  Because of their similarity to conjunctions, these words are often
  called +conjunctive adverbs+.

  He had a fever _when_ he was in Spain.

  Work _while_ it is day.

  _As_ the ship passed, we observed that her decks were crowded with
  Malays. [Time.]

  Keep to the right, _as_ the law directs. [Manner.]

  You started _before_ I was ready.

  Wait _until_ the car stops.

  _Since_ you came, it has rained constantly.

  _As_ and _since_ in the sense of “because,” and _while_ in the sense
  of “although,” are classed as conjunctions (§ 368).

The clauses introduced by relative adverbs may be either adjective or
adverbial (§§ 49–50, 379–382).

  NOTE. In “_The_ more you waste, _the_ sooner you will want” (and
  similar sentences) _the_ is not an article, but an old case-form
  of the pronoun _that_, used as an adverb of degree. We may expand
  the sentence as follows: “_To what extent_ you waste more, _to that
  extent_ you will want sooner.” Thus it appears that the first _the_
  has a relative force, and the second _the_ a demonstrative force.

+196.+ +An interrogative adverb introduces a question.+

_Where_, _when_, _whence_, _whither_, _how_, _why_, may be used as
+interrogative adverbs+. Thus,--

  _Where_ are you going?

  _Why_ must you go?


COMPARISON OF ADVERBS

+197.+ +Adverbs have three degrees of comparison,--the positive, the
comparative, and the superlative.+

1. +Most adverbs are compared by means of _more_ and _most_.+

  John came _promptly_. [Positive.]

  Richard came _more promptly_ than John. [Comparative.]

  Henry came _most promptly_ of all. [Superlative.]

2. +A few adverbs are compared by means of the endings _er_ and _est_.+
Thus,--

  POSITIVE    COMPARATIVE    SUPERLATIVE

  near        nearer         nearest
  soon        sooner         soonest

  Further examples are:--cheap, dear, early, fast, hard, high, long,
  loud, quick, slow, deep.[25]

Some adverbs are compared in both ways. Thus,--

often, oftener _or_ more often, oftenest _or_ most often.

+198.+ Several adverbs have irregular comparison.

  POSITIVE      COMPARATIVE      SUPERLATIVE

  far   }     { farther        { farthest
  forth }     { further        { furthest
  ill   }       worse            worst
  badly }
  nigh          nigher         { nighest
                               { next
  well          better           best
                               { latest
  late          later          { last
  little        less             least
  much          more             most

  These adverbs in the main have the same forms as the adjectives
  studied in § 185 above. Note, however: (1) that _good_ and _bad_
  are never adverbs; (2) that _ill_ and _well_, _better_ and _best_,
  _worse_ and _worst_, may be either adverbs or adjectives. _Rather_ is
  now used in the comparative only.


USE OF THE COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE

+199.+ +The comparative degree, not the superlative, is used in
comparing two persons or things.+

+The superlative is used in comparing one person or thing with two or
more.+

  Right: Mary is the _more agreeable_ of the two.
         Mary is the _most agreeable_ of all the family.

  Wrong: I like both Mary and Jane, but I am _fondest_ of Mary.
         I am studying Latin, history, and geometry, but I dislike
           the _latter_.

The same principle applies to adverbs.

  John runs _faster_ than Tom. [Here the acts of two persons are
  compared.]

  Which of you three can run _fastest_? [Here the acts of more than two
  are compared.]

  NOTE. In older English the superlative sometimes occurs when only two
  objects are thought of. This use is still found in a few proverbial
  phrases: as,--“Put your _best_ foot _foremost_.”

+200.+ The superlative is sometimes used merely for emphasis, without
implying any definite comparison: as--“My _dearest_ Kate!”

The superlative of emphasis is very common with _most_.

  _Most potent_, _grave_, and _reverend_ signiors.--SHAKSPERE.

  Justice had been _most cruelly_ defrauded.--WORDSWORTH.

  Excessive use of this construction (like frequent repetition of
  _very_) is tiresome and weakens style.

  Double comparison (as _more worthier_, _most unkindest_) is common in
  older English, but is now a gross error.

+201.+ When two adjectives or adverbs are contrasted by means of
_than_, _more_ is used with the first.

  Such indulgence is _more kind_ than wise.

  This scheme is _more clever_ than honest.

  He acts _more boldly_ than discreetly.

  NOTE. The adverb _rather_ is often used with the first adjective or
  adverb (as,--“_rather_ kind than wise” or “kind _rather_ than wise”),
  but in a slightly different sense.

+202.+ Many adjectives and adverbs are, from their meaning, incapable
of comparison. Such are:--

1. Adjectives expressing a quality as absolute or complete, and adverbs
derived from such adjectives.

  EXAMPLES: unique, universal, single, matchless, instantaneous,
  triangular, everlasting, infinite, mortal; uniquely, singly,
  eternally, mortally.

2. The adverbs _here_, _there_, _then_, _now_, _when_, and the like.

  NOTE. Words like _perfect_, _exact_, _straight_, etc., are commonly
  said to be incapable of comparison, but this is an error. For each
  of these words may vary in sense. When _perfect_ (for example)
  denotes _absolute perfection_, it cannot be compared. But _perfect_
  has also another sense: namely, “partaking in a higher or lower
  degree of the qualities that make up absolute perfection,” so that
  we may describe one statue as _more perfect_ than another, or one of
  three statues as the _most perfect_ of them all. In this use, which
  is unobjectionable, we simply admit that nothing in the world is
  absolutely flawless, and assert that the three statues approach ideal
  perfection in various degrees.

+203.+ An adjective phrase may sometimes be compared by means of _more_
and _most_.

  I was never _more out of humor_ [= more vexed].

  I think your last suggestion _most in keeping_ [= most appropriate].


NUMERALS--ADJECTIVES, NOUNS, AND ADVERBS

+204.+ +Words indicating number are called numerals. They are
adjectives, nouns, or adverbs.+

  There are _seven_ days in the week. [Adjective.]

  _Twelve_ make a _dozen_. [Noun.]

  I have called _twice_. [Adverb.]

+205.+ The chief classes of numerals are +cardinals+ and +ordinals+.

1. +Cardinal numeral adjectives (_one_, _two_, _three_, _four_, etc.)
are used in counting, and answer the question “How many?”+

  I had to pay _three_ dollars.

  There were _forty-two_ vessels in the fleet.

  NOTE. In such expressions as “The boy was _sixteen_,” the numeral is
  a predicate adjective limiting _boy_ (§ 172, 3). We need not expand
  _sixteen_ to “sixteen years old.”

2. +Ordinal numeral adjectives (_first_, _second_, _third_, etc.)
denote the position or order of a person or thing in a series.+

  Carl plays the _second_ violin.

  Your friend is sitting in the _fifth_ row.

+206.+ All the cardinal and ordinal numerals may become nouns and may
take a plural ending in some of their senses.

  _One_ is enough.

  _Four_ are missing.

  The _nine_ played an excellent game.

  Three _twos_ are six.

  The men formed by _fours_.

  _Thousands_ perished by the way.

  Eight is two _thirds_ of twelve. [So regularly in +fractional parts+.]

  NOTE. _Hundred_, _thousand_, _million_ were originally nouns, but are
  now equally common as adjectives. Other numeral nouns are:--twain,
  couple, pair, brace, trio, quartette, quintette, foursome, dozen,
  score, century.

+207.+ Certain numeral adjectives (_single_, _double_, _triple_, etc.)
indicate how many times a thing is taken or of how many like parts it
consists.

  A _double_ row of policemen stood on guard.

  A _fourfold_ layer of chilled steel forms the door.

Some of these words may be used as adverbs.

  The cabman charged _double_.

  His fear increased _tenfold_.

+208.+ Certain numeral adverbs and adverbial phrases indicate how many
times an action takes place.

  _Once_ my assailant slipped.

  I rang the bell _twice_.

  The river hath _thrice_ flow’d, no ebb between.--SHAKSPERE.

  The only adverbs of this kind in ordinary use are _once_ and _twice_.
  For larger numbers an adverbial phrase (_three times_, _four times_,
  etc.) is employed. _Thrice_, however, is still common in poetry and
  the solemn style.



CHAPTER VI

VERBS


CLASSIFICATION OF VERBS

+209.+ +A verb is a word which can assert something (usually an action)
concerning a person, place, or thing+ (§ 14).

Most verbs express +action+. Some, however, merely express +state+ or
+condition+. Thus,--

  1. We _jumped_ for joy.
     Rabbits _burrow_ into the sides of hills.

  2. While memory _lasts_, I can never forget you.
     This mountain _belongs_ to the Appalachian range.

+A verb-phrase is a group of words that is used as a verb (§ 15).+

  The leaves _are turning_.

  The money _has been found_.

+210.+ Certain verbs, when used to make verb-phrases, are called
auxiliary (that is, “aiding”) verbs, because they help other verbs to
express action or state of some particular kind (§ 16).

The auxiliary verbs are _is_ (_are_, _was_, _were_, etc.), _may_,
_can_, _must_, _might_, _shall_, _will_, _could_, _would_, _should_,
_have_, _had_, _do_, _did_.

  I am writing.

  We must go.

  You will fall.

  He has forgotten me.

  We had failed.

  I do see him.

The auxiliary verb may be separated from the rest of the verb-phrase by
other words.

  I _have_ always _liked_ him.

  I _shall_ soon _send_ for you.

  Robert _was_ completely _bewildered_.

  He _has_ hardly ever _spoken_ to me.

+211.+ Verbs are either +transitive+ or +intransitive+ (§ 99).

+Some verbs may be followed by a substantive denoting that which
receives the action or is produced by it. These are called transitive
verbs. All other verbs are called intransitive.+

+A substantive that completes the meaning of a transitive verb is
called its direct object.+

In the following sentences, the first four verbs are +transitive+ (with
objects), the last five are +intransitive+ (without objects):--

  Lightning _shattered_ the oak.

  Clouds _darkened_ the sky.

  Chemists _extract_ radium from pitchblende.

  The orator _quoted_ Tennyson incorrectly.

  Look where he _stands_ and _glares_!

  The bankrupt _absconded_.

  The orange sky of evening _died_ away.

  The words _differ_ in a single letter.

+212.+ +A verb which is transitive in one of its senses may be
intransitive in another.+

  TRANSITIVE (WITH OBJECT)          INTRANSITIVE (WITHOUT OBJECT)

  Boys _fly_ kites.                 Birds _fly_.
  The pirates _sank_ the ship.      The stone _sank_.
  I _closed_ my eyes.               School _closed_ yesterday.
  Tom _tore_ his coat.              The cloth _tore_ easily.

+213.+ +Many transitive verbs may be used absolutely,--that is, merely
to express action without any indication of the direct object.+

  TRANSITIVE VERB                    TRANSITIVE VERB USED ABSOLUTELY
  WITH OBJECT EXPRESSED

  The horses _drank_ water.          The horses _drank_ from the brook.
  The farmer _plows_ his fields.     The farmer _plows_ in the spring.
  Charles is _drawing_ a picture.    Charles _is drawing_.

There is a sharp contrast between a transitive verb used absolutely and
a real intransitive verb. To the former we can always add an object;
with the latter no object is possible.

+214.+ _Is_ (in its various forms) and several other verbs may be
used to frame sentences in which some word or words in the predicate
describe or define the subject (§ 17).

Such verbs are called +copulative+ (that is, “joining”) verbs.

  _Is_ in this use is often called the +copula+ (or “link”).

  Time _is_ money.

  Grant _was_ a tireless worker.

  Macbeth _became_ a tyrant.

  His swans always _prove_ geese.

  The current _is_ sluggish.

  Lions _are_ carnivorous.

  This village _looks_ prosperous.

  The consul’s brow _grew_ stern.

  The queen _turned_ pale.

In the first four examples, the copulative verb (the simple
predicate[26]) is followed by a predicate nominative (§ 88, 2); in the
last five by a predicate adjective (§ 172, 3).

  The copulative verbs are intransitive, since they take no object.
  Sometimes, however, they are regarded as a third class distinct both
  from transitive and intransitive verbs.

+215.+ The verb _is_ is not always a copula. It is sometimes emphatic
and has the sense of _exist_.

  I think. Therefore I _am_. [That is, I _exist_.]

  Whatever _is_, is right. [The second _is_ is the copula.]

Most of the other copulative verbs may be used in some sense in which
they cease to be copulative.

  The lawyer _proved_ his case.

  Walnut trees _grow_ slowly.

  Mr. Watson _grows_ peaches.

  The wheel _turned_ slowly on the axle.

  He _turned_ his head and _looked_ at me.


INFLECTION OF VERBS

+216.+ Verbs have inflections of +tense+, +person+ and +number+, and
+mood+. They also have the distinction of +voice+, which is expressed
by the help of verb-phrases.

+Tense+ indicates time; +person+ and +number+ correspond with person
and number in substantives; +mood+ shows the manner in which the action
is expressed; +voice+ indicates whether the subject acts or is acted
upon.


TENSE OF VERBS

+217.+ +The tense of a verb indicates its time.+[27]

+Verbs have forms of tense to indicate present, past, or future time.+

1. +A verb in the present tense refers to present time.+

2. +A verb in the past tense refers to past time.[28]+

3. +A verb in the future tense refers to future time.+

+The present, the past, and the future are called simple tenses.+

  PRESENT TENSE        PAST TENSE          FUTURE TENSE

  He _lives_ here.     He _lived_ here.    He _will live_ here.
  The sun _shines_.    The sun _shone_.    The sun _will shine_.
  I _know_ him.        I _knew_ him.       I _shall know_ him.


FORMS OF THE PRESENT AND THE PAST

+218.+ The +present+ and the +past+ tense have special forms of
inflection.

For the moment we will consider the form which the verb has when its
subject is the first personal pronoun _I_.

+In the present tense the verb has its simplest form, without any
inflectional ending.+

  I _like_ it.

  I _hope_ for the best.

  I _dwell_ in the wilderness.

  I _find_ him amusing.

+219.+ The past tense is formed in two ways, and a verb is classed as
+weak+ or +strong+ in accordance with the way in which it forms this
tense.

1. +Weak verbs form the past tense by adding _ed_, _d_, or _t_ to the
present.+

  EXAMPLES: mend, mended; select, selected; fill, filled; glow, glowed;
  talk, talked; revere, revered; dwell, dwelt.

2. +Strong verbs form the past tense by changing the vowel of the
present, without the addition of an ending.+

  EXAMPLES: drink, drank; begin, began; come, came; rise, rose; bind,
  bound; cling, clung; stick, stuck; wear, wore.[29]

Weak verbs are sometimes called +regular+, and strong verbs +irregular
verbs+.

For a list of the strong verbs see pp. 291–297.

  NOTE. The terms +strong+ and +weak+ were first applied to verbs for
  a somewhat fanciful reason. The strong verbs were so called because
  they seemed to form the past tense out of their own resources,
  without calling to their assistance any ending. The weak verbs were
  so called because they could not form the past tense without the aid
  of the ending _ed_, _d_, or _t_.

+220.+ The ending that is written _ed_ is fully pronounced only
when _d_ or _t_ precedes (as,--_thread_, _threaded_; _attract_,
_attracted_). Otherwise, _e_ is silent, so that the ending becomes,
in pronunciation, _d_ or _t_ (as,--_entered_, pronounced _enter’d_;
_rocked_, pronounced _rockt_).

In poetry and the solemn style, however, the silent _e_ in the ending
_ed_ is sometimes restored to its ancient rights.

+221.+ Many +weak verbs+ show special irregularities in the +past
tense+.

1. _Make_ has _made_ in the past, and _have_ has _had_.

2. Some verbs in _-nd_ and _-ld_ form their past tense by changing this
_d_ to _t_.

  EXAMPLES: bend, bent; send, sent; lend, lent; rend, rent; spend,
  spent; build, built.

3. A few verbs add _d_ or _t_ in the past and also change the vowel of
the present. Thus,--

  sell          sold
  tell          told
  shoe          shod
  say           said (pronounced _sed_)
  hear          heard (pronounced _herd_)
  bring         brought
  buy           bought
  catch         caught
  seek          sought
  beseech       besought
  teach         taught
  methinks      methought

  _Work_ has an old past tense _wrought_, common in poetry; its usual
  past is _worked_. For _must_, _would_, etc., see p. 299.

4. Some verbs that have a long vowel sound in the present have in the
past a short vowel sound before the ending _t_.

  EXAMPLES: creep, crept; keep, kept; sleep, slept; sweep, swept;
  weep, wept; feel, felt; deal, dealt (pronounced _delt_); mean, meant
  (pronounced _ment_); lose, lost; leave, left.[30]

5. Some verbs in _d_ or _t_ preceded by a long vowel sound have a short
vowel in the past but add no ending.

  EXAMPLES: bleed, bled; breed, bred; feed, fed; speed, sped; lead,
  led; read (pronounced _reed_), read (pronounced _red_); meet, met;
  light, lit (_also_ lighted).

6. Some verbs in _d_ or _t_ have in the past the same form as in the
present.

  EXAMPLES: shed, _past_ shed; spread, _past_ spread; bet, _past_ bet;
  hit, _past_ hit; set, _past_ set; put, _past_ put; shut, _past_ shut;
  cut, _past_ cut; hurt, _past_ hurt; cast, _past_ cast.

  NOTE. The verbs in 5 and 6 might appear to be strong verbs, since
  they have no ending in the past and some of them change the vowel.
  They are, however, all weak verbs. Their lack of ending is due to
  the fact that the _d_ or _t_ of the termination has been absorbed in
  the final _d_ or _t_ of the verb itself. Thus, the past _set_ was
  originally _settë_ (dissyllabic), and this form, after the loss of
  _-ë_, became indistinguishable in sound from _set_, the present.

For lists of irregular weak verbs, see pp. 291–299.


PERSON AND NUMBER--THE PERSONAL ENDINGS

+222.+ +A verb must agree with its subject in number and person.+

+Verbs, like substantives, have two numbers (singular and plural) and
three persons (first, second, and third).+

+The singular number denotes a single person or thing. The plural
number denotes more than one person or thing.+

+The first person denotes the speaker; the second person denotes the
person spoken to; the third person denotes the person or thing spoken
of.+

+223.+ The inflections of +person and number+ in verbs may be seen by
framing sentences with the personal pronouns as subjects. Thus,--

  PRESENT TENSE

  SINGULAR                                  PLURAL
  1. I walk.                                1. We walk.
  2. Thou walk-_est_.                       2. You walk.
  3. He walk-_s_ [old form, walk-_eth_].    3. They walk.

  PAST TENSE

  SINGULAR                PLURAL
  1. I walked.            1. We walked.
  2. Thou walked-_st_.    2. You walked.
  3. He walked.           3. They walked.

From the sentences it is evident (1) that the +person+ and +number+
of a verb are usually shown by its subject only, but (2) that some
verb-forms have special +endings+ which denote person and number.

+224.+ +The endings by means of which a verb indicates person and
number are called personal endings.+

1. In the present tense a verb has two personal endings, _est_ for the
second person singular and s for the third person singular (old form
_eth_).

The first person singular and all three persons of the plural are
alike. The simplest form of the verb is used and no personal ending is
added.

2. The past tense has but one personal ending,--_est_ or _st_ in the
second person singular.[31]

The forms in _est_ or _st_ are confined to poetry and the solemn style.
In ordinary language, the second person plural is used to address a
single person.

The following table shows the +personal endings+ of the present and the
past tense:--

  PERSONAL ENDINGS

  PRESENT TENSE

  SINGULAR               PLURAL
  1. [_no ending_]     1. }
  2. -est, -st         2. } [_no ending_]
  3. -s [_old_, -eth]  3. }

  PAST TENSE

    SINGULAR          PLURAL
  1. [_no ending_]  1. }
  2. -est, -st      2. } [_no ending_]
  3. [_no ending_]  3. }


CONJUGATION OF THE PRESENT AND THE PAST

+225.+ The inflection of a verb is called its +conjugation+ (§ 53).
When we inflect a verb we are said to +conjugate+ it.

  CONJUGATION OF THE WEAK VERB _WALK_

  PRESENT TENSE

  SINGULAR                PLURAL
  1. I walk.              1. We walk.
  2. Thou walkest.[32]    2. You walk.
  3. He walks.            3. They walk.

  PAST TENSE

  SINGULAR                PLURAL
  1. I walked.            1. We walked.
  2. Thou walkedst.       2. You walked.
  3. He walked.           3. They walked.

  CONJUGATION OF THE STRONG VERB _FIND_

  PRESENT TENSE

  SINGULAR                PLURAL
  1. I find.              1. We find.
  2. Thou findest.        2. You find.
  3. He finds.            3. They find.

  PAST TENSE

  SINGULAR                PLURAL
  1. I found.             1. We found.
  2. Thou foundest.       2. You found.
  3. He found.            3. They found.

  CONJUGATION OF THE COPULA

  PRESENT TENSE

  SINGULAR                PLURAL
  1. I am.                1. We are.
  2. Thou art.            2. You are.
  3. He is.               3. They are.

  PAST TENSE

  SINGULAR                PLURAL
  1. I was.               1. We were.
  2. Thou wast.           2. You were.
  3. He was.              3. They were.

  NOTE. The English verb formerly had more personal endings. In
  Chaucer, for instance, the typical inflection of the present is:--

  SINGULAR            PLURAL
  1. I walkë.         1. We walken (_or_ walkë).
  2. Thou walkest.    2. Ye walken (_or_ walkë).
  3. He walketh.      3. They walken (_or_ walkë).

  The disappearance of all weak final _e_’s in the fifteenth century (§
  191) reduced the first person singular and the whole plural to the
  single form _walk_. Later, _walks_ (a dialect form) was substituted
  for _walketh_, and still later the second person singular was
  replaced in ordinary use by the plural. The result has been that
  in modern speech there are only two common forms in the present
  tense,--_walk_ and _walks_. In poetry and the solemn style, however,
  _walkest_ and _walketh_ are still in use. The plural in _en_ is
  frequently adopted by Spenser as an ancient form (or +archaism+):
  as,--“You _deemen_ the spring is come.”


SPECIAL RULES OF NUMBER AND PERSON

+226.+ When the subject is compound (§ 38), the number of the verb is
determined by the following rules:--

1. A compound subject with _and_ usually takes a verb in the plural
number.

  My brother and sister _play_ tennis.

  The governor and the mayor _are_ cousins.

2. A compound subject with _or_ or _nor_ takes a verb in the singular
number if the substantives are singular.

  Either my brother or my sister _is_ sure to win.

  Neither the governor nor the mayor _favors_ this appointment.

3. A compound subject with _and_ expressing but a single idea sometimes
takes a verb in the singular number.

  The sum and substance [= gist] of the matter _is_ this.

  NOTE. This construction is rare in modern English prose. It is for
  the most part confined to such idiomatic phrases as _end and aim_ (=
  _purpose_), _the long and short of it_, etc. The poets, however, use
  the construction freely (as in Kipling’s “The tumult and the shouting
  dies”).

4. If the substantives connected by _or_ or _nor_ differ in number or
person, the verb usually agrees with the nearer.

  Either you or he _is_ to blame.

  Neither you nor he _is_ an Austrian.

  Neither John nor we _were_ at home.

  Neither the mayor nor the aldermen _favor_ this law.

But colloquial usage varies, and such expressions are avoided by
careful writers. The following sentences show how this may be done:--

  Either you are to blame, or he is.

  One of you two is to blame.

  Neither of you is an Austrian.

  He is not afraid; neither am I.

  Both John and we were away from home.

+227.+ In such expressions as the following, the subject is not
compound, and the verb agrees with its singular subject:--

  The _governor_ with his staff _is_ present.

  _John_, as well as Mary, _is_ in London.

  _Tom_, along with his friends Dick and Bob, _is taking_ a sail.

+228.+ Nouns that are plural in form but singular in sense commonly
take a verb in the singular number (§ 84).

  Economics _is_ an important study.

  The gallows _has been_ abolished in Massachusetts.

  In some words usage varies. Thus, _pains_, in the sense of _care_
  or _effort_, is sometimes regarded as a singular and sometimes as a
  plural.

  Great _pains has_ (or _have_) been taken about the matter.

+229.+ +Collective nouns+ take sometimes a singular and sometimes a
plural verb.

When the persons or things denoted are thought of as +individuals+, the
plural should be used. When the collection is regarded as a +unit+, the
singular should be used.[33]

  1. The Senior Class _requests_ the pleasure of your company. [Here
  the class is thought of +collectively+, acting as a unit.]

  2. The Senior Class _are_ unable to agree upon a president. [Here the
  speaker has in mind the +individuals+ of whom the class is composed.]

  3. The nation _welcomes_ Prince Joseph. [The whole nation unites as a
  single individual to welcome a distinguished guest.]

  4. The American nation _are_ descended from every other nation on
  earth. [The separate qualities of the individuals who constitute the
  nation are in the speaker’s mind.]

+230.+ A _number_ in the sense of “several” or “many” regularly takes
the plural; _the number_ takes the singular.

  A number of sailors _were loitering_ on the pier.

  The number of tickets _is limited_.

+231.+ _Half_, _part_, _portion_, and the like, take either the
singular or the plural according to sense.

  _Half_ of a circle _is_ a semicircle.

  _Half_ of the passengers _were_ lost.

+232.+ A verb which has for its subject a +relative pronoun+ is in the
same person and number as the antecedent. For examples, see § 149.

Errors are especially common in such sentences as,--

  This is one of the strangest sights that ever _were_ seen. [The
  antecedent of _that_ is _sights_ (not _one_); hence the relative
  (_that_) is plural, and accordingly the verb is plural (_were_, not
  _was_).]

  Mr. Winn’s oration was among the most eloquent that _have_ [NOT
  _has_] been delivered in this state for many years.

  This is one of the finest paintings there _are_ in the hall. [For the
  omission of the relative, see § 151.]


THE FUTURE TENSE

+233.+ The +future tense+ is a verb-phrase consisting of the auxiliary
verb _shall_ or _will_ followed by the infinitive without _to_ (§ 29).

The following table shows the form of the +future+ for each of the
three persons (1) in +assertions+ and (2) in +questions+:--

  FUTURE TENSE

  ASSERTIONS (DECLARATIVE)

  SINGULAR               PLURAL
  1. I shall fall.       1. We shall fall.
  2. Thou wilt fall.     2. You will fall.
  3. He will fall.       3. They will fall.

  QUESTIONS (INTERROGATIVE)

  SINGULAR               PLURAL
  1. Shall I fall?       1. Shall we fall?
  2. Shalt thou fall?    2. Shall you fall?
  3. Will he fall?       3. Will they fall?

+234.+ Common errors are the use of _will_ for _shall_ (1) in the
+first person+ in +assertions+ and +questions+, and (2) in the +second
person+ in +questions+.

In the following sentences the first person of the future tense is
correctly formed:--

  I shall [NOT _will_] drown.    Shall [NOT _will_] I drown?
  I shall [NOT _will_] fail.     Shall [NOT _will_] I fail?
  We shall [NOT _will_] sink.    Shall [NOT _will_] we sink?

The verb-phrases with _shall_ express merely the action of the verb in
+future+ time. They do not indicate any +willingness+ or +desire+ on
the part of the subject.

Contrast the following sentences, in which _I will_ or _we will_ is
used:--

  I will go with you.

  I will give you what you ask.

  I will not endure it.

  We will allow you to enter.

  We will have the truth.

Here the verb-phrases with _will_ do not (as in the previous examples
of _I shall_) express the action of the verb in future time. They
express the +present willingness+ or +desire+ or +determination+ of the
speaker to do something in the future.

Hence such verb-phrases with _will_ in the first person are not
forms of the future tense. They are special verb-phrases expressing
willingness or desire.

+235.+ +In the first person _shall_, not _will_, is the auxiliary of
the future tense in both assertions and questions. It denotes simple
futurity, without expressing willingness, desire, or determination+.

+_Will_ in the first person is used in promising, threatening,
consenting, and expressing resolution. It never denotes simple
futurity.+


I. SIMPLE FUTURITY (FUTURE TENSE)

  _I shall be_ eighteen years old in July. [NOT: _will be_.]

  Hurry, or _we shall miss_ our train. [NOT: _will miss_.]

  _We shall be_ glad to see him. [NOT: _will be_.]


II. PROMISES, THREATS, ETC.

  I _will subscribe_ to your fund. [Promise.]

  We _will do_ our best. [Promise.]

  I _will discharge_ you if you are late again. [Threat.]

  We _will permit_ you to go. [Consent.]

  I _will have_ obedience. [Resolution.]

_I’ll_ and _we’ll_ are contractions of _I will_ and _we will_ and can
never stand for _I shall_ and _we shall_.

  _I’ll_ meet you at noon. [Promise.]

  _I’ll_ never consent. [Resolution.]

  _We’ll_ be revenged on you. [Threat.]

+236.+ When willingness is expressed by an +adjective+, _I shall_ is
correct; when by an +adverb+, _I will_. Thus,--

  I _shall be glad_ to help you.

  I _will gladly_ help you.

  NOTE. Such expressions as _I shall be glad_, _I shall be willing_,
  _I shall be charmed to do this_, express willingness not by means of
  _shall_ but in the adjectives _glad_, _willing_, _charmed_. To say,
  “I will be glad to do this,” then, would be wrong, for it would be
  to express volition twice. Such a sentence could only mean “_I am
  determined_ to be glad to do this.”

  On the other hand, in “I _will gladly help_ you,” volition is
  expressed by the verb-phrase _will help_ and the adverb merely
  modifies the phrase by emphasizing the speaker’s willingness. Hence
  _I will_ is correct.

+237.+ _Will_, when +emphasized+, always expresses determination on the
part of the subject, even in the second and third persons.

  I WILL go, no matter what you say.

  {You WILL | He WILL} act foolishly, in spite of my advice.

+238.+ +In the second person _Shall you?_ not _Will you?_ is the proper
form of the future tense in questions.+

+_Will you?_ always denotes willingness, consent, or determination, and
never simple futurity.+

Note that in questions in the second person, the auxiliary used is the
same as that expected in the answer.


I. FUTURE TENSE (SIMPLE FUTURITY)

  _Shall_ you _be_ disappointed if he does not come? [I shall.]

  _Shall_ you _regret_ his absence? [I shall.]

  _Shall_ you _go_ by boat or by train? [I shall go by boat.]


II. VERB-PHRASE DENOTING WILLINGNESS, ETC.

  _Will_ you _write_ often? [I will.]

  _Will_ you _allow_ me to help you? [I will.]

  _Will_ you _be_ so kind as to open the window? [I will.]

+239.+ _Shall_ in the +second+ and +third persons+ is not the sign of
the +future+ tense in declarative sentences.

It is used in +commanding+, +promising+, +threatening+, and expressing
+resolution+, the volition being that of the speaker.

  Thou _shalt_ not _kill_. [Command.]

  You _shall have_ the hat before Monday. [Promise.]

  You _shall pay_ for this insult! [Threat.]

  She _shall_ not _regret_ her generosity. [Resolution.]

In prophetic language, _shall_ is common in the second and third
persons, even when there is no idea of commanding or the like.

  The sun _shall be turned_ into darkness and the moon into
  blood.--_Joel_ ii. 31.

+240.+ In military orders and official communications, custom permits
the more courteous _will_ in the place of _shall_ in the second and
third persons.

  You _will_ immediately report for orders.

  Heads of Departments _will submit_ their estimates before January
  first.

For _shall_ and _will_ in subordinate clauses, see pp. 130–132.

+241.+ Future time may also be expressed by the present tense, or by
_about_ or _going_ with the infinitive (§ 319).

  We _sail_ for Havana on Tuesday.

  They are _about to begin_ the study of Greek.


COMPLETE OR COMPOUND TENSES

+242.+ +Completed action+ is denoted by special +verb-phrases+ made
by prefixing to the +past participle+ some form of the auxiliary verb
_have_.

These are called the +complete+ or +compound tenses+.

There are three +complete+ or +compound+ tenses,--the +perfect+ (or
+present perfect+), the +pluperfect+ (or +past perfect+), and the
+future perfect+.

1. +The perfect (or present perfect) tense denotes that the action of
the verb is complete at the time of speaking. It is formed by prefixing
_have_ (_hast_, _has_) to the past participle.+

  I _have learned_ my lesson.

  He _has convinced_ me.

  NOTE. With several verbs of motion the auxiliary _be_ is sometimes
  used instead of _have_: as,--“My friends _are gone_” (or “_have
  gone_”); “Your time _is come_” (or “_has come_”).

2. +The pluperfect (or past perfect) tense denotes that the action was
completed at some point in past time. It is formed by prefixing _had_
(_hadst_) to the past participle.+

  Before night fell, I _had finished_ the book.

  When Blake _had spoken_, Allen rose to reply.

3. +The future perfect tense denotes that the action will be completed
at some point in future time. It is formed by prefixing the future
tense of _have_ (_shall have_, etc.) to the past participle.+

  Before I hear from you again, I _shall have landed_ at Naples.

  The future perfect tense is rare except in very formal writing.

+243.+ The forms of the past participle will be studied in § 334.
Meanwhile, the following practical rule will serve every purpose:--

+The past participle is that verb-form which is used after _I have_.+

  EXAMPLES: [I have] mended, tried, swept, bought, broken, forgotten,
  found, sunk, dug.

+244.+ A verb-phrase made by prefixing _having_ to the past participle
is called the +perfect participle+.

  _Having reached_ my destination, I stopped.

A verb-phrase made by prefixing _to have_ to the past participle is
called the +perfect infinitive+.

  I am sorry _to have missed_ you.

+245.+ Three forms of the verb are so important that they are called
the +principal parts+. These are:--

  (1) the first person singular of the present;

  (2) the first person singular of the past;

  (3) the past participle.

  PRESENT      PAST           PAST PARTICIPLE

  (I) walk     (I) walked     walked
  (I) think    (I) thought    thought
  (I) see      (I) saw        seen
  (I) come     (I) came       come
  (I) make     (I) made       made


VOICE--ACTIVE AND PASSIVE

+246.+ +Voice is that property of verbs which indicates whether the
subject acts or is acted upon.+

There are two voices, active and passive.

1. +A verb is in the active voice when it represents the subject as the
doer of an act.+

  Richard _shot_ the bear.

  Mr. Hardy _builds_ carriages.

  Dr. Wilson _has cured_ my father.

2. +A verb is in the passive voice when it represents the subject as
the receiver or the product of an action.+

  The bear was _shot by_ Richard.

  Carriages _are built_ by Mr. Hardy.

  My father _has been cured_ by Dr. Wilson.

+247.+ +The passive voice of a verb is expressed by a verb-phrase
made by prefixing some form of the copula (is, was, etc.) to the past
participle.+

In the passive voice of the +complete tenses+, the past participle
_been_ follows the proper form of the auxiliary _have_ (as in the third
example in § 246, 2).

The passive of the +infinitive+ is made by prefixing _to be_ (perfect,
_to have been_) to the past participle. Thus,--

  PRESENT INFINITIVE PASSIVE: to be struck.

  PERFECT INFINITIVE PASSIVE: to have been struck.

+248.+ The following table gives the +conjugation+ of the verb _strike_
in the active and passive of the six tenses:--

  ACTIVE VOICE                 PASSIVE VOICE

  PRESENT TENSE

  SINGULAR
  1. I strike.                 1. I am struck.
  2. Thou strikest.            2. Thou art struck.
  3. He strikes.               3. He is struck.

  PLURAL
  1. We strike.                1. We are struck.
  2. You strike.               2. You are struck.
  3. They strike.              3. They are struck.

  PAST TENSE

  SINGULAR
  1. I struck.                 1. I was struck.
  2. Thou struckest.           2. Thou wast (_or_ wert) struck.
  3. He struck.                3. He was struck.

  PLURAL
  1. We struck.                1. We were struck.
  2. You struck.               2. You were struck.
  3. They struck.              3. They were struck.

  FUTURE TENSE

  SINGULAR
  1. I shall strike.           1. I shall be struck.
  2. Thou wilt strike.         2. Thou wilt be struck.
  3. He will strike.           3. He will be struck.

  PLURAL
  1. We shall strike.          1. We shall be struck.
  2. You will strike.          2. You will be struck.
  3. They will strike.         3. They will be struck.

  PERFECT (OR PRESENT PERFECT) TENSE

  SINGULAR
  1. I have struck.            1. I have been struck.
  2. Thou hast struck.         2. Thou hast been struck.
  3. He has struck.            3. He has been struck.

  PLURAL
  1. We have struck.           1. We have been struck.
  2. You have struck.          2. You have been struck.
  3. They have struck.         3. They have been struck.

  PLUPERFECT (OR PAST PERFECT) TENSE

  SINGULAR
  1. I had struck.             1. I had been struck.
  2. Thou hadst struck.        2. Thou hadst been struck.
  3. He had struck.            3. He had been struck.

  PLURAL
  1. We had struck.            1. We had been struck.
  2. You had struck.           2. You had been struck.
  3. They had struck.          3. They had been struck.

  FUTURE PERFECT TENSE

  SINGULAR
  1. I shall have struck.      1. I shall have been struck.
  2. Thou wilt have struck.    2. Thou wilt have been struck.
  3. He will have struck.      3. He will have been struck.

  PLURAL
  1. We shall have struck.     1. We shall have been struck.
  2. You will have struck.     2. You will have been struck.
  3. They will have struck.    3. They will have been struck.


USE OF THE PASSIVE VOICE

+249.+ Any sentence of which the predicate is a transitive verb
followed by an object, may be changed from the active to the passive
form without affecting the sense.

  ACTIVE.  Richard _shot_ the bear.
  PASSIVE. The bear _was shot_ by Richard.

In this change, (1) _bear_, the object of the active verb _shot_,
becomes the subject of the passive verb _was shot_; and (2) _Richard_,
the subject of the active verb _shot_, becomes _by Richard_, an
adverbial phrase, modifying the passive verb _was shot_. Thus we have
the rule:--

+The object of the active verb becomes the subject of the passive, and
the subject of the active verb becomes in the passive an adverbial
phrase modifying the predicate verb.+

  ACTIVE VOICE                        PASSIVE VOICE

  My cat caught a bird.               A bird was caught by my cat.

  Austin thanked Charles.             Charles was thanked by Austin.

  The bullet penetrated a tree.       A tree was penetrated by the bullet.

  Sargent painted that portrait.      That portrait was painted by Sargent.

  The fireman had saved the child.    The child had been saved
                                        by the fireman.

+250.+ +Intransitive verbs+ are ordinarily used in the active voice
only.

  The bystanders _laughed_.

  The watchdogs _bark_.

  Snow is _falling_.

+251.+ An intransitive verb followed by a preposition is often used in
the passive, the object of the preposition becoming the subject of the
verb.

  ACTIVE VOICE                         PASSIVE VOICE

  Everybody _laughed_ at him.          He _was laughed at_ by everybody.

  The attorney general _has_           This bill _has_ not yet
    not yet _passed upon_ this bill.     _been passed upon_.

  He _has tampered with_ this lock.    This lock _has been tampered with_.

  The cart _ran over_ me.              I _was run over_ by the cart.

  Other examples are: talk about (= discuss), look or inquire into (=
  investigate), look upon (= regard), jeer at (= deride), reason with,
  object to, insist upon, act upon.

  NOTE. In this idiom, the preposition is treated like an +ending+
  attached to the verb to make it transitive. In other words, _laugh
  at_, _pass upon_, etc., are treated as compound verbs, and the object
  of the preposition is, in effect, the object of the compound. In
  the passive, this object becomes the subject and the preposition
  (now lacking an object) remains attached to the verb. The passive
  construction is well established, but not always graceful.

+252.+ The passive of some verbs of _choosing_, _calling_, _naming_,
_making_, and _thinking_ may be followed by a +predicate nominative+ (§
88, 2).

  ACTIVE VOICE                           PASSIVE VOICE
  (PREDICATE OBJECTIVE)                  (PREDICATE NOMINATIVE)

  We elected John _president_.           John was elected _president_.

  The Roman people called                The chief was called
    the chief _friend_.                    _friend_ by the Roman people.

  The herald proclaimed him _emperor_.    He was proclaimed _emperor_
                                            by the herald.

  NOTE. In the active voice, these verbs may take two objects referring
  to the same person or thing,--a +direct object+ and a +predicate
  objective+ (§ 104). In the passive, the direct object becomes the
  subject, and the predicate objective becomes a predicate nominative,
  agreeing with the subject (§ 88, 2).


OBJECT OF THE PASSIVE

+253.+ When a verb takes both a +direct+ and an +indirect object+, one
of the two is often retained after the passive, the other becoming the
subject. Thus,--

1. The +indirect object+ is retained.


  ACTIVE VOICE                          PASSIVE VOICE

  My aunt gave _me_ this watch.         This watch was given _me_
                                          by my aunt.

  We allowed _them_ free choice.        Free choice was allowed _them_.

  He allowed each _speaker_ an hour.    An hour was allowed
                                          each _speaker_.

  Congress granted _me_ a pension.      A pension was granted _me_.

  NOTE. The preposition _to_ is often inserted in the passive
  construction, especially with a noun; as,--“A small pension was
  granted _to Dr. Johnson_.”

2. The +direct object+ is retained.

  ACTIVE VOICE                          PASSIVE VOICE

  We allowed them their _choice_.       They were allowed their _choice_.

  He allowed each speaker an _hour_.    Each speaker was allowed
                                          an _hour_.

  They showed me the _way_.             I was shown the _way_.

  Experience has taught me _wisdom_.    I have been taught _wisdom_
                                          by experience.

The direct object after a passive verb is often called the +retained
object+.

  NOTE. This construction, though common, is avoided by many careful
  writers, except in a few well-established idioms. Its habitual use
  gives one’s style a heavy and awkward air. Instead of “He was given
  permission,” one may say “He received permission”; instead of “I was
  given this watch by my aunt,” either “It was my aunt who gave me this
  watch” or “This watch was a present from my aunt.”

+254.+ The verb _ask_, which may take two direct objects,--one denoting
the person, the other the thing,--sometimes retains its second object
in the passive construction (§ 103).

  ACTIVE.  We asked _him_ his _opinion_.
  PASSIVE. He was asked his _opinion_.


PROGRESSIVE VERB-PHRASES

+255.+ In addition to the tense-forms already described, verbs have
so-called +progressive forms+.

+The progressive form of a tense represents the action of the verb as
going on or continuing at the time referred to.+

  I _ate_ my dinner.

  I _was eating_ my dinner.

  While I _was_ quietly _reading_ by my fireside, strange things _were
  taking_ place in the square.

Both _ate_ and _was eating_ are in the past tense. But _ate_ merely
expresses a past action, whereas _was eating_ describes this action as
+continuing+ or +in progress+ in past time.

+256.+ +The progressive form is a verb-phrase made by prefixing to the
present participle some form of the verb _to be_.+

  PROGRESSIVE FORM

  ACTIVE VOICE             PRESENT TENSE

  SINGULAR                 PLURAL
  1. I am striking.        1. We are striking.
  2. Thou art striking.    2. You are striking.
  3. He is striking.       3. They are striking.

So in the other tenses:

  PAST            I was striking, etc.
  FUTURE          I shall be striking, etc.
  PERFECT         I have been striking, etc.
  PLUPERFECT      I had been striking, etc.
  FUTURE PERFECT  I shall have been striking, etc.

  PASSIVE VOICE

  PRESENT    I am being struck, etc.
  PAST       I was being struck, etc.

+257.+ In the passive, the progressive forms are confined to the
present and the past tense.

  He _is being helped_ by his brother. [Present.]

  I _am being trained_ by Arthur Ray. [Present.]

  When I called, tea _was being served_. [Past.]

+258.+ In subordinate clauses, the verb _is_ (in its various forms)
with its subject is often omitted in progressive phrases.

  While _waiting_ for the train, I bought a newspaper. [That is, While
  I was waiting.]

  Though [he was] _swimming_ vigorously, he could not stem the tide.

  When [I am] _reading_, I like to have the light shine over my left
  shoulder.

In parsing, the omitted words should be supplied.

+259.+ For such progressive forms as _is building_ for _is being
built_, see § 352.


EMPHATIC VERB-PHRASES

+260.+ +The present or the past of a verb in the active voice may be
expressed with emphasis by means of a verb-phrase consisting of _do_ or
_did_ and the infinitive without _to_.+

+Such a phrase is called the emphatic form of the present or past
tense.+

  “I do see you” and “I did go” differ from “I see you” and “I went”
  merely in emphasis. Hence _do see_ is called the +emphatic form+ of
  the present tense of _see_, and _did go_ the emphatic form of the
  past tense of _go_.

+261.+ In questions and in negative statements the emphatic forms are
used without the effect of emphasis.

  Did you go? I did not go.

  NOTE. _Do_ often stands for some other verb which has just been used:
  as, “Jack _swims_ better than I _do_,” “You _looked_ as tired as she
  _did_.” This idiom comes from the omission of the infinitive in the
  verb-phrase:--“Jack swims better than I _do_ [_swim_].”

  In poetry and older English the verb-phrase with _do_ or _did_ in
  declarative sentences often carries no emphasis, but merely takes the
  place of the present or past: as,--“The serpent beguiled me, and I
  _did eat_.”


MOOD OF VERBS

+262.+ +Mood is that property of verbs which shows the manner in which
the action or state is expressed.+

  +Mood+ (or +mode+) is derived from the Latin word _modus_, “manner.”

Compare the following sentences, noting the form of the verb in each:

  Richard _is_ quiet.

  _Is_ Richard quiet?

  If Richard _were_ quiet, I might study.

  Richard, _be_ quiet.

In the first and second sentences, the form _is_ is used to assert
or question a +fact+; in the third, the form _were_ expresses a
+condition+ or +supposition+ that is contrary to fact; in the fourth,
the form _be_ expresses a +command+ or +request+.

The difference in form seen in the verb in these sentences is called a
difference of +mood+.

+263.+ +There are three moods,--the indicative, the imperative, and the
subjunctive.+

1. +The indicative is the mood of simple assertion or interrogation,
but it is used in other constructions also.+

2. +The imperative is the mood of command or request.+

3. +The subjunctive mood is used in certain special constructions of
wish, condition, and the like.+

Thus, in the examples in § 262, _is_ is in the +indicative+, _were_ in
the +subjunctive+, and _be_ in the +imperative+ mood.


I. INDICATIVE MOOD

+264.+ The ordinary +forms+ of the +indicative mood+ in the active
and the passive voice and in all six tenses,--present, past, future,
perfect (or present perfect), pluperfect (or past perfect), and future
perfect,--may be seen in the table on pp. 108–110.

For the +progressive form+ of the indicative, see § 256; for the
+emphatic form+, see § 260.

+265.+ The commonest +uses+ of the +indicative mood+ are in statements
or questions as to matters of fact; but it may express almost any other
form of thought. Thus,

  Time and tide _wait_ for no man. [Assertion.]

  How _goes_ the world with you? [Interrogation.]

  How it _rains_! [Exclamation.]

  If the river _rises_, the dam will be swept away. [Supposition.]

  I suspect that he _has absconded_. [Doubt.]

  I hope that John _will come_ soon. [Desire.]

  Though Ellen _dislikes_ algebra, she never shirks. [Concession.]

  You _will report_ for duty immediately. [Command.]

  _Will_ you _allow_ me to use your knife? [Request.]

  NOTE. The indicative and the subjunctive were originally quite
  distinct in form, and each had its own set of constructions. But,
  as our language has grown simpler in its structure, the forms of
  these two moods have become almost identical, and the uses of the
  indicative have been greatly multiplied at the expense of the
  subjunctive. Indeed, there is scarcely any variety of thought
  expressed by the subjunctive or the imperative for which the
  indicative cannot also be employed. It is therefore impossible to
  frame any satisfactory definition of the indicative. Its functions
  are too varied to be included in one general statement. The
  indicative is often described as the mood which asserts thought _as
  a fact_, and the subjunctive as the mood which expresses thought as
  supposition (or _as mere thought_). But the indicative, as well as
  the subjunctive, may express supposition, condition, doubt, desire,
  concession, etc. Hence the definitions in § 263 are as exact as the
  facts of the language allow. All the efforts of grammarians to devise
  more “accurate” definitions break down when tested by actual usage.


II. IMPERATIVE MOOD

+266.+ +The imperative is the mood of command or request.+

  _Hurry!_

  _Lie_ down.

  _Shut_ the door.

  _Have_ patience.

  _Light_ the lamp.

  _Show_ us the way.

  _Wait_ a moment.

  _Come_ to dinner.

The imperative has both voices, +active+ and +passive+, but only one
tense,--the +present+. It has both numbers, the +singular+ and the
+plural+, but only one person, the +second+. It has the same form for
both the +singular+ and the +plural+.

+267.+ 1. +The imperative active is the verb in its simplest form.+

For examples, see § 266.

The imperative of the verb _to be_ is _be_. Thus,--

  _Be_ brave.

  _Be_ careful.

  _Be_ sure you are right.

  _Be_ here at noon.

2. +The imperative passive is a verb-phrase consisting of be and a past
participle.+

  _Be trusted_ rather than feared.

  Study your failures and _be instructed_ by them.

+268.+ +The subject of an imperative is seldom expressed unless it is
emphatic.+

The subject, when expressed, may precede the imperative: as,--_You sit
here_.

  NOTE. In older English, the subject often followed the imperative:
  as,--_Go thou, Go you, Hear ye._ This use is now confined to the
  solemn style and to poetry.

+269.+ The +emphatic form+ of the imperative consists of the imperative
_do_, followed by the infinitive without _to_.

  _Do tell_ me what he said.

  _Do stand_ still.

The form with _do_ is often used when the subject is expressed as,--_Do
you remain_.

+270.+ +Prohibition+ (or +negative command+) is commonly expressed by
means of the form with _do_.

  _Do_ not _open_ a closed door without knocking.

  _Do_ not _forget_ to say “thank you.”

In poetry and the solemn style prohibition is often expressed by the
simple imperative with _not_.

  _Tell_ me _not_ what too well I know.

  _Devise not_ evil against thy neighbor.

  _Seek not_ to learn my name.

+271.+ Commands are sometimes expressed in the indicative by means of
_shall_ or _will_ (§§ 239–240).

  Thou _shalt_ not _steal_.

  You _will leave_ the room immediately.

  For such expressions as “Forward!” “Off with you!” and the like, see
  § 530.

  For the imperative in +conditions+, see § 418.


III: SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD


FORMS OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE

+272.+ +The subjunctive mood is used in certain special constructions
of wish, condition, and the like.+

In older English, the +subjunctive+ forms were common in a variety of
uses, as they still are in poetry and the solemn style. In ordinary
prose, however, subjunctive forms are rare, and in conversation they
are hardly ever heard, except in the case of the +copula+ _be_.

The subjunctive forms of _be_ are the following:--

  SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

  PRESENT TENSE

  SINGULAR                  PLURAL
  1. If I be.               1. If we be.
  2. If thou be.            2. If you be.
  3. If he be.              3. If they be.

  PAST TENSE

  SINGULAR                  PLURAL
  1. If I were.             1. If we were.
  2. If thou wert.          2. If you were.
  3. If he were.            3. If they were.

  PERFECT (OR PRESENT PERFECT) TENSE

  SINGULAR                  PLURAL
  1. If I have been.        1. If we have been.
  2. If thou have been.     2. If you have been.
  3. If he have been.       3. If they have been.

  PLUPERFECT (OR PAST PERFECT) TENSE

  SINGULAR                  PLURAL
  1. If I had been.         1. If we had been.
  2. If thou hadst been.    2. If you had been.
  3. If he had been.        3. If they had been.

  _If_ is used in the paradigm because it is in clauses beginning with
  _if_ that the subjunctive is commonest in modern English; but _if_ is
  of course no part of the subjunctive inflection.

+273.+ In other verbs, the +subjunctive active+ has the same forms as
the +indicative+, except in the +second+ and +third persons singular+
of the +present+ and the +perfect+, which are like the +first+ person:--

  PRESENT               PERFECT

  1. If I strike.       1. If I have struck.
  2. If thou strike.    2. If thou have struck.
  3. If he strike.      3. If he have struck.

In the +passive subjunctive+, the subjunctive forms of the copula (§
272) are used as auxiliaries:--present, _If I be struck_; past, _If I
were struck_; perfect, _If I have been struck_; pluperfect, _If I had
been struck_. (See table, p. 304.)

+274.+ +Progressive verb-phrases+ in the subjunctive may be formed by
means of the copula:--present, _If I be striking_; past, _If I were
striking_. The present is rare; the past is common.


USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE


Subjunctive in Wishes and Exhortations

+275.+ +The subjunctive is often used in wishes or prayers.+

  Angels and ministers of grace _defend_ us!

  Heaven _help_ him!

  The saints _preserve_ us!

  God _bless_ you!

  Long _live_ the king!

  O that _I had listened_ to him!

  O that we _were_ rid of him!

In the first five examples, the wish is expressed in an independent
sentence. In the last two, the construction is subordinate,--the
_that_-clause being the object of an unexpressed “I wish” (§ 407).

+276.+ The subjunctive _be_ is often omitted when it may easily be
supplied.

  Peace [_be_] to his ashes!

  Honor [_be_] to his memory!

  Honor [_be_] to whom honor is due!

+277.+ Wishes are often introduced by _may_ or _would_.

  _May_ you never want!

  _Would_ that he _were_ safe!

  _Would_ you _were_ with us! [For _Would that_.]

  _May_ and _would_ in such expressions were originally subjunctives;
  _would_ stands for _I would_, that is, _I should wish_. _Want_ in
  the first example is an infinitive without _to_ (§ 311). For wishes
  expressed by the infinitive, see § 320.

+278.+ +Exhortations+ in the first person plural sometimes take the
subjunctive in elevated or poetical style.

  _Hear we_ the king!

  _Join we_ in a hymn of praise!

Exhortation is ordinarily expressed by _let us_ followed by the
infinitive without _to_.

  Let us join hands.

  Let us have peace.

  Let’s camp here.

  _Let_ is a verb in the imperative mood, _us_ is its object, and the
  infinitive (_join_, _have_, _camp_) depends on _let_.


Subjunctives in Concessions, Conditions, etc.

+279.+ +The subjunctive is used after _though_, _although_, to express
an admission or concession not as a fact but as a supposition.+

  Though he _slay_ me, yet will I trust in him.

  Though he _were_ to beg this on his knees, I should still refuse.

When the concession is stated as an admitted +fact+, the +indicative+
is regular.

  Although he _is_ a foreigner, he speaks good English.

  Though he sometimes _sings_, he is not now in good voice.

+280.+ After _if_ and _unless_, expressing +condition+, the
+subjunctive+ may be used in a variety of ways.

  1. If this _be_ gold, our fortune is made. [It may or may not be
  gold.]

  2. If he _confess_, I shall overlook the offence. [He may or may not
  confess.]

  3. Unless he _confess_, he cannot be convicted. [He may or may not
  confess.]

  4. If this _were_ gold, our fortune would be made. [It is _not_ gold;
  hence our fortune is not made.]

  5. If he _stood_ before me at this moment, I should tell him my
  opinion. [He does _not_ stand before me; hence I do not tell him.]

  6. If he _had confessed_, I should have overlooked his fault. [He did
  not confess; hence I did not overlook it.]

  7. Unless he _had confessed_, he could not have been convicted. [He
  did confess; hence he was convicted.]

In conditional clauses, the +present subjunctive+ denotes either
+present+ or +future+ time. It puts the supposed case doubtfully, but
not necessarily as improbable. (See examples 1–3.)

The +past subjunctive+ refers to +present+ time. It implies that the
supposed case +is not now a fact+. (See examples 4 and 5.)

The +pluperfect+ (or +past perfect+) +subjunctive+ refers to +past+
time. It implies that the supposed case +was not a fact+. (See 6 and 7.)

For details of conditional sentences, see pp. 167–172.

+281.+ +Concession+ or +condition+ may be expressed by the
+subjunctive+ without _though_ or _if_, the verb preceding the subject,
which is sometimes omitted.


I. CONCESSION

  _Try_ as we may, we cannot swim to that rock.

  _Say_ what he will, he can never convince me.

  _Come_ what will, I’ll stand my ground.

  _Be_ that as it may, my mind is made up.


II. CONDITION

  _Were_ I asked, I could tell all the facts. [If I were asked, etc.]

  _Had_ I known, I would have written to you. [If I had known, etc.]

  I shall be twenty years old, _come_ Tuesday. [If Tuesday come, etc.]

  I will go, _rain_ or _shine_. [If it rain, or if it shine, etc.]

  _Be_ he prince or _be_ he pauper, every guest is welcome here.

  NOTE. The subjunctive in these concessive and conditional uses is
  really the same as that in exhortations (§ 278). “_Try_ [_we_] as
  we may” means literally, “_Let us try_ as hard as we can,” and this
  has the force of “However hard we try” or “_Although we try_ ever so
  hard.”

+282.+ After _as if_ (_as though_), the +past subjunctive+ is used.

  He looks as if he _were_ about to speak. [NOT: as if he _was_ about
  to speak.]

  I act as if I _were_ crazy. [NOT: as if I _was_ crazy.]

+283.+ The +subjunctive+ may express not what +is+ or +was+, but what
+would be+ or +would have been+, the case.

  It _were_ safer to travel by day. [It would be safer, etc.]

  I _had been_ wiser had I forded the river. [I should have been wiser
  if I had.]

  This construction is old-fashioned. Modern English commonly uses
  _should_ (or _would_) _be_, _should_ (or _would_) _have been_,
  instead.

+284.+ The +subjunctive+ is occasionally used after _that_, _lest_,
_before_, _until_, etc., in subordinate clauses referring to the future
and commonly expressing +purpose+ or +expectation+.

  Take heed that he _escape_ not. [Purpose.]

  Give him food lest he _perish_. [Purpose.]

  Let us tarry until he _come_. [Expectation.]

This construction is confined to poetry and the solemn or formal style.
In ordinary language the indicative or a verb-phrase with _may_ is used.

  Take heed that he _does_ not _escape_.

  Give him food in order that he _may_ not _perish_.

  Let us wait till he _comes_.

+285.+ The +past subjunctive+ _had_ is common in _had rather_ and
similar phrases.

  I _had rather_ wait a day.

  You _had better_ leave the room.

  He _had as lief_ go as stay.

  NOTE. _Had_ in this construction is sometimes condemned as erroneous
  or inelegant; but the idiom is well-established.

  _Might better_, _would better_, and _would rather_ may be used
  instead of _had better_, etc.; but _would better_ is improper in the
  first person.

+286.+ The subjunctive forms are often replaced by verb-phrases
containing the auxiliaries _may_, _might_, _could_, _would_, _should_.

1. In wishes (§ 277).

  _May_ you _live_ long and _prosper_!

  _May_ he never _repent_ this act!

  Ah, _could_ I but _live_ a hundred years!

2. In concessions and conditions (§§ 279–280).

  Though {I | you | he} _should fail_, there would still be hope.

  If {I | you | he} _should fail_, all would be lost.

3. In sentences expressing not what +is+ or +was+, but what +would be+
or +would have been+, the case (§ 283).

  {I _should_ | You _would_ | He _would_} _write_ to Charles if I knew
  his address.

  It _would have been_ better to telegraph.

