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Title: The 2003 CIA World Factbook
Author: United States. Central Intelligence Agency
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The 2003 CIA World Factbook" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



THE CIA WORLD FACTBOOK 2003



CONTENTS


Countries and Locations

Field Listings

Rank Orders

Appendixes

Notes and Definitions

History of The World Factbook

Contributors and Copyright Information

Purchasing Information

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)



=====================================================================



What's New


- Country information has been updated as of 18 December 2003.

- For Rank Order pages and downloadable, tab-delimited rank-order
files, a Rank Order page for Highways has been added.

- Entries for Natural Gas - production, Natural Gas - consumption,
Natural Gas - exports, and Natural Gas - imports have been added
to the Economy category of each country.


The World Factbook 2003 printed version provides a "snapshot" of
the world as of 1 January 2003.



=====================================================================



Country Listing


[Transcriber's note: To search on a country name in this file, prefix
the name with "@", e.g. "@Afghanistan".  "Afghanistan" will find all
occurrences; prefixing it with "@" will find the correct location.]



A

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
American Samoa
Andorra
Angola
Anguilla
Antarctica
Antigua and Barbuda
Arctic Ocean
Argentina
Armenia
Aruba
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Atlantic Ocean
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan


B

Bahamas, The
Bahrain
Baker Island
Bangladesh
Barbados
Bassas da India
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bermuda
Bhutan
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Bouvet Island
Brazil
British Indian Ocean Territory
British Virgin Islands
Brunei
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burma
Burundi


C

Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Cayman Islands
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Christmas Island
Clipperton Island
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Colombia
Comoros
Congo, Democratic Republic of the
Congo, Republic of the
Cook Islands
Coral Sea Islands
Costa Rica
Cote d'Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic


D

Denmark
Djibouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic


E

East Timor
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Europa Island


F

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Faroe Islands
Fiji
Finland
France
French Guiana
French Polynesia
French Southern and Antarctic Lands


G

Gabon
Gambia, The
Gaza Strip
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Gibraltar
Glorioso Islands
Greece
Greenland
Grenada
Guadeloupe
Guam
Guatemala
Guernsey
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana


H

Haiti
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Holy See (Vatican City)
Honduras
Hong Kong
Howland Island
Hungary


I

Iceland
India
Indian Ocean
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy


J

Jamaica
Jan Mayen
Japan
Jarvis Island
Jersey
Johnston Atoll
Jordan
Juan de Nova Island


K

Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kingman Reef
Kiribati
Korea, North
Korea, South
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan


L

Laos
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Luxembourg


M

Macau
Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Man, Isle of
Marshall Islands
Martinique
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mayotte
Mexico
Micronesia, Federated States of
Midway Islands
Moldova
Monaco
Mongolia
Montserrat
Morocco
Mozambique


N

Namibia
Nauru
Navassa Island
Nepal
Netherlands
Netherlands Antilles
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Niue
Norfolk Island
Northern Mariana Islands
Norway


O

Oman


P

Pacific Ocean
Pakistan
Palau
Palmyra Atoll
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paracel Islands
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Pitcairn Islands
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico


Q

Qatar


R

Reunion
Romania
Russia
Rwanda


S

Saint Helena
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Samoa
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia and Montenegro
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Southern Ocean
Spain
Spratly Islands
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Svalbard
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria


T

Taiwan entry follows Zimbabwe
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Togo
Tokelau
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tromelin Island
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Turks and Caicos Islands
Tuvalu


U

Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan


V

Vanuatu
Venezuela
Vietnam
Virgin Islands


W

Wake Island
Wallis and Futuna
West Bank
Western Sahara
World


Y

Yemen


Z

Zambia
Zimbabwe



Taiwan



=====================================================================


Field Listings


[Transcriber's note: To search on a field code in this file, prefix
the code number with "@", e.g. "@2001".  "2001" will find all
occurrences; prefixing it with "@" will find the correct location.]



Code  Field Description

2001  GDP
2002  Population growth rate (%)
2003  GDP - real growth rate (%)
2004  GDP - per capita
2006  Dependency status
2007  Diplomatic representation from the US
2008  Transportation - note
2010  Age structure (%)
2011  Geographic coordinates
2012  GDP - composition by sector (%)
2013  Radio broadcast stations
2015  Television broadcast stations
2018  Sex ratio (male(s)/female)
2019  Heliports
2020  Elevation extremes (m)
2021  Natural hazards
2022  People - note
2023  Area - comparative
2024  Military manpower - military age (years of age)
2025  Military manpower - fit for military service
2026  Military manpower - reaching military age annually
2028  Background
2030  Airports - with paved runways
2031  Airports - with unpaved runways
2032  Environment - current issues
2033  Environment - international agreements
2034  Military expenditures - percent of GDP (%)
2038  Electricity - production (kWh)
2042  Electricity - consumption (kWh)
2043  Electricity - imports (kWh)
2044  Electricity - exports (kWh)
2045  Electricity - production by source (%)
2046  Population below poverty line (%)
2047  Household income or consumption by percentage share (%)
2048  Labor force - by occupation (%)
2049  Exports - commodities
2050  Exports - partners (%)
2051  Administrative divisions
2052  Agriculture - products
2053  Airports
2054  Birth rate (births/1,000 population)
2055  Military branches
2056  Budget
2057  Capital
2058  Imports - commodities
2059  Climate
2060  Coastline (km)
2061  Imports - partners (%)
2062  Economic aid - donor
2063  Constitution
2064  Economic aid - recipient
2065  Currency
2066  Death rate (deaths/1,000 population)
2067  Military expenditures - dollar figure
2068  Dependent areas
2070  Disputes - international
2075  Ethnic groups (%)
2076  Exchange rates
2077  Executive branch
2078  Exports
2079  Debt - external
2080  Fiscal year
2081  Flag description
2085  Highways (km)
2086  Illicit drugs
2087  Imports
2088  Independence
2089  Industrial production growth rate (%)
2090  Industries
2091  Infant mortality rate (deaths/1,000 live births)
2092  Inflation rate (consumer prices) (%)
2093  Waterways (km)
2094  Judicial branch
2095  Labor force
2096  Land boundaries (km)
2097  Land use (%)
2098  Languages (%)
2100  Legal system
2101  Legislative branch
2102  Life expectancy at birth (years)
2103  Literacy (%)
2105  Military manpower - availability
2106  Maritime claims
2107  International organization participation
2108  Merchant marine
2109  National holiday
2110  Nationality
2111  Natural resources
2112  Net migration rate (migrant(s)/1,000 population)
2113  Geography - note
2115  Political pressure groups and leaders
2116  Economy - overview
2117  Pipelines (km)
2118  Political parties and leaders
2119  Population
2120  Ports and harbors
2121  Railways (km)
2122  Religions (%)
2123  Suffrage
2124  Telephone system
2125  Terrain
2127  Total fertility rate (children born/woman)
2128  Government type
2129  Unemployment rate (%)
2137  Military - note
2138  Communications - note
2140  Government - note
2142  Country name
2144  Location
2145  Map references
2146  Irrigated land (sq km)
2147  Area (sq km)
2149  Diplomatic representation in the US
2150  Telephones - main lines in use
2151  Telephones - mobile cellular
2152  Internet Service Providers (ISPs)
2153  Internet users
2154  Internet country code
2155  HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)
2156  HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
2157  HIV/AIDS - deaths
2158  Currency code
2172  Distribution of family income - Gini index
2173  Oil - production (bbl/day)
2174  Oil - consumption (bbl/day)
2175  Oil - imports (bbl/day)
2176  Oil - exports (bbl/day)
2177  Median age (years)
2178  Oil - proved reserves (bbl)
2179  Natural gas - proved reserves (cu m)
2180  Natural gas - production (cu m)
2181  Natural gas - consumption (cu m)
2182  Natural gas - imports (cu m)
2183  Natural gas - exports (cu m)



