Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Flower Guide - Wild Flowers East of the Rockies (Revised and with New Illustrations)
Author: Reed, Chester A. (Chester Albert)
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Flower Guide - Wild Flowers East of the Rockies (Revised and with New Illustrations)" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



book was provided by Nancy Hutcheson from the Head family
library.



[Illustration: HER FIRST LESSON IN BOTANY]



                              FLOWER GUIDE
                   REVISED AND WITH NEW ILLUSTRATIONS
                    WILD FLOWERS EAST OF THE ROCKIES


                                   BY
                            CHESTER A. REED
       Author of “North American Birds’ Eggs,” “Bird Guide,” Etc.

           _With 320 Flowers in Color, Painted by the Author_

                        GARDEN CITY    NEW YORK
                       DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY
                                  1927

[Illustration: ]

                           Copyrighted, 1907
                               CHAS. K. REED
                                Worcester, Mass.

                      PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES
                                   AT
               THE COUNTRY LIFE PRESS, GARDEN CITY, N. Y.



                                PREFACE


Whose heart is not gladdened at the sight of the first Mayflower or
Arbutus in the spring? Who can pass a body of water, its surface
glistening with the beauty of the Water Lily, without appreciation? In
the fall who can traverse a field blind to the brilliancy of the seas of
Purple Asters and gleams of the Goldenrod? Yet it is only within a very
few years that there has been any real, concerted interest shown by the
masses in Nature Study. To be sure, botany has long been taught in some
of the higher schools, but it was of advantage only to comparatively few.
Now the call for knowledge, or at least the name, of what is seen in
their daily rambles is voiced by tens of thousands.

Since the publication, early in 1906, of the first edition of Bird Guide,
the author has been besieged by requests from all parts of the country,
and from people in every walk and station of life, to continue the idea
and bring out similar volumes on flowers, butterflies, fish, animals,
etc. The present volume has been carefully prepared with two objects
always in view—to serve the greatest number of persons in the best
possible way—and still have a volume that can be carried in the pocket
with little or no discomfort. The great majority of the colored paintings
have been made directly from living plants, and the balance, with few
exceptions, from herbarium specimens. They represent normal specimens and
have been so chosen as to include those of the conspicuous flowering
plants found from the Atlantic seaboard west to the States of the
Mississippi Valley. Using my 25 years, devoted largely to the study of
living things, as a criterion, I have endeavored to incorporate in the
text and in the pictures just those points that will best serve to
identify a flower that the reader may find. The introductory pages give
the life cycle of a plant from seed to seed and many curious facts
concerning curious plants.

Should this volume identify some of the flowers that the reader may
discover, and give him a clearer idea of the appearance and beauty of the
growing things that may be found, the author’s purpose will have been
fully accomplished.

                                                        CHESTER A. REED.

  Worcester, Mass., 1907.



                              INTRODUCTORY


A plant is a wonderful organism, yet how few of us realize it as we
casually glance at the flowers growing by the wayside. We see a beautiful
flower; we know that in the course of time it withers and fades away; and
we know that the next year the plant grows up again, sends forth its
buds, which at the proper time unfold their petals, and so the cycle
continues year after year, while we give little thought to the change
that occurs, the cause and its effect. Volumes might be written, and a
great many have been since the time of Darwin, upon the many interesting
processes by which various flowers are propagated. As this book is
confined chiefly to the identification of flowers, we will give but a few
illustrations between flowering seasons. We see in most flowers a thing
of beauty; their real and, to them, most important function is to produce
seeds to perpetuate the species.

The parts of a flower that are necessary to produce seeds are the pistil,
with its stigma at the top and ovule at the base, and the stamens with
their pollen-laden anthers. A flower that has these organs is known as a
perfect flower; if, in addition, it has a corolla and calyx, or petals
and sepals, it is known as a complete flower. On the opposite page are
shown a number of flowers with their parts named.

[Illustration: PARTS OF FLOWERS]

In order that seed may be set, it is necessary that ripened pollen from
the anthers should come in contact with the usually sticky stigma, whence
it will be transmitted down the style and germinate the ovule. As is well
known to be the case with the higher animals, cross-fertilization is
necessary in order to insure a good, vigorous species. It is also evident
that should the pollen continue to fertilize the ovule in the same
flower, the plants in successive generations might become weakened and
finally die out and the species be lost. To avoid such a calamity,
flowers are constructed so as to facilitate cross-fertilization and the
means that some of them adopt towards insuring that end are remarkable.
The stamens on most of the simple flowers usually curve outwards, so that
the pollen-laden anthers are far enough removed so that there is little
danger of the pollen falling on the stigma, at least until after
cross-fertilization has already taken place. Others have either the
anthers or stigma ripen first, so that it must necessarily be pollen from
another blossom that quickens the seed.

We all marvel at the industry of the honey bee; how tirelessly it buzzes
from flower to flower, from each gathering a drop of the nectar, with
which it fills its cells; but we do not always realize the double duty it
is doing, for it is a most reliable and active agent for the propagations
of a great many plants. Many butterflies, bees, and even beetles
unconsciously accomplish the same result, and it is now conceded that
each has special colors that are attractive to them. For instance, the
bumblebee has a strong preference for blues and purples. The observer
will also notice that a bee makes the rounds from flower to flower,
taking all of one kind and passing by other species. While this habit
undoubtedly avoids some complications, even should he mix his drinks and
visit in succession flowers of widely different species, confusion would
not be apt to result, for the stigma of one species is usually not
responsive to pollen brought from blossoms of another family.

Botanists go a step further; not content with the discovery that certain
insects like certain colors, they claim (and apparently with good reason)
that the bright and showy petals are for the sole purpose of attracting
insects; they are, in fact, bill boards advertising the fact that there
is a store of honey there ready for the asking. On the other hand, those
flowers that are self-fertilized or wind-fertilized have inconspicuous
blossoms.

The stigma always partially obstructs the entrance to the food supply, so
that the visiting bee must brush against it, and in doing so will leave
some of the pollen that he has brought from the last flower visited on
its sticky surface. The pollen-dust is attached to the insect in various
ways, usually simply by his brushing against the anthers with his hairy
body, for it is found that nearly all the useful insects have downy or
hairy bodies; other flowers set a sort of spring gun and when the insect
steps on the trigger he is showered with the germs (Laurel for example);
still others have clefts to catch the legs of visitors, releasing them
only if they are strong enough to tear away the pollen masses (such a
flower is well illustrated in the Milkweed). Besides having bright
colored petals, many of the flowers also have a pleasing odor, this also
serving to attract certain kinds of insects; others have very unpleasant
odors, like the skunk-cabbage or even like that of putrid meat, as in the
carrion flower and the purple trillium, these odors being apparently for
the purpose of attracting certain scavenger insects. There are also some
flowers, like the evening primrose, that are seen at their best after
dusk, when the light-colored petals are widespread and a delicate perfume
given off to attract the moths and sphinges that visit them.

It is evident that a flower secreting honey may be visited by unwelcome
guests, ones that will accept of the nectar, but will make no useful
return. Any insect with a shiny, smooth body whether winged or not, is of
little use in fertilizing a plant, for even should it receive pollen, it
will in all probability have fallen off before the next flower is
visited. Ants being particularly fond of sweet things and so small that
they can enter a flower without disturbing the anthers, frequently drain
the nectar cups so no useful insect will visit them, and they fail to
reproduce their kind. Nature has a number of quite effective ways of
preventing thefts of this kind, one of the most common ways being to
provide the plant stem with bristly hairs, forming a very difficult
barrier for any crawling insect to overcome; others have a tuft of hair
at the very entrance to the honey cells which bar the way for unwelcome
guests, but readily allow the bee to insert its tongue; still others are
protected by recurved leaves or by sticky stems, or as in the toadflax by
a two-lipped flower, which will open under the weight of a bumblebee, but
is effectively closed to any lighter insect.

The seeds, having been set, are enclosed in a capsule composed of the
closed and dried sepals, the petals having fallen off; in a pod as in the
peas and beans; or in fruit, as inside an apple, which is formed by the
base of the flower enlarging about the seeds with the calyx remaining at
the top of the ripened fruit, or in the strawberry, where the seeds are
on the outside of the berry and the calyx at the bottom of the fruit. It
is plain that should these seeds simply fall to the ground, plants of a
single species would soon become so crowded in a small area that the
earth could not support them. Consequently various means are furnished
different plants for the dispersion of their seeds. A great number, like
the thistles, milkweeds and dandelions, have plume-like parachutes
provided for each seed, so they can float away on the breeze to new
fields; those that have their seeds embedded in fruit are entrusted to
birds to be carried where fate wills it; others, like beggar-ticks,
burdock, etc., have spines to attach themselves to the clothing of people
or to the coats of animals that brush against them.

[Illustration: KINDS OF LEAVES]

As certain insects prey upon plants or rob them of their nectar, so
certain plants prey upon insects, literally eating them or absorbing them
into their system. Best known among these are the pitcher plants, a swamp
species, whose leaves are pitcher-like and with a hood or awning over the
top to keep out the rain; these leaves are half filled with a sweet fluid
that attracts insects, makes them tipsy and causes their death in the
watery grave, the plant feeding largely upon the resulting broth. Of
another type is the round-leaved sundew, also a common plant; its leaves
are covered with short bristly hairs, a drop of gum glistening at the end
of each. A fly investigating these is soon caught in the sticky gum and
the leaf slowly folds together, enveloping the victim in what might be
termed the stomach of the plant. Perhaps the most interesting and surely
the most peculiar plant is the Venus fly-trap, which is found only in
eastern North Carolina. At the end of each leaf is apparently a smaller
one, perhaps an inch in diameter; this is fringed around the edge and
rather bristly in the centre. These central bristles are very sensitive
and if touched or an insect lights upon the leaf, the two parts of the
leaf instantly clasp together on the central stem as a hinge. If nothing
is caught, in a short time the trap opens again; if, however, the attempt
has been successful it will remain closed for several days or a week,
until the victim is entirely absorbed by the glands on the inner surface
of the leaf.

As in the animal world, so in the plant world; always a struggle for
existence, the strong surviving and the weak falling by the wayside. The
old adage that “In union there is strength” is amply proved by many of
the composite flowers, such as the asters and goldenrods, whose stalks
are not only capped with numerous flower-heads, but each flower-head is
composed of hundreds of little perfect florets, so closely set together
that even should an insect but crawl across the flower-head he will
fertilize a number of them. That their plan is a good one is seen by the
steady increase in the numbers of these flowers and the rapid strides
with which they occupy new territory. On the other hand, compare such
flowers as the lady’s slippers, fringed gentian and numbers of others
that are yearly becoming less common.



                              FLOWER GUIDE


                    WILD FLOWERS EAST OF THE ROCKIES


   _Grouped in their Natural Order as in the Latest Edition of Gray’s
                                Botany_

[Illustration: ]


                            CAT-TAIL FAMILY
                              (_Typhaceæ_)

The members of this family are very abundant aquatic herbs with perennial
roots. We have two species with differences as noted below. Both have
staminate yellow flowers in a spike above pistillate brown ones; the
former soon fall or blow away, while the latter develop into the large,
familiar, brown cat-tail that is often used for decorative purposes.

(A) Common Cat-tail (_Typha latifolia_) has yellowish staminate flowers
encircling the upper end of the flower stalk, and immediately below a
long cylindrical mass of brownish pistillate ones. The pollen grains are
arranged in fours. Leaves three to eight feet long, sheathing at the
base. Found in marshes throughout the United States and southern Canada,
flowering in June and July.

(B) Narrow-leaved Cat-tail (_Typha angustifolia_) has narrower leaves,
averaging less than ¾ in. broad. The two kinds of flowers are separated
by a bare space of stalk and the pollen grains are simple.

[Illustration: ]


                            BUR REED FAMILY
                            (_Sparganiaceæ_)

The Bur Reeds are marsh-inhabitating plants, some growing along the muddy
shores of ponds or streams, while other species are strictly aquatic,
growing in the water with floating leaves. Like the Cat-tails they are
not in the least dependent upon insects for fertilization. The two kinds
of flowers, staminate and pistillate, are always in separate spherical
clusters usually alternately arranged along the stem.

(A) Great Bur Reed (_Sparganium eurycarpum_) is stout and erect, two to
three feet in height. The mature heads, or fruit, about one inch across;
composed of wedge-shaped nutlets arranged in the form of a sphere. The
basal leaves are similar to those of the Cat-tail and clasp the stems.
These plants are found in the whole of the U.S. and southern Canada,
flowering from June to August.

(B) Branching Bur Reed (_S. androcladum_) throws off several weak
flower-bearing branches from the angles of the upper leaves.

[Illustration: ]


                         WATER PLANTAIN FAMILY
                             (_Alismaceæ_)

Genus Arrow-head (_Sagittaria_). Arrow-heads or Sagittarias are among our
most beautiful water plants. The leaves vary greatly in shape but are
always graceful in appearance. All species have three pure white petals
with a golden centre formed by the large anthers. They usually grow in
the water but sometimes on the muddy shores, and flower in June.

(A) Broad-leaved Arrow-head (_Sagittaria latifolia_) has broad,
arrow-shaped leaves on long petioles from the root. The 3-petalled white
flowers grow in whorls of three, the upper ones being staminate and the
lower pistillate. Seed, winged on both edges and with a twisted
horizontal beak. This species is smooth, but a variety (pubescens) has
the stem quite wooly. Common in the whole of our range.

(B) Narrow-leaved Arrow-head (_S. Engelmanniana_) has very narrow leaves
with linear sagittate bases. The seeds are winged but the beak points
upward instead of being bent at an angle as in the last.

[Illustration: ]


                              ARUM FAMILY
                               (_Araceæ_)

This is quite a large family of plants containing six genera. All have
acrid or pungent juices; flowers closely crowded on a spadix, usually
surrounded by a spathe; leaves either simple or compound and of various
shapes.


                           Genus (_Arisæma_)

Jack-in-the-Pulpit or Indian Turnip (_Arisæma triphyllum_) is the most
abundant and the best-known representative of this genus. In moist woods
you will find Jack, represented by the spadix, looking out at you from
his pulpit, represented by the spathe of the flower. The spathe is light
green, more or less striped with brown, especially on the inside; the
spadix is also green and has the tiny flowers clustered about its base.
The large solid roots are very acrid and fiery to the taste, but are said
to have been relished by the Indians. Usually two, thrice-compounded
leaves spread shelteringly on long stems over the flower spathe. Large
clusters of bright berries remain after the leaves have withered. Flowers
throughout U. S. from April to July.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Water Arum (_Calla palustris_) is our only representative of its
genus. It is quite a common plant in cool bogs, where it grows from six
inches to a foot in height. The beautiful dark green heart-shaped leaves
stand above the water on long petioles. A beautiful, waxy-white,
spreading spathe is often mistaken for the flower. The true flowers are
small and perfect, clustered at the end of a yellow spadix. The flowering
season is in June. You may find this plant commonly in cool bogs from N.
J. and Mo. northward.

(B) Golden Club (_Orontium aquaticum_) is also our only member of its
genus. As you will see by the opposite picture, there is no protective
spathe for the golden floral club.

The florets are complete, having six sepals and stamens; they are set
closely on the swollen spadix and attract many flies and even water
snails that cross-fertilize them simply by crawling over the clubs.

The leaves of the Golden Club are pointed oblong in shape, floating on
the surface of the water by means of long stems from the perennial
rootstalk. Flowers in May from Mass. to Fla. and westward.

[Illustration: ]


                         Genus (_Symplocarpus_)

The common Skunk Cabbage (_Symplocarpus fœtidus_) although regarded by
many only with disgust, has one claim that cannot be disputed, that of
being our first flower to bloom each year. It is not uncommon to find
them with the shell-like spathe above ground and the pollen fully ripened
even in January, although from the latter part of February to the first
of May is the usual flowering season.

The flower spathes show a great diversity of coloring according to their
age, ranging from a pale green sparingly streaked with brown to an almost
solid purple tone.

The flowers are small, perfect, and closely crowded on the thick fleshy
spadix, concealed or partially so by the large, thick purple and green
stained hood. The leaves appear after the flower has withered or
commenced to do so; they are bright green, large, cabbage-like and
strongly veined; quite handsome, in fact. These plants range from N. S.
to Minn., and southward, chiefly in boggy ground.

[Illustration: ]


                           SPIDERWORT FAMILY
                            (_Commelinaceæ_)

(A) Day-flower (_Commelina communis_) is one of a very few of our native
plants having pure blue flowers. Each blossom lasts but a single day.

The stem is rather weak, much jointed, and attains heights of one to two
feet. Two petals are large, rounded and blue, while the third is tiny and
colorless; the whole flower peeps out from a clasping, cordate,
heart-shaped leaf or spathe. Found from southern Mass. to Mich. and
southward, blooming in rich woods or dooryards from June to Sept.

(B) Spiderwort; Job’s Tears (_Tradescantia virginiana_), like the Day
Flower, remains open for but part of a day, after which the petals
contract into glutinous drops.

The stem is hairy and sticky; from one to two feet high. Three purple
petals, three brown, hairy sepals and six orange-tipped stamens compose
the flowers. They may be found in rich soil from Me. to Mich. and
southward, flowering from June to August.

[Illustration: ]


                          PICKEREL-WEED FAMILY
                           (_Pontederiaceæ_)

(A) Pickerel-weed (_Pontederia cordata_) is an exceedingly abundant water
plant, growing profusely in shallow ponds or along the edges of
fresh-water streams, and flowering from June to August.

The flowers grow on a spike that proceeds from a small, green, leaf-like
spathe; the 3 upper divisions of the 6-parted perianth are partially
united, but the 3 lower ones are spreading; they are a light violet-blue
with two yellow spots at the base of the upper united parts. A single
heart-shaped, cordate leaf clasps the stem about midway, while others on
long petioles grow from the rootstalk. Commonly found from N. S. to
Manitoba and southward.

(B) Mud Plantain (_Heteranthera reniformis_) has a slender, few-flowered
spike proceeding from a small sheath-like spathe. The perianth is blue
and regularly 6-parted. The leaves are round-lobed, kidney-shaped,
floating on long stalks from the root. Found from Ct. to Neb. and
southward.

[Illustration: ]


                              LILY FAMILY
                              (_Liliaceæ_)

This is an exceedingly large family containing more than 80 species in
our range, divided into 33 genera.

(A) Bellwort (_Uvularia perfoliata_) is common in rich woods. The stem,
reaching a length of 6 to 18 in., rises from a short rootstalk. A single,
straw-colored flower is pendent from the end of each drooping branch; it
is long, bell-shaped, and has six narrow divisions. The leaves are light
green, lance-shaped, and pierced by the stem. The slightly fragrant
flowers are so concealed by their drooping position as to be invisible
from above. They blossom in May and June throughout the U. S.

(B) Oakesia; Wild Oats (_Oakesia sessifolia_) has an angular stem from 6
to 14 in. long. The ovate-lanceolate leaves are seated on the stem and
not pierced by it. The one or two flowers are similar in size and
coloring to those of Bellwort but the interior is smooth while the latter
has rough ridges. This species is common from Me. to Minn. and southward.

[Illustration: ]


                             ONION; GARLIC
                            Genus (_Allium_)

The various species belonging to this genus are very strongly scented,
pungent herbs growing from a coated bulb.

(A) Wild Leek; Wild Onion (_Allium tricoccum_) is a woodland plant
blooming in May and June. The flowers are in an umbel at the top of a
scape 6 to 20 in. high. The flower perianth is divided into six
greenish-white sepals. The leaves are oblong-lance-shaped, pointed at
both ends, on long petioles from the bulbous root, but usually withering
before the flowers appear. Found from N. B. to Minn. and southward.

(B) Wild Garlic (_Allium canadense_) has few purplish 6-parted flowers on
slender pedicels from a cluster of bulblets at the top of a scape 10 to
24 in. high. The leaves are grass-like, sheathing the stem above the
fibrous bulb. Flowers in May and June in moist meadows, from N. B. to
Mich. and southward.

[Illustration: ]

Day Lily (_Hemerocallis fulva_) (European) will, we think, prove a
welcome addition to our flora. It is now locally abundant in R. I.,
Conn., and N. Y. It flourishes best near salt water and spreads rapidly
by means of its running roots as well as by seed. The flower stalk is
tall, 2 to 5 feet, and at its summit bears eight or nine buds which open
one or two a day into large showy flowers.

The perianth is funnel-form, with six spreading orange limbs and six long
stamens with large brown anthers. The blossoms appear in July and August,
each remaining open for but a single day; this habit makes them very
popular for vase flowers as the number of buds on each stalk insures
fresh flowers every day for a week or more. The leaves are long and
linear, similar to those of the Cat-tail, appearing from a fleshy
perennial rootstalk at the base of the tall flower scape.

In the absence of any odor, the beautiful flower cup serves to attract
the bees that are necessary for the setting of its seed.

[Illustration: ]


                                 LILIES
                            Genus (_Lilium_)

All the members of this genus are among our most beautiful flowers. In
our range it includes eight species, of which seven are natives. The two
species of Red Lily can readily be recognized because their perianth, or
flower funnel, always opens upward.

Wood Lily; Wild Orange-red Lily (_Lilium philadelphicum_) has a leafy
stem 1 to 3 feet high, at its summit bearing one to four erect (not
pendulous) flowers; the divisions of the perianth are deep orange-red,
lightening in color at the stem-like bases and profusely spotted with
dark brown; the outside of the perianth is dull whitish green. The leaves
are lanceolate, sharply pointed at each end and whorled about the stem in
groups of from three to seven. Its name is rather misleading for, while
it is sometimes found in woods, it will be found blooming most profusely
in sandy or brush-covered land. Blooms in July and August in sandy soil
from N. E. to Mich. and southward.

[Illustration: ]

Turk’s-cap Lily (_Lilium superbum_) is a most beautiful plant, prolific
in bloom almost beyond belief, sometimes containing from thirty to forty
brilliant orange flowers. The bright sepals are always reflexed,
sometimes so much so that they remind one of a coiled spring. One has but
to touch the large pendent anthers to get a practical demonstration of
how the pollen is attached to the body of a bee and carried to another
flower, there to be deposited on the sticky stigma of the mature style.
Naturally a species so prolific of flower and so capable of being
cross-fertilized by foreign agency is in little danger of having its
numbers lessened.

The flowers, nodding at the top of a stem ranging from 2 to 7 feet in
height, have a six-parted perianth, orange-red, thickly spotted with
purplish brown. The lanceolate leaves are crowded along the upper stem
and whorled about its lower portion. Blooms abundantly in rich soil,
during July and August, from N. B. to Minn. and southward.

[Illustration: ]

Field, Wild, Meadow, Yellow or Canada Lily (_Lilium canadense_) is one of
the most abundant of the genus. Imagine a rich meadow, surrounded by deep
green woods and covered with thousands of these lilies, their heads
hanging and nodding invitingly and seeming fairly to tinkle in the bright
sunlight. On the whole, this flower may be regarded as more graceful in
form than is the Turk’s-cap, but it cannot compare with the latter flower
for beauty of coloring. The regular whorled leaves and graceful bending
peduncles supporting the hanging “bells” make a conventional design that
often appeals to the artistic eye.

The flowers are in terminal clusters of one to twelve blossoms, nodding
on long peduncles from the summit of tall leafy stems. The leaves are
lanceolate, arranged about the stem at intervals in whorls of three to
eight. Flowers during June and July in moist meadows from Quebec to Minn.
and southward to Ga. and Mo.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Dog-tooth Violet; Yellow Adder’s Tongue (_Erythronium americanum_).
These flowers are familiar and welcome ones to all who wander beside
woodland brooks in the spring. The name “Violet” is of course a misnomer.
It is often locally known as the “Trout Lily” or the “Fawn Lily,” both of
which names are far more appropriate than those given it generally.

The single 6-parted flower grows at the top of a scape from 5 to 10 in.
high. Two elliptical-lanceolate leaves clasp the scape at its base, near
the scaly bulb; they are pale green, mottled with purple and white. This
species blooms in April and May in moist woods or swamps, from N. B. to
Minn. and southward.

(B) Clintonia (_Clintonia borealis_) is a beautiful species, its leaves
resembling those of the Lily-of-the-Valley. The three to six pendulous,
bell-shaped flowers are cream-colored within and greenish outside. Three
large, oblong, pointed leaves clasp the flower scape at its base. The
plant is about 6 to 16 in. high; it flowers during June in damp woods
from Labrador to Man. and southward.

[Illustration: ]

Wild Spikenard (_Smilacina racemosa_) is quite an imposing plant, with
its long, curving, zigzag stem, its many light-green, deeply ribbed
leaves and its feathery terminal flower clusters.

The white flowers are tiny but perfect, with a 6-parted perianth, six
slender stamens, and a short, thick style. The stem is rather angular and
attains a length of from 1 to 3 feet; alternating along it are the large,
oval, sharply pointed leaves, with parallel ribs and wavy edge. The
perennial rootstalk is thick and fleshy. Spikenard is quite abundant in
moist rich, uncleared ground, flowering in May and June, from Me. to
Minn. southward.

False Solomon’s Seal (_Smilacina stellata_) bears some resemblance to the
last species, but the flowers are much larger and few in number, usually
only six or eight terminating the zigzag stem. The leaves are broader at
the bases and slightly clasp the stem, whereas those of the last species
have very short stems. It grows commonly, but not as much so as the last,
on moist banks and in meadows, from Me. to Minn. and southward.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Canada Mayflower; False Lily-of-the-Valley (_Maianthemum canadense_)
is a very abundant woodland plant, growing in colonies, thousands of them
sometimes carpeting pine woods with their dark-green glossy leaves. The
two, or three broad, ovate-lanceolate, shiny green leaves are rather
heart-shaped at the base, seated on the stem or very nearly so. The
flower perianth has four divisions. After the flowering season both of
these plants have berries; at first a creamy white, spotted with brown,
and later turning to a dull ruby-red.

(B) Three-leaved False Solomon’s Seal (_Smilacina trifolia_), the
smallest member of the genus Smilacina is found rather commonly in bogs
and wet woods. The stem, straight and slender, from 2 to 6 in. high,
usually has three leaves, shining green, oblong-pointed, and sheathing at
the base, arranged at regular intervals along it. The flowers are white,
few in number, on short peduncles in an open raceme and have six petals.
It is found from Labrador to Manitoba and southward to N. J. and Mo.,
flowering during May and June.

[Illustration: ]

Purple Twisted-stalk (_Streptopus roseus_) has, as would be judged from
its name, a very angular or twisted stem. At each angle or joint appears
an ovate-lanceolate, cordately ribbed, shining green leaf, seated on the
stem. From the axils of the terminal leaves appear small flowers on
slender, thread-like peduncles; these flowers are sometimes single or,
again, in pairs; they have a bell-shaped base and the perianth is divided
into six lanceolate, spreading dull purple sepals. The stem, which is
rather sparingly bristly hairy, reaches heights of 1 to 2½ feet. This
rosy species blooms in May and June in cold moist woods from Newfoundland
to Manitoba and southward to the Gulf of Mexico.

Common Twisted-stalk (_Streptopus amplexifolius_) is similar but has
greenish-white flowers, the six sepals of which are very strongly
reflexed. The plant is somewhat larger, the smooth stem being from 2 to 3
feet in length. It is found throughout northern United States and the
southern half of Canada.

[Illustration: ]

Solomon’s Seal (_Polygonatum biflorum_) has small greenish, bell-shaped
flowers about one half inch in length, hanging in pairs on slender
peduncles from the axils of the leaves. The stem is 1 to 2 feet in
height. The oblong-lanceolate leaves alternate along, and are partly
seated on, the stem; deep green above and glaucous or whitish below. Very
common in woods from N. B. to Ont. and southward, flowering from April to
June.

These plants receive their name from the thick, fleshy, and knotted
rootstalks. They are perennials, each year throwing up new stalks; after
flowering these wither away and leave pronounced scars on the roots.
These scars suggested the name of Solomon’s Seal and the number of them
probably accurately denotes the ages of the plants. Both the large and
the small species grow in the same localities. They can readily be
distinguished by comparison, for commutatum is always larger in all its
parts; while it may be but a foot and a half tall it will be stouter and
have comparatively larger flowers than its relative. Often it assumes
truly gigantic size and may tower above a tall man’s head.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Common Green Brier (_Smilax rotundifolia_) is a woody climbing vine
with scattered sharp prickles; it climbs by means of pairs of tendrils
from the axils of the leaves. Leaves alternating along the stem;
round-ovate, sharply pointed at the tip and somewhat heart-shaped at the
base. Flowers, few on slender peduncles from the angles of the leaves;
perianth bell-shaped, with six short, spreading lobes, pale greenish in
color. Common in moist thickets from N. S. to Minn. and southward,
flowering in May and June.

(B) Lily-of-the-Valley (_Convallaria majalis_). As a garden flower, this
species is probably familiar to nearly everyone. While, as a native, it
is only found in some of the southeastern mountain ranges, it is
sometimes found in the North as an escape from cultivation. It is a
delicately beautiful species, very rich in fragrance and very hardy. The
bell-shaped, white flowers grow in a one-sided raceme at the top of a
scape, the base of which is sheathed by the two large, broad,
oblong-pointed, parallel-veined leaves. It flowers in May and June in the
mountains from Va. to S. C.