4. In subordinate clauses introduced by _that_, _lest_, _before_,
_until_, etc. (§ 284).

  I will take care that nothing _may prevent_.

  I took care that nothing {_might_ | _should_} _prevent_.

  The general determined to wait until fresh troops _should arrive_.


POTENTIAL VERB-PHRASES


USE OF MODAL AUXILIARIES

+287.+ +Several auxiliary verbs are used to form verb-phrases
indicating ability, possibility, obligation, or necessity.+

Such verb-phrases are called +potential phrases+, that is, “phrases of
possibility.”

The auxiliary verbs used in +potential phrases+ are:--_may_, _can_,
_must_, _might_, _could_, _would_, and _should_. They are called +modal
auxiliaries+ and are followed by the infinitive without _to_.

  We _may ask_ him a few questions.

  I _can manage_ a motor car.

  You _must inquire_ the way.

  He _might give_ you a chance.

  I _could show_ you his house if you _would permit_ me.

  I _should enjoy_ a sea-voyage.

  NOTE. The fact that _give_, etc., in such phrases as _can give_, are
  infinitives may be seen by comparing “I can _strike_” with “I am able
  _to strike_,” “I may _strike_” with “I am permitted _to strike_,” “I
  must _strike_” with “I am obliged _to strike_,” and so on. In earlier
  periods of the language, when the infinitive had a special ending
  (_-an_ or _-en_), the nature of the construction was unmistakable.

+288.+ +Potential phrases+ may be arranged in tables of conjugation,
like that on pp. 108–110. They are often called, collectively, the
+potential mood+.

  ACTIVE VOICE

  PRESENT TENSE

  SINGULAR                        PLURAL
  1. I may strike.[34]            1. We may strike.
  2. Thou mayst strike.           2. You may strike.
  3. He may strike.               3. They may strike.

  PAST TENSE

  1. I might strike.[35]          1. We might strike.
  2. Thou mightst strike.         2. You might strike.
  3. He might strike.             3. They might strike.

  PERFECT (OR PRESENT PERFECT) TENSE

  1. I may have struck.[36]       1. We may have struck.
  2. Thou mayst have struck.      2. You may have struck.
  3. He may have struck.          3. They may have struck.

  PLUPERFECT (OR PAST PERFECT) TENSE

  1. I might have struck.[37]     1. We might have struck.
  2. Thou mightst have struck.    2. You might have struck.
  3. He might have struck.        3. They might have struck.

  PASSIVE VOICE

  PRESENT TENSE

  I may be struck, etc.             We may be struck, etc.

  PAST TENSE

  I might be struck, etc.           We might be struck, etc.

  PERFECT (OR PRESENT PERFECT) TENSE

  I may have been struck, etc.      We may have been struck, etc.

  PLUPERFECT (OR PAST PERFECT) TENSE

  I might have been struck, etc.    We might have been struck, etc.

+289.+ _Can_ (past tense, _could_) regularly indicates that the subject
+is able+ to do something.

  John _can_ ride a bicycle.

  Harry _could_ swim.

+290.+ _May_ (past tense, _might_) indicates (1) +permission+, (2)
+possibility+ or +doubtful intention+, (3) a +wish+.

  (1) You _may_ borrow my pencil. I told him that he _might_ join our
  party.

  (2) He _may_ accept my offer. You _might_ not like it.

  (3) _May_ good fortune attend you!

+291.+ In asking permission, the proper form is “_May_ I?” not “_Can_
I?” With negatives, however, _can_ is more common than _may_, except in
questions. Thus,--

  QUESTION. _May_ I (or _mayn’t_ I) play ball this morning?
  ANSWER. No, you _cannot_; but you _may_ play this afternoon.

+292.+ _Must_ expresses +necessity+ or +obligation+.

  We _must_ all die sometime.

  You _must_ wait for the train.

  You _must_ not be discouraged by failure.

  NOTE. _Must_, though originally a past tense, is in modern English
  almost always used as a present. Past necessity may be expressed by
  _had to_ with the infinitive: as,--“I _had to wait_ for the train.”

+293.+ _Ought_ with the +present infinitive+, expresses a present duty
or moral obligation; with the +perfect infinitive+, a past duty or
obligation. _Should_ is often used in the same sense.

  I _ought to write_ that letter. [Present.]

  You _ought_ not _to object_. [Present.]

  This roof _ought to be mended_. [Present.]

  I _ought to have known_ better. [Past.]

  Your dog _ought_ not _to have been unleashed_. [Past.]

  You _should be_ careful. [Present.]

  The garden _should have been weeded_ yesterday. [Past.]

  NOTE. _Ought_ is really an old past tense of the verb _owe_, but
  is now +always+ a present. Its former meaning may be seen in Dame
  Quickly’s “You _ought_ him a thousand pound” (SHAKSPERE, _1 Henry
  IV_, iii. 3. 152).

_Had_ should never be prefixed to _ought_.

  CORRECT                                 INCORRECT

  You _ought_ to stay at home.            You had ought to stay at home.

  We _ought_n’t to make so much noise.    We hadn’t ought to make
                                            so much noise.

  John ought to begin, _ought_n’t he?     John ought to begin, hadn’t he?

+294.+ _Should_ and _ought_ sometimes express what would certainly be
expected in the case supposed.

  Three weeks {_should_ | _ought to_} suffice.

  If the train is on time, he {_should_ | _ought to_} arrive at six.

+295.+ _Would_ in all three persons sometimes indicates +habitual
action+ in the past.

  _I would_ gaze at the sea for hours at a time.

  Whenever we asked Edward about his adventures, _he would begin_ to
  talk of something else.


SPECIAL RULES FOR _SHOULD_ AND _WOULD_

+296.+ _Should_ is the past tense of _shall_, and _would_ is the past
tense of _will_. Hence the rules for _should_ and _would_ are similar
to those for _shall_ and _will_ (§§ 233–239). But there is much
variation, especially in subordinate clauses.


I. IN SIMPLE SENTENCES AND INDEPENDENT CLAUSES

+297.+ Except in certain kinds of subordinate clauses, the distinction
between _should_ and _would_ is practically the same as that between
_shall_ and _will_.

When the auxiliary verb expresses +futurity+ without any idea of
+wishing+, +consenting+, or the like, the forms are as follows:--

  ASSERTIONS (DECLARATIVE)

  SINGULAR                  PLURAL
  1. I should fall.         1. We should fall.
  2. Thou wouldst fall.     2. You would fall.
  3. He would fall.         3. They would fall.

  QUESTIONS (INTERROGATIVE)

  SINGULAR                  PLURAL
  1. Should I fall?         1. Should we fall?
  2. Shouldst thou fall?    2. Should you fall?
  3. Would he fall?         3. Would they fall?

+298.+ Common errors are the use of _I would_ for _I should_ in
assertions, and that of _Would I?_ and _Would you?_ for _Should I?_ and
_Should you?_ in questions.

The correct forms are shown in the following sentences.

I. _I should_ (_we should_) and _I would_ (_we would_) in
+assertions+:--

  1. _I should_ break my neck if I fell.

  2. _I should_ hesitate to try this experiment.

  3. _I should_n’t wonder if he escaped.

  4. _We should_ regret any misunderstanding.

  5. _I should_ wish to examine the plans again before deciding.

  6. _I should_ be glad to accept any fair offer.

  7. _I would_ give five dollars for a ticket.

  8. _I would_ help you if I could.

  9. _I would_ never agree to such a proposition.

  10. _We would_ rather die than surrender.

  11. _We would_ pay our bill to-day if we had the money.

  12. _I would_ gladly accept any fair offer.

In the first six examples, _I_ (or _we_) _should_ is correct, because
the auxiliary gives no suggestion of the speaker’s will (or volition).
In the last six, on the contrary, the speaker’s willingness or desire
is plainly expressed by the auxiliary, and _I_ (or _we_) _would_ is
therefore used.

  NOTE. In such sentences as the fifth,--“I should wish to examine the
  plans again before deciding,”--_wish_ expresses volition. Hence “I
  _would_ wish” is incorrect, for it expresses volition twice and can
  mean only “I desire to wish.” On the same principle we say “I should
  prefer,” “I should be glad,” etc. (see § 236).

  Sometimes either _I would_ or _I should_ may be used, but with a
  difference in meaning. Thus, in the eighth example, “I should help
  you” might be substituted for “I would help you.” This change,
  however, makes the remark sound less cordial and sympathetic; for _I
  should_ (unlike _I would_) gives no hint of the speaker’s desire to
  be of service.

II. _Should I_ (or _we_)? in +questions+:--

  1. _Should I_ break my neck if I fell?

  2. _Should I_ be poisoned if I ate those berries?

  3. _Should I_ take cold without my overcoat?

  4. _Should I_ disturb you if I were to practise my music lesson?

  5. _Should we_ run aground if we missed the channel?

  NOTE. _Would I?_ is confined, for the most part, to questions in
  which one repeats the words or thought of another. Thus,--“_You
  would_ give five dollars for a ticket.” “_Would I?_ No, I wouldn’t!”
  In this use it is chiefly colloquial.

III. _Should you?_ and _Would you?_ in questions:--

  1. _Should you_ drown if the boat were to capsize? [Yes, _I should_
  drown, for I do not know how to swim.]

  2. _Should you_ despair if this plan were a failure? [No, _I should_
  not, for I have other resources.]

  3. _Should you_ think that ten yards of velvet would be enough? [Yes,
  _I should_ think so.]

  4. _Should you_ be offended if I were to speak frankly? [No, _I
  should_ not be offended.]

  5. _Should you_ wish to examine the plans again before deciding?
  [Yes, _I should_ (see note under I, above).]

  6. _Would you_ wear a hat or a cap? [_I would_ wear a cap if I were
  you.]

  7. _Would you_ study Greek if you were in my place? [Yes, _I would_.]

  8. _Would you_ accept my apology if it were offered? [Certainly, _I
  would_ accept it gladly.]

  9. _Would you_ be so kind as to lend me your compasses? [Certainly _I
  would_ lend them, if I had not lost them.]

  10. _Would you_ allow me to use your name as a reference? [_I would._]

The choice between _should_ and _would_ in these sentences corresponds
to the form expected in the answer (§ 238).

+299.+ The chief occasions on which _Would you?_ is correct are:--(1)
in +asking advice+ in a matter of doubt, and (2) in +asking consent+ or
+permission+.

  In examples 6 and 7 in § 298, III, the speaker asks advice; in 8, 9,
  and 10, he asks consent or permission.

+300.+ Note that the proper forms are _I should like_, _Should I like?_
and _Should you like?_

  _I should_ like to read that book.

  _Should I_ like to go to Rome? Indeed, _I should_.

  _Should you_ like to receive a copy of our catalogue? [_I should_
  like to receive one.]

  NOTE. _Would_ is very common in these phrases, even among writers of
  repute, but it is still contrary to the best usage. The reason for
  _should_ is the same as in _I should wish_ (§ 298, I, note).

+301.+ _I’d_ and _we’d_ are contractions of _I would_ and _we would_.
Hence they can never stand for _I should_ and _we should_ (§ 235).

+302.+ _Should_ in the +second+ and +third persons+ may be used in
simple declarative sentences and independent clauses to express the
will of the speaker (§ 239).

  If I had my way, _you should_ be prosecuted. [That is: I would take
  care that you were prosecuted.]

  If I had the money, _you should_ be paid immediately. [Compare: _You
  shall_ be paid.]

  If I were you, _she should_ not regret her generosity. [Compare: _She
  shall_ not regret it.]


II. _SHOULD_ AND _WOULD_ IN SUBORDINATE CLAUSES

+303.+ In some kinds of +subordinate clauses+, the use of _should_
and _would_ differs considerably from that in simple sentences and
principal clauses.

The following classes require attention:--(1) clauses of purpose or
expectation (§ 304), (2) conditional and concessive clauses (§ 305),
(3) clauses expressing volition not that of the subject (§ 306), (4)
clauses stating something as an idea (§ 307), (5) indirect discourse (§
308).

+304.+ In subordinate clauses expressing the +purpose+ or +expectation+
with which anything is done, _shall_ and _should_ are used in all three
persons.

  Charleton took great pains that {_I_ | _you_ | _they_} _should_
  understand the details of the treaty.

  Scott {_is_ | _was_} very careful that _nothing_ {_shall_ | _should_}
  interfere with his plans.

  They took every precaution lest {_I_ | _you_ | _he_} _should_ suspect
  the plot.

  Anderson waited patiently until {_I_ | _you_ | _they_} _should_
  arrive with the horses.

  We strained every nerve to reach the cave before the _storm should_
  break.

+305.+ In +conditional+ or +concessive+ clauses expressing a +future
supposed case+ doubtfully, _shall_ and _should_ are used in +all three
persons+; but _will_ and _would_ are proper when the subject is thought
of as +wishing+ or +consenting+.

  1. What would happen if {_I_ | _you_ | _he_} _should_ not carry out
  the commander’s instructions?

  2. If {_I_ | _you_ | _he_} _should_ miss the steamer, our friends
  would be alarmed.

  3. _Whoever_ {_shall_ | _should_} violate this law {shall | should}
  pay the penalty. [That is: If anybody shall violate, etc.]

  4. Whenever {_I_ | _you_ | _he_} _shall_ find an opportunity, let us
  try the experiment. [That is: If ever I shall find, etc.]

  5. He promised to assist you whenever _you should_ need help.
  [Whenever = if ever.]

  6. Though {_we_ | _you_ | _they_} _should_ fail, others would make
  the attempt. [Concession.]

  7. Though _Evans should_ disappoint me, I should not lose confidence
  in him.

  8. Vernon will do his part if {_I_ | _you_ | _they_} _will_ coöperate
  with him.

  9. If {_I_ | _you_ | _he_} _will_ only make the effort, success is
  certain.

  10. Edmund would reveal the secret if {_I_ | _you_ | _they_} _would_
  assist him in his search for the treasure.

  11. If _we would_ take pains, our parents would be satisfied.

  12. _Whoever will_ join us may be sure of a pleasant and profitable
  journey. [That is: If any one will join us, he may be sure, etc.]

When a +future supposed case+ is admitted or conceded as +certain+,
_will_ may be used in the second and third persons to denote mere
futurity.

  Though {_you_ | _he_} _will_ certainly fail, {you | he} may make the
  attempt.

  Though the _ship will_ not sink for some hours, let us take to the
  boats.

+306.+ _Shall_ and _should_ are often used in the second and third
persons in subordinate clauses to express volition which is not that of
the subject.

  Templeton insists that _you shall_ accompany him.

  This letter directs where _you shall_ station yourself.

  We gave orders that the _gates should_ be closed.

  My wish is that {_you_ | _he_} _should_ remain at home.

  The law prescribed when and to whom the _tax should_ be paid.

+307.+ When a clause with _that_ states something, not as a +fact+ but
as an +idea+ to be considered, _should_ is the proper auxiliary in all
three persons.

  I am not surprised that you _should_ find your lesson rather
  difficult. [That is: “When I consider the matter, I do not find the
  idea surprising.” In “I am not surprised _that you find_,” etc., the
  subordinate clause makes the statement +as a fact+.]

  It is strange that Tom _should_ neglect his swimming lessons.
  [Contrast: It is strange that Tom _neglects_.]

  That Napoleon _should_ have chafed at captivity is only natural.
  [Contrast: That Napoleon _chafed_.]

+308.+ For _shall_ and _will_, _should_ and _would_, in +indirect
discourse+, see §§ 438–439.


THE INFINITIVE

+309.+ The +infinitive+ is a +verb-form+ that has some of the
properties of a +noun+ (§ 28). Its two-sided character comes out
clearly when it is used as the subject of a sentence.

  1. _To hope_ is our only resource.

  2. _To flatter_ is not my custom.

  3. _To sleep_ was an impossibility.

  4. _To surrender_ seemed disgraceful.

  5. _To choose_ wisely was my greatest difficulty.

  6. _To scale_ the wall was the work of a moment.

Each of these infinitives (_to hope_, _to flatter_, etc.) is a +noun+,
for each is the simple subject of a sentence. Besides, an ordinary
noun may be substituted for each infinitive with no change in meaning;
as,--“_Hope_ is our only resource”; “_Flattery_ is not my custom”;
“_Sleep_ was an impossibility.”

But each of these infinitives is also a +verb+,--for (1) it expresses
action; (2) it may be modified by an adverb, as in No. 5; (3) it takes
an object if it is transitive, as in No. 6.

An infinitive (as the examples show) has regularly no subject and
therefore lacks both number and person. Hence it is not bound by the
general rule for the agreement of a verb with its subject (§ 222). From
this fact it derives its name, +infinitive+, which means “unrestricted”
or “free from limitations.”[38]

+310.+ +The infinitive is a verb-form which partakes of the nature of
a noun. It expresses action or state in the simplest possible way,
without person or number.+

+It is commonly preceded by the preposition _to_, which is called the
sign of the infinitive.+

_To_ is not, in strictness, a part of the infinitive, but it may be so
regarded for convenience, since the infinitive, in most of its uses, is
preceded by _to_.

  NOTE. _To_ sometimes stands for an infinitive in careless speech:
  as,--“You may go if you wish _to_” (that is, “if you wish _to go_”).
  Such expressions are to be avoided. It is better to say, “You may go
  if you wish.”

+311.+ The infinitive often lacks _to_, especially in verb-phrases
with the auxiliaries _will_, _shall_, _may_, _can_, _must_, _might_,
_could_, _would_, _should_, _do_, _did_. For examples, see pp. 102,
114, 124.

+312.+ The infinitive has two tenses,--the +present+ and the +perfect+.

1. The +present infinitive+ is the verb in its simplest form, usually
preceded by _to_: as,--_to live_, _to teach_, _to bind_, _to strike_.

2. The +perfect infinitive+ is made by prefixing the infinitive of the
auxiliary verb _have_ to the past participle (§ 243): as,--_to have
lived_, _to have taught_, _to have bound_, _to have struck_.

+313.+ An infinitive may be modified by an +adverb+, an +adverbial
phrase+, or an +adverbial clause+.

  To write _legibly_ is a valuable accomplishment.

  It would be useless to search _longer_.

  They allowed him to go _in peace_. [Adverbial phrase.]

  To dive _among those weeds_ would be folly.

  Theodore promises to come _when I send for him_. [Adverbial clause.]

+No modifier should be inserted between _to_ and the infinitive.+

  I beg you to inquire carefully into this matter. [NOT: to carefully
  inquire.]

  Mr. Harris moved to postpone the question indefinitely. [NOT: to
  indefinitely postpone.]

  I expect always to be poor. [NOT: to always be poor.]

  NOTE. Careless writers pay slight attention to this rule, and some
  good writers and speakers defy it, hoping to break it down. But it is
  unquestionably still in accord with the best usage.

+314.+ +The infinitive may take an object if its meaning allows.+

  I long to visit _Italy_.

  My mother feared to enter the _house_.

  To launch a _boat_ was impossible.

  To grant your _request_ is a pleasure.

  To give _him money_ is useless. [_Money_ is the direct object of _to
  give_, and _him_ the indirect object.]

+315.+ The infinitive is used in a variety of constructions,--(1) as a
+noun+, (2) as an +adjective modifier+ or +adverbial modifier+, (3) in
the so-called +infinitive clause+.


I. THE INFINITIVE AS NOUN

+316.+ The infinitive is used in various +noun constructions+,--as
subject, as predicate nominative, as nominative of exclamation, as
appositive, as object of certain prepositions, as modifier.

+317.+ +An infinitive with or without a complement or modifiers, may be
used as the subject of a sentence, as a predicate nominative, or as an
appositive.+

  _To descend_ was extremely difficult. [Subject.]

  _To secure_ a seat was impossible.

  _To sing_ well requires practice.

  His delight was _to travel_. [Predicate nominative.]

  The governor’s policy is _to wait_.

  My wish is _to see_ you immediately.

  _To decide_ was _to act_. [The first infinitive is the subject, and
  the second is a predicate nominative.]

  Both alternatives, _to advance_ and _to retreat_, seemed equally
  hazardous. [Apposition with the subject.]

  My first plan, _to tunnel_ under the wall, proved a failure.

  He has but one aim in life, _to succeed_. [Apposition with the
  object.]

  I have written with a definite purpose, _to dissuade_ you.

  I give you three choices,--_to buy_, _to lease_, or _to build_.

+318.+ An infinitive in the predicate is often in apposition with the
expletive subject _it_.

  It was a pleasure _to see_ him. [Instead of: To see him was a
  pleasure.]

  It is easy _to understand_ you.

  It will be impossible _to forget_.

  It proved very difficult _to find_ evidence against him.

  In this use the infinitive, though grammatically in apposition with
  _it_, is really the subject of the thought (see § 120, 2).

+319.+ The infinitive may be used as the +object+ of the prepositions
_but_, _except_, _about_.

  There was nothing to do but _walk_ (or _to walk_).

  He will do anything except _resign_ (or except _to resign_).

  We are about _to object_. [An idiom expressing futurity.]

  The train is about _to start_.

  NOTE. _Can but_ and _cannot but_ are distinct idioms. (1) In “I _can
  but_ thank you,” _but_ is an adverb (= _only_). The sentence means:
  “I can _only_ thank you--simply that and nothing more!” (2) In “I
  _cannot but_ thank you,” _but_ is a preposition (= _except_). The
  idiom is shortened from “I cannot _choose but_ thank you,”--that is,
  “I have _no choice except_ to do so,” or, in other words, “I cannot
  help it.”

  The infinitive after _for_ (now a gross error) was once in good use:
  as,--

  What sweeter music can we bring
    Than a carol _for to sing_.--HERRICK.


+320.+ The infinitive may be used as a +nominative of exclamation+ (§
88, 4).

  _To sleep!_ perchance _to dream_!

  _To suffer_ and _be_ silent!

  O _to be_ a boy again! [A wish.]

  O _to have lived_ in the brave days of old!


II. THE INFINITIVE AS A MODIFIER

+321.+ +An infinitive may be used as an adjective modifier of a noun or
as an adverbial modifier of an adjective.+

+In this use the infinitive is said to depend on the word which it
modifies.+

  WITH NOUNS                     WITH ADJECTIVES
  (ADJECTIVE MODIFIER)           (ADVERBIAL MODIFIER)

  An opportunity _to advance_    The men are _ready to advance_.
    came.

  Determination _to win_         John is eager _to win_.
    brings success.

  Willingness _to oblige_        I shall be glad _to oblige_ you.
    makes friends.

  I wish I had the ability       We are all able _to swim_.
    _to swim_.

  His anxiety _to please_ us     He is anxious _to please_ everybody.
    was laughable.

  NOTE. This use is due to the fact that the infinitive with _to_ is
  really a prepositional phrase (§ 42). Thus, “determination _to win_”
  is equivalent to “determination for victory,” and “eager _to win_” to
  “eager _for victory_.” The adjective force of the infinitive comes
  out clearly in “nothing _to eat_,” where _to eat_ is practically
  synonymous with _eatable_.

  In its adjective use, the present infinitive sometimes shows no
  distinction in voice, so that the active and the passive are
  interchangeable: as,--“a house _to let_” or “_to be let_”; “an axe
  _to grind_” or “_to be ground_.” In such expressions the active form
  is usually preferable.

+322.+ The infinitive without _to_ may be used as an adjective modifier
after the direct object of _see_, _hear_, _feel_, and some other verbs
of like meaning.

  I saw the policeman _arrest_ him.

  Hear the sea _roar_!

  Can you feel the ground _tremble_?

  Ruth watched the tide _come_ in.

  In this use the infinitive is practically equivalent to a participle.
  Compare “I heard him _shout_” with “I heard him _shouting_.” Hence
  the substantive may be regarded as an object, and the infinitive as
  its modifier. But the construction closely approaches that of an
  infinitive clause (§§ 324–325).

+323.+ +An infinitive may modify a verb (1) by completing its meaning,
or (2) by expressing the purpose of the action.+


I. COMPLEMENTARY INFINITIVE

  The ship began _to roll_.

  The rain continued _to fall_ heavily.

  Every boy desires _to succeed_.

  The officer neglected _to watch_ his men.

  The prisoners attempted _to escape_.

  You promised _to come_ to-night.

  After _dare_, the complementary infinitive may or may not have _to_.
  Thus,--“I dare not _do_ it”; “Who will dare _to speak_?”


II. INFINITIVE OF PURPOSE

  He went to New York _to study_ medicine.

  He opened his lips _to speak_.

  She closed her eyes _to shut_ out the sight.

  Elsa lifted the cover _to see_ what was inside.

  The conductor signalled _to stop_ the train.

  Harold waited _to assist_ his teacher.

Both the +complementary infinitive+ and the +infinitive of purpose+ may
be regarded as +adverbial phrases+ modifying the verb.

  NOTE. After some verbs the infinitive approaches the construction
  of a pure noun and is often regarded as an object. Thus,--“I desire
  _to see_ you” (compare “I desire a _sight_ of you”). It is simpler,
  however, to regard all such infinitives as complementary and to treat
  them as adverbial modifiers. For it is impossible to distinguish the
  construction of the infinitive after certain adjectives (as in “I am
  eager _to see_ you”) from its construction after such verbs as _wish_
  and _desire_.


III. THE INFINITIVE CLAUSE

+324.+ A peculiar infinitive construction often replaces a
_that_-clause as the object of a verb. Thus,--

  I wished {_that he should go_. | _him to go_.}

In the first sentence, the noun clause _that he should go_ is the
object of _wished_; in the second, this clause is replaced by _him to
go_, but without any change in meaning. This expression consists of
two parts:--(1) _him_, a pronoun in the objective case, which replaces
the subject _he_; and (2) an infinitive _to go_, which replaces the
predicate _should go_. Thus it is plain that _him to go_ is also a noun
clause, of which _him_ is the subject, and _to go_ the predicate. Such
an expression is called an +infinitive clause+.

+325.+ +A kind of clause, consisting of a substantive in the objective
case followed by an infinitive, may be used as the object of certain
verbs.+

+Such clauses are called infinitive clauses, and the substantive is
said to be the subject of the infinitive.+

+The subject of an infinitive is in the objective case.+

+Infinitive clauses+ are used (1) after verbs of _wishing_,
_commanding_, _advising_, and the like, and (2) after some verbs of
_believing_, _declaring_, and _perceiving_.[39] Thus,--

  The colonel commanded _them to charge_ [= that they should charge].

  I believe _him to be trustworthy_ [= that he is trustworthy].

  The judge declared _him to be a dangerous man_ [= that he was, etc.].

After a few verbs the infinitive without _to_ is used in infinitive
clauses.

  Mr. Esmond bade his servant _pack_ a portmanteau and _get_ horses.
  [Compare: ordered his servant _to pack_, etc.]

  What makes him _cry_? [Compare: What causes him _to cry_?]

  I let him _sleep_. [Compare: I allowed him _to sleep_.]

  NOTE. Ordinarily the infinitive cannot assert and hence has no
  subject (§ 309). The infinitive clause is, therefore, a peculiar
  exception, for _him to go_ makes an assertion as clearly as _that
  he should go_ does. That _him_ is really the subject of _to go_ and
  not the object of _wished_ is manifest, for _I wished him_ makes no
  sense. The object of _wished_ is the whole clause (_him to go_).

  Originally, to be sure, the noun or pronoun in the objective was
  felt to be the object of the main verb, and this relation may still
  be felt in “I ordered him to go”; but even here the real object of
  _ordered_ is the clause (as may be seen in “I ordered the castle to
  be blown up”). The substantive has come to be the real subject of the
  infinitive, and should be so treated in parsing.

+326.+ A +predicate pronoun+ after _to be_ in an infinitive clause is
in the +objective case+, agreeing with the subject of the infinitive.

Care should be taken not to confuse this construction with the
+predicate nominative+ (§ 88, 2).


  PREDICATE PRONOUN AFTER _TO BE_    PREDICATE NOMINATIVE

  I believed it to be _her_.         I believed that it was _she_.

  We know the author to be _him_.    We know that the author is _he_.
                                     The author is known to be _he_.

  He thought Richard to be _me_.     He thought that Richard was _I_.
                                     Richard was thought to be _I_.

  We suspected the intruders         We suspected that the intruders
    to be _them_.                      were _they_.

Note the case of the +relatives+ and of the +predicate pronouns+ in the
following sentences:--

  A boy _whom_ I thought to be honest deceived me. [_Whom_ is the
  subject of the infinitive _to be_ and is therefore in the objective
  case.]

  A boy _who_, I thought, was honest deceived me. [_Who_ is the subject
  of _was_ and is therefore nominative. _I thought_ is parenthetical (§
  502).]

  A boy _whom_ I believe to be _him_ just passed me.

  A boy _who_, I believe, was _he_, just passed me.

+327.+ An infinitive clause may be the object of the preposition _for_.
Thus,--

  I wrote for _him to come_. [The clause _him to come_ is the object of
  _for_; _him_ is the subject of _to come_.]

  They are waiting on the shore
  For _the bark to take them home_.--NOEL.

  I long for _him to come back_.

+328.+ An infinitive clause with _for_ may be used as a subject, as a
predicate nominative, or as the object of a preposition.

  _For us to delay_ would be fatal to your enterprise. [Compare: _Our
  delay_ would be fatal.]

  Our best plan is _for the boat to shoot the rapids_. [Predicate
  nominative agreeing with the subject _plan_.]

  I see no way out of the difficulty except _for them to offer an
  apology_. [Compare: except the _offer_ of an apology on their part.]


PARTICIPLES

+329.+ Certain words unite in themselves some of the properties of
+adjectives+ with some of the properties of +verbs+. Such words are
called +participles+ (§ 31). Thus,--

  _Shattered_ and _sinking_, but gallantly _returning_ the enemy’s
  fire, the frigate drifted out to sea.

_Shattered_, _sinking_, and _returning_ are verb-forms which are in
some respects similar to infinitives: for (1) they express action; (2)
they have no subject to agree with, and hence have neither person nor
number; and (3) one of them takes a direct object. They differ from
infinitives, however, in that they resemble, not nouns, but adjectives,
for they describe the substantive _frigate_ to which they belong.

Such verb-forms are called +participles+, because they share (or
participate in) the nature of adjectives.

+330.+ +The participle is a verb-form which has no subject, but which
partakes of the nature of an adjective and expresses action or state in
such a way as to describe or limit a substantive.+

  Who _thundering_ comes on blackest steed?--BYRON.

  _Clinging_ to the horns of the altar, voiceless she stood.--DE
  QUINCEY.

  _Deserted_, _surrounded_, _outnumbered_, and with everything at
  stake, he did not even deign to stand on the defensive.--MACAULAY.

  _Shrouded_ in such baleful vapors, the genius of Burns was never seen
  in clear azure splendor, _enlightening_ the world.--CARLYLE.


FORMS OF PARTICIPLES

+331.+ Verbs have three participles,--the +present+, the +past+, and
the +perfect+.

+332.+ The +present participle+ ends in _-ing_. It usually describes an
action as taking place at the same time with some other action.

  Tom came _sauntering_ up the path.

  The beggar shambled down the steps, _grumbling_.

  _Reaching_ for the flower, I lost my balance.

+333.+ The present participle often refers to time preceding that
denoted by the predicate verb.

  _Rising_ from his chair, he bowed. [That is, when he had risen.]

  _Learning_ that your brother was in trouble, I hastened to his aid.

+334.+ +The past participle is always associated with the idea of past
time or completed action.+

1. +The past participle of a weak verb has the same form as the past
tense.+[40]

  PRESENT TENSE         PAST TENSE              PAST PARTICIPLE

  I _mend_ chairs.      I _mended_ the chairs.  The chairs are _mended_.
  I _sweep_ the rooms.  I _swept_ the rooms.    The rooms are _swept_.
  I _seek_ treasure.    I _sought_ treasure.    Treasure is _sought_.
  I _lose_ money.       I _lost_ money.         The money is _lost_.

2. +The past participle of strong verbs shows a change from the vowel
of the present tense.+

+All strong verbs had originally the ending _en_ (_n_) in the past
participle, but this ending has been lost in many verbs.+

  PRESENT TENSE    PAST TENSE     PAST PARTICIPLE

  He _speaks_.     He _spoke_.    (He has) _spoken_.
  He _draws_.      He _drew_.     (He has) _drawn_.
  He _sings_.      He _sang_.     (He has) _sung_.
  He _wins_.       He _won_.      (He has) _won_.

The forms show great variety and must be learned by practice. (See pp.
291–297 for a list.)

+335.+ The +perfect participle+ is made by prefixing _having_ to the
past participle.

  _Having mended_ the watch, I sent it to the owner.

  _Having lost_ his money, James was forced to walk home.

+336.+ The present participle is used in forming the progressive
verb-phrases (§§ 255–259).

The past participle is used in forming the complete tenses (§§ 242–244)
and the passive voice (§ 247).


CONSTRUCTIONS OF PARTICIPLES

+337.+ Since the participle has adjective properties, its constructions
are in the main like those of adjectives.

+338.+ +A participle is said to belong to the substantive which it
describes or limits.+

  Rupert, _missing_ his companion, stepped to the door. [The present
  participle _missing_ belongs to the subject _Rupert_.]

  _Rising_, she opened the window. [_Rising_ belongs to _she_.]

  I heard the rain _falling_. [_Falling_ belongs to the object _rain_.]

  Tom’s arm, _broken_ by the blow, hung useless. [The past participle
  _broken_ belongs to the subject _arm_.]

  _Having climbed_ the hill with great difficulty, I stopped to rest.
  [The perfect participle _having climbed_ belongs to the subject _I_.]

+339.+ +A participle should not be used without some substantive to
which it may belong.+

  RIGHT: _Entering_ the room, we saw a strange sight. [The participle
  _entering_ belongs to the pronoun _we_.]

  WRONG: _Entering_ the room, a strange sight was seen. [Since
  there is no substantive to which _entering_ can belong, it has no
  construction.]

Apparent exceptions are _concerning_, _considering_, _pending_,
_generally speaking_, etc. The first three may be classed as
prepositions (§ 355), the last as an independent participle.

  We fought every day, and, _generally speaking_, twice every day.--DE
  QUINCEY.

  NOTE. The rule in § 339 does not apply to such phrases as _on
  entering_, _after investigating_, etc., in which the words in _-ing_
  are not participles, but verbal nouns (§ 348). Thus the following
  sentences are grammatical:--“_On entering_ the room, a strange sight
  appeared”; “_After investigating_ the subject, the plan was adopted.”
  Such expressions, however, should be used with caution, since they
  are sometimes awkward or ambiguous.

+340.+ +A participle may be modified by an adverb, an adverbial phrase,
or an adverbial clause.+

  Smiling _brightly_, she extended her hand. [Adverb.]

  He leaped forward, shrieking _with all his might_. [Adverbial phrase.]

  Laughing _until he cried_, he sank into a chair. [Adverbial clause.]

+341.+ +A participle may take an object if its meaning allows.+

  I found the old man mending his _net_.

  Lifting the _box_, he moved toward the door.

  Giving _me_ a friendly _nod_, he passed on. [Here _nod_ is the direct
  object of _giving_, and _me_ is the indirect object.]

  The participle, with its modifiers and such other words as are
  attached to it, is sometimes called a +participial phrase+.

+342.+ A participle may be used as a pure adjective.

  A _grinning_ boy confronted me.

  A _battered_ hat hung on the peg.

  Kate was playing with a _broken_ doll.

  We could hear a _rushing_ stream.

  _Willing_ hands make light work.

  He was struck by a _spent_ ball.

+343.+ The past participle is often used as a +predicate adjective+
expressing state or condition.

This construction is easily confused with the passive of verbs. The
distinction may be seen in the following examples:--

  The rain began to fall heavily, and every time a gust of wind struck
  us we _were drenched_ by it.

  When the rain at last ceased, we were _drenched_ [that is, _very
  wet_].

In the first sentence, _were drenched_ is the past passive of the
verb _drench_ (compare the active “every time a gust of wind struck
us, it _drenched_ us”). In the second, the participle _drenched_
expresses mere condition, and is therefore a predicate adjective. The
distinction, however, is not always sharp, and in cases of doubt the
phrase may be taken together as a passive verb.

  NOTE. The real test is the following. Whenever a person or thing is
  distinctly present to the mind as the doer of the action, we have
  a passive verb-phrase. Whenever, on the other hand, the participle
  merely describes condition with no thought of its being the result of
  an antecedent act, the construction is that of a predicate adjective
  (§ 172, 3).


NOMINATIVE ABSOLUTE

+344.+ A substantive, with the participle belonging to it, is often
used to make a peculiar form of adverbial modifying phrase: as,--

  _The wind failing_, we lowered the sail.

Here _the wind failing_ is equivalent to an adverbial phrase (_on the
failure of the wind_) or an adverbial clause (_when the wind failed_).
It defines the time of the action.

  {_The wind failing_, | _On the failure of the wind_, | _When the wind
  failed_,} we lowered the sail.

+345.+ +A substantive, with a participle, may express the cause, time,
or circumstances of an action.+

+This is called the absolute construction.+

+The substantive is in the nominative case and is called a nominative
absolute.+

  _My knife slipping_, I cut myself severely. [The phrase _my knife
  slipping_ is equivalent to _because my knife slipped_: it expresses
  +cause+.]

  _Two days having elapsed_, we again set forward. [The phrase in
  italics is equivalent to _when two days had elapsed_: it expresses
  +time+.]

  Evenings he read aloud, _his wife sewing by his side_. [The phrase
  expresses one of the +circumstances+ that attended the reading.]

  _This done_, proceed to business. [The phrase _this done_ is
  equivalent to the clause _since_ (or _when_) _this is done_, and
  indicates +cause+ or +time+.]

  NOTE. This construction is called +absolute+ (that is, “free”
  or “loosened”) because the substantive is not in any one of the
  constructions (subject, object, apposition, etc.) which ordinarily
  attach nouns grammatically to other words in the sentence.
  Nevertheless, the whole phrase, though standing apart from the rest
  of the sentence, is in meaning an adverbial modifier of some verb.

+346.+ The participle _being_ is sometimes omitted in the absolute
construction.

  Allen once mayor, my chance of advancement would be ruined. [That is:
  _Allen_ once _being mayor_.]

  Peter stood before me, his hands in his pockets.

  His clothing in shreds, he presented a sorry sight.


VERBAL NOUNS IN _-ING_ (PARTICIPIAL NOUNS)

+347.+ English has a large and important class of +verbal nouns+ that
end in _-ing_, and that serve as the +names of actions+.

These are identical in form with +present participles+, for which they
are frequently mistaken. The distinction, however, is clear, for the
present participle is never used as the name of an action. Hence no
such word in _-ing_ that is a subject or an object, or stands in any
other noun construction, can be a participle.

  While I was _travelling_ in Mexico, I met with an accident.
  [Participle.]

  _Travelling_ broadens the mind. [Verbal noun, used as subject.]

  He enjoys _travelling_. [Verbal noun, used as object of a verb.]

  He spends his time in _travelling_. [Verbal noun, object of a
  preposition.]

  Tom’s favorite exercise is _swimming_. [Verbal noun, predicate
  nominative.]

  This sport, _fishing_, has been called the contemplative man’s
  recreation. [Verbal noun, in apposition with _sport_.]

That nouns in _-ing_ are real nouns may be proved by putting ordinary
nouns in their place.

  _Travelling_ broadens the mind.    _Travel_ broadens the mind.
  _Talking_ is useless.              _Talk_ is useless.
  He is afraid of _falling_.         He is afraid of a _fall_.

+348.+ +From nearly every English verb there may be formed a verbal
noun in _-ing_.+

+Verbal nouns in _-ing_ have the form of present participles, but the
construction of nouns.+

They are often called +participial nouns+.

Such nouns are freely used, either by themselves or in a series along
with ordinary nouns.

  _Mining_ is a dangerous occupation.

  _Painting_ and _sculpture_ are sister arts.

  The Indians of Massachusetts spent their time in _hunting_,
  _fishing_, _agriculture_, and _warfare_.

  _Reading_, _writing_, and _arithmetic_ are jocosely called “the three
  r’s.”

+349.+ Verbal nouns in _-ing_ have certain properties of the +verb+.

1. +Verbal nouns in _-ing_ may take a direct or an indirect object if
their meaning allows.+

  Digging _gold_ seems to the uninitiated like finding buried
  _treasure_.

  Lending _him money_ is useless; it merely fosters his unthrifty
  habits. [Here the noun _lending_, which is the simple subject of the
  sentence, takes both a direct object (_money_) and an indirect object
  (_him_), precisely as the verb _lend_ might do.]

2. +A verbal noun in _-ing_ may take an adverbial modifier.+

  Speaking _extemporaneously_ is good practice. [Here the verbal noun
  _speaking_ is the simple subject; but it is modified by the adverb
  _extemporaneously_, precisely as if it were a verb.]

But verbal nouns in _-ing_, like other nouns, may be modified by
+adjectives+.

  _Extemporaneous_ speaking is good practice.

3. +To the verbal nouns _being_ and _having_, past participles may be
attached, so as to give the effect of voice and tense.+

  After _being instructed_ in my duties, I was ordered to wait on the
  king.

  There were grave doubts expressed as to his _having seen_ the
  mastodon.

  After _having been treated_ in so harsh a fashion, I had no wish to
  repeat the interview.

Such expressions are +verbal noun-phrases+.

+350.+ Verbal nouns in _-ing_ are similar in some of their
constructions to infinitives used as nouns (p. 135).

  INFINITIVE AS NOUN                 VERBAL NOUN IN _-ing_

  _To swim_ was difficult.           _Swimming_ was difficult.
  My business is _to make_ shoes.    My business is _making_ shoes.
  _To see_ is _to believe_.          _Seeing_ is _believing_.

  Nouns in _-ing_ are sometimes called +infinitives+ or +gerunds+.

+351.+ A noun in _-ing_ may be used as an +adjective+, or as the
adjective element in a +compound noun+ (§ 64).

  The _sleeping_ car was completely wrecked.

  William has plenty of _spending_ money.

  NOTE. Other examples are:--_a working day_, _an ironing board_,
  _drinking water_, _smelling salts_, _marching orders_, _a walking
  tour_, _a swimming race_, _a vaulting pole_. In such cases it
  makes little difference whether the two nouns are taken together
  as a compound, or whether the first is regarded as an adjective
  modifying the second. The difference between this use and that of
  the participle is perfectly clear. A “_sleeping_ dog” is a dog _that
  sleeps_; a “_sleeping_ car” is a car for _sleeping_. Sometimes,
  indeed, either explanation is possible. Thus, a “_hoisting_ engine”
  may be understood either as an “engine _that hoists_,” or as an
  “engine _for hoisting_.” But it is better to class these exceptions
  with the nouns in _-ing_.

+352.+ +When a verbal noun in _-ing_ is preceded by an article or any
other adjective, it cannot take an object.+

  {Shooting song-birds | The shooting _of_ song-birds} is forbidden.

  {Launching a ship | The launching _of_ a ship} requires care and
  skill.

  {Drawing maps | The drawing _of_ maps} is a useful exercise.

  {Eating confectionery constantly | Constant eating _of_
  confectionery} is bad for the teeth.

  My business is {driving wells. | the driving _of_ wells.}

Observe that, in each instance, the +object+ (_song-birds_, _ship_,
_maps_, _confectionery_, _wells_) is replaced by a +prepositional
phrase+ when an article or other adjective precedes the verbal noun.

  NOTE. In such expressions as “I went a-fishing,” _a_ is a shortened
  form of the preposition _on_, and _fishing_ is a verbal noun used as
  its object. When _a_ is omitted we have “I went fishing,” “The house
  is building,” and the like, in which the word in _-ing_ seems to be a
  participle, but is really the object of the omitted _a_ (= _on_).

+353.+ The possessive case of a noun or pronoun may be used to limit a
verbal noun in _-ing_.

  I was sure of its _being_ he. [NOT: _it_.]

  I heard of Allen’s _being_ elected. [NOT: _Allen_.]



CHAPTER VII

PREPOSITIONS


+354.+ +A preposition is a word placed before a substantive to show its
relation to some other word in the sentence.+

+The substantive which follows a preposition is called its object and
is in the objective case.+

+A phrase consisting of a preposition and its object, with or without
other words, is called a prepositional phrase.+

  _On_ the floor lay a heap _of_ nuts.

  He stood _behind_ the tree _for_ some time.

  _From_ morning _till_ night he remained _at_ his post.

  The fire destroyed everything _except_ a few articles _of_ furniture.

A +prepositional phrase+ may be either adjective or adverbial.

  Thus, in the first example, _of nuts_ is an adjective phrase
  modifying the noun _heap_, and _on the floor_ is an adverbial phrase
  modifying the verb _lay_. In the second sentence, the verb _stood_ is
  modified by two adverbial phrases, _behind the tree_ and _for some
  time_.

+355.+ The following list includes most of the prepositions:

  aboard
  about
  above
  according to
  across
  after
  against
  along
  along with
  amid, amidst
  among, amongst
  apart from
  around
  as for, as to
  at
  athwart
  barring
  because of
  before
  behind
  below
  beneath
  beside, besides
  between
  betwixt
  beyond
  but (= except)
  by
  by dint of
  by means of
  by reason of
  by virtue of
  by way of
  concerning
  considering
  despite
  down
  during
  ere
  except, excepting
  for
  for the sake of
  from
  from among
  from between
  from under
  in
  in accordance with
  in addition to
  in case of
  in compliance with
  in consequence of
  in consideration of
  in front of
  in lieu of
  in opposition to
  in place of
  in preference to
  in regard to
  in spite of
  inside (inside of)
  instead of
  into
  notwithstanding
  of
  off
  on
  on account of
  out of
  outside (outside of)
  over
  over against
  past
  pending
  regarding
  respecting
  round
  round about
  save, saving
  since
  through
  throughout
  to, unto
  touching
  toward, towards
  under
  underneath
  until, till
  up
  upon
  with
  within
  without
  with reference to
  with regard to
  with respect to

  NOTE. Such expressions as _by means of_, _in accordance with_, _in
  spite of_, etc., are really phrases, but may be regarded as compound
  prepositions.

  Several participles like _concerning_, _considering_, _pending_, are
  common in a prepositional use and are therefore included in the list
  (§ 339).

  For _a_ (a form of _on_) in _abed_, _asleep_, _afire_, _a-fishing_,
  etc., see § 352.

  _Per_ is confined to the strictly commercial style except in such
  expressions as _perforce_, _per cent_, _per annum_ (§ 179).

+356.+ A preposition may stand at the end of a sentence or clause.

  _Whom_ did you ask _for_? [Compare: _For whom_ did you ask?]

  The box _which_ it came _in_ has been destroyed. [Compare: The box
  _in which_ it came.]

  NOTE. This order, though informal, is common in the best authors;
  but, if carelessly used, it may result in awkwardness of style.
  Sometimes a relative which is the object of the preposition is
  omitted (see § 151). Thus, in the second sentence, _which_ might be
  dropped, and the object of _in_ would then be “_which_, understood.”
  For “He was laughed at,” and the like, see § 251.

  In poetry a preposition sometimes follows its object directly:
  as,--“Barefoot plod I the cold ground _upon_” (SHAKSPERE).

+357.+ Certain adverbial expressions like “on Sunday,” “on March
first,” occur both with and without the preposition.

  He came Sunday (_or_, on Sunday).

  We sail March first (_or_, on March first).

  NOTE. The forms without _on_ are good colloquial English, but are
  avoided in the more formal style. No preposition need be supplied in
  parsing. The noun is an adverbial objective (§ 109).

+358.+ Care is required in the use of +pronouns+ as the +objects of
prepositions+.

  {He has been very friendly | The old house will seem lonely | That
  makes no difference} to you and _me_. [NOT: you and _I_.]

  {Tom’s carelessness makes trouble | There are letters at the post
  office} for you and _me_.

  I have invitations for {you and _him_. | you and _her_.}

  He will divide the reward between you and _me_.

  {_Whom_ are you waiting for? | _Whom_ were you speaking to?} [NOT:
  _who_.]

+359.+ Several words are used either as +adverbs+ or +prepositions+.

  AS ADVERB                  AS PREPOSITION

  I fell _down_.             I fell _down_ the steps.
  Stand _by_!                He stood _by_ the window.
  A big dog ran _behind_.    A dog ran _behind_ the carriage.
  Keep _off_!                Keep _off_ the grass.

  Other examples are:--aboard, above, after, along, before, below,
  beneath, beside, between, beyond, ere, in, inside, on, outside, past,
  round, since, under, up, within, without.

  For words used either as prepositions or as conjunctions, see pp.
  152–154.

+360.+ Prepositions show various distinctions in use and meaning which
must be learned by practice and by the study of synonyms in a large
dictionary.

  The following groups afford opportunity for such study:--at, in;
  in, into; between, among, amid; on, upon; from, off; round, around,
  about; to, with; beside, besides; agree with, agree to; change for,
  change with; disappoint in, of; differ with, from; confide in, to;
  correspond with, to; part from, with; compare to, with; join with,
  to; connect with, to; come up with, to; talk to, with; speak to,
  with; hang on, from, to; live at, in, on; argue with, against;
  contend with, against; depart from, for, at, on, in.



CHAPTER VIII

CONJUNCTIONS


+361.+ +Conjunctions connect words or groups of words.+

+Conjunctions are either coördinate or subordinate.+[41]

1. +A coördinate conjunction connects words or groups of words that are
independent of each other.+

  1. Hay _and_ grain are sold here.

  2. Will you take tea _or_ coffee?

  3. He was pale _but_ undaunted.

  4. The messenger replied courteously _but_ firmly.

  5. The troops embarked rapidly _but_ without confusion.

  6. Noon came, _and_ the task was still unfinished.

  7. We must hide here until night falls _and_ the street is deserted.

In each of the first four sentences, the conjunction (_and_, _or_,
_but_) connects single words that are in the same construction
(subjects, objects, predicate adjectives, adverbs). In the fifth, _but_
connects an adverb with an adverbial phrase (both being modifiers of
the verb _embarked_). In the sixth, _and_ joins the two coördinate
clauses of a compound sentence (§ 44). In the seventh, _and_ joins
two coördinate clauses which, taken together, make up the subordinate
clause _until ... deserted_; this clause may therefore be called a
compound subordinate clause (see § 454).

2. +A subordinate conjunction connects a subordinate clause with the
clause on which it depends.+

  Harmon did not quail, _though_ he saw the danger.

  Take this seat, _if_ you prefer.

  I hesitated _because_ I remembered your warning.

  _Unless_ you reform, your career will be ruined.

+362.+ The chief +coördinate conjunctions+ are:--

  and (both ... and)
  not only ... but also
  or (either ... or)
  nor (neither ... nor)
  but
  for
  however
  moreover
  therefore
  then
  yet
  still
  nevertheless
  notwithstanding

Several of these are much used for +transition+, whether from sentence
to sentence or from one paragraph to another.

  Such are:--however, moreover, therefore, then, nevertheless,
  notwithstanding, yet, still.

+363.+ _Then_ is an adverb when it denotes time, a conjunction when it
denotes consequence or the like.

  _Then_ the boat glided up to the pier. [Time.]

  Men are imperfect creatures: we must not, _then_, expect them to be
  angels. [Consequence.]

+364.+ _Yet_ and _still_ are adverbs when they express time or degree,
conjunctions when they connect.

  We have not started _yet_. [Time.]

  It is _still_ raining. [Time.]

  This hatchet is dull, but that is duller _still_. [Degree.]

  I miss him, _yet_ I am glad he went. [Conjunction.]

  I like dogs; _still_ I do not care to own one. [Conjunction.]

+365.+ _For_ and _notwithstanding_ may be either prepositions or
conjunctions.

  PREPOSITIONS                     CONJUNCTIONS

  I am waiting _for_ you.          We must go, _for_ it is late.

  Jane is coming,                  It is a hard storm.
    _notwithstanding_ the storm.     She will come, _notwithstanding_.

  NOTE. _For_ is sometimes classified as a subordinate conjunction, but
  the fact that it may be used to begin an independent sentence (even
  when such a sentence opens a paragraph) justifies its inclusion among
  the coördinates.

+366.+ The chief +subordinate conjunctions+ are:--

  although, though
  as
  as if (as though)
  because
  if
  lest
  since (= because)
  than
  that
  unless
  whereas
  whether (whether ... or)

  A few phrases may be regarded as compound conjunctions. Such
  are:--_in order that_, _so that_, _provided that_, _in case that_,
  _but that_, _as if_, _as though_, _even if_. _Provided_, and _in
  case_ (without _that_) may also be used as conjunctions: as,--“I will
  go _provided_ it doesn’t rain.”

+367.+ The subordinate conjunction _that_ is often omitted when it may
readily be supplied.

  He said [that] he was starving.

  They feared [that] they were betrayed.

  I cannot believe [that] you would try to injure me.

  NOTE. This omission is similar to that of the relative pronoun (§
  151). It is extremely common, not only in colloquial language but
  also in literature, whether prose or verse.

+368.+ _As_ and _since_ in the sense of “because,” and _while_ in the
sense of “though,” are conjunctions.

When denoting +time+, _as_ is an adverb, _while_ is a noun or an
adverb, and _since_ is an adverb or a preposition.

  _As_ (or _since_) you will not listen, I will say no more.
  [Conjunction.]

  _As_ we crossed the bridge, I looked down at the rushing stream.
  [Adverb.]

  Ten years have passed _since_ my uncle went to sea. [Adverb.]

  The house has been empty _since_ Christmas. [Preposition.]

+369.+ Conjunctions used in pairs are called +correlative conjunctions+.

The chief correlatives are:--

  both ... and
  not only ... but also
  either ... or
  neither ... nor
  though ... yet (still)
  although ... yet (still)
  since ... therefore
  if ... then

Examples of correlatives may be seen in the following sentences:--

  _Both_ lions _and_ wolves are carnivorous.

  The culprit looked _both_ angry _and_ ashamed.

  William II is _not only_ German Emperor _but also_ King of Prussia.

  _Either_ brass _or_ copper will do.

  _Neither_ Keats _nor_ Shelley lived to be old.

  He asked me _whether_ I was an Austrian _or_ a Russian.

  _Though_ the roads were very bad, _yet_ he managed to reach Utica
  before midnight.

  _Although_ he has wronged me, _still_ I cannot believe he is my enemy.

  _Since_ four is the square of two, _therefore_ two is the square root
  of four.

  _If_ Allen’s testimony is true, _then_ Gilbert’s must be false.

+370.+ _But_ is used as a subordinate conjunction in the sense of _but
that_ or _unless_.

  There is no doubt _but that_ they are murderers.--SHELLEY.

  Your uncle must not know _but_ [= _but that_] you are
  dead.--SHAKSPERE.

  Ne’er may I look on day _but_ [= _unless_] she tells your highness
  the truth.--SHAKSPERE. [This use is obsolete.]

  There is not a wave of the Seine _but_ is associated in my
  mind with the first rise of the sandstones and forest pines of
  Fontainebleau.--RUSKIN.

  There was nobody _but_ loved her.

  NOTE. In the last two examples the subject of the subordinate clause
  is omitted:--“There is not a wave _but_ [_it_] is associated,” “There
  was nobody _but_ [_he_] loved her.” In such cases, _but_ is sometimes
  regarded as a relative pronoun.

_Notwithstanding_ is used as a subordinate conjunction in the sense of
_though_.

  I shall go, _notwithstanding_ the road is said to be impassable.

+371.+ +Relative adverbs+ are similar in their use to conjunctions, and
are therefore often called +conjunctive adverbs+ (§§ 194–195).

  NOTE. Most conjunctions, historically considered, are merely adverbs
  (or adverbial phrases) which have come to be used in so peculiar a
  way as to form a special class among the parts of speech. Thus the
  adverbs _since_ and _while_ become conjunctions when they cease to
  denote time; _because_ is a corruption of the phrase _by cause_;
  _but_ is developed from an old adverb meaning “outside.”



CHAPTER IX

INTERJECTIONS


+372.+ +An interjection is a cry or other exclamatory sound expressing
surprise, anger, pleasure, or some other emotion or feeling.+

  EXAMPLES: O (_or_ oh), ah, hullo (holloa, halloo), bah, pshaw, fie,
  whew, tut-tut, st (_often spelled_ hist), ha, aha, ha ha, ho, hey,
  hum, hem, heigh-ho (heigh-o), alas, bravo, lo.

When written, interjections are often followed by an exclamation point
(!).

+373.+ Among interjections are properly included calls to animals (like
“whoa!”) and imitations of sounds such as “mew!” “cock-a-doodle-do!”
“ding dong!” “swish!” “tu-whit-tu-who!”

+374.+ +Interjections usually have no grammatical connection with the
phrases or sentences in which they stand.+

Hence they are counted among the “independent elements” of a sentence
(§ 501).

Sometimes, however, a substantive is connected with an interjection by
means of a preposition. Thus,--

  _O for_ a camera!

  _Alas for_ my hopes!

Adjectives and adverbs are also found in this use: as,--“Good for you!”
“Up with it!”

  NOTE. All such expressions are often regarded as elliptical
  sentences, as if “O for a camera!” stood for “O, I wish for a
  camera!” and “Good for you!” for “That is good for you!” But it is
  better to treat them as +exclamatory phrases+.[42] Other exclamatory
  phrases are “Dear me!” “Goodness gracious!” “O my!” and the like.

+375.+ Almost any part of speech may be used as an exclamation.

  _Nonsense!_ I do not believe it.
  Fire!
  Halt!
  _Good!_ I like that!
  Forward!
  On!
  Away!
  _Back_, villains!
  _I!_ not a bit of it!
  But----!

Such words are often called interjections, but it is better to describe
them as nouns, adjectives, etc., used in exclamation, and to confine
the term +interjection+ to words which belong to no other part of
speech.

  NOTE. Thus _nonsense!_ and _fire!_ are nouns in the exclamatory
  nominative; _I!_ is a pronoun in the same construction; _halt!_ is a
  verb in the imperative (compare _hark!_ _hush!_ _behold!_ _look!_);
  _good!_ is an adjective; _forward!_ _on!_ _away!_ and _back!_ are
  adverbs; _but!_ is a conjunction.

The following examples illustrate various +exclamatory
expressions+,--words, phrases, and sentences:--

  1. How late I shuddered on the brink!--YOUNG.

  2. “Right! right!” a thousand tongues exclaimed.--SOUTHEY.

  3. The pale stars are gone!--SHELLEY.

  4. Poor widowed wretch! ’twas there she wept in vain.--CAMPBELL.

  5. O heartfelt raptures! Bliss beyond compare!--BURNS.

  6. ’Tis done! dread Winter spreads his latest glooms.--THOMSON.

  7. Heigh-ho! sing heigh-ho! unto the green holly.--SHAKSPERE.

  8. I had--ah! have I now?--a friend.--BYRON.

  9. “To arms!” cried Mortimer, and couched his quivering lance.--GRAY.

  10. O for the gentleness of old Romance!--KEATS.

  11. “Run!” exclaims she, with a toss of indignant
  astonishment.--CARLYLE.