======================================================================


Rank Orders


[Transcriber's note: To search on a rank order in this file, prefix
the rank's name with "@", e.g. "@Population".  "Population" will find
all occurrences; prefixing it with "@" will find the correct location.]



Guide to Rank Order Pages

Rank Order pages are presorted lists of data from selected Factbook
data fields. Rank Order pages are generally given in descending order -
highest to lowest - such as Population and Area. The two exceptions are
Unemployment Rate and Inflation Rate, which are in ascending - lowest
to highest - order. Rank Order pages are available for the following 34
fields in six of the nine Factbook categories.



Geography

Area - total


People

Population
Birth rate
Death rate
Infant mortality rate
Life expectancy at birth - total
Total fertility rate
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS - deaths


Economy

GDP
GDP - real growth rate
GDP - per capita
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
Labor force
Unemployment rate
Industrial production growth rate
Electricity - production
Electricity - consumption
Oil - production
Oil - consumption
Oil - exports
Oil - imports
Oil - proved reserves
Natural Gas - proved reserves
Exports
Imports
Debt - external


Communications

Telephones - main lines in use
Telephones - mobile cellular
Internet users


Transportation

Railways - total
Highways - total


Military

Military expenditures - dollar figure
Military expenditures - percent of GDP


Factbook fields with Rank Order pages are easily identified with a
small bar chart icon to the right of the data field title.

Not all Rank Order pages include the same number of entries because
information for a particular field is not available for all countries.
In addition, not all data fields are suitable for displaying as Rank
Order pages, such as those containing textual information. Textual
information is more readily viewed by clicking on the Field Listing
icon  next to the Data field title. The other icon next to the data
field title provides the definition of the field.

All of the ‘Rank Order’ pages can be downloaded as tab-delimited data
files and can be opened in other applications such as spreadsheets and
databases. To save a Rank Order page in a spreadsheet, first click on
the ‘Download Datafile’ choice above the Rank Order page you selected;
then, at the top of your browser window, click on 'File' and 'Save As'.
After saving the file, open the spreadsheet, find the saved file, and
'Open' it.

Additional Rank Order pages being considered for future updates of the
Factbook Web site include:

Median age
Literacy
Population below the poverty line
Highways
Waterways
Airports

This page was last updated on 21 October, 2003



=====================================================================



Appendixes


Appendix A - Abbreviations

Appendix B - International Organizations and Groups

Appendix C - Selected International Environmental Agreements

Appendix D - Cross-Reference List of Country Data Codes

Appendix E - Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data Codes

Appendix F - Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names



======================================================================



Notes and Definitions


In addition to the updated information, The World Factbook printed
version features seven new entries. In the People category, an entry
has been added for Median age. In the Economy category, entries have
been added for Oil - production, Oil - consumption, Oil - exports, Oil
- imports, Oil - proved reserves, and Natural gas - proved reserves.
The web site version features four additional entries: Natural gas -
production, Natural gas - consumption, Natural gas - exports, and
Natural gas - imports. Revision of some individual country maps, first
introduced in the 2001 edition, is continued in this edition. The
revised maps include elevation extremes and a partial geographic grid.
Several regional maps have also been updated to reflect boundary
changes and place name spelling changes.



Abbreviations
This information is included in Appendix A: Abbreviations, which
includes all abbreviations and acronyms used in the Factbook, with
their expansions.

Acronyms
An acronym is an abbreviation coined from the initial letter of each
successive word in a term or phrase. In general, an acronym made up
solely from the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is
rendered in all capital letters (NATO from North Atlantic Treaty
Organization; an exception would be ASEAN for Association of Southeast
Asian Nations). In general, an acronym made up of more than the first
letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered with only an
initial capital letter (Comsat from Communications Satellite
Corporation; an exception would be NAM from Nonaligned Movement).
Hybrid forms are sometimes used to distinguish between initially
identical terms (WTO: WTrO for World Trade Organization and WToO for
World Tourism Organization).

Administrative divisions
This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-
order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on
Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet
acted on by BGN are noted.

Age structure
This entry provides the distribution of the population according to
age. Information is included by sex and age group (0-14 years, 15-64
years, 65 years and over). The age structure of a population affects a
nation's key socioeconomic issues. Countries with young populations
(high percentage under age 15) need to invest more in schools, while
countries with older populations (high percentage ages 65 and over)
need to invest more in the health sector. The age structure can also be
used to help predict potential political issues. For example, the rapid
growth of a young adult population unable to find employment can lead
to unrest.

Agriculture - products
This entry is a rank ordering of major crops and products starting with
the most important.

Airports
This entry gives the total number of airports. The runway(s) may be
paved (concrete or asphalt surfaces) or unpaved (grass, dirt, sand, or
gravel surfaces), but must be usable. Not all airports have facilities
for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control.

Airports - with paved runways
This entry gives the total number of airports with paved runways
(concrete or asphalt surfaces). For airports with more than one runway,
only the longest runway is included according to the following five
groups - (1) over 3,047 m, (2) 2,438 to 3,047 m, (3) 1,524 to 2,437 m,
(4) 914 to 1,523 m, and (5) under 914 m. Only airports with usable
runways are included in this listing. Not all airports have facilities
for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control.

Airports - with unpaved runways
This entry gives the total number of airports with unpaved runways
(grass, dirt, sand, or gravel surfaces) by length. For airports with
more than one runway, only the longest runway is included according to
the following five groups - (1) over 3,047 m, (2) 2,438 to 3,047 m, (3)
1,524 to 2,437 m, (4) 914 to 1,523 m, and (5) under 914 m. Only
airports with usable runways are included in this listing. Not all
airports have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic
control

Appendixes
This section includes Factbook-related material by topic.