[Illustration: ]

Indian Cucumber-root (_Medeola virginiana_) is a common woodland plant,
but the flowers are so inconspicuous that they are often overlooked; in
fact they are often nodding below the upper leaves so as to be invisible.
The stem is tall and slender, ranging from 1 to 3 feet in height; it
rises from a thick horizontal rootstalk, having a taste similar to that
of the cucumber. A whorl of from five to nine ovate-lanceolate, pointed
leaves is located midway on the stem; at the top, three smaller but
similarly shaped leaves radiate. Above these, or it may be below, because
of the curving pedicels, are three flowers. They are pale
greenish-yellow; the three sepals and three petals composing the perianth
are very much reflexed or curled; they have six stamens each, and one
style dividing into three purplish-brown, recurved stigmas.

It is said that the Indians formerly used the roots for food; at the
present time they are used for various medicinal preparations.
Cucumber-root is found from N. B. to Manitoba and southward to the Gulf,
flowering in rich woods during May and June.

[Illustration: ]


                           Genus (_Trillium_)

Trilliums derive their generic name from the fact that all their parts
are arranged in threes; three leaves, three petals, three sepals, and a
three-parted stigma. The common name of Wake Robin was probably early
given because these flowers appear at an early date. As a matter of fact
they do not bloom until weeks after the robins have returned to the
Northern States. All the purple trilliums have an unpleasant odor
resembling that of putrid meat; as they are largely dependent for
fertilization upon certain carrion flies, it is very probable that their
peculiar color is for the purpose of an added lure for these insects.

Purple Trillium; Birthroot; Ill-scented Wake Robin (_Trillium erectum_)
has three purplish-brown petals and three sepals; six stamens exceeding
in length the stout spreading stigma. Flower solitary, rising on a short
pedicel above the whorl of broad, ovate, pointed, and short petioled
leaves. This trillium ranges in height from 6 to 15 inches. It flowers in
April and May, in rich woods from Quebec to Ont. and southward.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Large-flowered Trillium (_Trillium grandiflorum_) is the largest of
the genus in all respects and is one of the best known and most common
species. It can be looked for in any damp, rich woods during May or June.
Usually they grow in colonies and it is an exception when one finds a
single plant without others being in sight. The stem of this species is
from 10 to 18 inches in height; the waxy-white petals are from 1½ to 2
in. in length; as they grow older the color changes to a delicate pink
and they curve gracefully backward.

The flower is on a short pedicel above the whorl of broad, ovate-pointed,
and short petioled leaves. Found from Vt. to Minn. and southward to N. C.
and Mo.

(B) Nodding Trillium (_T. Cernuum_) is quite similar to, but smaller
than, the last species. Its blossom is either white or pink and is on a
curved pedicel that often bends so as to place the flower beneath the
whorl of leaves; the edges of the petals are quite wavy. This demure,
bashful little trillium is found from Newfoundland and Man. south to Pa.
and Mich.

[Illustration: ]

Painted Trillium (_Trillium undulatum_) has sharply pointed, wavy-edged,
waxy-white petals with crimson V-shaped marks at the bases. The ovate
leaves are sharply pointed and petioled. It is a common species from
Quebec to Ontario and southward.

The Painted Trillium is usually regarded as the most beautiful of the
genus. Certainly it is the most abundant. It is more gregarious than
others, and we often find large beds of them with their dainty,
waxy-white, wavy-edged flowers swaying above the deep green background
formed by their broad, whorled leaves. They grow most profusely along the
banks of woodland brooks and in cool, moist glens. You will find them
most abundant during the latter part of May soon after the wood thrush,
that frequents the same locality, makes his appearance from the South.
They are always associated in my mind with these birds and with water
thrushes that I have often watched as they daintily threaded their way
among the numerous plant stalks, entirely concealed above by the numerous
leaves, and visible only by placing the head close to the ground.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Star-of-Bethlehem (_Ornithogalum umbellatum_) (European).

The scape, rising from a coated bulb, is from 6 to 12 in. high; at the
top is a loose, terminal cluster of from four to eight blossoms. The
perianth is divided into six waxy-white sepals, rather greenish on the
outside, and with three to seven green nerves; six stamens and a
three-sided stigma. The leaves are long, linear, and channeled. Found as
an escape, from Me. to Va.


                            AMARYLLIS FAMILY
                           (_Amaryllidaceæ_)

A family of bulbous and scape-bearing herbs with flat, grass-like leaves
and regular six-parted flowers.

(B) Atamasco Lily (_Zephyranthes atamasco_) is an exceedingly beautiful
species with pure, waxy-white flowers, only one to a plant, erect at the
summit of a scape from 6 to 12 in. high. Perianth funnel-form, with six
spreading lobes, a short pistil, and six stamens with large yellow
anthers. Leaves long, linear, and channeled. Quite common in moist places
or swamps, from Del. to Fla., flowering from April to July.

[Illustration: ]

Yellow Star Grass (_Hypoxis hirsuta_) is the most widely distributed of
any of the members of the Amaryllis family. It is very appropriately
named. From April until July and more sparingly until September we may
see these bright shining golden stars peering at us from a background of
green grass. So closely do the leaves of this little plant correspond to
the grass leaves, among which they grow, that sharp scrutiny is required
to distinguish them. The blossoms are visited by several of the smaller
bees for pollen; some of this is often unwittingly carried to the sticky
stigma of the next flower visited and cross-fertilization effected.

The flowers are in a loose umbel at the top of a scape from 3 to 8 in. in
height; perianth widespread and divided into six shining, golden-yellow
sepals, paler and slightly greenish on the outside; the six stamens
tipped with large, golden-orange anthers. The slender, narrow, grass-like
leaves come from a small bulb together with the flower scape. This
species is common from Me. to Manitoba and southward to the Gulf of
Mexico.

[Illustration: ]


                              IRIS FAMILY
                              (_Iridaceæ_)

This family is composed of perennial herbs growing in moist places and
having long linear or sword-shaped leaves and large showy flowers. Iris
is named from the Greek meaning, rainbow, and it certainly is no misnomer
as applied to the Blue Flag or Iris which is the most common of the
genus. The perpetuation of this species in healthy condition is insured
by the formation of the flower, which is such that self-pollenization is
practically impossible. The stamens are directly under the strap-like
divisions of the style and the stigma is on the upper surface at the
rolled-up tip. Bees are the most frequent visitors.

Larger Blue Flag; Blue Iris; Fleur-de-Lis (_Iris versicolor_). Flower
solitary, from a green spathe at the end of a long peduncle; sepals,
neither bearded nor crested, but broad, violet, and handsomely veined;
petals erect, flat, and spatulate. Leaves sword-shaped, glaucous-green,
folded into flat clusters at the base. Very common from Newfoundland to
Manitoba and southward, flowering from May to July.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Blue-eyed Grass (_Sisyrinchium angustifolium_), as one would suspect
from the name, has grass-like leaves and flowers that make one think of
bright little blue eyes as they peep out of the meadow grass in which you
will find them.

The Blue-eyed Grasses have recently been separated into thirteen species,
differing chiefly in the comparative lengths of the flower spathes, or
the lengths of the leaves as compared to the flower stem. The six
divisions of the flower are regular, violet, with a yellow or white
star-shaped centre; each sepal is blunt, with a thorn-like tip. Common
from N. B. to B. C. and southward.

(B) Crested Dwarf Iris (_Iris cristata_). Flowers usually solitary, very
delicate in form, and of a light violet color; the sepals have a central
crested rib of a bright orange color; the smaller petals are also
crested. The tube is long and thread-like. Leaves lanceolate, about 5 to
7 in. long; those forming the spathe are ovate-lanceolate. This
attractive little Iris is found on rich wooded hillsides and along
streams, from Md. and Ind. southward, flowering in April and May.

[Illustration: ]


                             ORCHIS FAMILY
                             (_Orchidaceæ_)

This is a large family composed of herbaceous perennials with tuberoid
roots or corms. The perianth is composed of six divisions, the three
outer being sepals (two of which are often united) and the three inner
ones petals, the lower one of which, termed the lip, differs in form from
the others.

Yellow Lady’s Slipper (_Cypripedium parviflorum_) has usually one, but
sometimes three, flowers at the summit of a leafy stem 7 to 20 in. high.
The inflated lip is bright yellow, slipper-shaped, and with a rounded
orifice open near the base. The two lateral petals are brownish;
exceedingly twisted. The broad, bright-green leaves are very prominently
ribbed lengthwise, pointed and alternately sheathing the stem. This is
one of the northerly species, being found along the northern border of
the United States and southern Canada. It grows in colonies and flowers
from May to July, in rich woods or bogs.

[Illustration: ]

Showy Lady’s Slipper (_Cypripedium hirsutum_) is a magnificent orchid,
usually regarded as the most beautiful of the genus. It is of imposing
dimensions and has large, fragrant flowers.

The inflated lip is large and balloon-like, about 2 in. in length; white,
with crimson-magenta blotches and streaks on the front edge; the sepals
are round-ovate and the petals oblong, both pointed and both
greenish-white in color. The leafy stem, that bears at its summit the
solitary blossom, is from 1 to 2 feet in height. Found locally from
Newfoundland to Minn. and southward to Ga. and Mo., flowering in rich
woods during June and July.

Small White Lady’s Slipper (_Cypripedium candidum_). The flower of this
species is of the same size and shape as that of the yellow variety, but
the lip is pure white outside and striped with purple inside at the base;
the two lateral sepals and the two petals are ovate-lanceolate, greenish,
spotted with brown. It is a single-flowered species with numerous leaves.
It is found in swamps from N. Y. to Minn. southward.

[Illustration: ]

Pink Lady’s Slipper; Moccasin Flower (_Cypripedium acaule_) has solitary
flowers surmounting a scape from 8 to 12 in. high; lip large, drooping
pink, with a slit in front, instead of a circular opening as in the
others. It frequents dry woods and may be found from southern Canada
southward.

Although this is the most common of the Lady’s Slippers, it is no less
beautiful than the others. The flower of the present species is a very
ingenious contrivance; it is fertilized by the common bumblebee. The only
entrance is through the fissure in the front; it requires considerable
pressure to force his burly frame through, but at length he succeeds and
the aperture closes behind him. After eating his fill he takes the
easiest way out, toward the base where he can see two spots of light. As
he forces his way through the narrow passage he comes in contact with a
sticky stigma, armed with incurving hairs which remove any pollen he may
have on his back; as he continues his struggle out he reaches an anther
blocking the passage and waiting to clap its load of pollen on his back.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Green Wood Orchis (_Habenaria clavellata_) has from three to sixteen
inconspicuous greenish flowers in a loose spike at the top of a stem from
6 to 18 in. high; lip oblong and with three teeth; spur long, slender,
and curved upward and to one side. One or two oblong-lanceolate leaves
with obtuse tips clasp the stem near the base while several small bracts
alternate along it. Grows in bogs from Newfoundland to Minn. and
southward.

(B) Green-fringed Orchis (_Habenaria flava_) is a common green orchis
(formerly _virescens_). The lower leaves are oblong-lanceolate, while the
upper ones are linear, diminishing in size and passing into the flower
bracts. The flower lip is square-ended and toothed; spur slender and
about the length of the flower. In the whole U. S. and southern Canada we
may find this species growing in bogs.

Habenaria bracteata is similar to _flava_, but the flower bracts are
large, being from two to four times the length of the flowers. N. S. to
Alaska and south through the U. S.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Yellow-fringed Orchis (_Habenaria ciliaris_) is an attractive and
rather common orchis with a tall leafy stem from 12 to 24 in. high. The
spike is very closely set with flowers having rounded petals, fringed
lips, and slender spurs about an inch in length. The leaves are
lanceolate, gradually diminishing in size as they approach the spike and
passing into the flower bracts. Found from Me. to Mich. and southward.

(B) Hooker’s Orchis (_H. Hookeri_) has a leafless scape from 6 to 12 in.
high, at the base of which are two broad, oval, shining, deep-green
leaves. The ten to twenty flowers are yellowish-green; lip lanceolate and
sharply pointed, less than half an inch long; slender spur about one inch
long. Flowers during June and July in woods from Me. to Minn. and south
to N.C.

Round-leaved Orchis (_H. orbiculata_) is similar to Hookeri; the lip is
oblong, obtuse, and about the same length as the spur. The two basal
leaves are almost round. It is common in rich woods from Labrador to
Alaska and southward.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Ragged-fringed Orchis (_Habenaria lacera_) does not attract our
attention because of its beauty, for its flowers are rather inconspicuous
in color. They are, however, remarkable for the peculiarly cut and
slashed lip, it being divided apparently with no regard for method or
symmetry. The greenish-white flowers are in a dense many-flowered raceme
at the summit of a leafy stem from 10 to 20 inches high. The leaves are
oblong-lanceolate, diminishing in size to the flower bracts as they reach
the raceme. This species is not uncommon in swamps from Newfoundland to
Minn. and southward.

(B) White-fringed Orchis (_H. blephariglottis_) has a densely flowered
raceme or spike similar to that of the yellow-fringed species, but the
flowers are pure white; the lip is not divided but is copiously fringed;
lateral sepals rounded, upper ones elliptical and concave; spur nearly an
inch long. Leaves lanceolate and gradually diminishing in size as they
alternate to the top of the stem. In July and August you may find this
species flowering throughout the United States.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Large Purple-fringed Orchis (_Habenaria fimbriata_) is the largest
and perhaps the most beautiful of the genus. The pale purple flowers are
nearly twice as large as those of the last species; the lip is more
deeply fringed. The densely flowered spike is about two inches in
diameter and often is twelve inches long. The leafy stem attains heights
of from 1 to 5 feet. It is a magnificent plant, the sight of which is
well worth the inconveniences necessary to visit its haunts. It grows in
swamps throughout the U. S. and southern Canada.

(B) Small Purple-fringed Orchis (_H. psycodes_) has pale purplish flowers
in a dense cylindrical spike terminating in a leafy stem, about 1 or 1½
feet tall. The spreading flower-tip is 3-parted and fringed; sepals
rounded, petals spatulate and slightly toothed. The leaves are lanceolate
and, like those of the fringed orchids, grow smaller as they approach the
top of the stem. Flowers in July and August in wet meadows or swamps,
from Newfoundland to Manitoba and southward.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Calopogon; Grass Pink (_Calopogon pulchellus_) is an exquisite orchid
with a loose raceme of four to twelve delicate pink flowers at the top of
a scrape ranging from 6 to 15 in. long. The flowers are apparently upside
down as the lip is at the top; it is narrow at the base but broadens into
a broad hooked tip, crested on the underside. A single grass-like leaf
sheathes the flower scape near its base, as it rises from the solid bulb.
It grows in deep swamps and bogs, from Newfoundland to Minn. and south to
the Gulf, flowering in June and July.

(B) Arethusa; Indian Pink (_Arethusa bulbosa_) has a solitary
magenta-pink blossom topping its slender scape that rises from 5 to 10
in. in height. The petals and sepals are similar in shape and in their
proper positions at the top of the flower; the lip rises, then abruptly
turns downward, broadens and is adorned with three to five yellow and
white crests; margin of lip wavy and sometimes spotted with crimson. From
Newfoundland to Minn. and south to Pa. and Mo., Arethusa has been found
blooming in swamps during May and June.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Pogonia; Snake-mouth (_Pogonia ophioglossoides_). Snake-mouth is
delicate, pure pink in color, and slightly fragrant. Its pollen is not in
stemmed masses but is showered on the back of a visiting insect as he
backs out of the flower. The stem is from 8 to 13 inches high, bearing at
its top a single flower; sepals and petals are similar in shape; the lip
is spatulate, prominently crested with yellow and white, and toothed and
lacerated. About midway of the flower stem is a single oval leaf and just
below the flower is a smaller bract-like one. Pogonia grows in swamps
from Newfoundland to Minn. and southward to the Gulf of Mexico, flowering
during June and July.

(B) Nodding Pogonia (_P. trianthophora_) has a leafy stem from 2 to 8
inches high. From two to eight small oval leaves alternately clasp the
stem; the flowers, which number from one to six, appear singly from the
axils of the upper leaves, nodding on slender peduncles; they are small,
magenta-pink, and with ovate, three-lobed lips. It is locally distributed
from Me. to Wisc. and southward.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Whorled Pogonia (_Pogonia verticillata_) has a single flower on a
long stem, 8 to 12 in. high; the sepals are greenish-yellow, long,
linear, with the edges rolled or folded together; the petals are
oblong-lanceolate and purple; the lip is also purple, wedge-shaped,
three-lobed and with a hairy crest, down the middle. Five lanceolate and
stemless leaves are in a whorl about the stem just below the flower. It
is a peculiar, inconspicuous plant found locally in moist woods from Me.
to Wisc. and southward.

(B) Showy Orchis (_Orchis spectabilis_) is a charming early-blooming
orchid found in flower from April to June in moist woods, often under
hemlock trees. Two broad, ovate, deeply ribbed, beautiful leaves sheath
the flower scape at its base. The four to twelve flowers are loosely
racemed at the top of the scape which is from 5 to 10 in. high. The
magenta-pink petals and sepals are united to form a hood; the lip,
curving abruptly downward, is broadly ovate and white; each flower has a
short spur and is bracted. This species is found throughout the U.S.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Rattlesnake Plantain (_Epipactis pubescens_) is a common orchid
having beautiful leaves, radiating from the fleshy, creeping rootstalk.
The scape is 6 to 15 in. high and carries at its top densely flowered
sepals and petals united to form a hood. It is found in the whole of the
U. S., flowering in July and August.

(B) Ladies Tresses (_Spiranthes cernua_) is so named because of the
braided arrangement of its flowers. The leaves are few, grass-like,
sheathing the scape near its base. The scape is 6 to 15 in. high, has
several small bracts, and ends in a 2- or 3-ranked spiral raceme of white
or creamy flowers; petals and upper sepal joined, lateral sepals
lanceolate; lip ovate-oblong with a rough tip. Common in moist fields or
woods from Me. to Minn. and southward.

Slender Ladies Tresses (_S. gracilis_) is slender, has its flowers in a
single-ranked 1-sided or slightly twisted raceme; lip green, with a white
wrinkled margin. Leaves small, ovate basal. Found in dry ground from N.
S. to Manitoba and southward.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Heart-leaved Twayblade (_Listera cordata_) belongs to a genus
containing five species.

Like most of the orchids, they are largely or wholly dependent upon
insect aid for fertilization. The weight or shock of an alighting insect
on the broad lip causes a small gland within the flower to rupture and
cover the pollen, just below, with a sticky fluid that causes it to
adhere to the head or body of the insect and thus be transferred to the
next flower.

The stem of this species is from 3 to 10 in. high. At the top is a
few-flowered raceme; the sepals and petals are similar and spreading; the
lip is drooping, longer, two-cleft and madder-purple in color. This
species flowers during June and July in swampy woods from N. J. to Colo.
and northward to the Arctic coast.

(B) Twayblade (_Liparis lilifolia_) although having the same common name,
is of a different genus. It is a more attractive plant, having two broad
basal leaves and larger flowers with a broad ovate lip. It grows in
woodland from Me. to Minn. and southward.

[Illustration: ]


                            BIRTHWORT FAMILY
                          (_Aristolochiaceæ_)

A small family of low herbs or twining vines, with but two genera and few
species.

Wild Ginger (_Asarum canadense_) may be found flowering in rich woods
during April and May, from Me. to Mich. and southward. It has two large,
heart-shaped leaves on long petioles from the base; deep green above and
lighter below, soft, wooly, and handsomely veined.

The leaves are very beautiful, but it is the solitary flower that makes
this plant so interesting. Small, dully colored, on a weak, short stem
that barely raises it above ground and often leaves it concealed by the
dead leaves that carpet the woods in early spring.

The flower is bell-shaped, with three short, sharply-pointed spreading
lobes; six stamens with short anthers and a thick style with six
radiating stigmas. Another species (_grandiflorum_), found in Va. and N.
C., has but one leaf and flowers twice as large, or two inches in length.

[Illustration: ]

Pipe Vine; Dutchman’s Pipe (_Aristolochia macrophylla_). The Dutchman’s
Pipe is chiefly a southern plant or vine, being found from Pa. and Minn.
southward. It has a woody, climbing stem that may attain lengths of from
10 to 40 feet. The very large, deep-green, veiny leaves that alternate
along the stem are very beautiful. In the dull, greenish-yellow flowers,
however, lies the chief interest of the botanist. Its stigma matures and
withers away before the ripening of the pollen, thus making the plant
dependent upon insects for its perpetuation.

The throat is filled with tiny hairs, all pointing inward, so ingress is
easy but egress impossible. Entering insects are held prisoners, living
upon the nectar, until the stigma withers and pollen ripens; after this
the hairs in the throat lose their rigidity and the pollen-dusted and
well-fed prisoners are allowed to escape. Their memories are poor or the
pollen feast is well worth the imprisonment, for they usually immediately
hie to another blossom and force their way in, of course pollenizing the
flower in so doing.

[Illustration: ]


                            BUCKWHEAT FAMILY
                            (_Polygonaceæ_)

This family is divided into seven genera and many of these are further
divided. They are all inconspicuous in flower. The genus Rumex, to which
our common Sorrels belong, contain seventeen species: that of Polygonum,
which contains the Knot-weeds, has 32 species included in its six
sub-genera.

(A) Lady’s Thumb; Persicaria; Knotgrass (_Polygonum persicaria_)
(European). This is a very common weed everywhere in damp places,
especially about farmhouses. The small, crimson-pink flowers are in dense
spikes terminating the branching stems that are from 1 to 3 feet high.
The lanceolate pointed leaves, that alternate along the angled and
sheathed stem, are rather rough and usually have a dark triangular spot
in the middle.

(B) Common Smartweed; Water Pepper (_P. hydropiper_) has similar shaped
flowers of a greenish color. The leaves are lanceolate and very acrid. It
is very abundant in wet places throughout our range.

[Illustration: ]


                              PINK FAMILY
                           (_Caryophyllaceæ_)

(A) Common Chickweed (_Stellaria media_) (European). Although this is an
introduced weed, so hardy and prolific is it that probably it now exceeds
in numbers any of our indigenous plants. It grows profusely about
dooryards and along roadsides everywhere. The corolla consists of five
white, very deeply cleft petals, and the calyx of the same number of
larger and longer green sepals. The leaves are ovate, small, opposite, on
small stems about the length of the leaves. The plant stem is either
simple or branched and ranges from 2 to 10 in. in height.

(B) Long-leaved Stitchwort (_S. longifolia_) has larger flowers than the
last, but the petals are very narrow and so deeply cleft as to appear to
be ten in number instead of five. The sepals are nearly but not quite as
long as the petals. The stem is weak and usually supported by surrounding
grasses or vegetation. The leaves are small, linear, and pointed at both
ends. Common everywhere in wet places.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Corn Cockle (_Agrostemma githago_) (European). The Corn Cockle is
very closely related to the Campions (genus Lychnis). It is an annual
with an erect and rather downy stem; it branches but slightly, each
branch being terminated by one or two large handsome magenta flowers with
an expanse of one to two inches. The calyx is densely hairy, as are also
the lanceolate leaves that grow oppositely on the stem. We find it as an
escape from gardens or in waste places near grain fields.

(B) Ragged Robin (_Lychnis Flos-cuculi_) (European). This species, which
is also known as Meadow Lychnis, is noteworthy because of the slashed
appearance of its five crimson petals. The flower calyx is deeply ribbed
and is of a brownish-purple color, as is also the upper part of the
flower stem; both are sticky and hairy. It is sometimes found in waste
land or moist places where it has escaped from cultivation.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Bladder Campion (_Silene latifolia_) (European). We have several
Campions, some natives and some introduced. The present species was
brought to us from Europe. It has very unusual blossoms, in that the
calyx is very inflated, almost globular and handsomely marked with darker
green, so as to often give it a very similar appearance to that of the
citron melon. The five white petals are cleft in twain for nearly their
whole length.

It is a common escape from gardens and may be found blooming from June to
August along roads or in dry waste places from Quebec to Minn. and south
to Va. and Mo.

(B) Evening Lychnis; White Campion (_Lychnis alba_) (European). This is
another attractive species introduced from Europe. The petals are white,
deeply cleft, and crowned at the base with little petal-like divisions;
the calyx is inflated and often deep pink on the ribs. The leaves are
smooth edged and oppositely on the stem that grows from one to two feet
high. Escaped from gardens, from Me. to N. J. and west to Ohio.

[Illustration: ]

Bouncing Bet (_Saponaria officinalis_) (European). This is probably the
most hardy and the most widely distributed of our adventive members of
the Pink family. It increases very rapidly by means of underground
runners as well as by seed. It is very commonly known as “Soapwort,”
because of the fact that the mucilaginous juice from the crushed leaves
will form a lather if they are shaken in water; it is said that it was,
in olden days, used for washing purposes.

The plant stem is quite stout, smooth, erect, and sparingly or not at all
branched. At the top is a corymbed or flat-topped cluster containing many
flowers; petals, notched or sometimes quite deeply cleft, and with an
appendage at the top of the long claws that, bent at right angles, enter
the long, tubular, veined, greenish, 5-notched calyx.

From July until September Soapwort blooms profusely in waste places along
railroad beds and beside dusty roads where few other flowers are able to
flourish. It was one of the first of foreign flowers to be introduced
into this country.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Maiden Pink (_Dianthus deltoides_) (European). A handsome
rose-colored Pink that has become naturalized along the Atlantic Coast
and is quite abundant in some localities, in fields and waste places. The
flowers grow singly, or in pairs, at the ends of the branching stem; the
petals are broad, wedge-shaped, and finely toothed.

(B) Fire Pink; Catchfly (_Silene virginica_) is one of our most
brilliantly colored wild flowers, the petals being either deep crimson or
scarlet; the five petals are oblong, 2-cleft, long-limbed, and five in
number. The lower leaves are thin and spatulate, the upper ones
oblong-lanceolate. Both stem, leaves, and calyx are rather hairy. This
species is found in open woods from southern N. J., western N. Y., and
Mich. southward.

Wild Pink (_Silene pennsylvanica_) is another beautiful native species,
with bright pink flowers and a low, sticky stem; the upper leaves are
small, and the numerous basal ones lance-shaped. It is rather common from
Me. to N. Y. and southward.

[Illustration: ]


                            PURSLANE FAMILY
                            (_Portulacaceæ_)

(A) Spring Beauty (_Claytonia virginica_), although very delicate in
appearance, is among our earliest flowering plants.

The weak stem is usually very crooked and is often prostrate on the
ground; two linear-lanceolate leaves clasp it oppositely about halfway
up. The opened flowers, somewhat less than an inch across, have five
petals, two sepals, and five golden stamens that mature before the
stigma. It is found in moist woods from Me. to Mich. and south to the
Gulf.

(B) Purslane (_Portulaca oleracea_) (European) has a prostrate, juicy
stem and thick, fleshy leaves; the latter are wedge-shaped with rounded
ends. The stem is very branching and spreads or radiates from the root.
The flowers are tiny, solitary, and yellowish, seated in the whorls of
leaves that terminate the branches. Found in waste places anywhere and
possibly indigenous in the Southwest.

[Illustration: ]


                           WATER LILY FAMILY
                             (_Nymphæceæ_)

(A) Cow Lily; Yellow Pond Lily (_Nymphæa advena_) is not unattractive and
is interesting in its makeup. The leaves are thick, rough, ovate, slit or
lobed to the stem, which is long and hollow. The flower is raised above
the surface of the water on a long, hollow stem. What appear to be six
large green and yellow petals are in reality sepals; the real petals are
numerous, stamen-like, inserted with the very numerous stamens under the
golden-yellow rayed disk that forms the stigma. Very common in still or
stagnant water.

(B) Water Lily; Water Nymph (_Castalia odorata_) needs no introduction to
our readers. To my mind, it leads all other flowers in beauty, grace,
purity, and fragrance. It is composed of four sepals, greenish on the
outside and whitish within, and numerous pure, waxy-white petals. They
sometimes are gigantic in size, often spreading five or six inches
across. It flowers from June to Sept. in ponds or slow-moving water.

[Illustration: ]


                           RANUNCULUS FAMILY
                            (_Ranunculaceæ_)

(A) Water Plantain (_Ranunculus laxicaulis_) is a rather common
marsh-inhabiting Buttercup, with five to seven narrow yellow petals. The
stem is stout but rather weak and angled, at each joint sending out a
clasping lanceolate, almost toothless leaf. The flowers, which are about
¾ in. broad, are on long peduncles terminating the branching stem that
rises from 1 to 2½ feet. It is found in bogs, ditches, and muddy places
from Me. to Minn. and south to the Gulf.