  12. Can he keep himself still if he would! Oh, not he!--WORDSWORTH.



CHAPTER X

CLAUSES AS PARTS OF SPEECH


+376.+ +A clause is a group of words that forms part of a sentence and
that contains a subject and a predicate.+

+A clause used as a part of speech is called a subordinate clause (§
46).+

+377.+ A subordinate clause may be introduced by (1) a relative or an
interrogative pronoun, (2) a relative or an interrogative adverb, (3) a
subordinate conjunction.

  The +relative pronouns+ are: _who_, _which_, _what_, _that_ (=
  _who_ or _which_), _as_ (after _such_ or _same_), and the compound
  relatives _whoever_, _whichever_, _whatever_. Their uses have already
  been studied (pp. 66–73).

  The chief +relative adverbs+ are: _where_, _whence_, _whither_,
  _wherever_, _when_, _whenever_, _while_, _before_, _after_, _till_,
  _until_, _since_, _as_, _how_, _why_ (p. 86).

  The +interrogative pronouns+ are: _who_, _which_, _what_ (§§ 163–165).

  The +interrogative adverbs+ are: _where_, _when_, _whence_,
  _whither_, _how_, _why_.

  The most important +subordinate conjunctions+ are: _because_, _since_
  (= _because_), _though_, _although_, _if_, _unless_, _that_ (_in
  order that_, _so that_), _lest_, _as_, _as if_, _as though_, _than_,
  _whether_ (_whether ... or_).

+378.+ According to their use as parts of speech, subordinate clauses
are +adjective+, +adverbial+, or +noun clauses+.


I. ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

+379.+ +A subordinate clause that modifies a substantive is called an
adjective clause+ (§ 47).

  {_Able_ men | Men _of ability_ | Men _who show ability_} can always
  find employment.

  {_Treeless_ spots | Spots _without trees_ | Spots _where no trees
  grew_} were plainly visible.

In each of these groups, a noun (_men_, _spots_) is modified (1) by an
adjective, (2) by an adjective phrase, (3) by an adjective clause. The
sense remains unchanged.

+380.+ Adjective clauses may be introduced (1) by +relative pronouns+,
(2) by +relative adverbs+ of place (_where_, _whence_, _whither_, etc.)
or time (_when_, _while_, etc.).


II. ADVERBIAL CLAUSES

+381.+ +A subordinate clause that serves as an adverbial modifier is
called an adverbial clause (§ 47).+

  Jack spoke {_thoughtlessly_. | _without thinking_. | _before he
  thought_.}

  The schoolhouse stands {_there_. | _at the crossroads_. | _where the
  roads meet_.}

  We pay our rent {_monthly_. | _on the first of every month_. | _when
  the first of the month comes_.}

In each of these groups, the verb (_spoke_, _stands_, _pay_) is
modified (1) by an adverb, (2) by an adverbial phrase, (3) by an
adverbial clause.

+382.+ Adverbial clauses may be introduced (1) by relative adverbs
(_when_, _where_, _before_, etc.); (2) by subordinate conjunctions
(_if_, _though_, _because_, etc.); (3) by relative or interrogative
pronouns.

+383.+ Adverbial clauses oftenest modify verbs, but they are also
common as modifiers of adjectives and adverbs.

  Angry _because he had failed_, he abandoned the undertaking. [The
  clause modifies _angry_.]

  I am uncertain _which road I should take_. [The clause modifies
  _uncertain_.]

  Farther _than eye could see_ extended the waste of tossing waters.
  [The clause modifies _farther_.]

  Here, _where the cliff was steepest_, a low wall protected the path.
  [The clause modifies _here_.]

+384.+ An adverbial clause with _that_ may be used to modify verbs and
adjectives.

  He rejoiced _that the victory was won_.

  I am glad _that you are coming_.

  He was positive _that no harm had been done_.

  They were unwilling _that the case should be brought to trial_.

  NOTE. In this use _that_ is equivalent either to “because” or to “as
  to the fact that.” The clause may be explained as a noun clause in
  the adverbial objective construction (§ 109).

For the classification of adverbial clauses according to their meaning
(place, time, cause, concession, etc.), see pp. 163–182.


III. NOUN (OR SUBSTANTIVE) CLAUSES

+385.+ +A subordinate clause that is used as a noun is called a noun
(or substantive) clause (§ 47).+

  {_Agreement_ | _To agree_ | _That we should agree_} seemed impossible.

  {_Victory_ | _To win_ | _That we should win_} was out of the question.

  The merchant feared {_loss_. | _to lose_. | _that he might lose
  money_.}

  I expect {_success_. | _to succeed_. | _that I shall succeed_.}

In each of these groups a noun (_agreement_, _victory_, etc.) is
replaced (1) by an infinitive, (2) by a noun clause. In the first two
examples, the noun clause is the subject; in the last two, it is the
object of a verb (_feared_, _expect_).

+386.+ Noun clauses may be used in any of the more important
constructions of nouns:--(1) as +subject+, (2) as +direct object+ of
a transitive verb, (3) +in apposition+ with a substantive, (4) as a
+predicate nominative+.

  _That Milton was spared_ has often caused surprise. [Subject.]

  Brutus said _that Cæsar was a tyrant_. [Object of _said_.]

  Cæsar commanded _that the prisoners should be spared_. [Object.]

  I wish _that you would work harder_. [Object.]

  The traveller inquired _where he could find the inn_. [Object.]

  He asked me _what my name was_. [Second object of _asked_.]

  My fear _that the bridge might fall proved groundless_. [Apposition
  with _fear_.]

  One fact is undoubted,--_that the state of America has been kept in
  continual agitation_.--BURKE. [Apposition with _fact_.]

  The old saying is _that misery loves company_. [Predicate nominative.]

+387.+ Noun clauses may be introduced (1) by the subordinate
conjunctions _that_, _whether_ (_whether ... or_), and _if_ (in the
sense of _whether_); (2) by the interrogative pronouns _who_, _which_,
_what_; (3) by the interrogative adverbs _where_, _whence_, _whither_,
_how_, _why_, _when_ (§ 196).

+388.+ Noun clauses are common as objects of verbs (1) of _commanding_,
_desiring_, etc.; (2) of _telling_, _thinking_, etc.; (3) of _asking_,
_doubting_, etc.

  See (1) clauses of purpose (§ 406); (2) indirect discourse (§§
  431–437); (3) indirect questions (§ 443).

Object clauses frequently omit _that_ (§ 367).

  Charles said [that] _he was sorry_.

  I hope _you will come_.

  I wish _he would help me_.

For the infinitive clause replacing a _that_-clause as object, see §§
324–325.

+389.+ A noun clause may be used as the +retained object+ of a passive
verb (§ 253).

  ACTIVE VOICE                     PASSIVE VOICE
  (CLAUSE AS OBJECT)               (RETAINED OBJECT)

  They informed me                 I was informed
    _that the train was late_.       _that the train was late_.

  Charles told us                  We were told
    _that the ice was thin_.         _that the ice was thin_.

  They asked me _whether_          I was asked _whether I liked tennis_.
    (or _if_) I _liked tennis_.

+390.+ A noun clause may be the object of a preposition.

  I see no reason for a lawsuit except _that both parties are
  stubborn_. [Compare: except the _stubbornness_ of both.]

  She never studies, except _when she can find nothing else to do_.

  I could say nothing but [=except] _that I was sorry_.

  Justice was well administered in his time, save _where the king was
  party_.--BACON.

  She could see me from _where she stood_.

  There is a dispute as to _which of the miners first staked out the
  claim_.

  For a noun clause used as an adverbial objective, see § 384.

+391.+ Noun clauses with _that_ are common in the predicate when the
expletive _it_ is the grammatical subject (§ 120, 2).

  It was plain _that war was at hand_.

  It was clear _that this administration would last but a very short
  time_.

  It must be admitted _that there were many extenuating circumstances_.

  It was by slow degrees _that Fox became a brilliant and powerful
  debater_.

  It was under the command of a foreign general _that the British had
  triumphed at Minden_.

In such sentences the real subject of the thought is the clause. This,
however, may be regarded as grammatically in apposition with _it_, as
if one said “_It_ (that war was at hand) was plain.”

  NOTE. This useful idiom enables us to adopt a kind of inverted order
  (§ 5), and thus to shift the emphasis. Contrast “_That war was at
  hand_ was plain” with “_It was plain_ that war was at hand.” In the
  former sentence, the noun clause is made prominent; in the latter,
  the adjective _plain_.

+392.+ The following sentences, taken from distinguished authors of
different periods, illustrate the usefulness of the noun clause in its
various constructions.

  1. That the king would ever again have received Becket into favor is
  not to be believed.--SOUTHEY.

  2. That in education we should proceed from the simple to the complex
  is a truth which has always been to some extent acted on.--SPENCER.

  3. How great his reputation was, is proved by the embassies sent to
  him.--COLERIDGE.

  4. It vexed old Hawkins that his counsel was not followed.--FULLER.

  5. It became necessary, at last, that I should arouse both master and
  valet to the expediency of removing the treasure.--POE.

  6. There is no doubt that breeds may be made as different as species
  in many physiological characteristics.--HUXLEY.

  7. The main definition you could give of old Marquis Mirabeau is,
  that he was of the pedant species.--CARLYLE.

  8. The fact seems to be that we have survived the tremendous
  explosion.--BROUGHAM.

  9. The question is, whether the feigned image of poesy, or
  the regular instruction of philosophy, have the more force in
  teaching.--SIDNEY.

  10. I feared that some serious disaster had befallen my friend.--POE.

  11. I think with you that the most magnificent object under heaven is
  the great deep.--COWPER.

  12. Aureolus soon discovered that the success of his artifices had
  only raised up a more determined adversary.--GIBBON.

  13. Harold alleged that he was appointed by Edward.--TEMPLE.

  14. That we shall die, we know.--SHAKSPERE.

  15. Her Majesty has promised that the treaty shall be laid before her
  Parliament.--SWIFT.

  16. Deerslayer proposed that they should circle the point in the
  canoe.--COOPER.

  17. I remembered how soft was the hand of Sleep.--LANDOR.

  18. I cannot see what objection can justly be made to the
  practice.--REYNOLDS.

  19. No man knew what was to be expected from this strange
  tribunal.--MACAULAY.

  20. We may imagine with what sensations the stupefied Spaniards must
  have gazed on this horrid spectacle.--PRESCOTT.

  21. Observe how graciously Nature instructs her human
  children.--COLERIDGE.

  22. My friend asked me if there would not be some danger in coming
  home late.--ADDISON.

  23. A message came that the committee was sitting at Kensington
  Palace.--THACKERAY.

  24. Jeffreys had obtained of the king a promise that he would not
  pardon her.--BURNET.

  25. The present age seems pretty well agreed in an opinion that the
  utmost scope and end of reading is amusement only.--FIELDING.

  26. He suddenly alarmed me by a startling question--whether I had
  seen the show of prize cattle that morning in Smithfield.--LAMB.

  27. I am told that the Lancashire system is perfect.--KINGSLEY.



CHAPTER XI

THE MEANINGS OF SUBORDINATE CLAUSES


+393.+ Subordinate clauses may be classified not only according to
their use as parts of speech, but also, in quite a different way, in
accordance with their +various meanings+. These distinctions in idea
are of capital importance for the accurate and forcible expression of
thought.

+394.+ The variety of meanings which subordinate clauses may express is
great, but most of these meanings come under the following heads:--(1)
+place+ or +time+, (2) +cause+, (3) +concession+, (4) +purpose+,
(5) +result+, (6) +condition+, (7) +comparison+,[43] (8) +indirect
discourse+, (9) +indirect question+.

The general meaning of the clause is usually indicated by the word
which introduces it.


I. CLAUSES OF PLACE AND TIME

+395.+ +An adjective or an adverbial clause may express place or time.+


I. ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

  The house _where the robbery occurred_ is No. 14.

  The bridge _over which we rode_ is in ruins.

  There is a point _beyond which you cannot go_.

  The day _when_ (or _on which_) _I was to sail_ arrived at last.

  The day _before you came_ was rainy.

  His terror _while it thundered_ was pitiable.


II. ADVERBIAL CLAUSES

  Remain _where I can see you_.

  That belongs _where you found it_.

  _Whithersoever I go_, fear dogs my steps.

  _Whenever the bell rings_, you must take down the receiver.

  Esmond heard the chimes _as he sat in his own chamber_.

  I have lived in Cairo _since my father died_.

+396.+ Adjective clauses of place and time may be introduced by
relative pronouns (see examples above).

Adjective and adverbial clauses of place and time may be introduced by
relative adverbs. Thus,--

  PLACE: where, whence, whither, wherever, whithersoever, wherefrom,
  whereto, etc.

  TIME: when, whenever, while, as, before, after, until, since.

  For _as_ and _since_ in causal clauses, see § 398; for _while_ in
  concessive clauses, see § 399.

+397.+ Clauses of time are sometimes shortened by the omission of the
copula and its subject.

  When [_he was_] rescued, he was almost dead.

  Tom was attacked by cramp _while swimming_ across the river.


II. CAUSAL CLAUSES

+398.+ +An adverbial clause may express cause.+

+Causal clauses+ are introduced by the subordinate conjunctions
_because_, _since_, _as_, _inasmuch as_, and sometimes _that_.

  I came home _because I was tired_.

  _As the day was clear_, we decided to climb the mountain.

  _Since you will not relent_, you must take the consequences.

  We were glad _that the wreck was no worse_.

  Tom was delighted _that his friend was safe_.

  _Since_ is a preposition or an adverb when it denotes +time+; +as+
  is an adverb when it denotes +time+. Both _since_ and _as_ are
  conjunctions when they express +cause+. For _as_ used as a relative
  pronoun, see § 147.


III. CONCESSIVE CLAUSES

+399.+ +An adverbial clause may express concession.+

A +concessive clause+ is usually introduced by a subordinate
conjunction, _though_, _although_, or _even if_. It +admits+ (or
concedes) some fact or supposition +in spite of which+ the assertion in
the main clause is made.

  _Although I do not like his manners_, I respect his character.

  We won the game, _though we expected to lose_.

  _Even if you fail_, you will have gained experience.

  _Even if you were a king_, you would find somebody or something more
  powerful than yourself.

  _Though he should read books forever_, he would not grow wise.

  NOTE. _While_ is often used as a weaker or more courteous synonym for
  _although_.

The main clause, when it follows the concessive clause, may be
emphasized by means of _yet_, _still_, _nevertheless_.

  Although the task was heavy, _yet_ his courage never failed.
  [_Although_ and _yet_ are correlative conjunctions (§ 369).]

  Though his reputation was great at home, _yet_ it was greater abroad.

Concessive clauses sometimes omit the copula and its subject.

  _Though_ [_he was_] _tired_, he was not disheartened.

  This punishment, _though perhaps necessary_, seems rather severe.

+400.+ For the distinction between the indicative and the subjunctive
in concessive clauses, see § 279; for that between _should_ and
_would_, see § 305.

+401.+ A concessive clause may be introduced by the conjunction _as_,
or by a relative pronoun or a relative adverb.

  {_Whatever_ you say, | _Whichever_ argument you present, | _However_
  much you object,} he will carry his point.

  _Weak as I am_, I will make the effort.

  _Gay as the scene was_, ’twas but a dreary place for Mr. Esmond.

  NOTE. The adverbial use of _however_ is quite distinct from its use
  as a coördinate conjunction (§ 362).

+402.+ Concession is sometimes expressed by a subjunctive clause
without a conjunction to introduce it (§ 281).

  _Be it ever so humble_, there’s no place like home.

  I will help you, _cost what it may_!


IV–V. CLAUSES OF PURPOSE AND OF RESULT

+403.+ +A subordinate clause may express purpose or result.+


I. CLAUSES OF PURPOSE

  These men died _that we might live_.

  I will take care _that you are not harmed_.

  John worked day and night _that the plans might be ready in time_.

  We threw our ballast overboard, _so that the airship might clear the
  treetops_.

  All our arrangements have been made with the utmost precision, _in
  order that the ship may be launched promptly and without accident_.


II. CLAUSES OF RESULT

  He has recovered his strength, _so that he can now work_.

  The town stood at the foot of the volcano, _so that every building
  was destroyed_.

  Quentin started _so_ suddenly _that he almost dropped his weapon_.

  His rancor against the duke was _so_ apparent _that one saw it in the
  first half-hour’s conversation_.

  Their minds were _so_ much embittered _that they imputed to each
  other nothing less than deliberate villany_.

  You make _such_ a noise _that I cannot hear the music_.

+404.+ +Clauses of purpose+ may be introduced by the subordinate
conjunction _that_ or by a phrase containing it (_so that_, _in order
that_, _to the end that_, etc.).

Negative clauses of purpose may be introduced by _that ... not_ or by
_lest_. For _lest_ with the subjunctive, see § 284.

  Take heed _lest thou fall_.

  I feared _lest I might anger thee_.--SHAKSPERE.

+405.+ +Clauses of result+ may be introduced by the phrase _so that_,
consisting of the adverb _so_ and the subordinate conjunction _that_;
or by _that_ alone, especially when _so_, _such_, or some similar word
stands in the main clause.

+406.+ A clause of +purpose+ or of +result+ may be either an +adverbial
clause+ (as in § 403) or a +substantive clause+.

  I intend _that you shall be elected_. [Object.]

  My intention is _that you shall be appointed_. [Predicate nominative.]

  The result is _that he is bankrupt_. [Predicate nominative.]

  His exertions had this effect, _that the vote was unanimous_.
  [Appositive.]

+407.+ A substantive clause of purpose is often used as the +object+ of
a verb of _commanding_, _desiring_, or the like.

  The general ordered _that the fort should be blown up_.

  The prisoner begged _that his fetters might be struck off_.

+408.+ For subordinate clauses with _shall_ or _should_, implying
purpose or expectation, see § 304.

+409.+ Purpose may be expressed by the infinitive with _to_ or _in
order to_, and result by the infinitive with _to_ or _as to_.

  He abandoned his profession _to_ [or _in order to_] _become a
  missionary_. [Purpose.]

  He was kind enough _to help me_. [Result. Compare: He was so kind
  _that he helped me_.]

  He was so kind _as to help me_. [Result.]

+Negative result+ is often expressed by the adverb _too_ and the
infinitive.

  Iron is _too_ heavy _to float_. [Compare: Iron is so heavy _that it
  does not float_.]

+410.+ Purpose may be expressed by an +infinitive clause+ (§ 325).

  The teacher intended _us to finish the book_. [Compare: The teacher
  intended _that we should finish the book_.]

  The foreman ordered _the engine to be stopped_. [Compare: The foreman
  ordered _that the engine should be stopped_.]


VI. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

+411.+ +A clause that expresses a condition introduced by _if_, or by
some equivalent word or phrase, is called a conditional clause.+

+A sentence that contains a conditional clause is called a conditional
sentence.+

  _If it rains_, we shall remain at home.

  I shall attend the convention _if I am in town_.

  I will take this book, _if you please_.

+412.+ A _conditional sentence_ in its simplest form consists of two
parts:--

(1) A subordinate (adverbial) clause, commonly introduced by _if_, and
expressing the +condition+.

(2) A main clause expressing the +conclusion+, that is, the statement
which is true in case the condition expressed in the _if_-clause is
true.

  Thus in the first example in § 411, the +condition+ is _if it rains_;
  the +conclusion+ is _we shall remain at home_.

Either the condition or the conclusion may come first.

  The conditional clause is often called the +protasis+, and the
  conclusion is often called the +apodosis+.

The +conclusion+ of a conditional sentence may be declarative,
interrogative, imperative, or exclamatory.

  If you go to Philadelphia, _where shall you stay_? [Interrogative.]

  _Sit here_, if you wish. [Imperative.]

  If you win the prize, _how glad I shall be_! [Exclamatory.]

+413.+ A conditional clause may be introduced by _provided_ (or
_provided that_), _granted that_, _supposing_ (or _suppose_), _on
condition that_.

  I will permit you to go, _on condition that_ you come home early.

  You may have the money, _provided_ you will put it in the bank.

  _Supposing_ (or _suppose_) it rains, what shall we do?

  _Suppose_ is really an imperative and _supposing_ a participle, the
  clause being the object.

+414.+ A +negative condition+ is commonly introduced by _if ... not_ or
_unless_.

  I will wait for him, _if_ you do _not_ object.

  _Unless_ you overcome that habit, you will be ruined.

+415.+ +Double+ (or +alternative+) +conditions+ may be introduced by
_whether ... or_.

  _Whether_ he goes or stays, he must pay a week’s board. [Compare:
  _If_ he goes _or if_ he stays, etc.]

  He is determined to buy that car, _whether_ you approve _or_ not.
  [That is: _if_ you approve _or if_ you do not approve.]

+416.+ A conditional clause may be introduced by _whoever_, _whenever_,
or some similar compound (§§ 159, 195).

  _Whoever_ offends, is punished. [Compare: _If anybody_ offends, he is
  punished.]

  _Whoever_ shall offend, shall be punished.

  _Whomever_ you ask, you will be disappointed. [Compare: If you shall
  ask anybody.]

  He will come _whenever_ [= _if ever_] he is called.

  NOTE. In older English and in poetry, _who_ is common in this
  construction: as,--“_Who_ [= _whoever_] steals my purse, steals
  trash” (SHAKSPERE).

+417.+ A conditional clause sometimes omits the copula and its subject.

  I will go if [_it is_] necessary.

  If [_it is_] possible, come to-morrow.

The _if_-clause is sometimes used as an exclamation, with the
conclusion omitted.

  If I only had a rifle!

+418.+ A condition may be expressed by means of an assertion, a
question, an imperative, or the absolute construction (§ 345).

  We take the receiver from the hook, and the operator answers. We
  replace it, and the connection is broken. [Compare: If we take the
  receiver from the hook, the operator answers, etc.]

  Press that button, and the bell will ring.

  Do you refuse? Then you must take the consequences.

  We shall sail on Monday, weather permitting.

  NOTE. In such cases, there is no subordinate conditional clause.
  Thus, in the first example, we have two independent coördinate
  clauses, making a compound sentence (§ 44).


FORMS OF CONDITIONS

+419.+ Conditional sentences show great variety of form, but it is easy
to classify them according to the +time+ of the supposed case and the
+degree of doubt+ that the speaker expresses.

+420.+ Conditions may be +present+, +past+, or +future+.


PRESENT AND PAST CONDITIONS

+421.+ Present and past conditions may be either (1) +non-committal+ or
(2) +contrary to fact+.

1. A condition is +non-committal+ when it implies nothing as to the
truth or falsity of the case supposed.

  _If James is angry_, I am sorry. [Perhaps James is angry, perhaps
  not.]

2. A condition is +contrary to fact+ when it implies that the supposed
case is not or was not true.

  _If James were angry_, I should be sorry. [James is _not_ angry.]

+422.+ In a +non-committal present condition+, the _if_-clause[44]
takes the present indicative; in a +non-committal past condition+, the
past, the perfect, or the pluperfect.

The conclusion may be in any form that the sense allows.


I. PRESENT CONDITION, NON-COMMITTAL

  _If this pebble is a diamond_, {it is valuable. | guard it carefully.
  | you have made a great discovery. | you will get a large sum for it.
  | why are you so careless of it? | what a prize it is!}

  _If it is raining_, shut the window.

  _If Jack lives in this house_, {he is a lucky boy. | ring the bell. |
  he has moved since last May.}


II. PAST CONDITION, NON-COMMITTAL

  _If that pebble was a diamond_, {it was valuable. | why did you throw
  it away? | go back and look for it.}

  _If Tom has apologized_, {he has done his duty. | you ought to excuse
  him. | forgive him.}

  _If John had reached home before we started_, he must have made a
  quick journey.

In each of these examples, the speaker declines to commit himself as
to the truth of the supposed case. Perhaps the pebble was a diamond,
perhaps not; Tom may or may not have apologized; whether or not John
had reached home, we cannot tell.

+423.+ In a +condition contrary to fact+, the _if_-clause takes the
past subjunctive when the condition refers to present time, the
pluperfect subjunctive when it refers to past time.

The conclusion regularly takes _should_ or _would_ (§ 286, 3).

  If John _were_ here, I _should recognize_ him. [Present condition,
  present conclusion.]

  If John _were_ here, I _should have recognized_ him before this.
  [Present condition, past conclusion.]

  If I _had offended_ him, I _should have regretted_ it. [Past
  condition, past conclusion.]

  If I _had_ then _offended_ him, I _should regret_ it now. [Past
  condition, present conclusion.]

In each of these sentences, the speaker distinctly implies that the
supposed case (or +condition+) _is_ (or _was_) _not a fact_. It
follows, of course, that the +conclusion+ is not a fact:--John is _not_
here; therefore I _do not_ recognize him.

+424.+ In conditions contrary to fact, the subjunctive without _if_ is
common. In this use, the subject follows the verb (§ 281).

  _Were_ he my friend, I should expect his help. [= If he _were_ my
  friend. Present condition, contrary to fact.]

  _Had_ he _been_ my friend, I should have expected his help. [= If he
  _had been_ my friend. Past condition, contrary to fact.]

  NOTE. In older English, the subjunctive may be used in both clauses:
  as,--“He _were_ no lion, _were_ not Romans hinds” (SHAKSPERE).


FUTURE CONDITIONS

+425.+ +Future conditions+ always imply +doubt+, for no one can tell
what may or may not happen to-morrow.

+426.+ In all future conditions, some verb-form denoting future time is
used in both clauses.

1. In a future condition which suggests nothing as to the probability
or improbability of the case supposed, the present indicative is
regularly used in the _if_-clause, and the future indicative in the
conclusion.

  If it _rains_ to-morrow, I _shall_ not _go_.

  In very formal or exact language a verb-phrase with _shall_ may be
  used in the _if_-clause: as,--“If it _shall rain_ to-morrow, I shall
  not go.”

2. The present subjunctive is sometimes used in the _if_-clause. This
form commonly suggests more doubt than the present indicative.

  If it _rain_ to-morrow, I shall not go.

3. In a future condition which puts the supposed case rather vaguely,
often with a considerable suggestion of doubt, a verb-phrase with
_should_ or _would_ is used in both clauses.

  If it _should rain_ to-morrow, I _should_ not _go_.

For the use of _should_ or _would_ in such clauses, see § 305.

A phrase with _were to_ may replace the _should_-phrase in the
_if_-clause. This form often emphasizes the suggestion of doubt.

  If it _were to rain_ to-morrow, I should not go.

The past subjunctive may stand in the _if_-clause instead of the
_should_-phrase.

  If it _rained_ to-morrow, I should not go.

  NOTE. The comparative amount of doubt implied in the different kinds
  of future conditions cannot be defined with precision; for it varies
  with the circumstances or the context, and often depends on emphasis
  or the tone of the voice. Thus, in “if it should rain to-morrow,”
  _should_ may be so emphasized as to make the supposed case seem
  highly improbable, whereas an emphasis on _to-morrow_ would have a
  very different effect. As to the subjunctive, its use is often due
  rather to the writer’s liking for that mood than to any special doubt
  in his mind.

+427.+ For _even if_ in concessive clauses, see § 399; for _as if_ in
clauses of comparison, see § 428; for _if_ (in the sense of _whether_)
in indirect questions, see § 442.


VII. CLAUSES OF COMPARISON

+428.+ +An adverbial clause introduced by _as if_ may express
comparison.+[45]

  You speak _as if you were angry_.[46]

  He breathes _as if he were exhausted_.

  She cared for me _as if I had been her son_.

  _As though_ is also used, but _as if_ is now preferred by most
  writers.

The subjunctive _were_, not the indicative _was_, is used after _as if_
(§ 282).

+429.+ _As_ and _than_, as subordinate conjunctions, introduce +clauses
of comparison+ or +degree+.

  You are as old _as he_ [_is_].

  I am younger _than you_ [_are_].

  He weighs as much _as I_ [_weigh_].

  I pity you more _than_ [_I pity_] _her_.

When the verb is omitted, the substantive that follows _as_ or _than_
is in the same case in which it would stand if the verb were expressed.
Thus,--

  You are stronger than _he_. [NOT: than _him_.]

  I see you oftener than _him_. [NOT: than _he_.]

  He plays a better game than _I_. [NOT: than _me_.]

  They will miss John more than _me_. [That is: more than they miss
  _me_.]


VIII. INDIRECT DISCOURSE

+430.+ A quotation may be +direct+ or +indirect+.

A +direct quotation+ repeats a speech or thought in its original form.

  I replied: “I am sorry to hear it.”

  “Henceforth,” he explained, “I shall call on Tuesdays.”

  “You must see California,” she insisted.

  “Elizabeth no longer lives here,” he said.

  “I know nothing about it,” was the witness’s reply.

  “Where,” thought I, “are the crew?”[47]

An +indirect quotation+ repeats a speech or thought in substance, but
usually with some change in its form.

An indirect quotation, when a statement, is a subordinate clause
dependent on some word of _saying_ or _thinking_, and introduced by the
conjunction _that_.

  I replied _that I was sorry to hear it_. [Direct: I am sorry.]

  He explained _that henceforth he should call on Tuesdays_.

  She insisted _that I must see California_.

+A direct quotation+ begins with a +capital letter+, unless it is a
fragment of a sentence. It is enclosed in +quotation marks+.

+An indirect quotation+ begins with a +small letter+. It usually has no
quotation marks.

+431.+ +A substantive clause introduced by _that_ may be used with
verbs and other expressions of _telling_, _thinking_, _knowing_, and
_perceiving_, to report the words or thought of a person in substance,
but usually with some change of form.+

+Such clauses are said to be in the indirect discourse.+

  For distinction, a remark or a thought in its original form (as in a
  direct quotation) is said to be in the +direct discourse+.

+432.+ Statements in _indirect discourse_, being substantive clauses,
may be used in various noun constructions: (1) as +object+ of some
verb of _telling_, _thinking_, or the like, (2) as +subject+, (3) as
+predicate nominative+, (4) as +appositive+.

  He said _that the box was empty_. [Object.]

  _That the box was empty_ was all he could say. [Subject.]

  My remark was _that the bill is a menace_. [Predicate nominative.]

  Your remark, _that the bill is a menace_, has aroused vigorous
  protest. [Apposition.]

+433.+ The conjunction _that_ is often omitted.

  Jack said [_that_] he was sorry.

  I hope [_that_] you can come.

  I know he is too busy a man to have leisure for me.--COWPER.

+434.+ In indirect discourse, after the past or the pluperfect tense,
the present tense of the direct discourse becomes past, and the perfect
becomes pluperfect.

  1. DIRECT: I _am_ tired. INDIRECT: John {said | had said} that he
  _was_ tired.

  2. DIRECT: I _have won_. INDIRECT: John {said | had said} that he
  _had won_.

But a general or universal truth always remains in the present tense.

  DIRECT: Air _is_ a gas. INDIRECT: I told him that air _is_ a gas.
  INDIRECT: I had told him a hundred times that air _is_ a gas.

+435.+ The clause with _that_ in indirect discourse is sometimes
replaced by an infinitive clause (§ 325).

  The jury declared _him to be innocent_. [Compare: The jury declared
  _that he was innocent_.]

  Morton admitted _them to be counterfeit_. [Compare: Morton admitted
  _that they were counterfeit_.]

  In these sentences, _him_ and _them_ are, of course, the subjects of
  the infinitives, not the objects of _declared_ and _admitted_.

+436.+ When the verb of _telling_ or _thinking_ is in the +passive
voice+, three constructions occur:--

1. A clause with _that_ is used as the subject of the passive verb.

  That Rogers desires the office is commonly reported.

2. The expletive _it_ is used as the grammatical subject, and a
_that_-clause follows the passive verb.

  It is commonly reported that Rogers desires the office.

3. The subject of the _that_-clause becomes the subject of the passive
verb, and the verb of the clause is replaced by an infinitive.

  Rogers is commonly reported to desire the office.

The choice among these three idioms is largely a matter of emphasis
or euphony. The first may easily become heavy or awkward, and it is
therefore less common than either of the others.

  NOTE. The third of these idioms is often called the +personal
  construction+, to distinguish it from the second, in which the
  grammatical subject is the impersonal _it_ (§ 120, 1). The infinitive
  in this third idiom may be regarded as a peculiar adverbial modifier
  of the passive verb.

Further examples of the three constructions with passive verbs of
_telling_, _thinking_, etc., are the following:--

  That in vivacity, humor, and eloquence, the Irish stand high among
  the nations of the world is now universally acknowledged.--MACAULAY.

  It is admitted that the exercise of the imagination is most
  delightful.--SHELLEY.

  It must be owned that Charles’s life has points of some
  originality.--STEVENSON.

  Porto Bello is still said to be impregnable, and it is reported the
  Dutch have declared war against us.--GRAY.

  He was generally believed to have been a pirate.--LYTTON.

  Pope may be said to write always with his reputation in his
  head.--JOHNSON.

  She was observed to flutter her fan with such vehement rapidity that
  the elaborate delicacy of its workmanship gave way.--HAWTHORNE.

  This is said to be the only château in France in which the ancient
  furniture of its original age is preserved.--LONGFELLOW.

+437.+ A substantive clause with _that_ is common after _it seems_, _it
is true_, _it is evident_, and similar expressions.

  It seems _that Robert has lost all his money_.

  It is true _that genius does not always bring happiness with it_.

  It is evident _that Andrews tells the truth_.

  This construction is really the same as that in § 436, 2.

+438.+ The uses of _shall_ and _will_, _should_ and _would_, in
+indirect discourse+ are the same as in the +direct+,[48] with the
following exception:--

+When the first person with _shall_ or _should_ in direct discourse
becomes the second or third person in the indirect, _shall_ or _should_
is retained.+

  DIRECT:   You say, “_I shall_ die.”
  INDIRECT: You say that _you shall_ die.

  DIRECT:   You said, “_I shall_ die.”
  INDIRECT: You said that _you should_ die.

  DIRECT:   He says, “_I shall_ die.”
  INDIRECT: He says that _he shall_ die.

  DIRECT:   He said, “_I shall_ die.”
  INDIRECT: He said that _he should_ die.

The reason for the retention of _shall_ or _should_ is that, in such
cases, the second or third person of the indirect discourse represents
the first person of the direct.

The change from _shall_ (after _says_) to _should_ (after _said_) is a
mere change of tense, according to the rule in § 434.

  NOTE. The general principle is, to retain in the indirect discourse
  the auxiliary of the direct, simply changing the tense if necessary
  (§ 434). This principle of course covers the use of _you_ or _he
  shall_ or _should_ to represent _I shall_ or _should_. There is,
  however, one important exception to the general principle: when its
  application would result in the use of _I will_ or _I would_ to
  express mere futurity, _I shall_ or _I should_ is employed. Thus,
  John says to Charles, “If you fall overboard, _you will_ drown”; but
  Charles, reporting this, must say, “John tells me that, if I fall
  overboard, _I shall_ [NOT _will_] drown.” The general rule, then, may
  be stated as follows: The indirect discourse retains the auxiliary
  of the direct (with a change in tense, if necessary), unless such
  retention makes _will_ or _would_ express simple futurity in the
  first person,--in that case, _shall_ or _should_ is used.

+439.+ The following sentences illustrate the correct use of _shall_
and _will_, _should_ and _would_, in the indirect discourse:--

  1. He writes me that he believes _he shall_ be at Eton till the
  middle of November.--GRAY. [Direct: I shall be at Eton.]

  2. He that would pass the latter part of his life with honor and
  decency, must, while he is young, consider that _he shall_ one day be
  old.--JOHNSON. [Direct: I shall one day be old.]

  3. Could he but reduce the Aztec capital, he felt that _he should_ be
  safe.--PRESCOTT. [Direct: I shall be safe.]

  4. Plantagenet took it into his head that _he should_ like to learn
  to play at bowls.--DISRAELI. [Direct: I should like.]

  5. He answered that _he should_ be very proud of hoisting his flag
  under Sir John’s command.--SOUTHEY. [Direct: I shall (_or_ should)
  be, etc.]

  6. He knew that if he applied himself in earnest to the work of
  reformation, _he should_ raise every bad passion in arms against
  him.--MACAULAY. [Direct: If I apply myself ..., I shall raise, etc.]

  7. He was pleased to say that _he should_ like to have the author in
  his service.--CARLYLE. [Direct: I should like.]

  8. Mr. Tristram at last declared that _he_ was overcome with fatigue,
  and _should_ be happy to sit down.--HENRY JAMES. [Direct: I should be
  happy.]

  9. She vowed that unless he made a great match, _she should_ never
  die easy.--THACKERAY. [Direct: Unless you make a great match, I shall
  never die easy.]

  10. You think now _I shall_ get into a scrape at home. You think
  _I shall_ scream and plunge and spoil everything.--GEORGE ELIOT.
  [Direct: She will get into a scrape, etc.]

  11. You in a manner impose upon them the necessity of being silent,
  by declaring that _you will_ be so yourself.--COWPER. [Determination:
  I will be silent.]

  12. He [Swift] tells them that _he will_ run away and leave them, if
  they do not instantly make a provision for him.--JEFFREY. [Threat: I
  will run away.]

  13. The king declared that _he would_ not reprieve her for one
  day.--MACKINTOSH. [Direct: I will not.]

  14. Horace declares that _he would_ not for all the world get into a
  boat with a man who had divulged the Eleusinian mysteries.--COWPER.
  [Direct: I would not.]

  15. I called up Sirboko, and told him, if _he would_ liberate this
  one man to please me, _he should_ be no loser.--SPEKE. [Direct: If
  you will liberate, etc., you shall be no loser.]

  16. We concluded that, if we did not come at some water in ten days’
  time, _we would_ return.--DE FOE. [Direct: If we do not, etc., we
  will return.]

  17. With a theatrical gesture and the remark that _I should_ see,
  he opened some cages and released half a dozen cats.--W. J. LOCKE.
  [Direct: You shall see.]


IX. INDIRECT QUESTIONS

+440.+ +A question expressed in the form actually used in asking it is
called a direct question.+

  What is your name?

  “What is your name?” he asked.

The direct form may be retained when the question is quoted or
reported, as in the second example above. Often, however, a question
is quoted or reported, not in the direct form, but in the form of a
+subordinate clause+: as,--

  He asked _what my name was_.

Such a clause is called an +indirect question+.

+441.+ +An indirect question expresses the substance of a direct
question in the form of a subordinate clause.+

+Indirect questions depend on verbs or other expressions of _asking_,
_doubting_, _thinking_, _perceiving_, and the like.+

  Franklin asked _where the difficulty lay_. [Direct question: “Where
  does the difficulty lie?”]

  The sergeant wondered _how he should escape_. [Direct question: “How
  shall I escape?”]

  I have not decided _which train I shall take_. [Direct question:
  “Which train shall I take?”]

+442.+ Both +direct+ and +indirect questions+ may be introduced (1)
by the interrogative pronouns _who_, _which_, _what_; (2) by the
interrogative adverbs _when_, _where_, _whence_, _whither_, _how_,
_why_.

+Indirect questions+ may be introduced by the subordinate conjunctions
_whether_ (_whether ... or_) and _if_.

The use of +tenses+ in indirect questions is the same as in the
indirect discourse (§ 434).

  The constable inquired _whether_ (or _if_) _I lived in Casterbridge_.
  [His question was: Do you live in Casterbridge?]

  Your father wishes to know _if you have been playing truant_. [Direct
  question: Have you been playing truant?]

  I considered _whether I should apply to Kent or to Arnold_. [Direct
  question: Shall I apply to Kent or to Arnold?]

+443.+ Indirect questions are usually noun clauses. They may be used in
various noun constructions: (1) as +object+ of some verb of +asking+
or the like, (2) as +subject+, (3) as +predicate nominative+, (4) as
+appositive+, (5) as +object+ of a preposition.

  The skipper asked _what had become of the cook_. [Object.]

  He was asked _what his profession was_. [Retained object after the
  passive (§§ 253, 389).]

  _How we could escape_ was a difficult question. [Subject.]

  The problem was _how they should find food_. [Predicate nominative.]

  The question _who was to blame_ has never been settled. [Apposition
  with _question_.]

  They all felt great perplexity as to _what they should do_. [Object
  of a preposition.]

An indirect question may be an adverbial clause.

  They were uncertain _what course they should take_. [The clause
  modifies _uncertain_.]

  Edmund was in doubt _where he should spend the night_. [The clause
  modifies the adjective phrase _in doubt_.]

+444.+ Since the pronouns _who_, _which_, and _what_ may be either
interrogative or relative, an indirect question may closely resemble
a relative clause. These two constructions, however, are sharply
distinguished. A relative clause always +asserts+ something. An
indirect question, on the contrary, has an +interrogative+ sense which
may be seen by turning the question into the direct form.

  The sailor _who saved the child_ is a Portuguese. [The clause _who
  saved the child_ is a relative clause, for it makes a distinct
  assertion about the sailor,--namely, that he saved the child. _Who_
  is a relative pronoun and _sailor_ is its antecedent.]

  {I asked | I do not know | It is still a question | It is doubtful}
  _who saved the child_. [Here the clause _who saved the child_ makes
  no assertion. On the contrary, it expresses a question which may
  easily be put in a direct form with an interrogation point: “Who
  saved the child?” _Who_ is an interrogative pronoun. It has no
  antecedent.]

The following examples further illustrate the difference between these
two constructions:--

  1. I foresee the course _which he will take_. [Relative clause.] I
  foresee _which course he will take_. [Indirect question.]

  2. I heard _what he said_. [Relative clause. _What_ = “that which.”]
  I wondered _what he said_. [Indirect question. _What_ is an
  interrogative pronoun.]

  3. This is the man _who brought the news_. [Relative clause.] The
  king asked _who brought the news_. [Indirect question.]

  4. Here is a paper _which you must sign_. [Relative clause.] The
  clerk will tell you _which paper you must sign_. [Indirect question.]

  NOTE. In such a sentence as “Tom knows _who saved the child_,” the
  indirect question may at first appear to be a relative clause with
  an omitted antecedent (_the man_, or _the person_). If, however,
  we insert such an antecedent (“Tom knows _the man_ who saved the
  child”), the meaning is completely changed. In the original sentence,
  it is stated that Tom knows the answer to the question, “Who saved
  the child?” In the new form of the sentence, it is stated that Tom is
  acquainted with a certain person, and to this is added an assertion
  about this person in the form of a relative clause.

+445.+ An indirect question is sometimes expressed by means of an
interrogative pronoun or adverb followed by an infinitive.

  _Whom to choose_ is a serious question. [Direct question: Whom shall
  we choose?]

  John asked _what to do_. [John’s question was: What shall I do?]

  I know _where to go_. [Direct question: Where shall I go?]

  Tell me _when to strike the bell_.

  I was at a loss _how to reply_.

  I am in doubt _how to begin this essay_.

In the first four examples the italicized phrase is used as a noun
(either as subject or object). In the fifth, the phrase _how to reply_
is adverbial, modifying the adjective phrase _at a loss_.

+446.+ The subjunctive was formerly common in indirect questions, and
is still occasionally used after _if_ or _whether_.

  I doubt if it _be_ true.

  Elton questioned whether the project _were_ wise.

+447.+ The rule for _shall_ (_should_) and _will_ (_would_) in indirect
questions is, to retain the auxiliary used in the direct question,
merely changing the tense (_shall_ to _should_; _will_ to _would_) when
necessary (§ 442).

  I. MERE FUTURITY

  1. DIRECT:   What _shall I_ do?

     INDIRECT: I wonder what _I shall_ do.
               You ask me what _you shall_ do.
               He asks me what _he shall_ do.
               I wondered what _I should_ do.
               You asked me what _you should_ do.
               He asked me what _he should_ do.

  2. DIRECT:   _Shall you_ lose your position?

     INDIRECT: {I ask | He asks} you if _you shall_ lose your position.
               {I asked | He asked} you if _you should_ lose
                 your position.

  3. DIRECT: _Will Charles_ lose his position?

     INDIRECT: I ask if _Charles will_ lose his position.
               {I | You | Tom} asked if _Charles would_ lose
                 his position.

  II. VOLITION

  4. DIRECT:   _Will you_ help me?

     INDIRECT: You ask if _I will_ help you.
               He asks if _I will_ help him.
               You asked if _I would_ help you.
               He asked if _I would_ help him.
               {I asked him | You asked him | Tom asked him}
                 if _he would_ {help me. | help you. | help him.}

  NOTE. There is a single exception to the rule in § 447. When, in
  changing from a direct to an indirect question, the third person
  with _will_ or _would_ becomes the first, _shall_ or _should_
  is substituted unless volition is expressed. Thus, John says to
  Thomas, “_Will Charles_ die of his wound?” Charles, reporting John’s
  question, says, “John asked Thomas whether _I should_ die of my
  wound.” Compare § 438, note.



PART THREE

ANALYSIS



CHAPTER I

THE STRUCTURE OF SENTENCES


+448.+ +Analysis+ is a Greek word which means “the act of dissolving or
breaking up.” In grammar it is applied to the separation of a sentence
into its constituent parts, or +elements+. To dissect a sentence in
this way is to +analyze+ it.

The elements which make up a +sentence+ are: (1) the +simple
subject+; (2) the +simple predicate+; (3) +modifiers+; (4) the
+complements+,--direct object, predicate objective, predicate
adjective, predicate nominative; and (5) the so-called +independent
elements+,--the interjection, the vocative (or nominative of direct
address), the exclamatory nominative, and various parenthetical
expressions (§ 501).

+449.+ The absolute essentials for a sentence are a +substantive
as subject+ and a +verb as predicate+ (§ 35). By combining these
two indispensable elements, in various ways, with +modifiers+ and
+complements+, the sentence may be extended to any length desired.
Indeed, the sole limits are the constructive skill of the writer and
the hearer’s ability to follow the thought without losing the thread.

In the present chapter, we shall consider how sentences are built up,
or constructed. Our starting point in this study will be the +simple
sentence+.


SIMPLE SENTENCES

+450.+ The following statement is a +simple sentence+, for it contains
but +one subject+ and +one predicate+ (§ 46):--

  The polar bear | lives in the Arctic regions.

The framework or skeleton of this simple sentence consists of the
subject noun _bear_ (the simple subject) and the predicate verb _lives_
(the simple predicate). To make the +complete subject+, _bear_ takes as
+modifiers+ the two adjectives _the_ and _polar_; to make the +complete
predicate+, _lives_ takes as +modifier+ the adverbial phrase _in the
Arctic regions_.

By attaching another simple subject to _bear_ we make a +compound
subject+. Similarly, we make a +compound predicate+ by adding another
verb (§ 38).

  The polar _bear_ and the _walrus_ | _live_ and _thrive_ in the Arctic
  regions.

The compound subject is _bear and walrus_; the compound predicate is
_live and thrive_. Both verbs are modified by the adverbial phrase _in
the Arctic regions_. The sentence itself is still a simple sentence.

In each of the following simple sentences either the subject or the
predicate or both are compound:--

  Games and carols closed the busy day.--ROGERS.

  The stars leap forth, and tremble, and retire before the advancing
  moon.--GEORGE MEREDITH.

  Madame Defarge knitted with nimble fingers and steady eyebrows, and
  saw nothing.--DICKENS.

  Work or worry had left its traces upon his thin, yellow face.--DOYLE.

  Crows flutter about the towers and perch on every
  weathercock.--IRVING.

  He gained the door to the landing, pulled it open, and rushed
  forth.--LYTTON.

  Countrymen, butchers, drovers, hawkers, boys, thieves, idlers, and
  vagabonds of every low grade, were mingled together in a dense
  mass.--DICKENS.

  There stood the broad-wheeled wains and the antique plows and the
  harrows.--LONGFELLOW.

  Both Augustus and Peters joined with him in his design and insisted
  upon its immediately being carried into effect.--POE.

  Women and children, from garrets alike and cellars, through infinite
  London, look down or look up with loving eyes upon our gay ribbons
  and our martial laurels.--DE QUINCEY.


COMPOUND SENTENCES

+451.+ If we attach another simple sentence to that in § 450, the
result is a +compound sentence+.

  The polar bear | lives in the Arctic regions, || but || it |
  sometimes reaches temperate latitudes.

This is manifestly a +compound sentence+, for it consists of two
+coördinate clauses+, joined by the conjunction _but_ (§ 46).

The framework of the second clause consists of the subject _it_ and
the simple predicate _reaches_. To make the complete predicate, the
verb _reaches_ takes not only a modifier (the adverb _sometimes_), but
a +complement+,--the direct object _latitudes_, which completes the
meaning of the verb. This noun is itself modified by the adjective
_temperate_. Both clauses are +simple+, for each contains but one
subject and one predicate.

+452.+ Obviously, almost any number of simple sentences may be joined
(with or without conjunctions) to make one compound sentence.

  The quiet August noon has come;
    A slumberous silence fills the sky;
  The fields are still, the woods are dumb,
    In glassy sleep the waters lie.--BRYANT.

  States fall, arts fade, but Nature does not die.--BYRON.

  The court was sitting; the case was heard; the judge had finished;
  and only the verdict was yet in arrear.--DE QUINCEY.

  He softly blushed; he sighed; he hoped; he feared; he doubted; he
  sometimes yielded to the delightful idea.--THACKERAY.

  A mob appeared before the window, a smart rap was heard at the door,
  the boys hallooed, and the maid announced Mr. Grenville.--COWPER.

  His health had suffered from confinement; his high spirit had been
  cruelly wounded; and soon after his liberation he died of a broken
  heart.--MACAULAY.


COMPLEX SENTENCES

+453.+ The simple sentence in § 450 may be made +complex+ by means of a
+subordinate clause+ used as a +modifier+ (§ 47).

  The polar bear, _which lives in the Arctic regions_, sometimes
  reaches temperate latitudes.

  The polar bear sometimes reaches temperate latitudes _when the ice
  drifts southward_.

In the first example, the simple subject (_bear_), besides its two
adjective modifiers (_the_ and _polar_), takes a third, the adjective
clause _which lives in the Arctic regions_ (§ 47). The sentence, then,
is +complex+: the main clause is _the polar bear sometimes reaches
temperate latitudes_; the subordinate clause is _which lives in the
Arctic regions_.

The second sentence is also complex. The main clause is the same as in
the first (_the polar bear sometimes reaches temperate latitudes_). The
subordinate clause is _when the ice drifts southward_, an +adverbial
modifier+ of the predicate verb _reaches_.


COMPOUND AND COMPLEX CLAUSES

+454.+ Two or more +coördinate clauses+ may be joined to make one
+compound clause+.

  The polar bear, _which lives in the Arctic regions and whose physical
  constitution is wonderfully adapted to that frigid climate_,
  sometimes reaches temperate latitudes.

  The polar bear sometimes reaches temperate latitudes _when the floes
  break up and when the ice drifts southward_.

In the first example, the italicized words form a +compound adjective
clause+, modifying the noun _bear_. It consists of two +coördinate
adjective clauses+ joined by _and_. These clauses are coördinate
because they are of the same +order+ or +rank+ in the sentence (§ 46),
each being (if taken singly) an adjective modifier of the noun.

In the second example, the predicate verb _reaches_ is modified by a
+compound adverbial clause+, similarly made up.

+455.+ A clause is +complex+ when it contains a modifying clause.

  The polar bear, _which lives in the Arctic regions when it is at
  home_, sometimes reaches temperate latitudes.

Here the +adjective clause+ _which lives in the Arctic regions when it
is at home_ is +complex+, for it contains the adverbial clause _when it
is at home_, modifying the verb _lives_.


COMPOUND COMPLEX SENTENCES

+456.+ Two or more independent complex clauses may be joined to make a
+compound complex sentence+.

  The brown bear, of which there are several varieties, is common
  in the temperate regions of the Eastern Hemisphere; || and || the
  polar bear sometimes reaches temperate latitudes when the ice drifts
  southward.

This is a +compound complex sentence+, for it consists of two complex
clauses joined by the coördinate conjunction _and_. Each of these two
clauses is independent of the other, for each might stand by itself as
a complex sentence.

The first complex clause contains an adjective clause, _of which there
are several varieties_, modifying _bear_; the second contains an
adverbial clause, _when the ice drifts southward_, modifying _reaches_.

+457.+ A sentence consisting of two or more independent clauses is also
classed as a compound complex sentence if any one of these is complex.

  The brown bear is common in the temperate regions of the Eastern
  Hemisphere; || and || the polar bear sometimes reaches temperate
  latitudes when the ice drifts southward.

  The brown bear, of which there are several varieties, is common in
  the temperate regions of the Eastern Hemisphere; || and || the polar
  bear sometimes reaches temperate latitudes.

Both of these are compound complex sentences. In one, the first clause
is simple (§ 451) and the second is complex. In the other, the first
clause is complex and the second is simple.



CHAPTER II

ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES


SIMPLE SENTENCES

+458.+ In analyzing a +simple sentence+, we first divide it into the
+complete subject+ and the +complete predicate+. Then we point out
the +simple subject+ with its +modifiers+, and the +simple predicate+
with its +modifiers+ and +complement+ (if there is one). If either the
subject or the predicate is compound, we mention the simple subjects or
predicates that are joined.

  1. The polar bear lives in the Arctic regions.

  This is a simple sentence. The complete subject is _the polar bear_;
  the complete predicate is _lives in the Arctic regions_. The simple
  subject is the noun _bear_; the simple predicate is the verb _lives_.
  _Bear_ is modified by the adjectives _the_ and _polar_; _lives_ is
  modified by the adverbial phrase _in the Arctic regions_. This phrase
  consists of the preposition _in_; its object, the noun _regions_; and
  the adjectives _the_ and _Arctic_, modifying _regions_.

  2. The polar bear and the walrus live and thrive in the Arctic
  regions.

  The complete subject is _the polar bear and the walrus_. Two simple
  subjects (_bear_ and _walrus_) are joined by the conjunction _and_
  to make a compound subject, and two simple predicates (_live_ and
  _thrive_) are joined by _and_ to make a compound predicate. _Live_
  and _thrive_ are both modified by the adverbial phrase _in the Arctic
  regions_.


COMPOUND SENTENCES

+459.+ In analyzing a +compound sentence+ we first divide it into its
+coördinate clauses+, and then analyze each clause by itself. Thus,--

  The polar bear lives in the Arctic regions, but it sometimes reaches
  temperate latitudes.

  This is a compound sentence consisting of two coördinate clauses
  joined by the conjunction _but_: (1) _the polar bear lives in the
  Arctic regions_ and (2) _it sometimes reaches temperate latitudes_.
  The complete subject of the first clause is _the polar bear_ [and so
  on, as in § 458, above]. The subject of the second clause is _it_;
  the complete predicate is _sometimes reaches temperate latitudes_.
  The simple predicate is _reaches_, which is modified by the adverb
  _sometimes_ and is completed by the direct object _latitudes_. The
  complement _latitudes_ is modified by the adjective _temperate_.


COMPLEX SENTENCES

+460.+ In analyzing a +complex sentence+, we first divide it into the
+main clause+ and the +subordinate clause+.

  1. The polar bear, which lives in the Arctic regions, sometimes
  reaches temperate latitudes.

  This is a complex sentence. The main clause is _the polar bear
  sometimes reaches temperate latitudes_; the subordinate clause is
  _which lives in the Arctic regions_. The complete subject of the
  sentence is _the polar bear, which lives in the Arctic regions_; the
  complete predicate is _sometimes reaches temperate latitudes_. The
  simple subject is _bear_, which is modified by the adjectives _the_
  and _polar_ and by the adjective clause _which lives in the Arctic
  regions_. The simple predicate is _reaches_, which is modified by the
  adverb _sometimes_ and completed by the direct object _latitudes_.
  This complement, _latitudes_, is modified by the adjective
  _temperate_. The subordinate clause is introduced by the relative
  pronoun _which_. [Then analyze the subordinate clause.]

  2. The polar bear reaches temperate latitudes when the ice drifts
  southward.

  This is a complex sentence. The main clause is _the polar bear
  reaches temperate latitudes_; the subordinate clause is _when the
  ice drifts southward_. The complete subject of the sentence is _the
  polar bear_; the complete predicate is _reaches temperate latitudes
  when the ice drifts southward_. The simple subject is _bear_, which
  is modified by the adjectives _the_ and _polar_. The simple predicate
  is _reaches_, which is modified by the adverbial clause _when the ice
  drifts southward_, and completed by the noun _latitudes_ (the direct
  object of _reaches_). The complement _latitudes_ is modified by the
  adjective _temperate_. The subordinate clause is introduced by the
  relative adverb _when_. [Then analyze the subordinate clause.]

  3. The polar bear, which lives in the Arctic regions when it is at
  home, sometimes reaches temperate latitudes.

  This is a complex sentence. The main clause is _the polar bear
  sometimes reaches temperate latitudes_; the subordinate clause is
  _which lives in the Arctic regions when it is at home_, which is
  complex, since it contains the adverbial clause _when it is at home_,
  modifying the verb _lives_.

  4. He says that the polar bear lives in the Arctic regions.

  This is a complex sentence. The main clause is _he says_; the
  subordinate clause is _that the polar bear lives in the Arctic
  regions_. The subject of the sentence is _he_, the complete predicate
  is _says that the polar bear lives in the Arctic regions_. The simple
  predicate is _says_, which is completed by its direct object, the
  noun clause _that ... regions_, introduced by the conjunction _that_.
  [Then analyze the subordinate clause.]

  5. That the polar bear sometimes reaches temperate latitudes is a
  familiar fact.

  This is a complex sentence. The main clause (_is a familiar fact_)
  appears as a predicate only, since the subordinate clause (_that the
  polar bear sometimes reaches temperate latitudes_) is a noun clause
  used as the complete subject of the sentence. The simple predicate
  is _is_, which is completed by the predicate nominative _fact_.
  This complement is modified by the adjectives _a_ and _familiar_.
  The subordinate clause, which is used as the complete subject, is
  introduced by the conjunction _that_. [Then analyze this clause.]


COMPOUND COMPLEX SENTENCES

+461.+ In analyzing a +compound complex+ sentence, we first divide
it into the +independent clauses+ (simple or complex) of which it
consists, and then analyze each of these as if it were a sentence by
itself.

See the examples in §§ 456, 457.



CHAPTER III

MODIFIERS


+462.+ The various kinds of +modifiers+ and +complements+ have all
been studied in preceding chapters,--each in connection with the
construction which it illustrates. For purposes of analysis, however,
it is necessary to consider modifiers as such and complements as such.

The topics will be taken up in the following order:--(1) modifiers,--of
the subject, of the predicate; (2) complements; (3) modifiers of
complements; (4) modifiers of modifiers.

+463.+ +A word or group of words that changes or modifies the meaning
of another word is called a modifier+ (§ 19).

  {Men | _Able_ men | Men _of ability_} can always find employment.

  {Walls | _Battlemented_ walls | Walls _with battlements_} usually
  enclosed mediæval cities.

  {Cottages | _English_ cottages | Cottages _in England_} are often
  thatched.

  The boy listened {_eagerly_. | _with eagerness_.}

  I coughed {_purposely_. | _on purpose_.}

  The bullet passed {_harmlessly_. | _without doing harm_.}

+464.+ Modifiers may be attached not only to substantives and verbs,
but also to adjectives and adverbs.

All modifiers of substantives are called +adjective modifiers+; all
modifiers of verbs, adjectives, and adverbs are called +adverbial
modifiers+.