Area
This entry includes three subfields. Total area is the sum of all land
and water areas delimited by international boundaries and/or
coastlines. Land area is the aggregate of all surfaces delimited by
international boundaries and/or coastlines, excluding inland water
bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). Water area is the sum of all water
surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines,
including inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers).

Area - comparative
This entry provides an area comparison based on total area equivalents.
Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states
based on area measurements (1990 revised) provided by the US Bureau of
the Census. The smaller entities are compared with Washington, DC (178
sq km, 69 sq mi) or The Mall in Washington, DC (0.59 sq km, 0.23 sq mi,
146 acres).

Background
This entry usually highlights major historic events and current issues
and may include a statement about one or two key future trends.

Birth rate
This entry gives the average annual number of births during a year per
1,000 persons in the population at midyear; also known as crude birth
rate. The birth rate is usually the dominant factor in determining the
rate of population growth. It depends on both the level of fertility
and the age structure of the population.

Budget
This entry includes revenues, total expenditures, and capital
expenditures.  These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis,
i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms

Capital
This entry gives the location of the seat of government.

Climate
This entry includes a brief description of typical weather regimes
throughout the year.

Coastline
This entry gives the total length of the boundary between the land area
(including islands) and the sea.

Communications
This category deals with the means of exchanging information and
includes the telephone, radio, television, and Internet service
provider entries.

Communications - note
This entry includes miscellaneous communications information of
significance not included elsewhere.

Constitution
This entry includes the dates of adoption, revisions, and major
amendments.

Country data codes
see Data codes

Country map
Most versions of the Factbook provide a country map in color. The maps
were produced from the best information available at the time of
preparation. Names and/or boundaries may have changed subsequently.

Country name
This entry includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US
Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional
long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local
long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former
(Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also see the
Terminology note.

Currency
This entry identifies the national medium of exchange and its basic
subunit.

Crude oil
See "Oil" entries

Currency code
This entry gives the International Organization for Standardization
(ISO) 4217 alphabetic currency code for each country.

Data codes
This information is presented in Appendix D:  Cross-Reference List of
Country Data Codes and Appendix E:  Cross-Reference List of
Hydrographic Data Codes.  This appendix includes the US Government
approved Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) codes, the
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) codes, and
Internet codes for land entities.  The appendix also includes the
International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) codes, Aeronautical Chart
and Information Center (ACIC; now a part of the National Imagery and
Mapping Agency or NIMA) codes, and Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA)
codes for hydrographic entities. The US Government has not yet approved
a standard for hydrographic data codes similar to the FIPS 10-4
standard for country data codes.

Date of information
In general, information available as of 1 January 2003 was used in the
preparation of this edition.

Death rate
This entry gives the average annual number of deaths during a year per
1,000 population at midyear; also known as crude death rate. The death
rate, while only a rough indicator of the mortality situation in a
country, accurately indicates the current mortality impact on
population growth. This indicator is significantly affected by age
distribution, and most countries will eventually show a rise in the
overall death rate, in spite of continued decline in mortality at all
ages, as declining fertility results in an aging population.

Debt - external
This entry gives the total public and private debt owed to nonresidents
repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services.

Dependency status
This entry describes the formal relationship between a particular
nonindependent entity and an independent state.

Dependent areas
This entry contains an alphabetical listing of all nonindependent
entities associated in some way with a particular independent state.

Diplomatic representation
The US Government has diplomatic relations with 185 independent states,
including 183 of the 189 UN members (excluded UN members are Bhutan,
Cuba, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, and the US itself). In addition, the US
has diplomatic relations with 1 independent state that is not in the UN
- Holy See.

Diplomatic representation in the US
This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery, telephone, FAX,
consulate general locations, and consulate locations.

Diplomatic representation from the US
This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing
address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations,
consulate general locations, and consulate locations.

Disputes - international
This entry includes a wide variety of situations that range from
traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one
sort or another. Information regarding disputes over international
terrestrial and maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the US
Department of State. References to other situations involving borders
or frontiers may also be included, such as resource disputes,
geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues; however, inclusion does
not necessarily constitute official acceptance or recognition by the US
Government.

Distribution of family income - Gini index
This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of
family income in a country. The index is calculated from the Lorenz
curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number
of families arranged from the poorest to the richest. The index is the
ratio of (a) the area between a country's Lorenz curve and the 45
degree helping line to (b) the entire triangular area under the 45
degree line. The more nearly equal a country's income distribution, the
closer its Lorenz curve to the 45-degree line and the lower its Gini
index, e.g., a Scandinavian country with an index of 25. The more
unequal a country's income distribution, the farther its Lorenz curve
from the 45-degree line and the higher its Gini index, e.g., a Sub-
Saharan country with an index of 50. If income were distributed with
perfect equality, the Lorenz curve would coincide with the 45 degree
line and the index would be zero; if income were distributed with
perfect inequality, the Lorenz curve would coincide with the horizontal
axis and the right vertical axis and the index would be 100.

Economic aid - donor
This entry refers to net official development assistance (ODA) from
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nations to
developing countries and multilateral organizations. ODA is defined as
financial assistance that is concessional in character, has the main
objective to promote economic development and welfare of the less
developed countries (LDCs), and contains a grant element of at least
25%. The entry does not cover other official flows (OOF) or private
flows.

Economic aid - recipient
This entry, which is subject to major problems of definition and
statistical coverage, refers to the net inflow of Official Development
Finance (ODF) to recipient countries. The figure includes assistance
from the World Bank, the IMF, and other international organizations and
from individual nation donors. Formal commitments of aid are included
in the data. Omitted from the data are grants by private organizations.
Aid comes in various forms including outright grants and loans. The
entry thus is the difference between new inflows and repayments.

Economy
This category includes the entries dealing with the size, development,
and management of productive resources, i.e., land, labor, and capital.

Economy - overview
This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree
of market orientation, the level of economic development, the most
important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization. It
also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most
recent 12 months and may include a statement about one or two key
future macroeconomic trends.

Electricity - consumption
This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus
imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy
between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the
amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in
transmission and distribution.

Electricity - exports
This entry is the total exported electricity in kilowatt-hours.

Electricity - imports
This entry is the total imported electricity in kilowatt-hours.

Electricity - production
This entry is the annual electricity generated expressed in kilowatt-
hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated
and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted
for as loss in transmission and distribution.

Electricity - production by source
This entry states the percentage share of electricity generated from
each energy source. These are fossil fuel, hydro, nuclear, and other
(solar, geothermal, and wind).

Elevation extremes
This entry includes both the highest point and the lowest point.