(B) Marsh Marigold (_Caltha palustris_) is the very common marsh herb
usually, but erroneously, called “Cowslip.” Its leaves are very commonly
used and marketed for food. The flowers are perfect, have no petals but
from five to nine (usually the former) golden-yellow, shining sepals, and
numerous brighter stamens. The stems are hollow and furrowed. The leaves
are round, kidney-shaped, usually with scalloped edges. Marsh Marigold is
abundant in swamps or wet meadows from Newfoundland to Alaska and
southward through the United States, flowering in April and May.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Creeping Buttercup (_Ranunculus repens_) is, as per its name, a
creeping plant. The stem is prostrate, creeping along the ground and
striking new roots from the junctions of the leaf and flower stems with
the main one. The flowers are large and broad-petalled, both the petals
and stamens being a deep shining golden yellow. This species is
indigenous in the West, but probably introduced from Europe in the East,
where it is found chiefly near the coast, in ditches or along the edges
of marshes.

(B) Common Buttercup; Crowfoot (_R. acris_) (European). Even though we
have quantities of native Buttercups, it is this handsome foreigner that
is the most abundant; this is the species that is found in fields
everywhere, the one that delights the little folks and figures in many of
their childish games.

The leaves and stem of the Crowfoots are very acrid, but not poisonous;
on this account they are shunned by cattle and horses. This accounts in
part for their abundance in most fields and pastures.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Tall Meadow Rue (_Thalictrum polygamum_) is one of the characteristic
plants of swamps and edges of streams. Should its neighboring plants be
three or four feet high, we find the plume-like flowers of this species
triumphantly waving above them on stems of five, six, or even seven feet
tall.

The stalk is rather stout and grooved, pale-green, stained with maroon.
The long-stemmed leaves are many times compounded into small, lobed
leaflets of a pale, dull, blue-green color. The flowers are in feathery
clusters; each individual flower having numerous white filaments, no
petals, but usually four or five early-falling sepals.

From June to September we may find the mist-like flowers of Meadow Rue in
swamps, from Labrador to Manitoba and south through the United States.

(B) Pasque Flower (_Anemone patens_) has a solitary erect flower with
five to seven purplish sepals. Leaves divided and cut into narrow, acute
lobes. Both stem and leaves covered with silky hairs. This species is
found on prairies from Wis. and Montana southward.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Wood Anemone; Wind Flower (_Anemone quinquefolia_). The stem is
slender and from 4 to 8 in. high. Three leaves radiate from a point about
two thirds up; each on a long stem and divided into three to five,
toothed, ovate leaflets, The solitary flower rises on a slender peduncle
from the junction of these three leaves with the stem proper. It has four
to seven sepals, most often five; white inside and purplish white on
their outer surface. The flower has an expanse of slightly less than one
inch, but is rarely seen fully expanded. The Wind Flower is common in
woods or thickets from Nova Scotia to the Rockies and southward.

(B) Rue Anemone (_Anemonella thalictroides_) has four to nine sepals
(usually six), numerous orange-tipped stamens and a broad stigma. There
are several flowers on exceedingly slender peduncles, rising from the
whorl of leaves. The latter are on slender stems, have heart-shaped bases
and three-lobed ends; rather small, pale-green above and with a whitish
bloom below. It is found in the same localities and the same range as the
last species, with which it associates.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Purple Virgin’s Bower (_Clematis verticillaris_) is probably the most
rare species of Clematis. It grows in rocky, hilly, or mountainous woods,
most abundantly in northern portions of its range, which is from Quebec
to Hudson Bay and south locally to Del. and Pa. It is a climbing woody
vine, supporting itself by the bending or clasping of the leaf stalks.
The flowers grow singly, on long stems from the axils of the leaves or
from the end of the vine. They are large and handsome, the four thin,
purple, pointed, translucent sepals spreading from two to four inches
when fully expanded. The leaves are divided into three leaflets, ovate,
pointed, with a heart-shaped base.

(B) Virgin’s Bower (_Clematis virginiana_) is a beautiful, graceful,
climbing, twining vine found throughout our range. The small
greenish-white flowers, with four or five petals, grow in clusters from
the leaf axils; staminate and pistillate ones are on separate plants. In
fall, the beautiful silky plumes of the seed pods gives this species the
name of “Old Man’s Beard.”

[Illustration: ]

(A) Wild Columbine (_Aquilegia canadensis_) is one of our typical, early
woodland plants, graceful in form and beautiful in flower. It grows in
rocky woodland throughout our range, flowering from April to June.

The stem is very slender, wiry, and graceful, quite branching, and
attaining heights of one to two feet. The flowers are heavy, which causes
them to nod from their slender, thread-like peduncles. A quantity of
nectar is secreted in the base of each red spur, serving to attract
butterflies, moths, and often the Ruby-throated Hummingbirds, for those
birds are very partial to red colors.

(B) Goldthread (_Coptis trifolia_) is a small woodland plant receiving
its name from the slender, thread-like, golden-yellow roots. These roots
are characteristic and readily identify the species. The leaves are
evergreen, deeply shining green in color, 3-parted and notched, on long
petioles from the root. The white flower has five or six early-falling
sepals; it is usually solitary on a scape from 3 to 6 in. high. Common in
rich woods throughout U. S. and Canada.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Monkshood; Aconite (_Aconitum uncinatum_) is an attractive wild
flower with a slender, rather weak stem often supporting itself against
other species. The flowers are quite large and handsome. The five sepals
are very unequal in size and shape; the upper one large and hood-like,
concealing two small petals within it. The leaves are firm, three- to
five-lobed and notched, on slender petioles. In rich, moist woods from
Pa. southward, flowering from June to September.

(B) Hepatica; Liverwort (_Hepatica triloba_). If we except the Skunk
Cabbage, the beautiful Hepatica is the first of our flowers to appear.
Its stems are thickly covered with fuzzy hairs; the three-lobed,
smooth-edged leaves are rather thick and coarse, lasting through the
winter but turning a ruddy color, while the new ones, that appear with
the buds, are light-green and radiate above the older prostrate ones. A
single blossom appears at the end of each long fuzzy scape; it is about
one inch broad, and has five to ten pale-purple or lilac sepals.

Hepaticas bloom from March to May in open woods from N. S. to Manitoba
and southward.

[Illustration: ]

Mandrake; May Apple (_Podophyllum peltatum_) belongs to the Barberry
Family (_Berberidaceæ_), a small family of shrubs or herbs, divided into
five genera of but one or two species each. The present species is quite
common in rich woods, or in shady moist ground, from western N. E. to
Minn. and southward flowering in May. The bare stalk rises to heights of
10 to 12 inches, then branches into two long-stemmed, light-green, large,
spreading leaves; the latter are five- to nine-parted, lobed, notched,
and unevenly balanced. From the forked joint of the leaves hangs a
solitary white flower on a short, slender, curving peduncle, this is very
delicate, nearly two inches across, and of six petals and twice as many
stamens.

The fruit is large and lemon-shaped, yellow in color, ripening in July.
It is the fruit that gives it the name of May Apple. While the leaves and
stem are poisonous, the fruit is not, but has a peculiar, acid, sickish
flavor.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Bloodroot (_Sanguinaria canadensis_). Closely following on the heels
of our handsome Hepatica we find the delicate flowered Bloodroot
unfurling its leaves and expanding its flowers in rich, rocky, open
woodland. The flowers are very delicate; the petals stay but two or three
days anyway, and a breath of wind may blow them off sooner.

After the flower is gone, the leaf develops rapidly and becomes very
large and imposing, with many divisions and lobes. The root is reddish
and is filled with a bloodlike juice, as is also the stem. Bloodroot is
common from N. S. to Minn. and southward. It flowers in April and May.

(B) Prickly Poppy (_Argemone mexicana_) is a handsome Mexican plant found
in the southwestern portions of the United States. It has a prickly stem
from one to two feet high. The stemless leaves have sharp lobes, also
armed with prickles. The flower is bright yellow, has four petals, and
numerous orange-tipped stamens. The flowers give no nectar but plenty of
pollen to the bees that visit them.

[Illustration: ]

Celandine (_Chelidonium majus_) (European) is abundant almost everywhere
in the eastern half of our country.

The stem is quite stout and very branching; at the end of each branch is
a loose cluster of buds on slender pedicels. These open one or two at a
time, so that the plant keeps in bloom for a long time; in fact, the
flowering season extends from early in May to the end of September. The
flowers are half an inch or more broad, with four golden-yellow petals, a
slender, pointed green pistil, and numerous yellow stamens. The seed-pod
is long and slender.

The thin, soft leaves are very handsomely divided into three-to
seven-lobed leaflets. Both stem and leaves have a bright yellow, very
acrid juice, that stains everything it comes in contact with. Celandine
is often known in Europe as “Swallow-wort” as it is supposed to commence
flowering with the coming of the swallows and to cease with their
departure. Its generic name also originated in this belief.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Dutchman’s Breeches (_Dicentra Cucullaria_). This peculiarly flowered
herb belongs to the Fumitory family, a family of delicate, smooth plants
with watery juices and compound, dissected leaves.

The flower stalk, proceeding from the root, attains heights of from 5 to
9 inches and bears a loose raceme of four to eight white, inverted
flowers; the four petals are united in pairs, two of them forming a large
double-spurred sac, and the other two very small petals forming a
protection for the stigma. The double sac is white, stained with yellow.
The leaves are on long petioles from the rootstalk; they are pale
sage-green in color, 3-parted and finely slashed. Dutchman’s Breeches may
be found blooming in April and May in rich, hilly woods from N.S. to
Minn. and south to N.C. and Mo.

(B) Squirrel Corn (_D. canadensis_) is similar, but the white, sac-like
petals are stained with purple, the spurs are shorter and rounder, and
the flower is slightly fragrant. The roots have little tuberous
appendages resembling grains of corn. This species is found in the same
range as the last.

[Illustration: ]


                             MUSTARD FAMILY
                             (_Cruciferæ_)

(A) Toothwort; Crinkleroot (_Dentaria diphylla_). During the latter part
of April or in May we will find white, crosslike flowers of Toothwort
often growing side by side with Anemones. Its stem is stout and smooth,
and rises to heights of 8 to 12 inches. Two 3-parted, notched-edged
leaves with short stems are set oppositely on the flowering stalk, above
the middle; other larger, similar ones are on long petioles from the
rootstalk. Its root is crinkled and with toothlike appendages. It is
found in rich woods from N. S. to Minn. and southward.

(B) Whitlow Grass (_Draba verna_) (European) is a weed that we find along
roadsides, waste places, or barren fields. The flowers are small, and the
four white petals are deeply notched. The scape is from 1 to 5 in. high.
The leaves are all basal, lance-shaped, and lobed or toothed.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Common Mustard (_Brassica nigra_) (European) is extensively
cultivated in Europe for the small dark-brown seeds that form a valuable
article of commerce, being used for the table condiment and for various
medicinal purposes.

In our country Mustard is regarded as a pest; it is a very strong, hardy
plant, soon overrunning sections where it gets a foothold. The stem is
very branching and grows to heights of from 2 to 7 feet. The
four-petalled, light-yellow flowers are in small dense clusters at the
ends of the branches; a trail of small, erect seedpods is left in the
wake of the flowers as they continue to bloom along the lengthening stem.
The leaves have a large, terminal notched lobe and smaller lateral ones.

(B) Hedge Mustard (_Sisymbrium officinale_) (European). This common weed
has tiny, four-petalled yellow flowers that bloom all summer, along the
lengthening stem, and leave numerous tiny pods closely set against the
stem. The leaves are more angular and more finely divided than those of
the Common Mustard.

[Illustration: ]


                          PITCHER PLANT FAMILY
                           (_Sarraceniaceæ_)

A small family of bog-inhabiting plants having hollow pitcher-formed or
trumpet-shaped leaves.

Pitcher Plant; Huntsman’s Cup (_Sarracenia purpurea_). Few plants are as
little known generally as this species. It is one of the most interesting
ones that we have. The shapes of both the leaves and blossoms are clearly
shown in the opposite picture. The pitchers, or basal leaves, may number
from three to a dozen, all radiating from the root and all with the
orifice up. An examination shows that each pitcher is partially filled
with water. Just below the rim of the leaf, on the inside, is a sticky
substance to attract insects; as these enter, they pass downward over
countless little hairs, all pointing downward. These make it very
difficult for insects to crawl out of the pitcher, and many of them
become exhausted and are drowned in the water. As these insects
decompose, they are absorbed by the plant.

The Pitcher Plant is local in bogs from Labrador to Manitoba and
southward.

[Illustration: ]


                             SUNDEW FAMILY
                             (_Droseraceæ_)

(A) Thread-leaved Sundew (_Drosera filiformis_) has long, linear
film-like, erect, very hairy leaves. The flowers are numerous and loosely
racemed at the top of a slender smooth scape; they have five small purple
petals, five stamens, and several 2-parted stigmas. This species is found
in wet sandy soil from New England to Delaware.

(B) Round-leaved Sundew (_Drosera rotundifolia_) is one of the most
common of the Sundews, it is found in moist, sandy, or peaty soil from
Labrador to Alaska and south to Pa. and Cal. The leaves are numerous,
quite round, and on long stems from the root. The leaves are thickly
covered with hairy glands that exude drops of a clear glutinous fluid.
These dew-like drops deceive insects into alighting on the leaves. Having
caught a victim, the leaf slowly folds about it and digests it.

The flower stalk of this species grows from 5 to 9 in. high, is reddish
colored, and often has one or two branches at the top. The one to
twenty-five flowers that it has during the flowering season are white.

[Illustration: ]


                            SAXIFRAGE FAMILY
                            (_Saxifragaceæ_)

(A) Grass of Parnassus (_Parnassia caroliniana_) is a pretty little swamp
or meadow plant growing from 8 to 24 inches high. The flowers are a
delicate creamy white, finely veined with greenish, and borne singly on
long scapes; a single heart-shaped leaf clasps each flower scape a short
distance above its base. The basal leaves are long-stemmed, rather thick
and coarse in texture, smooth-edged and bluntly pointed.

We find this species in bloom from the latter part of June until the end
of September, most abundantly in the latter month. It ranges from
Newfoundland to Manitoba, south to Va. and Mo.

(B) Early Saxifrage (_Saxifraga virginiensis_) is a tiny-flowered plant
that loves dry, sunny, rocky hillsides. It flowers during March and
April. The leaves are all basal; spatulate in shape, blunt ended, either
rough-edged or toothed, rather coarse in texture, narrowing toward their
base into clasping stems. Saxifrage is common from N. B. to Minn., south
to Ga. and Tenn.

[Illustration: ]

Mitrewort (_Mitella nuda_) has a few flowers, very short-stemmed, in a
loose raceme at the top of a leafless, slightly hairy scape 4 to 7 in.
high. The flowers have five petals, each with the edge beautifully
fringed so as to give the flower a crystalline appearance almost like a
snowflake. We find this species from Labrador to Saskatchewan, south to
Ct. and Mich.

(A) Two-leaved Mitrewort (_Mitella diphylla_) is a larger and sturdier
species with similar flowers, but with two very short-stemmed,
heart-shaped leaves clasping the flower stem oppositely about halfway up
its length. Found in rich woods from N. E. to Minn., south to N. C. and
Mo.

(B) Foam Flower; False Mitrewort (_Tiarella cordifolia_) has the general
appearance of the last species. The slender, hairy flower scape, rising 6
to 12 in. from the rootstalk, has at the top a loose panicle of many
small flowers, each on a long, slender stem, thus differing from the
short-stemmed flowers of Mitella. Foam Flower is common from N. S. to
Minn. southward, flowering in May and June.

[Illustration: ]


                              ROSE FAMILY
                              (_Rosaceæ_)

(A) Meadowsweet (_Spiræa salicifolia_) is a common and beautiful shrub
that grows along the edges of woods, swamps, or even roadsides. Its
handsome pyramidal clusters of flowers are in evidence during July and
August. The stem is straight, slender, woody, and yellowish buff; along
it, at close intervals, alternate the lanceolate, toothed, short-stemmed
leaves. At the top is a spire-like panicle of fleecy flower clusters.
Each flower has five round, white petals and numerous long, pink stamens
that give the flowers a feathery appearance and a rosy tint. It ranges
from N. Y. to Mo. and southward.

(B) Hardhack; Steeplebush (_Spiræa tomentosa_) is one of our most
beautiful flowering shrubs. The flower spike is more slender and
steeple-like than that of Meadowsweet, and the flowers are a beautiful
shade of pink. The leaves are more closely alternated and are dark green
above and lighter below. Steeplebush grows in low ground from N. B. to
Minn. and southward.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Wild Strawberry (_Fragraria virginiana_). The hairy stems of both
leaves and flowers rise directly from the running rootstalk. The flowers,
several of which grow on each stem, are wheel-shaped, have five rounded
white petals, and narrow lanceolate greenish sepals. After the flowering
season, the green center expands, becomes pulpy, and finally turns red on
the outer surface; the numerous seeds are in little pits provided for
them on the surface of the berry.

The Wild Strawberry is common in fields and pastures throughout our
range.

(B) High Bush Blackberry (_Rubus allegheniensis_) is a tall branching
shrub with slender brown stems, from three to ten feet long, armed with
stout, slightly recurved prickles. It is from this species that the
well-known variety was developed. The leaves are divided into three to
five ovate, pointed, toothed leaflets, with a ribbed and hairy surface.
The flowers have five green sepals alternating with the narrow white
petals. This species is very common everywhere.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Common Cinquefoil; Five-finger (_Potentilla canadensis_). This
species is the most common of the Five-fingers. It is often mistaken for
the Wild Strawberry, because of a similarity between the leaves of the
two species, although those of this species have five divisions while
those of the Strawberry have but three. The flowers are shaped like those
of the Strawberry, but have bright-yellow petals. It is very common in
the United States and southern Canada.

(B) Silvery Cinquefoil (_Potentilla argentea_) is a common and very
handsome species found in dry, barren ground throughout our range, but
most abundantly near the coast. It is smaller than the preceding, being
from 5 to 12 in. high. The little yellow flowers are clustered at the
ends of the branches. The stems and the undersides of the divided and
deeply cut leaves are covered with fine, white, silvery wool, contrasting
sharply with the dark green of the upper surfaces. This species bloom
from May until September.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Agrimony (_Agrimonia gryposepala_) is a common weed found on the
borders of swamps or thickets. It has a tall, hairy, simple stem from two
to four feet high.

The flowers are in a long, many-flowered spike at the top of the stalk.
Each flower is tiny, has five yellow petals, and numerous orange stamens,
giving the spike a bright, golden-yellow appearance. It is a common plant
from N. B. to N. C. and westward to Cal.

(B) Marsh Five-finger; Purple Cinquefoil (_Potentilla palustris_) is in
character quite like the foregoing species. It is the only one, however,
having purple flowers, and is easily recognized on that account. The
flowers are nearly an inch broad, larger than those of the other
Cinquefoils.

The stem grows from 6 to 20 inches long and is rather woody at the base.
Purple Cinquefoil grows in swamps or cool bogs, from Labrador to Alaska
and south to N. J., Pa., Ia., and Cal., flowering during July and August.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Creeping Dalibarda (_Dalibarda repens_) is a delicate woodland plant,
found from N. B. to Manitoba and south to N. J., Ohio, and Mich. It has
creeping, densely tufted rootstalks, from which spring numerous
heart-shaped leaves on long petioles; these leaves, their stems, and the
flower stalks are downy, the former being scallop-edged or toothed.

Dalibarda has two kinds of flowers: The first on long, upright scapes
spread about half an inch, have five oval white petals and many stamens.
The second are cleistogamous ones (fertilized in the bud) on short
curving peduncles from the root. These last flowers are fertile, while
many of those with petals are not. Dalibarda blooms from June to
September in rich woods.

(B) Yellow Avens (_Geum strictum_) grows in moist locations in swamps or
thickets. The texture of the whole plant, leaves and stems, is rough and
coarse. The root leaves are interruptedly pinnate, the segments being
wedge-shaped and toothed. The flowers have quite large golden-yellow
petals and a downy receptacle. This species is common from Newfoundland
to Manitoba and south to N. C. and Mo.

[Illustration: ]

Swamp Rose (_Rosa carolina_). Wild Roses are very common throughout our
range and, of course, are familiar to every one. The Swamp Rose is a very
bushy species, growing from one to nine feet high. It is very common on
the edges of swamps or streams, and in low ground, throughout our range.

The flowers are two or three inches broad and have numerous yellow
stamens radiating from the greenish-white centre. The stem of the Swamp
Rose is sparingly armed with stout, wide-based, curved thorns.

Pasture Rose (_Rosa humulis_) is the most abundant of all our Wild Roses
and grows in profusion in all dry, rocky places. It does not grow as high
as the Swamp Rose, rarely exceeding three feet in height, but the slender
stems are more branching and often grow in large, tangled masses. The
flowers are about the same size as those of the Swamp Rose, but are
usually solitary at the ends of the branches.

The stem is armed with straight, slender, light brown thorns or prickles,
two of which are set oppositely on the stem at its junctions with the
leaf stems.

[Illustration: ]

Sweetbrier; Eglantine (_Rosa rubiginosa_) is a very beautiful species of
Wild Rose introduced from Europe. We may find it blooming quite commonly
in dry, rocky pastures and waste places during June and July. It is
remarkable for and easily identified by the sweet-scented aromatic
fragrance of its leaves. The stems are long and arching, growing from 2
to 6 feet in height; they are brown and are armed at frequent intervals
with short, decidedly recurved thorns or prickles.

At regular intervals along the stem are close-set, compact clusters of
flowers and leaves. The leaves are made up of five or seven very small
leaflets, rounded-ovate in form and with the edge finely double-toothed,
and covered beneath with fine, sticky, glandular hairs. The flowers are
also quite small, especially when compared to the very common Pasture and
Swamp Roses, being only from 1 to 2 inches in diameter. Eglantine is
found from Nova Scotia to Michigan and southward to Virginia and Tenn.

[Illustration: ]


                              PULSE FAMILY
                             (_Leguminosæ_)

(A) Wild or Blue Lupine (_Lupinus perennis_) receives its generic name
from the Latin of wolf, because it was thought that the species preyed
upon the soil and made it infertile for other kinds of plants. It is a
very common species in sandy places and we often see it on the banks
along railroads. The stem is quite stout, erect, hairy, and branching.
The leaves have long, slender stems; the leaf, proper, is palmately
divided into seven to eleven narrow, smooth-edged leaflets.

The flowers are in long, showy, terminal spikes of pea-like blossoms.
Lupine is very common through the United States, east of the Rocky
Mountains.

(B) Blue False Indigo (_Baptisia australis_) is a tall branching species
with a stem from 3 to 6 feet in height. The leaves are divided into three
spatulate-shaped leaflets. The violet-blue flowers grow in long loose
spikes; they are about one inch long, have a four- or five-toothed calyx,
straight keel and wings, and short standard. The seed-pod has a spur at
its tip. This species is common from Pa. to Ga. and west to Mo.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Wild Indigo (_Baptisia tinctoria_) is a very branchy and very bushy
herb. The stem divides soon after it leaves the ground, the slender
branchlets extending equally in all directions. The leaves are
three-parted, wedge-shaped, dull green with a white bloom that gives them
a bluish-green appearance. The yellow, butterfly-shaped flowers are in
loose clusters at the ends of all the branches.

The roots of Wild Indigo are used by drug concerns for the compounding of
a number of medicines. An indigo dye, of a poor quality, can also be made
from the plant. Wild Indigo grows in dry, sandy soil from Maine to
Minnesota, flowering from June to September.

(B) Rattlebox (_Crotolaria sagittalis_) receives its name because the
seeds rattle about in the large, inflated, blackish seed-pod. It is an
annual herb, with a hairy-bending stem and stemless, toothless,
pointed-oval leaves alternating along it. The yellow, pea-like flowers
are in small clusters at the ends of the branches. It is found in sandy
soil, chiefly along the coast, from Mass. to Fla. and Texas and, in the
Mississippi basin, to Indiana and South Dakota.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Goats Rue; Cat Gut (_Tephrosia virginiana_). We find this herb in
most all dry, sandy, waste places from N. H. to Minn. and southward.

It is a pea-like plant with a simple, silky-haired, erect stem, leafy to
the top where it terminates in a dense raceme or panicle of
yellowish-white flowers marked with purple. The flowers are large and
numerous; they have a rounded standard but little longer than the wings
and keel. Its roots are long, very slender, and very tough.

(B) Partridge Pea (_Cassia Chamæcrista_) is a handsome species with
large, showy yellow flowers measuring about 1¼ inches across; often the
five, large, rounded petals have purplish spots at their bases; after
flowering long, erect seed-pods are left in the place of each of the
blossoms.

The leaves of the Partridge Pea are long and compounded of 20-30 small,
blunt, lance-shaped leaflets, each with a tiny awl-like point. The stem
is erect, rather smooth, and grows one or two feet tall. We find this
plant in dry or sandy fields throughout the United States.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Rabbit-foot Clover; Stone Clover (_Trifolium arvense_) (European).
The stalk of this species is soft, silky, and from 4 to 10 inches high.
The light-green leaves have three leaflets with blunt tips. The
flower-heads are composed of numerous florets; it is the long, pink,
feathery tips of the five-parted calyx that gives the blossom its silky
fuzziness; it is quite fragrant and is visited by the smallest
butterflies. You may find this species everywhere within our range.

(B) Red Clover (_Trifolium pratense_) is the most common and the most
valuable species of clover. One would hardly believe, knowing how
abundant it is in all parts of our range, that this Clover could have
been introduced and have become so widely distributed, yet such is the
case. One reason that it does so well in this country is that we have a
very large number of bumblebees, and it has been found that clover is so
dependent upon these insects for fertilization, that, without them, it
will soon die out.

The little florets, composing the globular flower-head, are bright
crimson-pink. The three leaflets that make up each leaf have
whitish-green triangles in the middle.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Alsike or Alsatian Clover (_Trifolium hybridum_) (European) is quite
similar to our native White Clover, but the stem is stout, branching, and
juicy. The trifoliate leaves of this species are unmarked and have a
simple, rounded end, not notched, but the edge of the leaf is very finely
toothed. The florets composing the round flower-heads are cream-colored,
tinged with pink; they are very fragrant and laden with nectar.

(B) White Clover (_Trifolium repens_) is the most common of the White
Clovers. It is supposed to be indigenous in the northern parts of our
range. It is highly prized as forage for cattle and is often cultivated
in fields for that purpose. It is also a favorite with keepers of bees.

Its stems are smooth, reclining, and 4 to 10 inches long. The leaves are
composed of three leaflets, heart-shaped or notched at the ends, and
usually with a more or less distinct triangular mark in the middle. The
flowers are creamy white, slightly pinkish, and very fragrant.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Yellow Clover; Hop Clover (_Trifolium agrarium_) (European). This
Clover is very common in the eastern half of the United States and
southern Canada; we find it growing most abundantly along roadsides and
in dry or sandy fields.

The stem is quite smooth, slender, erect, and slightly branching and
grows from 6 to 15 inches high.

The flower-head is oblong, densely crowded with small, golden-yellow
florets, having an alternate scaly arrangement. They bloom from the
bottom of the head upward, and, as they mature, turn yellowish-brown and
are reflexed, resembling dried hops. Its flowering season is from June
until September.

(B) Yellow Melilot; Yellow Sweet Clover (_Melilotus officinalis_)
(European) is a common, weed-like plant, found everywhere in waste
places. The stem is tall and branching, growing from 2 to 4 feet high.
The leaves are trifoliate, each leaflet being finely toothed and the
middle one having a short stem with a double bend. The yellow,
clover-like florets are in long, loose racemes, terminating the branches;
they have a sweet fragrance.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Alfalfa; Lucerne (_Medicago sativa_) (European) is found growing wild
in waste places or fields most anywhere in our range. It makes an
excellent fodder for cattle and will grow in waste, sandy places where it
is impossible to raise crops of hay.

The stalk is smooth, slender, branching, and erect; it grows from 1 to 2
feet high. The leaves are three-parted, on long, slender stems with
narrow stipules at their base. The purple flowers grow in short, loose
racemes at the ends of the slender branches; the seed-pod is curiously
twisted or coiled.

(B) Cow Vetch; Blue Vetch (_Vicia Cracca_) is a trailing herb with a
weak, angled stem; it is common on the borders of thickets or the edges
of cultivated fields. The stem grows from 2 to 3 feet long and climbs
over grasses or low brush by means of small, slender tendrils at the ends
of the leaves.

The compound leaves are made up of twenty to thirty small, oval leaflets,
each tipped with a tiny sharp-pointed bristle. The light violet-colored,
bean-like flowers grow in one-sided racemes.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Ground Nut; Wild Bean (_Apios tuberosa_) is an exceedingly beautiful
climbing vine, attaining lengths of 4 or 5 feet, crawling over walls or
fences, or twisting itself about shrubs or other plants. Its pear-shaped,
tuberous root is edible, as every country boy knows.

The leaves of the Ground Nut are compounded of five, or sometimes seven,
ovate-pointed leaflets; they are toothless, smooth, and light green. The
flowers grow in dense, rounded clusters on slender stalks from between
the angles of the leaves and the plant stem, and are maroon or
lilac-brown. We find Ground Nut in bloom during August and September in
damp ground, usually on the borders of swamps or wet meadows, from N. B.
to Minn. and southward to the Gulf.