  NOTE. The terms +adjective modifier+ and +adjective+ are not
  synonymous. All adjectives are adjective modifiers, but all adjective
  modifiers are not adjectives. Thus, in “Henry’s skates are rusty,”
  the possessive noun _Henry’s_ is an adjective modifier, since it
  limits the noun _skates_ as an adjective might do.

+465.+ A group of words used as a modifier may be either a +phrase+ or
a +clause+ (§§ 40–46).

  {_Able_ men | Men _of ability_ | Men _who have ability_} can always
  find employment.

  I spoke {_thoughtlessly_. | _without thinking_. | _before I thought_.}

+A phrase or a clause used as an adjective modifier is called an
adjective phrase or clause.+

+A phrase or a clause used as an adverbial modifier is called an
adverbial phrase or clause.+

Adjective and adverbial clauses are always +subordinate+, because they
are used as parts of speech (§ 46).


MODIFIERS OF THE SUBJECT

+466.+ Any substantive in the sentence may take an adjective modifier,
but +modifiers of the subject+ are particularly important.

The simple subject may be modified by (1) an +adjective+, an +adjective
phrase+, or an +adjective clause+; (2) a +participle+; (3) an
+infinitive+; (4) a +possessive+; (5) an +appositive+.


I. ADJECTIVES, ADJECTIVE PHRASES, ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

+467.+ The simple subject may be modified by an +adjective+, an
+adjective phrase+, or an +adjective clause+.

  {_Ivory_ trinkets | Trinkets _of ivory_ | Trinkets _which were carved
  from ivory_} lay scattered about.

  {_Treeless_ spots | Spots _without trees_ | Spots _where no trees
  grew_} were plainly visible.

In each of these groups of sentences, the subject of the first sentence
is modified by an +adjective+, that of the second by an +adjective
phrase+, that of the third by an +adjective clause+.

Most adjective phrases are +prepositional+ (§ 42), as in the examples.

+468.+ An +adjective clause+ may be introduced by a +relative pronoun+
or a +relative adverb+. For lists, see § 377.


I. RELATIVE PRONOUNS

  The architect _who designed this church_ was a man of genius.

  The painter _whom Ruskin oftenest mentions_ is Turner.

  A piece of amber _which is rubbed briskly_ will attract bits of paper.

  The day _that I dreaded_ came at last.

  The plain _through which this river flows_ is marvelously fertile.

  The book _from which I got this information_ is always regarded as
  authoritative.

  A friend _in whom one can trust_ is a treasure beyond price.

  The boys _with whom he associates_ do him no good.


II. RELATIVE ADVERBS

  The spot _where the Old Guard made their last stand_ is marked by a
  bronze eagle.

  The morning _when I arrived in Rome_ is one of my pleasantest
  memories.

  The year _after Ashton left home_ brought fresh disaster.

  The land _whence Scyld drifted in his magic boat_ will never be known.

  NOTE. A preposition and a relative pronoun may often replace a
  relative adverb. Thus, in the second example, _on which_ might be
  substituted for _when_.


II. PARTICIPLES

+469.+ The subject may be modified by a +participle+ (with or without
modifier or complement).

  1. _Smiling_, the child shook his head.

  2. My aunt, _reassured_, took up her book again.

  3. The prisoner sank back _exhausted_.

  4. _Exasperated_ beyond endurance, the captain cut the rope.

  5. John, _obeying_ a sudden impulse, took to his heels.

  6. _Having broken_ one oar, Robert had to scull.

  7. The natives, _fearing_ captivity above all things, leaped into the
  river.

  8. Albert left the room, _looking_ rather sullen.

In the fourth example the participle is modified by an adverbial
phrase; in the fifth and sixth, it has an object; in the seventh, it
has both an object and a modifier; in the eighth, it is followed by the
predicate adjective _sullen_. In analysis, the whole participial phrase
(consisting of the participle and accompanying words) may be treated as
an adjective phrase modifying the subject; but it is simpler to regard
the participle as the modifier, and then to enumerate its modifiers,
etc., separately.

  Thus, in the seventh example, the simple subject _natives_ is
  modified by the participle _fearing_, which has for a complement
  _captivity_ (the direct object) and is modified by the adverbial
  phrase _above all things_.

  NOTE. A participle, though a modifier of the subject, has at the same
  time a peculiar relation to the predicate, because it may take the
  place of an adverbial clause. Thus, in the seventh example, _fearing_
  is practically equivalent to the clause _because they feared_,
  which, if substituted for the participle, would of course modify
  the predicate verb _leaped_. This dual office of the participle
  comes from its twofold nature as (1) an adjective and (2) a verb. In
  analyzing, we treat the participle as an adjective modifier of the
  noun to which it belongs; but its function as a substitute for an
  adverbial clause is an important means of securing variety in style.


III. INFINITIVES

+470.+ The subject may be modified by an +infinitive+.

  Eagerness _to learn_ was young Lincoln’s strongest passion.

  Desire _to travel_ made Taylor restless.

  The wish _to succeed_ prompted him to do his best.

  Ability _to write rapidly_ is a valuable accomplishment.

  Howard’s unwillingness _to desert a friend_ cost him his life.

In the fourth example, the infinitive has an adverbial modifier
(_rapidly_); and in the fifth, it has a complement, its object
(_friend_). In such instances, two methods of analysis are allowable,
as in the case of participial phrases (§ 469).


IV. POSSESSIVES

+471.+ The subject may be modified by a substantive in the +possessive
case+.

Such a substantive may be called a +possessive modifier+.

  _Napoleon’s_ tomb is in Paris.

  A _man’s_ house is his castle.

  _One’s_ taste in reading changes as one grows older.

  A _moment’s_ thought would have saved me.

  The _squirrel’s_ teeth grow rapidly.

  The _Indians’_ camp was near the river.

  _His_ name is Alfred.

  _Your_ carriage has arrived.

In each of these examples, a substantive in the possessive case
modifies the subject by limiting its meaning precisely as an adjective
would do.

  NOTE. An adjective phrase may often be substituted for a possessive.
  Thus, in the first example, instead of “_Napoleon’s_ tomb” one may
  say “the tomb _of Napoleon_” (§ 93).


V. APPOSITIVES

+472.+ The subject may be modified by a +substantive in apposition+ (§
88, 5).

  Meredith the _carpenter_ lives in that house.

  Herbert, our _captain_, has broken his leg.

  The idol of the Aztecs, a grotesque _image_, was thrown down by the
  Spaniards.

  Many books, both _pamphlets_ and bound _volumes_, littered the table.
  [Here the subject (_books_) is modified by two appositives.]

Appositives often have modifiers of their own.

  Thus _carpenter_ is modified by the adjective _the_, _captain_ by the
  possessive _our_, _image_ by the adjectives _a_ and _grotesque_.

  In analyzing, the whole appositive phrase (consisting of the
  appositive and attached words) may be regarded as modifying the
  subject. It is as well, however, to treat the appositive as the
  modifier and then to enumerate the adjectives, etc., by which the
  appositive itself is modified.

+473.+ A +noun clause+ may be used as an appositive, and so may be an
adjective modifier (§ 386).

  The question _whether Antonio was a citizen_ was settled in the
  affirmative. [Here the italicized clause is used as a noun in
  apposition with _question_.]

  The statement _that water freezes_ seems absurd to a native of the
  torrid zone. [The clause _that water freezes_ is in apposition with
  _statement_.]

  An adjective in the appositive position is often called an
  +appositive adjective+ (§ 172). “A sword, _keen_ and _bright_,
  flashed from the soldier’s scabbard.”


MODIFIERS OF THE PREDICATE

+474.+ The +simple predicate+, being a verb or verb-phrase, can have
only +adverbial modifiers+.

The simple predicate may be modified by (1) an +adverb+, an +adverbial
phrase+, or an +adverbial clause+, (2) an +infinitive+, (3) an
+adverbial objective+, (4) a +nominative absolute+, (5) an +indirect
object+, (6) a +cognate object+.


I. ADVERB, ADVERBIAL PHRASE, ADVERBIAL CLAUSE

+475.+ The simple predicate may be modified by an +adverb+, an
+adverbial phrase+, or an +adverbial clause+.

  The landlord collects his rents {_monthly_. | _on the first of every
  month_. | _when the first of the month comes_.}

  The old schoolhouse stands {_there_. | _at the cross-roads_. | _where
  the roads meet_.}

  We left the hall {_early_. | _before the last speech_. | _while the
  last speech was being delivered_.}

In each of these groups, the simple predicate of the first sentence is
modified by an adverb, that of the second by an adverbial phrase, and
that of the third by an adverbial clause.

Most adverbial phrases are +prepositional+ (§ 42).

  ADVERB        ADVERBIAL PHRASE

  speedily      with speed
  furiously     with fury
  lately        of late
  instantly     in an instant
  there         in that place
  rapidly       at a rapid rate
  skillfully  { in a skillful manner
              { with skill
  promptly      on the instant
  to-morrow     on the morrow
  unwillingly   against my will

Peculiar adverbial phrases are:--

  to and fro, now and then, up and down, again and again, first and
  last, full speed, full tilt, hit or miss, more or less, head first,
  upside down, inside out, sink or swim, cash down.

+476.+ An adverbial clause that modifies a verb may be introduced by
(1) a +relative adverb+, or (2) a +subordinate conjunction+.


I. RELATIVE ADVERBS

  Our colonel was always found _where the fighting was fiercest_.

  _When I give the signal_, press the button.

  _Whenever I call_, you refuse to see me.

  Miller arrived _after the play had begun_.

  Everybody listened _while the vagrant told his story_.

  My uncle laughed _until the tears came_.

  The prisoner has not been seen _since he made his escape_.


II. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS

  Archer resigned _because his health failed_.

  I will give the address _if you will let me choose my subject_.

  Brandon insisted on walking, _although the roads were dangerous_.

  The child ran with all her might _lest she should be too late_.

  I gave you a front seat _in order that you might hear_.

  The town lies at the base of a lofty cliff _so that it is sheltered
  from the north wind_.


II. INFINITIVE

+477.+ The simple predicate may be modified by an +infinitive+ (§ 323).

  He lay down _to rest_.

  I stopped _to listen_.

  The fire continued _to burn_.

  The wind began _to subside_.

  Jack worked hard _to fell_ the tree.

  Will did his best _to win_ the prize.

  Kate began _to weep_ bitterly.

  That draughtsman seems _to be_ remarkably skilful.

The infinitive may have a complement or a modifier, as in the last four
examples.


III. ADVERBIAL OBJECTIVE

+478.+ The simple predicate may be modified by an +adverbial objective+
(§ 109).

  I have waited _ages_.

  We have walked _miles_.

  Arthur practised _weeks_.

The addition of modifiers to the adverbial objective makes an adverbial
phrase.

  Walter ran _the entire distance_.

  He stayed _a whole day_.

  I will forgive you _this time_.

  He came at me _full tilt_.

  The wind blew _all night_.

  Come with me _a little way_.

In the first sentence, the adverbial phrase _the entire distance_
modifies the verb _ran_ as an adverb would do. This phrase consists of
the noun _distance_ with its adjective modifiers, _the_ and _entire_.


IV. NOMINATIVE ABSOLUTE

+479.+ The simple predicate may be modified by a +nominative absolute+
(§ 345).

A substantive in the +absolute construction+ makes with its modifiers
an adverbial phrase.

  _The ship having arrived_, we all embarked.

  We shall sail on Tuesday, _weather permitting_.

  _That done_, repair to Pompey’s theatre.

  _The bridge across the chasm being only a single tree trunk_, we
  hesitated to attempt the passage.

In the first sentence, the adverbial absolute phrase, _the ship having
arrived_, is equivalent to the adverbial prepositional phrase, _on the
arrival of the ship_, and defines the time of the action expressed by
the verb _embarked_.


V. INDIRECT OBJECT

+480.+ The simple predicate may be modified by an +indirect object+ (§
105).

  He gave _me_ a watch. [= He gave a watch _to me_.]

  Tom told _me_ the whole story. [= Tom told the whole story _to me_.]

In these sentences, the indirect object _me_, being equivalent to a
prepositional phrase, is an adverbial modifier.

  The objective of service (§ 106) is also an adverbial modifier.


VI. COGNATE OBJECT

+481.+ The simple predicate may be modified by a +cognate object+ or by
a phrase containing such an object (§ 108).

  The officer looked _daggers_ at me [= looked at me angrily].

  The shepherd sang a merry _song_ [= sang merrily].

  The skipper laughed a scornful _laugh_ [= laughed scornfully].

In the first sentence, the cognate object (_daggers_) modifies the
predicate verb (_looked_) as the adverb _angrily_ would do. It is
therefore an adverbial modifier. In the second and third sentences the
modifier of the predicate verb (_sang_, _laughed_) is an adverbial
phrase consisting of a cognate object (_song_, _laugh_) with its
adjective modifiers (_a merry_, _a scornful_).



CHAPTER IV

COMPLEMENTS


+482.+ 1. Some verbs have a meaning that is +complete in itself+. Such
a verb needs only a subject. When this has been supplied, we have a
sentence, for the mere verb, without any additional word or words, is
capable of being a predicate.

  Birds _fly_.

  Fishes _swim_.

  The sun _shines_.

  The moon _rose_.

  The man _scowled_.

  The girl _laughed_.

  The owls _hooted_.

  The clock _ticked_.

Verbs of this kind are sometimes called +complete verbs+, or +verbs of
complete predication+.

2. Other verbs are not, by themselves, capable of serving as
predicates. Thus,--

  The Indians killed ----.

  Mr. Harris makes ----.

  Tom is ----.

  The man seemed ----.

These are not sentences, for the predicate of each is unfinished. The
verb requires the addition of a substantive or an adjective to complete
its sense.

  The Indians killed _deer_.

  Mr. Harris makes _shoes_.

  Tom is _captain_.

  The man seemed _sorry_.

Verbs of this kind are often called +incomplete verbs+, or +verbs of
incomplete predication+.

  NOTE. The meaning of the verb determines to which of these classes it
  belongs. Accordingly, the same verb may belong to the first class in
  some of its senses and to the second in others (§§ 212–215).

+483.+ +A substantive or adjective added to the predicate verb to
complete its meaning is called a complement.+

+Complements are of four kinds,--the direct object, the predicate
objective, the predicate nominative, and the predicate adjective.+

In the examples in § 482, _deer_ and _shoes_ are +direct objects+,--the
former denoting the +receiver+ of the action, the latter denoting the
+product+; _captain_ is a +predicate nominative+, denoting the same
person as the subject _Tom_ (§ 88, 2); _sorry_ is a predicate adjective
describing the subject _man_.

Complements may, of course, be modified. If they are substantives, they
may take adjective modifiers; if adjectives, they may take adverbial
modifiers (§§ 464, 494).

+484.+ For convenience, the definitions of the four kinds of
complements are here repeated, with examples.


1. THE DIRECT OBJECT

+485.+ +Some verbs may be followed by a substantive denoting that which
receives the action or is produced by it. These are called transitive
verbs. All other verbs are called intransitive.+

+A substantive that completes the meaning of a transitive verb is
called its direct object+ (§ 100).

  The direct object is often called the +object complement+, or merely
  the +object of the verb+.

  Alfred has broken his _arm_.

  Morse invented the electric _telegraph_.

  Black foxes command a high _price_.

  You have accomplished a _task_ of great difficulty.

  Have you lost the _dog_ which your uncle gave you?

  He asked _me_ the _news_. [Two direct objects (§ 103).]

Most of these objects are modified,--_arm_ by the possessive _his_;
_telegraph_ by _the_ and _electric_; _price_ by _a_ and _high_; _task_
by the adjective phrase _of great difficulty_; _dog_ by _the_ and by
the adjective clause _which your uncle gave you_.

+486.+ A noun clause may be used as the direct object of a verb (§ 386).

  You promised _that my coat should be ready to-day_.

  The mayor ordered _that the street should be closed for three hours_.

  I begged _that my passport might be returned to me_.

For further examples, see §§ 407, 432, 439, 441.


2. THE PREDICATE OBJECTIVE

+487.+ +Verbs of _choosing_, _calling_, _naming_, _making_, and
_thinking_ may take two objects referring to the same person or thing.+

+The first of these is the direct object, and the second, which
completes the sense of the predicate, is called a predicate objective+
(§ 104).

  The +predicate objective+ is often called the +complementary object+
  or the +objective attribute+.

  The people have elected Chamberlain _governor_.

  Peter calls Richard my _shadow_.

  The court has appointed you the child’s _guardian_.

  John thinks himself a _hero_.

+488.+ An +adjective+ may serve as a +predicate objective+. Thus,--

  I thought your decision _hasty_.

  I call that answer _impertinent_.

  The jury found the prisoner _guilty_.

  Your letter made him _joyful_.

Care should be taken not to confuse adverbs with adjectives in _-ly_
serving as predicate objectives.

  You called him _sickly_. [Adjective.]

  You called him _early_. [Adverb.]

After the passive, a predicate objective becomes a +predicate
nominative+ (§ 489).


3. THE PREDICATE NOMINATIVE

+489.+ +A substantive standing in the predicate, but describing or
defining the subject, agrees with the subject in case and is called a
predicate nominative+ (§ 88, 2).

  A predicate nominative is often called a +subject complement+ or an
  +attribute+.

The predicate nominative is common after _is_ and other copulative
verbs, and after certain transitive verbs in the passive voice.

  Chemistry is a useful _science_.

  Boston is the _capital_ of Massachusetts.

  Jefferson became _President_.

  This bird is called a _flamingo_.

  Mr. Hale was appointed _secretary_.

  Albert has been chosen _captain_ of the crew.

  You are a _friend_ upon whom I can rely.

In most of the examples, the predicate nominative has one or more
modifiers. In the first sentence, _science_ is modified by the two
adjectives _a_ and _useful_; in the second, _capital_ is modified by
the adjective phrase _of Massachusetts_; in the last, _friend_ is
modified by the adjective clause _upon whom I can rely_.

For the distinction between the +predicate nominative+ and the +direct
object+, see § 102.

+490.+ A +noun clause+ may be used as a predicate nominative (§ 386).

  My plan is _that the well should be dug to-morrow_.

  His intention was _that you should remain here_.

  The result is _that he is bankrupt_.

  Ruth’s fear was _that the door might be locked_.

+491.+ An +infinitive+ may be used as a predicate nominative.

  To hear is _to obey_.

  My hope was _to reach_ the summit before dark.

  Their plan was _to undermine_ the tower.

  My habit is _to rise_ early.

The infinitive may have a complement or modifiers. In the second and
third examples, it takes an object; in the fourth it is modified by an
adverb.


4. THE PREDICATE ADJECTIVE

+492.+ +An adjective in the predicate belonging to a noun or pronoun in
the subject is called a predicate adjective.+

+A predicate adjective completes the meaning of the predicate verb and
is therefore a complement+ (§ 172, 3.)

Like the predicate nominative, the predicate adjective is common after
copulative verbs and after certain transitive verbs in the passive
voice (§§ 172, 3; 252).

  John was _angry_.

  My knife is growing _dull_.

  The task seemed very _easy_.

  The report proved _false_ in every particular.

  The boat was thought _unsafe_.

  The cover was made perfectly _tight_.

In some of these examples, the predicate adjective has a modifier. In
the third, _easy_ is modified by the adverb _very_; in the fourth,
_false_ is modified by the adverbial phrase _in every particular_; in
the last, _tight_ is modified by _perfectly_.

+493.+ An +adjective phrase+ may be used as a predicate adjective.
Thus,--

  Richard was _out of health_. [Compare: Richard was _ill_.]

  Rachel seemed _in a passion_. [Compare: seemed _angry_.]

  This act is _against my interests_. [Compare: is _harmful_ to me.]

The adjective phrase may consist of an infinitive with or without the
preposition _about_ (§ 319).

  I was _about to speak_.

  This house is _to let_.

  I am _to sail_ to-morrow.



CHAPTER V

MODIFIERS OF COMPLEMENTS AND OF MODIFIERS


COMPLEMENTS MODIFIED

+494.+ Complements, being either substantives or adjectives, may be
modified in various ways, most of which have been noted in Chapter III.

1. A +substantive+ used as a +complement+ may have the same kinds of
modifiers that are used with the +subject+ (§ 466).

2. An +adjective complement+ admits only +adverbial modifiers+.

+495.+ The following sentences illustrate the modifiers of substantive
complements:--

  Herbert lost _a gold_ watch. [The direct object (_watch_) is modified
  by the adjectives _a_ and _gold_.]

  The duke built towers _of marble_. [The direct object (_towers_) is
  modified by the adjective phrase _of marble_.]

  My father built _the_ house _in which I was born_. [The direct object
  (_house_) is modified by the adjective _the_ and the adjective clause
  _in which I was born_.]

  I saw _a_ man _running_ across the field. [The direct object (_man_)
  is modified by the adjective _a_ and the participle _running_.]

  You have forfeited _your_ right _to vote_. [The direct object
  (_right_) is modified by the possessive pronoun _your_ and the
  infinitive _to vote_.]

  I have seen _Henry’s_ brother. [The direct object (_brother_) is
  modified by the possessive noun _Henry’s_.]

  I must ask _my_ brother, the _mayor_. [The direct object (_brother_)
  is modified by the possessive pronoun _my_ and the appositive
  _mayor_.]

  The guild has elected Walter _honorary_ president. [The predicate
  objective (_president_) is modified by the adjective _honorary_.]

  Her husband is _an old_ soldier. [The predicate nominative
  (_soldier_) is modified by the adjectives _an_ and _old_.]

  Her sons are veterans _of the Franco-Prussian war_. [The predicate
  nominative (_veterans_) is modified by the adjective phrase _of the
  Franco-Prussian war_.]

  They are rivals _in business_. [The predicate nominative (_rivals_)
  is modified by the adjective phrase _in business_.]

  The author is Will Jewell, _who was formerly editor of_ “_The
  Pioneer_.” [The predicate nominative (_Will Jewell_) is modified by
  the adjective clause _who was formerly editor_, etc.]

  Baldwin is _the_ man _standing_ under the tree. [The predicate
  nominative (_man_) is modified by the adjective _the_ and the
  participle _standing_.]

  Your chief fault is _your_ inclination _to procrastinate_. [The
  predicate nominative (_inclination_) is modified by the possessive
  pronoun _your_ and the infinitive _to procrastinate_.]

  This man is _Gretchen’s_ brother. [The predicate nominative
  (_brother_) is modified by the possessive noun _Gretchen’s_.]

  The first to fall was _the_ bugler, _John Wilson_. [The predicate
  nominative (_bugler_) is modified by the adjective _the_ and the
  appositive _John Wilson_.]

+496.+ +Adjective clauses+ are very common as modifiers of substantive
complements (cf. § 468).

  Have you lost the watch _that your cousin gave you_?

  This is the very spot _where the temple of Saturn stood_.

  The general issued an order _that all non-combatants should be
  treated well_.

  We have abundant proof _that during his stay on the Continent, Bacon
  did not neglect literary and scientific pursuits_.

+497.+ An +adjective+ used as a complement may be modified by an
+adverb+, an +adverbial phrase+, or an +adverbial clause+.

  I am _very_ sorry _for you_. [_Sorry_ is modified by the adverb
  _very_ and the adverbial phrase _for you_.]

  Charles seems {_rather_ | _very_ | _extremely_} angry.

  The road is rough {_in places_. | _where they are repairing it_.}

  The whole tribe appeared eager _for war_.

  He grew envious _of his successful rival_.

  Be zealous _in every righteous cause_.

  The chief’s face looked dark _with passion_.

  He was selfish _beyond belief_. [The predicate adjective (_selfish_)
  is modified by the adverbial phrase _beyond belief_.]

  Ellen seemed desirous _that her friends should admire her_.

  The secretary appeared unwilling _to resign_. [See § 321, note.]


MODIFIERS OF OTHER MODIFIERS

+498.+ +Modifiers may themselves be modified.+

The chief varieties of such modification are illustrated in the
following sentences.

I. +Adjectives+ or +adjective phrases+ may be modified by +adverbs+ or
by words or groups of words used adverbially.

  A _very_ old man came to the door.

  An _exceedingly_ dangerous curve lay beyond the bridge.

  This _rather_ odd proposal interested us.

  The quay is _miles_ long. [Adverbial objective (§ 109).]

  _At least_ five different amendments have been offered. [_Five_ is
  modified by the adverbial phrase _at least_.]

  The general, _wholly_ in the dark as to the enemy’s intentions,
  ordered an advance. [The adjective phrase _in the dark_ is modified
  by _wholly_.]

  _Quite_ at his ease, John began to speak. [_At his ease_ is modified
  by _quite_.]

  Her smile, pathetic _in its weariness_, quickly faded. [The adverbial
  phrase modifies _pathetic_]

  This sleeve is _a good two inches_ short. [The phrase modifies
  _short_.]

II. +Possessive nouns+ may be modified by adjectives or by possessives.

  _The poor_ man’s days are numbered.

  _Honest_ Tom’s face shone with delight.

  _The faithful_ animal’s head drooped.

  _My_ uncle’s barn is on fire.

  _John’s_ brother’s name is Reginald.

III. +Appositives+ may be modified by adjectives or by groups of words
used as adjectives.

  Joe, _the old_ butler, met me at the station.

  Sam, _the cunning_ rascal, had stolen the oars.

  Her mother, a woman _of fashion_, sadly neglected her.

  The other, the man _at the table_, laughed rudely.

  Ferdinand Oliver, the engineer _who had charge of the construction_,
  proved incompetent.

  Two Englishmen, friends _whom I visited last summer_, are coming to
  New York in December.

IV. +Adverbs+ or +adverbial phrases+ may be modified by adverbs or by
words or groups of words used adverbially.

  Jane plays _very_ well.

  Robert spoke _almost_ hopefully.

  She answered _quite_ at random.

  I write to him _at least_ once _a year_.

+499.+ An adjective may be modified by an +infinitive+ (§ 321).

  Unable _to move_, I suffered torments of anxiety.

  The sailors, eager _to reach_ the island, plunged into the sea.

  Reluctant _to act_, but unwilling _to stand_ idle, Burwell was in a
  pitiful state of indecision.

+500.+ Adjective and adverbial clauses are very common as modifiers of
modifiers (cf. § 496).

  Geronimo, an old chief _who bore the scars of many battles_, led the
  attack. [The adjective clause modifies the appositive _chief_.]

  The servant, angry _because he had been rebuked_, slammed the door as
  he went out.

  The hunter, confident _that the deer had not heard him_, took
  deliberate aim.

  The fugitive, in a panic _lest he should be overtaken_, made frantic
  efforts to scale the cliff. [The adverbial clause modifies the
  adjective phrase _in a panic_.]



CHAPTER VI

INDEPENDENT ELEMENTS


+501.+ +A word or group of words that has no grammatical connection
with the sentence in which it stands is called an independent element.+

+Independent elements are of four kinds,--interjections, vocatives
(or nominatives by direct address), exclamatory nominatives, and
parenthetical expressions.+

  _Ah!_ why did I undertake this task?

  Help arrived, _alas!_ too late.

  You are a strange man, _Arthur_.

  _Mary_, come here!

  Poor _Charles_! I am sorry for him.

  _Clothes! clothes!_ you are always wanting clothes.

  Lucky _she_! we are all envious of her prospects.

The first two sentences contain +interjections+ (§ 372); the second
two, +vocatives+ (or nominatives by direct address) (§ 88, 3); the last
three, +exclamatory nominatives+ (§ 88, 4).

When the independent word has a +modifier+ (as in the fifth and seventh
examples), the whole phrase may be treated as an independent element.

+502.+ +A word or group of words attached to or inserted in a sentence
as a mere comment, without belonging either to the subject or the
predicate, is said to be parenthetical.+

  The market, _indeed_, was already closed.

  Peter, _to be sure_, was not very trustworthy.

  The house, _at all events_, is safe.

  The road is, _I admit_, very hilly.

  Luttrell’s method, _it must be confessed_, was a little disappointing.

  Richard was not a bad fellow, _after all_.

+503.+ In analysis, an independent element is mentioned by itself, and
not as a part of the complete subject or the complete predicate.



CHAPTER VII

COMBINATIONS OF CLAUSES


+504.+ The use of subordinate clauses as complements and modifiers, and
as modifiers of complements and of modifiers, may produce sentences of
great length and complicated structure.

Such sentences, if skilfully composed, are not hard to follow. Their
analysis requires merely the intelligent application of a few simple
principles, which have already been explained and illustrated.

+505.+ These principles may be summed up as follows:--

I. All clauses are either +independent+ or +subordinate+. A clause is
subordinate if it is used as a part of speech (noun, adjective, or
adverb); otherwise, it is independent (§ 46).

II. +Coördinate+ means “of the same rank” in the sentence (§ 46).

1. Two or more +independent clauses+ in the same sentence are
manifestly coördinate.

  _The fire blazed_ and _the wood crackled_. [Two declarative clauses.]

  _What is your name_, and _where were you born_? [Interrogative
  clauses.]

  _Sit down_ and _tell me your story_. [Imperative clauses.]

2. Two or more +subordinate clauses+ are coördinate _with each other_
when they are used together in the same construction,--as nouns,
adjectives, or adverbs.

Such a group may be regarded as forming one +compound subordinate
clause+.

  The truth is, _that I have no money_ and _that my friends have
  forsaken me_. [Noun clauses.]

  The Indians, _who were armed with long lances_, and _who showed
  great skill in using them_, made a furious attack on the cavalry.
  [Adjective clauses.]

  _When he had spoken_, but _before a vote had been taken_, a strange
  tumult was heard in the outer room. [Adverbial clauses.]

In the first example, we have a +compound noun clause+; in the second,
a +compound adjective clause+; in the third, a +compound adverbial
clause+.

3. Coördinate clauses are either joined by coördinate conjunctions
(_and_, _or_, _but_, etc.), or such conjunctions may be supplied
without changing the sense (§ 362).

  The good-natured old gentleman, _who was friendly to both parties_,
  [AND] _who did not lack courage_, AND _who hated a quarrel_, spoke
  his mind with complete frankness.

III. A subordinate clause may depend on another subordinate clause.

  The horse shied _when he saw the locomotive_. [The subordinate clause
  depends upon the independent (main) clause.]

  The horse shied when he saw the locomotive, _which was puffing
  violently_. [The second subordinate clause depends upon the first,
  being an adjective modifier of _locomotive_.]

In such cases, the whole group of subordinate clauses may be taken
together as forming one +complex subordinate clause+.

  Thus, in the second example, _when he saw the locomotive, which was
  puffing violently_ may be regarded as a complex adverbial clause
  modifying _shied_, and containing an adjective clause (_which was
  puffing violently_).

+506.+ From the principles summarized in § 505, it appears that--

+Clauses (like sentences) may be simple, compound, or complex.+

1. A +simple clause+ contains but one subject and one predicate, either
or both of which may be compound (§ 451).

2. A +compound clause+ consists of two or more coördinate clauses (§
454).

3. A +complex clause+ consists of at least two clauses, one of which is
subordinate to the other.

+507.+ The +unit+ in all combinations of clauses is clearly the +simple
sentence+, which, when used as a part of a more complicated sentence,
becomes a +simple clause+.

The processes used in such combinations, as we have seen, are really
but two in number,--+coördination+ and +subordination+.

+Coördination of clauses produces compound sentences or compound
clauses; subordination of one clause to another produces complex
sentences or complex clauses.+

+508.+ Every sentence, however long and complicated, belongs (in
structure) to one of the three classes,--+simple+, +compound+, and
+complex+.


SIMPLE SENTENCES

+509.+ A simple sentence may have a +compound subject or predicate+ (or
both), and may also include a number of modifiers and complements.

Obviously, then, a simple sentence need not be short. It remains
+simple in structure+ so long as it contains but one simple or compound
subject and one simple or compound predicate. Thus,--

  1. You leave Glasgow in a steamboat, go down the Clyde fourteen
  miles, and then come to Dumbarton Castle, a huge rock five or six
  hundred feet high, not connected with any other high land, and with a
  fortress at the top.--WEBSTER.

  The length of this sentence is due partly to its compound predicate,
  partly to the modifier (and modifiers of the modifier) attached to
  the noun _Dumbarton Castle_.

  2. He was little disposed to exchange his lordly repose for the
  insecure and agitated life of a conspirator, to be in the power
  of accomplices, to live in constant dread of warrants and king’s
  messengers, nay, perhaps, to end his days on a scaffold, or to live
  on alms in some back street of the Hague.--MACAULAY.

  This sentence is lengthened by means of a series of infinitives used
  as adverbial modifiers of the complement _disposed_ (a participle
  used as an adjective). Each of these infinitives takes a complement
  or a modifier (or both).

  3. The arbitrary measures of Charles I, the bold schemes of
  Strafford, and the intolerant bigotry of Laud, precipitated a
  collision between the opposite principles of government, and divided
  the whole country into Cavaliers and Roundheads.--MAY.

  Both the subject and the predicate are compound. Each of the three
  nouns in the compound subject has modifiers. The two verbs in the
  compound predicate have each a complement, and the second has an
  adverbial modifier (a phrase).

  4. Twenty of the savages now got on board and proceeded to ramble
  over every part of the deck and scramble about among the rigging,
  making themselves much at home and examining every article with great
  inquisitiveness.--POE.

  The predicate is compound. The sentence is extended by the use of
  participles (_making_ and _examining_), which modify the simple
  subject _twenty_.

  5. She was tumbled early, by accident or design, into a spacious
  closet of good old English reading, without much selection or
  prohibition, and browsed at will upon that fair and wholesome
  pasturage.--LAMB.

  6. The mermaid was still seen to glide along the waters, and mingling
  her voice with the sighing breeze, was often heard to sing of
  subterranean wonders, or to chant prophecies of future events.--SCOTT.

  7. With early dawn, they were under arms, and, without waiting for
  the movement of the Spaniards, poured into the city and attacked them
  in their own quarters.--PRESCOTT.

  8. Arming a desperate troop of slaves and gladiators, he overpowered
  the feeble guard of the domestic tranquillity of Rome, received
  the homage of the Senate, and, assuming the title of Augustus,
  precariously reigned during a tumult of twenty-eight days.--GIBBON.

  NOTE. A +simple sentence with compound predicate+ often differs
  very slightly from a +compound sentence+. Thus in examples 4–7 the
  insertion of a single pronoun (_they_, _she_) to serve as a subject
  for the second verb (_proceeded_, _browsed_, etc.) will make the
  sentence compound.


COMPOUND AND COMPLEX SENTENCES

+510.+ Every sentence that is not simple must be either +compound+ or
+complex+.

A sentence is +compound+ if it consists of two or more independent
clauses; +complex+, if it consists of one independent (main) clause and
one or more subordinate clauses.

+511.+ An ordinary +compound sentence+ consists of two or more
coördinate simple clauses.

Such a sentence may be of great length (as in the last example below),
but its structure is usually transparent.

  A cricket chirps on the hearth, | and | we are reminded of Christmas
  gambols long ago.--HAZLITT.

  The moments were numbered; | the strife was finished; | the vision
  was closed.--DE QUINCEY.

  The old king had retired to his couch that night in one of the
  strongest towers of the Alhambra, | but | his restless anxiety kept
  him from repose.--IRVING.

  The clock has just struck two; | the expiring taper rises and sinks
  in the socket; | the watchman forgets his hour in slumber; | the
  laborious and the happy are at rest; | and | nothing wakes but
  meditation, guilt, revelry, and despair.--GOLDSMITH.

  The present, indeed, is not a contest for distant or contingent
  objects; | it is not a contest for acquisition of territory; | it
  is not a contest for power and glory; | as little is it carried
  on merely for any commercial advantage, or any particular form
  of government; | but | it is a contest for the security, the
  tranquillity, and the very existence of Great Britain, connected
  with that of every established government and every country in
  Europe.--PITT.

+512.+ A +complex sentence+, in its most elementary form, consists of
one simple independent (main) clause and one simple subordinate clause.

  The gas exploded when I struck a match.

  Though he is idle, he is not lazy.

  The carpenter who fell from the roof has recovered from his injuries.

  Their eyes were so fatigued with the eternal dazzle and whiteness,
  that they lay down on their backs upon deck to relieve their sight on
  the blue sky.--KEATS.

  The shouts of thousands, their menacing gestures, the fierce clashing
  of their arms, astonished and subdued the courage of Vetranio, who
  stood, amidst the defection of his followers, in anxious and silent
  suspense.--GIBBON.

+513.+ Both compound sentences and complex sentences admit of much
variety in structure, according to the nature and the relations of the
clauses that compose them.


COMPOUND COMPLEX SENTENCES

+514.+ +Any or all of the coördinate clauses that make up a compound
sentence may be complex. In that case, the sentence is called a
compound complex sentence.+

  NOTE. Compound complex sentences form a special class or subdivision
  under the general head of compound sentences.[49]

  Old Uncle Venner was just coming out of his door, with a wood-horse
  and saw on his shoulder; and, trudging along the street, he scrupled
  not to keep company with Phœbe, so far as their paths lay together;
  nor, in spite of his patched coat and rusty beaver, and the curious
  fashion of his tow-cloth trousers, could she find it in her heart to
  outwalk him.--HAWTHORNE.

  This sentence consists of +three coördinate clauses+, each
  independent of the others. These are joined by the coördinate
  conjunctions _and_, _nor_. The first and the third clause are
  +simple+, but the second clause is +complex+. Hence the whole forms
  one +compound complex sentence+.

  The complex clause consists of two clauses, the second of which is
  subordinate to the first. Taken as a whole, however, this complex
  clause is manifestly coördinate with the two simple clauses, since
  the three form a series joined by coördinate conjunctions.

+515.+ Further examples of +compound complex sentences+ are:--

  1. The people drove out King Athamas, because he had killed his
  child; and he roamed about in his misery, till he came to the Oracle
  in Delphi.--KINGSLEY.

  2. Society is the stage on which manners are shown; novels are their
  literature.--EMERSON.

  3. We keep no bees, but if I lived in a hive I should scarcely have
  more of their music.--COWPER.

  4. The same river ran on as it had run on before, but the cheerful
  faces that had once been reflected in its stream had passed
  away.--FROUDE.

  5. There are some laws and customs in this empire very peculiar;
  and if they were not so directly contrary to those of my own
  dear country, I should be tempted to say a little in their
  justification.--SWIFT.

  6. Here they arrived about noon, and Joseph proposed to Adams that
  they should rest awhile in this delightful place.--FIELDING.

  7. I never saw a busier person than she seemed to be; yet it was
  difficult to say what she did.--C. BRONTË.

  8. Malaga possessed a brave and numerous garrison, and the common
  people were active, hardy, and resolute; but the city was rich and
  commercial, and under the habitual control of opulent merchants, who
  dreaded the ruinous consequences of a siege.--IRVING.

  9. The Spaniards were not to be taken by surprise; and, before the
  barbarian horde had come within their lines, they opened such a
  deadly fire from their heavy guns, supported by the musketry and
  crossbows, that the assailants were compelled to fall back slowly,
  but fearfully mangled, to their former position.--PRESCOTT.

  10. Her cheeks were as pale as marble, but of a cold, unhealthy,
  ashen white; and my heart ached to think that they had been bleached,
  most probably, by bitter and continual tears.--HOOD.

  11. The hawk, having in spiral motion achieved the upper flight, fell
  like a thunderbolt on the raven, stunned him with the blow, clutched
  him in his talons, folded him in his wings, and, the hawk undermost,
  they tumbled down like a black ball, till within a short distance
  from the earth.--TRELAWNY.

  In this sentence _they were_ is understood after _till_.


VARIETIES OF THE COMPLEX SENTENCE

+516.+ A complex sentence may be expanded either by compounding the
main clause, or by increasing the number of subordinate clauses. Both
methods may be used in the same sentence.

+517.+ +The independent (main) clause of a complex sentence may be
compound.+

  When they saw the ship, _they shouted for joy and some of them burst
  into tears_.

  As they turned down from the knoll to rejoin their comrades, _the sun
  dipped and disappeared, and the woods fell instantly into the gravity
  and grayness of the early night_.--STEVENSON.

  _The eye of the young monarch kindled and his dark cheek flushed with
  sudden anger_, as he listened to proposals so humiliating.--PRESCOTT.

  _Sharpe was so hated in Scotland during his life, and his death won
  him so many friends, or pitying observers_, that it is not easy to
  write of him without prejudice or favor.--A. LANG.

  As has been the case with many another good fellow of his nation,
  _his life was tracked and his substance wasted by crowds of hungry
  beggars and lazy dependents_.--THACKERAY.

Note that the subordinate clause depends on the compound main clause,
not upon either of its members.

  Thus, in the first example, the subordinate clause (_when they saw
  the ship_) depends upon the compound main clause, _they shouted for
  joy and some of them burst into tears_. It is an adverbial modifier
  of both _shouted_ and _burst_.

+518.+ Though a complex sentence can have but one (simple or compound)
main clause, there is, in theory, no limit to the number of subordinate
clauses.

+519.+ Subordinate clauses may be attached to the main clause (1) as
+separate modifiers or complements+; (2) in a +coördinate series of
clauses+, all in the same construction, and forming one +compound
clause+; (3) in a series of +successively subordinate clauses+, forming
one +complex clause+.

+520.+ +Two or more subordinate clauses may be attached to the main
clause separately, each as a distinct modifier or complement.+

  The bridge, _which had been weakened by the ice_, fell with a crash
  _while the locomotive was crossing it_. [The first subordinate clause
  is an adjective modifier of _bridge_; the second is an adverbial
  modifier of _fell_.]

  The architect _who drew the plans_ says _that the house will cost
  ten thousand dollars_. [The first subordinate clause is an adjective
  modifier of _architect_; the second is a complement, being the object
  of _says_.]

  Isabella, _whom every incident was sufficient to dismay_, hesitated
  _whether she should proceed_.--H. WALPOLE.

  As the boat drew nearer to the city, the coast which the traveller
  had just left sank behind him into one long, low, sad-colored
  line.--RUSKIN.

  Those dangers which, in the vigor of youth, we had learned to
  despise, assume new terrors as we grow old.--GOLDSMITH.

  When Farmer Oak smiled, the corners of his mouth spread till they
  were within an unimportant distance of his ears.--HARDY.

  As Florian Deleal walked, one hot afternoon, he overtook by
  the wayside a poor aged man, and, as he seemed weary with the
  road, helped him on with the burden which he carried, a certain
  distance.--PATER.

  While Joe was absent on this errand, the elder Willet and his three
  companions continued to smoke with profound gravity and in a deep
  silence, each having his eyes fixed on a huge copper boiler that was
  suspended over the fire.--DICKENS.

+521.+ +Two or more subordinate clauses in the same construction,
forming one compound clause, may be attached to the main clause as a
modifier or complement.+

  1. The truth was _that Leonard had overslept, that he had missed the
  train, and that he had failed to keep his appointment_.

  2. The guide told us _that the road was impassable, that the river
  was in flood, and that the bridge had been swept away_.

  3. Ellis, _whose pockets were empty and whose courage was at a low
  ebb_, stared dismally at the passing crowd.

  4. _Before the battle was over and while the result was still in
  doubt_, the general ordered a retreat.

  5. _After we had arrived at the hotel, but before we had engaged our
  rooms_, we received an invitation to stay at the castle.

  6. My first thought was, _that all was lost, and that my only chance
  for executing a retreat was to sacrifice my baggage_.--DE QUINCEY.

  7. The author fully convinced his readers _that they were a race of
  cowards and scoundrels, that nothing could save them, that they were
  on the point of being enslaved by their enemies, and that they richly
  deserved their fate_.--MACAULAY.

In the first and second examples, three coördinate noun clauses are
joined to make one compound clause, which is used as a complement,--as
a predicate nominative in the first sentence, as the direct object of
_told_ in the second.

In the third example, a compound adjective clause modifies _Ellis_.
In the fourth and fifth, a compound adverbial clause modifies
the predicate verb (_ordered_, _received_). In the seventh, four
_that_-clauses unite in one compound clause.

+522.+ +Two or more successively subordinate clauses, forming one
complex clause, may be joined to the main clause as a modifier or
complement.+

In such a series, the first subordinate clause is attached directly to
the main clause, the second is subordinate to the first, the third to
the second, and so on in succession.

  In the course of my travels, I met a good-natured old gentleman,
  (_a_) _who was born in the village_ (_b_) _where my parents lived_
  (_c_) _before they came to America_.

Here _gentleman_ (a complement in the main clause) is modified by
the adjective clause _who was born in the village_ (_a_). _Village_,
in clause _a_, is modified by the adjective clause _where my parents
lived_ (_b_). _Lived_, the predicate verb of clause _b_, is modified by
the adverbial clause _before they came to America_ (_c_).

Thus it appears that _a_ is subordinate to the main clause, and that
_b_, in turn, is subordinate to _a_, and _c_ to _b_. In other words,
the three clauses (_a_, _b_, _c_) are united to make one complex
clause,--_who was born in the village where my parents lived before
they came to America_. This clause, taken as a whole, serves as an
adjective modifier describing _gentleman_.

+523.+ Further examples of the +successive subordination+ of one clause
to another may be seen in the following sentences:--

  I have passed my latter years in this city, _where I am frequently
  seen in public places, though there are not above half-a-dozen of my
  select friends that know me_.--ADDISON.

  In this manner they advanced by moonlight _till they came within view
  of the two towering rocks that form a kind of portal to the valley,
  at the extremity of which rose the vast ruins of Istakar_.--BECKFORD.

  The young fellow uttered this with an accent and a look so perfectly
  in tune to a feeling heart, _that I instantly made a vow I would give
  him a four-and-twenty sous piece, when I got to Marseilles_.--STERNE.
  [The conjunction _that_ is omitted before _I would_ (§ 388).]

  Three years had scarcely elapsed _before the sons of Constantine
  seemed impatient to convince mankind that they were incapable of
  contenting themselves with the dominions which they were unqualified
  to govern_.--GIBBON.

  Mr. Lewis sent me an account of Dr. Arbuthnot’s illness, _which is
  a very sensible affliction to me, who, by living so long out of the
  world, have lost that hardness of heart contracted by years and
  general conversation_.--SWIFT.

  NOTE. The method of forming complex clauses by successive
  subordination, if overworked, produces long, straggling, shapeless
  sentences, as in the following example from Borrow:--“I scouted the
  idea that Slingsby would have stolen this blacksmith’s gear; for
  I had the highest opinion of his honesty, _which_ opinion I still
  retain at the present day, _which_ is upwards of twenty years from
  the time of _which_ I am speaking, during the whole of _which_ period
  I have neither seen the poor fellow nor received any intelligence of
  him.” A famous instance of the use of this structure for comic effect
  is “The House that Jack Built.”


SPECIAL COMPLICATIONS

+524.+ The processes of +coördination and subordination+ (§§ 514–523)
may be so utilized in one and the same sentence as to produce a very
complicated structure.

Examples of such sentences are given below, for reference (§§ 525–526).
Their structure, however elaborate, is always either +complex+ or
+compound complex+.


I. IN COMPLEX SENTENCES

+525.+ The following sentences are complex. They contain either
compound or complex clauses, or both.

  1. They preferred the silver with which they were familiar, and which
  they were constantly passing about from hand to hand, to the gold
  which they had never before seen, and with the value of which they
  were unacquainted.--MACAULAY.

  The main clause of this complex sentence is _they preferred the
  silver to the gold_. To this are separately attached (§ 520) two
  adjective clauses, both +compound+: (1) _with which ... hand_,
  modifying _silver_; (2) _which they had ... unacquainted_, modifying
  _gold_.

  2. All London crowded to shout and laugh round the gibbet where hung
  the rotting remains of a prince who had made England the dread of the
  world, who had been the chief founder of her maritime greatness and
  of her colonial empire, who had conquered Scotland and Ireland, who
  had humbled Holland and Spain.--MACAULAY.

  The sentence is +complex+. The main clause is _all London crowded to
  shout and laugh round the gibbet_. The rest of the sentence (_where
  ... Spain_) forms one long complex adjective clause, modifying
  _gibbet_. In this complex clause, the first clause (_where ...
  prince_) has dependent on it a compound adjective clause (modifying
  _prince_), made up of four coördinate clauses, each beginning with
  _who_. The subordination of this compound clause to that which
  precedes (_where ... prince_) produces the long complex subordinate
  clause _where ... Spain_.

  3. As we cannot at present get Mr. Joseph out of the inn, we shall
  leave him in it, and carry our reader on after Parson Adams, who, his
  mind being perfectly at ease, fell into a contemplation on a passage
  in Æschylus, which entertained him for three miles together, without
  suffering him once to reflect on his fellow-traveller.--FIELDING.

  In this +complex sentence+, two subordinate clauses are separately
  attached to the main clause: (1) the adverbial clause _as ... inn_;
  (2) the adjective clause _who ... fellow-traveller_. This latter
  clause is complex, since it contains the adjective clause _which ...
  fellow-traveller_, dependent on _who ... Æschylus_, and modifying
  _passage_.

  4. As I sit by my window this summer afternoon, hawks are circling
  about my clearing; the tantivy of wild pigeons, flying by twos and
  threes athwart my view, or perching restlessly on the white pine
  boughs behind my house, gives a voice to the air; a fishhawk dimples
  the glassy surface of the pond and brings up a fish; a mink steals
  out of the marsh before my door and seizes a frog by the shore; the
  sedge is bending under the weight of the reed-birds flitting hither
  and hither; and for the last half hour I have heard the rattle of
  railroad cars, now dying away and then revving like the beat of a
  partridge, conveying travellers from Boston to the country.--THOREAU.

  This sentence is +complex+. Its main clause is compound, consisting
  of a series of six coördinate simple clauses. The whole of this long
  compound main clause is modified by the adverbial clause with which
  the sentence begins (_as ... afternoon_).

  5. That they had sprung from obscurity, that they had acquired
  great wealth, that they exhibited it insolently, that they spent it
  extravagantly, that they raised the price of everything in their
  neighborhood, from fresh eggs to rotten boroughs; that their liveries
  outshone those of dukes, that their coaches were finer than that of
  the Lord Mayor, that the examples of their large and ill-governed
  households corrupted half the servants in the country; that some of
  them, with all their magnificence, could not catch the tone of good
  society, but in spite of the stud and the crowd of menials, of the
  plate and the Dresden china, of the venison and the Burgundy, were
  still low men,--these were things which excited, both in the class
  from which they had sprung, and in that into which they attempted to
  force themselves, that bitter aversion which is the effect of mingled
  envy and contempt.--MACAULAY.

  This +complex sentence+, though very long, is perfectly easy to
  follow. It begins with a long compound noun clause (consisting of
  nine coördinate _that_-clauses). This would be the subject of the
  main predicate verb _were_, but for the fact that the pronoun _these_
  is inserted to act as the subject (referring back to the compound
  noun clause and summing it up in a single word). To the complement
  _things_ is attached the adjective clause _which excited ...
  contempt_. This clause is complex, for it contains three adjective
  clauses, (1) _from which they had sprung_ (modifying _class_), (2)
  _into which ... themselves_ (modifying _that_), and (3) _which is
  ... contempt_ (modifying _aversion_). All three are separately
  attached to the clause on which they depend, _which excited that
  bitter aversion_. Thus all that portion of the sentence which follows
  _things_ forms one complex clause, modifying that noun.


  6. That I may avoid the imputation of throwing out, even privately,
  any loose, random imputations against the public conduct of a
  gentleman for whom I once entertained a very warm affection, and
  whose abilities I regard with the greatest admiration, I will put
  down, distinctly and articulately, some of the matters of objection
  which I feel to his late doctrines and proceedings, trusting that
  I shall be able to demonstrate to the friends whose good opinion
  I would still cultivate, that not levity, nor caprice, nor less
  defensible motives, but that very grave reasons, influence my
  judgment.--BURKE.

  This is a fine example of a long, but well-constructed +complex
  sentence+. The main clause is _I will put down, distinctly and
  articulately, some of the matters of objection_. Upon this simple
  clause, everything else in the sentence depends in one way or another.


II. IN COMPOUND COMPLEX SENTENCES

+526.+ Any complex sentence, however elaborate, may be used as one
of the +coördinate complex clauses+ that make up a +compound complex
sentence+.

  1. While the king was treated at this rude rate, Cromwell, with his
  army, was in Scotland, obstructing the motions that were making in
  his favor; but on the approach of the Scots, who were much superior
  in number, he was forced to retire towards Dunbar, where his ships
  and provisions lay.--BURNET.

  In this +compound complex sentence+, both coördinate clauses are
  complex. In each, the main clause has two subordinate clauses
  attached to it separately (§ 520).

  2. They had seen me cut the cables, and thought my design was only to
  let the ships run adrift, or fall foul on each other; but when they
  perceived the whole fleet moving in order, and saw me pulling at the
  end, they set up such a scream of grief and despair as it is almost
  impossible to describe or conceive.--SWIFT.

  In this +compound complex sentence+, both of the two coördinate
  clauses are complex. The first contains the noun clause [_that_] _my
  design ... each other_, used as the object of _thought_. The second
  contains two subordinate clauses, separately attached to the main
  clause (_they set ... despair_). For the infinitive _cut_, see § 322.
  The infinitive _to let_ is used as a predicate nominative (§ 491); it
  has as its object the infinitive clause _the ships ... each other_,
  containing two infinitives, _run_ and _fall_ (§ 325).

  3. While things went on quietly, while there was no opposition, while
  everything was given by the favor of a small ruling junto, Fox had
  a decided advantage over Pitt; but when dangerous times came, when
  Europe was convulsed with war, when Parliament was broken up into
  factions, when the public mind was violently excited, the favorite of
  the people rose to supreme power.--MACAULAY.

  This +compound complex sentence+ consists of two complex clauses,
  joined by the coördinate conjunction _but_. In each of these, the
  subordinate clause is compound (§ 521), consisting of several
  coördinate adverbial clauses introduced by relative adverbs (_while_
  in the first, _when_ in the second).

  4. The clear and agreeable language of his despatches had early
  attracted the notice of his employers; and before the Peace of Breda
  he had, at the request of Arlington, published a pamphlet on the war,
  of which nothing is now known, except that it had some vogue at the
  time, and that Charles, not a contemptible judge, pronounced it to be
  very well written.--MACAULAY.

  In this +compound complex sentence+, the first coördinate clause is
  simple, the second is complex. In the second, the adjective clause
  _of which nothing is known_ has dependent on it the group of words
  _except ... well written_, consisting of the preposition _except_ and
  its object (the compound noun clause, _that ... time, and that ...
  well written_). This group serves as an adjective modifier of the
  noun _nothing_. The whole passage _of which ... well written_ forms a
  complex adjective clause, modifying _pamphlet_. _It to be very well
  written_ is a complement, being an infinitive clause used as the
  object of _pronounced_ (§ 325).



CHAPTER VIII

ELLIPTICAL SENTENCES


+527.+ Good usage does not demand that all sentences shall be
absolutely complete. It often allows (and sometimes requires) the
omission of words that, though necessary to the construction, are so
easily supplied by the mind that it would be mere waste of time to
utter them.

+528.+ +The omission of a word or words necessary to the grammatical
completeness of a clause or sentence is called ellipsis.+

+A clause or sentence that shows ellipsis is said to be elliptical.+

  +Ellipsis+ is a Greek word meaning “omission.”

In the following examples the omitted words are supplied in brackets.

  [I] thank you.

  [I] pray do not [you] move.

  [You] pass me that book.

  Her hair is light, her eyes [are] dark blue.

  Some of the strangers spoke French, others [spoke] Spanish.

  Some of the patriots were armed with old flintlocks, others [were
  armed] with swords, still others [were armed] with pitchforks.

  When [he was] a youth, he travelled in the East.

  Though [he is] timid, he is no coward.

  They were amused, though [they were] somewhat vexed.

  While [we were] drifting downstream, we grounded on a sand bar.

  If [it is] possible, send me word to-night.

  You shall have the money this week, if [it is] necessary.

  They marched slowly as if [they were] worn out.

  Why [are] these tears?

  Why [are you] so dejected?

  He was ten years of age, his brother [was] eight [years of age].

  I have more confidence in James than [I have] in Edmund.

  Mary is younger than George [is young].

  Tom likes you better than [he likes] me.

  You like him better than I do [like him].

  I like him better than Charles does [like him].

  This racket is not so heavy as that [is heavy].

  You are not so old as I [am old].

  Peace [be] to his memory!

  This is the only pencil [that] I have.

  Is that the boy [whom] you hired yesterday?

  They say [that] you are going to Europe soon.

+529.+ The examples in § 528 show that most cases of ellipsis fall
under two heads:

1. To avoid repetition, words are often omitted in one part of the
sentence when they occur in another part.

2. Pronouns, the conjunction _that_, and some forms of the verb _is_,
are often omitted when they are readily supplied.

Under the second head come (1) the ellipsis of the subject (_thou_ or
_you_) in imperative sentences (§ 268), (2) that of relative pronouns
in the objective case (§ 151), (3) that of _is_, _are_, etc. (with the
subject pronoun) in subordinate clauses introduced by _when_, _though_,
_if_, and the like (§§ 397, 399, 417).

  NOTE. The so-called “telegraphic style” omits _I_ with any verb or
  with all verbs. It should be confined to telegrams, where space is
  money.

+530.+ Adverbs indicating direction (like _forward_, _back_) are often
used without a verb in imperative sentences.

  _Forward_, brave companions!

  _Down_ on your knees!

  _Up_, guards, and at them!

  NOTE. In older English, the omission of the verb of motion was
  common, even in sentences not imperative, as in the following
  examples from _Julius Cæsar_:--“We’ll along ourselves, and meet
  them”; “Shall we on, and not depend on you?”

+531.+ The ellipsis of the subordinate conjunction _that_ is very
common, especially in indirect discourse (§§ 388, 433).

  I know [_that_] you are my friend.

  Jack said [_that_] the boat had sunk.

  He told me [_that_] he was sorry.

+532.+ Many constructions, originally elliptical, have become
established idioms in which no ellipsis is felt. In such cases it is
usually better to take the sentence as it stands, and not to supply the
omitted words.

  Thus, in “He eats _as if he were famished_” the italicized words
  are properly treated as a subordinate clause modifying _eats_ and
  introduced by the compound conjunction _as if_. Yet in strictness
  this construction is an ellipsis for “He eats as [_he would eat_] if
  he were famished.”

+533.+ Various ellipses are illustrated in the following sentences:--

  1. Although in a friendly country, they marched always as if in a
  land of enemies.

  2. The aspect of the country was as wild and dreary as the climate.

  3. Do not serious and earnest men discuss Hamlet as they would
  Cromwell or Lincoln?--LOWELL.

  4. Not so with the others.

  5. Though rather shy and distrustful of this new acquaintance, Rip
  complied with his usual alacrity.

  6. Arras was famed for its rich tapestries, Brussels for its carpets,
  Cambrai for its fine cambric, Lisle for its thread and the fabrics
  woven from it.