Entities
Some of the independent states, dependencies, areas of special
sovereignty, and governments included in this publication are not
independent, and others are not officially recognized by the US
Government. "Independent state" refers to a people politically
organized into a sovereign state with a definite territory.
"Dependencies" and "areas of special sovereignty" refer to a broad
category of political entities that are associated in some way with an
independent state. "Country" names used in the table of contents or for
page headings are usually the short-form names as approved by the US
Board on Geographic Names and may include independent states,
dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty, or other geographic
entities. There are a total of 268 separate geographic entities in The
World Factbook that may be categorized as follows:

INDEPENDENT STATES
   192 Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and
Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The
Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize,
Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil,
Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,
Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China,
Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the
Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, East Timor,
Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia,
Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany,
Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,
Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran,
Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan,
Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,
Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar,
Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania,
Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco,
Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,
Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua
New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar,
Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint
Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe,
Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka,
Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan,
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,
Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay,
Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia,
Zimbabwe

OTHER
     1 Taiwan

DEPENDENCIES AND AREAS OF SPECIAL SOVEREIGNTY
     6 Australia - Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos
(Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald
Islands, Norfolk Island
     2 China - Hong Kong, Macau
     2 Denmark - Faroe Islands, Greenland
    16 France - Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island,
French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands,
Glorioso Islands, Guadeloupe, Juan de Nova Island, Martinique, Mayotte,
New Caledonia, Reunion, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Tromelin Island,
Wallis and Futuna
     2 Netherlands - Aruba, Netherlands Antilles
     3 New Zealand - Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau
     3 Norway - Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard
    15 UK - Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British
Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey,
Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, South
Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands
    14 US - American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis
Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island,
Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands,
Wake Island

MISCELLANEOUS
     6 Antarctica, Gaza Strip, Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands, West
Bank, Western Sahara

OTHER ENTITIES
     5 oceans - Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific
Ocean, Southern Ocean
     1 World
   268 total

Environment - current issues
This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental
problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the
entry:
     acidification - the lowering of soil and water pH due to acid
precipitation and deposition usually through precipitation; this
process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows and may kill freshwater fish
and plants dependent on more neutral or alkaline conditions (see acid
rain).
     acid rain - characterized as containing harmful levels of sulfur
dioxide or nitrogen oxide; acid rain is damaging and potentially deadly
to the earth's fragile ecosystems; acidity is measured using the pH
scale where 7 is neutral, values greater than 7 are considered
alkaline, and values below 5.6 are considered acid precipitation; note
- a pH of 2.4 (the acidity of vinegar) has been measured in rainfall in
New England.
     aerosol - a collection of airborne particles dispersed in a gas,
smoke, or fog.
     afforestation - converting a bare or agricultural space by
planting trees and plants; reforestation involves replanting trees on
areas that have been cut or destroyed by fire.
     asbestos - a naturally occurring soft fibrous mineral commonly
used in fireproofing materials and considered to be highly carcinogenic
in particulate form.
     biodiversity - also biological diversity; the relative number of
species, diverse in form and function, at the genetic, organism,
community, and ecosystem level; loss of biodiversity reduces an
ecosystem's ability to recover from natural or man-induced disruption.
     bio-indicators - a plant or animal species whose presence,
abundance, and health reveal the general condition of its habitat.
     biomass - the total weight or volume of living matter in a given
area or volume.
     carbon cycle - the term used to describe the exchange of carbon
(in various forms, e.g., as carbon dioxide) between the atmosphere,
ocean, terrestrial biosphere, and geological deposits.
     catchments - assemblages used to capture and retain rainwater and
runoff; an important water management technique in areas with limited
freshwater resources, such as Gibraltar.
     DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane) - a colorless, odorless
insecticide that has toxic effects on most animals; the use of DDT was
banned in the US in 1972.
     defoliants - chemicals which cause plants to lose their leaves
artificially; often used in agricultural practices for weed control,
and may have detrimental impacts on human and ecosystem health.
     deforestation - the destruction of vast areas of forest (e.g.,
unsustainable forestry practices, agricultural and range land clearing,
and the over exploitation of wood products for use as fuel) without
planting new growth.
     desertification - the spread of desert-like conditions in arid or
semi-arid areas, due to overgrazing, loss of agriculturally productive
soils, or climate change.
     dredging - the practice of deepening an existing waterway; also, a
technique used for collecting bottom-dwelling marine organisms (e.g.,
shellfish) or harvesting coral, often causing significant destruction
of reef and ocean-floor ecosystems.
     drift-net fishing - done with a net, miles in extent, that is
generally anchored to a boat and left to float with the tide; often
results in an over harvesting and waste of large populations of non-
commercial marine species (by-catch) by its effect of "sweeping the
ocean clean".
     ecosystems - ecological units comprised of complex communities of
organisms and their specific environments.
     effluents - waste materials, such as smoke, sewage, or industrial
waste, which are released into the environment, subsequently polluting
it.
     endangered species - a species that is threatened with extinction
either by direct hunting or habitat destruction.
     freshwater - water with very low soluble mineral content; sources
include lakes, streams, rivers, glaciers, and underground aquifers.
     greenhouse gas - a gas that "traps" infrared radiation in the
lower atmosphere causing surface warming; water vapor, carbon dioxide,
nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons, and ozone are the primary
greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere.
     groundwater - water sources found below the surface of the earth
often in naturally occurring reservoirs in permeable rock strata; the
source for wells and natural springs.
     Highlands Water Project - a series of dams constructed jointly by
Lesotho and South Africa to redirect Lesotho's abundant water supply
into a rapidly growing area in South Africa; while it is the largest
infrastructure project in southern Africa, it is also the most costly
and controversial; objections to the project include claims that it
forces people from their homes, submerges farmlands, and squanders
economic resources.
     Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC) - represents the 125,000 Inuits
of Russia, Alaska, Canada, and Greenland in international environmental
issues; a panel convenes every three years to determine the focus of
the ICC; the most current concerns are long-range transport of
pollutants, sustainable development, and climate change.
     metallurgical plants - industries which specialize in the science,
technology, and processing of metals; these plants produce highly
concentrated and toxic wastes which can contribute to pollution of
ground water and air when not properly disposed.
     noxious substances - injurious, very harmful to living beings.
     overgrazing - the grazing of animals on plant material faster than
it can naturally regrow leading to the permanent loss of plant cover, a
common effect of too many animals grazing limited range land.
     ozone shield - a layer of the atmosphere composed of ozone gas
(O3) that resides approximately 25 miles above the Earth's surface and
absorbs solar ultraviolet radiation that can be harmful to living
organisms.
     poaching - the illegal killing of animals or fish, a great concern
with respect to endangered or threatened species.
     pollution - the contamination of a healthy environment by man-made
waste.
     potable water - water that is drinkable, safe to be consumed.
     salination - the process through which fresh (drinkable) water
becomes salt (undrinkable) water; hence, desalination is the reverse
process; also involves the accumulation of salts in topsoil caused by
evaporation of excessive irrigation water, a process that can
eventually render soil incapable of supporting crops.
     siltation - occurs when water channels and reservoirs become
clotted with silt and mud, a side effect of deforestation and soil
erosion.
     slash-and-burn agriculture - a rotating cultivation technique in
which trees are cut down and burned in order to clear land for
temporary agriculture; the land is used until its productivity declines
at which point a new plot is selected and the process repeats; this
practice is sustainable while population levels are low and time is
permitted for regrowth of natural vegetation; conversely, where these
conditions do not exist, the practice can have disastrous consequences
for the environment .
     soil degradation - damage to the land's productive capacity
because of poor agricultural practices such as the excessive use of
pesticides or fertilizers, soil compaction from heavy equipment, or
erosion of topsoil, eventually resulting in reduced ability to produce
agricultural products.
     soil erosion - the removal of soil by the action of water or wind,
compounded by poor agricultural practices, deforestation, overgrazing,
and desertification.
     ultraviolet (UV) radiation - a portion of the electromagnetic
energy emitted by the sun and naturally filtered in the upper
atmosphere by the ozone layer; UV radiation can be harmful to living
organisms and has been linked to increasing rates of skin cancer in
humans.
     water-born diseases - those in which the bacteria survive in, and
is transmitted through, water; always a serious threat in areas with an
untreated water supply.