(B) Wild or Hog Peanut (_Amphicarpa monoica_)is a dainty, trailing vine 2
to 7 feet long. The delicate, light-green leaves are thrice compounded,
on slender stems from the angles of which are small, drooping clusters of
magenta-lilac blossoms. Other fruitful blossoms at the base of the plant
develop into pear-shaped pods with single large seeds.

[Illustration: ]


                              FLAX FAMILY
                              (_Linaceæ_)

(A) Common Flax (_Linum usutatissimum_) (European) This slender species
is more attractive than the last because of its larger flowers. The stem
is very slender, from one to two feet in height, and each of its few
branches is terminated with one or two delicate, violet-blue flowers;
these measure about three quarters of an inch broad, or slightly more.

This is the species that is cultivated very extensively in Europe, and
less so in this country, for its linen fibre and its seed oil, both of
which have a very extensive commercial use.

(B) Wild Yellow Flax (_Linum virginianum_) is a slender perennial species
with a smooth stem from 1 to 2 feet in height. The flowers have a calyx
divided into five sepals, a corolla of five petals, five stamens, and
pistils, perfect and symmetrical flowers fertilized by small bees and
bee-like flies. The small leaves are thin and have but one rib. This
species may be found in dry woodland from Me. to Minn. and southward.

[Illustration: ]


                           WOOD SORREL FAMILY
                             (_Oxalidaceæ_)

(A) White Wood Sorrel (_Oxalis Acetosella_) is one of the most delicate
and dainty of our woodland flowers. It is commonly found in cool, damp
situations and is very partial to mountainous regions. The flowers are
very frail looking, about an inch broad, borne on long, slender peduncles
from the root. The leaves are also on long, slender petioles from the
root; they are trifoliate or clover-like, each of the three leaflets
being inversely heart-shaped—that is, with the end notched and with two
rounded lobes. White Wood Sorrel is found from N. S. to Saskatchewan and
south to N. E., N. Y., and in mountains to N. C.

(B) Violet Wood Sorrel (_Oxalis violacea_). The long, slender flower
stalks bear at their summits three or more pale magenta flowers, similar,
except in color, but a trifle smaller than those of the white species.

The leaves of both these Sorrels are very sensitive and fold up if
handled; they also close at dusk and open in the morning.

[Illustration: ]

Yellow Wood Sorrel; Lady’s Sorrel (_Oxalis corniculata_) is not a
woodland plant but is very common along roadsides, in gardens, dooryards,
and fields. The pale-green, slender stem is quite erect, branches but
little, if at all, and grows from three to twelve inches tall. The leaves
are long-stemmed and trifoliate, the three leaflets being broadly
heart-shaped. They are very sensitive and close if roughly handled.

The leaves have very acid and sour juices, similar in taste to those of
the common Red Sorrel that, by the way, belong to an entirely different
family (Buckwheat). Country school children often chew the leaves of both
of these, as the sour taste has an agreeable twang.

The bright golden-yellow flowers are quite fragrant; they open only in
the sunshine and close tightly at night. They grow in few-flowered umbels
at the end of the stem on slender peduncles from the axils of some of the
leaves. After their flowering season little erect, pointed pods take the
place of the flowers. This species is a very common herb or weed
throughout our range.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Wild Geranium; Cranesbill (_Geranium masculatum_) is one of our most
common woodland plants, flowering from May to July. The stem, the leaves,
and the flower calyx are rough-hairy, the former being quite stout and
branching and attaining heights of 1 to 2 feet. The large magenta or
pale-purple flowers are in loose, few-flowered clusters at the ends of
the branches; the petals are large and rounded and slightly overlap.

The leaves of the Geranium are very coarse and fuzzy, and the surface is
often spotted with white or brown; they are palmately divided into five
lobes, each of which is sharply toothed and pointed. It is very common
from Me. to Manitoba and southward.

(B) Herb Robert (_Geranium Robertianum_) is a smaller edition of the
last. Its flowers are similar, but smaller and coarser in texture. Its
leaves are smaller and usually more deeply cleft. The stem is usually
stained with red; both this and the leaves emit a strong odor when
bruised.

Herb Robert is common from Me. to Minn. and southward.

[Illustration: ]


                            MILKWORT FAMILY
                            (_Polygalaceæ_)

(A) Fringed Polygala (_Polygala paucifolia_) is a dainty and low
perennial, usually rising but four or five inches from the ground; the
stem bends sharply as it enters the soil and continues into a long,
slender rootstalk often a foot in length. Either one or two flowers are
at the summit of the stem; they are quite large, being nearly an inch in
length; the two lateral sepals are large and wing-shaped; the three
petals are joined together to form a tube, through which the yellow
stamens and pistil protrude. Polygala is common in damp, rich woods from
N. S. to Manitoba and southward to the Gulf, flowering during May and
June.

(B) Milkwort (_Polygala polygama_) is a slender-stemmed species from 5 to
15 inches high; the stem is closely crowded, alternately, with narrow,
oval, pointed, stemless leaves. The dull crimson flowers are borne in
long, slender racemes at the top of the stem. It is quite common
everywhere in dry, sandy soil.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Field or Purple Milkwort (_Polygala sanguinea_) is a sturdy little
pink-headed plant that grows in fields or meadows or along roadsides.

The flowers, proper, are concealed beneath the large, broad, scale-like,
crimson-pink sepals that tightly overlap each other and form the head;
these scale-like sepals correspond to the wings on the Fringed Polygala,
the true petals and minutely crested keel being shorter and not visible
from the outside. The small, stiff, acutely pointed leaves are densely
alternated on the stem up to the flower-head. The plant grows from 6 to
12 inches high, and abounds throughout the U. S.

(B) Cross-leaved Milkwort (_Polygala cruciata_) has spatulate-shaped
leaves arranged in fours around the stem—cross-like. The stem is quite
branchy, and grows from 4 to 14 inches high. At the end of each branch,
seated within the four terminating leaves, is a dainty little globular
pink flower-head.

We find this species around the edges of swamps or in rather moist
fields, from Me. to Minn. and southward to the Gulf of Mexico, flowering
from June until September.

[Illustration: ]


                             SPURGE FAMILY
                            (_Euphorbiaceæ_)

Snow-on-the-Mountain; White-edged Spurge (_Euphorbia marginata_) is a
large, bushy herb often cultivated because of its beautiful,
white-margined foliage. The stem is very stout and branchy, and grows
from 2 to 3 feet high. The leaves are dark green, large, ovate-pointed,
and seated on the stem; the lower ones are quite similar in shape to
those of the common Milkweed and are alternated on the stem; those near
the end of the branches are crowded, opposite, or whorled about the stem;
the terminal ones have the edges of the leaves more or less widely
margined with white.

The flowers are rather small, grouped in clusters in the centre of the
terminal cluster of margined leaves. The staminate and pistillate flowers
are on different plants. The involucre is five-parted and has five white
petals.

When broken both the leaves and stems exude quantities of a milky juice.
This species of Spurge grows in dry soil from Minn. and Ohio west to
Colorado, and is sometimes found in parts of the East.

[Illustration: ]


                           JEWEL-WEED FAMILY
                            (_Balsaminaceæ_)

Jewel-weed; Spotted Touch-me-not (_Impatiens biflora_) is a common
rank-growing herb with a stout but fragile branching stem. The large,
inflated flower-sac, which is really one of the three sepals, is
orange-yellow, spotted with brown. Two of these singular flowers droop
from the ends of each thread-like peduncle, but only one flowers at a
time.

The slim seed-pod is the cause of two very commonly applied
names—Touch-me-not and Snapweed. When nearly ripe these pods can scarcely
be touched but what they will suddenly, almost explosively, burst and
scatter their seeds in all directions. One not acquainted with their ways
is always startled when he accidentally brushes against the mature
Touch-me-not.

The leaves are very delicate in appearance, and their light, slender
stems are almost translucent; they are ovate, round-toothed, dull-green
above, and whitish-green below. Common in shady places throughout the
United States.

[Illustration: ]


                             MALLOW FAMILY
                              (_Malvaceæ_)

Common Mallow; Cheeses (_Malva rotundifolia_) (European) is a very common
weed about dooryards, especially in the country, and along the edges of
cultivated fields. The long stalks spring from biennial roots and creep
over the ground, the branches being 6 to 24 inches in length. The
dark-green, round leaves are very handsome; they have a shallow-lobed and
very firmly toothed edge and are deeply, palmately ribbed. The leaves,
their stems and the plant stems are rather rough.

The small, widespread, bell-shaped flowers are clustered close to the
stalk on short stems from the axils of the leaves. The five petals have
notched tips, are white, delicately tinted with pink or pale magenta, and
have veinings of a deeper shade. The seed is hard, flat, and rounded,
composed of a dozen or more carpels; it is eaten by children with great
relish, these being the “cheeses” that give the species one of its common
names.

[Illustration: ]

(A) High Mallow (_Malva sylvestris_) (European) is a tall biennial with a
coarse branching stem, often attaining a height of 3 feet, or even more
on waste land. Both the stems and the leaves have a thick covering of
hair. The flowers grow in clusters of perhaps a half-dozen from the axils
of the leaves; they have five heart-shaped petals of a purplish color,
with two or three conspicuous veins of a darker shade.

The Mallows get their generic name of Malva, in allusion to the soothing
effect of the mucilaginous juices of the root and stem.

(B) Musk Mallow (_Malva moschata_) (European) is a similar species with
the leaves deeply and palmately slashed and toothed. Several hairy
branching stems proceed from the perennial root to heights of 1 or 2
feet. The flowers are peculiar in that the ends of each of the five
rose-colored petals are roughly notched, looking as though they had been
bitten off.

This species received its name from the fact that when the leaves are
crushed they give forth a slight odor of musk. It is quite abundant in
northern New England and southern Canada.

[Illustration: ]

Rose Mallow (_Hibiscus Moscheutos_) is a tall, leafy perennial, bearing
flowers that easily rank as being among the largest and most beautiful of
any of our wild flowers. The stem is quite stout and inclined to be
hairy. The large leaves are ovate-pointed and toothed; they are stemmed,
and alternate along the main plant stalk. The lower ones are often
three-lobed.

The flowers grow on short stems at the end of the upright stalk. But one
usually blooms at a time and there are not a great many buds; what they
lack in profusion of bloom this species fully makes up in size, for its
blossoms measure 4 to 6 inches across. The five large petals are a
delicate rose color, conspicuously veined, and often with crimson bases.
The long, slender pistil divides at the tip into five flat-headed
stigmas; for more than half its length it is encased in the long stamen
column, the sides of which are covered with yellow anthers.

The Rose Mallow grows in swamps and marshes near the coast, from Mass.
southward, and along the shores of the Great Lakes to Mich. It blooms
from July to September.

[Illustration: ]


                          ST. JOHNSWORT FAMILY
                            (_Hypericaceæ_)

Common St. Johnswort (_Hypericum perforatum_) (European) is a wanderer
from the Old World that, having reached our hospitable shores, proceeded
to multiply and overrun the native plants so that it is now regarded by
farmers as a pest along with the Wild Carrot and Mustard. If it is true
that in the struggle for existence the fittest survive, then surely this
species must be one of the fittest; we often see it growing lustily in
circumstances under which few plants could exist. It grows promiscuously
in fields or along roadsides. Even a generous sprinkling of tarvia,
received when the roads were sprinkled, failed to kill this plant,
although many other species died from the effects.

It has a slender but tough stem from 1 to 2 feet high; it has numerous
short branches, each crowded with tiny, stiff, oval leaves. The upper
branches terminate in clusters of five-parted, golden-yellow flowers with
numerous long yellow stamens. This species blooms from July until
September.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Marsh St. Johnswort (_Hypericum virginicum_). The stem is slender,
erect, and from 1 to 2 feet in height, growing from perennial running
rootstalks. The comparatively large leaves are light green with brownish
spots and a white bloom on the underside; they are closely set,
oppositely, on the stem.

The flowers are in small clusters terminating the branches; the five
petals are of a pinkish, flesh color and surround three groups of
golden-yellow stamens. Common in moist places.

(B) St. Johnswort (_Hypericum ellipticum_) has a simple usually
four-angled stem, sometimes with a single branch near the top. It grows
from 8 to 20 inches high and is quite leafy. The leaves are comparatively
large, about the same shape as those of Marsh St. Johnswort. At the top
are a few five-petalled flowers with bright golden-yellow stamens. The
ovoid pods succeeding the flowers are brownish. This species is found in
damp places or along streams from Me. to Minn. and south to Pa.

[Illustration: ]


                            ROCKROSE FAMILY
                              (_Cistaceæ_)

(A) Frostweed: Rockrose (_Helianthemum canadense_). This little perennial
is very remarkable and unique, because late in autumn crystals of ice
form about the cracked bark of the root. It is also remarkable for the
fact that it has two sets of flowers, the first ones in June and later
ones in July or August.

The leaves are small, oblong-lanceolate, hoary with white hairs on the
underside, alternating along the stem that rises from 10 to 18 inches
high. Both the early and late flowers are fertile. Frostweed grows in
sandy, dry soil from Me. to Minn. and southward.

(B) Hudsonia (_Hudsonia tomentosa_) is a low-branching, little shrub
rising only 5 or 10 inches above ground. Its branching stems are closely
crowded with tiny, scale-like oval leaves about one half inch long.

The small yellow flowers that are crowded along the ends of the branches
open only in sunshine; the five tiny yellow petals surround numerous
stamens and a long, slender style. Hudsonia is found on sandy shores from
N. B. to Va., and along the Great Lakes.

[Illustration: ]


                             VIOLET FAMILY
                              (_Violaceæ_)

(A) Bird-foot Violet (_Viola pedata_) is a well-known and very
characteristic Violet. The flowers of this species are the largest of the
blue Violets; they are blue-violet or purple-violet and have a bright
orange centre, formed by the large anthers.

The leaves grow on long petioles, in dense tufts, from the root; each
leaf is cut into five to eleven parts, all sharply pointed, and the
middle and lateral ones with their ends notched or cleft.

(B) Early Blue Violet; Palmated Violet (_Viola palmata_) has slightly
smaller blue flowers with bearded side petals.

The basal leaves are very variable in shape, ranging from heart-shaped
with rounded teeth and an unbroken edge to palmately cleft ones with five
or seven rounded lobes. Both of these Violets are common in dry ground,
the former in fields or the borders of swamps, and the latter usually in
thin woodland, from Me. to Minn. and southward.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Common Violet (_Viola cucullata_) is the commonest and best known of
all the Violets. It grows in low land everywhere—in woods, meadows,
marshes, or along roadsides. It is a very beautiful and variable species
both as to size and color of blossoms and to shape of the leaves.

The flowers are sometimes a deep purple and again may be a light blue, or
even nearly white. The two upper petals are usually darker near the
throat; the three lower ones shade to white at the throat, the side ones
being beautifully fringed or bearded. The leaves are usually
heart-shaped, round-toothed, and concave or furled; they are on long
stems from the base.

(B) Canada Violet (_Viola canadensis_) is the most common of the
leafy-stemmed blue Violets. You will notice that the preceding species
all had their leaves from the base, and the flowers nodding on slender
scapes, while this one has leaves growing on the slender stem and flowers
above them on peduncles, springing from the angles of the leaves. This
species is quite common in woods throughout the United States.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Sweet White Violet (_Viola blanda_) is the most fragrant of our wild
Violets, regardless of color. It is a most charming plant, but very
diminutive, in fact, it is probably the smallest of the entire family.
Occasionally we may find them in some exceptionally favorable locality
growing to a height of perhaps 6 inches, but the usual height will barely
exceed 2 inches. The plant is stemless, that is, the leaf stems and
flower stalks all spring directly from the root.

The leaves of the common White Violet are rounded heart-shaped with
slightly scalloped or round-toothed edges. It is very common in swamps
and moist woods throughout the United States and southern Canada.

(B) Lance-leaved Violet (_Viola lanceolata_) is a taller, more slender
species growing from 3 to 8 inches high. Its leaves are lance-shaped,
scallop-edged, and on long stems from the root. The white flowers are
only slightly fragrant; the three lower petals are strongly veined with
purple and the two side ones are rarely bearded. It is commonly found in
swamps and moist ground from N. S. to Minn. and southward, flowering from
April to June.

[Illustration: ]

Downy Yellow Violet (_Viola pubescens_) is a large, very handsome Violet
that prefers, for its habitat, dry, hilly woods, often by the side of
rushing brooks, but not usually where the soil is moist.

The Yellow Violet is one of the tallest members of the family, its stem
ranging from 6 to 18 inches in length. Both the stems and the leaves are
wooly-hairy. There are from two to four leaves growing from the stem near
its summit; they are heart-shaped, pointed, and either toothed or
scalloped. The flowers, rising on slender peduncles from the axils of the
leaves, are rather large and bright yellow; the two lateral petals are
heavily bearded and the lower one is handsomely veined with purple. These
beards compel visiting insects to brush against the stigma and then
against the anthers before reaching the nectar in the short spur.

Most of the Violets, during the summer, have apetalous or cleistogamous
flowers on short peduncles from the root; these never open, but are
fertilized in the bud. Common from N. S. to Manitoba and southward.

[Illustration: ]


                           LOOSESTRIFE FAMILY
                             (_Lythraceæ_)

Purple or Spiked Loosestrife (_Lythrum Salicaria_) (European).
Undoubtedly this species, which came to us from Europe, is the most
beautiful of the genus.

The plant grows from 2 to 4 feet high and branches toward the top. The
many purple flowers, making up the spike, each have six long petals and
are trimorphous, that is, flowers on the same plant, have, relatively,
three different lengths of stamens and pistils. Purple Loosestrife is
found locally in swamps and on marshy borders of streams from Me. to Del.
and westward.

Loosestrife (_Lythrum alatum_) is a tall, slender, native species growing
1 to 3 feet high, angular and branching. The deep-green, lance-shaped
leaves are set oppositely on the lower stem and alternately on the upper
branches. The flowers appear sparingly from the axils of the leaves near
the ends of the branches. This species grows in moist ground from N. S.
to Minn. and southward to the Gulf.

[Illustration: ]


                            MELASTOMA FAMILY
                            (_Melastomaceæ_)

Meadow Beauty (_Rhexia virginica_) is a pretty little plant that always
causes a thrill of admiration to pass through us as we come across it in
grassy marshes where other flowers are usually few and far between.

It has numerous buds, two or three of which, only, open at a time,
lasting but for a short space, the petals then falling off and the calyx
and long stamens becoming withered and brownish; these detract greatly
from an otherwise very beautiful plant.

Meadow Beauty or “Deer-grass” is a perennial, has a stout stem, quite
branching and sharp-pointed, ovate, toothed, three-ribbed leaves, seated
oppositely on the stem. The flowers grow on slender peduncles from the
angles of the upper leaves; they have four large, rounded, magenta
petals, each with a short, sharp point at the tip. The eight stamens are
long and slightly unequal, the anthers being exceptionally large and
bright golden-yellow. Meadow Beauty is found blooming during July and
August in sandy marshes and shores from Me. to Fla. and in the states
bordering the Mississippi.

[Illustration: ]


                        EVENING PRIMROSE FAMILY
                             (_Onagraceæ_)

A family of herbs or shrubs with perfect, usually four-parted flowers,
four petals, four sepals, four or eight stamens and a two- or four parted
stigma.

(A) Great Willow Herb; Fireweed (_Epilobium angustifolium_) springs up in
profusion and attains its greatest growth in clearings or recently burned
land.

The tall, upright stem is usually simple, but occasionally slightly
branched at the top. It attains heights of from 2 to 8 feet.

The flower spike is long; the flowers, blooming from the bottom upward,
leave upright, long, slender pods.

The Great Willow Herb is abundant throughout our range in low ground,
blooming during July and August.

(B) Hairy Willow Herb (_Epilobium hirsutum_) (European) has become
naturalized and is fairly common in waste places and about old dwellings.
It is branchy, hairy, has finely toothed, stemless leaves, and
four-parted magenta flowers growing from the angles of the upper leaves.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Evening Primrose (_Œnothera biennis_) is an exceedingly common
biennial plant, of nocturnal habits, the flowers spreading wide open at
dusk and partly or wholly closing the next morning.

The stem is soft-hairy, quite stout, and often very tall, ranging from 1
to 6 feet in height. Both the stem and the leaves are rather coarse in
texture. The flowers are seated in the angles of the upper leaves. The
four pale lemon-yellow petals are large and rounded, the flower spreading
slightly less than two inches.

The lower buds open first, only a few at a time, so that usually we may
find seed-pods seated among the leaves just below the flowers and
undeveloped buds and leaves above. Primrose blooms in fields and
roadsides, everywhere, from July to September.

(B) Sundrops (_Œnothera fruticosa_) a somewhat similar, diurnal species,
with a branched stem, grows 1 to 3 feet high. The pale-yellow flowers
measure from ½ to 1 inch across; they are in loose, terminal clusters or
from the angles of the upper leaves. The leaves are linear-lanceolate,
slightly toothed. Common from Me. to Minn. and southward.

[Illustration: ]


                             GINSENG FAMILY
                             (_Araliaceæ_)

Wild Sarsaparilla (_Aralia nudicaulis_) has a single, large, compound
leaf on a long stem from the creeping, fragrant, aromatic root. The
flowers are gathered into three, rounded umbels at the top of a long stem
that joins the leaf-stem near its base. Common in moist woodland from
Newfoundland to Minn. and southward.

Ginseng (_Panax quinquefolium_) is well known as the plant that is
collected and cultivated for its thick, fleshy, branching roots. The
plant grows from 8 to 18 inches high. Three compound leaves, each
consisting of five ovate-pointed, toothed, short-stemmed leaflets,
radiate from near the top of the smooth stem. It is found in rich, cold
woods from Quebec to Minn., southward.

Dwarf Ginseng (_Panax trifolium_) is a tiny species from 4 to 8 inches
high. It has a spherical root, slender stem, three leaves compounded of
three leaflets each, and numerous tiny white flowers in an umbel above
them. Common in rich woods from N. S. to Minn. and southward.

[Illustration: ]


                             PARSLEY FAMILY
                             (_Umbeliferæ_)

(A) Water Parsnip (_Sium circutæfolium_) is a stout, branching herb
growing in shallow water. The rather weak stem is from 2 to 6 feet high.
The alternating, compound leaves are very variable but usually of from
seven to fifteen sharply toothed linear or lance-shaped leaflets. Flat,
dome-shaped clusters, or umbels, of tiny white flowers terminate the
upper branches. This species is very abundant throughout the country.

(B) Wild Carrot; Bird’s Nest; Queen Anne’s Lace (_Daucus Carota_)
(European). While to flower lovers this may appear to be the most
beautiful species of the family, it is the most heartily detested weed
with which the farmer has to contend. It is very prolific, and each
individual plant strikes its roots deep into the ground, as though
determined to defy extermination. The fully-opened flower clusters have
an exquisite, lace-like appearance, while those half-opened are hollowed
suggestively like a bird’s nest; in the centre of the cluster is a tiny
purple floret, all the others being white.

[Illustration: ]


                             DOGWOOD FAMILY
                              (_Cornaceæ_)

(A) Flowering Dogwood (_Cornus florida_) is a tall shrub or tree, ranging
in height from 7 to 40 feet. The large, handsome flowers, 2 to 4 inches
across, are in full bloom before or just as the leaves commence to
appear.

The four large notched segments are not petals, but form the involucre
and the real flowers are clustered at the centre; they have four tiny
greenish-white petals and numerous little stamens. This Dogwood is common
in dry woods from Me. to Minn. and south to the Gulf.

(B) Bunchberry; Dwarf Cornel (_Cornus canadensis_) is really a dwarf as
compared to the preceding, for it grows only from 4 to 8 inches high.

The stem is leafless except at the top, at which point four to six leaves
radiate.

What appears like a single large blossom seated almost within the whorl
of leaves is in reality a cluster of tiny, green-petalled, four-parted
flowers surrounded by four large greenish-white bracts. It ranges from
Labrador to Alaska south to N. J., Ind., and Minn.

[Illustration: ]


                              HEATH FAMILY
                              (_Ericaceæ_)

(A) Spotted Wintergreen (_Chimaphila maculata_) is a very handsome plant
that we often come across in our rambles through rich woodland. The
stalk, rising from 3 to 9 inches high, is of a ruddy color; the leaves
are thick, smooth, irregularly toothed, lance-shaped, pointed, and with
conspicuous whitish streaks following the veins. In July and August it
bears one to five nodding flowers on long, erect peduncles above the
topmost whorl of leaves. It ranges from Me., Ontario, and Minn. southward
to Ga. and Miss.

(B) Pipsissewa; Prince’s Pine (_Chimaphila umbellata_) grows in similar
localities and is generally more common than the last. Its leaves are
usually in two whorls about the brownish stem; they are bright shining
green, toothed, unspotted, pointed, but broadened toward the end. The
flowers are similar to the last and are in a loose 2- to 8-flowered
umbel. The style is very short, with a five-parted gummy stigma. This
species is found from N. S. to Ga. and westward.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Shin-leaf (_Pyrola elliptica_) is the most common of the Pyrolas. The
evergreen leaves are bright green, obscurely toothed, broadly elliptical
and narrowing into long stems that clasp at the base. During May a long,
smooth scape springs from the middle of the group of basal leaves to a
height of 5 to 10 inches, bearing near its top a raceme of several
flowers. It is common throughout the United States and southern Canada.

(B) One-flowered Pyrola (_Moneses uniflora_) externally closely resembles
the preceding species. The flower scape is from 2 to 5 inches high, and
at the summit bears, during June or July, a single nodding flower. It
ranges from Labrador to Alaska and south to Pa. and Minn.

(C) Indian Pipe; Corpse Plant (_Monotropa uniflora_) is a very peculiar,
ghostly appearing plant found commonly in dimly lighted rich woods. It
has no green foliage, just white bract-like appendages on its upright,
white, cold, clammy stem. A single white flower nods from the top. It is
parasitic, drawing its nourishment from living roots or decaying
vegetable matter. Common throughout our range.

[Illustration: ]

Swamp Honeysuckle; White Azalea (_Rhododendron viscosum_) is a most
beautiful swamp shrub with handsome, fragrant, white flowers. In low, wet
swamps it is very common and blooms very profusely during June and July.
The bush is from 3 to 8 feet in height and very branchy. The leaves are
long-oval, broadest toward the blunt-pointed tip and narrowing to short
stems.

The beautiful flowers are pure white, or rarely tinged with pink; the
tube of the long corolla is covered with very sticky brownish hairs, and
terminates in five, large-pointed spreading lobes. The stamens are very
long, slender, and white, and tipped with yellow anthers. The
five-pointed calyx is very small and inconspicuous.

During the early time of their bloom all the Azaleas bear hanging among
the fragrant flowers, peculiar, juicy, pulpy growths that are edible, as
any well-bred farmer’s boy knows; he calls them May or Swamp Apples, but
they are really modified buds and not fungous growths or caused by
insects, as was formerly believed. These beautiful Azaleas are found from
Me. to Ohio and southward.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Pink Azalea; Pinxter Flower; Wild Honeysuckle (_Rhododendron
nudiflorum_) is one of our most interesting wild shrubs, interesting
because the flowers bloom before the leaves appear, or just as they
commence to grow, and because of the very beautiful colors its pink
flowers impart to our swamps during April and early May. The flowers are
practically the same in form as the white varieties, except that the
corolla tube is shorter.

Pink Azalea grows in open woods or swamps from Me. to Ill. and southward.

(B) Rhodora (_Rhododendron canadense_) is a beautiful member of this
family, immortalized in verse by Emerson. It is a smaller shrub, growing
from 1 to 3 feet high. The flowers usually appear before the pale-green,
oblong leaves; the corolla is about one inch long, light magenta, and
two-lipped. The upper lip is three-lobed and the lower is nearly divided
into two distinct linear petals. They grow in thin clusters terminating
the branches. Rhodora is found on damp hillsides and in swamps from
Newfoundland to Quebec and south to N. J. and Pa., flowering during May
and June.

[Illustration: ]

American Rhododendron; Great Laurel (_Rhododendron maximum_) is a large,
tall, and very ornamental shrub growing from 5 to 35 feet high. It is one
of the most characteristic shrubs of the Alleghany Mountain region, where
it grows in such profusion as to form almost impenetrable thickets. As it
is a very hardy shrub and not injured by transplanting, it is very often
used for decorative effects in parks and about private dwellings.

The oblong leaves are deep, glossy green, tough and leathery in texture,
and have a smooth, slightly rolled-under edge. They droop in the winter
season but are widespread in summer.

At the ends of the numerous branches, during June and July, are showy
clusters of pink or white flowers. Each blossom spreads nearly two inches
and is composed of five broad, blunt-ended petals of a pink-white color
spotted with golden-orange. They have ten spreading stamens and a small
pistil.

Rhododendron is found in rich, hilly, or mountainous woods, commonly from
Pa. to Ga. but rarely northward to Ontario and Nova Scotia.

[Illustration: ]

Mountain Laurel; Spoon-wood (_Kalmia latifolia_) is one of the most
popular of our beautiful flowering shrubs. In the North it grows from 3
to 8 feet in height, but in the Southern States it often attains heights
of 20 to 30 feet.