  7. Every day brings its task, which, if neglected, is doubled on the
  morrow.

  8. It is not easy to recover an art when once lost.

  9. I wish you would go down with me to Newstead.

  10. The men are all soldiers, and war and the chase their sole
  occupation.

  11. While in this state of irresolution, she was startled by a low
  knock.

  12. The house was tall, the skylight small and dirty, the day blind
  with fog.

  13. I little thought you would have deserted me.

  14. He is the best Oriental scholar I know.

  15. Cromwell was evidently laying, though in an irregular manner, the
  foundations of an admirable system.

  16. He was a foot taller than I.

  17. This concerns you rather than me.

  18. My father loved Sir Rowland as his soul.



EXERCISES


EXERCISE 1

(§§ 1–5, pp. 1–3)

1. Tell whether each of the following sentences is declarative,
interrogative, imperative, or exclamatory. If a sentence is both
declarative and exclamatory, mention the fact. Mention the subject and
the predicate of each sentence. Note all instances of the inverted
order (§ 5).

  1. You need not answer this letter. 2. Many surmises of evil alarm
  the hearts of the people.--LONGFELLOW. 3. Here I am again in the land
  of old Bunyan. 4. Me this uncharter’d freedom tires.--WORDSWORTH.
  5. Twilight’s soft dews steal o’er the village green.--ROGERS. 6.
  Were there many robbers in the band? 7. How will posterity the deed
  proclaim!--BYRON. 8. At dawn the towers of Stirling rang.--SCOTT.
  9. You cannot recall the spoken word.--EMERSON. 10. The boughs
  over my head seemed shadowy with solemn thoughts as well as with
  rustling leaves.--HAWTHORNE. 11. So you don’t like Raphael! 12.
  All around lay a frightful wilderness. 13. Why does the sea moan
  evermore?--ROSSETTI. 14. What lonely straggler looks along the
  wave?--BYRON. 15. Off went his wig! 16. For some minutes he continued
  to scrutinize the drawing minutely. 17. Our strength grows out of our
  weakness.--EMERSON. 18. Rudely carved was the porch. 19. What hopes
  the prince to gain by Lacy’s death? 20. Trust thyself.

  21. The rest of the men were morose and silent. 22. Here are the
  ruins of the emperor’s palace. 23. Now rumbles along the carriage of
  some magnate of the city. 24. Wild was the life we led. 25. How poor,
  and dull, and sleepy, and squalid it seemed! 26. Built are the house
  and the barn. 27. With what tenderness he sings! 28. Marked ye the
  younger stranger’s eye? 29. One or two idlers, of forbidding aspect,
  hung about in the murky gaslight. 30. Several mountains crowned with
  snow shone brilliantly in the distance. 31. Follow me through this
  passage. 32. Stop me not at your peril. 33. Carry thou this scroll to
  the castle.

2. Write ten interrogative sentences concerning each topic. Reply in
declarative sentences.

  (1) The American Revolution; (2) the Pilgrim Fathers; (3) the history
  of your own state; (4) the government of the United States; (5)
  hygiene; (6) the manufactures (or other industries) of your town or
  city.

3. Write ten imperative sentences, each giving an order concerning--

  (1) the playing of a game; (2) the building or sailing of a boat; (3)
  the care of the health; (4) the manufacture of some article of common
  use; (5) the writing of a business letter.

4. Write ten exclamatory sentences. Tell whether each is declarative,
interrogative, or imperative.


EXERCISE 2

(§§ 6–25, pp. 3–11)

1. Tell the parts of speech (including verb-phrases).

  1. The rain pattered upon the roof and the sky gloomed through the
  dusty garret windows.--HAWTHORNE. 2. Make yourself necessary to
  somebody.--EMERSON. 3. I have a regard for every man on board that
  ship, from the captain down to the crew. 4. “An artist,” said Michael
  Angelo, “must have his measuring tools not in the hand, but in the
  eye.”--EMERSON. 5. Time had wintered o’er his locks. 6. Must we in
  all things look for the how, and the why, and the wherefore? 7. Power
  dwells with cheerfulness.--EMERSON. 8. What hurrahs rang out! 9. He
  sneaked about with a gallows air. 10. So! you see things go on as
  when you were with us.

  11. Rigby and his brother hirelings frightened them with hideous
  fables and ugly words.--DISRAELI. 12. These are prize peaches. 13.
  Ha ha! how vilely doth this cynic rhyme! 14. O Antony, beg not your
  death of us. 45. Wordsworth was praised to me in Westmoreland because
  he afforded to his country neighbors an example of a modest household
  where comfort and culture were secured without display.

  16. Shake hands with this knot of good fellows. 17. He had been
  deserted by the Moderates. 18. The moderate Liberals held a meeting
  very early in the struggle. 19. After a dreadful night of anxiety,
  perplexity, and peril, the darkness, which I thought had lasted an
  eternity, slowly disappeared.--TRELAWNY.

2. Use the following words in sentences of your own:--

  Sleep (_noun_, _verb_); dry (_adjective_, _verb_, _noun_); very
  (_adverb_, _adjective_); express (_noun_, _verb_, _adjective_);
  bellow (_verb_, _noun_); American (_adjective_, _noun_); future
  (_adjective_, _noun_); to-morrow (_noun_, _adverb_); flower
  (_noun_, _verb_); sovereign (_noun_, _adjective_); summer (_noun_,
  _verb_, _adjective_); double (_adjective_, _adverb_, _verb_); well
  (_adjective_, _adverb_); fast (_adjective_, _adverb_, _noun_,
  _verb_); content (_noun_, _adjective_, _verb_); last (_adjective_,
  _adverb_, _verb_, _noun_); down (_adverb_, _preposition_); for
  (_preposition_, _conjunction_); downright (_adjective_, _adverb_);
  home (_noun_, _adjective_, _adverb_); lower (_adjective_, _adverb_,
  _verb_); iron (_noun_, _adjective_, _verb_); off (_adverb_,
  _preposition_, _adjective_); up (_adverb_, _preposition_); high
  (_adjective_, _adverb_, _noun_); except (_verb_, _preposition_);
  inside (_adjective_, _adverb_, _preposition_, _noun_); past
  (_noun_, _adjective_, _preposition_); what (_adjective_, _pronoun_,
  _interjection_); round (_noun_, _adjective_, _verb_, _preposition_,
  _adverb_); sound (_noun_, _verb_, _adjective_, _adverb_); black
  (_noun_, _verb_, _adjective_); all (_noun_, _adjective_, _adverb_);
  open (_noun_, _adjective_, _verb_); while (_noun_, _verb_).


EXERCISE 3

(§§ 26–33, pp. 11–13)

Point out the infinitives and the participles. Tell when they occur in
verb-phrases. Use them in sentences.

  1. I did wrong to smile. 2. Luttrell adjured me with mock pathos to
  spare his blushes. 3. I begged my friend Sir Roger to go with me
  into her hovel. 4. I was wonderfully pleased to see the workings of
  instinct in a hen followed by a brood of ducks. 5. A man’s first care
  should be to avoid the reproaches of his own heart.--ADDISON. 6. I
  was highly entertained to see the gentlemen of the county gathering
  about my old friend, and striving who should compliment him most. 7.
  He was let loose among the woods as soon as he was able to ride on
  horseback. 8. Plutarch says very finely that a man should not allow
  himself to hate even his enemies. 9. It gives me a serious concern to
  see such a spirit of dissension in the country.

  10. It was his intention to remain there for two or three days. 11.
  Every part of every carriage had been cleaned, every horse had been
  groomed. 12. Liberated from the embarrassments of the city, and
  issuing into the broad uncrowded avenues of the northern suburbs, we
  soon begin to enter upon our natural pace of ten miles an hour. 13.
  The beggar, rearing himself against the wall, forgets his lameness.
  14. Three miles beyond Barnet, we see approaching another private
  carriage. 15. We saw many lights moving about as we drew near.


EXERCISE 4

(§§ 34–39, pp. 13–15)

1. Mention the simple subject and the simple predicate of each sentence
in Exercise 1 (p. 227). Tell whether the simple subject is a noun or a
pronoun, and whether the simple predicate is a verb or a verb-phrase.

2. Study in the same way your own sentences in Exercise 1.

3. Divide each sentence into the complete subject and the complete
predicate. If the sentence has a compound subject, mention the
substantives that compose it; if the sentence has a compound predicate,
mention the verbs (or verb-phrases).

  1. The Queen and Prince Albert came to London from Windsor on
  Saturday morning. 2. You and Lockhart must not abandon the good
  cause. 3. I saw that he was weak, and took advantage of a pause to
  remind him not to forget his drive. 4. Two or three of my English
  biographies have something of the same historical character. 5. Lord
  Grey, Clanricarde, Labouchere, Vernon Smith, and Seymour will fill
  up the places. 6. Every change of season, every change of weather,
  indeed, every hour of the day, produces some change in the magical
  hues and shapes of these mountains.--IRVING. 7. He looked round, and
  could see nothing but a crow winging its solitary flight across the
  mountain. 8. They suddenly desisted from their play and stared at
  him. 9. The sea flashes along the pebbly margin of its silver beach,
  forming a thousand little bays and inlets, or comes tumbling in among
  the cliffs of a rock-bound coast, and beats against its massive
  barriers with a distant, hollow, continual roar.--LONGFELLOW.

  10. A wide gateway ushered the traveller into the interior of the
  building, and conducted him to a low-roofed apartment, paved with
  round stones. 11. The strange visitant gruffly saluted me, and, after
  making several ineffectual efforts to urge his horse in at the door,
  dismounted and followed me into the room.--WHITTIER. 12. The foolish
  and the dead alone never change their opinion.--LOWELL. 13. They
  will slink into their kennels in disgrace, or perchance run wild and
  strike a league with the wolf and the fox.--THOREAU. 14. Strong will
  and keen perception overpower old manners and create new.--EMERSON.
  15. Neither Aristotle, nor Leibnitz, nor Junius, nor Champollion has
  set down the grammar-rules of this dialect. 16. His mantle and hood
  were of the best Flanders cloth, and fell in ample and not ungraceful
  folds. 17. A deep fosse or ditch was drawn round the whole building.


EXERCISE 5

(§§ 40–42, p. 16)

1. Point out the noun-phrases, verb-phrases, adjective phrases, and
adverbial phrases. Which of these phrases are prepositional?

  1. Sometimes he spent hours together in the great libraries of Paris.
  2. He assumed the garb of a common sailor, and in this disguise
  reached the Dutch coast in safety. 3. Some of the frigate’s men were
  still endeavoring to escape. 4. Was Milton rich or at his ease when
  he composed “Paradise Lost”? 5. It was a cold-blooded exhibition of
  marksmanship. 6. He then continued on to the place of rendezvous at
  Speedwell’s Iron Works on Troublesome Creek.--IRVING. 7. The gates of
  Amsterdam had been barred against him. 8. They heard his confession
  with suspicion and disdain. 9. The stagecoach always drew up before
  the door of the cottage. 10. The wind moaned through the silent
  streets. 11. The clouds are scudding across the moon. 12. Steele had
  known Addison from childhood. 13. A broad ray of light fell into the
  garret.--DICKENS. 14. The fate of his insulted and broken-hearted
  brother still rankled in his mind. 15. All day with fruitless strife
  they toiled.--SCOTT.

2. Fill each blank with a single word. Substitute for the word a phrase
with the same meaning. Mention in each instance (1) the part of speech,
(2) the kind of phrase.

  1. He spoke to me ----.

  2. The grounds were shut in by a high ---- wall.

  3. The fire engine ---- past.

  4. The three girls were laughing ----.

  5. The poor child looked ---- at the toys.

  6. Harold ---- the bunch of grapes.

  7. The proprietor is a ---- man.

  8. The archbishop placed upon the king’s head a ---- crown.

  9. The book which I hold in my hand is ----.

  10. The ---- ordered the _Conqueror_ to open fire.

  11. The enemy retreated ----.

  12. The rain ---- heavily all day.

  13. The rain came down ---- all day.

  14. The ---- is in his office.

  15. A ---- boy came to the door.

  16. My brother is president of ----.


EXERCISE 6

(§§ 43–51, pp. 16–21)

1. Tell whether each sentence is simple, compound, or complex. If the
sentence is compound, divide it into its independent clauses, and
mention the simple subject (noun or pronoun) and the simple predicate
(verb or verb-phrase) of each clause.

If the sentence is complex, divide it into the main (independent) and
the subordinate clause, and tell whether the latter is used as an
adjective or as an adverb.

  1. The great gate slowly opened, and a steward and several
  serving-men appeared. 2. The victors set fire to the wigwams and
  the fort; the whole was soon in a blaze; many of the old men, the
  women, and the children perished in the flames. 3. Night closed in,
  but still no guest arrived. 4. The black waves rolled by them, and
  the light at the horizon began to fade, and the stars were coming
  out one by one.--WILLIAM BLACK. 5. Mr. Nickleby closed an account
  book which lay on his desk. 6. By ceaseless action all that is
  subsists.--COWPER. 7. When the morning broke, the Moorish army had
  vanished. 8. At midnight, when the town was hushed in sleep, they all
  went quietly on board. 9. Fortune had cast him into a cavern, and he
  was groping darkly round. 10. I paced the deserted chambers where he
  had composed his poem. 11. I strove to speak; my voice utterly failed
  me. 12. The only avenue by which the town could be easily approached,
  was protected by a stone wall more than twenty feet high and of great
  thickness.

  13. The night fell tempestuous and wild, and no vestige of the
  hapless sloop was ever after seen. 14. The simple majesty of this
  anecdote can gain nothing from any comment which we might make on it.
  15. Raleigh speaks the language of the heart of his country when he
  urges the English statesmen to colonize Guiana.--FROUDE. 16. Men, in
  their youth, go to push their fortune in the colony; they succeed;
  they acquire property there; they return to their native land; they
  continue to draw the income from their colonial estates.--BROUGHAM.
  17. The moonlight glistened upon traces of the gilding which had
  once covered both rider and steed. 18. While this brief conversation
  passed, Donatello had once or twice glanced aside with a watchful
  air. 19. Pray for us, Hilda; we need it.

2. Divide the compound complex sentences into their coördinate clauses.
Tell whether each of these clauses, when standing alone, is a simple or
a complex sentence.

  1. It would be dark before he could reach the village, and he heaved
  a heavy sigh when he thought of encountering the terrors of Dame
  Van Winkle. 2. Language gradually varies, and with it fade away
  the writings of authors who have lived their allotted time. 3. The
  tallest and handsomest men whom England could produce guarded the
  passage from the palace gate to the river-side, and all seemed in
  readiness for the queen’s coming forth, although the hour was yet so
  early. 4. Edward the Confessor died on the fifth of January, 1066,
  and on the following day an assembly of the thanes and prelates
  present in London, and of the citizens of the metropolis, declared
  that Harold should be their king.


EXERCISE 7

(§§ 54–64, pp. 27–30)

1. Point out all the common nouns and all the proper nouns. Mention all
the examples of personification.

  1. There Guilt his anxious revel kept.--SCOTT. 2. The first vessel we
  fell in with was a schooner, which, after a long chase, we made out
  to be an American. 3. You will be sauntering in St. Peter’s perhaps,
  or standing on the Capitol while the sun sets. 4. I am very deep in
  my Aristophanes. 5. I saw a most lovely Sir Joshua at Christie’s
  a week ago.--FITZ GERALD. 6. I hear there is scarce a village in
  England that has not a Moll White in it.--ADDISON. 7. Such a spirit
  is Liberty. At times she takes the form of a hateful reptile. She
  grovels, she hisses, she stings. But woe to those who in disgust
  shall venture to crush her!--MACAULAY. 8. Rough Wulfstane trimmed his
  shafts and bow.--SCOTT. 9. To-day we have been a delightful drive
  through Ettrick Forest, and to the ruins of Newark--the hall of
  Newark, where the ladies bent their necks of snow to hear “The Lay of
  the Last Minstrel.”--MARIA EDGEWORTH.

  10. The same waves wash the moles of the new-built Californian towns,
  and lave the faded but still gorgeous skirts of Asiatic lands, older
  than Abraham; while all between float milky-ways of coral isles,
  and low-lying, endless, unknown Archipelagoes and impenetrable
  Japans.--MELVILLE. 11. The duchess said haughtily that she had done
  her best for the Esmonds. 12. To see with one’s own eyes men and
  countries is better than reading all the books of travel in the
  world.--THACKERAY. 13. Defeat and mortification had only hardened the
  king’s heart. 14. Earth, Ocean, Air, beloved brotherhood!--SHELLEY.
  15. The iron tongue of St. Paul’s has told twelve. 16. The Indians,
  brandishing their weapons, answered only with gestures of angry
  defiance.

2. Point out all the abstract, all the collective, and all the compound
nouns.

  1. The poet binds together by passion and knowledge the vast empire
  of human society.--WORDSWORTH. 2. The country is now showing symptoms
  of greenness and warmth. 3. When the public are gone, we at once put
  up the great iron shutters. 4. Washington returned to headquarters at
  Newbury. 5. The Bruce’s band moves swiftly on.--SCOTT. 6. He shall
  with speed to England.--SHAKSPERE. 7. Soon were dismissed the courtly
  throng.--SCOTT. 8. Sickness, desertion, and the loss sustained at
  Guilford Courthouse had reduced his little army. 9. A detachment was
  sent against them. 10. Never before this summer have the kingbirds,
  handsomest of flycatchers, built in my orchard. 11. The young
  suddenly disperse on your approach, as if a whirlwind had swept them
  away.--THOREAU. 12. This lighthouse, known to our mariners as Cape
  Cod or Highland Light, is one of our “primary seacoast lights.” 13.
  We have some salt of our youth in us.--SHAKSPERE. 14. Thou hast nor
  youth nor age.--SHAKSPERE.

  15. The passion for hunting had revived with Washington on returning
  to his old hunting grounds. 16. A circle there of merry listeners
  stand.--BYRON. 17. The act of the Congress of Vienna remains the
  eternal monument of their diplomatic knowledge and political
  sagacity.--DISRAELI. 18. Lee undertook the task with alacrity. 19. A
  row of surfboats and canoes lay along the beach. 20. The situation he
  had held as aide-de-camp to the commander-in-chief had given him an
  opportunity of observing the course of affairs. 21. The ground was
  frozen to a great depth. 22. He was aware of his unpopularity. 23.
  The stern old war-gods shook their heads.--EMERSON.

  24. Freckled nest eggs thou shalt see
      Hatching in the hawthorn tree.--KEATS.

  25. Fair morn ascends, and sunny June has shed
      Ambrosial odors o’er the garden-bed,
      And wild bees seek the cherry’s sweet perfume
      Or cluster round the full-blown apple-bloom.--CAMPBELL.

  26.                  For in their looks divine
      The image of their glorious Maker shone,
      Truth, wisdom, sanctitude severe and pure.--MILTON.

  27. Steer, helmsman, till you steer our way
      By stars beyond the line.--CAMPBELL.

  28.                     Say I sent thee thither:
      I, that have neither pity, love, nor fear.--SHAKSPERE.


EXERCISE 8

(§§ 66–84, pp. 31–39)

1. Make a list containing thirty nouns, ten in each of the three
genders. Use each of these nouns in a sentence.

2. Write ten sentences, each containing a noun of common gender.

3. Write sentences containing the masculine forms corresponding to the
feminine forms in this list, and the feminine forms corresponding to
the masculine:--

  earl, abbess, schoolmaster, porter, hind, mare, ram, sire, witch,
  sultan, czar, widow, marquis, executor, salesman, tailor, hero,
  bride, songster, great-uncle, nephew, buck, horseman, bachelor, belle.

4. Mention the gender and the number of each noun. Tell whether the
gender is shown by the form, by the meaning, or by both. Whenever it
is possible, give the plural of each noun that is singular, and the
singular of each noun that is plural.

  1. Oft Music changed, but never ceased her tone.--BYRON.
  2. Grace Crawley was at this time living with the two Miss
  Prettymans.--TROLLOPE. 3. The Catos and the Scipios of the village
  had gathered in front of the hotel. 4. This gunner was an excellent
  mathematician, a good scholar, and a complete sailor.--DEFOE. 5. I
  was, in fact, in the chapel of the Knights Templars.--IRVING. 6.
  The luckless culprit was brought in, forlorn and chapfallen, in the
  custody of gamekeepers, huntsmen, and whippers-in, and followed by a
  rabble rout of country clowns.--IRVING. 7. The hare now came still
  nearer to the place where she was at first started.--BUDGELL. 8.
  The Fairfaxes were no longer at hand.--IRVING. 9. All the peers and
  peeresses put on their coronets. 10. Time is no longer slow; his
  sickle mows quickly in this age.--DISRAELI. 11. Under the humblest
  roof, the commonest person in plain clothes sits there massive,
  cheerful, yet formidable, like the Egyptian colossi.--EMERSON.

  12. Within forty-eight hours, hundreds of horse and foot came
  by various roads to the city. 13. The hart and hind wandered in
  a wilderness abounding in ferny coverts and green and stately
  trees.--DISRAELI. 14. The ship had received a great deal of damage,
  and it required some time to repair her.--DEFOE. 15. When Mary,
  the nurse, returns with the little Miss Smiths from Master Brown’s
  birthday party, she is narrowly questioned as to their behavior.
  16. Of all our fleet, consisting of a hundred and fifty sail,
  scarce twelve appeared.--SMOLLETT. 17. Hindoos, Russians, Chinese,
  Spaniards, Portuguese, Englishmen, Frenchmen, Genoese, Neapolitans,
  Venetians, Greeks, Turks, descendants from all the builders of Babel,
  come to trade at Marseilles, sought the shade alike.--DICKENS. 18.
  There lies the port; the vessel puffs her sail.--TENNYSON. 19. I had
  desire to see the old family seat of the Lucys.--IRVING.

  20. The Miss Lambs were the belles of little Britain.--IRVING.
  21. Lord Culloden at length appeared with his daughters, Ladies
  Flora and Grizell.--DISRAELI. 22. Still his honied wealth Hymettus
  yields.--BYRON. 23. Josephine has been made executrix of her father’s
  estate. 24. Georgette crouched by the fire, reading a wonderful tale
  of kings, princesses, enchanted castles, knights and ladies, monks
  and nuns, wizards and witches. 25. She was a vixen when she went to
  school.--SHAKSPERE. 26. Keep a gamester from the dice and a good
  student from his book.--SHAKSPERE. 27. They are sheep and calves
  which seek out assurance in that.--SHAKSPERE. 28. A score of good
  ewes may be worth ten pounds.--SHAKSPERE. 29. Let ay’s seem no’s and
  no’s seem ay’s.--GAY.

  30. She clasps a bright child on her upgathered knee;
      It laughs at the lightning, it mocks the mixed thunder
      Of the air and the sea.--SHELLEY.



EXERCISE 9

(§§ 71–84, pp. 34–39)

1. Write sentences in which the following words, letters, or figures
are used in the plural number:--

  German, radius, lens, moose, wharf, index, piano, thesis, 4, 500, p,
  q, and, syllabus, staff, die, s, t, seraph, hero, stimulus, crisis,
  elf, heathen, brother-in-law, July, March, spoonful, memorandum, Miss
  Allen, Master Allen, Mr. Hayes, General Raymond, Knight Templar, head
  (of cattle), animalcule, potato, valley, formula, penny, curriculum,
  dwarf, man-child.

2. Write sentences in which the following nouns are used in the
singular number:--

  strata, phenomena, alumnæ, alumni, candelabra, species, cherubim,
  errata, bacteria, Japanese, beaux, vertebræ, Messrs., theses, oases.


EXERCISE 10

(§ 88, pp. 41–42)

Mention all the nouns that are in the nominative case, and give the
construction (or syntax) of each,--as subject, predicate nominative,
vocative (or nominative of direct address), exclamatory nominative, or
nominative in apposition.[50]

  1. A weary lot is thine, fair maid.--SCOTT. 2. At last, our small
  acquaintance, Ned Higgins, trudged up the street, on his way to
  school.--HAWTHORNE. 3. The soil is in general a moist and retentive
  clay. 4. Rumors alone were their guides through a wild and desolate
  country.--LONGFELLOW. 5. Young man, have you challenged Charles the
  wrestler?--SHAKSPERE. 6. Ralph was an Eton boy, and hence, being
  robust and shrewd, a swimmer and a cricketer. 7. Here Harold was
  received a welcome guest.--SCOTT. 8. The tall Highlander remained
  obdurate. 9. The beams and rafters, roughly hewn and with strips
  of bark still on them, and the rude masonry of the chimneys, made
  the garret look wild and uncivilized. 10. Deathlike the silence
  seemed. 11. Sorrow and silence are strong, and patient endurance is
  godlike.--LONGFELLOW. 12. Fly, fly, detested thoughts, forever from
  my view!--BEATTIE. 13. Time must not be counted by calendars, but by
  sensation, by thought.--DISRAELI.

  14. This is the history of Charlotte Corday. 15. The nabobs soon
  became a most unpopular class of men. 16. Before him stretched the
  long, laborious road, dry, empty, and white.--HARDY. 17. With the
  great mass of mankind, the test of integrity in a public man is
  consistency.--MACAULAY. 18. These are trifles, Mr. Premium. 19.
  My thanks are due to you for your trouble and care. 20. Here’s my
  great uncle, Sir Richard Ravelin. 21. Rowley, my old friend, I am
  sure you congratulate me. 22. David, you are a coward! 23. Here come
  other Pyncheons, the whole tribe, in their half-a-dozen generations.
  24. Uncle Venner, trundling a wheelbarrow, was the earliest person
  stirring in the neighborhood. 25. Up the chimney roared the fire,
  and brightened the room with its broad blaze. 26. Liberty! freedom!
  tyranny is dead!--SHAKSPERE. 27. The hostess’s daughter, a plump
  Flanders lass, with long gold pendants in her ears, was at a side
  window.--IRVING.

  28. Horses! can these be horses that bound off with the action and
  gesture of leopards?--DE QUINCEY. 29. Peace! silence! Brutus speaks.
  30. The rains, frosts, and tempests splinter the chalk above and the
  waves gnaw it away below.--GEIKIE.


EXERCISE 11

(§§ 89–96, pp. 43–47)

1. Point out all the nouns in the possessive case, and parse them
according to the model in § 112.

  1. James’s parliament contained a most unusual proportion of new
  ministers. 2. I live in general quietly at my brother-in-law’s in
  Norfolk (see § 96). 3. There is a small cottage of my father’s close
  to the lawn gates. 4. We had found, in that day’s heap of earth,
  about fifty pounds’ weight of gold dust.--DEFOE. 5. Much the most
  striking incident in Burns’s life is his journey to Edinburgh. 6.
  As to freaks like this of Miss Brooke’s, Mrs. Cadwallader had no
  patience with them.--GEORGE ELIOT. 7. Homeward they bore him through
  the dark woods’ gloom.--MORRIS. 8. The eye travels down to Oxford’s
  towers.--ARNOLD. 9. I obeyed all my brother’s military commands
  with the utmost docility. 10. Tellson’s wanted not elbowroom,
  Tellson’s wanted no light, Tellson’s wanted no embellishment. Noakes
  & Co.’s might, or Snooks Brothers’ might; but Tellson’s--thank
  heaven!--DICKENS.

2. Examine the nouns in the possessive case in 1 (above), and tell
which of the possessives might be replaced by an _of_-phrase. Mention
particularly those passages in which the possessive would not be used
in modern prose.

3. Write sentences containing the possessive singular of--

  Henry, James, Thomas, Mr. Fox, child, Charles Price, Mrs.
  Gibbs, Edward, General Edwards, horse, Hortense, Miss Bellows,
  father-in-law, Major Ellis, commander-in-chief, Thompson and Howard
  (_a firm_), Eustis and Morris (_a firm_), Messrs. Cartwright and
  Robbins, Apollo, Brutus, Ulysses.

4. Write sentences containing the possessive plural of--

  Englishman, fireman, washerwoman, fox, sheep, horse, ox, child,
  emperor, empress, robin, Norman, German, hawk, Knight Templar, lady,
  sailor, heir, heiress, teacher, whale, walrus, critic, poet, vireo.

5. In which of the sentences that you have written (under 3 and 4)
would it be possible to substitute an _of_-phrase for the possessive?
In which of them (if any) would this phrase be preferable? Why?


EXERCISE 12

(§§ 97–110, pp. 47–53)

Parse the nouns in the objective case, according to the model in § 112.
Tell the particular construction in each instance,--direct object,
predicate objective, indirect object, etc.

  1. Such was the narrative of Jack Grant, the mate. 2. Rippling waters
  made a pleasant moan.--BYRON. 3. Swiftly they hurried away to the
  forge of Basil the blacksmith.--LONGFELLOW. 4. A pale fog hung over
  London. 5. So like a shattered column lay the king.--TENNYSON. 6.
  Then sing, ye birds, sing, sing a joyous song.--WORDSWORTH. 7. A
  blighted spring makes a barren year.--JOHNSON. 8. Dark and neglected
  locks overshadowed his brow. 9. Imagine the wind howling, the sea
  roaring, the rain beating. 10. Lay these vain regrets aside. 11.
  Birds of passage sailed through the leaden air. 12. Authority
  forgets a dying king.--TENNYSON. 13. Three years she grew in sun and
  shower.--WORDSWORTH. 14. The sound of horns came floating from the
  valley, prolonged by the mountain echoes. 15. Hours had passed away
  like minutes. 16. Your mistrust cannot make me a traitor.--SHAKSPERE.

  17. She halted a moment before speaking. 18. The room opened on a
  terrace adorned with statues and orange trees. 19. The sun is coming
  down to earth, and the fields and the waters shout to him golden
  shouts.--MEREDITH. 20. England is unrivalled for two things--sports
  and politics.--DISRAELI. 21. Thus we lived several years in a
  state of much happiness. 22. The old gentleman’s whole countenance
  beamed with a serene look of indwelling delight. 23. I am reading
  Selwyn’s “Correspondence,” a remarkable book. 24. I have lived my
  life.--TENNYSON. 25. My heart is like a singing bird.--CHRISTINA
  ROSSETTI. 26. How like a winter hath my absence been.--SHAKSPERE.
  27. Three weeks we westward bore.--LONGFELLOW. 28. It rains
  pitchforks.--FITZ GERALD. 29. The sublimer and more passionate
  poets I still read, by snatches and occasionally.--DE QUINCEY. 30.
  Coningsby slept the deep sleep of youth and health.--DISRAELI.

  31. Thou mightst call him a goodly person. 32. My father named
  me Autolycus. 33. A country fellow brought him a huge fish. 34.
  I’ll make you the queen of Naples. 35. You call honorable boldness
  impudent sauciness.--SHAKSPERE. 36. Sir Roger generally goes two
  or three miles from his house before he beats about in search of a
  hare or partridge. 37. This misconception caused Washington some
  embarrassment. 38. I now thank you for Beattie, the most agreeable
  and amiable writer I ever met with.--COWPER.


EXERCISE 13

(§§ 97–110, pp. 47–53)

1. Write fifteen sentences, each containing a transitive verb and its
direct object (§§ 99–100).

2. Substitute a pronoun for each noun in the objective case.

3. Write ten sentences containing both a direct object and a
predicate objective (§ 104).

4. Use in sentences fifteen of the verbs in the list in § 105, each
with both a direct and an indirect object.

5. For each indirect object, substitute _to_ with an object. Change the
order, if necessary.

6. Write ten sentences, each containing a cognate object (§ 108).

7. Write ten sentences, each containing an adverbial objective (§ 109).

8. Write ten sentences, each containing a noun in apposition with a
noun in the objective case (§ 110).


EXERCISE 14

(§§ 54–112, pp. 27–54)

Parse every noun, according to the models in § 112.

  1. Pennon and banner wave no more. 2. They soon gained the utmost
  verge of the forest, and entered the country inhabited by men without
  vice.--GOLDSMITH. 3. Our avenue is strewn with the whole crop of
  autumn’s withered leaves.--HAWTHORNE. 4. He is the rich man who can
  avail himself of all men’s faculties.--EMERSON. 5. Like an awakened
  conscience, the sea was moaning and tossing.--LONGFELLOW. 6. He
  again called and whistled after his dog. 7. She wrote and addressed
  a hurried note. 8. The light and warmth of that long-vanished day
  live with me still. 9. Violet and primrose girls, and organ boys
  with military monkeys, and systematic bands very determined in tone
  if not in tune, filled the atmosphere.--MEREDITH. 10. The blood
  left Wilfrid’s ashen cheek. 11. Give us manners, virtue, freedom,
  power!--WORDSWORTH. 12. A great deal of shrubbery clusters along the
  base of the stone wall, and takes away the hardness of its outline.

  13. I travelled the whole four hundred miles between this and Madras
  on men’s shoulders. 14. Here we set up twelve little huts like
  soldiers’ tents. 15. Swiftly they glided away, like the shade of a
  cloud on the prairie. 16. Athens, even long after the decline of the
  Roman empire, still continued the seat of learning, politeness, and
  wisdom.--GOLDSMITH. 17. Four times the sun had risen and set. 18.
  Speak! speak! thou fearful guest! 19. The oak rose before me like
  a pillar of darkness. 20. Another long blast filled the old courts
  of the castle with its echoes, and was answered by the warder from
  the walls. 21. Sound, sound the clarion, fill the fife!--SCOTT. 22.
  Now, Falstaff, where have you been all this while? 23. Sounds of a
  horn they heard, and the distant lowing of cattle. 24. Homer was
  always his companion now. 25. Forgive me these injurious suspicions.
  26. O, pride! pride! it deceives me with the subtlety of a serpent.
  27. I made Mr. Wright’s gardener a present of fifty sorts of plant
  seeds. 28. Your mother and I last week made a trip to Gayhurst, the
  seat of Mr. Wright, about four miles off. 29. Beneath the shelter
  of one hut, in the bright blaze of the same fire, sat this varied
  group of adventurers. 30. The cares of to-day are seldom the cares of
  to-morrow.--COWPER.


EXERCISE 15

(§§ 115–129, pp. 55–62)

1. Parse the personal pronouns, using the models in § 168.

  1. She peeped from the window into the garden. 2. The little marquis
  immediately threw himself into the attitude of a man about to tell a
  long story. 3. It pours and it thunders, it lightens amain.--SCOTT.
  4. Master, master, look about you! 5. Leontine, with his own and his
  wife’s fortune, bought a farm of three hundred a year.--ADDISON. 6.
  The Tories carry it among the new members six to one.--SWIFT. 7. I
  wrote to him, but could tell him nothing. 8. On the next morning
  after breakfast the major went out for a walk by himself. 9. Their
  hearts quaked within them, at the idea of taking one step farther.
  10. Mrs. Forrester’s surprise was equal to ours. 11. It’s twenty
  years since he went away from home. 12. I seated myself in a recess
  of a large bow window. 13. At the last moment his heart failed him,
  and he looked round him for some mode of escape. 14. A friend of mine
  has been spending some time at Sir Walter Scott’s.

  15. Send me a letter directed to me at Mr. Watcham’s. 16. I have
  lately received from my bookseller a copy of my subscribers’ names.
  17. We came in our first morning’s march to very good springs of
  fresh water. 18. We are both of us inclined to be a little too
  positive. 19. Heyne’s best teacher was himself.--CARLYLE.

  20. Aspasia, you have lived but few years in the world, and with
  only one philosopher--yourself. 21. I got to the side in time to see
  a huge liner’s dim shape slide by like a street at night; she would
  have been invisible but for her row of lights. 22. The cataracts blow
  their trumpets from the steep.--WORDSWORTH. 23. I am he they call Old
  Care.--PEACOCK. 24. The sharp and peevish tinkle of the shop-bell
  made itself audible. 25. The heroes themselves say, as often as not,
  that fame is their object. 26. He seems to himself to touch things
  with muffled hands. 27. She took counsel with herself what must be
  done. 28. The head of the Pyncheons found himself involved in serious
  financial difficulties. 29. Ha! here is Hepzibah herself!

2. Write sentences in which the personal pronoun of the first person is
used as direct object, as indirect object, as predicate nominative; in
the possessive singular with a noun; in the possessive singular without
a noun.

3. Fill the blanks with personal pronouns of the first or the third
person.

  1. He thought the burglars were ----.

  2. He mistook the burglars for ----.

  3. William is better at his lessons than ----.

  4. It is ----.

  5. These are ----.

  6. Nobody volunteered except Edward and ----.

  7. ---- boys have formed a debating club.

  8. Mr. Jones is going to give ---- boys a baseball field.

  9. Who is there? ----.

  10. Between you and ----, I am not sorry that he has resigned.

  11. If I were ---- I would study art.

  12. Arthur likes you better than ----.

  13. Behind Ruth and ---- came the guest of honor.

  14. Automobiles are not for such as ----.

  15. It was ---- that Joseph meant.

  16. ---- two are always together.

  17. Richard dislikes everybody, ---- most of all.

4. Write sentences in which _myself_, _yourself_, _ourselves_,
_himself_, _herself_, _themselves_ are used (1) intensively, (2)
reflexively as direct object, (3) reflexively as indirect object.


EXERCISE 16

(§§ 131–142, pp. 62–65)

1. Parse the demonstratives and the indefinites. In parsing the word,
tell whether it is used as a pronoun or as an adjective. If it is used
as a pronoun, tell the number and the case and give the reason for the
case. If it is used as an adjective, mention the substantive which it
modifies.

  1. What is the meaning of all this? 2. On either side extended a
  ruinous wooden fence. 3. You have seen that picture, then! 4. This
  very Judge Pyncheon was the original of the miniature. 5. Twenty
  years ago this man was equally capable of crime or heroism; now he is
  fit for neither.--STEVENSON. 6. None are all evil. 7. Solitude has
  many a dreary hour. 8. Every science has its hitherto undiscovered
  mysteries.--GOLDSMITH. 9. The same day we visited the shores of the
  isle in the ship’s boats. 10. None but picked recruits were enlisted.
  11. A longing for the brightness and silence of fallen snow seizes
  him at such times. 12. Such were Addison’s talents for conversation.
  13. Nicholas Vedder! why, he is dead and gone these eighteen years!
  14. What a lamentable situation was that of the poor baron! 15.
  Several houses were pillaged and destroyed.

  16. Each warrior was a chosen man. 17. See how yond justice rails
  upon yond simple thief!--SHAKSPERE. 18. Our naval annals owe some
  of their interest to the fantastic and beautiful appearance of old
  warships.--STEVENSON. 19. Some are too indolent to read anything
  till its reputation is established.--JOHNSON. 20. In both sexes,
  occasionally, this lifelong croak, accompanying each word of joy or
  sorrow, is one of the symptoms of settled melancholy.--HAWTHORNE.
  21. Such voices have put on mourning for dead hopes. 22. Another
  phenomenon was a package of lucifer matches. 23. How few appear in
  those streets which but some few hours ago were crowded! 24. This was
  a very different camp from that of the night before.

  25. Alternations of wild hope and cold despair succeeded each other.
  26. The poor know best how to console each other’s sorrows. 27.
  Everybody has his own interpretation for that picture. 28. I strove
  with none, for none was worth my strife.--LANDOR. 29. Scarcely any of
  the items in the above-drawn parallel occurred to Phœbe. 30. He went
  about moping. None spake to him. No one would play with him.--LAMB.
  31. Ah, that good Kent! He said it would be thus. 32. How easy is the
  explanation to those who know! 33. There has been a quarrel between
  him and Hepzibah this many a day.

2. Fill each blank with a personal pronoun (§ 141).

  1. Each of us should do ---- best.

  2. Everybody thinks ---- own way is wise.

  3. If anybody has a better plan, now is the time for ---- to speak.

  4. It was an old-fashioned picnic, every person furnishing ---- share
  of the provisions.

  5. When anybody is talking, it is bad manners to interrupt ----.


EXERCISE 17

(§§ 143–156, pp. 66–71)

1. Parse the relative pronouns, using the models in § 168.

  1. The lights in the shops could hardly struggle through the heavy
  mist, which thickened every moment. 2. I shall not budge from the
  position that I have taken up. 3. The land of literature is a fairy
  land to those who view it at a distance.--IRVING. 4. I hate people
  who meet Time half-way.--LAMB. 5. The weather, which had been stormy
  and unsettled, moderated toward the evening. 6. He that once indulges
  idle fears will never be at rest.--JOHNSON. 7. The only ford by
  which the travellers could cross was guarded by a party of militia.
  8. One dark unruly night she issued secretly out of a small postern
  gate of the castle, which the enemy had neglected to guard. 9. I
  paused to contemplate a tomb on which lay the effigy of a knight
  in complete armor. 10. He who loves the sea loves also the ship’s
  routine.--CONRAD. 11. There were two or three indefatigable men among
  them, by whose courage and industry all the rest were upheld.--DEFOE.

  12. Thou hadst a voice whose sound was like the sea.--WORDSWORTH.
  13. They slander thee sorely who say thy vows are frail.--MOORE. 14.
  The first great poet whose works have come down to us, sang of war
  long before war became a science or a trade.---MACAULAY. 15. The
  gusts that drove against the high house seemed ready to tear it from
  its foothold of rock. 16. At its western side is a deep ravine or
  valley, through which a small stream rushes. 17. A weak mother, who
  perpetually threatens and never performs, is laying up miseries both
  for herself and for her children.--SPENCER. 18. As they approached, a
  raven, who sat upon the topmost stone, black against the bright blue
  sky, flapped lazily away.--KINGSLEY. 19. To such of her neighbors as
  needed other attention, she would give her time, her assistance, her
  skill. 20. It was such a battle-axe as Rustum may have wielded in
  fight upon the banks of Oxus. 21. I may neither choose whom I would,
  nor refuse whom I dislike.

2. Point out the descriptive and the restrictive relatives in 1 (above).

3. Write ten sentences, each containing a descriptive relative; ten
sentences, each containing a restrictive relative.

4. Fill the blanks with relatives. In the first eight sentences, at
least, use _who_ or _whom_.

  1. This is the boy ---- I recommended.

  2. The boy ---- I recommended is a Swede.

  3. The boy ---- brought the letter is not the one ---- I recommended.

  4. I told Anna, ---- I knew would keep my secret.

  5. I told Anna, ---- I knew I could trust.

  6. I told Anna, ---- I knew to be trustworthy.

  7. I told Anna, ---- I knew intimately.

  8. No one ---- you know lives in this street.

  9. All ---- I can say is, I am sorry.

  10. Give me the same horse ---- I had yesterday.

  11. A dog, ---- showed his teeth and growled, blocked the way.

  12. Choose the partner ---- you like best.

  13. The policeman was leading a little child ---- had lost its mother.

  14. Take such measures ---- you deem necessary.

  15. Take ---- measures seem necessary.

  16. Take the measures ---- seem to you necessary.

  17. My hat is of the same size ---- yours.

  18. This is the picture ---- I am so proud of.

  19. This is the picture of ---- I am so proud.

  20. The man ---- is talking to Henry is the one ---- owns this house.

5. Supply the relatives that are “understood” (§ 151).

  1. It was a bold step she had taken.

  2. I am not altogether unqualified for the business I have in hand.

  3. His taste of books is a little too just for the age he lives in.

  4. Censure is the tax a man pays to the public for being eminent.

  5. Who is the wittiest man you know?

  6. Morton was the only friend I had.

  7. That sonata was the first piece I learned.

  8. Ten dollars is the price he asks.

  9. Are you the man I bought the coat of?

  10. This is the book we are reading evenings.

  11. Take any seat you like.

  12. “Faust” is the only opera I care for.

  13. I have done all I can.


EXERCISE 18

(§§ 157–162, pp. 71–73)

Parse the relatives.

  1. Whatever wisdom and energy could do William did. 2. Whatever is
  done skilfully appears to be done with ease. 3. We must suspect what
  we see, distrust what we hear, and doubt even what we feel!--MISS
  BURNEY. 4. Whoever has been in a state of nervous agitation, must
  know that the longer it continues the more uncontrollable it
  grows.--IRVING. 5. Time hath reft whate’er my soul enjoyed.--BYRON.
  6. The gallant major showed no hesitation whatever. 7. Whoever has
  made a voyage up the Hudson must remember the Kaatskill Mountains.
  8. A recollection of what I had seen and felt the preceding night
  still haunted my mind. 9. Hard work was what he needed now. 10.
  Whatever regrets Mrs. Thorverton might indulge in secret, she had had
  the strength of mind to hide them. 11. Like all weak men, they had
  recourse to what they called strong measures. 12. We see in him a
  freer, purer development of whatever is noblest in ourselves. 13. Sir
  Roger was what you call a fine gentleman. 14. Sweet princes, what I
  did, I did in honor.--SHAKSPERE. 15. He was really interested in what
  Coningsby had seen and what he had felt. 16. What was to be seen at
  Naples, Addison saw.


EXERCISE 19

(§§ 163–168, pp. 73–74)

Parse the interrogative pronouns, mentioning gender, number, person,
and case. If the interrogative word is an adjective, tell what noun it
limits.

  1. Who would not sing for Lycidas? 2. What that sigh meant I cannot
  say. 3. Columns, arches, pyramids, what are they but heaps of sand?
  4. Which of the two was daughter to the duke? 5. Whom next shall
  we summon from the dusty dead?--LAMB. 6. Why! Peggy, what have you
  brought us? 7. What’s fame? A fancied life in others’ breath.--POPE.
  8. To what shall I compare it? 9. And what art thou, O melancholy
  voice?--SHELLEY. 10. Proud sufferer, who art thou? 11. What were
  Swigby’s former pursuits I can’t tell. What need we care? Hadn’t he
  five hundred a year? Ay, that he had.--THACKERAY. 12. What does it
  matter? 13. Which way have you looked for Master Caius? 14. What
  business had they in Prussia?


EXERCISE 20

(§§ 163–168, pp. 73–74)

Fill each blank with _who_ or _whom_, as the construction may require.

  1. He asked me ---- was elected.

  2. From ---- did she hear this news?

  3. To ---- did you apply for assistance?

  4. ---- do you regard as the better scholar of the two?

  5. ---- shall I ask for the key?

  6. ---- did you see when you called?

  7. ---- do you think is the best physician in town?

  8. ---- can I trust in such an emergency?

  9. With ---- have you discussed this affair?

  10. ---- do you suppose this letter is from?

  11. ---- do you suppose I am?

  12. ---- do you suppose I saw?

  13. ---- do you think will help us?


EXERCISE 21

(§§ 113–168, pp. 55–74)

Point out each pronoun; tell to what class it belongs, and give its
construction.

  1. His mind now misgave him. 2. Under the dark and haunted garret
  were attic chambers which themselves had histories. 3. Passion itself
  is very figurative, and often bursts out into metaphors.--GOLDSMITH.
  4. He had a wiry, well-trained, elastic figure, a stiff military
  throw-back of his head, and a springing step, which made him appear
  much younger than he was. 5. It was the owl that shrieked. 6. Slowly,
  slowly, slowly the days succeeded each other. 7. Say nothing to the
  men, but have all your wits about you. 8. He saw that it would be
  dark long before he could reach the village. 9. I must do myself the
  justice to open the work with my own history. 10. Economy in our
  affairs has the same effect upon our fortunes which good breeding
  has upon our conversations.--STEELE. 11. It was a cloudy night, with
  frequent showers of rain. 12. “Fair sirs,” said Arthur, “wherefore
  sit ye here?” 13. Who would be free, themselves must strike the
  blow.--BYRON. 14. This is my son, mine own Telemachus.--TENNYSON.

  15. Richard bade them adieu. 16. Ye men of Kent, ’tis victory or
  death!--WORDSWORTH. 17. We dined yesterday with your friend and mine,
  the most companionable and domestic Mr. C. 18. Great is the power of
  the man who has nothing to lose.--DOYLE. 19. Each hamlet started at
  the sound. 20. Look on me with thine own calm look. 21. Mr. Rigby
  was not a man who ever confessed himself at fault. 22. They were
  conversing with much earnestness among themselves. 23. He heard the
  deep behind him, and a cry before. 24. When Deerslayer reached the
  fire, he found himself surrounded by no less than eight grim savages.
  25. Mine hostess, indeed, gave me a long history how the goblet had
  been handed down from generation to generation. 26. The uncle and
  nephew looked at each other for some seconds without speaking. 27. We
  had yet seen no wild beasts, or, at least, none that came very near
  us.--DEFOE. 28. We envy you your sea-breezes. 29. Which is he that
  killed the deer? 30. There was the choice, and it was still open to
  him to take which side he pleased. 31. There is always something to
  worry you. It comes as regularly as sunrise.


EXERCISE 22

(§§ 169–188, pp. 75–82)

1. Point out every adjective. Tell whether it is descriptive or
definitive (§§ 169–171), and mention the substantive to which it
belongs. If the adjective can be compared, give its three degrees of
comparison.[51]

  1. The old, unpainted shingles of the house were black with moisture.
  2. “My very dog,” sighed poor Rip, “has forgotten me!” 3. Loud was
  the lightsome tumult on the shore.--BYRON. 4. Sweet are the shy
  recesses of the woodland. 5. Rows of pewter and earthen dishes
  glittered along the dresser. 6. The major spoke in a matter-of-fact
  way. 7. The sheep and the cow have no cutting teeth, but only a hard
  pad in the upper jaw.--HUXLEY. 8. The faint, foggy daylight glimmered
  dimly on the bare floor and stairs. 9. He wiped his serious,
  perplexed face on a red bandanna handkerchief, a shade lighter
  than his complexion. 10. The yellow moonlight sleeps on all the
  hills.--BEATTIE. 11. The young hostess seemed to perform her office
  with a certain degree of desperate determination. 12. This warning is
  meant in a friendly spirit.

  13. The house remained untenanted for three years. 14. Numberless
  torrents, with ceaseless sound, descend to the ocean. 15. The contest
  between the two branches of the legislature lasted some days longer.

2. Write five sentences containing descriptive adjectives; five
containing definitive adjectives.

3. Write sentences containing demonstrative, indefinite, relative, and
interrogative adjectives.

4. Write sentences in which the indefinite article is directly followed
by--

  honorable, youthful, yew, ewe, euphonious, historical, history, hymn,
  humble, hilarious, university, express, horticultural, oratorio,
  automatic, heritage, harmonious.


EXERCISE 23

(§§ 181–187, pp. 79–82)

Point out the comparatives and the superlatives. Mention any
superlatives used for emphasis (§ 200).

  1. The Governor-General is the frankest and best-natured of men. 2.
  The company grew merrier and louder as their jokes grew duller. 3. A
  knock alarmed the outer gate. 4. At once there came the politest and
  friendliest reply. 5. Many a poet has been poorer than Burns, but no
  one was ever prouder.--CARLYLE. 6. The last tyrant ever proves the
  worst.--POPE. 7. The profoundest secrecy was observed in the whole
  transaction. 8. Earth has not anything to show more fair. 9. The
  natural principle of war is to do the most harm to our enemy with the
  least harm to ourselves.--IRVING. 10. During the rest of the journey,
  Rose was in the strangest state of mind. 11. There’s not a nobler
  man in Rome than Antony. 12. Little he ate, and less he spake. 13.
  Our journey hither was through the most beautiful part of the finest
  country in the world. 14. Meanwhile the throng without was constantly
  becoming more numerous and more savage. 15. Vain are his weapons,
  vainer is his force. 16. She might have been more lenient.

  17. You’ll have to be more practical. 18. How does a love of gain
  transform the gravest of mankind into the most contemptible and
  ridiculous!--GOLDSMITH. 19. Most authors speak of their fame as if it
  were quite a priceless matter.

  20. Loveliest and best! thou little know’st
      The rank, the honor, thou hast lost!--SCOTT.

  21. Of two such lessons, why forget
      The nobler and the manlier one?--BYRON.



EXERCISE 24

(§§ 189–198, pp. 83–87)

1. Parse each adverb by telling whether it is an adverb of manner,
time, place, or degree, and by mentioning the verb, adjective, or
adverb which it modifies. Compare the adverbs which are capable of
comparison.

  1. A great part of the island is rather level. 2. They had worked
  very hard and very cheerfully. 3. When spake I such a word? 4. We can
  ill spare the commanding social benefits of cities.--EMERSON. 5. She
  looked up and met his eyes, and thereupon both became very grave. 6.
  The silence of the prairie at night was well-nigh terrible. 7. Far in
  the West there lies a desert land. 8. The whistling ploughman stalks
  afield. 9. Swiftly they glided along. 10. He has only just arrived
  in England. 11. Fast the white rocks faded from his view. 12. Whole
  ranks instantly laid down their pikes and muskets. 13. Thick clouds
  of dust afar appeared. 14. Bitter sobs came thick and fast. 15. How
  long are you going to be in Paris? 16. To-morrow I intend to hunt
  again. 17. Answer made King Arthur, breathing hard. 18. Some of us
  laughed heartily. 19. They had spoken simply and openly about that
  from the very start.

2. Form an adverb of manner from each of the following adjectives. Use
each adverb in a sentence. Tell what it modifies.

  Proud, careless, vehement, tender, vigorous, dainty, brave, formal,
  courteous, blunt, sharp, keen, weary, heavy, true, skilful, legible.

3. Fill each blank with an adverb of degree modifying the adjective or
the adverb.

  1. Ogilvie was ---- lucky that day.

  2. They were thought to be ---- fashionable people.

  3. She made her objections ---- delicately as she could.

  4. July has been ---- hot.

  5. Carlyle was ---- dainty about his food.

  6. Jack did not come early ---- to find a seat.

  7. The tide runs ---- fast round this point.

  8. The balloon soared ---- high that it disappeared.

  9. The fugitive reached the pier ---- late to take the steamer.

  10. The bear growled ---- savagely that the dogs were frightened.

  11. You write ---- more legibly than I.


EXERCISE 25

(§§ 194–196, p. 86)

1. Point out the relative adverbs, and mention the subordinate clause
introduced by each. Tell whether each adverb expresses time, place, or
manner.

  1. Just as the sun went down, they heard a murmur of voices. 2. On
  waking, he found himself on the green knoll whence he had first seen
  the old man of the glen. 3. There is no place of general resort
  wherein I do not often make my appearance. 4. Wherever he determines
  to sleep, there he prepares himself a sort of nest. 5. I hastened to
  the spot whence I had come. 6. Where rolled the ocean, thereon was
  his home.--BYRON. 7. Where shineth thy spirit, there liberty shineth
  too!--MOORE. 8. He will look on the world, wheresoever he can catch
  a glimpse of it, with eager curiosity. 9. Until Lady Glenmore came
  to call next day, we heard of nothing unusual. 10. When she and Miss
  Pole left us, we endeavored to subside into calmness. 11. Small
  service is true service while it lasts. 12. Long before we saw the
  sea, its spray was on our lips. 13. As they ascended, Rip every now
  and then heard long rolling peals, like distant thunder. 14. The
  village clock struck five as Mr. Millbank and his guests entered the
  gardens of the mansion. 15. When only a small space was left between
  the armies, the Highlanders suddenly drew their broadswords and
  rushed forward with a fearful yell.--MACAULAY. 16. When he rejoined
  his companions, he said something to them in Welsh.

2. Point out the interrogative adverbs, and tell what each modifies.

  1. Why look’st thou so? 2. Whence came ye, jolly satyrs? whence
  came ye?--KEATS. 3. Where now shall I go, poor, forsaken, and
  blind?--CAMPBELL. 4. Why weep ye by the tide?--SCOTT. 5. See how
  the world its veterans rewards!--POPE. 6. How wildly will ambition
  steer!--DRYDEN. 7. Where have you been these twenty long years? 8.
  Here was a Cæsar! When comes such another?--SHAKSPERE. 9. When shall
  we three meet again? 10. History is clarified experience, and yet how
  little do men profit by it! Nay, how should we expect it of those who
  so seldom are taught anything by their own?--LOWELL. 11. Why did you
  not bring what I asked for?

3. Write ten sentences containing relative adverbs; ten containing
interrogative adverbs.


EXERCISE 26

(§§ 197–203, pp. 87–89)

1. Point out the comparatives and superlatives. Tell whether each is an
adjective or an adverb.

  1. I thought it the most prudent method to lie still. 2. When the
  people observed I was quiet, they discharged no more arrows. 3. You
  know your own feelings best. 4. He was taller than any of the other
  three who attended him. 5. The song and the laugh grew less and less
  frequent. 6. The harder I try to forget it, the more it comes into
  my mind. 7. The night grew darker and darker; the stars seemed to
  sink deeper in the sky. 8. I answered in a few words, but in a most
  submissive manner. 9. Their sight is much more acute than ours. 10.
  The natives came by degrees to be less apprehensive of any danger
  from me. 11. Whoever performs his part with the most agility, and
  holds out longest in leaping, is rewarded with the blue-colored silk.
  12. It received less damage than I expected. 13. Long live the most
  puissant king of Lilliput! 14. Fast are the flying moments, faster
  are the hoofs of our horses. 15. Nigh come the strangers and more
  nigh.--SCOTT.

2. Write sentences containing either the comparative or the superlative
of the following words:--

  merry, uncomfortable, ill, joyfully, northern, old (_both forms_),
  far, in, out, early, little (_adjective_), little (_adverb_), badly,
  often, worthy, wonderful, accurate, far, nigh, top, much, severe.

3. Write six sentences containing adverbs which are incapable of
comparison; six containing adjectives which are incapable of comparison.


EXERCISE 27

(§§ 204–208, pp. 89–90)

1. Write five sentences in which cardinal numerals are adjectives, five
in which they are nouns. Use the same numerals in the ordinal form as
adjectives, as nouns.

2. Write five sentences, each containing a numeral adverb; five
containing an adverbial phrase that includes a numeral.


EXERCISE 28

(§§ 209–215, pp. 91–93)

1. Point out all the verbs and verb-phrases. Tell whether each is
transitive or intransitive. Tell which are copulative; which are
auxiliary. Mention any examples of the copula.

  1. Little tasks make large return. 2. We must now return to the
  fortress of Tillietudlem and its inhabitants. 3. Though I look old,
  yet I am strong and lusty. 4. The sunshine might now be seen stealing
  down the front of the opposite house. 5. He sat apart from them all,
  and looked at them with a melancholy, haughty countenance; while the
  rest hallooed and sang and laughed, and the room rang. 6. You cannot
  relieve me, but you may add to the torments I suffer. 7. One gains
  nothing by attempting to shut out the sprites of the weather. They
  come in at the keyhole; they peer through the dripping panes; they
  insinuate themselves through the crevices of the casement, or plump
  themselves down chimney astride of the raindrops.--WHITTIER. 8. A
  large lamp threw a strong mass of light upon the group. 9. The baron
  pardoned the young couple on the spot. 10. Every now and then he
  would turn his head slowly round.

  11. The river sleeps along its course and dreams of the sky and of
  the clustering foliage. 12. A severe gale compelled him to seek
  shelter. 13. Miss Betsy Barker dried her eyes and thanked the Captain
  heartily. 14. Pray you, look not sad. 15. I am! yet what I am who
  cares, or knows?--CLARE. 16. After all, it is a glorious pastime to
  find oneself in a real gale of wind, in a big ship, with not a rock
  to run against within a thousand miles.--KINGSLEY. 17. We will talk
  over all this another time. 18. What is progress? Movement. But what
  if it be movement in the wrong direction?--DISRAELI. 19. They say
  you are a melancholy fellow. 20. The valiant Clifford is no more.
  21. The wreck had evidently drifted about for many months; clusters
  of shellfish had fastened about it, and long seaweed flaunted at its
  sides.--IRVING. 22. Times grew worse and worse with Rip Van Winkle as
  years of matrimony rolled on.