Environment - international agreements
This entry separates country participation in international
environmental agreements into two levels - party to and signed but not
ratified. Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the
abbreviated form of the full name.

Environmental agreements
This information is presented in Appendix C: Selected International
Environmental Agreements, which includes the name, abbreviation, date
opened for signature, date entered into force, objective, and parties
by category.

Ethnic groups
This entry provides a rank ordering of ethnic groups starting with the
largest and normally includes the percent of total population.

Exchange rates
This entry provides the official value of a country's monetary unit at
a given date or over a given period of time, as expressed in units of
local currency per US dollar and as determined by international market
forces or official fiat.

Executive branch
This entry includes several subfields. Chief of state includes the name
and title of the titular leader of the country who represents the state
at official and ceremonial functions but may not be involved with the
day-to-day activities of the government. Head of government includes
the name and title of the top administrative leader who is designated
to manage the day-to-day activities of the government. For example, in
the UK, the monarch is the chief of state, and the prime minister is
the head of government. In the US, the president is both the chief of
state and the head of government. Cabinet includes the official name
for this body of high-ranking advisers and the method for selection of
members. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession
to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election.
Election results includes the percent of vote for each candidate in the
last election.

Exports
This entry provides the total US dollar amount of exports on an f.o.b.
(free on board) basis.

Exports - commodities
This entry provides a rank ordering of exported products starting with
the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar
value.

Exports - partners
This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with
the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar
value.

Fiscal year
This entry identifies the beginning and ending months for a country's
accounting period of 12 months, which often is the calendar year but
which may begin in any month. All yearly references are for the
calendar year (CY) unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year (FY).

Flag description
This entry provides a written flag description produced from actual
flags or the best information available at the time the entry was
written. The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies
unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and
other areas do not have flags.

Flag graphic
Most versions of the Factbook include a color flag at the beginning of
the country profile. The flag graphics were produced from actual flags
or the best information available at the time of preparation. The flags
of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an
officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and other areas do not
have flags.

GDP
This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final
goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar
estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity
(PPP) calculations. See the note on GDP methodology for more
information.

GDP methodology
In the Economy section, GDP dollar estimates for all countries are
derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations rather than
from conversions at official currency exchange rates. The PPP method
involves the use of standardized international dollar price weights,
which are applied to the quantities of final goods and services
produced in a given economy. The data derived from the PPP method
provide the best available starting point for comparisons of economic
strength and well-being between countries. The division of a GDP
estimate in domestic currency by the corresponding PPP estimate in
dollars gives the PPP conversion rate. Whereas PPP estimates for OECD
countries are quite reliable, PPP estimates for developing countries
are often rough approximations. Most of the GDP estimates are based on
extrapolation of PPP numbers published by the UN International
Comparison Program (UNICP) and by Professors Robert Summers and Alan
Heston of the University of Pennsylvania and their colleagues. In
contrast, the currency exchange rate method involves a variety of
international and domestic financial forces that often have little
relation to domestic output. In developing countries with weak
currencies the exchange rate estimate of GDP in dollars is typically
one-fourth to one-half the PPP estimate. Furthermore, exchange rates
may suddenly go up or down by 10% or more because of market forces or
official fiat whereas real output has remained unchanged. On 12 January
1994, for example, the 14 countries of the African Financial Community
(whose currencies are tied to the French franc) devalued their
currencies by 50%. This move, of course, did not cut the real output of
these countries by half. One important caution: the proportion of, say,
defense expenditures as a percentage of GDP in local currency accounts
may differ substantially from the proportion when GDP accounts are
expressed in PPP terms, as, for example, when an observer tries to
estimate the dollar level of Russian or Japanese military expenditures.
Note: the numbers for GDP and other economic data can not be chained
together from successive volumes of the Factbook because of changes in
the US dollar measuring rod, revisions of data by statistical agencies,
use of new or different sources of information, and changes in national
statistical methods and practices.

GDP - composition by sector
This entry gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry,
and services to total GDP.

GDP - per capita
This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by
population as of 1 July for the same year.

GDP - real growth rate
This entry gives GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation
and expressed as a percent.

Geographic coordinates
This entry includes rounded latitude and longitude figures for the
purpose of finding the approximate geographic center of an entity and
is based on the Gazetteer of Conventional Names, Third Edition, August
1988, US Board on Geographic Names and on other sources.

Geographic names
This information is presented in Appendix F: Cross-Reference List of
Geographic Names.  It includes a listing of various alternate names,
former names, local names, and regional names referenced to one or more
related Factbook entries. Spellings are normally, but not always, those
approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Alternate names and
additional information are included in parentheses.

Geography
This category includes the entries dealing with the natural environment
and the effects of human activity.

Geography - note
This entry includes miscellaneous geographic information of
significance not included elsewhere.

GNP
Gross national product (GNP) is the value of all final goods and
services produced within a nation in a given year, plus income earned
by its citizens abroad, minus income earned by foreigners from domestic
production. The Factbook, following current practice, uses GDP rather
than GNP to measure national production. However, the user must realize
that in certain countries net remittances from citizens working abroad
may be important to national well-being.

Government
This category includes the entries dealing with the system for the
adoption and administration of public policy.