The leaves are dark, glossy green, pointed at each end and oblong in
shape; they are arranged alternately along the branches and in dense
terminal clusters. The flowers are very peculiar in their construction,
the corolla being deep saucer- or bowl-shaped, with five short, broad
lobes; on the outside, around the bottom edge of the “bowl,” are ten
small humps, that inside the corolla form little pockets to receive the
anthers of the slender white stamens, curving from the centre of the
blossom like the spokes of a wheel.

Both moths and bees visit these flowers in quest of the little supply of
nectar that is secreted about the base of the greenish pistil. The flower
stems are sticky so that only winged insects can get to the interior.
Laurel is common from N. B. to Ont. and southward.

[Illustration: ]

Sheep Laurel; Lambkill (_Kalmia angustifolia_) is a small, shrubby
species, ranging from 8 to 36 inches high. Besides the common names given
above, it is less often known as “Sheep Poison” and “Wicky,” a rather
sinister lot of names to be applied to a shrub with such handsome
flowers.

All of the Laurels have dangerous properties, the juices of the leaves
being very poisonous. It is also claimed that honey made by bees feeding
on the nectar from Laurel blossoms is also poisonous. This species gets
its many names, referring to its destructive effects on sheep, because it
grows in abundance in pastures suitable only for the pasturage of sheep.
The leaves of this small Laurel look tempting but are often very fatal to
the animals eating them.

Their shapes, forms, and mechanisms are about like those of the Mountain
Laurel, but the color is a beautiful, deep pink; little red anthers fit
snugly in the ten little pockets formed for them in the surface of the
corolla. Sheep Laurel is common from Lab. to Ont. and southward, blooming
in June and July.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Wintergreen; Checkerberry (_Gaultheria procumbens_). I doubt if there
is a country boy or girl within the range of this plant, and it extends
from Newfoundland to Manitoba and southward to the Gulf, who is not
perfectly familiar with it.

The leaves are all clustered at the top of the ruddy stem that grows from
2 to 5 inches high; those of adult plants are deep, shining green,
ovate-pointed, and very sparingly toothed. Usually two white tubular,
5-notched flowers hang on slender peduncles, just beneath the spreading
leaves, during July and August.

(B) Trailing Arbutus; Mayflower (_Epigæa repens_). Arbutus is a creeping
plant; the stems are tough, hairy, and branched; they spread out along
the ground for 6 to 15 inches from the root. The evergreen, alternating
leaves are tough, oval, slightly heart-shaped at the base, net-veined and
toothless. The flowers are in terminal clusters, opening in April and
May. They are five-parted, delicate pink, and have a fragrance similar to
that of the Water Lily. Arbutus grows throughout the eastern half of our
continent on shady, rocky hillsides.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Labrador Tea (_Ledum grœnlandicum_) is an erect shrub growing from 1
to 3 feet high. It is not uncommon in suitable places in the eastern half
of Canada, and is found rarely in mountains south to Conn., Pa., and
Minn.; its habitat is in bogs or damp thickets. The narrowly oblong
leaves are green above, have the edges rolled back, and are covered
beneath with a rusty wool.


                            DIAPENSIA FAMILY
                            (_Diapensiaceæ_)

(B) Pyxie; Flowering Moss (_Pyxidanthera barbulata_). Pyxie is a very
attractive moss-like shrub found commonly growing in the pine barrens of
the Southeastern States, from N. J. to N. C. The branches are prostrate
and creep along the ground for 6 to 10 inches from the roots.

Each branch is very thickly set with tiny, stiff, lance-shaped leaves
less than half an inch in length. The numerous tiny white or pink flowers
are seated on the stem, growing from the angles of the leaves; they have
five broad-ended petals and attached between each of them is a curious,
short, stout stamen.

[Illustration: ]


                            LEADWORT FAMILY
                           (_Plumbaginaceæ_)

Seaside plants with perfect, regular flowers in one-sided racemes or
spikes; five-parted and with plaited calyx.

Marsh Rosemary; Sea Lavender (_Limonium carolinianum_) is a very
characteristic plant of the seashore; it is found very commonly in salt
marshes along the Atlantic Coast from Labrador to Florida, and along the
Gulf of Texas.

The plant has a thick, woody, very astringent root, from which grows a
single naked stalk. This stem divides into numerous branches and
branchlets, all destitute of leaves and spreading out so that the
appearance of the whole plant is that of a very diminutive tree. The
leaves all radiate from the root at the base of the flower stalk; they
are spatulate-shaped, thick, almost smooth-edged, and are on long stems.

At the end of each branchlet is a slender one-sided raceme of tiny buds.
From July until September these open out into tiny lavender flowers with
five tiny petals, each coming from a five-toothed, ribbed calyx.

[Illustration: ]


                            PRIMROSE FAMILY
                              _Primulaceæ_

(A) Yellow Loosestrife (_Lysimachia terrestris_). Yellow Loosestrife has
a tall, slender, simple stem from 8 to 24 inches high. The leaves are
pointed-lanceolate, stemless, and crowded along the stem, either
oppositely or alternately. The flower spike is long and contains many
buds on slender pedicels; they open from the bottom of the spike upward.
Each flower has five-pointed golden-yellow petals, each with two small
reddish-brown spots near the base; the stamens and pistil project in a
cone-like cluster. This Loosestrife is abundant from Newfoundland to
Hudson Bay and southward.

(B) Four-leaved Loosestrife (_Lysimachia quadrifolia_) is a very common
species found in low land in about the same range. The flowers are very
similar but each petal has a single large spot of reddish-brown at its
base instead of a double one; the flowers appear from the axils of the
upper leaves. The pointed, lanceolate leaves are whorled about the stem
usually in groups of fours, occasionally more or less.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Shooting Star; American Cowslip (_Dodecatheon Meadia_) is a western
species that grows in open woodlands and on prairies from Pa. to Md. to
Manitoba and southward through the Mississippi Valley.

The leaves are all in a tuft radiating from the base; they are oblong,
bluntly pointed, and taper into trough-like stems. From the centre of
this cluster of leaves rises a bare flower stalk, 8 to 20 inches tall,
branching at the summit into several slender, curving peduncles, each
supporting a single nodding flower.

The stamens project from the throat of the flower, the five golden
anthers forming a conspicuous cone. Shooting Star blooms in April and
May.

(B) Moneywort; Myrtle (_Lysimachia Nummularia_) (European) is a very
dainty and beautiful trailing or creeping vine, often spreading over
large surfaces of ground. It is a most beautiful plant for rockeries and
does well in the house in hanging pots. The leaves, that grow oppositely
all along the stem, are almost round; it is from their shape and the fact
that they are about the size of the English twopence that they originally
received the name of Moneywort.

[Illustration: ]

Fringed Loosestrife (_Steironema ciliatum_). Fringed Loosestrife is a
very branching herb not at all like the other varieties. The smooth stem
rises to heights of from 12 to 24 inches. The species receives its
specific name Fringed (_ciliatum_) because of the fine hairs on the upper
side of the leaf stems, the rest of the plant being smooth.

The smooth light-green leaves are lance-shaped and pointed on short
petioles or stems growing oppositely on the plant stem. The flowers grow
on slender pedicles from the axils of the terminal leaves; the
golden-yellow corolla is divided into five ovate lobes, each terminating
in a sharp, twisted, or mucronate point; round the centre of the corolla
is a reddish-brown ring, formed by the small spots at the bases of the
five lobes. The pale-green pistil in the centre is surrounded by ten
stamens, five being fertile and the other alternating ones being
abortive.

Fringed Loosestrife is common in low ground and thickets from
Newfoundland to British Columbia southward to the Gulf of Mexico.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Star Flower (_Trientalis americana_) is a very dainty little plant
often called the “Star Anemone.”

The perennial rootstalk is long and horizontal and throws up a single,
smooth, slender stalk from 3 to 9 inches high; at the top of this stalk
is a whorl of from five to ten thin, smooth, veiny light-green leaves;
they are lance-shaped and sharply pointed. During May and June a solitary
blossom (rarely two) appears above the whorl of leaves on a very slender
pedicel. The delicate white petals are sharply pointed and range from six
to eight in number. The Star Flower is found in thin woodland from
Labrador to Manitoba and south to Va., Ill., and Minn.

(B) Pimpernel; Poor Man’s Weather-glass (_Anagallis arvensis_) (European)
is a flower readily identified; in the first place there are very few red
flowers to be found and no others with the shade of red of this one, a
salmon or coppery-red. The square stem is smooth, slender, and rather
weak, often lying prostrate on the ground. It is found in waste, sandy
places especially near the coast.

[Illustration: ]


                             LOGANIA FAMILY
                             (_Loganiaceæ_)

(A) Yellow False Jessamine (_Gelsemium sempervirens_). This beautiful
vine is very common in the Southern States where it may be found climbing
the trunks of trees, trailing over bushes, or even creeping over the
ground. During March and April large, handsome yellow flowers appear in
one-sided spikes. The blossoms are tubular-funnel form and range from 1
to 2 inches in length.

The ovate-pointed leaves, that grow oppositely on short petioles, are
evergreen; the short flower spikes grow from their axils. The stem is
smooth, woody, and twining. This species ranges from Va. to Fla. and
Texas.

(B) Indian Pink; Pink-root (_Spigelia marilandica_) is an erect herb
found in rich woods from Ohio and Ky. to Fla. and Texas. It is a
perennial with a simple stem rising from 1 to 2 feet high. The flowers
grow in a short, one-sided spike; the corolla is tubular-funnel form,
five-lobed at the end, and about 1 or 2 inches in length.

[Illustration: ]


                             GENTIAN FAMILY
                            (_Gentianaceæ_)

(A) Rose Pink (_Sabatia angularis_) is the most widely distributed of the
Sabbatias. Whereas the rest of the tribe are confined in a range very
close to the seacoast, this species is commonly found in rich ground in
all the states from the Mississippi River to the Atlantic. Its period of
bloom is during July and August.

The ovate-lanceolate leaves are stemless and seated oppositely on the
stem. The branches usually divide near their ends, each division bearing
a beautiful flower about an inch across. At the centre of the
five-parted, pink corolla is a yellow-green star, a feature that is quite
characteristic with members of this family.

(B) Sea Pink (_Sabatia stellaris_) is a beautiful, slender species common
on salt marshes from Me. to Fla. The pink flowers grow singly at the ends
of the slender branches. Like that of the last species, the centre is
yellow-green but is often edged with a deep crimson which adds greatly to
the attractiveness of the blossom.

[Illustration: ]

Large Marsh Pink; Sabbatia (_Sabatia dodecandra_) is the largest-flowered
and the most beautiful species of this genus; in fact, it is one of the
most delicately beautiful of our wild flowers.

During July and August, along the Atlantic Coast, we sometimes find
brackish ponds, the shores and muddy flats of which have a ruddy glow
owing to the number of these large, attractive blossoms that appear. The
stems are slender and wiry, and but little branched; they attain heights
of 1 to 2 feet, each branch bearing usually but a single blossom.

The flowers measure from 2 to 2½ inches across; the nine to twelve petals
are a delicate rose color and each has, at its base, a yellow-green spot
margined by a three-pointed ochre or crimson border. The corolla has a
regular, symmetrical wheel-like appearance, the petals making the spokes
and the yellow centre forming the hub. The calyx is composed of linear
sepals to the same number as the petals. The stamens are quite widely
separated from the slender style, so that self-fertilization is hardly to
be expected.

[Illustration: ]

Fringed Gentian (_Gentiana crinita_), because of its exquisite beauty and
comparative rarity, is one of the most highly prized of our wild flowers.

The stem is stout, stiff, and branching, each branch being erect and
terminating in a bud. The yellow-green leaves are ovate-lanceolate,
seated oppositely on the stem.

The calyx is angular, has four sharp points and is a bronze-green in
color. During September and October we may find these blossoms fully
expanded, delicate, vase-shaped creations with four spreading deeply
fringed lobes bearing no resemblance in shape or form to any other
American species. The color is a violet-blue, the color that is most
attractive to bumblebees, and it is to these insects that the flower is
indebted for the setting of its seed. The anthers mature before the
stigma is developed so that self-fertilization is impossible. The flowers
are wide open only during sunshine, furling in their peculiar twisted
manner on cloudy days and at night. In moist woods from Me. to Minn. and
southward.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Downy Gentian (_Gentiana puberula_) is a handsome species springing
from a perennial root, the simple, straight stem rising from 8 to 18
inches high; the stem is usually rough and slightly hairy. The
light-green leaves are stiff and seated oppositely on the stem. The
flowers are borne in terminal clusters or, sometimes, from the axils of
the upper leaves; they are bell-shaped with five triangular, slightly
spreading lobes. In color they are brilliant violet-blue.

Downy Gentian is common in dry fields and on prairies from Pa. to Ga. and
west to Minn. and Mo., flowering during September and October.

(B) Solitary Gentian (_Gentiana Porphyrio_) is a pretty little species
growing in moist places from southern N. J. to Fla. The simple, slender
stem ranges in height from 6 to 15 inches and bears at the summit a
solitary, erect, bell-shaped flower, of a light ultramarine blue color;
the five spreading lobes are notched at their bases. The flower is very
large compared to the stem and leaves of the plant it grows upon; the
blossom measures from 2 to 2½ inches long, which is about the length of
the linear leaves.

[Illustration: ]

Closed Gentian; Bottle Gentian (_Gentiana Andrewsii_) is the most
abundant of all Gentians. The flowers are as peculiar in their way as
those of the Fringed are in theirs. It is remarkable because the five
parts of the corolla never spread; the flower remains closed. The flowers
are cross-fertilized by the common bumblebee. He knows there is a supply
of nectar at the bottom of each blossom and he has the wits and the
strength to get at it. Slowly but surely he is able to force the closed
lobes apart until his body is half concealed in the “bottle”, and he is
able to reach the bottom. As he leaves the flower he is certain to scrape
off quantities of pollen on his head and almost sure to leave some of it
on the receptive stigma of the next flower visited.

The stem is smooth and simple; it grows from 1 to 2 feet high. The leaves
are rather large ovate-pointed, and narrowed into very short, clasping
stems. The flowers grow in terminal clusters, set in the axils of the
last pairs of leaves. Closed Gentian grows in moist places, often along
brooks, from Me. to Manitoba and southward.

[Illustration: ]


                             DOGBANE FAMILY
                             (_Apocynaceæ_)

A small family composed chiefly of poisonous tropical plants usually with
milky, acrid juices.

(A) Indian Hemp (_Apocynum cannabinum_) is a rather unattractive species
with a smooth branching stem, rising from vertical roots to heights of 1
to 4 feet. The ovate-pointed leaves are closely crowded on the stalk
oppositely to one another.

The small, five-parted, greenish-white flowers grow in terminal clusters.
We find this species very abundant in dry fields and thickets throughout
our range; it flowers from June to August.

(B) Spreading Dogbane (_Apocynum androsæmifolium_) is a much more
attractive species than its relative just mentioned. It grows from 1 to 4
feet high, and has many long, spreading branches. The short-stemmed,
broadly ovate-pointed, pale-green leaves grow oppositely, to the ends of
the branches. The clusters of flowers terminating the branches are
composed of pink, bell-shaped blossoms, having five pointed, recurved
lobes.

[Illustration: ]


                            MILKWEED FAMILY
                           (_Asclepiadaceæ_)

A family of stout-stemmed plants having milky juices and, usually, large
opposite or whorled leaves. Each blossom has five tiny structures shaped
like wishbones, with pollen masses on each end. They are so placed that
the visiting bee or butterfly is pretty sure of getting one or more of
its legs caught in the sharp angle at the apex and must, in order to get
free, tear the tiny arrangement from its support. He then flies to the
next plant with this dangling from his legs.

Butterfly-weed; Pleurisy-root; Orange Milk-weed (_Asclepias tuberosa_) is
the most brilliantly colored species of the genus.

The stem of butterfly-weed is usually erect, from 1 to 3 feet high; it is
rather rough and has but little of the milky juices so common to the
other species. The leaves are pointed-oblong, very short-stemmed or
seated oppositely. The beautiful orange flowers grow in flat-topped
clusters or umbels at the summit of the plant. It is found from Mass. to
Minn. and southward.

[Illustration: ]

Common Milk-weed (_Asclepias syriaca_) is the most abundant and the best
known of the Milk-weeds. It grows everywhere along roadsides, in fields
and on the borders of woods. The rather stout stem rises from 2 to 5 feet
high and has numerous, opposite, large, oblong, short-stemmed leaves of a
yellow-green color. Both the leaves and the stem are finely hairy and
both yield quantities of a thick, bitter, milky fluid if they are broken
or bruised anywhere.

The flowers grow in rounded clusters, often in a pendent position, from
the axils of the upper leaves. They are very fragrant and secrete an
abundance of nectar.

In the fall the clusters of lilac-colored flowers have been replaced by
large, rough-coated seed-pods that are completely filled with the
silkiest of flossy substance attached to the numerous black seeds;
finally the pod bursts and liberates the seeds, each floating away on the
breeze, sometimes aviating for several miles before coming to earth.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Poke Milk-weed (_Asclepias phytolaccoides_) is a tall species growing
from 2 to 6 feet in height. The flowers composing its clusters are fewer
in number than those of the common milk-weed but much larger and of a
clear, ivory-white color. The flower stems are long and slender so that
the entire cluster is in a nodding position, it being the only one of the
genus in which all the flowers are pendent. Poke Milkweed is found,
usually in dry situations, along the edges of woods or along roadsides,
from Me. to Minn. and southward. It flowers from June until August.

(B) Whorled Milk-weed (_Asclepias verticillata_) is a very slender
species, common in dry woods and on prairies in the South; found north to
Mass. and Saskatchewan. The stem is slender, simple, and rises from 1 to
3 feet high. The narrow linear leaves have their margins rolled under;
they grow in closely clustered whorls about the stem, usually quite
erect. The numerous small, greenish-white flowers grow in a round cluster
or umbel at the summit of the stem. It is a very dainty species, one not
apt to be confused with any other member of the family.

[Illustration: ]


                           CONVOLVULUS FAMILY
                           (_Convolvulaceæ_)

Hedge Bindweed; Wild Morning Glory (_Convolvulus sepium_) climbs
gracefully over walls, through thickets, or twines its stem tightly about
those of other plants or shrubs.

The large funnel-shaped blossoms grow singly on slender peduncles from
the axils of the leaves. The flowers remain open only during sunshine and
occasionally on bright, moonlight nights. It is very commonly found in
moist ground along roadsides or the borders of woods or thickets,
throughout our range and also in Europe.

Common Dodder (_Cuscuta Gronovii_) is a very common little parasitic
plant found in moist, shady thickets or among the shrubs and plants
bordering ponds or streams. It germinates its seeds in the ground, and
the slender stem rises until it comes in contact with some living plant,
when the root dies and the Dodder gets its nourishment from its host by
means of numerous little suckers. It has no leaves; the stem is orange
and the clusters of minute bell-shaped flowers are white.

[Illustration: ]


                           POLEMONIUM FAMILY
                            (_Polemoniaceæ_)

(A) Downy Phlox (_Phlox pilosa_). Both the leaves and stem of this
species are covered with fine, downy hairs; the sharply pointed calyx is
also hairy and sticky. The plant stands from one to two feet in height.
The narrow, lance-shaped leaves are rather closely alternated along the
stem. The flowers are in a flat-topped cluster at the summit. The five
lobes of the corolla are widespread and bluntly pointed.

The present species ranges from Conn. to Manitoba and southward,
flowering during May and June in dry woods or on prairies.

(B) Moss Pink; Ground Pink (_Phlox subulata_) is a low, creeping species
that spreads over sandy or rocky ground, forming compact masses
resembling moss. The stem is very branchy but grows only a few inches
high; the ends of the branches turn upward and terminate in clusters of
flowers varying from crimson pink to white. Ground Pink is found from
western N. E. to Mich. and southward.

[Illustration: ]


                             BORAGE FAMILY
                             (Boraginaceæ)

(A) Forget-me-not (_Myosotis scorpioides_) (European). Forget-me-not is a
common wild flower in Europe and Asia, and is in this country as an
escape and fairly well established in Nova Scotia, New England, New York,
and southward. The stem is rather stout but weak; it rises about a foot
in height, and is smooth but the leaves are rough and hairy. The flowers
are borne in one-sided curving terminal clusters. The five, broad,
rounded petals are sky-blue with a yellow eye; the undeveloped buds are
pink. There are several species of Myosotis, the present one having the
largest and most beautiful flowers.

(B) Wild Comfrey (_Cynoglossum virginianum_) is a common, rough-stemmed
perennial growing in deciduous woods from Me. to Mich. and southward. The
tubular corolla is pale blue; it is set in a five-parted hairy calyx. The
basal leaves are large and ovate; the stem ones clasp the flower stalk
with somewhat heart-shaped bases.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Blue-weed; Viper’s Bugloss (_Echium vulgare_) (European). This
peculiar plant is locally abundant in dry fields and waste places in the
East. It is regarded as a pest and is a difficult one to get rid of.

The stem is light green spotted with purple; it grows erect from 1 to 3
feet high. The flowers grow on leafy spikes springing from the stem near
the top. When the first flowers appear, in June, they are close to the
stalk at the base of the rolled-up, leafy spike. As they continue to
bloom the spike gradually straightens and the open flowers appear farther
and farther from t he stem. The showy, tubular corolla is bright blue,
and is exceeded in length by the long stamens and three-parted style; the
buds are pink.

(B) Small Bugloss (_Lycopsis arvensis_) (European). This is a very rough,
bristly stemmed species, also naturalized from Europe, and now found in
waste places near dwellings, from Me. to Minn. and south to Va. The
lanceolate leaves are seated on the stem; they diminish to the size of
bracts and pass into the racemes of small, tubular, violet-blue flowers.

[Illustration: ]


                             VERVAIN FAMILY
                             (_Verbenaceæ_)

Herbs with opposite leaves and perfect but usually irregular flowers, the
tubular corollas spreading into two lips or four or five lobes.

Blue Vervain (_Verbena hastata_) is our most common example of the genus.
It is a tall, slender, rank-growing plant reaching heights of 2 to 7
feet. The leaves are dark green short stemmed, lanceolate, sharply
toothed, and grow oppositely on the stem.

At the top of the stem are numerous slender flower spikes, each branching
from the stem and assuming a vertical position, in a regular order
suggestive of candelabra. These slender spikes contain many buds, the
lower of which open first. From July until the end of August we will find
rings of purple flowers about the spikes, gradually drawing nearer the
ends as the flowering season advances and leaving behind a long trail of
purplish calyces. The tubular corolla has five spreading lobes, a slender
pistil, and two pairs of stamens.

[Illustration: ]


                              MINT FAMILY
                              (_Labiatæ_)

(A) Self-heal; Heal-all (_Prunella vulgaris_). Along roadsides, in
fields, and on the borders of woods, everywhere throughout the country,
we will find this familiar flower. The stem grows from 6 to 15 inches
high and is topped with a cylindrical flower-head composed of many
two-lipped, tubular, purple florets. But few of these bloom at a time,
commencing at the bottom, and the flowering season extends from June to
September. The leaves are sparingly toothed and seated oppositely on long
stems. Usually several leaflets appear from their axils and sometimes
smaller flower-heads from the axils of the upper ones.

(B) Skullcap (_Scutellaria integrifolia_) is one of the handsomest of the
Skullcaps, the tubular, two-lipped flowers in the loose terminal spike
each measuring about one inch in length. The downy stem rises from 6 to
24 inches high and is set oppositely with toothless, lance-shaped,
round-ended leaves. It is found in dry ground from Mass. to Fla. and
along the Gulf.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Ground Ivy; Gill-over-the-ground (_Nepeta hederacea_). (European) is
a beautiful little trailing mint that grows very profusely about country
houses.

The leaves rise from the stem in pairs; they are round, with heart-shaped
bases, the edge cut into rounded lobes, and their whole surface is downy
and veiny. The pretty little purple flowers grow in small clusters from
the axils of the leaves. The upper lip is erect and slightly notched; the
lower one has three spreading lobes and is spotted with dark purple.

Ground Ivy is found in blossom from May to July throughout the eastern
half of our country.

(B) Catnip (_Nepeta cataria_) (European) is a very common mint,
introduced from Europe, the aromatic foliage of which has a very peculiar
attraction for all members of the feline race. The plant has a stout,
square hollow stem from 2 to 3 feet tall and is downy, as are the
sage-green, toothed leaves. The lilac-white flowers are clustered on
peduncles from the axils of the leaves. Catnip is common throughout our
range.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Motherwort (_Leonurus cardiaca_) (European) is a simple,
erect-stemmed mint growing from 2 to 4 feet high. It has a very
decorative effect, the leaves being large at the base of the stem and
rapidly diminishing as they approach the top; the lower ones are quite
long-stemmed and all are palmately slashed. The flowers grow in round
clusters surrounding the stem at the axils of the leaves.

The numerous flowers composing these clusters have tiny, two-lipped,
white, pink, or purple corollas and minute stamens. Both the stem and the
leaves have a wooly texture and the former are strongly veined.
Motherwort is commonly found about old country dwellings and along
roadsides. We find it in bloom from June until August. It is a much more
leafy species than most of the mints.

(B) Hedge Nettle; Wound-wort (_Stachys palustris_) is a tall mint (1 to 3
feet) with a downy-bristly stem and purple, tubular, two-lipped flowers
in a terminal spike and from the axils of the upper leaves; lower lip
streaked and spotted. Common in moist ground from N. S. to Manitoba and
southward.

[Illustration: ]

Oswego Tea; Bee Balm (_Monarda didyma_) is one of our most brilliantly
colored wild flowers. It grows along the shady borders of woodland
streams or pools where its vivid coloring is in strong contrast with the
deep greens of the surrounding vegetation. The stem is hairy and rather
rough; it attains heights of two feet or more. The short-stemmed, broad
lance-shaped leaves are light green, sharply toothed, and rather thin.

The flowers grow in rounded terminal heads, composed of numerous long,
tubular, scarlet florets. The upper lip is long, arched, pointed, and
often notched at the tip; the lower lip is three-parted, the middle one
being longer than the side ones.

Nectar, seated at the base of the long tube, can only be reached by
long-tongued insects. Best adapted to it are bumblebees and certain of
the butterflies. The Ruby-throated Hummingbird, too, attracted to this,
his favorite color, often partakes of the sweets. From July until
September this beautiful species blooms in suitable localities from
Quebec to Manitoba and southward to Ga. and Mo.

[Illustration: ]


                           NIGHTSHADE FAMILY
                             (_Solanaceæ_)

(A) Bittersweet; Nightshade (_Solanum Dulcamara_) (European), although an
immigrant, is quite common in the eastern half of our country. It chooses
for its habitat moist thickets or the edges of ponds where there are
plenty of shrub to help support it, for this species has weak stems.

The dark-green leaves are variable in form; some are lobed, others have
small lateral leaflets, and still others have another pair of still
smaller leaflets on the leaf stem. The flowers hang in loose clusters on
long peduncles from the axils of the leaves. This species blooms from
June until September.

(B) Black Nightshade (_Solanum nigrum_) is a native species with a
smooth, erect, branching stem 1 to 2 feet high. The long-stemmed ovate
leaves have a wavy-lobed edge. The five-parted white flowers grow in
few-flowered clusters from the leaf axils, the round berries are black
when fully ripe, and are quite poisonous. This species is found
throughout our range.

[Illustration: ]

Purple Thorn Apple (_Datura Tatula_) is a large, ill-scented,
rank-growing weed with a stout, smooth stem from 1 to 5 feet high. The
long-stemmed leaves have very irregular, coarsely toothed outlines. The
lavender-colored, trumpet-shaped flowers are about four inches long. The
flaring corolla has five broad, sharply pointed lobes and is seated in a
light-green, five-parted calyx about half its length. Usually the color
of the corolla is more intense on the lobes and often shades to white
toward the base of the tube. After flowering a large green fruit capsule
about two inches long appears; it is ovoid in shape and armed with stout
prickles. The entire plant has poisonous juices. It grows in waste
ground, especially about barnyards, from Me. to Minn. and southward.

Thorn Apple; Jimson Weed (_Datura Stramonium_) also comes from across the
water; it is very similar to the preceding, grows in the same places and
in the same range. The flowers are white and the leaves are lighter
green; the stem is also somewhat stouter.

[Illustration: ]


                             FIGWORT FAMILY
                          (_Scrophulariaceæ_)

(A) Common or Great Mullein (_Verbascum Thapsus_) (European). This
well-known plant is one of the most common sights along roadsides and in
dry fields. Its long stalk rises from 2 to 7 feet above ground.

Mullein leaves are very soft, with fine white downy hairs; they have
given to the plant a name very often applied—“Flannel Plant.” The ones on
the tall stalk are smaller and diminish in size to bracts as they reach
the bottom of the long flower spike. From June until September these
flowers open a few at a time and last but a day. The light-yellow corolla
has five uneven, concaved lobes and five protruding stamens.

(B) Moth Mullein (_Verbascum Blattaria_) (European) has a tall, very
slender stalk at the summit of which is a loose raceme. The flowers are
large, have five petals, very prominent stamens, and orange anthers. The
upper leaves are lance-shaped, the lower ones have the margins deeply
cut, toothed, and notched. It is common from Me. to Ontario and
southward.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Blue Toadflax (_Linaria canadensis_). This is a very slender and
dainty species, the stem attaining heights of 5 to 30 inches.