2. Frame twenty sentences, each containing a verb-phrase. Use
the auxiliaries mentioned in § 210. Let some of the sentences be
interrogative.

3. Make a list of twenty verbs that are transitive in one sense,
intransitive in another (§ 212). Use these verbs in sentences.

4. Illustrate the absolute use of transitive verbs by framing ten
sentences (§ 213).

5. Make a list of six copulative verbs (§ 214). Use them in sentences.
Frame sentences in which the same verbs are not copulative (§ 215).

6. Use the copula (§ 214) in twenty sentences, several of which shall
illustrate its use in verb-phrases.


EXERCISE 29

(§§ 217–225, pp. 94–99)

1. Write ten sentences in each of which a weak (or regular) verb is
used in the past tense; ten, in each of which a strong (or irregular)
verb is used in the past tense.

2. Construct sentences in which the past tense of each of the following
verbs is used: _drink_, _lie_, _sow_, _get_, _wake_, _dwell_, _sing_,
_pay_, _bid_, _light_, _bereave_, _build_, _ride_, _hang_, _swim_,
_lay_, _split_, _shrink_, _slay_, _wring_, _weave_, _thrive_, _spin_,
_tread_, _shake_, _burst_, _slink_, _dive_, _flee_, _fly_, _swing_,
_wet_, _fling_, _kneel_, _let_, _chide_.

3. Point out all the verbs (except the copula and auxiliaries) in
Exercise 28, 1, and conjugate them in the present and the past tense.
Tell which are weak (regular) and which are strong (irregular). Account
for the person and number.


EXERCISE 30

(§§ 226–232, pp. 100–102)

1. Fill each blank with _am_, _is_, or _are_.

  1. England and the United States ---- at peace.

  2. Neither Arthur nor John ---- right.

  3. Either a saw or an axe ---- necessary.

  4. Either you or Dorothy ---- going.

  5. You and I ---- going.

  6. You and he ---- going.

  7. Is it Mr. Allen or is it his children who ---- going?

  8. Either he ---- going or you ----.

  9. Either you ---- going or I ----.

  10. The sum and substance of the article ---- this.

  11. Half the sheep ---- missing.

  12. A number of Italians ---- present.

  13. The number of Italians in this town ---- small.

  14. Mathematics ---- my most difficult study.

  15. The number of applicants ---- not sufficient

  16. A number of reasons ---- alleged.

  17. The jury ---- in agreement.

  18. The jury ---- being charged by the judge.

  19. The committee ---- composed of five members.

  20. The committee ---- always wrangling with one another.

  21. I, who ---- only a beginner, cannot compete with Richards, who
  ---- an expert.

  22. He is one of those men who ---- always out of work.

  23. I am not a man who ---- easily frightened.

  24. Walter is one of the best fellows there ---- in this town.

  25. Is it the king and queen who ---- coming?

  26. Is it the king or the queen who ---- coming?

  27. They made me, who ---- the shyest of mortals, respond to a toast.

  28. A gift of four hundred books, eighteen maps, and ten plaster
  casts ---- to be made to our school.

  29. Vocal and instrumental music ---- taught here.

  30. Neither vocal nor instrumental music ---- taught here.

  31. Neither elementary nor advanced physics ---- taught here.

  32. Neither organic nor inorganic chemists ---- trained here.

  33. One or two pages ---- missing.

  34. Physics, together with algebra and Latin, ---- taught the first
  year.

  35. Stevenson’s “Memories and Portraits” ---- lying on the table.

  36. The insurgent general with ten of his followers ---- said to have
  surrendered.

  37. James, as well as his sisters, ---- coming.

  38. Six months ---- a long time to wait.

  39. A series of lectures ---- given here every winter.

2. Make a list of ten collective nouns. Use them in sentences (1) with
a singular verb, (2) with a plural verb. Explain the difference in
meaning.

3. Use the relative _who_ in ten sentences in which the antecedent is
in the first or the second person.


EXERCISE 31

(§§ 233–241, pp. 102–105)

1. Explain the use of _will_ and _shall_ in the following sentences.

  1. We shall never forget what you have done for us. 2. “You ought to
  know my military secretary,” said the general, as Lothair entered,
  “and therefore I will introduce you.” 3. I am very patient; I will
  wait. 4. If I do return, I will vote against them. But I will not
  return. I have made up my mind to that. 5. I will send you Jennings’s
  poem, if you like. 6. You will of course make a drawing and an
  estimate, and send them to me (§ 240). 7. Do congratulate her for me,
  will you? 8. Another Athens shall arise.--SHELLEY. 9. “I won’t allow
  it!” cried Lady Niton, “he sha’n’t go!” 10. Shall I find you at home
  if I call some day soon, between five and six o’clock? 11. You must
  be convinced, and on reflection you will be convinced. 12. Before my
  journey to Rochdale, you shall have due notice where to address me.
  13. I consider myself a first-rate shot, and you shall practise with
  me. 14. Shall I ever forget that party? 15. Shall you hunt to-morrow,
  Mr. Deronda? 16. When shall you be at Cambridge?

  17. Lady St. Jerome is a little indisposed--a cold caught at one of
  her bazaars. She will hold them, and they say that no one ever sells
  so much.--DISRAELI. 18. Will you be good enough to keep an account
  of all the manuscripts you receive, for fear of omission? 19. O
  rest ye, brother mariners, we will not wander more.--TENNYSON. 20.
  Will you forward the inclosed immediately to Corbet, whose address
  I do not exactly remember? 21. Byron was no common man: yet if we
  examine his poetry with this view, we shall find it far enough from
  faultless.--CARLYLE. 22. I shall be in town by Sunday next, and will
  call and have some conversation on the subject of Westall’s proposed
  design. 23. Will you go down, dear? I will follow you in a moment.
  24. Will not your trip to Bath afford you an opportunity to take a
  peep at Weston? 25. Never, as long as I live, will I speak to you
  again, nor shall Harry, whom you have humiliated!

  26. Yet he for whom I grieve shall never know it. 27. Shall you
  let him go to Italy? 28. Prone to the dust Oppression shall be
  hurled.--CAMPBELL. 29. You sha’n’t go on with this affair, I tell
  you, Harry. 30. I shall probably return this evening, but I will see
  you before I go.--TROLLOPE. 31. In the interim I shall leave town; on
  Sunday I shall set out for Herefordshire, from whence, when wanted, I
  will return. 32. If my father does not return with me in the spring,
  it shall not be for want of urging on my part.--COOPER.

2. Fill each blank with _will_ or _shall_.

  1. I ---- be glad to see you.

  2. We ---- be obliged to go home early.

  3. I ---- help you whenever you wish.

  4. I promise that he ---- not trouble you again.

  5. You ---- be kind enough to take your seat.

  6. We ---- miss our train, I fear.

  7. I must hurry or I ---- be late.

  8. Robert ---- have as much as is good for him.

  9. Arthur ---- disobey me in spite of all I can do.

  10. Arthur ---- obey you, I am sure.

  11. Arthur ---- obey me, or I ---- punish him.

  12. If we reject these offers, we ---- regret it.

  13. I ---- no longer endure his insolence.

  14. ---- they return in season for dinner?

  15. I ---- have to excuse you this time, I suppose.

  16. I ---- gladly see you at any time.

  17. You ---- not leave this room until you have confessed.

  18. He ---- give you the money, I feel confident.

  19. He ---- give you the money, or I ---- have no more to do with him.

  20. ---- we allow them to do as they please?

3. Write declarative sentences, using _will_ or _shall_ in the first
person (singular or plural) to express a threat, a promise, resolution,
consent, desire, determination, simple futurity.

4. Fill the blanks in the following questions with _will_ or _shall_.
Write sentences (using _will_ or _shall_) in answer.

  1. ---- you promise to do better?

  2. ---- you make any promises if he insists?

  3. ---- we miss our train?

  4. ---- we go? Just ask us!

  5. ---- I go now? I fear I am wearying you.

  6. ---- I tell you what I really think?

  7. ---- you call a cab for me, if you please?

  8. ---- you be glad to see him?

  9. ---- you see me if I call at one o’clock?

  10. ---- we see you this evening?

  11. ---- you be kind enough to open that door, or ---- I?

  12. ---- you miss your brother?

  13. ---- we wait here, or ---- you relent and let us go with you?

  14. ---- we allow this evil to continue?

  15. ---- you forgive me?


EXERCISE 32

(§§ 242–245, pp. 106–107)

1. Name all the complete (or compound) tenses and explain their
formation.

  1. Four long years in the times of the war had he languished a
  captive.--LONGFELLOW. 2. The adventurer has subsequently returned to
  his native country. 3. Spiders had built their webs in the angles of
  the walls and ceilings. 4. Whole fleets had been cast away. Large
  mansions had been blown down. 5. I am just returned from staying
  three days at a delightful inn by the river Ouse, where we always go
  to fish (§ 242, 1, note).--FITZ GERALD. 6. In the evening we reached
  a village where I had determined to pass the night. 7. I have sent by
  the Gisbornes a copy of the “Elegy on Keats.” 8. I have really done
  my best. 9. Our visits to the islands have been more like dreams than
  realities. 10. We are here arrived at the crisis of Burns’s life. 11.
  The chills of a long winter had suddenly given way; the north wind
  had spent its last gasp; and a mild air came stealing from the west.
  12. The officer at last turned away, having satisfied himself that
  the room was empty. 13. Carson will have reached shelter long before
  this.

2. Construct ten sentences in which the verbs in Exercise 29, 2 are
used in the perfect tense.

3. Turn the verbs in these sentences into the pluperfect tense; into
the future perfect tense. Write sentences in which the same verbs are
used as perfect participles; as perfect infinitives.


EXERCISE 33

(§§ 246–254, pp. 107–112)

1. Tell whether each verb is in the active or the passive voice.

2. If the verb is active, change it to the passive, and make such other
changes as may be necessary. If the verb is passive, change it to the
active.

3. Conjugate each verb in the tense in which it occurs.

  1. The customs of mankind are influenced in many ways by climate. 2.
  The door, which was slightly ajar, was suddenly pushed open. 3. The
  landlord handed the stranger the newspaper. 4. After a short pause,
  my host resumed his narration. 5. During the greater part of that
  night my slumbers were disturbed by strange dreams. 6. Not a word was
  spoken, not a sound was made. 7. The great willow tree had caught
  and retained among its leaves a whole cataract of water. 8. Early in
  the morning I was awakened by the voices of Peter and his wife. 9.
  He that is loudly praised will be clamorously censured.--JOHNSON.
  10. Out of this story he formed a tragedy. 11. The assailants were
  repulsed in their first attack, and several of their bravest officers
  were shot down in the act of storming the fortress sword in hand. 12.
  This fatal question has disturbed the quiet of many other minds. 13.
  No genius was ever blasted by the breath of critics.--JOHNSON. 14.
  The jury then heard the opinion of the judge.

  15. What cruel maxims are we taught by a knowledge of the
  world!--MISS BURNEY. 16. Their departure made another material change
  at Mansfield. 17. The appearance of a housemaid prevented any further
  conversation. 18. Each word of this leave-taking was overheard by
  Kezia. 19. Before nine o’clock next morning the two canoes were
  installed on a light country cart. 20. An old harper was summoned
  from the servants’ hall. 21. He had been wounded at Waterloo. 22.
  This advice struck the disputants dumb. 23. Through the night were
  heard the mysterious sounds of the desert. 24. A violent storm of
  rain obliged them to take shelter in an inn. 25. Far was heard the
  fox’s yell.--SCOTT. 26. Adams highly commended the doctor’s opinion.

4. Rewrite the following sentences, changing the form of the verbs from
active to passive, or from passive to active. Notice the effect upon
subjects and objects.

  1. I was brought up by my uncle. 2. I have found them. 3. We were
  delayed by the storm. 4. They were warned by the pilot. 5. She saw
  us. 6. That winter will never be forgotten by any of us. 7. You
  surprise me. 8. Will you meet me? 9. Was he struck by a bullet? 10.
  Have you forgotten me? 11. How the crowd cheered him! 12. Tom, the
  blacksmith, makes horseshoes. 13. The schooner was run down by the
  steamship. 14. The old man has opened a little shop. 15. Mary has
  invited Ellen. 16. Mary might have invited Ellen. 17. Mary will
  invite Ellen. 18. The storm has made great havoc along the coast.
  19. The children have been called home by their nurse. 20. He vexes
  me. 21. The tower was struck by lightning yesterday. 22. A policeman
  helped her over the crossing. 23. I was amused by your letter.

5. Use each of the following verbs in both the active and the passive
of the past, the future, and the perfect (or present perfect):--_send_,
_bring_, _teach_, _drink_, _get_, _set_, _lay_, _leave_, _find_,
_forget_.

6. Use each of the verbs in § 105 in the active voice of the past tense
with both a direct and an indirect object. Change to the passive.


EXERCISE 34

(§§ 255–261, pp. 113–114)

1. Point out all the progressive and all the emphatic verb-phrases.
Mention the tense and voice of each. Note any instances where _do_ and
_did_ are not emphatic.

  1. Thus did the long sad years glide on. 2. Now pray do settle in
  England. 3. Meanwhile, I go about in my little ship, where I do think
  I have two honest fellows to deal with. 4. I remember. I do indeed
  remember--too well! 5. Not until it was broad daylight did I quit
  the haunted house. 6. Do but look on her eyes. 7. Roland reached the
  boat just as the gang plank was being hauled in. 8. We are being
  entertained by the Archers. 9. The man at our wheel was spinning his
  spokes desperately to avoid banging into vessels we could not see,
  but whose bells were ringing everywhere about us. 10. Wild weeds are
  gathering on the wall. 11. I did actually pick up a French crown
  piece, worth about a dollar and six cents, near high-water mark. 12.
  I was loitering about the old gray cloisters of Westminster Abbey.
  13. The friends of Coningsby were now hourly arriving. 14. My eyes
  have been leaving me in the lurch again.

  15. They had been for some time passing through narrow gorges of
  the mountains, along the edges of a tumbling stream. 16. We are
  just sitting down to dinner with a pleasant party. 17. The large
  Newfoundland house-dog was standing by the door. 18. “Do thou,”
  said Bertram, “lead the way.”--SCOTT. 19. Music in his ears his
  beating heart did make. 20. Over the hillsides the wild knell is
  tolling.--HOLMES.

2. Write sentences in which the verb _teach_ is used in the present
progressive, past progressive, future progressive, perfect progressive,
pluperfect progressive, and future perfect progressive tenses of the
active voice.

3. Write ten questions containing some form of _do_ (or _did_).


EXERCISE 35

(§§ 262–286, pp. 115–123)

Point out all the verbs in the imperative or the subjunctive mood. Tell
the subjects of the imperatives and explain the forms and uses of the
subjunctives.

  1. And now dispatch we toward the court, my lords.--SHAKSPERE. 2. I
  think you had better speak to Lady Corisande yourself (§ 285). 3. My
  dear boy, God bless thee a thousand times over! 4. O that the desert
  were my dwelling place! 5. “Rest we here,” Matilda said.--SCOTT.
  6. Go where thy destiny calls thee. 7. Now Hesper guide my
  feet.--AKENSIDE. 8. O that such hills upheld a freeborn race!--BYRON.
  9. Perish those riches which are acquired at the expense of my honor
  or my humanity!--GOLDSMITH. 10. Would all were well! but that will
  never be.--SHAKSPERE. 11. The distaff were more fitting for you. 12.
  Robert hesitated, as if he were inclined to refuse. 13. Do what they
  might, the hook was in their gills.--GEORGE MEREDITH. 14. Fare you
  well, fair gentlemen.--SHAKSPERE. 15. Suffice it to say, the robbers
  were defeated. 16. Disclose thy treachery, or die! 17. Let us not be
  influenced by any angry feelings. 18. Be that as it may, Kidd never
  returned to recover his wealth.

  19. I would to God my heart were flint, like Edward’s.--SHAKSPERE.
  20. Move we on.--SCOTT. 21. Mark that the signal-gun be duly
  fired.--BYRON. 22. The hull drives on, though mast and sail be
  torn. 23. I am glad that you liked my song, and, if I liked the
  others myself so well as that I sent you, I would transcribe them
  for you also.--COWPER. 24. I beseech you, punish me not with your
  hard thoughts.--SHAKSPERE. 25. If there be change, no change I
  see.--LANDOR. 26. Be it as thou wilt. 27. Weep you no more, sad
  fountains. 28. If thou leave thy father, he will die.--WORDSWORTH.
  29. Come thou no more for ransom, gentle herald.--SHAKSPERE. 30.
  Learn thou his purpose. 31. Come, go we in procession to the
  village.--SHAKSPERE. 32. The destruction of property which took place
  within a few weeks would be incredible, if it were not attested by
  witnesses unconnected with each other and attached to very different
  interests.

  33. I wish I were as I have been,
      Hunting the hart in forest green.--SCOTT.

  34. Come what come may,
      Time and the hour runs through the roughest day.--SHAKSPERE.

  35. Buried be all that has been done,
      Or say that naught is done amiss.--CRABBE.



EXERCISE 36

(§§ 272–286, pp. 118–123)

Fill each blank with a verb in the appropriate form.

  1. O that he ---- here!

  2. Would that I ---- there!

  3. If he ---- a little older, I should take him into partnership.

  4. ---- you asked me to go, I should have refused.

  5. ---- you to ask me, I should refuse.

  6. If you ---- there, I should have seen you.

  7. I am glad I saw the play, even if I ---- a little disappointed.

  8. I should have been glad to see the play, even if I ---- a little
  disappointed.

  9. I should be glad to see the play, even if I ---- a little
  disappointed.

  10. I shall be glad to see the play, even if I ---- a little
  disappointed.

  11. Though he ---- to increase my salary, I should not remain in his
  employ. [Use the copula.]

  12. Unless he ---- to increase my salary, I should not remain in his
  employ. [Use the copula.]

  13. When Tom saw you, you looked as if you ---- angry. [Use the
  copula.]

  14. When Tom sees you, I suppose you will look as if you ---- angry.

  15. I must remind him to post this letter, lest he ---- it.


EXERCISE 37

(§§ 287–295, pp. 124–127)

Explain the meaning of each potential verb-phrase, and parse the
phrase. In parsing such a phrase, describe it merely as a potential
verb-phrase and tell the tense, voice, person, and number, without
assigning it to any mood.

  1. Enough! You may depart. 2. Men should travel. 3. What must be
  shall be. That’s a certain text.--SHAKSPERE. 4. At times, with
  a strong effort, he would glance at the open door which still
  seemed to repel his eyes. 5. Nothing can bring you peace but
  yourself.--EMERSON. 6. It was sometimes sad enough to watch him as
  he sat alone. He would have a book near him, and for a while would
  keep it in his hands.--TROLLOPE. 7. O, my friend! may I believe
  you? May I speak to you? 8. Presently he faced Adrian, crying, “And
  I might have stopped it!” 9. Nothing is impossible to the man who
  can will.--EMERSON. 10. A scholar may be a well-bred man, or he
  may not.--EMERSON. 11. “I trust we’re at liberty to enter,” said
  the elder lady with urbanity. “We were told that we might come at
  any time.” 12. I sent for you that I might have your counsel and
  assistance. 13. I could no longer doubt the doom prepared for me.

  14. I am as well as I can expect to be under the excitement which I
  suffer. 15. I can become a party to no such absurd proceeding. 16. I
  could scarcely refrain from tears. 17. Come! we must go back. 18. We
  must be strangers to each other in future. 19. As my horse must now
  have eaten his provender, I must needs thank you for your good cheer,
  and pray you to show me this man’s residence, that I may have the
  means of proceeding on my journey.


EXERCISE 38

(§§ 289–291, pp. 125–126)

1. Fill each blank with _can_ or _may_.

  1. ---- I borrow your pen?

  2. Yes, you ----.

  3. No, you ---- not.

  4. I ---- swim across this river some day, for I know well enough
  that I ----.

  5. I shall ask my father if I ---- swim across this river. I know
  well enough that I ----.

  6. My father is confident that I ---- swim across the river safely.

  7. My father says that I ---- swim across the river if I will wait
  until he ---- go with me.

  8. ---- I trouble you to give me that tennis racket?

  9. It ---- be that you will regret this.

  10. It ---- not be that you will regret this.

  11. ---- you take a vacation this year, or is permission still
  refused?

  12. Why not ask if you ---- take a vacation?

  13. You ---- take your vacation after I have taken mine.

  14. The weather man says we ---- hope for sunshine to-morrow.

  15. He ---- be thankful that he escaped so easily.

  16. When you are twenty-one, you ---- have your own way.

2. Write sentences asking permission in the first, second, and third
persons. Write sentences (1) granting these requests; (2) refusing them.


EXERCISE 39

(§§ 297–308, pp. 127–132)

1. Justify the use of the auxiliary (_should_ or _would_). In some of
the sentences, _should_ might be substituted for _would_. Which are
they?

  1. If I were you, I would not dwell too much on this fancy of yours.
  2. I have neither servants nor clothes, and, if it had not been for
  these good people, I should not have had food. 3. I should delight
  in having her for a sister-in-law. 4. I should hardly wish to go out
  before Friday. 5. I shouldn’t wonder if this made him set his teeth.
  6. Well, that’s over! and I’m sure neither Oliver nor I would go
  through it again for a million of money. 7. If I were you, I would
  turn it over in my mind. 8. I should be afraid to express myself in
  this manner, if the matter were not clear and indisputable.--BURKE.
  9. I should like to remain where I am for another week or ten days.
  10. Would you do me the favor to look at a few specimens of my
  portrait-painting?--DICKENS. 11. “Would you come?” she said, with
  a serious, searching glance, and in a kind of coaxing manner.--“I
  should be an intruder, my dear lady,” said Theodore, declining the
  suggestion.--DISRAELI.

  12. I should not like to be out of my seat were the House in
  session.--W. J. LOCKE. 13. If I were you I would not tempt Fate
  by remaining here a day longer.--W. E. NORRIS. 14. Candidates
  would rather, I suppose, climb in at a window than be absolutely
  excluded.--COWPER. 15. Impey would not hear of mercy or delay. 16. I
  should not be surprised if he were here immediately. 17. There’s a
  plantation of sugar-canes at the foot of that rock: should you like
  to look?--GEORGE ELIOT.

2. Explain the use of the auxiliary (_shall_, _should_, or _will_,
_would_) in each subordinate clause.

  1. With this purpose in view, he sent a skilful architect to build
  him such a palace as should be fit for a man of his vast wealth
  to live in. 2. Their majesties commanded me to submit to whatever
  Bobadilla should order in their name. 3. Should you find yourself
  able to push on to Braemar, your visit will be most welcome. 4. It’s
  a simple affair enough, if you’ll just leave it as it stands. 5.
  Fearing to awaken Joseph a second time, lest he should again hazard
  all by his thoughtlessness, he crept softly out of the wigwam. 6. I
  watched the grapes from day to day till they should have secreted
  sugar enough from the sunbeams. 7. If an old prophecy should come to
  pass, we may see a man, some time or other, with exactly such a face
  as that. 8. He kept his heart continually open, and thus was sure to
  catch the blessing from on high, when it should come.--HAWTHORNE.
  9. This law provided that the presidency of Bengal should exercise
  a control over the other possessions of the Company. 10. It is time
  that we should proceed.

  11. It is necessary that he should have some work to do. 12. I
  shall be thankful if you will condescend to enlighten my ignorance.
  13. It was natural that the leading authors should affect a style
  of levity and derision.--JEFFREY. 14. I will take care that you
  shall not be troubled by him again. 15. That the Duke of Wellington
  should cordially approve is singular enough. 16. “Boys,” interrupted
  Wilder, “it is now proper that you should know something of my
  future movements.”--COOPER. 17. We all stood ready to succor them
  if there should be occasion.--DEFOE. 18. You are so well qualified
  for the task yourself that it is impossible you should need any
  assistance; at least, it is hardly possible that I should afford you
  any.--COWPER. 19. The brave sufferer refused to purchase liberty,
  though liberty to him would have been life, by recognizing the
  authority which had confined him. 20. I meant that he should walk
  off, but he did not choose to understand me. 21. When time shall
  serve, you shall have the fruit of my labors.--COWPER.

  22. I shall be so glad if you will tell me what to read.--GEORGE
  ELIOT. 23. I protest against such a combat, until the king of England
  shall have repaid the fifty thousand bezants.--SCOTT. 24. Unless
  something should go wrong, I flatter myself that the performance
  will elicit your generous approbation. 25. A seat in the cabinet was
  offered to him, on condition that he would give efficient support to
  the ministry in Parliament. 26. The proposition which he made was,
  that Fox should be Secretary of State.

  27. That night he put forth a proclamation, directing that the posts
  should be stopped, and that no person should, at his peril, venture
  to harbor the accused members.--MACAULAY. 28. Hyde interfered, and
  proposed that the question should be divided. 29. I am sorry that you
  should be bothered in this way. 30. I am sorry that Murray should
  groan on my account.--BYRON. 31. There are old brass andirons,
  waiting until time shall revenge them on their paltry substitutes.
  32. Should he be acquitted, that, I imagine, should end the matter.
  33. A rumor was circulated that some new pageant was about to
  be exhibited, which should put a fitting close to the splendid
  festivities. 34. If this new purpose of conquest shall be abandoned,
  Richard may yet become King of Jerusalem by compact.--SCOTT. 35.
  Saladin desires no converts save those whom the holy prophet shall
  dispose to submit themselves to his law. 36. Pride now came to
  Montezuma’s aid, and, since he must go, he preferred that it should
  appear to be with his own free will. 37. God forbid that I should
  regret those gifts!


EXERCISE 40

(§§ 309–323, pp. 132–137)

1. Point out each infinitive and explain its construction as noun, as
complementary infinitive, as infinitive of purpose, as modifier of a
noun or an adjective, or as part of a verb-phrase (with an auxiliary).

2. Point out any modifiers or objects of infinitives.

  1. To advance toward London would have been madness. 2. To trace
  the exact boundary between rightful and wrongful resistance is
  impossible.--MACAULAY. 3. I was too young to keep any journal of
  this voyage. 4. The baron hastened to receive his future son-in-law.
  5. It was her habit to go over to the deanery (§ 318). 6. He could
  not consent to turn his back upon a party of helpless travellers.
  7. The fixed purpose of these men was to break the foreign yoke.
  8. Here rise no cliffs the vale to shade. 9. They saw the gleaming
  river seaward flow (§ 322). 10. She perceived one of the eyes of the
  portrait move. 11. His first scheme was to seize Bristol. 12. The
  first business of the Commons was to elect a Speaker. 13. The old man
  frequently stretched his eyes ahead to gaze over the tract that he
  had yet to traverse. 14. When other things sank brooding to sleep,
  the heath appeared slowly to awake and listen.--HARDY. 15. All were
  anxious to hear the story of the mysterious picture. 16. I see the
  lights of the village gleam through the rain and the mist. 17. Then
  the bishop rose from his chair to speak.

  18. To dismiss him from his high post was to emancipate him from all
  restraint. 19. This is not a time to hesitate. 20. Burghers hastened
  to man the wall. 21. I felt Leslie’s hand tremble on my arm. 22. He
  heard a mighty bowstring twang.--MORRIS. 23. Mr. Ralph Nickleby sat
  in his private office one morning, ready dressed to walk abroad. 24.
  I put down the letters, and began to muse over their contents. 25.
  Waves of clear sea are, indeed, lovely to watch. 26. Halifax had now
  nothing to give. 27. The neighborhood seemed to breathe a tranquil
  prosperity. 28. It is always perilous to adopt expediency as a guide.
  29. Soldiers were drawn up to keep the passage clear.

3. Write sentences containing an infinitive used as subject, as
predicate nominative, as appositive, as the object of a preposition, as
an adjective; a complementary infinitive; an infinitive of purpose; an
infinitive used with _shall_, with _will_, with _must_.

4. Note any modifiers or objects that you have used with the
infinitives.


EXERCISE 41

(§§ 324–328, pp. 137–139)

1. Point out each infinitive clause. Mention the verb of which it is
the object. Find the subject of each infinitive. When it is possible,
substitute a _that_-clause for the infinitive clause.

  1. It might seem irreverent to make the gray cathedral and the tall
  time-worn palaces echo back the exuberant vociferation of the market.
  2. We have made you wait. 3. We then went to Pembroke College, and
  waited on his old friend Dr. Adams, the master of it, whom I found
  to be a most polite, pleasing, communicative man.--BOSWELL. 4. The
  doctor expects Captain Starbuck to recover. 5. For a good sailor to
  foul the first buoy was ludicrous enough. 6. Will you ask Annie to
  feed the parrot? 7. I believe it to be a speaking likeness. 8. I
  suppose them to be utterly ignorant of their own condition.

  9. Hepzibah bade her young guest sit down. 10. Calamity and peril
  often force men to combine. 11. He knew himself to be a liar whom
  nobody trusted. 12. I must not ask the reader to suppose that he was
  cheerful. 13. I felt this melancholy to be infectious. 14. No one on
  seeing Mr. Crawley took him to be a happy man, or a weak man, or an
  ignorant man, or a wise man.--TROLLOPE. 15. Humanity impelled him to
  rescue the poor wretch.

2. Write sentences containing infinitive clauses used after verbs of
_wishing_, _commanding_, _believing_, _declaring_, _perceiving_.

3. Fill each blank with a personal pronoun.

  1. He believes the author to be ----. [First person.]

  2. He believes that the author is ----. [First person.]

  3. I knew the thief to be ----. [Third person.]

  4. I thought that the thief was ----. [Third person.]

  5. We thought the strangers to be ----. [Third person.]

  6. We thought that the strangers were ----. [Third person.]

4. Fill each blank with _who_ or _whom_.

  1. The man ---- I believe to be responsible for this accident is the
  engineer.

  2. I believe that the man ---- is responsible for this accident is
  the engineer.

  3. My knock was answered by a lad ---- I believed to be a lodger.

  4. You are not the person ---- I believed you to be.


EXERCISE 42

(§§ 329–343, pp. 140–143)

1. Point out all the participles, present and past, and tell what
substantive each modifies. Mention such as are used as pure adjectives.
Mention any modifiers or objects of participles.

  1. The ship is anchored safe and sound, its voyage closed and
  done.--WHITMAN. 2. Even the tight windows and the heavy silken
  curtains drawn close could not shut out the sound of the driving
  sleet. 3. Godolphin was not a reading man. 4. Mr. Sikes, dragging
  Oliver after him, elbowed his way through the thickest of the crowd.
  5. Betrayed, deserted, disorganized, unprovided with resources,
  begirt with enemies, the noble city was still no easy conquest. 6.
  Thus regretted and cautioned on all hands, Mordaunt took leave of the
  hospitable household. 7. Far away, an angry white stain undulating
  on the surface of steely-gray waters, shot with gleams of green,
  diminished swiftly, without a hiss, like a patch of pure snow melting
  in the sun.--CONRAD. 8. I set her on my pacing steed.--KEATS.

  9. But the poor traveller paused here barely for a minute, and then
  went on, stumbling through the mud, striking his ill-covered feet
  against the rough stones in the dark, sweating in his weakness,
  almost tottering at times, and calculating whether his remaining
  strength would serve to carry him home.--TROLLOPE. 10. His teeth are
  set, his hand is clenched. 11. Passing through the ravine, they came
  to a hollow, like a small amphitheatre. 12. He found the house gone
  to decay--the roof fallen in, the windows shattered, and the doors
  off the hinges. 13. And now, sir, when you next go to the British
  Museum, look for a poet named Vaughan. 14. A heavy sea struck us
  on our starboard quarter, almost throwing us on our beam-ends. 15.
  He stood chuckling and rubbing his hands, and scarcely hearing a
  word the parson said. 16. The light struggles dimly through windows
  darkened by dust. 17. We sailed merrily forward for several days,
  meeting with nothing to interrupt us.

2. Write sentences containing the past participles of six weak verbs;
of six strong verbs.

3. Write sentences containing a participle used as a pure adjective;
a participle used as a predicate adjective; a participle modified
adverbially; a participle taking an object.

4. Write ten sentences each containing a perfect participle. Substitute
for each a clause introduced by _when_.


EXERCISE 43

(§§ 344–346, p. 144)

Explain all examples of the nominative absolute. Substitute a modifying
clause in each sentence.

  1. A carriage, drawn by half a dozen horses, came driving at a
  furious rate, the postilions smacking their whips like mad. 2. As far
  as the eye could reach, the sea in every direction was of a deep blue
  color, the waves running high and fresh, and sparkling in the light.
  3. For some years past there had been a difficulty about the rent,
  things not having gone at the Dragon of Wantly as smoothly as they
  had used to go. 4. He began to talk rapidly, all diffidence subdued.
  5. Noon coming, and the Doctor not returning, Mr. Lorry advised with
  Lucie. 6. The second mate falling ill during the passage, I was
  promoted to officer of the watch. 7. The dog now roused himself and
  sat on his haunches, his ears moving quickly backward and forward.
  8. This done, Mazeppa spread his cloak. 9. She was seated alone, her
  arms on the table, her head bent down. 10. There being some time upon
  his hands, he left his luggage at the cloak-room, and went on foot
  along Bedford Street to the church.


EXERCISE 44

(§§ 347–353, pp. 145–147)

1. Point out the present participles, and also the verbal nouns in
_-ing_ (participial nouns). Show the difference. Mention any modifiers
or complements used with either.

  1. The consternation was extreme. Some were for closing the gates
  and resisting; some for submitting; some for temporizing. 2. A
  troop of strange children ran at his heels, hooting after him, and
  pointing at his gray head. 3. The wicket opened on a stone staircase
  leading upward. 4. Watching and toil were to me pleasure, for my
  body was strong, and my spirits winged. 5. The lingerings of decent
  pride were visible in her appearance. 6. His deep bass voice had
  a quavering in it, his eyes looked dim, and the lines on his face
  were deep. 7. There were several French privateers hovering on the
  coast. 8. He does not like talking of these matters to strangers.
  9. Miss Matty cared much more for the circumstance of her being a
  very good card-player. 10. His discourse was broken off by his man’s
  telling him he had called a coach. 11. Swallows and martens skimmed
  twittering about the eaves. 12. I have loved, lived with, and left
  the sea without ever seeing a ship’s tall fabric of sticks, cobwebs,
  and gossamer go by the board.--CONRAD.

  13. The sexton was a meek, acquiescing little man, of a bowing, lowly
  habit; yet he had a pleasant twinkling in his eye. 14. The rain
  always made a point of setting in just as he had some outdoor work to
  do. 15. I have been employed this morning in composing a Latin motto
  for the king’s clock. 16. Two more of the boats were lost by being
  stove and swamped alongside. 17. I heard the ripple washing in the
  reeds. 18. After wandering through two or three streets, I found my
  way to Shakspere’s birthplace. 19. Rip’s heart died away at hearing
  of these sad changes in his home and friends. 20. The fish did not
  bite freely, and we frequently changed our fishing ground without
  bettering our luck. 21. Lady Niton sat blinking and speechless. 22. I
  cannot help hearing things, and reading things, and observing things,
  and they fill me with disquietude. 23. Here was circumstance after
  circumstance goading me onward. 24. I sat staring at a book of my
  own making. 25. That thought actually drove out of my head the more
  pressing danger.

2. Write sentences in which (1) a verbal noun and (2) a present
participle are formed from--

  run, hunt, leap, swim, strike, find, speak, sing, shout, play, skate,
  blow, spend, listen, eat, move, translate, recite, murmur, whisper,
  read, talk, complain, paint, build, give, breathe, teach, flow, shine.

3. Whenever it is possible, substitute either a noun or an infinitive
for each verbal noun in your sentences.

4. Select three of these verbal nouns, and write other sentences in
which each is used (1) as a subject, (2) with a direct and an indirect
object, (3) with an adjective modifier, (4) with an adverbial modifier.


EXERCISE 45

(§§ 354–371, pp. 148–154)

1. Point out and parse the prepositions and conjunctions.

In parsing a preposition, tell (1) the object, and (2) the word to
which the preposition shows the relation of the object.

In parsing a conjunction, indicate the words or groups of words which
it connects, tell whether it is coördinate or subordinate, and mention
its correlative (§ 369) if it has one.

  1. Neither witch nor warlock crossed Mordaunt’s path. 2. But I will
  be bolder, and do not doubt to make it good, though a paradox, that
  one great reason why prose is not to be used in serious plays, is,
  because it is too near the nature of converse.--DRYDEN. 3. All down
  that immense vista of gloomy arches there was one blaze of scarlet
  and gold. 4. No doubt, something of Shakspere’s punning must be
  attributed to his age, in which direct and formal combats of wit
  were a favorite pastime of the courtly and accomplished.--COLERIDGE.
  5. Bodily labor is of two kinds: either that which a man submits
  to for his livelihood, or that which he undergoes for his
  pleasure.--ADDISON. 6. Early upon the morrow the march was resumed.
  7. The camp was broken up, and the troops were sent to quarters in
  different parts of the country. 8. My attention was called off for
  a moment by the cries of birds and the bleatings of sheep. 9. This
  is well to be weighed, that boldness is ever blind, for it seeth not
  dangers and inconveniences.--BACON. 10. At a little distance from Sir
  Roger’s house, among the ruins of an old abbey, there is a long walk
  of aged elms. 11. Then I sent you the Greek instead of the Persian
  whom you asked for?--FITZ GERALD. 12. Rowland’s allowance at college
  was barely sufficient to maintain him decently, and, his degree
  nevertheless achieved, he was taken into his father’s counting-house
  to do small drudgery on a proportionate stipend.

  13. Though this lady never expressed an idea, Richard was not
  mistaken in her cleverness. 14. If I am tired, your letter will
  refresh me. 15. The young ladies however, and Mr. Pecksniff likewise,
  remained in the very best of spirits in spite of these severe trials,
  though with something of a mysterious understanding among themselves.
  16. He went along almost gaily, nor felt the fatigue of the road.

2. Write sentences in which, the following words are used as
indicated:--

  for (_preposition_, _conjunction_), then (_conjunction_, _adverb_),
  notwithstanding (_preposition_, _conjunction_), since (_preposition_,
  _adverb_, _relative adverb_), until (_preposition_, _relative
  adverb_), as (_conjunction_, _relative pronoun_, _relative adverb_),
  that (_conjunction_, _relative pronoun_, _demonstrative adjective_,
  _demonstrative pronoun_), but (_preposition_, _conjunction_).

3. Construct sentences containing _either_ and _or_, _neither_ and
_nor_, _whether_ and _or_, _not only_ and _but also_, _both_ and _and_,
_though_, _if_, _because_.

4. Construct six sentences containing coördinate conjunctions; six
containing subordinate conjunctions; six containing relative adverbs.


EXERCISE 46

(§§ 372–375, pp. 155–156)

Point out all interjections, all other parts of speech used here in
exclamation, and all exclamatory phrases.

  1. Ring the alarum-bell! Murder and treason!--SHAKSPERE. 2.
  Kipling is by far the most promising young man who has appeared
  since--ahem--I appeared.--STEVENSON. 3. O, to be in England! 4.
  “Courage!” he said, and pointed toward the land.--TENNYSON. 5. Ah!
  my lord Arthur, whither shall I go? 6. Alas for my credulous fancy!
  7. Tut, man! we must take things as they come. 8. O day, the last of
  all my bliss on earth!--MARLOWE. 9. Adieu, fair Cadiz! yea, a long
  adieu!--BYRON. 10. Peace, sister, peace! 11. Fie, fie, my brother!
  12. How now, Thersites? what, lost in the labyrinth of thy fury? 13.
  Farewell for the present, my dear sir. 14. O Jupiter! how weary are
  my spirits!--SHAKSPERE. 15. Guilty, my lord, guilty! I confess, I
  confess! 16. Hence, you long-legg’d spinners, hence! 17. O monstrous!
  O strange! we are haunted! 18. Faith, he is gone unto the taming
  school. 19. But, soft! whom have we here?

  20. A Tory! a Tory! a spy! a refugee! hustle him! away with him! 21.
  What! this gentleman will outtalk us all. 22. Up, up, Glentarkin!
  rouse thee, ho!--SCOTT. 23. And now good-bye, my dear fellow. 24.
  Ahem! you remember, friend? Grand triumphs those, eh?


EXERCISE 47

(§§ 376–392, pp. 157–162)

1. Construct ten sentences in which the simple subject (noun or
pronoun) is modified by an adjective clause; ten in which the simple
predicate is modified by an adverbial clause.

2. Tell the construction (as subject, predicate nominative, object,
etc.) of each noun clause in § 392. Mention the simple subject and
predicate of each clause.


EXERCISE 48

(§§ 395–402, pp. 163–165)

1. Tell whether each of the subordinate clauses expresses place, time,
cause, or concession. Is the clause adjective or adverbial? What
introduces it? What does it modify?

  1. Though often misled by prejudice and passion, he was emphatically
  an honest man. 2. When a prisoner first leaves his cell, he cannot
  bear the light of day. 3. As I walked through the wilderness of this
  world, I lighted on a certain place where was a den.--BUNYAN. 4. He
  postponed his final decision till after the Parliament should have
  reassembled. 5. They gave a dismal croak or two, and hopped aside
  into the darkest corner, since it was not yet their hour to flap
  duskily abroad. 6. Calmly and sadly she waited, until the procession
  approached her. 7. Half the task was not done when the sun went down.
  8. However I might be disposed to trust his probity, I dare not trust
  his prejudices. 9. After a little more conversation we strolled to
  the stable, where my horse was standing. 10. As we approached the
  house, we heard the sound of music, and now and then a burst of
  laughter. 11. His face was not cruel, though it was desperate.

  12. We again set out for the hut, at which we deposited our golden
  burdens. 13. It will be midnight before we arrive at our inn. 14.
  Though I was not particularly well supplied with money, I had
  enough for the expenses of my journey. 15. The day, though it began
  brightly, had long been overcast. 16. As there were no men in the
  company, the girls danced with each other. 17. Although without fear,
  I did not neglect to use all proper precautions. 18. When I return,
  I shall find things settled. 19. Clifford, as the company partook of
  their little banquet, grew to be the gayest of them all. 20. The mill
  where Will lived with his adopted parents stood in a falling valley
  between pinewoods and great mountains. 21. As Ichabod approached this
  fearful tree, he began to whistle. 22. Infected be the air whereon
  they ride!--SHAKSPERE. 23. So they were forced to go, because he was
  stronger than they.

  24. Since you will not help me, I must trust to myself. 25. When
  they beheld his face, they recognized Basil the blacksmith. 26.
  This is the third day since we came to Rome. 27. Amsterdam was the
  place where the leading Scotch and English assembled. 28. These
  considerations might well have made William uneasy, even if all the
  military means of the United Provinces had been at his absolute
  disposal. 29. Although the breeze had now utterly ceased, we had made
  a great deal of way during the night.

2. Illustrate clauses of place, time, cause, and concession, by
constructing twenty sentences, five for each.

3. Tell whether the clauses are adjective or adverbial. What does each
modify?

4. See if you can replace your clauses of time by participles or
adverbial phrases.


EXERCISE 49

(§§ 403–410, pp. 166–167)

1. Point out the clauses of purpose and those of result.

  1. The weather was so bad I could not embark that night. 2. She
  opened the casement that the cool air might blow upon her throbbing
  temples. 3. So intent were the servants upon their sports, that we
  had to ring repeatedly before we could make ourselves heard. 4.
  The consequence was that, according to the rules of the House, the
  amendment was lost. 5. Therefore I am going this way, as I told you,
  that I may be rid of my burden. 6. Tess’s friends lived so far off
  that none could conveniently have been present at the ceremony. 7.
  Sometimes I was afraid lest I should be charged with ingratitude.
  8. There is such an echo among the old ruins and vaults that, if
  you stamp but a little louder than ordinary, you hear the sound
  repeated.--ADDISON. 9. They durst not speak without premeditation,
  lest they should be convicted of discontent or sorrow. 10. My purpose
  was, to admit no testimony of living authors, that I might not be
  misled by partiality, and that none of my contemporaries might have
  reason to complain.--JOHNSON. 11. It is King Richard’s pleasure that
  you die undegraded.

2. Write five sentences containing each a clause of purpose; of result;
an infinitive clause expressing purpose.

3. Write ten sentences in which the infinitive (without a subject)
expresses purpose.

4. Review Exercise 40.


EXERCISE 50

(§§ 411–427, pp. 167–172)

1. Tell whether the conditional clauses in the following sentences are
non-committal or contrary to fact, and whether they represent present,
past, or future condition.

  1. Should Hayley be with you, tell him I have given my friend Mr.
  Rose an introductory letter to him. 2. If the judgment against
  him was illegal, it ought to have been reversed. If it was legal,
  there was no ground for remitting any part of it. 3. If I ever saw
  horror in the human face, it was there. 4. His affliction would
  have been insupportable, had not he been comforted by the daily
  visits and conversations of his friend. 5. We perish if they hear a
  shot.--SCOTT. 6. Can Freedom breathe if Ignorance reign?--HOLMES. 7.
  If power be in the hands of men, it will sometimes be abused. 8. If
  hopes were dupes, fears may be liars.--CLOUGH. 9. If you write to
  Moore, will you tell him that I shall answer his letter the moment I
  can muster time and spirits? 10. If you have any good news to tell,
  it will not be unwelcome; if any bad, you need not be afraid. 11. I
  feel quite as much bored with this foolery as it deserves, and more
  than I should be, if I had not a headache. 12. Will you let me offer
  you this little book? If I had anything better, it should be yours.

  13. I shall hope, if we can agree as to dates, to come to you
  sometime in May. 14. If I could only get to work, we could live here
  with comfort. 15. If he had been left to himself, he would have
  whistled life away in perfect contentment. 16. If this frolic should
  lay me up with a fit of rheumatism, I shall have a blessed time with
  Dame Van Winkle. 17. I know that two and two make four, and should
  be glad to prove it, if I could,--though, I must say, if by any sort
  of process I could convert two and two into five, it would give me
  much greater pleasure.--BYRON. 18. I would not say this if I could
  help it. 19. If you are disposed to write--write; and if not, I shall
  forgive your silence, and you will not quarrel with mine. 20. Had
  not exercise been absolutely necessary for our well-being, nature
  would not have made the body so proper for it.--ADDISON. 21. Nothing
  will ever be attempted, if all possible objections must first be
  overcome.--JOHNSON. 22. If fashion gives the word, every distinction
  of beauty, complexion, or stature ceases.--GOLDSMITH.

2. Write twenty sentences, each containing a conditional clause. Tell
whether each condition refers to present, past, or future time. Which
of them are contrary to fact?


EXERCISE 51

(§§ 428–429, p. 173)

1. Point out the clauses of comparison and explain such forms of verbs
or pronouns as may require comment.

  1. Dull as a flower without the sun, he sat down upon a stone. 2.
  He sighed as if he would break his heart. 3. The modern steamship
  advances upon a still and overshadowed sea with a pulsating tremor of
  her frame, an occasional clang in her depths, as if she had an iron
  heart in her iron body.--CONRAD. 4. It would have been as difficult,
  however, to follow up the stream of Donatello’s ancestry to its dim
  source, as travellers have found it to reach the mysterious fountains
  of the Nile. 5. I will become as liberal as you. 6. The triumph was
  as destructive to the victorious as to the vanquished. 7. The public
  conduct of Milton must be approved or condemned, according as the
  resistance of the people to Charles the First shall appear to be
  justifiable or criminal. 8. There was no one in all Clavering who
  read so many novels as Madame Fribsby. 9. No kind of power is more
  formidable than the power of making men ridiculous.--MACAULAY.

  10. The leader of the orchestra was sawing away at his violin as
  savagely as if he were calling on his company to rush up and seize
  a battery of guns.--BLACK. 11. He shouts as if he were trying his
  voice against a northwest gale of wind. 12. The playground seemed
  smaller than when I used to sport about it. 13. The blood in me ran
  cold, and I drew in my breath as if I had been struck. 14. There are
  few things more formidable than the unwonted anger of a good-natured
  man.--MILLER. 15. Nor was Lochiel less distinguished by intellectual
  than by bodily vigor. 16. He showed less wisdom than virtue. 17. He
  was as courageous an animal as ever scoured the woods. 18. As fierce
  a beak and talon as ever struck--as strong a wing as ever beat,
  belonged to Swift.--THACKERAY.

  19. Homer’s description of war had as much truth as poetry
  requires.--MACAULAY. 20. Of all the objects I have ever seen, there
  is none which affects my imagination so much as the sea.--ADDISON.
  21. “Somebody must go,” murmured Mrs. Heathcliff, more kindly
  than I expected. 22. We do not so often disappoint others as
  ourselves.--JOHNSON. 23. The battle raged as fiercely on the lake
  as on the land. 24. The young man looked down on me from the corner
  of his eyes, for all the world as if there were some mortal feud
  unavenged between us.--E. BRONTË.

2. Write ten sentences containing _as if_ with a subjunctive.

3. Insert personal pronouns of the first or third person.

  1. You are much stronger than ----.

  2. Your anger hurts yourself more than it hurts ----.

  3. You are not so studious as ----.

  4. He was quite as much to blame as ----.

  5. I blame myself rather than ----.

  6. You should rather blame yourself than ----.

  7. How much older are you than ----?

  8. Is Jack more ambitious than ----?

  9. Do you wish to please yourself more than ----?

  10. Your conduct was less censurable than ----.


EXERCISE 52

(§§ 430–436, pp. 173–176)

1. Change the direct statements to indirect discourse, prefixing _He
said_. Thus,--

  Supper was announced shortly after my arrival.

  He said that supper was announced shortly after his arrival.

Be careful to make the proper changes in person and tense.

  1. Supper was announced shortly after my arrival. 2. Misery loves
  company. 3. Iron floats in mercury. 4. The grime and sordidness of
  the House of the Seven Gables seem to have vanished. 5. Nothing is
  to be seen. 6. Straws show which way the wind blows. 7. I remained
  undecided whether or not to follow my servant. 8. Rest of mind and
  body seems to have reëstablished my health. 9. The fortifications
  consist of a simple wall overgrown with grass and weeds. 10. Fire is
  a good servant but a bad master. 11. Not a cheer was heard; not a
  member ventured to second the motion. 12. The most rigid discipline
  is maintained. 13. Without our consent, such an expedition cannot
  legally be undertaken. 14. The newspapers will happily save me the
  trouble of relating minute particulars.

  15. The ringing of bells is at an end; the rumbling of the carriages
  has ceased; the pattering of feet is heard no more. 16. My mind has
  been much disturbed, and too agitated for conversation. 17. While all
  this is taking place within the Towers, vast bodies of people are
  assembling without. 18. The spelling and handwriting are those of a
  man imperfectly educated. 19. I have an unconquerable repugnance to
  return to my chamber. 20. I like to see a man know his own mind.

2. Change into a direct statement each clause that is in the indirect
discourse. Mention the construction of the clause (as subject, object,
etc.).

  1. The booming of a gun told them that the last yacht had rounded the
  lightship. 2. All of a sudden she thought she heard something move
  behind her. 3. Though they spoke French fluently, I perceived that
  it was not their native language. 4. I soon found that, in making
  the acquaintance of the young man, I had indeed made a valuable
  acquisition. 5. I thanked him, but said that Dr. Johnson had come
  with me from London, and I must return to the inn and drink tea with
  him; that my name was Boswell, and I had travelled with him in the
  Hebrides. 6. I discovered that he was wonderfully fond of interfering
  with other people’s business. 7. I had heard that he had been
  unhappy, that he had roamed about, a fevered, distempered man, taking
  pleasure in nothing. 8. I had observed that the old woman for some
  time past had shown much less anxiety about the book. 9. I learned
  that times had gone hard with her. 10. I perceived that the objects
  which had excited my curiosity were not trees, but immense upright
  stones.

  11. That no man can legally promise what he cannot legally perform
  is a self-evident proposition.--MACKINTOSH. 12. That there are some
  duties superior to others will be denied by no one. 13. It can
  hardly be doubted that the highest obligation of a citizen is that
  of contributing to preserve the community. 14. Reports had been
  brought back that six Christians were lingering in captivity in
  the interior of the country. 15. If it be true that, by giving our
  confidence by halves, we can scarcely hope to make a friend, it is
  equally true that, by withdrawing it when given, we shall make an
  enemy.--PRESCOTT. 16. He concluded with the assurance that the whole
  fleet would sail on the following day. 17. Pen protested that he had
  not changed in the least.

3. Write five sentences in which indirect discourse is expressed by an
infinitive clause (§ 435).


EXERCISE 53

(§ 436, p. 176)

1. Change each of the sentences quoted at the end of § 436 into one of
the other two passive constructions described in that section.

2. Write ten sentences in each of which a clause in the indirect
discourse is the subject of a passive verb.


EXERCISE 54

(§§ 438–439, pp. 177–178)

1. Explain the use of _shall_, _should_, _will_, or _would_ in each
instance. Change the indirect discourse to the direct.

  1. I believe I should like to live in a small house just outside a
  pleasant English town all the days of my life.--FITZ GERALD. 2. The
  sultan said he would oblige us with donkeys or anything else if we
  would only give him a few more pretty cloths.--SPEKE. 3. I think that
  I should like it to be always summer. 4. He often told his friends
  afterwards, that unless he had found out this piece of exercise,
  he verily believed he should have lost his senses.--ADDISON. 5.
  Do you remember once saying to me that you hoped you should never
  leave Brentham? 6. I knew that he would not have accepted office in
  1841–1842 if he could have avoided it. 7. Promise you will give him
  this little book of drawings. 8. I have often thought that there has
  rarely passed a life of which a judicious and faithful narrative
  would not be useful.--JOHNSON. 9. She said, very quietly, that she
  wished to speak to him after breakfast, and that he would find her
  in her sitting room. 10. Lady Annabel had promised the children that
  they should some day ride together to Marringhurst.

  11. One of them told us that he would make us a canoe. 12. Promise,
  Marion--pray promise you will not even mention my name to him when
  you write next. 13. He felt that no argument of his would be of any
  use. 14. I know very well that I shall sign my own death warrant on
  the day when I retire from business. 15. She knew very well now that
  Grandcourt would not go without her; but if he must tyrannize over
  her, he should not do it precisely in the way he would choose. She
  would oblige him to stay in the hotel. 16. They were afraid that they
  should not long be able to put him off with promises. 17. Bungay
  replied that he should be happy to have dealings with Mr. Pendennis.

2. Fill the blanks with the proper auxiliary (_shall_ or _should_, or
_will_ or _would_).

  1. Your father said that he ---- be glad to see me.

  2. I told him that I ---- be obliged to dismiss him.

  3. I wrote that we ---- gladly accept his invitation.

  4. My friends believed that I ---- not be willing to go.

  5. Robert thinks that he ---- have to work evenings.

  6. Robert says that I ---- have to work evenings.

  7. They say that Robert ---- work evenings, although he ought not.

  8. I promised that Robert ---- not work evenings.

  9. I told Mary that I was sure she ---- succeed.

  10. Mary said she had no doubt that I ---- succeed.

  11. Mary will say that she has no doubt I ---- succeed.

  12. I repeat that I have no doubt you ---- succeed.

  13. He declared that you ---- go, even against your will.

  14. The report is that we ---- dissolve partnership.

3. Change the indirect statements in the sentences which you have just
made to direct statements.


EXERCISE 55

(§§ 440–445, pp. 179–181)

1. Some, but not all, of the following sentences contain indirect
questions. Point out these questions and tell what introduces them
(interrogative pronoun, interrogative adverb, subordinate conjunction).
Mention the construction of each interrogative clause (as subject,
object, etc.).

2. Turn each indirect question into a direct question.

3. Point out such relative clauses as you find in the sentences. Are
they adjective or adverbial modifiers?

  1. Warrington did not know what his comrade’s means were. 2. He could
  scarcely tell whether she was imbued with sunshine, or whether it was
  a glow of happiness that shone out of her. 3. I started the question
  whether duelling was consistent with moral duty.--BOSWELL. 4. The
  pilgrims then began to inquire if there was no other way to the gate.
  5. He knew not what to make of the letter. 6. I hardly heard what
  he said. 7. Every one knows practically what are the constituents
  of health or of virtue.--NEWMAN. 8. Think calmly over what I have
  written. 9. Then she asked him whence he was and whither he was
  going; and he told her. 10. What to expect, he knew not. 11. Theseus
  wondered what this immense giant could be. 12. Hack says it was Mrs.
  Bungay who caused all the mischief. 13. The question was how best
  to extricate the army from its perilous position. 14. Addison was a
  delightful companion when he was at his ease. 15. I doubt whether the
  wisest of us know what our own motives are.

  16. I puzzled my head for some time to find out which of the two
  cases was the more applicable. 17. I returned to the studies which I
  had neglected. 18. I cannot tell how I dared to say what I did. 19.
  How long he slept he could not say. 20. Fanny, in dismay at such an
  unprecedented question, did not know which way to look, or how to
  be prepared for an answer.--MISS AUSTEN. 21. What my course of life
  will be when I return to England is very doubtful. 22. I cannot tell
  you how vaingloriously I walked the streets. 23. Then I told what a
  tall, upright, graceful person their great-grandmother Field once
  was. 24. When the bean-vines began to flower on the poles, there was
  one particular variety which bore a vivid scarlet blossom. 25. I know
  not which way I must look. 26. Why she submitted, Mrs. Turpin could
  not have told you. 27. I began to become conscious what a strange
  den that sanctum was. 28. How Ferguson escaped, was, and still is, a
  mystery. 29. How far he felt the force of this obligation will appear
  in the sequel.

4. Write sentences containing indirect questions introduced by _who_,
_which_, _what_, _when_, _how_, _why_, _whether_, _if_.

5. Fill the blanks with _who_ or _whom_. Tell, in each sentence,
whether _who_ or _whom_ is an interrogative or a relative pronoun.

  1. I know ---- it was that broke the window.

  2. I know ---- it was that you saw.

  3. I know ---- you saw.

  4. I know the person ---- you saw.

  5. I asked if the man ---- we saw was Douglas.

  6. I asked if the boy ---- broke the window was Archer.

  7. I know ---- it was you overheard.

  8. Tell me ---- it is that I resemble.

  9. Tell me ---- I resemble.

  10. Tell me ---- you think I resemble.

  11. Tell me if I resemble anybody ---- you know.

6. Turn all the indirect questions which you have just written into
direct questions.

7. Construct sentences in which each of the verbs (or verb-phrases) is
followed by an indirect question:--

  asked, tell, inquire, is learning, see, might discover, had heard,
  have found, doubt, have perceived, is thinking, wonders, knew, was
  told, understands, to comprehend, is, could ascertain, has reported,
  will announce.


EXERCISE 56

(§ 447, p. 182)

1. Turn each indirect question into the direct form. Explain the use of
_shall_, _should_, _will_, _would_.

  1. “I doubt,” said Donatello, “whether they will remember my voice
  now.” 2. I did not know whether to resent his language or pursue my
  explanations. 3. I clambered to its apex, and then felt much at a
  loss as to what should be next done. 4. How we shall live I cannot
  imagine. 5. When I shall get to town I cannot divine, but it will
  be between this and Christmas. 6. I scarcely know which of us three
  would be the sorriest. 7. I can feel for you, because I know what I
  should feel in the same situation. 8. Let us see if she will know
  you. 9. I wonder how you will answer me a year hence. 10. I asked if
  Georgiana would accompany her. 11. You must see the carriage, Jane,
  and tell me if you don’t think it will suit Mrs. Rochester exactly,
  and whether she won’t look like Queen Boadicea, leaning back against
  those purple cushions.--C. BRONTË. 12. Catherine had no idea why her
  father should be crosser or less patient in his ailing condition
  than he was in his prime. 13. Mr. Hindley will have to proceed to
  extremities,--see if he won’t!