Government type
This entry gives the basic form of government (e.g., republic,
constitutional monarchy, federal republic, parliamentary democracy,
military dictatorship).

Government - note
This entry includes miscellaneous government information of
significance not included elsewhere.

Gross domestic product
see GDP

Gross national product
see GNP

Gross world product
see GWP

GWP
This entry gives the gross world product (GWP) or aggregate value of
all final goods and services produced worldwide in a given year.

Heliports
This entry gives the total number of established helicopter takeoff and
landing sites (which may or may not have fuel or other services).

Highways
This entry states the total length of the highway system and the length
of the paved and unpaved parts.

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
This entry gives an estimate of the percentage of adults (aged 15-49)
living with HIV/AIDS. The adult prevalence rate is calculated by
dividing the estimated number of adults living with HIV/AIDS at yearend
by the total adult population at yearend.

HIV/AIDS - deaths
This entry gives an estimate of the number of adults and children who
died of AIDS during a given calendar year.

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
This entry gives an estimate of all people (adults and children) alive
at yearend with HIV infection, whether or not they have developed
symptoms of AIDS.

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Data on household income or consumption come from household surveys,
the results adjusted for household size. Nations use different
standards and procedures in collecting and adjusting the data. Surveys
based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than
surveys based on consumption. The quality of surveys is improving with
time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country
comparisons.

Hydrographic data codes
see Data codes

Illicit drugs
This entry gives information on the five categories of illicit drugs -
narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, and
cannabis. These categories include many drugs legally produced and
prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally produced and sold
outside of medical channels.
     Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which
provides hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes
marijuana (pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol
(THC, Marinol), hashish (hash), and hashish oil (hash oil).
     Coca (mostly Erythroxylum coca) is a bush with leaves that contain
the stimulant used to make cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with
cocoa, which comes from cacao seeds and is used in making chocolate,
cocoa, and cocoa butter.
     Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush.
     Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety
and include chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal,
phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone
(Quaalude), glutethimide (Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl,
Valmid).
     Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental,
emotional, or behavioral change in an individual.
     Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance
that results in physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment
in an individual.
     Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking, self-
awareness, and emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid, microdot),
mescaline and peyote (mexc, buttons, cactus), amphetamine variants
(PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust, hog), phencyclidine
analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others (psilocybin, psilocyn).
     Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant
(Cannabis sativa).
     Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine.
     Mandrax is a trade name for methaqualone, a pharmaceutical
depressant. Marijuana is the dried leaf of the cannabis or hemp plant
(Cannabis sativa).
     Methaqualone is a pharmaceutical depressant, referred to as
mandrax in Southwest Asia and Africa.
     Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and
refer to opium, opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural
narcotics include opium (paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin,
Roxanol), codeine (Tylenol with codeine, Empirin with codeine,
Robitussan AC), and thebaine. Semisynthetic narcotics include heroin
(horse, smack), and hydromorphone (Dilaudid). Synthetic narcotics
include meperidine or Pethidine (Demerol, Mepergan), methadone
(Dolophine, Methadose), and others (Darvon, Lomotil).
     Opium is the brown, gummy exudate of the incised, unripe seedpod
of the opium poppy. Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the source for
the natural and semisynthetic narcotics. Poppy straw concentrate is the
alkaloid derived from the mature, dried opium poppy.
     Qat (kat, khat) is a stimulant from the buds or leaves of Catha
edulis that is chewed or drunk as tea.
     Quaaludes is the North American slang term for methaqualone, a
pharmaceutical depressant.
     Stimulants are drugs that relieve mild depression, increase energy
and activity, and include cocaine (coke, snow, crack), amphetamines
(Desoxyn, Dexedrine), ephedrine, ecstasy (clarity, essence, doctor,
Adam), phenmetrazine (Preludin), methylphenidate (Ritalin), and others
(Cylert, Sanorex, Tenuate).

Imports
This entry provides the total US dollar amount of imports on a c.i.f.
(cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis.

Imports - commodities
This entry provides a rank ordering of imported products starting with
the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar
value.

Imports - partners
This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with
the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar
value.

Independence
For most countries, this entry gives the date that sovereignty was
achieved and from which nation, empire, or trusteeship. For the other
countries, the date given may not represent "independence" in the
strict sense, but rather some significant nationhood event such as the
traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation,
confederation, establishment, fundamental change in the form of
government, or state succession. Dependent areas include the notation
"none" followed by the nature of their dependency status. Also see the
Terminology note.

Industrial production growth rate
This entry gives the annual percentage increase in industrial
production (includes manufacturing, mining, and construction).

Industries
This entry provides a rank ordering of industries starting with the
largest by value of annual output.

Infant mortality rate
This entry gives the number of deaths of infants under one year old in
a given year per 1,000 live births in the same year. This rate is often
used as an indicator of the level of health in a country.

Inflation rate (consumer prices)
This entry furnishes the annual percent change in consumer prices
compared with the previous year's consumer prices.

Internet country code
This entry includes the two-letter codes maintained by the
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in the ISO 3166
Alpha-2 list and used by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
to establish country-coded top-level domains (ccTLDs).

Internet Service Providers (ISPs)
This entry supplies the number of Internet Service Providers within a
country. An ISP is defined as a company that provides access to the
Internet.

Internet users
This entry gives the number of users within a country that access the
Internet. Statistics vary from country to country and may include users
who access the Internet at least several times a week to those who
access it only once within a period of several months.

International disputes
see Disputes - international

International organization participation
This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those
international organizations in which the subject country is a member or
participates in some other way.

International organizations
This information is presented in Appendix B: International
Organizations and Groups which includes the name, abbreviation, date
established, aim, and members by category.

Introduction
This category includes one entry, Background.

Irrigated land
This entry gives the number of square kilometers of land area that is
artificially supplied with water.

Judicial branch
This entry contains the name(s) of the highest court(s) and a brief
description of the selection process for members.

Labor force
This entry contains the total labor force figure.

Labor force - by occupation
This entry contains a rank ordering of component parts of the labor
force by occupation.

Land boundaries
This entry contains the total length of all land boundaries and the
individual lengths for each of the contiguous border countries.

Land use
This entry contains the percentage shares of total land area for three
different types of land use: arable land - land cultivated for crops
that are replanted after each harvest like wheat, maize, and rice;
permanent crops - land cultivated for crops that are not replanted
after each harvest like citrus, coffee, and rubber; includes land under
flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land
under trees grown for wood or timber; other - any land not arable or
under permanent crops; includes permanent meadows and pastures, forests
and woodlands, built-on areas, roads, barren land, etc.

Languages
This entry provides a rank ordering of languages starting with the
largest and sometimes includes the percent of total population speaking
that language.