The little tubular flowers are violet-blue in color; the corolla is
two-lipped, the upper one having two lobes and the lower one three; the
latter is pouch-shaped and extends backward into a very slender spur.
Blue Toadflax is commonly found in dry, sandy fields throughout the
United States and southern Canada.

(B) Toadflax; Butter-and-eggs (_Linaria vulgaris_), although an
immigrant, has extended its range from the Atlantic to the Pacific and
southern Canada to the Gulf of Mexico. The stem is simple and from 6 to
30 inches high. The narrow alternating leaves are grayish-green, covered
with a whitish bloom.

The tubular yellow flowers have two-lipped corollas, the upper ones of
two lobes and the lower of three, the centre of one which extends into a
large sac-like spur and has a protruding, pouting, orange palate that
closes the throat of the blossom. This arrangement is designed for the
bumblebee, whose weight on the lower lip opens the flower so he can get
at the nectar, while it is tightly closed to pilfering ants.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Turtle-head (_Chelone glabra_). This is a moisture-loving plant found
in swamps.

The stem is stout, smooth, and erect, from 1 to 3 feet tall. The leaves
are lance-shaped, stemmed, pointed, and toothed. The flowers are
clustered in a short spike at the summit of the stem, the corolla is
tubular, about an inch in length, and is white, tinged with pink. The
upper lip is broad, arched, creased and notched in the middle; the lower
lip is three-lobed and wooly-bearded in the throat. Turtle-head blooms
from July until September and ranges from Newfoundland to Manitoba and
southward.

(B) Pentstemon; Beard-tongue (_Pentstemon hirsutus_) has a straight,
slender wooly stem that grows from 1 to 3 feet high. The leaves are
light-green, lance-shaped, rough-edged, or minutely toothed, the upper
ones seated oppositely on the stem and the lower ones with short
petioles. The small magenta-white flowers are in panicled racemes. The
trumpet-shaped corolla has two lobes to the upper lip and three on the
lower, the throat nearly closed by a hairy palate on the lower lip. Me.
to Wisconsin and southward.

[Illustration: ]

Monkey Flower (_Mimulus ringens_) is a perennial with a smooth, square,
hollow stem growing from 1 to 3 feet in height and branching
considerably. The leaves, seated oppositely on the stem, are
lance-shaped, pointed, and slightly toothed. The flowers are few in
number and are on long, slender pedicels from the axils of the upper
leaves. They open one or two at a time. The pale-purple flowers have two
large lips, the upper divided into two lobes and the lower one into
three, all broad and wavy. Four white stamens and a pistil nearly fill
the throat, at the mouth of which are two bright orange-yellow spots.

A small store of nectar is secreted in the base of the flower tube. The
double-yellow palate serves to close the entrance to the tube so that
small useless insects may not be allowed to partake of the sweets within.
When, however, the burly bumblebee alights upon the lower lip, his weight
causes it to droop and allow easy access to its meagre supply of nectar.
Monkey Flower is found in wet places from N. B. to Manitoba and
southward.

[Illustration: ]

(A) American Brooklime (_Veronica americana_), the prettiest of the
Speedwells or Veronicas, is a very frail plant.

The stem is stout, smooth, hollow, and quite weak; the lower part spreads
over the ground and frequently takes root at the angles of the lower
leaves. At intervals, branches rise to heights of 6 to 15 inches, bearing
from the axils of the upper leaves small four-parted blue flowers in
loose racemes. The light-blue petals have purple stripes and a white spot
at the base.

Brooklime has a long season of bloom, being found in flower from May
until September. It is common in moist ditches and along brooks or in
swamps, from Newfoundland to Alaska and south to Va. and Mo.

(B) Common Speedwell (_Veronica officinalis_) is a popular little plant.
The prostrate wooly stem is erect at the end and terminates in a raceme
of pale-lavender, four-petalled flowers, the lower petal of which is
conspicuously smaller than the other three, a common trait of this genus.
Speedwell is quite common through the United States and southern Canada.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Purple Gerardia (_Gerardia purpurea_) is a pretty little species that
decorates low, moist, sandy fields and meadows with its beautiful
purple-pink blossoms. The slender stem is quite branchy and averages
about a foot in height, though it occasionally attains heights of 2 feet.
From three to eight flowers, opening one at a time, grow along the ends
of each branch. The corolla is broad and about 1 in. long, bright
purplish pink, the mouth of the funnel spreading into five rounded lobes,
spotted or downy within.

All the Gerardias and Foxgloves are quite parasitic, attaching their
roots to those of other plants and getting part of their sustenance from
them. This species is found chiefly along the coasts of the Atlantic, the
Great Lakes, and the Gulf of Mexico. It blooms from August to October.

(B) Smooth False Foxglove (_Gerardia virginica_) has a smooth, branching
stem from 2 to 6 feet high. The large, lemon-yellow flowers measure
nearly 2 inches long by an inch broad. The plant grows from Me. to Minn.
and southward and blooms during August and Sept.

[Illustration: ]

Scarlet Painted-cup; Indian Paint Brush (_Castilleja coccinea_). This
singular species is a parasite-that is, it fastens its roots upon those
of other plants and takes their nourishment from them.

The slender, hollow, reddish, angular, and hairy stem grows from a tuft
of smooth-edged, oblong leaves. The stem leaves are rather small and, the
upper ones especially, have the ends three-lobed; those near and
surrounding the flowers have their ends scarlet, as though they had been
dipped in a pot of red paint. The flower’s corolla is almost concealed in
the two-lobed cylindrical calyx, the end of which is usually a brilliant
scarlet. The corolla is irregular, greenish yellow, with a narrow upper
lip and a three-lobed lower one. They have, set in the upper lip, four
unequal stamens and a long pistil.

The Scarlet Painted-cup is found in low, sandy ground from Mass. to
Manitoba and southward.

[Illustration: ]

Wood Betony; Lousewort (_Pedicularis canadensis_) is a peculiar plant
that we find in dry woods and thickets and often along roadsides.

The flowering stems are stout, hairy, and leafy; they rise to heights of
6 to 18 inches. The leaves are all fernlike in form; many of them rise on
long, hairy stems from the roots and smaller ones alternate up the flower
stalk. The flower spike is short and densely flowered and contains many
small bract-like leaves among the tubular flowers. The corolla is
composed of two lips, the upper one being arched and strongly curved or
hooked at the tip. The upper lip varies from a yellowish green in freshly
opened flowers to a dull reddish on the mature blossoms, this latter
being the beefsteak color alluded to in one of its common names.

Wood Betony is found from Nova Scotia to Manitoba and southward. It is
quite abundant throughout its range and its flowers may be found from
early May into the latter part of July.

[Illustration: ]


                           BROOM-RAPE FAMILY
                            (_Orobanchaceæ_)

(A) One-flowered Cancer-root; Broom-rape (_Orobanche uniflora_) is an
attractive little parasite with a subterranean scaly stem, each branch
sending up one to four very slender stalks from 3 to 6 inches high and
bearing at the top a single blossom each.

Their color varies from a pale purple to a cream color and they average
about three quarters of an inch in length. It is found in moist woods
throughout the United States and southern Canada.

(B) Beech Drops; Cancer-root (_Epifagus virginiana_). This peculiar
growth is found almost exclusively in beech woods.

The stem attains heights of 6 to 20 inches. At the ends of the branches
are a number of curved, tubular flowers; these are stained a dull
magenta.

Beech Drops attaches its roots to those of beech trees and gets all its
sustenance from them. It blooms form August to Oct. and ranges from N. B.
to Minn. and southward.

[Illustration: ]


                            BIGNONIA FAMILY
                            (_Bignoniaceæ_)

Trumpet Creeper (_Tecoma radicans_) is an exceedingly beautiful woody
vine having a southern disposition.

The stem grows from 20 to 40 feet long and is either prostrate or
climbing. Sometimes it extends over the ground, climbing over the bushes
that may be in its path, and again it may take an upward course and climb
the trunks and branches of small trees. As it is a hardy plant it is
often seen in cultivation and is used to decorate porches in the North.

The flowers are trumpet-shaped, red within and tawny or orange on the
outside of the tube. They grow in terminal clusters of two to nine
blossoms, each in a cup-shaped, two-parted calyx. The corolla is about 2½
inches long and flares into five rounded lobes. Four anther-bearing
stamens and a pistil are in the upper part of the tube. The leaves grow
oppositely on the stem and are each composed of 7 to 11 ovate, toothed
leaflets. We find this vine from N. J. to Ia. and southward.

[Illustration: ]


                            PLANTAIN FAMILY
                           (_Plantaginaceæ_)

(A) Common Plantain (_Plantago major_) is a very familiar weed about
ill-kept dooryards. The leaves are large and spreading; broad-oblong, on
long, troughed stems that radiate from the root.

The flower stalk rises to about the same height as the next, but the
flower-head is very long. The tiny white flowers open in circles about
this head, slowly making their way toward the top in their succession of
bloom, which lasts from June until September.

(B) English Plantain (_Plantago lanceolata_). The leaves all radiate from
the base; they are lanceolate, sharply pointed, and set on long, troughed
stems.

The flower stem is stiff and smooth and attains heights of 6 to 18
inches. The head is short and studded with tiny, four-parted, dull-white
flowers, with long, slender stamens. There are often perfect staminate
and pistillate flowers on the same plant. It is now as abundant in all
parts of our range as it is in its native European home.

[Illustration: ]


                             MADDER FAMILY
                              (_Rublaceæ_)

(A) Bluets; Innocence (_Houstonia cærulea_). These are very dainty and
beautiful little plants that decorate our fields profusely from April
until July. The stems are very slender, about 3 to 6 inches tall, and
have a few pairs of tiny leaves; larger leaves appear in tufts from the
base. The perianth is slender and the lobes flare widely; the corolla is
about one half inch in width, white, with the ends of the lobes pale blue
or violet, and stained with yellow toward the centre of the flower.

(B) Partridgeberry (_Mitchella repens_) is a most beautiful little
trailing vine with rounded, opposite, white-veined leaves along the
creeping stem, that extends 6 to 12 inches from the root. Two beautiful
little four-parted, bell-shaped flowers terminate each branch. They are
downy white within, and pinkish and smooth on the outside. They have a
fragrance similar to that of the Water Lily. A double red berry replaces
the flowers in fall. It is common in woods throughout our range.

[Illustration: ]


                           HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY
                           (_Caprifoliaceæ_)

(A) Bush Honeysuckle (_Lonicera canadensis_) is a bush or shrub with
thin, straggling, brown branches, attaining heights of 2 to 4 feet. The
leaves are thin, light green, somewhat heart-shaped and short stemmed.
They grow oppositely on the branches and have small stipules between
them. The flowers are borne in pairs from the axils of the terminal
leaves. The Naples yellow tubes are about three fourths of an inch in
length and have five lobes. This species is common from Quebec to
Manitoba and south to Pa. and Mich.

(B) Twinflower (_Linnæa borealis americana_) is one of the most
delicately beautiful of our wild flowers. The stem is slender, trailing,
reddish brown, and from 6 to 24 inches long; at intervals very slender,
leafy flower stalks rise, bearing at the end two pendulous, bell-shaped,
white, fragrant blossoms; the corolla, which has five lobes, is
crimson-pink within. The evergreen leaves are short stemmed, almost
round, and scallop-toothed. Cool, mossy woods from Lab. to Minn.

[Illustration: ]

Coral or Trumpet Honeysuckle (_Lonicera sempervirens_) is a very
ornamental, climbing, woody vine growing from 8 to 15 feet in length. It
trails over bushes or entwines its stem about the branches of trees. The
lower leaves have short stems, are rounded-oval in shape, and opposite,
as are those of all the members of this family. The leaves near the ends
of the branches are united at their bases, clasping the stems and forming
cup-shaped structures. The strikingly colored flowers grow in whorls on
spikes terminating the branches. The tubular corollas are about two
inches in length, bright red on the outside and yellow within; the
opening of the corolla spreads but very little and is five-lobed. In the
South the leaves of the Coral Honeysuckle are evergreen but in the North
they are deciduous. In fall where each flower was located during the
summer we find an orange-red berry. This species is distributed from
Conn. and Neb. southward.

[Illustration: ]


                            BLUEBELL FAMILY
                            (_Campanulaceæ_)

(A) Bellflower (_Campanula rapunculoides_) (European). This beautiful
European species is a frequent escape from gardens and is quite firmly
established in several localities in the Eastern States.

The simple stems are erect and quite tall, ranging from 1 to 3 feet high.
The toothed, lance-shaped leaves alternate along the lower portion of the
stem and the bell-shaped purplish flowers are in loose spikes on the
terminal portions.

(B) Harebell; Bluebell (_Campanula rotundifolia_) is the “Blue Bells of
Scotland” so familiar to us in song and verse. It is a very
slender-stemmed species but very hardy, as attested by the altitudes at
which it is found on mountains. The flowering stems are very slender and
wiry, sparsely set with linear leaves; they usually branch near the
summit, each division bearing a demure, drooping violet bell. It is found
in bloom from June until September in rocky or sandy places in Canada and
northern United States.

[Illustration: ]


                             LOBELIA FAMILY
                             (_Lobeliaceæ_)

Cardinal Flower (_Lobelia cardinalis_). Although exceedingly bright
colored, these flowers are rightly classed as among our most beautiful
wild ones. As might be expected from their color, they are visited by and
chiefly fertilized by the Ruby-throated Hummingbird.

The simple stem grows to heights of 2 to 4 feet, from perennial creeping
rootstalks that often throw up new plants; the stalk is hollow and rather
closely set with alternating, lanceshaped leaves, the lower ones stemmed
and toothed, the upper ones clasping the stem and nearly smooth-edged.
The showy flower-spike is loosely set with bright red flowers; the
narrow, tubular corolla proceeds from a five-parted calyx, and ends in
two lips, the upper having two erect, narrow lobes and the lower a broad
three-cleft one, velvety scarlet; the five stamens are united in an erect
tube. The Cardinal Flower is found in moist ground, especially along
brooks, blooms in August and September and is found from N. S. to Minn.
and southward.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Spiked Lobelia (_Lobelia spicata_) is a small flowered species having
a simple leafy stem from 1 to 4 feet in height. The leaves vary greatly
in shape from lance-shaped to oblong, and decrease in size rapidly as
they approach the flower spike. The small, pale blue-violet flowers are
set in short smooth calyces. The upper lip of the corolla has two small
lobes and the lower one is divided into three, larger, spreading ones. It
is commonly found in dry, sandy soil from N. S. to Manitoba and
southward.

(B) Indian Tobacco (_Lobelia inflata_) is the most common of the
Lobelias; it is found growing everywhere in either sandy or moist soil,
in woods or in fields. The alternating leaves are pointed-oval and
sparingly wavy-toothed; the lower ones are quite large, while the upper
ones are very small. The simple stem is stout and quite hairy; it grows
from 1 to 2 feet in height. The little blue-violet flowers are barely one
quarter inch long, each seated in a large, smooth inflated calyx.

The flower calyces enlarge after the corollas have withered away, and
form round seed-pods.

[Illustration: ]


                            COMPOSITE FAMILY
                             (_Compositæ_)

(A) Tall Blazing Star (_Liatris scariosa_) is a tall, handsome perennial
that grows in dry situations and attains heights of 2 to 6 feet. A long
spike containing numerous, quite large flower-heads adorns the top of the
stem. These heads, which are about ¾ in. in diameter, have a very
disheveled appearance for the magenta-purple rays emerge in all
directions; they are contained in a large imbricated involucre. The
leaves are stiff, lanceolate, and closely alternated along the stem. It
is found from Me. to Mich. and southward.

(B) Ironweed (_Veronia noveboracensis_) is a tall (3 to 7 feet) and
smooth-stemmed member of the Composite Family. The alternating leaves are
lanceolate and finely toothed. The flower-heads are grouped in
flat-topped clusters. The rays are slender and very numerous, giving the
heads the appearance of little thistles. This species blooms in August
and September, at which season it is one of the characteristic plants in
moist ground near the seashore.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Joe Pye Weed (_Eupatorium purpureum_) is a very familiar and pretty
species. The simple, rather slender, stem is very tall, attaining heights
of from 2 to 10 feet. The stem is usually stained purplish and is set at
intervals with whorls of three to six, rough, coarsely toothed leaves;
these latter have short stems, rather broad bases, and are sharp-pointed.
The flowers grow in flat-topped terminal clusters. Each floret is of a
rosy purple color that has projecting styles that give the flowers a very
fuzzy appearance.

Joe Pye Weed is commonly found in moist places from Newfoundland to Minn.
and southward, flowering during August and September.

(B) Thoroughwort; Boneset (_Eupatorium perfoliatum_) is a flowering herb,
dearly beloved by the old-fashioned housewife and equally detested by the
small boy. It was, and still is, one of the most commonly used home
remedies. The stem is stout, hairy, and 1 to 5 feet tall. The opposite
leaves are perfoliate, that is the ends are joined together. It is very
common in swamps or thickets everywhere.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Golden Aster (_Chrysopsis mariana_) is, as one would judge from its
species name, very partial to the seacoast, where it may be found in
profusion in dry sandy places and along roadsides.

The flowers grow in rather loose, flat-topped clusters, each head being
on a rather long, slightly sticky peduncle. The tubular and ray florets
proceed from a bell-shaped involucre composed of overlapping bracts. Its
period of bloom is during August and September and it ranges from N. Y.
and Pa. southward to Fla. and La.

(B) Curved-leaved Golden Aster (_Chrysopsis falcata_) is a very beautiful
species with a silvery, wooly stem, 4 to 10 inches high, closely crowded
with stiff, linear, downy, slightly recurved leaves. The golden-yellow
flowers spread about an inch; the tubular florets in the centre have a
brownish orange tinge but the numerous straps or ray-flowers are the
brightest of orange-yellow. This species loves dry, sandy soil and is
most abundant near the coast from Cape Cod to the pine barrens of New
Jersey. It may be found in bloom from the latter part of July until
September.

[Illustration: ]


                              GOLDEN-RODS
                           Genus (_Solidago_)

The Genus Solidago is a very large one, comprising more than eighty
species.

(A) Silver-rod; White Golden-rod (_Solidago bicolor_) bears the
distinction of being the only one of our very numerous Golden-rods that
does not have golden flowers. Those of this species are white or
cream-colored. The stem is usually simple and attains heights of from 10
to 30 inches.

Silver-rod blooms during August and September on dry ground, frequently
along roadsides or the edges of woods, from N. B. to Minn. and southward
to the Gulf.

(B) Blue-stemmed Golden-rod (_Solidago cæsia_) blooms during September
and October. The simple stem is closely set with lanceolate, toothed
leaves, and from the axils of those on the upper half of the stem appear
loose racemes of flowers. The heads are rather larger than those of most
of the Golden-rods and have from three to five, comparatively long,
golden rays surrounding the tubular florets.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Early Golden-rod (_Solidago juncea_) is a very common species and one
of the earliest to bloom, being found in flower from July until
September. The flowers are in a large graceful cluster, composed of
numerous racemes, at the summit of a tall, simple stem 2 to 4 feet high.
The stem is smooth, angular, and usually a ruddy brown. The leaves are
smooth, lance-shaped; the lower ones toothed, but the upper with nearly
even edges. The golden-yellow flowers have eight to ten rays. Found in
dry places from N. B. to Sask. and southward.

(B) Rough-stemmed Golden-rod (_Solidago rugosa_) is a very hairy species,
rough to the touch. The stem attains heights of 1 to 7 feet. The flower
racemes spread in a broad, pyramidal panicle. The leaves are
feather-veined, quite hairy and coarsely toothed.

Canada Golden-rod (_Solidago canadensis_) is perhaps the most common and
the handsomest of the genus. The flower cluster is very large and
plume-like. The leaves are thin, narrowly lanceolate and finely toothed.
The rather slender stem ascends to heights of 2 to 7 feet. The
flower-heads are rather small.

[Illustration: ]

Lance-leaved Golden-rod (_Solidago graminifolia_). This species differs
greatly in appearance from the usual form of most of the Golden-rods.

The stem is simple, angular, and slightly rough; it ascends 2 to 5 feet
and near the summit sends up many slender wiry, leafy branches supporting
flat-topped flower clusters. The flowers are crowded closely together but
are very small and rather dull-colored; they have 12 to 20 minute rays.
The leaves are small and narrowly lanceolate; they have three to five
ribs and are toothless but have a rough edge. It blooms from August until
October, very commonly from N. S. to Sask. and southward to N. J. and Mo.

Showy Golden-rod (_Solidago speciosa_) is a large species, from 3 to 7
feet tall, with a stout simple stem and a magnificent, bright
golden-yellow, plume-like head; the flowers are comparatively large and
have usually five rays. Readily distinguished by its leaves, the lower
ones rather large, contracting into a margined stem, gradually decreasing
in size to small lance-shaped ones at the top of the stem.

[Illustration: ]


                               THE ASTERS
                            Genus (_Aster_)

The members of this genus are exceedingly numerous in species. They are
very variable; some have large flower-heads, others tiny ones; some are
quite tall, others barely rise above the ground; some have few flowers on
a plant while on others they are exceedingly numerous. Their colors are
usually some shade of purple or white.

New England Aster (_Aster novæ-anglæ_) is one of the largest of the
genus, its stem attaining heights of from 2 to 6 feet.

The stem is stout, branched, and rather rough. The leaves are soft,
hairy, lance-shaped, and clasp the stem by a somewhat heart-shaped base.
The flowers are in a broad corymb at the top of the stem. They are quite
large, measuring about an inch across; the 30 to 40 narrow rays are of a
purplish color, often quite bright.

This species is common from Me. to Minn. and southward, blooming from
August to October, frequenting dry ground.

[Illustration: ]

Smooth Aster (_Aster lævis_) is a handsome species having a smooth, stout
stem, from 2 to 4 feet high. The flowers are in lovely terminal clusters,
each blossom measuring about an inch across; they are usually light
violet-blue in color, although color is very variable with all the
so-called blue asters; each disk is surrounded by 15 to 30 rays. The
leaves are nearly smooth-edged, lanceolate, clasping the stem with a
distinct heart-shaped base. The Smooth Aster is abundant from Me. to
Minn. and southward, growing in dry soil and blooming in September and
October.

New York Aster (_Aster novi-belgii_) is one of the very commonest of the
“blue asters.” The stalk is slender, very branchy, and grows from 1 to 3
feet in height. The leaves are commonly narrowly lanceolate but are very
variable; they slightly clasp the stem with their bases. The numerous
flower-heads are a trifle more than an inch across, the yellowish centre
being surrounded by 15 to 24 lilac or blue-violet rays. This species
abounds from Newfoundland to Florida and perhaps west to the Miss.
Valley. It blooms in September and October.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Heart-leaved Aster (_Aster cordifolius_) is a common species, readily
identified by the shape of its leaves that are, the lower ones
especially, heart-shaped and on quite long, slender, ciliate petioles.
The stalk is slender, branchy, and grows from 1 to 4 feet high. The
flowers are numerous but comparatively small, about ⅝ inch across; they
have brownish yellow centres and 10 to 20 lilac, or lighter colored rays.
It is a very common species in thin woods and thickets, or along their
edges. Found from N. B. to Minn. and southward, flowering in September
and October.

(B) Panicled Aster (_Aster paniculatus_) is a very tall, branching,
slender-stemmed species, commonly found in moist ground and on the
borders of woods or copses. The smooth stalk attains heights of from 2 to
8 feet. At the ends of the branches are numerous flower-heads about the
size of a nickel, loosely panicled. The leaves are long, lance-shaped,
nearly smooth, obscurely, or not at all toothed, and dark green in color.
This is one of the palest colored of the “blue asters,” the flowers are
very light violet and often white.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Heath Aster (_Aster ericoides_) is a common white Aster from Me. to
Minn. and southward. The plant grows 1 to 3 feet tall and has many
branches, each having simple, many-flowered stems racemed along their
outer ends. All the stems, even the flower peduncles, are set with tiny,
heath-like, linear leaves. In our illustration, the apparently different
size between the flowers of this and the last species is because the
scale is different.

(B) Many-flowered Aster (_Aster multiflorus_) has, as its name would lead
one to think, very many flowers, but they are small, averaging less than
½ inch across. In fact, most of the white-flowered species do have
smaller flowers than the blue ones, but what they lack in size they more
than make up in numbers. The stem is slender but very branching, making a
bush-like plant. Each branch is terminated by short, many-flowered
racemes. The leaves are tiny, light green and linear, smooth-edged but
rough to the touch, crowded along the branches to their tips. This is a
common species from Mass. to Minn. and southward, growing in dry places
everywhere and blooming from September to November.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Small White Aster (_Aster vimineus_) is still another of the tiny,
white-flowered Asters. It has a tall, branching stem from 2 to 5 feet
high; the branches nearly all leave the main stalk in a horizontal
position and the inflorescence is chiefly on one side of the flowering
stems. It grows in moist soil from Me. to Minn. and southward.

(B) Starved Aster (_Aster lateriflorus_) is a much-branched, slightly
hairy species, common in thickets and fields from N. S. to Ontario and
southward. The leaves are lanceolate and taper to a point at each end.
The ray florets are usually less in number than most of the other white
species.

Daisy Fleabane (_Erigeron ramosus_) is a common aster-like species found
blooming in fields from June until October. The stem is rough-hairy, and
grows 1 or 2 feet tall. The small daisy-like flowers grow in a corymbed
cluster at the top of the stem; they are about ½ inch across, have quite
a broad disc of tubular, yellowish florets, and very numerous, narrow,
ray florets; these rays range from 40 to 80 in number.

[Illustration: ]

(A) _Aster umbellatus_ is a common species of white Aster found growing
in moist woodland or thickets. It has smooth, leafy, branching stems from
2 to 6 feet tall.

The numerous flower-heads are in compound flat-topped corymbs; the
centre, or disc florets, are greenish yellow and are surrounded by a few
white rays, usually less than a dozen. It is a common species throughout
the northern parts of the United States.

(B) Sharp-leaved Wood Aster (_Aster acuminatus_) is a low-growing
woodland Aster growing from 1 to 3 feet in height. The leaves are quite
large, sharply pointed, sharply toothed, and short stemmed. A few
alternate along the lower portions of the stem and a number are so close
together as to appear whorled about the stem, just below the flowers. The
flowers are few in number, on slender pedicels. They have few white rays
and a rather brownish centre; the rays are long, narrow, often wavy and
give the flower a spread of from 1 to 1½ inches. It is quite a common
species in cool rich woods from Labrador to Ontario and south to Pa. It
blooms during August and September.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Pearly Everlasting (_Anaphalis margaritacea_) is the largest-flowered
and the prettiest of the everlastings.

The stems are simple, quite stout, white-wooly, leafy, and 6 to 30 inches
in height. The leaves are long and narrow, have a smooth edge, are
grayish green above and wooly below, and narrow into clasping bases; they
are closely set around the stem from the base to the flower cluster.

The flowers are in flat-topped clusters; each head is composed of many
pearly-white, dry, overlapping scales that surround brownish-yellow,
tubular florets. Staminate and pistillate flowers grow on different
plants. This Everlasting is very common on dry hillsides, in woods, or on
recently cleared land. Its range extends from N. S. to Manitoba and
southward to S. C. and Mo. It is in full bloom from July until September.

(B) Sweet Everlasting (_Gnaphalium polycephalum_) has a wooly stem and
wavy, lanceolate, wooly leaves. The pearly flower-heads are oval in
shape; they do not expand until after they have matured. It is common in
pastures everywhere.

[Illustration: ]

(B) Rosin-weed; Compass Plant (_Silphium laciniatum_) is a large,
showy-flowered plant found on the western prairies. It has a stout,
rough, bristly stem that attains heights of from 3 to 10 feet. The stem
grows from a perennial root. The large leaves are pinnately divided, each
division being linear and cut-lobed.

The flower-heads are very large, measuring from 2 to 4 inches across.
They are sessile or exceedingly short stemmed, seated along the upper
portion of the stout stem. They are disposed to present their edges north
and south. Compass Plant is found on prairies from Mich. to North Dakota
and southward; it blooms from July until September.

(A) Prairie Dock (_Silphium terbinthinaceum pinnatifidium_) is rather an
attractive plant that also grows on prairies and the edges of copses. The
smooth, slender stem ascends 3 to 10 feet high and bears a loose panicle
of large, yellow-rayed flower-heads. The leaves mostly come from the root
and lower part of the stem; they are slender-petioled and deeply
pinnatifid. Found from O. to Minn. and southward.

[Illustration: ]

Elecampane (_Inula Helenium_) (European) is a tall, stout, beautiful
member of the composite family that comes to us from the Old World.

The stout, smooth, usually unbranched stalk grows from 2 to 6 feet in
height and is leafy throughout. At the summit of the stem is a single (or
sometimes two) large flower set on a peduncle from the angle of the upper
leaf. A smaller, flat, bract-like leaf appears just below the flower
involucre. The head measures 2 or 3 inches across and has a broad disc of
tubular, yellow florets, these turning tan color as they age. The yellow
rays are numerous, but very narrow, usually set at different angles and
with some vacant places so that the flower has a rather disheveled
appearance.