2. Fill the blanks with the proper auxiliary (_shall_, _should_,
_will_, _would_). Then change each indirect question to the direct form.

  1. Tom asked me if I ---- like to go with him.

  2. They inquired whether I ---- prefer to go or to stay.

  3. She asked me if I ---- help her.

  4. Tell me whether he ---- consent or not.

  5. He wishes to know if you ---- recommend him.

  6. I was in doubt whether I ---- succeed or fail.

  7. I do not know whether you ---- find her at home or at her uncle’s.

  8. He is in doubt whether or not he ---- get the appointment.

  9. We think we ---- like to sail on the twentieth.

  10. He thinks he ---- like to be a farmer.


EXERCISE 57

(§§ 448–453, pp. 183–186)

1. Mention the substantives that make up the compound subjects and the
verbs that make up the compound predicates in § 450; in Exercise 4.

2. See if you can make any of the sentences compound by inserting
personal pronouns as subjects.

3. Divide each compound sentence in § 452 and in Exercise 6 into the
independent coördinate clauses that compose it.

4. Make each sentence in § 450 complex by inserting or adding a
subordinate clause. Is your clause adjective or adverbial? What does it
modify?

5. Divide each complex sentence in Exercises 17, 25, 39 (2), 48–51,
into the independent (main) clause and the subordinate clause.


EXERCISE 58

(§§ 458–461, pp. 188–190)

1. Analyze (according to the directions in §§ 458–461) the simple
sentences in Exercise 1. In analyzing, describe each sentence as
declarative, interrogative, etc. If the sentence is imperative, supply
the subject.

2. Analyze the compound and the complex sentences in Exercises 6, 17,
25, 39 (2), 48–51.

3. Analyze the compound complex sentences in §§ 456–457, 515.


EXERCISE 59

(§§ 462–473, pp. 191–196)

1. Point out the adjectives used as modifiers of the subject.
Substitute for each an adjective phrase; an adjective clause (§§
467–468).

  1. Standing in the door was a tearful child. 2. A tall Scot shut off
  my view. 3. An iron mask concealed the prisoner’s face. 4. Honorable
  men pay their debts. 5. A tumble-down shed stood in the hollow. 6. A
  three-cornered hat was cocked over one of his ears. 7. The American
  Indians are becoming extinct. 8. An experienced stenographer should
  spell correctly. 9. A deep fosse or ditch was drawn round the whole
  building. 10. The royal army was assembled at Salisbury. 11. The
  mid-day meal was excellent. 12. The morning mist lies heavy upon
  yonder chain of islands.

2. Construct sentences, using the following adjective phrases as
modifiers of the subject:--

  of great height; in a red hat; with black hair; from Cairo; to
  Indianapolis; from India; with high gables; of brilliant plumage; on
  the rear platform; in a state of intense agitation; between the two
  ships; over the mountain; on the summit of the tower.

3. Substitute (if possible) an adjective clause for each adjective
phrase in the sentences you have just written.

4. Point out all participles used as modifiers of the simple subject in
Exercise 42. Write ten sentences containing such modifiers (§ 469).

5. Construct ten sentences similar to those in § 470 (with infinitives
modifying the simple subject).

6. Write ten sentences containing nouns or pronouns in the possessive
case used as modifiers of the subject (§ 471).

7. Write ten sentences containing nouns in apposition with the subject
(§§ 88, 5; 472); five in which a noun clause is thus used (§§ 386, 473).


EXERCISE 60

(§§ 474–481, pp. 196–199)

1. Point out all the adverbs used to modify the simple predicate.
Substitute for each an adverbial phrase or clause.

  1. The witness chose his words deliberately. 2. The old man moved
  slowly down the street. 3. I carefully avoided making that promise.
  4. Do not speak so loud. 5. I am eagerly looking forward to your
  visit. 6. That golf ball must have hit him hard. 7. Allan has played
  in public twice. 8. I shall call you early. 9. We often see your
  eccentric friend. 10. The priest shook his head doubtfully. 11. Your
  father barely escaped drowning. 12. The next morning Chester awoke
  late. 13. The accident happened here. 14. The captain had gone below.
  15. Marion refuses to go by coach unless she can sit outside. 16.
  Frank left home three years ago, and has not been heard from since.
  17. Look yonder and tell us where the path lies.

  18. We were then presented to Governor Gore. 19. I have not
  been there since April. 20. Bruce was afterward ashamed of his
  discouragement. 21. The sun will soon set. 22. You are expected to
  arrive in good season hereafter. 23. Alice cannot spell correctly.
  24. The Indian suddenly disappeared. 25. The girl laughed carelessly.
  26. The moose fell heavily to the earth. 27. He passionately longs
  to see Italy. 28. All foreigners seem to speak rapidly. 29. Edith
  listened attentively.

2. Write ten sentences in which the simple predicate is modified by
an infinitive (§§ 323, 477); by an adverbial objective or by a phrase
containing one (§§ 109, 478); by a nominative absolute (§§ 345, 479);
by an indirect object (§§ 105, 480); by a cognate object (§§ 108, 481).

3. Point out the complementary infinitives and the infinitives of
purpose in Exercise 40, and tell what verb each modifies.


EXERCISE 61

(§§ 482–493, pp. 200–204)

1. Point out the complements and describe each (as direct object,
predicate nominative, etc.). Analyze the sentences.

  1. The most amazing wonder of the deep is its unfathomable
  cruelty.--CONRAD. 2. Music is Love in search of a word.--LANIER. 3.
  The destination of the fleet was still a matter of conjecture. 4. The
  reports from the front made Washington anxious. 5. Plato says that
  the punishment which the wise suffer who refuse to take part in the
  government, is, to live under the government of worse men.--EMERSON.
  6. I thought your book an imposture; I think it an imposture
  still.--JOHNSON. 7. Moses chose able men out of all Israel and made
  them heads over the people. 8. The old gray porter raised his torch.
  9. This you will call impudence. 10. Firm and irrevocable is my doom.
  11. In return for mere board and lodging, Topham became Mr. Starkey’s
  assistant. 12. It was they who attacked us.

  13. Serene will be our days and bright. 14. Warwick thought the
  situation awkward, but he held his peace. 15. If there were not too
  great a risk of the dispersion of their fleet, I should think their
  putting to sea a mere manœuver to deceive.--IRVING. 16. I thought
  “Aladdin” capital fun.--STEVENSON. 17. The faces of the father
  and mother had a sober gladness; the children laughed; the eldest
  daughter was the image of Happiness at seventeen; and the aged
  grandmother, who sat knitting in the warmest place, was the image
  of Happiness grown old. 18. His stories were what frightened people
  worst of all. 19. The old man was nervous, fidgety, and very pale.
  20. I am growing old, the grey hairs thicken upon me, my joints are
  less supple, and, in mind as well as body, I am less enterprising
  than in former years.--SOUTHEY. 21. I was uneasy about my letter.
  22. Confidence is almost everything in war. 23. He thinks me a
  troublesome fellow.

  24. At the end of this strange season, Burns gloomily sums up
  his gains and losses. 25. Little fire grows great with little
  wind.--SHAKSPERE. 26. As he rose to walk, he found himself stiff
  in the joints. 27. Noise had been my native element. 28. I caught
  tantalizing glimpses of green fields, shut from me by dull lines of
  high-spiked palings. 29. One house in a back street was bright with
  the cheerful glare of lights.

2. Write ten simple sentences, each containing the direct object of
a verb; a predicate objective; a predicate nominative; a predicate
adjective. Analyze your sentences.


EXERCISE 62

(§§ 494–497, pp. 205–206)

1. Point out any modifiers of complements in the sentences called for
in Exercise 61, 2. Introduce other modifiers of complements if you can
without injuring the sentences.

2. Write sentences similar to those in § 492, taking care to include in
each a complement modified.

3. Write ten sentences, each containing a substantive complement
modified by an adjective clause (§ 496); an adjective complement
modified by an adverbial clause (§ 497). Analyze your sentences.

4. Point out all modifiers of complements in Exercises 12 and 22.

5. Analyze the sentences in § 495.


EXERCISE 63

(§§ 498–500, pp. 207–208)

1. Write ten sentences illustrating adjectives (or adjective phrases)
modified either by adverbs or by groups of words used adverbially.

2. Write ten sentences, each containing a possessive noun modified; an
appositive modified; an adverbial phrase modified.

3. Write ten sentences illustrating the use of adjective or adverbial
clauses as modifiers of modifiers.

4. Analyze the sentences in § 498.


EXERCISE 64

(§§ 501–503, p. 209)

Point out the independent elements. Tell whether each is an
interjection, a vocative (nominative by direct address), an exclamatory
nominative, or a parenthetical expression. Analyze the sentences.

  1. The king, Melfort said, was determined to be severe. 2. O Mary,
  go and call the cattle home. 3. Pardon me, my dear fellow. 4.
  Between ourselves, I shall not be sorry to have a quiet evening.
  5. Knowledge, indeed, and science express purely intellectual
  ideas.--NEWMAN. 6. Oh! oh! pictures don’t pay. 7. To make a long
  story short, the company broke up. 8. True, our friend is already
  in his teens. 9. To use a ready-made similitude, we might liken
  universal history to a magic web.--CARLYLE. 10. Poor fellows! they
  only did as they were ordered, I suppose. 11. The world, as we said,
  has been unjust to him. 12. Therefore, good Brutus, be prepared to
  hear.

  13. Peace! count the clock. 14. Excuse, no doubt, is in readiness for
  such omission. 15. The lord--for so I understood he was--looked at
  me with an air of surprise. 16. Lo, Cæsar is afraid. 17. Delay not,
  Cæsar; read it instantly. 18. My counsel, I need not say, made full
  use of this hint. 19. My small services, you remember, were of no
  use. 20. I knew--one knows everything in dreams--that they had been
  slain. 21. I knew it, I say, to be a fallacy. 22. Liberty! freedom!
  tyranny is dead! 23. Stay, ho! and let us hear Mark Antony.


EXERCISE 65

(§§ 504–523, pp. 210–219)

1. Analyze the simple sentences in § 509; the compound sentences in §
511; the complex sentences in § 512; the compound complex sentences in
§§ 514–515.

2. Study the examples in §§ 517–523, and explain their structure
orally. Tell whether the various subordinate clauses are simple,
compound, or complex, and why. Give the construction of each. Analyze
the sentences.

3. Construct five complex sentences on the principle of § 517; of §
520; of § 521; of § 522.


EXERCISE 66

(§§ 524–526, pp. 220–223)

1. Study the sentences in §§ 525–526 until you can explain their
structure.

2. Find, in some good English or American author, ten sentences of
considerable length and explain their structure.


EXERCISE 67

(§§ 527–533, pp. 224–226)

1. Analyze the sentences in § 528. Explain the ellipsis in each
sentence.

2. Supply the word or words omitted in each of the elliptical sentences
in § 533 (p. 226). Explain the ellipsis in each sentence.

3. Analyze the sentences in § 533.

4. Write five sentences illustrating each of the following kinds of
ellipsis:--(1) the subject of an imperative; (2) a relative pronoun;
(3) the conjunction _that_; (4) the copula and its subject with
_while_, _when_, _though_, _if_; (5) ellipsis in a clause with _as_ or
_than_.


EXERCISE 68

(§§ 448–526, pp. 183–223)

The following compound, complex, and compound complex sentences will
give further practice in analysis and in study of the relations of
clauses.

  1. Deerslayer hesitated a single instant ere he plunged into the
  bushes. 2. The mind of man is like a clock that is always running
  down and requires to be as constantly wound up.--HAZLITT. 3. He
  became sensible that his life was still in imminent peril. 4. A young
  author is apt to run into a confusion of mixed metaphors, which leave
  the sense disjointed, and distract the imagination.--GOLDSMITH. 5.
  Everybody kept his head as best he might and scrambled for whatever
  he could get. 6. The dialogue had been held in so very low a whisper
  that not a word of it had reached the young lady’s ears. 7. The
  captain screwed his lips up, and drummed on the table, but he did not
  speak. 8. Poor Andrew Fern had heard that his townsman’s sloop had
  been captured by a privateer. 9. Through the grounds we went, and
  very pretty I thought them. 10. He sometimes made doleful complaint
  that there were no stagecoaches, nowadays.

  11. Lights gleamed in the distance, and people were already astir.
  12. That few men celebrated for theoretic wisdom live with conformity
  to their precepts, must be readily confessed.--JOHNSON. 13. Down went
  Pew with a cry that rang high into the night. 14. Pluck the dog off,
  lest he throttle him. 15. I knew that the worst of men have their
  good points. 16. A rumor spread that the enemy was approaching in
  great force. 17. Mr. Henry went and walked at the low end of the hall
  without reply; for he had an excellent gift of silence. 18. It is a
  bright brisk morning, and the loaded wagons are rolling cheerfully
  past my window. 19. The musician was an old gray-headed negro, who
  had been the itinerant orchestra of the neighborhood for more than
  half a century. 20. After he had waited three hours, the general’s
  patience was exhausted, and, as he learned that the Mexicans were
  busy in preparations for defence, he made immediate dispositions for
  the assault.--PRESCOTT.

  21. As I rode along near the coast, I kept a very sharp lookout in
  the lanes and woods. 22. Every man desires to live long, but no
  man would be old.--SWIFT. 23. If my face had been pale the moment
  before, it now glowed almost to burning. 24. The sentinels who paced
  the ramparts announced that the vanguard of the hostile army was in
  sight. 25. Her heart was happy and her courage rose. 26. There is a
  report that Clifford is to be secretary. 27. The season of winter,
  when, from the shortness of the daylight, labor becomes impossible,
  is in Zetland the time of revel, feasting, and merriment. 28.
  Every log which is carried past us by the current has come from an
  undiscovered country. 29. The fair heavens shone over the windy blue
  seas, and the green island of Ulva lay basking in the sunlight. 30.
  The greatest event was, that the Miss Jenkynses had purchased a new
  carpet for the drawing room. 31. My grandfather made a bow to the
  motley assemblage as he entered. 32. Talk to a man about himself, and
  he is generally captivated.

  33. Pen was as elated as if somebody had left him a fortune. 34. When
  the morning dawned, the king gazed with admiration at the city, which
  he hoped soon to add to his dominions.--IRVING. 35. No one doubts
  that the sloth and the ant-eater, the kangaroo and the opossum, the
  tiger and the badger, the tapir and the rhinoceros, are respectively
  members of the same orders.--HUXLEY. 36. The traveller, a man of
  middle age, wrapped in a gray frieze cloak, quickened his pace when
  he had reached the outskirts of the town, for a gloomy extent of
  nearly four miles lay between him and his home. 37. It was a scene on
  which I had often looked down, but where I had never before beheld a
  human figure. 38. He found that he had undertaken a task which was
  beyond his power. 39. In the Dutch garden is a fine bronze bust of
  Napoleon, which Lord Holland put up in 1817, while Napoleon was a
  prisoner at Saint Helena.

  40. The girl’s was not one of those natures which are most attracted
  by what is strange and exceptional in human character. 41. Mrs.
  Pendennis was sure that he would lead her dear boy into mischief,
  if Pen went to the same college with him. 42. I had been some time
  at sea before I became aware of the fact that hearing plays a
  perceptible part in gauging the force of the wind. 43. The Macedonian
  conqueror, when he was once invited to hear a man that sang like a
  nightingale, replied with contempt, that he had heard the nightingale
  herself; and the same treatment must every man expect, whose praise
  is that he imitates another.--JOHNSON. 44. Tie a couple of strings
  across a board and set it in your window, and you have an instrument
  which no artist’s harp can rival.--EMERSON. 45. I was on the point
  of asking what part of the country he had chosen for his retreat.
  46. That no man can lawfully promise what he cannot lawfully do is a
  self-evident proposition.--MACKINTOSH.

  47. How far the governor contributed towards the expenses of the
  outfit is not very clear. 48. The next epoch in the history of Russia
  was that of Peter the Great, whose genius overcame the obstacles
  consequent on the remoteness of its situation, and opened to its
  people the career of European industry, arts, and arms.--ALISON.
  49. As the chase lengthens, the sportsmen drop off, till at last
  the foremost huntsman is left alone, and his horse, overcome with
  fatigue, stumbles and dies in a rocky valley.--JEFFREY. 50. The
  Lowland knight, though startled, repeats his defiance; and Sir
  Roderick, respecting his valor, by a signal dismisses his men
  to their concealment, and assures him anew of his safety. 51. I
  stood awe-struck--I cannot tell how long--watching how the live
  flame-snakes crept and hissed, and leapt and roared, and rushed in
  long horizontal jets from stack to stack before the howling wind, and
  fastened their fiery talons on the barn-eaves, and swept over the
  peaked roofs, and hurled themselves in fiery flakes into the yard
  beyond.--KINGSLEY. 52. When I was at Grand Cairo, I picked up several
  Oriental manuscripts, which I have still by me.--ADDISON. 53. Often
  have I wondered at the temerity of my father, who, in spite of an
  habitual general respect which we all in common manifested towards
  him, would venture now and then to stand up against him in some
  argument touching their youthful days.--LAMB. 54. By all means begin
  your folio; even if the doctor does not give you a year, even if he
  hesitates about a month, make one brave push and see what can be
  accomplished in a week.--STEVENSON.



APPENDIX


LISTS OF VERBS

In the first list, only such verb forms are given as are indisputably
correct in accordance with the best prose usage of the present day. The
pupil may feel perfectly safe, therefore, in using the forms registered
in this list.[52]

  A few verbs (marked *) which are seldom or never used in
  ordinary language are included in this list. These have various
  irregularities. A few verbs are partly strong and partly weak.

  Weak verbs are printed in italics.

  For the modal auxiliaries, see page 299.


I

  PRESENT TENSE                 PAST TENSE           PAST PARTICIPLE

  abide                         abode                abode
  am (_subjunc._, be)           was                  been
  arise                         arose                arisen
  awake                         awoke, _awaked_      _awaked_
  bear                          bore                 borne, born[53]
  beat                          beat                 beaten
  beget                         begot                begotten
  begin                         began                begun
  behold                        beheld               beheld
  _bend_                        _bent_               _bent_
  _bereave_                     _bereft_,            _bereft_,
                                _bereaved_           _bereaved_[54]
  _beseech_                     _besought_           _besought_
  _bet_                         _bet_                _bet_
  bid (command)                 bade                 bidden
  bid (money)                   bid                  bid
  bind                          bound                bound
  bite                          bit                  bitten
  _bleed_                       _bled_               _bled_
  _bless_ (see p. 298)
  blow                          blew                 blown
  break                         broke                broken
  _breed_                       _bred_               _bred_
  _bring_                       _brought_            _brought_
  _build_                       _built_              _built_
  _burn_ (see p. 298)
  burst                         burst                burst
  _buy_                         _bought_             _bought_
  _cast_                        _cast_               _cast_
  _catch_                       _caught_             _caught_
  chide                         chid                 chidden
  choose                        chose                chosen
  *cleave (split)[55]           _cleft_, clove       _cleft_, _cleaved_
                                                     (cloven, _adj._)
  cling                         clung                clung
  come                          came                 come
  _cost_                        _cost_               _cost_
  _creep_                       _crept_              _crept_
  _crow_ (see p. 299)
  _curse_ (see p. 298)
  _cut_                         _cut_                _cut_
  _dare_ (see p. 299)
  _deal_                        _dealt_              _dealt_
  dig                           dug                  dug
  do                            did                  done
  draw                          drew                 drawn
  _dream_ (see p. 298)
  _dress_ (see p. 298)
  drink                         drank                drunk
                                                    (drunken, _adj._)
  drive                         drove                driven
  _dwell_                       _dwelt_              _dwelt_
  eat                           ate                  eaten
  _engrave_ (see p. 299)
  fall                          fell                 fallen
  _feed_                        _fed_                _fed_
  _feel_                        _felt_               _felt_
  fight                         fought               fought
  find                          found                found
  _flee_                         _fled_              _fled_
  fling                         flung                flung
  fly                           flew                 flown
  forbear                       forbore              forborne
  forget                        forgot               forgotten
  forsake                       forsook              forsaken
  freeze                        froze                frozen
  _freight_ (see p. 299)
  get                           got                  got[56]
  _gird_ (see p. 298)
  give                          gave                 given
  go                            _went_               gone
  _grave_ (see p. 299)
  grind                         ground               ground
  grow                          grew                 grown
  hang                          hung, _hanged_[57]   hung, _hanged_[57]
  _have_                        _had_                _had_
  _hear_                        _heard_              _heard_
  heave                         hove, _heaved_[58]   hove, _heaved_[58]
  _hew_                         _hewed_              hewn
  hide                          hid                  hidden
  _hit_                         _hit_                _hit_
  hold                          held                 held
  _hurt_                        _hurt_               _hurt_
  _keep_                        _kept_               _kept_
  _kneel_ (see p. 298)
  _knit_ (see p. 298)
  know                          knew                 known
  _lade_[59]                    _laded_              _laded_, laden
  _lay_                         _laid_               _laid_
  _lead_                        _led_                _led_
  _learn_ (see p. 298)
  _leave_                       _left_               _left_
  _lend_                        _lent_               _lent_
  let                           let                  let
  lie (recline)[60]             lay                  lain
  _light_                       _lighted_            _lighted_
                                or _lit_[61]         or _lit_[61]
  _lose_                        _lost_               _lost_
  _make_                        _made_               _made_
  _mean_                        _meant_              _meant_
  _meet_                        _met_                _met_
  _mow_ (see p. 299)
  _pay_                         _paid_               _paid_
  _pen_(shut up) (see p. 298)
  _put_                         _put_                _put_
  _quit_ (see p. 298)
  _read_                        _rĕad_               _rĕad_
  *_reave_                      _reft_, _reaved_     _reft_, _reaved_
  reeve                         rove                 rove
  _rend_                        _rent_               _rent_
  _rid_                         _rid_                _rid_
  ride                          rode                 ridden
  ring                          rang                 rung
  rise                          rose                 risen
  *_rive_                       _rived_              riven, _rived_
  run                           ran                  run
  _say_                         _said_               _said_
  see                           saw                  seen
  _seek_                        _sought_             _sought_
  *seethe (_transitive_)[62]    sod, _seethed_       _seethed_
                                                     (sodden, _adj._)
  _sell_                        _sold_               _sold_
  _send_                        _sent_               _sent_
  _set_                         _set_                _set_
  _sew_ (see p. 299)
  shake                         shook                shaken
  _shape_ (see p. 299)
  _shave_                       _shaved_             _shaved_
                                                     (shaven, _adj._)
  _shear_ (see p. 299)
  _shed_                        _shed_               _shed_
  shine                         shone                shone
  _shoe_                        _shod_               _shod_
  shoot                         shot                 shot
  _show_                        _showed_             shown
  _shred_ (see p. 298)
  shrink                        shrank               shrunk
                                                     (shrunken, _adj._)
  *shrive                       shrove, _shrived_    shriven, _shrived_
  _shut_                        _shut_               _shut_
  sing                          sang                 sung
  sink                          sank                 sunk
  sit                           sat                  sat
  slay                          slew                 slain
  _sleep_                       _slept_              _slept_
  slide                         slid                 slid, slidden
  sling                         slung                slung
  slink                         slunk                slunk
  _slit_                        _slit_               _slit_
  _smell_ (see p. 298)
  smite                         smote                smitten
  _sow_                         _sowed_              _sowed_, sown
  speak                         spoke                spoken
  _speed_ (see p. 298)
  _spell_ (see p. 299)
  _spend_                       _spent_              _spent_
  _spill_ (see p. 299)
  spin                          spun                 spun
  spit                          spit                 spit
  _split_                       _split_              _split_
  _spoil_ (see p. 299)
  _spread_                      _spread_             _spread_
  spring                        sprang               sprung
  stand                         stood                stood
  stave                         stove, _staved_      stove, _staved_
  _stay_ (see p. 299)
  steal                         stole                stolen
  stick                         stuck                stuck
  sting                         stung                stung
  stink                         stunk                stunk
  _strew_                       _strewed_            strewn
  stride                        strode               stridden
  strike                        struck               struck
                                                    (stricken, _adj._)[63]
  string                        strung               strung
  strive                        strove               striven
  swear                         swore                sworn
  _sweat_ (see p. 299)
  _sweep_                       _swept_              _swept_
  _swell_                       _swelled_            _swelled_, swollen
  swim                          swam                 swum
  swing                         swung                swung
  take                          took                 taken
  _teach_                       _taught_             _taught_
  tear                          tore                 torn
  _tell_                        _told_               _told_
  _think_                       _thought_            _thought_
  thrive                        throve, _thrived_    thriven, _thrived_
  throw                         threw                thrown
  _thrust_                      _thrust_             _thrust_
  tread                         trod                 trodden
  wake                          woke, _waked_        woke, _waked_
  _wax_ (grow) (see p. 299)
  wear                          wore                 worn
  weave                         wove                 woven
  _wed_ (see p. 299)
  _weep_                        _wept_               _wept_
  _wet_                         _wet_                _wet_
  win                           won                  won
  wind                          wound                wound
  wring                         wrung                wrung
  write                         wrote                written

  _Bear_, _break_, _drive_, _get_ (_beget_, _forget_), _speak_, _spin_,
  _stink_, _swear_, _tear_, have an archaic past tense in _a_: _bare_,
  _brake_, _drave_, _gat_, _spake_, etc.

  _Beat_, _beget_ (_forget_), _bite_, _break_, _forsake_, _hide_,
  _ride_, _shake_, _speak_, _weave_, _write_, and some other verbs have
  archaic forms of the past participle like those of the past tense.
  The participles in _en_, however, are now the accepted forms. _Chid_
  and _trod_ are common participial forms.

  _Begin_, _drink_, _ring_, _shrink_, _sing_, _sink_, _spring_, _swim_,
  often have in poetry a _u_-form (_begun_, _sung_, etc.) in the past
  tense as well as in the past participle. This form (though good _old_
  English)[64] should be avoided in modern speech.

  _Bend_, _beseech_, _bet_, _build_, _burst_, _catch_, _dwell_, _rend_,
  _split_, _wet_, have archaic or less usual forms in _ed_: _bended_,
  _beseeched_, _betted_, etc. _Builded_ is common in the proverbial “He
  _builded_ better than he knew.” _Bursted_ is common as an adjective:
  “a _bursted_ bubble.”

  _Bid_, “to command,” has sometimes _bid_ in both the past tense
  and the past participle; _bid_, “to offer money,” has these forms
  regularly.

  _Blend_, _leap_, _lean_, have usually _blended_, _leaped_, _leaned_;
  but _blent_, _leapt_, _leant_ are not uncommon.

  _Clothe_ has commonly _clothed_; but _clad_ is common in literary
  use, and is regular in the adjectives _well-clad_, _ill-clad_ (for
  which ordinary speech has substituted _well-dressed_, _badly_ or
  _poorly dressed_).

  _Dive_ has _dived_; but _dove_ (an old form) is common in America.

  _Plead_ has past tense and past participle _pleaded_. _Plead_
  (pronounced _plĕd_) is avoided by careful writers and speakers.

  _Prove_ has past tense and past participle _proved_. The past
  participle _proven_ should be avoided.

  _Work_ has past tense and past participle _worked_. _Wrought_ in the
  past tense and the past participle is archaic, but is also modern as
  an adjective (as in _wrought iron_).

  Some verbs have rare or archaic weak forms alongside of the strong
  forms; thus _digged,_ _shined_, past tense and past participle of
  _dig_, _shine_; _showed_, past participle of _show_.

  _Ate_ and _eaten_ are preferred to _eat_ (pronounced _ĕt_).

  _Quoth_, “said,” is an old strong past tense. The compound _bequeath_
  has _bequeathed_ only.

  Miscellaneous archaisms are the past tenses _sate_ for _sat_, _trode_
  for _trod_, _spat_ for _spit_; also _writ_ for _wrote_ and _written_,
  _rid_ for _rode_ and _ridden_, _strewed_ and _strown_ for _strewn_.


II

The following verbs vary between _ed_ and _t_ (_d_) in the past tense
and the past participle. In some of them, this variation is a mere
difference of spelling. In writing, the _ed_ forms are preferred in
most cases; in speaking, the _t_ forms are very common.

  bless            blessed, blest[65]
  burn             burned, burnt[66]
  curse            cursed, curst[65]
  dare             dared (_less commonly_, durst)
  dream            dreamed, dreamt
  dress            dressed, drest
  gird             girded, girt[66]
  kneel            kneeled, knelt[66]
  knit             knit, knitted[66]
  learn            learned, learnt[67]
  pen (shut up)    penned, pent[66]
  quit             quitted, quit[66]
  shred            shredded, shred[66]
  smell            smelled, smelt[66]
  speed            sped, speeded[66]
  spell            spelled, spelt
  spill            spilled, spilt[66]
  spoil            spoiled, spoilt[66]
  stay             stayed, staid
  sweat            sweated, sweat[66]
  wed              wedded (_p.p. also_ wed)[66]


III

The following verbs have regular _ed_ forms in modern prose, but in
poetry and the high style sometimes show archaic forms.

  PRESENT TENSE    PAST TENSE        PAST PARTICIPLE

  crow             crowed, crew      crowed, crown
  freight          freighted         freighted, fraught (_figurative_)
  grave            graved            graved, graven
  engrave          engraved          engraved, engraven
  mow              mowed             mowed, mown
  sew              sewed             sewed, sewn
  shape            shaped            shaped, shapen
  shear            sheared, shore    sheared, shorn
  wax (grow)       waxed             waxed, waxen


IV

  The present tense of _may_, _can_, _shall_, is an old strong past.
  Hence the first and third persons singular are alike:--_I may_, _he
  may_. The actual past tenses of these verbs are weak forms:--_might_,
  _could_, _should_. _Must_ is the weak past tense of an obsolete
  _mōt_, and is almost always used as a present tense (§ 292).

  _Dare_ and _owe_ originally belonged to this class. _Owe_ has become
  a regular weak verb, except for the peculiar past tense _ought_,
  which is used in a present sense (see § 293); _dare_ has in the
  third person _dare_ or _dares_, and in the past _dared_, more rarely
  _durst_. The archaic _wot_ “know,” past _wist_, also belongs to this
  class. _Will_ is inflected like _shall_, having _will_ in the first
  and third singular, _wilt_ in the second singular, and _would_ in the
  past.

  CONJUGATION OF THE VERB _TO BE_

  INDICATIVE MOOD

  PRESENT TENSE

  SINGULAR                   PLURAL
  1. I am.                   We are.
  2. Thou art.               You are.
  3. He is.                  They are.

  PAST TENSE

  1. I was.                  We were.
  2. Thou wast (wert).       You were.
  3. He was.                 They were.

  FUTURE TENSE

  1. I shall be.             We shall be.
  2. Thou wilt be.           You will be.
  3. He will be.             They will be.

  PERFECT (OR PRESENT PERFECT) TENSE

  1. I have been.            We have been.
  2. Thou hast been.         You have been.
  3. He has been.            They have been.

  PLUPERFECT (OR PAST PERFECT) TENSE

  1. I had been.             We had been.
  2. Thou hadst been.        You had been.
  3. He had been.            They had been.

  FUTURE PERFECT TENSE

  1. I shall have been.      We shall have been.
  2. Thou wilt have been.    You will have been.
  3. He will have been.      They will have been.

  SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

  PRESENT TENSE

  1. If I be.                If we be.
  2. If thou be.             If you be.
  3. If he be.               If they be.

  PAST TENSE

  1. If I were.              If we were.
  2. If thou wert.           If you were.
  3. If he were.             If they were.

  PERFECT (OR PRESENT PERFECT) TENSE

  1. If I have been.         If we have been.
  2. If thou have been.      If you have been.
  3. If he have been.        If they have been.

  PLUPERFECT (OR PAST PERFECT) TENSE

  1. If I had been.          If we had been.
  2. If thou hadst been.     If you had been.
  3. If he had been.         If they had been.

  IMPERATIVE MOOD. _Present. Sing. and Pl._ Be [thou _or_ you].
  INFINITIVE.      _Present_, to be; _Perfect_, to have been.
  PARTICIPLES.     _Present_, being; _Past_, been; _Perfect_, having been.

  CONJUGATION OF THE VERB _TO STRIKE_


  _ACTIVE VOICE_

  INDICATIVE MOOD

  PRESENT TENSE

  1. I strike.                 We strike.
  2. Thou strikest.            You strike.
  3. He strikes.               They strike.

  PAST TENSE

  1. I struck.                 We struck.
  2. Thou struckest.           You struck.
  3. He struck.                They struck.

  FUTURE TENSE

  1. I shall strike.           We shall strike.
  2. Thou wilt strike.         You will strike.
  3. He will strike.           They will strike.

  PERFECT (OR PRESENT PERFECT) TENSE

  1. I have struck.            We have struck.
  2. Thou hast struck.         You have struck.
  3. He has struck.            They have struck.

  PLUPERFECT (OR PAST PERFECT) TENSE

  1. I had struck.             We had struck.
  2. Thou hadst struck.        You had struck.
  3. He had struck.            They had struck.

  FUTURE PERFECT TENSE

  1. I shall have struck.      We shall have struck.
  2. Thou wilt have struck.    You will have struck.
  3. He will have struck.      They will have struck.

  SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

  PRESENT TENSE

  1. If I strike.              If we strike.
  2. If thou strike.           If you strike.
  3. If he strike.             If they strike.

  PAST TENSE

  1. If I struck.              If we struck.
  2. If thou struck.           If you struck.
  3. If he struck.             If they struck.

  PERFECT (OR PRESENT PERFECT) TENSE

  1. If I have struck.         If we have struck.
  2. If thou have struck.      If you have struck.
  3. If he have struck.        If they have struck.

  PLUPERFECT (OR PAST PERFECT) TENSE

  1. If I had struck.          If we had struck.
  2. If thou hadst struck.     If you had struck.
  3. If he had struck.         If they had struck.

  IMPERATIVE MOOD. _Present._ _Sing. and Pl._ Strike [thou _or_ you].
  INFINITIVE.      _Present_, to strike; _Perfect_, to have struck.
  PARTICIPLE.      _Present_, striking; _Past_, struck;
                   _Perfect_, having struck.


  _PASSIVE VOICE_

  INDICATIVE MOOD

  PRESENT TENSE

  1. I am struck.                     We are struck.
  2. Thou art struck.                 You are struck.
  3. He is struck.                    They are struck.

  PAST TENSE

  1. I was struck.                    We were struck.
  2. Thou wast (_or_ wert) struck.    You were struck.
  3. He was struck.                   They were struck.

  FUTURE TENSE

  1. I shall be struck.               We shall be struck.
  2. Thou wilt be struck.             You will be struck.
  3. He will be struck.               They will be struck.

  PERFECT (OR PRESENT PERFECT) TENSE

  1. I have been struck.              We have been struck.
  2. Thou hast been struck.           You have been struck.
  3. He has been struck.              They have been struck.

  PLUPERFECT (OR PAST PERFECT) TENSE

  1. I had been struck.               We had been struck.
  2. Thou hadst been struck.          You had been struck.
  3. He had been struck.              They had been struck.

  FUTURE PERFECT TENSE

  1. I shall have been struck.        We shall have been struck.
  2. Thou wilt have been struck.      You will have been struck.
  3. He will have been struck.        They will have been struck.

  SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

  PRESENT TENSE

  1. If I be struck.                  If we be struck.
  2. If thou be struck.               If you be struck.
  3. If he be struck.                 If they be struck.

  PAST TENSE

  1. If I were struck.                If we were struck.
  2. If thou wert struck.             If you were struck.
  3. If he were struck.               If they were struck.

  PERFECT (OR PRESENT PERFECT) TENSE

  1. If I have been struck.           If we have been struck.
  2. If thou have been struck.        If you have been struck.
  3. If he have been struck.          If they have been struck.

  PLUPERFECT (OR PAST PERFECT) TENSE

  1. If I had been struck.            If we had been struck.
  2. If thou hadst been struck.       If you had been struck.
  3. If he had been struck.           If they had been struck.

  IMPERATIVE MOOD. _Present._ _Sing. and Pl._ Be [thou _or_ you] struck.
  INFINITIVE.      _Present_, to be struck;
                   _Perfect_, to have been struck.
  PARTICIPLES.     _Present_, being struck; _Past_, struck;
                   _Perfect_, having been struck.


USE OF CAPITAL LETTERS

1. Every sentence begins with a capital letter.

2. Every line of poetry begins with a capital letter.

3. The first word of every direct quotation begins with a capital
letter.

  NOTE. This rule does not apply to quoted fragments of sentences.

4. Every proper noun or abbreviation of a proper noun begins with a
capital letter.

5. Most adjectives derived from proper nouns begin with capital
letters; as,--_American_, _Indian_, _Swedish_, _Spenserian_.

  NOTE. Some adjectives derived from proper nouns have ceased to be
  closely associated in thought with the nouns from which they come,
  and therefore begin with small letters. Thus,--voltaic, galvanic,
  mesmeric, maudlin, stentorian.

6. Every title attached to the name of a person begins with a capital
letter.

  _Mr._ Thomas Smith
  John Wilson, _Esq._
  _Miss_ Allerton
  _Dr._ F. E. Wilson
  C. J. Adams, _M.D._
  _President_ Grant
  _Professor_ Whitney
  _Sir_ Walter Raleigh

7. In titles of books, etc., the first word, as well as every important
word that follows, begins with a capital letter.

8. The interjection _O_ and the pronoun _I_ are always written in
capital letters.

9. Personal pronouns referring to the Deity are often capitalized.

  NOTE. Usage varies: the personal pronouns are commonly capitalized
  when they refer to the Deity, the relatives less frequently. The rule
  is often disregarded altogether when its observance would result in
  a multitude of capitals, as in the Bible and in many hymn books and
  works of theology.

10. Common nouns and adjectives often begin with capital letters when
they designate the topics or main points of definitions or similar
statements. Such capitals are called _emphatic_ (or _topical_)
_capitals_.

  NOTE. Emphatic (or topical) capitals are analogous to capitals in the
  titles of books (see Rule 7), but their use is not obligatory. They
  are especially common in text-books and other elementary manuals.


RULES OF PUNCTUATION[68]

The common marks of punctuation are the period, the interrogation
point, the exclamation point, the comma, the semicolon, the colon, the
dash, marks of parenthesis, and quotation marks. The hyphen and the
apostrophe may be conveniently treated along with marks of punctuation.


I

1. The period, the interrogation point, and the exclamation point are
used at the end of sentences. Every complete sentence must be followed
by one of these three marks.

The end of a declarative or an imperative sentence is marked by a
period. But a declarative or an imperative sentence that is likewise
exclamatory may be followed by an exclamation point instead of a period.

The end of a direct question is marked by an interrogation point.

An exclamatory sentence in the form of an indirect question is followed
by an exclamation point; as,--“How absolute the knave is!”

2. A period is used after an abbreviation.

3. An exclamation point is used after an exclamatory word or phrase.

  NOTE. This rule is not absolute. Most interjections take the
  exclamation point. With other words and with phrases, usage differs;
  if strong feeling is expressed, the exclamation point is commonly
  used, but too many such marks deface the page.


II

The comma is used--

1. After a noun (or a phrase) of direct address (a _vocative
nominative_). Thus,--

  John, tell me the truth.

  Little boy, what is your name?

  NOTE. If the noun is exclamatory, an exclamation point may be used
  instead of a comma.

2. Before a direct quotation in a sentence. Thus,--

  The cry ran through the ranks, “Are we never to move forward?”

  NOTE. When the quotation is long or formal, a colon, or a colon and a
  dash, may be used instead of a comma, especially with the words _as
  follows_.

3. After a direct quotation when this is the subject or the object of a
following verb. Thus,--

  “They are coming; the attack will be made on the center,” said Lord
  Fitzroy Somerset.

  “I see it,” was the cool reply of the duke.

  NOTE. If the quotation ends with an interrogation point or an
  exclamation point, no comma is used.

4. To separate words, or groups of words, arranged in a coördinate
series, when these are not connected by _and_, _or_, or _nor_.

If the conjunction is used to connect the last two members of the
series but omitted with the others, the comma may be used before the
conjunction.

  I found two saws, an axe, and a hammer.

  They were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was
  difficult to come at them.

  It would make the reader pity me to tell what odd, misshapen, ugly
  things I made.

  They groaned, they stirred, they all uprose.

  NOTE 1. Commas may be used even when conjunctions are expressed, if
  the members of the series consist of several words, or if the writer
  wishes to emphasize their distinctness.

  NOTE 2. Clauses in a series are commonly separated by semicolons
  unless they are short and simple (see pp. 309–310).

5. To set off words and phrases out of their regular order. Thus,--

  Seated on her accustomed chair, with her usual air of apathy and
  want of interest in what surrounded her, she seemed now and then
  mechanically to resume the motion of twirling her spindle.--SCOTT.

6. To separate a long subject from the verb of the predicate. Thus,--

  To have passed them over in an historical sketch of my literary
  life and opinions, would have seemed to me like the denial of a
  debt.--COLERIDGE.

7. To set off an appositive noun or an appositive adjective, with its
modifiers. Thus,--

  I have had the most amusing letter from Hogg, the Ettrick minstrel.

  There was an impression upon the public mind, natural enough from the
  continually augmenting velocity of the mail, but quite erroneous,
  that an outside seat on this class of carriages was a post of
  danger.--DE QUINCEY.

  NOTE 1. Many participial and other adjective phrases come under this
  head. Thus,--

  The genius, seeing me indulge myself on this melancholy prospect,
  told me I had dwelt long enough upon it.--ADDISON.

  NOTE 2. If a noun and its appositive are so closely connected as to
  form one idea, no comma is used. Thus,--

  My friend Jackson lives in San Francisco.

  NOTE 3. An intensive pronoun (_myself_, etc.) is not separated by a
  comma from the substantive which it emphasizes.

  NOTE 4. A series of words or phrases in apposition with a single
  substantive is sometimes set off, as a whole, by a comma and a dash.

8. To set off a subordinate clause, especially one introduced by a
descriptive relative. Thus,--

  I am going to take a last dinner with a most agreeable family,
  who have been my only neighbors ever since I have lived at
  Weston.--COWPER.

  NOTE. No comma is used before a restrictive relative. Thus,--

  I want to know many things which only you can tell me.

  Perhaps I am the only man in England who can boast of such good
  fortune.

9. To set off a phrase containing a nominative absolute. Thus,--

  They had some difficulty in passing the ferry at the riverside, the
  ferryman being afraid of them.--DEFOE.

10. To set off _however_, _nevertheless_, _moreover_, etc., and
introductory phrases like _in the first place_, _on the one hand_, etc.

11. To set off a parenthetical expression. For this purpose commas,
dashes, or marks of parenthesis may be used.

When the parenthetical matter is brief or closely related to the rest
of the sentence, it is generally set off by commas. Thus,--

  I exercised a piece of hypocrisy for which, I hope, you will hold me
  excused.--THACKERAY.

When it is longer and more independent, it is generally marked off
by dashes, or enclosed in marks of parenthesis. The latter are less
frequently used at present than formerly.

  The connection of the mail with the state and the executive
  government--a connection obvious, but yet not strictly defined--gave
  to the whole mail establishment an official grandeur.--DE QUINCEY.

  NOTE. Brackets are used to indicate insertions that are not part of
  the text.


III

The clauses of a compound sentence may be separated by colons,
semicolons, or commas.

1. The colon is used--

  _a._ To show that the second of two clauses repeats the substance of
      the first in another form, or defines the first as an appositive
      defines a noun. Thus,--

  This was the practice of the Grecian stage. But Terence made an
  innovation in the Roman: all his plays have double actions.--DRYDEN.

  _b._ To separate two groups of clauses one or both of which contain a
      semicolon. Thus,--

  At that time, news such as we had heard might have been long in
  penetrating so far into the recesses of the mountains; but now, as
  you know, the approach is easy, and the communication, in summer
  time, almost hourly: nor is this strange, for travellers after
  pleasure are become not less active, and more numerous, than those
  who formerly left their homes for purposes of gain.--WORDSWORTH.

  NOTE. The colon is less used now than formerly. The tendency is to
  use a semicolon or to begin a new sentence.

2. The semicolon is used when the clauses are of the same general
nature and contribute to the same general effect, especially if one or
more of them contain commas. Thus,--

  The sky was cloudless; the sun shone out bright and warm; the songs
  of birds, and hum of myriads of summer insects filled the air; and
  the cottage garden, crowded with every rich and beautiful tint,
  sparkled in the heavy dew like beds of glittering jewels.--DICKENS.

3. The comma may be used when the clauses are short and simple (see p.
307).

  NOTE. The choice between colon, semicolon, and comma is determined
  in many cases by the writer’s feeling of the closer or the looser
  connection of the ideas expressed by the several clauses, and is to
  some extent a matter of taste.


IV

1. In a complex sentence, the dependent clause is generally separated
from the main clause by a comma. But when the dependent clause is short
and the connection close, the comma may be omitted.

  NOTE. A descriptive relative clause is preceded by a comma, a
  restrictive relative clause is not (see p. 70).

2. The clauses of a series, when in the same dependent construction,
are often separated by semicolons to give more emphasis to each. Thus,--

  [Mrs. Battle] was none of your lukewarm gamesters, your half-and-half
  players, who have no objection to take a hand if you want one to make
  up a rubber; who affirm that they have no pleasure in winning; that
  they like to win one game and lose another; that they can while away
  an hour very agreeably at a card table, but are indifferent whether
  they play or no; and will desire an adversary who has slipped a wrong
  card, to take it up and play another.--LAMB.


V

1. A direct quotation is enclosed in quotation marks.

  NOTE. If the quotation stands by itself and is printed in different
  type, the marks may be omitted.

2. A quotation within a quotation is usually enclosed in single
quotation marks.

3. In a quotation consisting of several paragraphs, quotation marks are
put at the beginning of each paragraph and at the end of the last.

  NOTE. For the punctuation before a quotation, see p. 307.

4. When a book, poem, or the like, is referred to, the title may be
enclosed in quotation marks or italicized.


VI

1. Sudden changes in thought and feeling or breaks in speech are
indicated by dashes. Thus,--

  Eh!--what--why--upon my life, and so it is--Charley, my boy, so it’s
  you, is it?--LEVER.

2. Parenthetical expressions may be set off by dashes (see p. 308).

3. A colon, or colon and dash, may precede an enumeration, a direct
quotation, or a statement formally introduced,--especially with _as
follows_, _namely_, and the like. Before an enumeration a comma and a
dash may be used. Thus,--

  There are eight parts of speech:--nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs,
  adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections. OR--

  There are eight parts of speech,--nouns, pronouns, etc.

4. The dash is sometimes used to strengthen a comma (as in the last
paragraph but one).


VII

1. The apostrophe is used--

  _a._ To mark the omission of a letter or letters in contractions.

  _b._ As a sign of the possessive or genitive.

  _c._ To indicate the plural of letters, signs, etc.

2. The hyphen is used--

  _a._ When the parts of a word are separated in writing.

  _b._ Between the parts of some compound words. (See the dictionary in
      each case.)


RULES OF SYNTAX

1. The +subject+ of a verb is in the +nominative case+ (p. 41).

2. A substantive standing in the predicate, but describing or defining
the subject, agrees with the subject in case and is called a +predicate
nominative+ (p. 41).

3. A substantive used for the purpose of +addressing+ a person
directly, and not connected with any verb, is called a +vocative+.

A vocative is in the +nominative case+, and is often called a
+nominative by direct address+ or a +vocative nominative+ (p. 42).

4. A substantive used as an +exclamation+ is called an +exclamatory
nominative+ or a +nominative of exclamation+ (p. 42).

5. A substantive, with a participle, may express the cause, time, or
circumstances of an action.

This is called the +absolute construction+.

The substantive is in the +nominative case+ and is called a +nominative
absolute+ (p. 144).

6. The +possessive case+ denotes ownership or possession (p. 43).

7. The +object+ of a verb or preposition is in the +objective case+ (p.
47).

8. A substantive that completes the meaning of a transitive verb is
called its +direct object+, and is said to be in the +objective case+
(p. 48).

9. A verb of _asking_ sometimes takes +two direct objects+, one
denoting the +person+ and the other the +thing+ (p. 50).

10. Verbs of _choosing_, _calling_, _naming_, _making_, and _thinking_
may take +two objects+ referring to the same person or thing.

The first of these is the +direct object+, and the second, which
completes the sense of the predicate, is called a +predicate objective+
(pp. 50, 111).

11. Some verbs of _giving_, _telling_, _refusing_, and the like, may
take +two objects+, a +direct object+ and an +indirect object+.

The indirect object denotes the person or thing toward whom or toward
which is directed the action expressed by the rest of the predicate (p.
50).

12. A verb that is regularly intransitive sometimes takes as object a
noun whose meaning closely resembles its own.

A noun in this construction is called the +cognate object+ of the verb
and is in the +objective case+ (p. 52).

13. A noun, or a group of words consisting of a noun and its modifiers,
may be used adverbially. Such a noun is called an +adverbial objective+
(p. 53).

14. An +appositive+ is in the same case as the substantive which it
limits (p. 42).

15. A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in +gender+, +number+, and
+person+ (p. 55).

16. +Relative pronouns+ connect dependent clauses with main clauses by
referring directly to a substantive in the main clause.

This substantive is the +antecedent+ of the relative (p. 66).

A relative pronoun must agree with its antecedent in +gender+,
+number+, and +person+.

The +case+ of a relative pronoun has nothing to do with its antecedent,
but depends on the construction of its own clause (p. 68).

17. A relative pronoun in the objective case is often omitted (p. 69).

18. The relative pronoun _what_ is equivalent to _that which_, and has
a +double construction+:--(1) the construction of the +omitted+ or
+implied antecedent+ _that_; (2) the construction of the +relative+
_which_ (p. 71).

19. The +compound relative pronouns+ may include or imply their own
antecedents and hence may have a +double construction+ (p. 72).

The compound relatives are sometimes used without an antecedent
expressed or implied (p. 72).

20. An adjective is said to +belong+ to the substantive which it
describes or limits (pp. 5, 75).

21. Adjectives may be classified, according to their position in the
sentence, as +attributive+, +appositive+, and +predicate adjectives+
(p. 76).

1. An +attributive adjective+ is closely attached to its noun and
regularly precedes it.

2. An +appositive adjective+ is added to its noun to explain it, like a
noun in apposition.

3. A +predicate adjective+ completes the meaning of the predicate verb,
but describes or limits the subject.

For the use of an adjective as +predicate objective+, see § 488.

22. The +comparative degree+, not the superlative, is used in comparing
two persons or things.

The +superlative+ is used in comparing one person or thing with two or
more (p. 88).

23. +Relative adverbs+ introduce subordinate clauses and are similar in
their use to relative pronouns (p. 86).

24. A +verb+ must agree with its subject in +number+ and +person+ (p.
97).

25. A +compound subject+ with _and_ usually takes a verb in the plural
number (p. 100).

26. A +compound subject+ with _or_ or _nor_ takes a verb in the
singular number if the substantives are singular (p. 100).

27. Nouns that are +plural in form but singular in sense+ commonly take
a verb in the singular number (p. 101).

28. +Collective nouns+ take sometimes a singular and sometimes a plural
verb.

When the persons or things denoted are thought of as +individuals+, the
plural should be used. When the collection is regarded as a +unit+, the
singular should be used (p. 101).

29. A verb is in the +active voice+ when it represents the subject as
the +doer+ of an act (p. 107).

30. A verb is in the +passive voice+ when it represents the subject as
the +receiver+ or the +product+ of an action (p. 107).

The object of the active verb becomes the subject of the passive, and
the subject of the active verb becomes in the passive an adverbial
phrase modifying the predicate verb (p. 110).

31. When a verb takes both a +direct+ and an +indirect object+, one of
the two is often retained after the passive, the other becoming the
subject (p. 112).

32. The +indicative+ is the mood of +simple assertion+ or
+interrogation+, but it is used in other constructions also (p. 115).

33. The +imperative+ is the mood of +command+ or +request+ (p. 115).

34. The +subject+ of an +imperative+ is seldom expressed unless it is
emphatic.

The subject, when expressed, may precede the imperative: as,--_You go_,
_You read_ (p. 117).

35. The +subjunctive mood+ is used in certain special constructions of
+wish+, +condition+, and the like (pp. 115, 118).

For particulars and examples, see pp. 119–123.

For modal auxiliaries, see pp. 124–132.

36. An +infinitive+, with or without a complement or modifiers, may be
used as the +subject+ of a sentence, as a +predicate nominative+, or as
an +appositive+ (pp. 134, 135).

37. An +infinitive+ may be used as the +object+ of the prepositions
_but_, _except_, _about_, (p. 135).

38. The +infinitive+ may be used as a +nominative of exclamation+ (p.
136).

39. An +infinitive+ may modify a verb by +completing+ its meaning, or
by expressing the +purpose+ of the action (p. 137).

40. An +infinitive+ may be used as an +adjective modifier+ of a +noun+
or as an +adverbial modifier+ of an +adjective+.

In this use the infinitive is said to +depend+ on the word which it
modifies (p. 136).

41. A kind of +clause+, consisting of a substantive in the objective
case followed by an +infinitive+, may be used as the object of certain
verbs.

Such clauses are called +infinitive clauses+, and the substantive is
said to be the subject of the infinitive.

The +subject+ of an +infinitive+ is in the objective case.

+Infinitive clauses+ are used (1) after verbs of _wishing_,
_commanding_, _advising_, and the like, and (2) after some verbs of
_believing_, _declaring_, and _perceiving_ (p. 138).

An infinitive clause may be the object of the preposition _for_.

An infinitive clause with _for_ may be used as a subject, as a
predicate nominative, or as the object of a preposition (pp. 138–139).

42. The participle is a verb-form which has no subject, but which
partakes of the nature of an adjective and expresses action or state in
such a way as to describe or limit a substantive (pp. 12, 140).

43. A +participle+ is said to +belong+ to the substantive which it
describes or limits (pp. 12, 142).

44. A participle should not be used without some substantive to which
it may belong (p. 142).

45. An +infinitive+ or a +participle+, like any other verb-form, may
take an +object+ if its meaning allows (pp. 134, 143).

46. +Infinitives+ and +participles+, like other verb-forms, may be
+modified+ by adverbs, adverbial phrases, or adverbial clauses (pp.
134, 142).

47. +Verbal+ (or +participial+) +nouns+ in _-ing_ have the form of
present participles, but the construction of nouns (p. 145).

48. +Verbal nouns+ in _-ing_ have certain properties of the verb (p.
146).

1. Verbal nouns in _-ing_ may take a +direct+ or an +indirect object+
if their meaning allows.

2. A verbal noun in _-ing_ may take an +adverbial modifier+.

But verbal nouns in _-ing_, like other nouns, may be +modified+ by
+adjectives+.

49. A noun in _-ing_ may be used as an +adjective+, or as the adjective
element in a +compound noun+ (p. 146).

50. The substantive which follows a +preposition+ is called its
+object+ and is in the +objective case+ (p. 148).

51. A +coördinate conjunction+ connects words or groups of words that
are independent of each other (p. 151).

52. A +subordinate conjunction+ connects a subordinate clause with the
clause on which it depends (p. 151).

53. +Interjections+ usually have no grammatical connection with the
phrases or sentences in which they stand.

Sometimes, however, a substantive is connected with an interjection by
means of a preposition (p. 155).


THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

English is a member of the great Indo-European Family of languages,
which is so called because it includes well-nigh all the languages of
Europe and the most important of those found in India. Within this
family, English belongs to the Teutonic (or Germanic) Group, which
contains also German, Dutch, the Scandinavian tongues (Icelandic,
Danish, Norwegian, Swedish), and some others.

English of the oldest period is called either Anglo-Saxon or Old
English. This was the speech of certain piratical tribes whose home
was in northern Germany, on the eastern and southern shores of the
North Sea, but who invaded Britain about A.D. 450, and subdued the
Celtic inhabitants of the island in a series of fierce wars. The most
considerable of the invading tribes were the Angles and the Saxons.
Their dominion was well assured by the beginning of the seventh
century, and their language, which they usually called “English” (that
is, “the tongue of the Angles”), gradually spread through England and
most of Scotland. In Wales, however, the native Britons have maintained
their own Celtic speech to the present day; and in the Scottish
Highlands, Gaelic--which is akin to Welsh and practically identical
with the native language of Ireland--is still extensively used.

At the time of the invasion, the Angles and Saxons were heathen, and
the Britons, who had been for four centuries under the sway of the
Roman Empire, were Christians, and much more highly civilized than
their conquerors. Indeed, they had adopted many features of Roman
culture, and Latin was spoken to some extent, at least in the larger
towns. By the end of the seventh century, however, the Anglo-Saxons
also had embraced Christianity and had made remarkable advances in
literature and learning. The language of the Britons exerted but slight
influence upon that of the Anglo-Saxons. The Celtic words in English
are few in number, and most of them were borrowed in comparatively
recent times.

The Norman Conquest (1066) marks a highly significant date in the
history of our language. The Normans were a Scandinavian tribe who had
been in possession of Normandy (in northern France) for about a hundred
and fifty years. They had abandoned their native tongue, and spoke a
dialect of French. From 1066 to about the year 1400, two languages
were therefore common in England,--English, which was employed by the
vast majority of the people, and French, which was the language of
the court and the higher orders. French, however, was never a serious
rival of English for supremacy in the island. It was the speech of a
class, not of the nation, and its use gradually died out, except as an
accomplishment. By the time of Chaucer (who was born about 1340 and
died in 1400), it was clear that the English tongue was henceforth to
be regarded as the only natural language for Englishmen, whether they
were of Anglo-Saxon or of Norman origin.

Still, the Norman conquest had a profound influence upon English. It
is not true--though often asserted--that the multitude of French words
which our language contains were derived from the Norman dialect.
Comparatively few of them came into English until after 1300, when
Normandy had been lost to the English crown for a hundred years.
Since 1300 we have borrowed freely--not from Norman, however, but
from Central (or Parisian) French, which had become the standard to
which the English descendants of the Normans endeavored to conform.
The effect of the Conquest, then, was not to fill English with Norman
terms. It was rather to bring England into close social and literary
relations with France, and thus to facilitate the adoption of words and
constructions from Central French.

Further, since literature was in the middle ages dependent in the main
upon private patronage, the existence of a ruling class whose interest
was in French, discouraged the maintenance of any national or general
standard of English composition. Every English writer had recourse to
his local dialect, and one dialect was felt to be as good as another.