Legal system
This entry contains a brief description of the legal system's
historical roots, role in government, and acceptance of International
Court of Justice (ICJ) jurisdiction.

Legislative branch
This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral,
bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of
office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession
to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election.
Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats
held by each party in the last election.

Life expectancy at birth
This entry contains the average number of years to be lived by a group
of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains
constant in the future. The entry includes total population as well as
the male and female components. Life expectancy at birth is also a
measure of overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the
mortality at all ages. It can also be thought of as indicating the
potential return on investment in human capital and is necessary for
the calculation of various actuarial measures.

Literacy
This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau
percentages for the total population, males, and females. There are no
universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise
specified, all rates are based on the most common definition - the
ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards
that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write
is beyond the scope of the Factbook. Information on literacy, while not
a perfect measure of educational results, is probably the most easily
available and valid for international comparisons. Low levels of
literacy, and education in general, can impede the economic development
of a country in the current rapidly changing, technology-driven world.

Location
This entry identifies the country's regional location, neighboring
countries, and adjacent bodies of water.

Map references
This entry includes the name of the Factbook reference map on which a
country may be found. The entry on Geographic coordinates may be
helpful in finding some smaller countries.

Maritime claims
This entry includes the following claims, the definitions of which are
excerpted from the Law of the Sea (LOS) Convention, which alone
contains the full and definitive descriptions:
     contiguous zone - according to the LOS Convention (Article 33),
this is a zone contiguous to a coastal State's territorial sea, over
which it may exercise the control necessary to:  prevent infringement
of its customs, fiscal, immigration, or sanitary laws and regulations
within its territory or territorial sea; punish infringement of the
above laws and regulations committed within its territory or
territorial sea; the contiguous zone may not extend beyond 24 nautical
miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea
is measured (e.g. the US has claimed a 12-mile contiguous zone in
addition to its 12-mile territorial sea)
     continental shelf - the LOS Convention (Article 76) defines the
continental shelf of a coastal State as comprising the seabed and
subsoil of the submarine areas that extend beyond its territorial sea
throughout the natural prolongation of its land territory to the outer
edge of the continental margin, or to a distance of 200 nautical miles
from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is
measured where the outer edge of the continental margin does not extend
up to that distance; the continental margin comprises the submerged
prolongation of the landmass of the coastal State, and consists of the
seabed and subsoil of the shelf, the slope and the rise; it does not
include the deep ocean floor with its oceanic ridges or the subsoil
thereof
     exclusive economic zone (EEZ) - the LOS Convention (Part V)
defines the EEZ as a zone beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea in
which a coastal State has: sovereign rights for the purpose of
exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the natural
resources, whether living or non-living, of the waters superjacent to
the seabed and of the seabed and its subsoil, and with regard to other
activities for the economic exploitation and exploration of the zone,
such as the production of energy from the water, currents, and winds;
jurisdiction with regard to the establishment and use of artificial
islands, installations, and structures; marine scientific research; the
protection and preservation of the marine environment; the outer limit
of the exclusive economic zone shall not exceed 200 nautical miles from
the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured
     exclusive fishing zone - while this term is not used in the LOS
Convention, some States (e.g. the United Kingdom) have chosen not to
claim an EEZ, but rather to claim jurisdiction over the living
resources off their coast; in such cases, the term exclusive fishing
zone is often used
     territorial sea - the sovereignty of a coastal State extends
beyond its land territory and internal waters to an adjacent belt of
sea, described as the territorial sea in the LOS Convention (Part II);
this sovereignty extends to the air space over the territorial sea as
well as its underlying seabed and subsoil; every State has the right to
establish the breadth of its territorial sea up to a limit not
exceeding 12 nautical miles

Median Age
This entry is the age that divides a population into two numerically
equal groups; that is, half the people are younger than this age and
half are older. It is a single index that summarizes the age
distribution of a population. Currently, the median age ranges from a
low of about 15 in Uganda and Gaza Strip to 40 or more in several
European countries and Japan. See the entry for "Age structure" for the
importance of a younger versus an older age structure and, by
implication, a lower versus a higher median age.

Merchant marine
Merchant marine may be defined as all ships engaged in the carriage of
goods; or all commercial vessels (as opposed to all nonmilitary ships),
which excludes tugs, fishing vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc.; or a
grouping of merchant ships by nationality or register. This entry
contains information in two subfields - total and ships by type. Total
includes the total number of ships (1,000 GRT or over), total DWT for
those ships, and total GRT for those ships. DWT or dead weight tonnage
is the total weight of cargo, plus bunkers, stores, etc. that a ship
can carry when immersed to the appropriate load line. GRT or gross
register tonnage is a figure obtained by measuring the entire sheltered
volume of the ship available for cargo and passengers and converting it
to tons on the basis of 100 cubic feet per ton; there is no stable
relationship between GRT and DWT. Ships by type includes a listing of
barge carriers, bulk cargo ships, cargo ships, chemical tankers,
combination bulk carriers, combination ore/oil carriers, container
ships, liquefied gas tankers, livestock carriers, multifunctional
large-load carriers, petroleum tankers, passenger ships,
passenger/cargo ships, railcar carriers, refrigerated cargo ships,
roll-on/roll-off cargo ships, short-sea passenger ships, specialized
tankers, and vehicle carriers.
      A captive register is a register of ships maintained by a
territory, possession, or colony primarily or exclusively for the use
of ships owned in the parent country; it is also referred to as an
offshore register, the offshore equivalent of an internal register.
Ships on a captive register will fly the same flag as the parent
country, or a local variant of it, but will be subject to the maritime
laws and taxation rules of the offshore territory. Although the nature
of a captive register makes it especially desirable for ships owned in
the parent country, just as in the internal register, the ships may
also be owned abroad. The captive register then acts as a flag of
convenience register, except that it is not the register of an
independent state.
     A flag of convenience register is a national register offering
registration to a merchant ship not owned in the flag state. The major
flags of convenience (FOC) attract ships to their registers by virtue
of low fees, low or nonexistent taxation of profits, and liberal
manning requirements. True FOC registers are characterized by having
relatively few of the registered ships actually owned in the flag
state. Thus, while virtually any flag can be used for ships under a
given set of circumstances, an FOC register is one where the majority
of the merchant fleet is owned abroad. It is also referred to as an
open register.
     A flag state is the nation in which a ship is registered and which
holds legal jurisdiction over operation of the ship, whether at home or
abroad. Maritime legislation of the flag state determines how a ship is
crewed and taxed and whether a foreign-owned ship may be placed on the
register.
     An internal register is a register of ships maintained as a subset
of a national register. Ships on the internal register fly the national
flag and have that nationality but are subject to a separate set of
maritime rules from those on the main national register. These
differences usually include lower taxation of profits, use of foreign
nationals as crewmembers, and, usually, ownership outside the flag
state (when it functions as an FOC register). The Norwegian
International Ship Register and Danish International Ship Register are
the most notable examples of an internal register. Both have been
instrumental in stemming flight from the national flag to flags of
convenience and in attracting foreign-owned ships to the Norwegian and
Danish flags.
     A merchant ship is a vessel that carries goods against payment of
freight; it is commonly used to denote any nonmilitary ship but
accurately restricted to commercial vessels only.
     A register is the record of a ship's ownership and nationality as
listed with the maritime authorities of a country; also, it is the
compendium of such individual ships' registrations. Registration of a
ship provides it with a nationality and makes it subject to the laws of
the country in which registered (the flag state) regardless of the
nationality of the ship's ultimate owner.