The upper leaves usually clasp the plant stem, while the lower ones are
on petioles. They are broad, thick-textured, toothed and pointed; the
large, whitish veins show very prominently; the upper surface of the leaf
is rough, yellowish green, while the lower is lighter and wooly.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Robin’s Plantain (_Erigeron pulchellus_) is one of the earliest
members of the Composite Family to bloom. In fact, it is often known as
the “Blue Spring Daisy,” a name which is very appropriate for it, much
more so than the one it commonly bears. The very fuzzy, light green,
juicy stalk attains heights of from 10 to 24 inches. Most of the leaves
are in a dense rosette at the base of the stalk; they are spatulate in
shape, indistinctly toothed and hairy throughout. From one to nine
flowers, an inch, or slightly more, broad are grouped at the top of the
stem. It is common everywhere, blooming in May and June.

(B) Purple Cone Flower (_Brauneria purpurea_) is a showy western species
bearing a single, large flower-head with a conical centre of purple disc
florets and surrounded by many large, notched, magenta rays. The stiff,
hairy stem rises 2 to 3 feet high. The leaves, also stiff-hairy,
alternate along it; the upper ones are toothless and seated on the stem,
while the lower ones are sharply toothed; they are five-ribbed and deep
green in color. Rich soil, N. Y. to Mich. and southward.

[Illustration: ]

Black-eyed Susan; Yellow Daisy; Cone-flower (_Rudbeckia hirta_) is a
beautiful, large-flowered, tough-stemmed species that is commonly found
in dry fields and pastures throughout the East, although it is, by
nativity, a western species.

The stem is hairy, rough, very tough, and grows from 1 to 3 feet in
height. Single, large flowers are borne at the summit of each stem.

The involucre is composed of two rows of leaf-like bracts that spread as
the flower opens, the outer ones extending almost as widely as the rays.
The conical, dark purple centre is composed of long, tubular florets that
ripen in successive circles about the cone, making a fringe of yellow
pollen on its surface. The orange-yellow rays are neutral, with neither
stamens nor pistils.

The leaves, scattered alternately along the stem, are stiff and hairy.
The upper ones are lanceolate and seated on the stem, the lower ones are
broader toward the tip, rather spatulate shaped.

[Illustration: ]

Tall Cone-flower (_Rudbeckia laciniata_) is a tall, lanky member of this
genus, with an entirely different temperament from that of the Black-eyed
Susan. No hot, sandy, or dusty fields for this, but the cool depths of
moist thickets. As usual with vegetation in moist, rich soil, its growth
is luxuriant. The smooth, branching stem ascends to heights of 3 to 10
feet and is leafy throughout. Ordinarily, the plant does not grow more
than 5 feet in height; those that exceed this height might be termed
giants of the species. The lower leaves are very large, are on long
petioles and are cleft into five or seven divisions; the lower and middle
stem leaves are usually three-parted while the upper ones, or at least
the ones nearest the flowers, are small and elliptical.

Several large flower-heads terminate the branches; they measure from 2 to
4 inches across. The central disc is, at first, hemispherical and green
but finally becomes elongated and brownish. The rays number six to twelve
and are bright yellow in color. This species blooms from July until
September and is found from Me. to Manitoba and southward.

[Illustration: ]

Ten-petalled Sunflower (_Helianthus decapetalous_). This is a
slender-stemmed, graceful, showy-flowered Sunflower, common in damp woods
and on the borders of thickets, from Me., Quebec, and Minn. southward.
The branching stem grows from 2 to 5 feet tall; it is slightly
hairy-rough on the upper portions but smooth below. The leaves are thin,
rather rough-broad lance-shaped, short-stemmed and grow oppositely on the
stem; they are all sharply saw-toothed. The showy flowers, growing on
slender peduncles from the ends of the branches, are 2 to 3 inches
across. Though often with ten rays, they just as frequently have any
number from 8 to 15.

Common Sunflower (_Helianthus annuus_) is the common garden Sunflower
that often has such enormous heads. The normal, wild plant is common from
Minn. to Texas and westward. The flower-heads range from 3 to 6 inches in
diameter; it is only the cultivated variety, produced from this, that has
the mammoth heads we often see.

In its wild state the plant grows from 3 to 6 feet tall. Their period of
bloom is from July until September.

[Illustration: ]

Jerusalem Artichoke (_Helianthus tuberosus_) is, like the Common
Sunflower, a valuable species, and one that is often cultivated because
of its edible roots, these being tender and of good flavor; they are
eaten raw or cooked. Their value as articles of food was first discovered
by Indians and by them imparted to our early colonists. The name
Jerusalem, in connection with this plant, is a corruption from the name
applied to the species by Italians (Girasole Articocco), meaning
sunflower artichoke.

It is a handsome plant, the stout, leafy, hairy stalk growing from 3 to
12 feet tall and being topped with several large showy flowers. The
large, three-veined leaves are hairy and have toothed margins. They are
chiefly set oppositely on the stem, although some of the upper ones may
alternate. The several flower-heads are large, measuring up to 3 inches
across. The central florets are greenish yellow and are surrounded by
from 12 to 24 lone, golden-yellow rays.

This species is often also known as the Canada Potato and the Earth
Apple. Its range extends from southern Canada southward nearly to the
Gulf.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Beggar-ticks; Stick-tight (_Bidens frondosa_) is a plant familiar, to
their sorrow, to all who roam the woods and fields during fall. Who has
not had the pleasant task of sitting down and, one by one, removing the
little two-hooked, black seeds that hang so closely to clothing.

Beggar-ticks, in appearance, is an uninteresting weed common everywhere
in moist ground or along roadsides. The stem is very branching and is
from 1 to 8 feet tall. The leaves are compounded of three to five sharply
toothed, lance-shaped leaflets. The flower-heads are composed of tubular
brownish-yellow florets, sometimes with no surrounding rays and again
with a few tiny ones.

(B) Larger Bur-marigold; Brook Sunflower (_Bidens lævis_) is a very
attractive species while it is in flower, but later, after the little
seeds have formed, it has the same disagreeable traits common to all the
members of the genus. The flowers of this species are 1 to 2 in. across,
having 8 or 10 large, yellow, neutral rays surrounding the dull-colored
disc florets. The stem is slender and branching, the leaves lance-shaped
and toothed. Common in swamps and along brooks.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Common White Daisy; Ox-eye Daisy (_Chrysanthemum leucanthemum_)
(European) is a naturalized, floral citizen. It is so common and has
become so widespread that it is even better known than most of our common
native flowers.

This Daisy needs no description. We have two very similar kinds differing
in the shape of the leaves, one being more pinnatifid than the other. The
one shown on the opposite page is the most common, a variety of
_leucanthemum_ called _pinnatifidum_. The other variety has the ends of
the leaves rounded and finely toothed but not cut or slashed.

(B) Feverfew (_Chrysanthemum parthenium_) (European) is found in some
places in the East as an escape from gardens. The stem grows from 1 to 2
feet tall and is quite branching. The flowers are grouped in clusters;
they are much smaller than those of the last species and have a
comparatively broader disc of yellow florets. The leaves are broad,
deeply pinnatifid, and each division further toothed or cut. It is
locally naturalized from Mass. to N. J. and westward. It blooms from June
until September, the same as does the last species.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Yarrow; Milfoil (_Achillea millefolium_) is one of the most common of
our wayside weeds.

The stem is stout, gray-green, usually simple, or forking near the top.
The leaves, alternating along and clasping the stem, are soft and
feathery—deeply and finely bipinnatifid.

The flowers grow in very compact, flat-topped clusters at the top of the
stem. Each flower-head has a centre of short, tubular, yellowish florets
that turn brown or grayish as they grow old; they are surrounded by from
four to six round, white rays.

Yarrow is a very hardy plant; we may find it thriving beside roads where
the dust has killed nearly ever other living thing. Its leaves have a
strong, not unpleasant, aromatic odor.

(B) Mayweed; Chamomile (_Anthemis Cotula_) (European) is also a common
weed found by the wayside in company with the last species. The stem is
very branchy, 8 to 20 inches high. The leaves are very finely divided.
The strong, unpleasant odor of the foliage will at once correct the
impression that it may be a Daisy.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Sneezeweed (_Helenium autumnale_) is a beautiful rather odd plant
that brightens meadows and swamps during August and September. The stem
is rather stout, smooth, and branching; it ascends from 2 to 6 feet.
Alternating along the stem are numerous ovate, pointed, sharply toothed,
bright green leaves.

It is the blossoms that attract our attention for, besides being very
handsome, they are unusual in form. The hemispherical centre is composed
of closely packed tubular florets and is surrounded by a number of broad,
toothed, golden-yellow rays; the heads have an expanse of 1 to 2 inches.
Both the tubular and the yellow pistillate rays are fertile.

(B) Tansy; Bitter Buttons (_Tanacetum vulgare_) (European) is abundant
everywhere about houses and along roads, from the Atlantic to the Rocky
Mountains.

The foliage is very bitter and is the foundation of many an old-fashioned
remedy. The flowers grow in flat-topped clusters and are composed of
round discs, or “buttons,” of tubular florets only. It is a species not
to be mistaken; it has an appearance, an odor, and a taste of its own. It
blooms from July until September.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Golden Ragwort (_Senecio aureus_). In late March and early April,
Ragwort shows simply a tuft of stemmed, heart-shaped leaves, resembling
those of Violets. A little later a stem ascends from the perennial root;
a slender, tough, angular, twisting stem that finally reaches heights of
1 to 3 feet. During May and June they carry at their summit a loose
cluster of bright, orange-yellow flowers. Each flower is composed of but
8 to 12 narrow, orange-yellow rays, surrounding a central cluster of
tubular florets of brownish orange.

The stem leaves are chiefly sessile, deeply cut or pinnatifid. Ragwort
grows most abundantly and most luxuriantly in swamps or moist ground, but
is also found in dry places or stony pastures. Its range extends from
Newfoundland to Wisconsin and southward.

(B) Arnica (_Arnica mollis_). The slightly hairy stem grows from 1 to 2
feet tall. The basal leaves are long petioled but the stem ones are
sessile and opposite, shallow-toothed. At the summit are one to nine
flower-heads on slender peduncles. About the central disc are 10 to 14
yellow rays, each with three notches in their ends. Canada and the
mountains of northern U. S.

[Illustration: ]

Burdock (_Arctium minus_) (European) is a very common plant on waste
ground, along roadsides and the edges of woods. The plant is often 4 feet
or more high. The lower leaves are very large, often more than a foot in
length, heart-shaped, deep green and finely veined above, grayish beneath
because of the fine wool that covers the under surfaces. The upper leaves
are smaller, more ovate in form, and less densely wooly on the
undersides. The flower-heads grow in clusters at the ends of the
branches. The involucre is almost spherical, composed of numerous bracts,
each terminating in a sharp, hooked point. Tubular florets, only, are
seated within this involucre; they are purple and white in color, and
secrete an abundance of nectar on which account they are frequented by
honey bees.

The present species adopts the policy of the Beggar-ticks, but instead of
single seeds, it attaches the whole bur-like head by means of its
numerous little hooks. They cling tenaciously to everything they touch;
doubtless most of my readers recall massing these burs together to make
castles, funny men, animals, etc.

[Illustration: ]

Canada Thistle (_Cirsium arvense_) (European) is a small-flowered,
perennial species that has strayed across the ocean and become a
pernicious weed.

The stem is rather slender, branching, and grows from 1 to 3 feet in
height. It grows from a perennial, creeping rootstalk, that is, as
farmers have discovered, very difficult to eradicate from the soil. It
grows in extensive colonies and, unless strenuous efforts are made to
destroy them, they very soon take possession of a field to the exclusion
of almost everything else.

The leaves, that grow alternately and closely together on the stem, are
long, lance-shaped, deeply cut into sharply prickled lobes. Numerous
flower-heads, about one inch across, terminate the branches. When in full
bloom, the florets vary in color from rose-purple to white; the involucre
is almost globular and covered with over-lapping bracts, each with a
tiny, sharp, out-turned point.

All the thistles yield an abundance of nectar and are frequented by bees
and butterflies.

[Illustration: ]

Bull Thistle (_Cirsium lanceolatum_) is the thistle that we most often
see in fields and pastures. It is one of the largest of the genus, its
heads often measuring 3 inches across. The stem is stout and simple, and
grows from 1 to 3 feet high; it is hairy and angular in section and grows
from a biennial rootstalk.

The flower-heads are very large, 2 to 3½ inches across and usually
solitary, although frequently two heads grow on the same stalk. The
leaves are lance-shaped, green, clasping, rather hairy, pinnatifid and
armed with short, stout prickles. Just below the flowers are several
small bract-like leaves, also armed with sharp prickles. All this armor
tends to discourage pilfering insects from crawling up the stem; should
they persist and reach the large involucre, which is also armed, they
will find that, in addition, it is slightly sticky, and presents an
impenetrable barrier to their upward progress. This species is common
from Me. to Del. and Pa. It blooms from July until September.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Star Thistle (_Centaurea nigra, var. radiata_). The slender stein
branches slightly and rises to heights of 1 to 2 feet, each branch
bearing a solitary flower-head at the end. The flower-head has a round
involucre of tawny, or dark brown, dry bracts; the florets are all
tubular and rose-purple.

This species, which is introduced from Europe, grows in waste places and
along roadsides from N. S. to Ontario and south to N. J. and Pa. It may
be found in bloom from July until September.

(B) Chicory; Succory (_Cichorium intybus_) (European) has become
thoroughly naturalized and is common in the eastern half of the United
States, especially so near the coast.

The stem is stiff, tough, and angular in cross-section; it attains
heights of from 1 to 3 feet. The leaves are long-lanceolate, dark
gray-green and coarsely toothed. The flowers are very beautiful—a
violet-blue, approaching a pure blue in color. There are at least two
ranks of strap-shaped rays, the inner ones much shorter, all toothed at
the ends. Succory blooms in dry situations from July until October.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Fall Dandelion (_Leontodon autumnalis_) (European) is a small
dandelion, naturalized from Europe and common in the Eastern States
during fall, or from the latter part of July. The leaves, tufted at the
base of the flower scape, are long and narrow and have blunt teeth. The
flower scape is long and slender and usually forks near the summit,
bearing two or three flower-heads, rarely only one; the scape attains
heights of 7 to 18 inches. The flower stalk is not hollow like that of
the common dandelion, but is solid. It grows in fields and along
roadsides and is quite common from Newfoundland to Mich. and south to Pa.

(B) Dwarf Dandelion; Cynthia (_Krigia virginica_) is a tiny little plant
as compared to the common dandelion. The leaves are all basal on rather
long petioles; they are coarsely and sharply, or laciniately, toothed.
Numerous unbranching, slender flower scapes rise from these tufts of
basal leaves, each bearing at the summit a little golden-rayed flower
resembling a dandelion.

Cynthia is a very common native species and is found blooming from April
until July in dry fields, open wilds, or sandy soil, from southern Canada
to the Gulf.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Common Dandelion (_Taraxacum officinale_) although an immigrant to
our land, has extended its range from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and is
as well, or better known, as any other wild flower that we have. As every
one knows its green, jagged leaves form a staple article of food and can
be purchased in markets in spring at so much per peck. This species, with
its large, flat, rosette of leaves and bright sunny flowers needs no
description; it is well shown on the accompanying plate. All parts
contain a bitter milky juice that exudes freely whenever the plant is
broken.

The dandelion blooms most abundantly during the spring months but may be
also found during every other month, even in winter. The name dandelion,
of course, refers to the jagged edge of the leaves.

(B) Red-seeded Dandelion (_Taraxacum erythrospermum_) is a smaller
species, also European, with more deeply cut leaves (pinnatifid) and with
reddish-brown seeds, whereas those of the preceding species are usually
olive-green. Common in dry fields from Me. to Pa. and westward to the
Mississippi.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Sow Thistle (_Sonchus oleraceus_) (European). This species is not a
real thistle at all and the name “Sow” is applied rather as a term of
derision, signifying spurious or worthless.

The stem is stout, smooth, grooved, hollow, and succulent; it attains
heights of 1 to 6 feet. The leaves are shaped more like those of the
dandelion than a thistle, but are armed with soft spikes. The small,
thistle-like flower-heads are light yellow; they grow in loose clusters,
terminating the branches.

(B) Wild Lettuce (_Lactuca canadensis_) is one of the rankest-growing of
our native plants. The milky-juiced, branching, smooth stem ranges in
heights from 3 to 10 feet. The leaves are all very angular, cut, toothed,
and gouged in all manner of forms. Those near the base of the stem are
very large, often attaining lengths of more than a foot. They become
smaller and less deeply lobed as they mount the stem, the upper, small
ones being almost entire edged. The small, yellow-rayed flowers are
numerous but uninteresting. At maturity they are succeeded by silky
beards of down, proceeding from the deep vase-like involucres.

[Illustration: ]

(A) Rattlesnake-weed (_Hieracium venosum_) is commonly found in dry sandy
places and in open woods. It can readily be recognized by the tuft of
spatulate leaves spreading from the root, each leaf having strong
veinings of purple.

A solitary stem, branching slightly at the top, grows from the centre of
the tuft of leaves. The flower-heads are composed of bright,
golden-yellow rays seated in a rather deep involucre; they resemble
little dandelions but the rays are fewer in number. Rattlesnake-weed
blooms from June until September and ranges from Me. to Minn. and
southward to Ga.

(B) Canada Hawkweed (_Hieracium canadense_) is a smooth, slender,
leafy-stemmed species. Besides the large, spreading, basal ones, the stem
is alternately set with stemless, lance-shaped, sharply toothed, light
green leaves. The flowers are practically like those of the last species.
In October, they are replaced by little brownish globes of down. Canada
Hawkweed is common on the borders of woods from Newfoundland to British
Columbia south to N. J., Mich., and Oregon. It blooms from July until
September.



                        KEYS TO FLOWERS BY COLOR


The flowers are grouped under their most conspicuous colors, the ones the
novice would be most apt to call them. As far as possible the smallest
flowers are placed first in each section.


                    WHITE AS THE CHIEF FLOWER-COLOR

  False Spikenard—Tiny; clustered                                     32
  False Solomon’s Seal—3 leaves on stalk                              33
  Meadow Rue—Filmy cluster; 3-lobed leaves                            69
  Sundew—Raceme; leaves hairy, basal                                  81
  Saxifrage—Cluster; 5 petals; basal leaves                           82
  Mitrewort—Raceme; 5 petals; crystal-like                            83
  Foam Flower—Feathery spike; leaves basal                            83
  Meadowsweet—Spike-like cluster                                      84
  White Clover—Triple leaves; round heads                             95
  Ginseng—Umbel; 3 compound leaves                                   121
  Wild Carrot—Flat cluster; divided leaves                           122
  Catnip—Small clusters; aromatic                                    154
  Rattlesnake Plantain—Tubular, spiked                                55
  Ladies’ Tresses—Spiral spike; tubular                               55
  Checkerberry—Tubular, pendent; evergreen                           131
  Partridgeberry—In pairs, 4-lobed                                   170
  Violet—5 petals, lower large, veined                               115
  Star-of-Bethlehem—Umbel; grasslike leaves                           41
  Dutchman’s Breeches—2 sac-like spurs                                77
  Squirrel Corn—Tubular, heart-shaped                                 77
  Toothwort—4 petals; 2 compound leaves                               78
  Star Flower—Above whorl of leaves                                  137
  Bladder Campion—5 petals; inflated calyx                            62
  Evening Lychnis—5 notched petals                                    62
  Anemone—5-6 sepals; delicate low herbs                              70
  Pipsissewa—Cluster; 5 waxy petals                                  124
  Shin-leaf—Raceme; 5 waxy petals                                    125
  Indian Pipe—Cold, clammy white; no green                           125
  Turtle-head—Tubular, 2-lipped; spiked                              161
  Cornel—4-parted involucre. Low herb                                123
  Bloodroot—Solitary; 6-10 petals                                     75
  Mandrake—Solitary; 6 petals; large leaves                           74
  Fringed Orchis—Showy spike; lip fringed                             50
  Trillium—3 petals, 3 sepals; 3 leaves                               38
  Arrow-heads—Aquatic; 3 petals                                       19
  Water Arum—Aquatic; large white spathe                              21
  Grass of Parnassus—5 petals, green-veined                           82
  Azalea—Shrub; tubular, 5 spreading lobes                           126
  Laurel—Clustered, saucer-shaped; shrub                             129
  Atamasco Lily—Erect, 6-parted; solitary                             41
  Lady’s Slipper—Large, white, slipper-shaped                         46
  Dogwood—Shrub or tree; 4-parted involucre                          123
  Water Lily—Floating, numerous petals                                66


                      BLUE AS THE CHIEF FLOWER-COLOR

  Bluets—Tiny, 4-lobed; white, blue-tipped                           170
  Toadflax—Spurred, hooded, tiny lip                                 160
  Forget-me-not—5 petals, yellow centre                              150
  Day Flower—2 petals; delicate; spathed                              23
  Pickerel-weed—Aquatic; showy spike                                  24
  Mud Plantain—Aquatic; kidney-shaped leaf                            24
  Fringed Gentian—4 spreading, fringed lobes                         141
  Bugloss—Leafy racemes; tubular, 5 lobes                            151
  Lobelia—Leafy spike; 3-lobed lip                                   175
  Blue-eyed grass—6-parted, white centre                              44
  Sundew—Raceme; leaves thread-like                                   81
  St. Johnswort—Flesh color, 5 petals                                111
  Speedwell—Axillary racemes, 4 petals                               163
  Showy Orchis—Purple hood, white lip                                 54
  Fringed Orchis—Showy spike; lips fringed                            51
  Cinquefoil—5-parted, calyx large                                    86
  Lupine—Pea-like; 8-palmated leaflets                                91
  False Indigo—Pea-like; 3-palmate leaflets                           91
  Flax—5 large petals; tiny leaves                                    99
  Vervain—5 petals, tiny; slender spikes                             152
  Self-heal—Short, stout spike; hooded                               153
  Skullcap—Spiked; tubular with hood and lip                         153
  Ground Ivy—Prostrate; axillary flowers                             154
  Monkey Flower—2-lobed upper; 3-lobed lower                         162
  Gerardia—Tubular, 5-lobed; linear leaves                           164
  Hepatica—6 petals; 3-lobed leaves; downy                            73
  Spiderwort—Small cluster; 3 petals; hairy                           23
  Violets—5 petals; lower large, veined                              113
  Loosestrife—Showy spike; 5 long petals                             117
  Milk-weeds—Axillary clusters; milky juice                          146
  Bittersweet—5 petals; yellow cone centre                           157
  Cranesbill—5 petals; palmate leaves                                102
  Virgin’s Bower—Large bell-shaped; 4 sepals                          71
  Meadow Beauty—4 petals; long curved pistil                         118
  Closed Gentian—Tubular, closed                                     143
  Phlox—Corymbed; 5 spreading petals                                 149
  Bluebell—Bell-shaped, 5-toothed; slender                           173
  Bellflower—Showy spike; 5-toothed corolla                          173
  Thorn Apple—Funnel-form, 5-pointed lobes                           158
  Morning Glory—Funnel-shaped; climbing                              148
  Blue Flag—3 petals; 3 sepals variegated                             43
  Wake Robin—3 petals, 3 sepals, 3 leaves                             38


                        BLUE OR MAGENTA COMPOSITES

  Iron-weed—Tubular florets; clustered                               176
  Blazing Star—Tubular florets; loose spike                          176
  Joe Pye Weed—Tubular florets; flat clusters                        177
  Burdock—Tubular florets; spiny involucre                           201
  Thistles—Tubular florets; spiny leaves                             202
  Asters—Blue or purple rays                                         182
  Robin Plantain—Purple rays                                         191
  Chicory—Blue rays, notched at tip                                  206


                      PINK AS THE CHIEF FLOWER-COLOR

  Persicaria—Tiny, in slender spikes                                  59
  Steeplebush—Steeple-like cluster                                    84
  Red Clover—Trifoliate; round flower-head                            94
  Twinflower—In pairs; crimson inside                                171
  Dogbane—5-toothed, bell-shaped; spreading                          144
  Arbutus—Creeping; 5-parted, fragrant                               131
  Milkwort—Round scaly heads; small leaves                           104
  Fringed Polygalia—2 wing-like sepals                               103
  Pogonia—Solitary; broad, crested lip                                53
  Calopogon—Several; fringed leaf at top                              52
  Arethusa—Solitary; broad crested lip; erect                         52
  Bouncing Bet—5-parted, deeply lobed                                 63
  Spring Beauty—5-parted; grass-like leaves                           65
  Willow Herb—4 petals, slender pods; spike                          119
  Azalea—Tubular, 5-lobed; long stamens; shrub                       127
  Laurel—Clustered; saucer-shaped                                    130
  Moss Pink—Creeping; 5-notched petals                               148
  Sabbatia—Large; 10-12 petals; 2 inch across                        140
  Sea Pink—5 petals, crimson marks; showy                            139
  Rhododendron—5 petals, yellow spots; shrub                         128
  Rose Mallow—5 petals, large, 3 inch across                         109
  Wild Rose—5 large petals; spiny stems                               89
  Moccasin Flower—Large, slipper-shaped                               47


                   RED AS THE CONSPICUOUS FLOWER-COLOR

  Wood Lily—Deep orange-red, spotted, erect                           28
  Columbine—Pendulous; 5-spurred                                      72
  Pitcher Plant—Leaves hollow                                         80
  Pimpernel—Copper-red, 5 petals; sandy soil                         137
  Oswego Tea—Striking, tubular; round heads                          156
  Painted Cup—Floral leaves scarlet tipped                           165
  Coral Honeysuckle—Slender, yellow within                           172
  Cardinal Flower—Lip 3-lobed; velvety                               174


                     ORANGE AS THE CHIEF FLOWER-COLOR

  Jewel-weed—Pendent; bunch-like, spurred                            106
  Butterfly-weed—Terminal cluster, brilliant                         145
  Toadflax—Yellow spur and lip; orange palate                        160
  Trumpet Creeper—Large trumpet-shaped; vine                         168
  Turk’s Cap Lily—Reflexed, spotted; leafy                            29
  Day Lily—Erect; basal, sword-shaped leaves                          27
  Hawkweed—Rays in several ranks                                     208
  Dandelions—Rays in several ranks                                   205
  Tansy—Flat clusters, no rays                                       199
  Golden-rods—Plume-like spikes; 5-12 rays                           180
  Golden Aster—Golden rays; sandy soil                               178
  Elecampane—Slender, yellow rays; disc                              190
  Sunflowers—Yellow rays, large disc                                 194
  Cone-flower—Orange rays, purple cone disc                          192
  Ragwort—Orange rays and small disc                                 200


                     YELLOW AS THE CHIEF FLOWER-COLOR

  Golden Club—Aquatic; club-shaped spike                              21
  Hop Clover—Cylindrical, scaly heads                                 96
  Yellow Flax—Tiny flowers; tiny leaves                               99
  Hudsonia—Tiny flowers; scale-like leaves                           112
  Fly Honeysuckle—Axillary in pairs; tubular                         171
  Wood Sorrel—5 petals; delicate; trifoliate                         101
  Wild Indigo—Pea-like, racemed; trifoliate                           92
  Cinquefoil—5 petals; 5-palmate leaflets                             86
  Mustard—4 petals, slender pods; clusters                            79
  Celandine—4 petals, slender pods; orange juice                      76
  Yellow Star Grass—6 sepals; grass-like                              42
  Dog-tooth Violet—Solitary; 6 parted                                 31
  Clintonia—6-parted; 3 oval, basal leaves                            31
  St. Johnswort—5 petals, many long stamens                          110
  Violet—5 petals; lower large, veined                               116
  Loosestrife—Showy spike; 5 petals, basal spot                      134
  Loosestrife—Axillary; leaves whorled in fours                      134
  Mullein—Long spike, 5 petals; wooly                                159
  Moth Mullein—Raceme; 5 large petals                                159
  Fringed Orchis—Showy spike; lip fringed                             49
  Cowslip—5 shining petals; clustered                                 67
  Buttercup—5 shining petals                                          68
  Partridge Pea—5 petals; pinnate leaves                              93
  Frostweed—5 petals; axillary; small leaves                         112
  Primrose—4 petals; coarse stem and leaves                          120
  Sundrops—4 petals; slender stem                                    120
  Foxglove—Tubular, 5-lobed; leafy spike                             164
  False Jessamine—5-lobed; climbing, tubular                         138
  Yellow Pond Lily—Aquatic; floating leaves                           66
  Lady’s Slipper—Solitary, slipper-shaped                             45
  Canada Lily—Pendulous; leafy stem                                   30


                   BROWNISH, GREENISH, OR INCONSPICUOUS

  Cat-tails—Cylindrical brown heads                                   17
  Bur Reeds—Spherical brown-yellow heads                              18
  Indian Turnip—Large striped spathe                                  20
  Skunk Cabbage—Large spathe set on ground                            22
  Solomon’s Seal—In pairs from axils; greenish                        35
  Cucumber-root—3, 3-parted, spider-like flowers                      37
  Green-fringed Orchis—Lips fringed; spiked                           48
  Wild Ginger—Tubular, 3-lobed; near roots                            57
  Stone Clover—Fuzzy gray heads; trifoliate                           94
  Ground Nut—Spherical, pea-like clusters                             98
  Wood Betony—2-lipped; clustered; fern-like                         166
  Beech Drops—Resembling little twigs                                167