By 1350, however, the dialect of London and the vicinity had come,
apparently, to be regarded as somewhat more elegant and polished than
the others. All that was needed was the appearance of some writer of
supreme genius to whom this dialect should be native. Chaucer was
such a writer, for he was born in London. To be sure, Chaucer did
not “make modern English.” None the less, he was a powerful agent in
settling the language. Since his time, at all events, the fact of a
“standard of literary usage” has been undisputed. Dialects still exist,
but they are not regarded as authoritative. Educated speakers and
writers of English, the world over, use the language with substantial
uniformity.[69]

Meantime, however, the English of the Anglo-Saxons had undergone many
changes before Chaucer was born. Most of its inflections had been
lost, and still others have been discarded since. Further, there had
been extensive borrowing from French and Latin, and this continued
throughout the fourteenth century. The habit, once formed, has proved
lasting. Our vocabulary has received contributions from many languages,
and is still receiving them. Greek may be mentioned in particular as
the source of many words, especially in the various departments of
science. But French and Latin remain the chief foreign elements in
English.

In the following extract from Scott, most of the words printed in
Roman type are of Anglo-Saxon origin, whereas the italicized words are
derived from Latin or French.

  It was not until evening was nearly _closed_ that Ivanhoe was
  _restored_ to _consciousness_ of his _situation_. He awoke from a
  broken slumber, under the _confused impressions_ which are _naturally
  attendant_ on the _recovery_ from a _state_ of _insensibility_.
  He was un_able_ for some time to recall _exactly_ to _memory_ the
  _circumstances_ which had _preceded_ his fall in the _lists_, or
  to make out any _connected chain_ of the _events_ in which he had
  been _engaged_ upon the yesterday. A _sense_ of wounds and _injury_,
  _joined_ to great weakness and _exhaustion_, was mingled with the
  _recollection_ of blows dealt and _received_, of steeds rushing upon
  each other, overthrowing and overthrown, of shouts and clashing of
  _arms_, and all the heady _tumult_ of a _confused_ fight. An _effort_
  to draw aside the _curtain_ of his _couch_ was in some _degree
  success_ful, although _rendered difficult_ by the _pain_ of his wound.

English has also adopted a good many Scandinavian words, though they
form no such proportion of its vocabulary as French or Latin. Danish
and Norwegian pirates began to harry the coast in the eighth century.
Permanent settlements followed, as well as wars of conquest, and for
about thirty years (1013–1042) a Danish family occupied the English
throne. These events explain the Scandinavian element in our language.

Despite the freedom with which English has adopted words from abroad,
it is still essentially a Germanic speech. Its structure is still the
native structure. The borrowings have enriched its vocabulary, but have
had comparatively little effect upon its syntax. The foreign words have
been naturalized, and their presence in no wise interferes with the
unity and general consistency of the English language. It is a strange
error to regard English as a combination of Anglo-Saxon and Norman
French. As for the loss or decay of inflections, that is not due to
a mixture of dialects. It is a natural tendency, which may be seen,
for example, in Dutch and Danish, though there was no Norman Conquest
in Holland or Denmark. The loss, indeed, is really a gain, for it is
progress in the direction of simplicity.

The Anglo-Saxon or Old English Period comes down to about a century, or
a century and a half, after the Norman Conquest. Its extreme limit may
be set at 1200. The period from 1200 to 1500 is usually known as the
Middle English Period. From 1500 to the present time may be regarded as
the Modern Period, though within these boundaries English has changed
enormously in pronunciation and in vocabulary, very largely in syntax,
and to some extent in inflection. The almost complete abandonment of
the subjunctive in common speech is one of the latest of these changes.
This, too, is in the direction of simplicity.

The people of Great Britain have long been famous as travellers,
explorers, and colonizers. Their language, once the dialect (or
dialects) of a handful of Germanic adventurers, has spread to all
parts of the world, so that now it is not merely the language of
England, but, to a considerable extent, that of Scotland, Ireland,
North America, India, Australasia, and South Africa. In this vast area,
numerous varieties of pronunciation and of idiom of course occur, but,
on the whole, the uniformity of the language is surprisingly well
preserved.



FOOTNOTES


[1] For a brief history of the English language, see p. 316.

[2] Compare pp. 316–317.

[3] In this book, well-established colloquial idioms or constructions
are mentioned from time to time, but always with a note as to their
actual status in the language.

[4] In this book, several old forms and constructions which the student
is constantly encountering in the English classics are treated in their
proper places,--always with an indication of their difference from the
modern standard.

[5] In the technical language of grammar an adjective is said to
_describe_ a substantive when it describes the object which the
substantive denotes.

[6] Definitive adjectives are often called +limiting adjectives+. All
adjectives, however, _limit_, even those that also _describe_.

[7] The usual brief definition of a verb is, “A verb is a word which
asserts.” But this definition in strictness applies only to verbs in
declarative sentences.

[8] For full inflection see pp. 300–301.

[9] +Compound complex+ sentences are also called +complex compound+
sentences. For further treatment of such sentences, see pp. 187, 190,
215–216.

[10] _Vixen_ is really formed from _fox_ (compare the German _Füchsin_
from _Fuchs_).

[11] _Halo_, _memento_, _zero_ also form a plural in _es_ (_haloes_,
etc.).

[12] This list is intended for reference.

[13] The English word _animalcule_ (plural _animalcules_) is
preferable. The plural _animalculæ_ is erroneous.

[14] _Messrs._ is an abbreviation of the French _messieurs_.

[15] When such nouns as _chemistry_ refer to textbooks, they may be
used in the plural: as,--“Bring your _chemistries_ to-morrow.”

[16] This section is intended chiefly for reference.

[17] Note the ambiguity to the ear though not to the eye.

[18] The only exception is in reflexive action, where the object is a
compound personal pronoun (“Charles deceived _himself_”). See § 126.

[19] The pupil should not “supply nouns” in such sentences as these.
For example, it is unscientific to expand the first sentence into “This
[morning] is a fine morning,” and then to parse _this_ as an adjective.
It is even more objectionable to expand the fifth sentence by inserting
_thing_ or the like after _this_. The plan of “supplying” unexpressed
words (as being “understood”) tends to confuse real distinctions of
language, and should never be resorted to when it can be avoided.

[20] The negative _not_ (§ 190, 4) is merely a shortened form of
_naught_.

[21] Because of their use as connectives, relative pronouns are
sometimes called +conjunctive pronouns+.

[22] For indirect questions, see § 441.

[23] In some of these cases the comparative and superlative are really
different words from the positive.

[24] The four classes are not absolute, for the same adverb may be used
in different senses and thus belong to different classes. Sometimes,
too, there is room for difference of opinion. Thus in the fourth and
fifth examples under 1, _terribly_ and _surprisingly_ are equivalent to
“in a terrible (or surprising) manner,” and therefore are classified as
adverbs of manner; but they may also be regarded as adverbs of degree.

[25] Many comparatives and superlatives in _er_ and _est_ that are no
longer allowable in prose are still used in poetry.

[26] Many grammarians regard _is_ and the noun or adjective that
follows it (_is money_, etc.) as the simple predicate; but the
nomenclature here adopted is equally scientific and more convenient.

[27] The word _tense_ is simply an English form of the French word for
_time_.

[28] The +past tense+ is often called the +preterite+ (from a Latin
word meaning “gone by”). _Preterite_ is in some ways a better name for
the tense than _past_, since both the perfect and the pluperfect tenses
also refer to past time.

[29] Silent final _e_ is not counted as an ending.

[30] Notice also the change from _v_ to _f_ before _t_.

[31] The ending _ed_ indicates tense, not person or number.

[32] The second person singular is often given as “_Thou walkest_ or
_You walk_,” but it is simpler to regard _You walk_ in this use as a
plural in a singular sense (§ 224).

[33] This rule is not absolute. Sometimes the distinction is
unimportant, and the feeling of the moment often determines the number
of the verb.

[34] So _I can strike_, etc.

[35] So _I could strike_, etc.

[36] So _I can have struck_, etc.

[37] So _I could have struck_, etc.

[38] For the so-called +infinitive clause+, in which the infinitive has
a subject of a peculiar kind, see §§ 324–328.

[39] After verbs of _wishing_, etc., they express purpose (§ 403);
after verbs of _believing_, etc., they are in indirect discourse (§
431).

[40] The only exceptions are trifling differences in spelling.

[41] Coördinate conjunctions are also called +coördinating+, and
subordinate conjunctions are also called +subordinating+.

[42] Compare the exclamatory sentence (§ 3) and the exclamatory
nominative (§ 88, 4).

[43] Including clauses of +manner+ and +degree+ (§§ 428–429).

[44] By “_if_-clause” is meant the protasis, whatever the conjunction.

[45] Clauses introduced by _as_ are often called +clauses of manner+.

[46] Such sentences are elliptical in origin. Thus, “The man acts as
if he were crazy” is equivalent to “The man acts as [he would act]
if he were crazy.” But it is not necessary to supply the ellipsis in
analyzing.

[47] In analyzing, the direct quotation may be regarded as the object
of the verb of saying, etc. (or the subject, if that verb is passive);
and if it forms a complete sentence, this may be analyzed as if it
stood by itself. It is not proper to regard the direct quotation as a
subordinate clause.

[48] See pp. 102–105, 127–132.

[49] Instead of +compound complex+, the term +complex compound+ is
often used. The terms are synonymous, both meaning “compound in general
structure, but complex in one or more members.”

[50] Or parse the nominatives according to the models in § 112.

[51] For exercises in the use of the comparative and the superlative,
see pp. 249–250, 252.

[52] The omission of a form from the list, then, does not necessarily
indicate that it is wrong or even objectionable. There is considerable
diversity of usage with regard to the strong verbs, and to state the
facts at length would take much space. An attempt to include archaic,
poetical, and rare forms in the same list with the usual modern forms
is sure to mislead the pupil. Hence the list here presented is confined
to forms about whose correctness there can be no difference of opinion.
Archaic and poetical tense-forms are treated later (pp. 297–299).

[53] _Born_ is used only in the passive sense of “born into the world.”

[54] The adjective form is _bereaved_: as, “The bereaved father.”

[55] _Cleave_, “to adhere,” has _cleaved_ in both the past tense and
the past participle, and also an archaic past form _clave_.

[56] The archaic participle _gotten_ is used in the compounds
_begotten_ and _forgotten_, and as an adjective (“_ill-gotten_ gains”).
Many good speakers also use it instead of the past participle got, but
_got_ is the accepted modern form.

[57] _Hanged_ is used only of execution by hanging.

[58] Usage varies with the context. We say, “The crew _hove_ the cargo
overboard,” but NOT “She _hove_ a sigh.”

[59] _Load_ has _loaded_ in both the past tense and the past
participle. _Laden_ is sometimes used as the past participle of _load_.

[60] _Lie_, “to tell a falsehood,” has _lied_ in both the past tense
and the past participle.

[61] So both _light_, “to kindle,” and _light_, “to alight.” The verb
_alight_ has usually _alighted_ in both the past tense and the past
participle.

[62] _Seethe_, intransitive, has usually _seethed_ in both the past
tense and the past participle. It is in rather common literary use.

[63] _Stricken_ is also used as a participle in a figurative sense.
Thus we say, “The community was _stricken_ with pestilence,”--but “The
dog was _struck_ with a stick.”

[64] It is a remnant of the old past plural. In Anglo-Saxon the
principal parts of _begin_ were: present, _beginne_; past, _began_;
past plural, _begunnon_; past participle, _begunnen_.

[65] The adjectives are usually pronounced _blessèd_, _cursèd_. Compare
also the adjective _accursèd_.

[66] Both forms are in good use.

[67] Both forms are in good use. The adjective is pronounced _learnèd_.

[68] The main rules of punctuation are well fixed and depend on
important distinctions in sentence structure and consequently in
thought. In detail, however, there is much variety of usage, and
care should be taken not to insist on such uniformity in the pupils’
practice as is not found in the printed books which they use. If
young writers can be induced to indicate the ends of their sentences
properly, much has been accomplished.

[69] It is not meant, of course, that an American or Australian of the
present day should exert himself to imitate the speech of a modern
Londoner. The point is, that what we now call “English” is, in most
respects, the direct descendant of the London dialect of the fourteenth
century.



INDEX


[_References are to pages_; f. _signifies “and following page”_; ff.
_signifies “and following pages.”_]

  _A_ for _on_ (_a-fishing_), 147, 149.
  _A_ or _an_, 77 ff.;
    distributive, 79.
  _About_, with infinitive, 105, 135.
  Absolute construction, 144. See Nominative.
  Absolute use of transitive verbs, 92.
  Abstract nouns, 29 f.
  Accusative, 52.
  Action, nouns in _-ing_, 145 ff.
  Active voice, 107 ff. See Passive.
  Adjective, 5, 75 ff.;
    descriptive and definitive, 5, 75 f.;
    proper, 75;
    compound, 75;
    pronominal, 76 (cf. 62 ff.);
    attributive, appositive, predicate, 76 f.;
    articles, 77 ff;
    comparison, 79 ff., 88 f.;
    numerals, 89 f.;
    noun as adjective, adjective as noun, 9, 78;
    participle as, 143;
    adjective in exclamations, 155 f.;
    as modifier of subject, 192 f.
    See Adjective pronoun, Predicate adjective.
  Adjective clauses, 20, 66, 86, 157 f.;
    place or time, 163 f.;
    as modifiers of subject, 192 f.;
    of complement, 206.
  Adjective phrases, 16, 157;
    comparison of, 89;
    as modifiers of subject, 192 f.;
    as complements, 204;
    as modifiers of modifiers, 207.
  Adjective pronouns, 62 ff.;
    demonstrative, 62 ff.;
    indefinite, 64 f.
  Adverb, defined, 7;
    classification, forms, and use, 83 ff.;
    relative or conjunctive, 86;
    interrogative, 86;
    comparison, 87 ff.;
    numeral, 89 f.;
    in exclamations, 155 f.;
    as modifier, 196 f., 206, 208.
  Adverbial clauses, 20 f., 86, 158 f.;
    place or time, 163 f.;
    causal, 164;
    concessive, 164 f.;
    purpose or result, 166 f.;
    conditional, 167 ff.;
    comparison, degree, manner, 173;
    indirect question, 180;
    as modifiers of predicate, 196 f.;
    of complement, 206;
    of modifiers, 207 f.
  Adverbial objective, 53;
    clause as, 158 f.;
    as modifier, 198.
  Adverbial phrases, 16, 53, 142, 158;
    numeral, 90;
    as modifiers of predicate, 196 f., 198 ff.;
    of complement, 206;
    of modifiers, 207 f.
  _Advising_, verbs of, with infinitive clause, 138.
  Affirmative, 85.
  _A-fishing_, etc., 147, 149.
  _After_, preposition, 148;
    relative adverb, 86, 157, 164.
  Agreement, of predicate nominative with subject, 41, 57 f.;
    of appositive, 42, 47, 53, 57;
    of pronoun with antecedent, 55, 65;
    of relative with antecedent, 68, 102;
    of verb with subject, 97, 100 ff.
  _All_, 65.
  Alternative conditions, 168;
    questions, 179.
  _Although._ See _Though_.
  Analysis, 183 ff.;
    structure of sentences, 183 ff.;
    analysis, with models, 188 ff.;
    simple sentences, 188;
    compound, 188 f.;
    complex, 189 f.;
    compound complex, 190;
    modifiers, 191 ff.;
    complements, 200 ff.;
    modifiers of complements and of modifiers, 205 ff.;
    independent elements, 209;
    combinations of clauses, 210 ff.;
    elliptical sentences, 224 ff.
    See further under these several heads.
  Anglo-Saxon, xv, 316 f.
  Animals, names of, gender, 32;
    pronouns, 69.
  _Another_, 64 f.
  Antecedent of pronoun, 4;
    agreement, 55, 65, 68, 102;
    unexpressed, 71 ff.;
    _what_, 71;
    compound relatives, 72 f.
  _Any_, _anything_, 64 f.
  Apodosis, 168.
  Apostrophe, 43 ff., 56, 311.
  _Appear_, with predicate nominative or adjective, 6 f., 76, 93.
  Apposition, 42. See Appositive.
  Appositive, case of, 42, 47, 53, 57;
    with possessive, 47;
    infinitive as, 134 f.;
    clause as, 159 ff., 167, 174, 180, 196;
    appositive as modifier, 195 f., 207.
  Appositive adjective, 76.
  Appositive phrase, 195.
  Archaisms, xvii. See Old.
  Articles, 77 ff.;
    generic, 77;
    repeated, 78;
    with verbal noun, 147.
  _As_, relative pronoun, 67;
    relative adverb, 86, 153;
    conjunction, 153;
    in concession, 165;
    in clauses of degree, 173.
  _As if_, _as though_, 122, 153, 173;
    _as to_, with infinitive, 167.
  _Asking_, verb of, two objects, 50;
    retained object, 112;
    with indirect question, 179 ff. (cf. 160).
  Assertion, 2, 5, 13.
  Attribute. See Predicate adjective, Predicate objective.
  Attributive adjective, 76.
  _Aught_, _naught_, 65.
  Authorship, 43.
  Auxiliary verbs, 6, 91;
    in future, 102 ff.;
    in compound tenses, 106;
    in passive, 108 ff.;
    in progressive form, 113 f.;
    in emphatic form, 114;
    replacing subjunctive, 123;
    in potential verb-phrases, 124 ff.


  _Be_, 6 f., 93;
    conjugation, 99, 118 f., 300 f.;
    auxiliary of passive, 108 ff.;
    of progressive form, 113;
    ellipsis of, 114, 144, 164 f., 169, 224 f.;
    predicate pronoun after, 139.
    See Predicate nominative.
  _Become_, with predicate nominative or adjective, 6 f., 76, 93.
  _Before_, preposition, 148;
    relative adverb, 86, 157, 163 f.;
    with subjunctive, 122;
    with _should_, 130.
  _Believing_, verbs of, with infinitive clause, 138.
  Biblical style. See Solemn.
  _Bid_, with infinitive, 138.
  _Both_, pronoun, 64.
  _Both ... and_, 15, 153.
  _But_, adverb, 135.
  _But_, coördinate conjunction, 152;
    subordinate, 153 f.;
    elliptical constructions, 154.
  _But_, preposition, 148;
    with infinitive, 135.


  _Calling_, verbs of, two objects, 50;
    predicate nominative after passive, 111.
  _Can_, _could_, 124 ff., 299.
  Capital letters, 27 ff., 75;
    rules, 305.
  Cardinal numerals, 89 f.
  Case, 40 ff.;
    nominative, 40 ff.;
    possessive, 43 ff.;
    objective, 47 ff.;
    of appositives, 42, 47, 53, 57.
    See Pronouns.
  Cause, clauses of, 164;
    nominative absolute, 144.
  Chaucer, xv, 43, 49, 85, 317 f.
  _Choosing_, verbs of, two objects, 50;
    predicate nominative after passive, 111.
  Clauses, independent and subordinate, 16 ff.;
    as parts of speech, 19 ff., 157 ff.;
    infinitive, 137 ff.;
    simple, compound, complex, 210 ff.;
    combination of, 210 ff.
    See Adjective, Adverbial, Noun, Infinitive clause.
  Clauses, subordinate, classified according to meaning, 163 ff.;
    place and time, 163 f.;
    cause, 164;
    concession, 164 f.;
    purpose and result, 166 f.;
    conditional, 167 ff.;
    comparison and manner, 173;
    indirect discourse, 173 ff.;
    indirect questions, 179 ff.
  Cognate object, 52;
    _it_ as, 58;
    as modifier, 199.
  Collective nouns, 29 f.;
    verbs with, 101 f.
  Colloquial forms and constructions, xvi, 38, 57 ff., 61, 69, 100, 112,
      120, 149, 155.
  Colon, 309 f.
  Color, adjectives of, 84.
  Combinations of clauses, 210 ff.
  _Come_, _have_ (or _am_) _come_, 107.
  Comma, 70, 306 ff.
  Command, with _shall_ or _will_, 105, 118;
    as condition, 169;
    verbs of, with infinitive clause, 138;
    with noun clause, 160, 167.
    See Imperative.
  Common gender, 31.
  Common nouns, 27 ff.;
    personification, 28 f.
  Comparative and superlative, of adjectives, 79 ff., 88 f.;
    of adverbs, 87 ff.;
    use, 88 f.;
    comparative with _the_, 86.
  Comparison, clauses of, 173.
  Comparison of adjectives, 79 ff., 88 f.;
    of adverbs, 87 ff.;
    use of, 88 f.
  Complementary infinitive, 137.
  Complementary object, 50. See Predicate objective.
  Complements. See Object, Predicate objective, Predicate nominative,
      Predicate adjective.
  Complements, classified, 200 ff.;
    direct object, 201;
    predicate objective, 202;
    predicate nominative, 202 f.;
    predicate adjective, 203 f.
  Complements, modifiers of, 205 f.
  Complete predicate. See Predicate.
  Complete predication, 200.
  Complete subject. See Subject.
  Complete tenses, 106 f.
  Complete verbs, 200.
  Complex clauses, 18, 187, 211 f., 215 f., 219 ff.
  Complex compound. See Compound complex.
  Complex sentences, 17 ff., 186;
    analyzed, 189 f.;
    varieties of, 216 ff.
  Compound adjectives, 75.
  Compound clauses, 151, 186, 210 ff.
  Compound complex sentences, 18, 187, 215 f.;
    analyzed, 190, 222 f.
  Compound conjunctions, 153.
  Compound nouns, 30, 146 f.;
    plural, 36;
    possessive, 46 f.
  Compound personal pronouns, 60 ff.;
    intensive and reflexive, 61 f.;
    relatives, 72 f.
  Compound predicate, 15, 184 f., 212 f.
  Compound sentences, 17 ff., 185;
    analyzed, 188 f.;
    elaboration of, 213 f.
  Compound subject, 15, 184 f., 212 f.;
    agreement, 100 f.
  Compound tenses, 106 f.
  _Concerning_, 142, 149.
  Concession, moods in, 120 ff.;
    _should_ and _would_ in, 123, 131;
    clauses of, 164 ff.
  Conclusion, 168.
  Conditional clauses and sentences, moods in, 120 ff., 170 ff.;
    forms and meaning, 167 ff.;
    classification, 169 ff.;
    past and present, 170 f.;
    non-committal and contrary to fact, 170 f.;
    future, 171 f.;
    _shall_, _will_, _should_, _would_, 130 f.
  Conjugation, 25, 94 ff.;
    indicative present and past, 98 f.;
    future, 102;
    active and passive, 108 ff.;
    progressive, 113 f.;
    potential verb-phrases, 124 f.;
    tables of, 300 ff.
  Conjunction, defined, 8;
    classification and use, 151 ff.;
    coördinate or coördinating, 151 f.;
    subordinate or subordinating, 151, 153 f.;
    correlative, 153 f.;
    adverb, preposition, and, 152 f.;
    and adverb, 150.
  Conjunctive adverbs and pronouns. See Relative.
  _Considering_, 142, 149.
  Construction, xiv, 25 ff.
  Contractions: _it’s_, 56;
    _I’ll_, _we’ll_, 104;
    _let’s_, 120;
    _may n’t_, _ought n’t_, 126;
    _I’d_, _we’d_, 130.
  Contrary to fact, conditions, 170 f.
  Coördinate (coördinating) conjunctions, 151 f.
  Coördinate clauses, 17 ff., 185 ff., 210 ff.
  Coördination in sentences, 210 ff. See Coördinate.
  Copula. See _Be_.
  Copulative verbs, 6 f., 76, 93. See _Be_.
  Correlative conjunctions, 153 f.
  _Could._ See _Can_.


  _Dare_, 137, 299.
  Dash, 310.
  Dative, 52, 60.
  Declarative sentences, 2.
  _Declaring_, verbs of, with infinitive clause, 138.
  Declension of nouns, 40;
    of personal pronouns, 55 f.;
    of _self_-pronouns, 60;
    of demonstratives, 63;
    of relatives, 67;
    of compound relatives, 72;
    of interrogatives, 73.
  Defective verbs, 299.
  Definite article, 77 ff.
  Definitive adjectives, 5, 75 f.
  Degree, adverbs of, 84;
    clauses of, 173.
    See Comparison.
  Deity, words for the, 305.
  Demonstrative pronouns and adjectives, 62 ff.
  Dependent. See Subordinate.
  Descriptive adjectives, 4, 75;
    relatives, 70 f.
  _Desiring_, verbs of, with infinitive, 137;
    with noun clause, 160, 167.
  _Did._ See _Do_.
  Direct address, nominative in, 42;
    independent element, 209.
  Direct discourse, 174 ff.
  Direct object. See Object.
  Direct quotations, 173 f.;
    questions, 179.
  _Do_, _did_, in questions, 114;
    in emphatic verb-phrases, 114;
    in imperative, 117;
    as substitute for some other verb, 114.
  Double comparison, 88;
    conditions, 168.
  _Doubting_, verb of, with indirect question, 179 (cf. 160).


  _Each_, _each other_, 64 f.
  Editorial _we_, 57.
  _Either_, 64;
    _either ... or_, 15, 153.
  _Elder_, _eldest_, 81.
  Elements. See Subject, Predicate, Modifiers, Complements, Independent.
  Ellipsis, understood words, etc., 3, 47, 58, 63, 69, 71, 114, 117,
      19 f., 121 f., 133, 144, 149, 153 f., 155, 160, 164 f., 169, 173,
      175, 224 ff.
  Elliptical sentences, 224 ff.
  _’em_, 57.
  Emphasis, superlative of, 88.
  Emphatic verb-phrases, 114;
    imperative, 117.
  _-en_, plural ending of nouns, 35;
    old plural ending of verbs, 99.
  Endings, in inflection, 25;
    gender, 33;
    number, 34 ff.;
    case, 40;
    possessive, 43 f.;
    comparison, 80 ff., 87;
    adverbs, 83 ff.;
    tense, 95 f.;
    personal endings, 97 f.
  English language, xi ff.;
    history of, 316 ff.
  Errors of speech, 37, 45, 56, 58, 60, 62, 64 f., 74, 77, 88, 102 ff.,
      126, 128 ff., 133 ff., 139, 147.
  _Even if_, 153, 164 f.
  _Every_, _everybody_, _everything_, 64 f.
  _Except_, with infinitive, 135.
  Exclamation, nominative in, 42, 57, 156;
    objective _me_, 60;
    infinitive, 136;
    various parts of speech, 155 f.;
    phrases, 155 f.;
    clauses, 169;
    as independent element, 209.
    See Interjection.
  Exclamation point, 155, 306.
  Exclamatory sentences, 2 f., 74;
    phrases, 155 f.;
    expressions, 155 f., 209.
    See Exclamation, Interjection.
  Exercises, 227–290. See Table of Contents, v.
  Exhortations, 120.
  Expectation, subjunctive, 122 f.;
    _should_, 130.
  Expletive. See _It_, _There_.
  Extent, possessive of, 46.
  _Eyne_, 35.


  _Feel_, with predicate adjective, 77;
    with infinitive, 136.
  Feminine. See Gender.
  _Few_, 65.
  Figures, plural of, 36.
  _For_, conjunction, 152.
  _For_, preposition, 148, 152;
    with infinitive, 135;
    with infinitive clause, 139.
  Foreign plurals, 37.
  Fractional parts, 90.
  Future conditions, 171 f.
  Future perfect tense, 106.
  Future tense, 94, 102 ff. See _Shall_, _will_.


  Gender, 31 ff.;
    of nouns and pronouns, 31;
    special rules for nouns, 32 ff.;
    of pronouns, 56;
    of relatives, 67 ff.
    See Personification.
  _Generally speaking_, 142.
  Generic article, 77.
  Genitive. See Possessive.
  Gerund, 146.
  _Giving_, verbs of, direct and indirect object, 50;
    retained object, 112.
  _Go._ See Motion.
  _Going to_, 105.
  Grammar, nature and principles of, xi ff.
  _Granted that_, 168.


  Habitual action, 127.
  _Had rather_, etc., 123;
    _had to_, 126.
  _Half_, 102.
  _Have_, _had_, 6, 95;
    auxiliary in compound tenses, 106 ff., 141.
  _He_, 56;
    for _he or she_, 65.
  _Hear_, with infinitive, 136.
  _Hem_, old pronoun, 57.
  _His_, as neuter, 56.
  _Hosen_, 35.
  _How_, 86.
  _However_, 152;
    in concessions, 165.
  Hyphen, 30, 311.


  _I’d_, _we’d_, 130.
  Idioms, nature of, xv.
  _If_, 153;
    in conditions, 168 ff.;
    in wishes, 169;
    in indirect questions, 179.
  _Ill_, 81, 87.
  _I’ll_, _we’ll_, 104.
  Imperative mood, 116 ff.;
    in exclamations, 156;
    as a condition, 169.
  Imperative sentences, 2 f., 116 ff.;
    subject of, 2, 117.
  Impersonal _it_, 58. See _It_.
  _In case that_, 153;
    _in order that_, 153, 166;
    _in order to_, 167.
  Incomplete predication, 200;
    verbs, 200.
  Indefinite article, 77 ff.;
    pronouns and adjectives, 64 f.;
    nouns, 65;
    relatives (_whoever_, etc.), 72 f.
  Independent clauses, 17 f. See Clauses.
  Independent elements, 209.
  Independent participles, 142.
  Indicative mood, 115 f.;
    variety of use, 116;
      in statements and questions of fact, 116;
      in commands, 105, 118;
      in concessions, 121;
      in conditions, 170, 172.
  Indirect discourse, 173 ff.;
    tenses in, 175;
    passive, 175 f.;
      _shall_, _should_, _will_, _would_, 177 f.
  Indirect object, 50 f.;
    retained with passive, 112;
    of participial nouns, 146;
    as modifier, 199.
  Indirect questions, 179 ff.;
    infinitive in, 181;
    subjunctive in, 181;
    _shall_, _should_, _will_, _would_, 182.
  Indirect quotations, 173 ff.
  Infinitive, 11 ff., 132 ff.;
    forms, 107, 133;
    object and modifiers, 134;
    uses, 134 ff.;
    as noun, 11 ff., 134;
    as object, 135;
    as nominative of exclamation, 136;
    as modifier, 136 f., 194, 197 f.;
    with _see_, _hear_, _feel_, 136;
    complementary, 137;
    of purpose, 137, 167;
    in verb-phrases, 12;
    in future, 102;
    in emphatic forms, 114, 117;
    in potential verb-phrases, 124 ff.;
    with _ought_, tenses, 126;
    in indirect questions, 181;
    in verb-phrases, see Future, Future perfect, Emphatic, Potential.
  Infinitive clause, 137 ff.;
    as object, 138 f.;
    as subject, 139;
    predicate pronoun in, 139;
    expressing purpose, 167;
    indirect discourse, 175.
  Infinitive phrase, 194.
  Inflection, nature and function of, xiii f., 25;
    summary of, 26;
    of nouns, 30 ff.;
    of pronouns, 55 ff.;
    of adjectives, 79 ff.;
    of verbs, 94 ff.;
    lists of verb-forms, 291 ff.
  _-ing_, verbal nouns in, 145 ff. See Participial nouns.
  Intensive pronouns, 61 f.
  Interjections, defined, 8;
    use, 155 f.;
    as independent elements, 209.
  Interrogation point, 306.
  Interrogative adverbs, 86;
    with clauses, 157;
    in indirect questions, 179;
    with infinitive, 181.
  Interrogative pronouns, 73 f.;
    as adjectives, 74;
    with prepositions, 150;
    with clauses, 157;
    in indirect questions, 179 ff.;
    with infinitive, 181.
  Interrogative sentences, 2 f.;
    order in, 3;
    _do_, _did_ in, 114;
    direct and indirect questions, 179 ff.
  Intransitive verbs, 48 f., 92 f.;
    voice, 111;
    in passive with preposition, 111.
  Inverted order, 3, 85, 121 f., 161.
  Irregular verbs, 95, 99;
    participles, 141;
    lists, 291 ff.
  _Is._ See _Be_.
  _It_, 56;
    impersonal, 58;
    expletive, 58, 135, 161, 175 f.;
    cognate object, 58.


  _Kind_, _sort_, 64.
  _Kine_, 35.
  _Knowing_, verbs of, indirect discourse, 174;
    indirect question, 179.


  Language, nature of, xi ff.;
    English, 316 ff.
  _Less_, _least_, 81, 87.
  _Lest_, with subjunctive, 122;
    purpose, 122, 166.
  _Let_, with infinitive, 138;
    _let us_, 120.
  Letters, plural of, 36.
  _Like_, _should like_, 129.
  _Like_, with objective, 52.
  Limiting adjectives, 5. See Definitive.
  _Look_, with predicate adjective, 77.


  Main clause, 17 f.;
    analysis, 184 ff., 213 ff.;
    compound, 216 f.
  Majesty, plural of, 57.
  _Make_, with infinitive, 138.
  _Making_, verbs of, two objects, 50;
    predicate nominative after passive, 111.
  _-man_, words ending in, plural of, 35.
  Manner, adverbs of, 83;
    clauses of, 173.
  _Many_, 65.
  Masculine. See Gender.
  _May_, _might_, auxiliary, 120 ff.;
    replacing subjunctive, 123;
    form, 299.
  Measure or extent, possessive of, 46.
  _Meseems_, _methinks_, 60.
  _Might_, auxiliary, 123 ff.;
    replacing subjunctive, 123;
    _might better_, 123.
    See _May_.
  Modal auxiliaries, use and meaning, 124 ff.
  Mode. See Mood.
  Models for parsing, analysis, 54, 74, 82, 188 ff., 243, 250 f., 262,
      270. See Exercises.
  Modifiers, 7;
    classified, 191 ff.;
    of subject, 192 ff.;
    adjectives, adjective phrases, adjective clauses, 192 f.;
    participles, 193 f.;
    infinitives, 194;
    possessives, 195;
    appositives, 195 f.;
    of predicate, 196 ff.;
    adverbs, adverbial phrases, adverbial clauses, 196 f.;
    infinitives, 197 f.;
    adverbial objectives, 198;
    nominative absolute, 198 f.;
    indirect object, 199;
    cognate object, 199.
  Modifiers of complements, 205 f.
  Modifiers of modifiers, 207 f.
  Mood, 115 ff.;
    indicative, 115 f.;
    imperative, 116 ff.;
    subjunctive, 118 ff.;
    potential, 124.
    See Indicative, Subjunctive, etc.
  _More_, _most_, in comparison, 81, 87 ff.
  _-most_, superlative suffix, 82.
  Motion, verbs of, with _have_ or _be_, 107;
    ellipsis, 225.
  _Must_, auxiliary, 124 ff., 299.
  _My_, _mine_, 59.


  _Naming_, verbs of, two objects, 50;
    predicate nominative after passive, 111.
  _Naught_, _not_, 65.
  _Near_, with objective, 52.
  Negative, _neither_, 64, 152;
    _none_, 64;
    _not_, 65;
    _no_, 85;
    statements and questions, 114;
    commands, 117;
    purpose or result, 166 f.;
    condition, 168.
  _Neither_, pronoun, 64;
    conjunction, with _nor_, 15, 152 ff.;
    number with, 100.
  Neuter. See Gender.
  _Next_, 52, 82, 87.
  _Nigh_, _next_, 82.
  _No_, _yes_, 85.
  Nominative case, 41 f.;
    subject, 41;
    predicate, 41;
    direct address (vocative), 42;
    in exclamation, 42;
    absolute, 144, 198 f.
  Non-committal conditions, 170 f.
  _None_, 64.
  _Nor_, _neither ... nor_, number with, 100.
  _Not_, 65.
  _Notwithstanding_, preposition or conjunction, 152, 154.
  Noun, defined, 4;
    classification, 27 ff.;
    common and proper, 27 ff.;
    abstract and collective, 29 f.;
    compound, 30, 36, 47, 146 f.;
    inflection, 30 ff.;
    gender, 31 ff.;
    number, 34 ff.;
    person, 39;
    case, 40 ff.;
    numeral, 89 f.;
    verbal (participial), 145 ff.
    See Infinitive.
  Noun clauses, 20, 159 ff.;
    construction, as subject, object, etc., 159 ff.;
    purpose and result, 166 f.;
    indirect discourse, 174 ff.;
    indirect questions, 180 ff.;
    analysis, 190;
    as complement, 201 ff.;
    direct object, 201;
    predicate objective, 202;
    predicate nominative, 203.
  Noun-phrases, 16, 28;
    possessive of, 47;
    verbal noun-phrases, 146.
  _Number_, _a_ (or _the_), 101.
  Number of nouns, 34 ff.;
    of pronouns, 56 f., 60, 63 ff., 67 f., 72;
    of verbs, 97 ff., 100 ff.;
    agreement in, 55, 65, 68, 97, 100 ff.
  Numerals, 89 f.


  _O_ or _oh_, 8, 155;
    in wishes, 155.
  Object, of preposition, 8, 47, 148;
    of verb, direct, 48 ff.;
    predicate objective, 50;
    indirect, 50 f.;
    for whom, 51;
    cognate, 52;
    retained, 112;
    of infinitive, 134;
    of verbal (participial) noun, 146 f.;
    infinitive as, 135;
    infinitive clause as, 138 f.;
    noun-clause as, 159 ff., 167, 174 ff., 180 f.
    See Complements, Modifiers.
  Object clauses. See Noun clauses.
  Objective attribute, 50.
  Objective case, 47 ff.;
    of service, 51 f.;
    adverbial, 53;
    in apposition, 53;
    of pronouns, 55 f., 60, 63, 67, 69, 72, 73 f.;
    in exclamation, 60;
    subject of infinitive, 138 f.
    See Object.
  Objective complement, 50. See Predicate objective.
  Obsolete words, etc., xvi f. See Old.
  _Of mine_, 47, 59.
  _Of_-phrase, 45.
  Old or poetical forms and constructions, 28 f., 32, 35, 39, 43, 45,
      52, 56 ff., 59 ff., 62 f., 67, 69, 73, 78, 82, 84 f., 88, 90,
      95 ff., 99, 100, 105, 114, 116 f., 118, 120, 122, 124, 126, 135,
      149, 154, 225, 293, 297 ff.
  _On condition that_, 168.
  _One_, _one’s_, _one’s self_, 60, 65;
    _one another_, 64 f.
  _Or_, _either ... or_, 15, 153 f.;
    number with _or_, _nor_, 100.
  Order. See Inverted.
  Orders, _will_ in, 105. See Command.
  Ordinal numerals, 89 f.
  _Other_, _another_, 64 f.
  _Ought_, 126 f.
  _Ourself_, 60.
  _Owe_, _ought_, 126, 299.
  _Own_, 61.


  _Pains_, 101.
  Parsing, models for, 54, 74, 82, 243, 250 f., 262, 270.
  _Part_, _portion_, 102.
  Participial nouns, 145 ff.;
    object of, 146 f.;
    modifiers of, 146;
    as adjective, 146 f.;
    with article, 147.
  Participial phrase, 194.
  Participles, 11 f., 140 ff.;
    present, past, perfect, 12, 106 f., 140 f.;
    constructions, 142 ff.;
    object and modifiers of, 142 f.;
    as prepositions, 142, 149;
    as adjectives, 143;
    with nominative absolute, 145;
    as modifiers, 193 f., 205.
  Parts of speech, defined, 3 ff.;
    same word as different, 9 ff.;
    substitutes for, 15 ff. (see Phrases, Clauses);
    inflection and syntax, 25 ff.
    See Noun, Pronoun, etc.
  Passive voice, 107 ff.;
    form of, 108 ff.;
    use of, 110 ff.;
    predicate nominative with, 111;
    retained object with, 112;
    in progressive form, 114;
    in imperative, 117;
    in subjunctive, 119;
    intransitive verbs with preposition, 111;
    passive distinguished from _be_ with participle used as adjective, 143;
    clause as retained object, 160;
    indirect discourse, 175 f.
  Past conditions, 169 ff.;
    non-committal, 170 f.;
    contrary to fact, 171.
  Past participle, 106, 140 f.;
    as predicate adjective, 143.
  Past perfect tense, 106, 109;
    subjunctive, 121 f., 171;
    progressive, 125;
    in conditions, 121, 170 f.;
    in indirect discourse, 175.
  Past tense, 94 ff.;
    personal endings, 97 ff.;
    passive, 108;
    progressive, 113 f.;
    emphatic, 114;
    subjunctive, 118, 121 ff., 171 f.;
    indicative and subjunctive in conditions, 170 ff.;
    in indirect discourse, 175.
  _Pending_, 142, 149.
  _Per_, _per cent_, etc., 79, 149.
  _Perceiving_, verbs of, with infinitive clause, 138;
    indirect discourse, 174;
    indirect question, 179.
  Perfect infinitive, 107, 133;
    with _ought_, 126;
    participle, 107, 140 f.
  Perfect (or present perfect) tense, 106.
  Period, 306.
  Permission, 125 f., 129.
  Person of substantives, 39;
    of pronouns, 55 ff.;
    of relatives, 68;
    of verbs, 97 ff., 100 ff.
  Personal construction, 176.
  Personal endings, 97 f.
  Personal pronouns, 55 ff.;
    inflection, 55 ff.;
    gender and number, 56 f.;
    case, 57 ff.;
    _self_-pronouns, 60 ff.;
    as predicate nominative, 41.
  Personification, 28 f., 32.
  Phrases, 16;
    kinds of, 16 (see Noun-phrases, Adjective phrases,
        Adverbial phrases, Verb-phrases);
    as prepositions, 149;
    as conjunctions, 153;
    exclamatory, 155;
    in analysis, 191 ff.;
    as modifiers of subject, 192 f.;
      of predicate, 196 f.;
    as complements, 204;
    as modifiers of complements, 205 f.;
      of other modifiers, 207 f.
    See Progressive, Emphatic, Potential, Appositive, Infinitive,
        Participial, Prepositional, Verbal noun-phrases.
  Place and time, adverbs of, 83 ff.;
    clauses of, 163 f.
  Pluperfect tense, 106, 109;
    subjunctive, 121 f., 171;
    progressive, 125;
    in conditions, 121, 170 f.;
    in indirect discourse, 175.
  Plural of nouns, 34 ff.;
    irregular, 35 ff.;
    of compounds, 36;
    of foreign nouns, 37;
    of proper names and titles, 35, 38;
    of possessive, 43 f.;
    of pronouns, 56 f., 60, 62 ff.;
    of relatives, 67 f.;
    of verbs, 97 ff.;
    plural of majesty, 57.
  Poetical forms and constructions, xvii. See Old.
  _Portion_, _part_, 102.
  Positive degree, 79, 87.
  Possessive case of nouns, 43 ff.;
    use, 45 ff.;
    of measure, 46;
    of compound nouns and of phrases, 46 f.;
    apposition with, 47;
    of personal pronouns, 55 f., 59;
    of definite pronouns, 65;
    of relatives, 67, 69, 72;
    of interrogatives, 73;
    possessive nouns modified, 207.
  Possessive modifiers, 195, 205, 207.
  Possessive pronouns, 55 f., 59;
    _my_, _mine_, etc., use of, 59;
    _one’s_, 65;
    _whose_, 67, 69, 72, 73.
  Potential verb-phrases, 124 ff.;
    mood, 124 ff.
  _Pray_, 58.
  Prayers, subjunctive, 119 f.
  Predicate, 2;
    inverted order, 3, 85, 121 f., 161;
    simple and complete, 14 f., 183 f.;
    compound, 15, 184 f., 212 f.;
    possessive in, 59;
    analysis, 183 ff.;
    modifiers of, 196 ff.;
    complements, 200 ff.
    See Complements, Modifiers.
  Predicate adjective, 76 f., 93;
    participle as, 143;
    analysis, 203 f.;
    as complement, 203 f.;
    phrase as, 204;
    modifiers of, 206.
  Predicate nominative, 41, 49, 93;
    of pronouns, 58;
    after passive, 111;
    infinitive as, 134 f.;
    infinitive clause as, 139;
    noun clause as, 159 f., 174, 180;
    in analysis, 202 f.;
    as complement, 202 f.;
    modifiers of, 205 f.
  Predicate objective, 50, 111;
    adjective as, 50;
    in analysis, 202;
    as complement, 202;
    modified, 205.
  Predicate pronoun after _to be_, 139.
  Predication, complete and incomplete, 200.
  Preposition, defined, 8;
    list and uses, 148 ff.;
    object of, 8, 47, 150 ff.;
    with intransitive verb, 111;
    with passive, 111;
    phrase used as, 149;
    at end of clause, 149;
    following the object, 149;
    omitted, 149;
    participle as, 149;
    infinitive as object of, 135;
    clause as object of, 161, 180.
  Prepositional phrases, 16, 148.
  Present conditions, 170 ff.;
    non-committal, 170 f.;
    contrary to fact, 171.
  Present infinitive, 133;
    with _ought_, 126.
  Present participle, 12, 140 f.;
    in verb-phrases, 13, 113 f., 130 f.;
    with nominative absolute, 144.
  Present perfect tense, 106.
  Present tense form, 94;
    personal endings, 97 f.;
    conjugation, 98 f.;
    in future sense, 105;
    in future conditions, 172;
    passive, 108;
    progressive, 113 f.;
    emphatic, 114;
    imperative, 116 f.;
    subjunctive, 118 f., 120 ff.;
    indicative and subjunctive in conditions, 170 f.;
    participle, 12, 144 ff.;
    infinitive, 133.
  Preterite, 94. See Past.
  Preterite-present verbs, 299.
  Principal clause. See Main clause.
  Principal parts, 107;
    list, 291 ff.
  _Prithee_, 58.
  Progressive verb-phrases, 113 f.;
    in subjunctive, 119.
  Prohibition, 117.
  Pronominal adjectives. See Adjective pronouns; Demonstrative,
      Indefinite, Relative, Interrogative.
  Pronoun defined, 4;
    antecedent of, 4;
    classification, forms, and uses, 55 ff.;
    predicate nominative, 41, 58.
    See Personal, Adjective, Demonstrative, Indefinite, Relative,
        Interrogative, Intensive, Reflexive, Reciprocal, Gender.
  Pronoun, predicate, after to be, 139.
  Proper nouns, 27 ff.;
    plural, 35, 38;
    possessive, 44;
    adjectives, 75.
  Prophecy, _shall_, 105.
  Protasis, 168.
  _Provided_ (_that_), 153, 168.
  Punctuation, rules of, 306 ff.
  Purpose, subjunctive and indicative, 122 f.;
    infinitive of, 137, 167;
    clauses of, 166 f.;
    infinitive clause, 167.


  Questions, 3 f.;
    _shall_ and _will_ in, 102 ff.;
    _should_ and _would_ in, 127 ff.;
    _do_, _did_, 114;
    _may_, 126;
    as condition, 169;
    direct and indirect, 179 ff.
    See Interrogative.
  Quotation marks, 310.
  Quotations, direct and indirect, 173 ff.


  _Rather_, 87;
    _had rather_, 123.
  Reciprocal pronouns, 64 f.
  Reflexive pronouns, 61;
    simple personal pronouns as, 61.
  _Refusing_, verbs of, direct and indirect object, 50;
    retained object, 112.
  Regular verbs, 95 ff.;
    participles, 141.
  Relative adjectives, 73.
  Relative adverbs, 86;
    with subjunctive, 122;
    introducing clauses, 157 f.;
    place and time, 164;
    concession, 165;
    conditions, 169.
  Relative pronouns, 66 ff.;
    forms, 67;
    gender, 67 ff.;
    agreement, 68, 102;
    case, 68 f., 139;
    omitted, 69;
    descriptive and restrictive, 70 f.;
    _what_, 71;
    compound relatives, 72 f.;
    relatives introducing clauses, 66, 157 f.;
    place and time, 163 f.;
    concession, 131, 165;
    condition, 131, 169.
  Restrictive relatives, 70 f.
  Result, clause of, 166 f.;
    infinitive, 167;
    negative, 167.
  Retained object, 112;
    clause as, 160.
  Royal _we_, 57, 60.


  _Same_ (_the_) _as_, 67.
  _Saying._ See _Telling_.
  _See_, with infinitive, 136.
  _Seem_, with predicate nominative or adjective, 6 f., 76, 93;
    _it seems that_, 176.
  _Self_-pronouns, 60 ff.
  Semicolon, 309 f.
  Sentences, 1 ff.;
    kinds of, 2 f.;
    parts of speech in, 3 ff., 13 ff.;
    essential elements in, 2, 14;
    simple and complete subject and predicate, 14 f.;
    clauses in, 16 ff.;
    simple, compound, complex, 17 ff.;
    compound complex, 18.
  Sentences, analysis, 183 ff.;
    structure and elements, 183;
    of simple sentences, 184 f.;
    of compound, 185;
    of complex, 186;
    of compound and complex clauses, 186 f.;
    of compound complex sentences, 187;
    models for analysis of simple, compound, complex,
        compound complex sentences, 188 ff.;
    modifiers, 191 ff.;
    complements, 200 ff.;
    modifiers of complements and of modifiers, 205 ff.;
    independent elements, 209;
    combinations of clauses making sentences of various forms, 210 ff.;
    special complications, 220 ff.;
    elliptical sentences, 224 ff.
    See Subject, Compound, Complex, Modifiers, etc.
  Sequence of tenses, 175, 179.
  Service, objective of, 51 f.
  _Several_, 65.
  Shakspere, forms and constructions in, 35, 39, 47, 56, 57, 59, 60, 62,
      63, 67, 69, 88, 90, 126, 149, 154, 166, 169, 171, 225.
  _Shall_ and _will_, 102 ff.;
    in assertions and questions, 102 ff.;
    in subordinate clauses, 130 ff.;
    indirect discourse, 177 f.;
    indirect questions, 182;
    forms, 299.
    See _Should_.
  Ship, gender, 32.
  _Shoon_, 35.
  _Should_ and _would_, in simple sentences and independent clauses,
      127 ff.;
    in subordinate clauses, 130 ff.;
    in indirect discourse, 177 f.;
    in indirect questions, 182.
    See _Shall_.
  _Should_ and _would_, special senses, 126 f.;
    replacing subjunctive, 123;
    in clauses of purpose, 130;
    concessions, 131;
    in conditional sentences, 131, 171 f.
  Signs, plural of, 36.
  Simple clauses. See Clauses.
  Simple sentences, 17 ff., 184 f.;
    analyzed, 188 f.;
    elaboration of, 212 f.
    See Sentences.
  _Since_, adverb, preposition, conjunction, 86, 153.
  Singular. See Number.
  _Smell_, with predicate adjective, 77.
  _So as to_, 167;
    _so that_, 153, 166.
  Solemn (or Biblical) style, xvii, 56 f., 60, 69, 90, 95, 98 f., 105,
      117, 120, 122, 172.
  _Some_, 64;
    _somewhat_, 65.
  _Sort_, _kind_, 64.
  _Sound_, with predicate adjective, 77.
  Split infinitive, 134.
  _Still_, _yet_, adverbs or conjunctions, 152.
  Strong verbs, 95, 99;
    participles, 141;
    list, 291 ff.
  Style and grammar, xvi f.
  Subject, 2;
    inverted order, 3;
    omitted, 3, 58, 114, 117, 121, 164 f., 169, 224 ff.;
    simple and complete, 14 f.;
    compound, 15, 184 f.;
    infinitive as, 11, 134 f.;
    clause as, 20, 139, 159 f., 174 f., 180, 190;
    case, 41;
    agreement with verb, 97, 100 ff.;
    modifiers of, 192 ff.;
    subject of infinitive, 138.
    See Predicate nominative.
  Subject and predicate, 2, 13 ff., 183 ff., 191 ff.
  Subject complement, 41. See Predicate nominative.
  Subjunctive mood, 115 f., 118 ff.;
    forms, 118 f.;
    uses, 119 ff.;
    in wishes, etc., 119 f.;
    concessions, 120 f.;
    conditions, 120 ff., 170 ff.;
    clauses of purpose or expectation, 122, 166;
    with _as if_, 122, 173;
    in indirect questions, 181;
    auxiliaries replacing subjunctive, 123.
  Subordinate clauses, 17 ff.;
    as parts of speech, 19 ff., 157 ff.;
    analysis, 186 ff., 189 ff.;
    combinations of, 210; variety of use, 216 ff.;
    special complications, 220 ff.
    See Noun, Adjective, Adverbial, Indicative, Subjunctive.
  Subordinate clauses, meanings of, 163 ff.;
    place and time, 163 f.;
    cause, 164;
    concession, 164 f.;
    purpose and result, 166 f.;
    conditional, 167 ff.;
    comparison and manner, 173;
    indirect discourse, 173 ff.;
    indirect questions, 179 ff.
  Subordinate (or subordinating) conjunctions, 151, 153 f., 157.
  Substantive, 4. See Noun, Pronoun.
  Substantive clauses. See Noun clauses.
  _Such_, 64;
    _such ... as_, 67.
  Superlative of emphasis, 88. See Comparison.
  _Suppose_, _supposing_, 168.
  Syntax, xiv, 25 ff.;
    summary of rules, 311 ff.


  _Taste_, with predicate adjective, 77.
  _Telling_, verbs of, direct and indirect object, 50;
    retained object, 112;
    object clause, 160;
    indirect discourse, 174.
  Tense, 94 ff. See Present, Past, Future, Compound tenses.
  Tenses, use in conditions, 121, 170 ff.;
    with _ought_, 126;
    in indirect discourse, 175, 177 ff.;
    in indirect questions, 179, 182.
  Termination. See Endings.
  _Than_, 87;
    case after, 173;
    clauses, 173.
  _That_, conjunction with subordinate clause, 20 f., 132, 137, 153,
      157 ff., 160 ff.;
    in clauses of purpose, 122 f., 130, 166 f.;
    result, 166 f.;
    indirect discourse, 174 ff.;
    omitted, 153, 160, 175, 225.
  _That_, demonstrative, 62 ff.;
    relative, 67 ff.;
    omitted, 69.
  _The_, article, 77 ff.;
    abbreviated to _ye_, 57;
    _the which_, 67;
    adverb with comparative, 86.
  _Then_, adverb or conjunction, 152.
  _There_, expletive, 85.
  _Thereof_, _therewith_, etc., 60.
  _They_, indefinite use, 57.
  _Thinking_, verbs of, two objects, 50;
    predicate nominative after passive, 111;
    object clause, 160;
    indirect discourse, 174;
    indirect question, 179.
  _This_, _these_, 62 ff.
  _Thou_, _ye_, _you_, 56 f.
  _Though_, _although_, 21;
    mood after, 120 f.
    See Concession.
  _Till_, _until_, relative adverb, 86;
    with subjunctive, 122 f.;
    with _should_, 123, 130;
    preposition, 149.
  Time, adverbs of, 83;
    clauses of, 163 f.;
    nominative absolute, 144.
  Titles, plural, 38.
  _To_, with infinitive, 11, 132 ff.;
    standing for infinitive, 133;
    expressing purpose, 167;
    _to let_, 136;
    _to the end that_, 166.
  _Too_ ... _to_, 167.
  Transition, 152.
  Transitive verbs, 48 ff., 92;
    used absolutely, 92;
    passive use of, 110 ff.
    See Object.


  _Unless_, 121 ff., 168.
  _Unlike_, objective with, 52.
  _Until._ See _Till_.
  Usage and grammar, xv ff.


  Verb, 5 ff.;
    inflection and syntax, 91 ff.;
    classification, 91 ff.;
    inflection, 94 ff., 102 ff.;
    person and number, 97 ff.;
    agreement with subject, 97, 100 ff.;
    voice, 107 ff.;
    progressive form, 113 f.;
    emphatic form, 114;
    mood, 115 ff.;
    potential verb-phrases, 124 ff.;
    infinitive, 11 f., 132 ff.;
    participles, 11 f., 140 ff.;
    lists of verbs, 291 ff.
    See Predicate, Transitive, Tense, etc.
  Verbal noun in _-ing_, 145 ff. See Participial nouns.
  Verbal noun-phrases, 146.
  Verb-phrases, 5, 16, 91;
    to supply inflection, see Future, Complete tenses, Passive,
        Progressive, Potential, Subjunctive.
  Vocal organs, xi.
  Vocabulary of English, 318 f.
  Vocative (direct address), nominative, 42;
    as independent element, 209.
  Voice, 107 ff. See Passive.


  _We_, indefinite use, 57;
    royal and editorial _we_, 57.
  Weak verbs, 95 ff., 98 f.;
    participles, 141;
    lists, 291 ff.
  _We’d_, 130.
  _Well_, 81, 87.
  _We’ll_, 104.
  _Were to_, 172.
  _What_, relative, 71;
    double construction, 71, 73;
    as adjective, 73;
    interrogative, 73 f.;
    as adjective, 74;
    in exclamatory sentences, 74;
    interjection, 74.
  _Whatever_, _whatsoever_, 72 f.;
    in concession, 165;
    in conditions, 169.
  _Whatso_, 73.
  _When_, _whenever_, 86;
    in conditions, 169.
  _Whence_, 86.
  _Where_, _wherever_, 86.
  _Whereof_, _wherefrom_, etc., 69.
  _Whether_, _whether ... or_, 153, 168, 179.
  _Which_, relative, 67 ff.;
    gender, 67 ff.;
    for _who_, _whom_, 69;
    as adjective, 73;
    _the which_, 67;
    interrogative, 73;
    as adjective, 74.
  _Whichever_, 72 f.
  _While_, noun, adverb, conjunction, 86, 153.
  _Whither_, 86.
  _Who_, _whose_, _whom_, relative, 66 ff.;
    gender, 67 ff.;
    interrogative, 73 f., 150.
  _Whoever_, _whosoever_, _whoso_, 72 f.;
    in concession, 165;
    in condition, 169.
  _Why_, 86, 179.
  _Will_, in orders, 105;
    in future, see _Shall_.
  Wish, subjunctive in, 119 f., 123;
    _may_, 125 f.;
    verbs of, with infinitive or infinitive clause, 137 f.;
    with object clause, 160, 167;
    _O_ in a wish, 155;
    _if_, 169.
  Words, nature and use of, xi ff.
  _Wot_, _wist_, 299.
  _Would_, in wishes, 120;
    habitual action, 127;
    _would better_ (_rather_), 123.
    See _Should_.
  Written and spoken language, xi ff.


  _Ye_, old uses, 57;
    abbreviation, 57.
  _Yes_, _no_, 85.
  _Yet_, _still_, adverbs or conjunctions, 152.
  _Yon_, _yond_, _yonder_, 63.
  _You_ and _thou_, 56 f.;
    indefinite _you_, 57.



Transcriber’s Notes

Variant spelling and hyphenation have been preserved as printed;
simple typographical errors have been corrected. Punctuation has
been standardised, and unbalanced quotation marks and parentheses
have been repaired.

The following changes have also been made:


Page vi, Contents:
Person    39    238 changed to
Person    39    236

Page 26:
Number (_Verb agrees with Subject_) [was printed with a brace
spanning _Number_ and _Person_]

Page 98, Personal Endings:
[repeated no-ending in each cell instead of replicating the book’s
row-spanning braces]

Page 258 [changed word order]:
If the verb is active, change it to the passive, and make such other
changes as may be necessary. If the verb is active, change it to the
passive.

If the verb is active, change it to the passive, and make such other
changes as may be necessary. If the verb is passive, change it to
the active.

Footnote 66:
[The table spanned pages 298 to 299, and the footnote was repeated
across the page break; the transcriber omitted duplicate note.]





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