                                  INDEX


                                   A
  Achillea millefolium                                               198
  Aconite                                                             73
  Aconitum uncinatum                                                  73
  Adder’s tongue                                                      31
  Agrimonia gryposepala                                               87
  Agrimony                                                            87
  Agrostemma githago                                                  61
  Alfalfa                                                             97
  Allium                                                              26
  Anagallis arvensis                                                 137
  Anaphalis margaritacea                                             188
  Anemone quinquefolia                                                70
  ”     Rue                                                           70
  ”     patens                                                        69
  ”     Wood                                                          70
  Anemonella thalictroides                                            70
  Anthemis Cotula                                                    198
  Apios tuberosa                                                      98
  Apocynum                                                           144
  Aquilegia canadensis                                                72
  Aralia nudicaulis                                                  121
  Arbutus                                                            131
  Arctium minus                                                      201
  Arethusa                                                            52
  Argemone mexicana                                                   75
  Arisæma                                                             20
  ”     triphyllum                                                    20
  Aristolochia                                                        57
  Arnica mollis                                                      200
  Arrow-heads                                                         19
  Artichoke, Jerusalem                                               195
  Arum, Water                                                         21
  Asarum canadense                                                    57
  Asclepiadaceæ                                                      145
  Aster acuminatus                                                   187
  ”   cordifolius                                                    184
  ”   ericoides                                                      185
  ”   Heath                                                          185
  ”   Heart-leaved                                                   184
  ”   lævis                                                          183
  ”   lateriflorus                                                   186
  ”   linaritolius                                                   187
  ”   multiflorus                                                    185
  ”   New England                                                    182
  ”   New York                                                       183
  ”   Sharp-leaved                                                   187
  ”   Smooth                                                         183
  ”   Starved                                                        186
  ”   umbellatus                                                     187
  ”   vimineus                                                       186
  ”   Wood                                                           187
  Avens                                                               88
  Azalea                                                             126


                                   B
  Baptisia australis                                                  91
  Baptisia tinctoria                                                  92
  Bean, Wild                                                          98
  Beard-tongue                                                       161
  Bee Balm                                                           156
  Beach Drops                                                        167
  Beggar-ticks                                                       196
  Bellflower                                                         173
  Bellwort                                                            25
  Betony, Wood                                                       166
  Bidens frondosa                                                    196
  ”    lævis                                                         196
  Bindweed, Hedge                                                    148
  Bittersweet                                                        157
  Blackberry                                                          85
  Blazing Star                                                       176
  Bloodroot                                                           75
  Bluebell                                                           173
  Bluets                                                             170
  Blue-weed                                                          151
  Boneset                                                            177
  Bouncing Bet                                                        63
  Brassica nigra                                                      79
  Brauneria purpurea                                                 191
  Brooklime                                                          163
  Broom-rape                                                         167
  Bugloss                                                            151
  Bunchberry                                                         123
  Burdock                                                            201
  Bur-marigold                                                       196
  Bur Reeds                                                           18
  Butter-and-eggs                                                    160
  Buttercups                                                          68
  Butterfly-weed                                                     145


                                   C
  Calla palustris                                                     21
  Calopogon                                                           52
  Caltha palustris                                                    67
  Campanula                                                          173
  Campion, Bladder                                                    62
  Cancer-root                                                        167
  Cardinal Flower                                                    174
  Carrot, Wild                                                       122
  Cassia Chamæcrista                                                  93
  Castalia odorata                                                    66
  Castilleja coccinea                                                165
  Cat Gut                                                             93
  Catnip                                                             154
  Cat-tails                                                           17
  Celandine                                                           76
  Centaurea nigra                                                    204
  Chamomile                                                          198
  Checkerberry                                                       131
  Chelidonium majus                                                   76
  Chelone glabra                                                     161
  Chickweed                                                           60
  Chicory                                                            204
  Chimaphila maculata                                                124
  ”      umbellata                                                   124
  Chrysanthemum                                                      197
  Chrysopsis falcata                                                 178
  ”      mariana                                                     178
  Cichorium intybus                                                  204
  Cinquefoils                                                         86
  Cirsium arvense                                                    202
  “  lanceolatum                                                     203
  Claytonia virginica                                                 65
  Clintonia                                                           31
  Clover, Rabbit-foot                                                 94
  ”  Red                                                              94
  ”  White                                                            95
  ”  Yellow                                                           96
  Columbine, Wild                                                     72
  Comfrey                                                            150
  Commelina communis                                                  23
  Compass Plant                                                      189
  Cone-flowers                                                       192
  ”   Purple                                                         191
  Convallaria majalis                                                 36
  Convolvulus sepium                                                 148
  Coptis trifolia                                                     72
  Corn Cockle                                                         61
  Cornel                                                             123
  Cornus florida                                                     123
  ” canadensis                                                       123
  Corpse Plant                                                       125
  Cow Lily                                                            66
  Cranesbill                                                         102
  Crotolaria sagittalis                                               92
  Cucumber-root, Indian                                               37
  Cuscuta Gronovii                                                   148
  Cynoglossum virginianum                                            150
  Cypripedium                                                         45


                                   D
  Daisy, Ox-eye                                                      197
  “  White                                                           197
  Dalibarda repens                                                    88
  Dandelions, Common                                                 206
  “  Fall                                                            205
  Datura Tatula                                                      158
  Daucus Carota                                                      122
  Day-flower                                                          23
  Dentaria diphylla                                                   78
  Dicentra Cucullaria                                                 77
  Dodder                                                             148
  Dodecatheon Meadia                                                 135
  Dogbane                                                            144
  Dogwood, Flowering                                                 123
  Draba verna                                                         78
  Drosera rotundifolia                                                81
  “  filiformis                                                       81
  Dutchman’s Breeches                                                 77


                                   E
  Echium vulgare                                                     151
  Elecampane                                                         190
  Epifagus virginiana                                                167
  Epigæa repens                                                      131
  Epilobium angustifolium                                            119
  “  hirsutum                                                        119
  Erigeron pulchellus                                                191
  Erythronium                                                         31
  Eupatorium perfoliatum                                             177
  “  purpureum                                                       177
  Evening Primrose                                                   120
  Everlasting                                                        188


                                   F
  Feverfew                                                           197
  Flag, Blue                                                          43
  Flax                                                                99
  Foam Flower                                                         83
  Forget-me-not                                                      150
  Foxglove                                                           164
  Fragraria virginiana                                                85
  Frostweed                                                          112


                                   G
  Garlic, Wild                                                        26
  Gaultheria procumbens                                              131
  Gelsemium sempervirens                                             138
  Gentian, Bottle                                                    143
  “  Closed                                                          143
  “  Downy                                                           142
  “  Fringed                                                         141
  “  Solitary                                                        142
  Gentiana Andrewsii                                                 143
  “   crinita                                                        141
  “   Porphyrio                                                      142
  “   puberula                                                       142
  Geranium masculatum                                                102
  “  Robertianum                                                     102
  “  Wild                                                            102
  Gerardia, Purple                                                   164
  “  purpurea                                                        164
  Geum strictum                                                       88
  Gill-over-the-ground                                               154
  Ginger, Wild                                                        57
  Ginseng                                                            121
  Gnaphalium polycephalum                                            188
  Goat’s Rue                                                          93
  Golden Club                                                         21
  Golden-rod, Blue-stemmed                                           179
  “  Canada                                                          180
  “  Early                                                           180
  “  Lance-leaved                                                    181
  “  White                                                           179
  Goldthread                                                          72
  Grass, Blue-eyed                                                    44
  Grass of Parnassus                                                  82
  Grass Pink                                                          52
  Green Brier                                                         36
  Ground Nut                                                          98
  Ground Ivy                                                         154


                                   H
  Habenaria clavellata                                                48
  “  ciliaris                                                         49
  “  fimbriata                                                        51
  “  lacera                                                           50
  Hardback                                                            84
  Harebell                                                           173
  Hawkweed, Canada                                                   208
  Helenium autumnale                                                 199
  Helianthemum canadense                                             112
  Helianthus decapetalous                                            194
  “  tuberosus                                                       195
  Hemerocallis fulva                                                  27
  Hemp, Indian                                                       144
  Hepatica                                                            73
  Heteranthera reniformis                                             24
  Hibiscus Moscheutos                                                109
  Hieracium canadense                                                208
  “  venosum                                                         208
  Honeysuckle, Coral                                                 172
  “  Bush                                                            171
  “  Swamp                                                           126
  “  Trumpet                                                         172
  Houstonia cærulea                                                  170
  Hudsonia                                                           112
  Hypericum                                                          110
  Hypoxis hirsuta                                                     42


                                   I
  Impatiens biflora                                                  106
  Indian Paint Brush                                                 165
  Indian Pipe                                                        125
  Indian Tobacco                                                     175
  Indian Turnip                                                       20
  Indigo, Blue false                                                  91
  “   Wild                                                            92
  Innocence                                                          170
  Inula Helenium                                                     190
  Iris                                                                43
  Ironweed                                                           176


                                   J
  Jack-in-the-Pulpit                                                  20
  Jessamine, Yellow False                                            138
  Jewel-weed                                                         106
  Joe Pye Weed                                                       177


                                   K
  Kalmia angustifolia                                                130
  “  latifolia                                                       129
  Krigia virginica                                                   205


                                   L
  Labrador Tea                                                       132
  Lactuca canadensis                                                 207
  Ladies’ Tresses                                                     55
  Lady’s Slipper, Pink                                                47
  “  ”  Showy                                                         46
  “  ”  Yellow                                                        45
  Lady’s Thumb                                                        59
  Laurel, Mountain                                                   129
  “  Sheep                                                           130
  Ledum grœnlandicum                                                 132
  Leek, Wild                                                          26
  Leonurus cardiaca                                                  155
  Lettuce, Wild                                                      207
  Liatris scariosa                                                   176
  Lilium canadense                                                    30
  “  philadelphicum                                                   28
  “  superbum                                                         29
  Lily, Atamasco                                                      41
  “  Cow                                                              66
  “  Day                                                              27
  “  Red Wood                                                         28
  “  Turk’s Cap                                                       29
  “  Water                                                            66
  Lily-of-the-Valley                                                  36
  Limonium carolinianum                                              133
  Linaria canadensis                                                 160
  “  vulgaris                                                        160
  Linnæa borealis                                                    171
  Linum virginianum                                                   99
  Liparis                                                             56
  Listera cordata                                                     56
  Liverwort                                                           73
  Lobelia cardinalis                                                 174
  Lobelia inflata                                                    175
  “  spicata                                                         175
  “  Spiked                                                          175
  Lonicera canadensis                                                171
  “   sempervirens                                                   172
  Loosestrife, Four-leaved                                           134
  “  Fringed                                                         136
  “  Purple                                                          117
  “  Yellow                                                          134
  Lousewort                                                          166
  Lupine, Wild                                                        91
  Lupinus perennis                                                    91
  Lychnis                                                             62
  Lysimachia                                                         134
  Lythrum Salicaria                                                  117


                                   M
  Maianthemum canadense                                               33
  Mallow, Common                                                     107
  “  Musk                                                            108
  “  Rose                                                            109
  Malva                                                              107
  Mandrake                                                            74
  Marigold, Marsh                                                     67
  Marsh Rosemary                                                     133
  May Apple                                                           74
  Mayflower                                                          131
  “  Canada                                                           33
  Mayweed                                                            198
  Meadow Beauty                                                      118
  Meadow Rue                                                          69
  Meadowsweet                                                         84
  Medeola virginiana                                                  37
  Medicago sativa                                                     97
  Melilot, Yellow                                                     96
  Melilotus officinalis                                               96
  Milk-weeds                                                         146
  Milk-wort                                                          103
  Mimulus ringens                                                    162
  Mitchella repens                                                   170
  Mitella nuda                                                        83
  Mitella diphylla                                                    83
  Mitreworts                                                          83
  Monarda didyma                                                     156
  Moneses uni flora                                                  125
  Monotropa uniflora                                                 125
  Moneywort                                                          135
  Monkey Flower                                                      162
  Monkshood                                                           73
  Motherwort                                                         155
  Mud Plantain                                                        24
  Mullein, Common                                                    159
  “   Moth                                                           159
  Mustard                                                             79
  Myosotis scorpioides                                               150


                                   N
  Nepeta Cataria                                                     154
  “   hederacea                                                      154
  Nightshade                                                         157
  Nymphæa advena                                                      66


                                   O
  Oakesia                                                             25
  Oats, Wild                                                          25
  Œnothera biennis                                                   120
  “  fruticosa                                                       120
  Orchis, Green Wood                                                  48
  “  Purple-fringed                                                   51
  “  Ragged-fringed                                                   50
  “  Round-leaved                                                     49
  “  Showy                                                            54
  “  spectabilis                                                      54
  “  Yellow-fringed                                                   49
  Orontium aquaticum                                                  21
  Ornithogalum umbellatum                                             41
  Orobanche uniflora                                                 167
  Oswego Tea                                                         156
  Oxalis                                                             100


                                   P
  Painted-cup                                                        165
  Panax quinquefolium                                                121
  “  trifolium                                                       121
  Parnassia caroliniana                                               82
  Parsnip, Water                                                     122
  Pasque Flower                                                       69
  Partridgeberry                                                     170
  Pea, Partridge                                                      93
  Pedicularis canadensis                                             166
  Pentstemon                                                         161
  Persicaria                                                          59
  Phlox                                                              149
  Pickerel-weed                                                       24
  Pimpernel                                                          137
  Pink, Fire                                                          64
  Pink, Ground                                                       149
  “  Indian                                                          138
  “  Maiden                                                           64
  “  Marsh                                                           140
  “  Moss                                                            149
  “  Rose                                                            139
  “  Wild                                                             64
  Pinxter Flower                                                     127
  Pipsissewa                                                         124
  Pipe Vine                                                           58
  Pipe, Dutchman’s                                                    58
  Pitcher Plant                                                       80
  Plantain, Common                                                   169
  “   Robin’s                                                        191
  “   Water                                                           67
  Plantago major                                                     169
  Pogonia                                                             53
  Polygala                                                           103
  Polygonatum                                                         35
  Polygonum persicaria                                                59
  Pontederia cordata                                                  24
  Poppy, Prickly                                                      75
  Portulaca oleracea                                                  65
  Potenilla canadensis                                                86
  “   palustris                                                       87
  Primrose, Evening                                                  120
  Prunella vulgaris                                                  153
  Purslane                                                            65
  Pyrola elliptica                                                   125
  Pyxie                                                              132


                                   R
  Ragged Robin                                                        61
  Ragwort, Golden                                                    200
  Ranunculus                                                          67
  Rattlebox                                                           92
  Rattlesnake Plantain                                                55
  Rattlesnake-weed                                                   208
  Rhexia virginica                                                   118
  Rhododendron                                                       128
  “  canadense                                                       127
  “  maximum                                                         128
  “  nudiflorum                                                      127
  “  viscosum                                                        126
  Rhodora                                                            127
  Rosin-weed                                                         189
  Rock-rose                                                          112
  Rosa Carolina                                                       89
  “  rubiginosa                                                       90
  Rose, Pasture                                                       89
  “   Sweetbrier                                                      90
  Rubus allegheniensis                                                85
  Rudbeckia hirta                                                    192
  “  laciniata                                                       193


                                   S
  Sabbatia                                                           140
  Sabatia angularis                                                  139
  “  dodecandra                                                      140
  “  stellaris                                                       139
  Sagittaria                                                          19
  Sanguinaria canadensis                                              75
  Saponaria                                                           63
  Sarracenia purpurea                                                 80
  Sarsaparilla, Wild                                                 121
  Saxifraga virginiensis                                              82
  Saxifrage, Early                                                    82
  Scutellaria integrifolia                                           153
  Self-heal                                                          153
  Senecio aureus                                                     200
  Shin-leaf                                                          125
  Shooting Star                                                      135
  Silene latifolia                                                    62
  “   virginica                                                       64
  Silphium laciniatum                                                189
  Silver-rod                                                         179
  Sisyrinchium                                                        44
  Sium circutæfolium                                                 122
  Skullcap                                                           153
  Skunk Cabbage                                                       22
  Smartweed                                                           59
  Smilacina                                                           32
  Smilax                                                              36
  Sneezeweed                                                         199
  Snow-on-the-Mountain                                               105
  Soapwort                                                            63
  Solanum Dulcamara                                                  157
  “   nigrum                                                         157
  Solidago bicolor                                                   179
  “  cæsia                                                           179
  “  canadensis                                                      180
  “  juncea                                                          180
  “  graminifolia                                                    181
  Solomon’s Seal, False                                               32
  Solomon’s Seal, True                                                35
  Sorrel, Wood                                                       100
  Sparganium eurycarpum                                               18
  Speedwell                                                          163
  Spiderwort                                                          23
  Spigelia marilandica                                               138
  Spikenard                                                           32
  Spiranthes                                                          55
  Spiræa tomentosa                                                    84
  Spiræa salicifolia                                                  84
  Spring Beauty                                                       65
  Squirrel Corn                                                       77
  Stachys palustris                                                  155
  Star Flower                                                        137
  Star Grass, Yellow                                                  42
  Star-of-Bethlehem                                                   41
  Steeplebush                                                         84
  Steironema ciliatum                                                136
  Stellaria                                                           60
  St. Johnswort, Common                                              110
  “  Marsh                                                           111
  Stitchwort                                                          60
  Strawberry, Wild                                                    85
  Streptopus                                                          34
  Sundews                                                             81
  Sundrops                                                           120
  Sunflower, Common                                                  194
  Sunflower, Ten-petalled                                            194
  Sweetbrier                                                          90
  Symplocarpus fœtidus                                                22


                                   T
  Tanacetum vulgare                                                  199
  Tansy                                                              199
  Taraxacum officinale                                               206
  Tecoma radicans                                                    168
  Tephrosia virginiana                                                93
  Thalictrum polygamum                                                69
  Thistle, Common                                                    203
  “ Canada                                                           202
  “ Sow                                                              207
  “ Star                                                             204
  Thorn Apple                                                        158
  Thoroughwort                                                       177
  Tiarella cordifolia                                                 83
  Toadflax                                                           160
  Toothwort                                                           78
  Tradescantia virginiana                                             23
  Trifolium                                                           94
  Trientalis americana                                               137
  Trilliums                                                           38
  Trumpet Creeper                                                    168
  Turtle-head                                                        161
  Twayblade                                                           56
  Twinflower                                                         171
  Twisted-stalk                                                       34
  Typha angustifolia                                                  17
  Typha latifolia                                                     17


                                   U
  Uvularia perfoliata                                                 25


                                   V
  Verbascum                                                          159
  Verbena                                                            152
  Veronia noveboracensis                                             176
  Veronica                                                           163
  Vervain                                                            152
  Vetch, Cow                                                          97
  Vicia Cracca                                                        97
  Viola blanda                                                       115
  “  canadensis                                                      114
  “  cucullata                                                       114
  “  lanceolata                                                      115
  “  palmata                                                         113
  “  pedata                                                          113
  “  pubescens                                                       116
  Violet, Bird-foot                                                  113
  “  Common                                                          114
  “  Canada                                                          114
  “  Dog-tooth                                                        31
  “  Palmated                                                        113
  “  White                                                           115
  “  Yellow                                                          116
  Virgin’s Bower                                                      71


                                   W
  Whitlow Grass                                                       78
  Willow Herb                                                        119
  Willow Herb, Hairy                                                 119
  Wintergreen                                                        131
  Wintergreen, Spotted                                               124
  Woundwort                                                          155


                                   Y
  Yarrow                                                             198


                                   Z
  Zephyranthes Atamasco                                               41


                                LAND BIRDS

                       By CHESTER A. REED, B. S.

An illustrated, pocket text book that enables any one to quickly identify
any song or insectivorous bird found east of the Rocky Mountains. It
describes their habits and peculiarities; tells you where to look for
them and describes their nests, eggs and songs.

EVERY BIRD IS SHOWN IN COLOUR, including the females and young where the
plumage differs, from watercolour drawings by the four-colour process.
The illustrations are the BEST, the MOST ACCURATE, and the MOST VALUABLE
ever printed in a bird book.

“LAND BIRDS” is the most popular and has had the LARGEST SALE (over
200,000 copies) of any bird book published in this country. It is used
and recommended by our leading ornithologists and teachers. 230 pages.

                  Bound in flexible linen and leather


                           WESTERN BIRD GUIDE

                           By CHESTER A. REED

A companion volume to the “Land Birds,” and “Water and Game Birds East of
the Rockies.” It contains notes on all the land and water birds in the
Rockies and West to the Pacific Coast. A coloured illustration of each
subject appears on a page, with full description of appearance, season,
nesting and food habits, and eggs.

A full and complete index is provided, and valuable suggestions for
systematic bird study. The colour work is of the highest quality, and is
done after bird portraits that are accurate in all respects.

Prepared by a recognized authority, the book, is perhaps the finest
pocket bird manual obtainable.

Printed in convenient form to slip into the back pocket, so as to be
available for instant use.

                  Bound in flexible linen and leather


                          WATER AND GAME BIRDS

                       By CHESTER A. REED, B. S.

This book is uniform in size and scope with LAND BIRDS. It includes all
of the Water Birds, Game Birds and Birds of Prey, east of the Rockies.
Each species is ILLUSTRATED IN COLOUR from oil paintings; the bird, its
habits and nesting habits are described.

The pictures show more than 230 birds in colour, every species found in
our range. They exceed in number those in any other bird book. In quality
they cannot be surpassed—exquisite gems, each with an attractive
background, typical of the habitat of the species.

“LAND BIRDS” and “WATER BIRDS” are the only books, regardless of price,
that describe and show in colour every bird. 250 pages, neatly boxed.

  Bound in flexible paper-lined cloth or in strong, flexible imitation
                                leather


                              FLOWER GUIDE
                    WILD FLOWERS EAST OF THE ROCKIES

                       By CHESTER A. REED, B. S.

           With 320 Flowers in Colour, Painted by the Author

This volume has been carefully prepared with two objects in view—to serve
the greatest number of persons in the greatest possible way, and still
have a volume that can be carried comfortably in the pocket. Most of the
coloured paintings have been made from living plants, the balance from
herbarium specimens. The text and pictures incorporate just those points
that will serve to identify each flower as it is most likely to be found.
The introductory pages give the life cycle of a plant from seed to seed.

  Bound in flexible paper-lined cloth or in strong, flexible imitation
                                leather


                       THE POCKET GARDEN LIBRARY

     Four Volumes, Containing More Than 800 Coloured Illustrations
                        Edited by LEONARD BARRON

  Garden Flowers of Spring
      By Ellen Eddy Shaw
  Garden Flowers of Summer
      By Ellen Eddy Shaw
  Garden Flowers of Autumn
      By Ellen Eddy Shaw
  Flowers of Winter
      By Montague Free

The first pocket colour guides to popular garden favourites—hardy
annuals, herbaceous perennials, shrubs, evergreens, and some greenhouse
plants.

They are the same size and general make-up as the Pocket Guide to the
birds, the wild flowers, etc., which sell each year into the hundreds of
thousands.

The text is concise and up-to-date, and tells how to identify and care
for each variety, what value it has for the garden, and the methods of
propagation. All the illustrations have been specially made for this work
by the best plant portrait painters in America.

 Bindings in flexible paper-lined cloth and strong, flexible imitation
                                leather


                        THE WORTH KNOWING SERIES

 Four Volumes, Containing nearly 200 Illustrations, 144 of Which Are in
                                 Colour
                             Fully Indexed

  Birds Worth Knowing
      By Neltje Blanchan
  Trees Worth Knowing
      By Julia Ellen Rogers
  Butterflies Worth Knowing
      By Clarence M. Weed
  Flowers Worth Knowing
      Adapted from the works of Neltje Blanchan
      By Asa Don Dickinson

The Worth Knowing Series forms a much needed in-between link to the
larger Nature-Library books and the handy, but necessarily limited,
Pocket Nature Guides.

Each of these four volumes covers the most interesting American varieties
of the subject treated.

A general introduction to each subject is followed by detailed
descriptions of the most interesting families, and of the more important
members in each group.


                          THE BUTTERFLY GUIDE

                          By DR. W. J. HOLLAND
  Author of “The Butterfly Book,” “The Moth Book,” Etc. Similar to the
                         “Pocket Nature Guides”

This is the first Butterfly Book of pocket size giving each species in
its natural colours. It is uniform in style and binding to the popular
_Pocket Nature Guides_ series, and makes a valuable companion volume to
these books.

Dr. Holland, Director of the Carnegie Museum, Pittsburg, is the greatest
butterfly authority in the country, and has had more experience in the
mounting and artistic posing of moths and butterflies than any other
living man. The plates in the Pocket Guide are entirely new and
reproduced by a special process under Dr. Holland’s personal supervision,
from specimens in his own collection.

This book is the most authoritative and valuable guide for field use ever
published. It makes the identifications of our common butterflies a
simple matter for amateurs.

Illustrations of 250 butterflies in their natural colours.

  Bound in flexible paper-lined cloth or in strong, flexible imitation
                                leather


                        THE WESTERN FLOWER GUIDE

                      By CHARLES FRANCIS SAUNDERS

This little volume, uniform with the Pocket Nature Guides, is a
comprehensive and compact treatment of the flower life between the
Mississippi and the Pacific coast. Its coloured illustrations and the
accompanying text make it easy to identify any specimen.

Flowers are described in family groups, and are thus, by a study of
resemblances and contrasts, made easier to master. The colour work is
attractive and accurate, being reproduced from the work of well known
flower portrait painters. The book is prepared by authorities, and the
needs of the general public have been considered in the manner of
presentation. A bibliography is provided for readers who wish to
undertake a more detailed study. Of convenient pocket size, it is an
ideal handbook of flower information.

                  Bound in flexible linen and leather


                     HOW TO MAKE FRIENDS WITH BIRDS

                          By NEIL MORROW LADD

A complete manual of information upon the treatment of birds. How and
where to build bird houses, when to put them out, ways of attracting the
desired species, ways of developing nesting and feeding habits, etc.
Exhaustive information is given of bird enemies and ways of combating
them; insect destroyers of crops and ways of attracting birds which feed
upon them; organization of bird clubs, and other means of encouraging and
protecting bird life.

The book contains a helpful bibliography, a complete index, and over 200
illustrations, diagrams, charts, etc. It is a complete and authoritative
handling of the subject. Pocket size.

                   Flexible linen and leather binding


                         HOMING WITH THE BIRDS

    _A Word and Picture Story of Bird Life in its Intimate Aspects_
                        By GENE STRATTON-PORTER

This book contains the intimate observations of a bird lover who has
been, uninvited, at many “at homes” of the birds. She made her visits
with her camera, and the book is unique for its numerous unusual
photographs of live birds taken nesting, feeding, and singing, revealing
intimate aspects of bird life that have rarely been treated so
successfully before. Mrs. Porter’s eloquent and enlivening style has made
the birds as entertaining as any of her other characters. They are
lifelike and amusing, and their comedies and tragedies, their habits and
daily life, are presented in a way to leave the reader entertained and
informed.


                _See your garden while planning it with_
                          THE GARDEN BLUE BOOK

                        By LEICESTER B. HOLLAND

This is the one complete book of reference containing all the practical,
needed information about the two hundred hardy perennials. Its remarkable
colour chart shows at a glance the height, the time of blooming, the
colour of bloom, preference for sun or shade, wet or dry soil, fragrance,
cutting qualities—in a word, the whole story of all the dependable
perennials. In addition to this chart there is a page given to each
perennial, on which there is a photographic reproduction of the plant
together with description, cultural directions and enemies, all carefully
enumerated.


                          THE COMPLETE GARDEN

                      By ALBERT D. TAYLOR, M.S.A.

           _Fellow, American Society of Landscape Architects
Non-resident Professor Landscape Architecture in Ohio Stale University_

Practically an entire Garden Library in one volume. In it, garden owners
will find the answers to every question on the planning and upkeep of
garden grounds.

The book covers substantially every part of the country. The author is a
landscape authority and the book was prepared with the consultation of
experts in each field.

Every convenience for making the book a complete authority has been
added. Many illustrations in colour and black and white, charts,
diagrams, cross referenced lists, an exhaustive index, a full
bibliography, glossary of terms, etc.

The book is large, handsomely made, and conveniently priced, at $6.00 per
volume.



                          Transcriber’s Notes


--Retained publisher information from the printed copy (the electronic
  edition is in the public domain in the country of publication).

--Corrected some palpable typos, and standardized spelling of some names.

--Collated index against text: corrected spelling but did not remove
  spurious entries.

--Corrected “viola pallens” on page 115 to match the index “viola
  blanda”.

--In the text versions only, text in italics is delimited by
  _underscores_.





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Flower Guide - Wild Flowers East of the Rockies (Revised and with New Illustrations)" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home