Military
This category includes the entries dealing with a country's military
structure, manpower, and expenditures.

Military branches
This entry lists the names of the ground, naval, air, marine, and other
defense or security forces.

Military expenditures - dollar figure
This entry gives current military expenditures in US dollars; the
figure is calculated by multiplying the estimated defense spending in
percentage terms by the gross domestic product (GDP) calculated on an
exchange rate basis not purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.  Dollar
figures for military expenditures should be treated with caution
because of different price patterns and accounting methods among
nations, as well as wide variations in the strength of their
currencies.

Military expenditures - percent of GDP
This entry gives current military expenditures as an estimated percent
of gross domestic product (GDP).

Military manpower - availability
This entry gives the total numbers of males and females age 15-49 and
assumes that every individual is fit to serve.

Military manpower - fit for military service
This entry gives the number of males and females age 15-49 fit for
military service. This is a more refined measure of potential military
manpower availability which tries to correct for the health situation
in the country and reduces the maximum potential number to a more
realistic estimate of the actual number fit to serve.

Military manpower - military age
This entry gives the minimum age at which an individual may volunteer
for military service or be subject to conscription.

Military manpower - reaching military age annually
This entry gives the number of draft-age males and females entering the
military manpower pool in any given year and is a measure of the
availability of draft-age young adults.

Military - note
This entry includes miscellaneous military information of significance
not included elsewhere.

Money figures
All money figures are expressed in contemporaneous US dollars unless
otherwise indicated.

National holiday
This entry gives the primary national day of celebration - usually
independence day.

Nationality
This entry provides the identifying terms for citizens - noun and
adjective.

Natural Gas - consumption
This entry is the total quantity of natural gas consumed in cubic
meters. The discrepancy between the quantity of natural gas produced
and/or imported and the quantity consumed and/or exported is due to the
omission of stock changes and other complicating factors.

Natural Gas - exports
This entry is the total quantity of natural gas exported in cubic
meters.

Natural Gas - imports
This entry is the total quantity of natural gas imported in cubic
meters.

Natural Gas - production
This entry is the total quantity of natural gas produced in cubic
meters. The discrepancy between the quantity of natural gas produced
and/or imported and the quantity consumed and/or exported is due to the
omission of stock changes and other complicating factors.

Natural Gas - proved reserves
This entry is the stock of proved reserves of natural gas in cubic
meters (cu. m.). Proved reserves are those quantities of natural gas,
which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated
with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a
given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic
conditions.

Natural hazards
This entry lists potential natural disasters.

Natural resources
This entry lists a country's mineral, petroleum, hydropower, and other
resources of commercial importance.

Net migration rate
This entry includes the figure for the difference between the number of
persons entering and leaving a country during the year per 1,000
persons (based on midyear population). An excess of persons entering
the country is referred to as net immigration (e.g., 3.56
migrants/1,000 population); an excess of persons leaving the country as
net emigration (e.g., -9.26 migrants/1,000 population). The net
migration rate indicates the contribution of migration to the overall
level of population change. High levels of migration can cause problems
such as increasing unemployment and potential ethnic strife (if people
are coming in) or a reduction in the labor force, perhaps in certain
key sectors (if people are leaving).

Oil - consumption
This entry is the total oil consumed in barrels per day (bbl/day). The
discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the
amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock
changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors.

Oil - exports
This entry is the total oil exported in barrels per day (bbl/day),
including both crude oil and oil products.

Oil - imports
This entry is the total oil imported in barrels per day (bbl/day),
including both crude oil and oil products.

Oil - production
This entry is the total oil produced in barrels per day (bbl/day). The
discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the
amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock
changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors.

Oil - proved reserves
This entry is the stock of proved reserves of crude oil in barrels
(bbl). Proved reserves are those quantities of petroleum which, by
analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a
high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given
date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic
conditions.

People
This category includes the entries dealing with the characteristics of
the people and their society.

People - note
This entry includes miscellaneous demographic information of
significance not included elsewhere.

Personal Names - Capitalization
The Factbook uses all uppercase letters for personal names by which the
subject is usually referred to in various media. An example is
President Vicente FOX Quesada of Mexico. Members of royal families are
usually referred by other than their family name (King and Prime
Minister FAHD bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud of Saudi Arabia, Queen BEATRIX of
the Netherlands, or King PHUMIPHON Adunyadet of Thailand). Some Asians
are referred to by the first element of their name - also their
surname, such as President NO Muh-hyun of South Korea.

Personal Names - Spelling
The romanization of personal names in the Factbook normally follows the
same transliteration system used by the US Board on Geographic Names
for spelling place names. At times, however, a foreign leader expressly
indicates a preference for, or the media or official documents
regularly use, a romanized spelling that differs from the
transliteration derived from the US Government standard. In such cases,
the Factbook uses the alternative spelling.

Personal Names - Titles
The Factbook capitalizes any valid title (or short form of it)
immediately preceding a person's name. A title standing alone is
lowercased. Examples: President PUTIN and President BUSH are chiefs of
state. In Russia, the president is chief of state and the premier is
the head of the government, while in the US, the president is both
chief of state and head of government.

Petroleum
See "Oil" entries

Petroleum products
See "Oil" entries

Pipelines
This entry gives the lengths and types of pipelines for transporting
products like natural gas, crude oil, or petroleum products.

Political parties and leaders
This entry includes a listing of significant political organizations
and their leaders.

Political pressure groups and leaders
This entry includes a listing of organizations with leaders involved in
politics, but not standing for legislative election.

Population
This entry gives an estimate from the US Bureau of the Census based on
statistics from population censuses, vital statistics registration
systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past and on
assumptions about future trends. The total population presents one
overall measure of the potential impact of the country on the world and
within its region. Note: starting with the 1993 Factbook, demographic
estimates for some countries (mostly African) have explicitly taken
into account the effects of the growing impact of the HIV/AIDS
epidemic. These countries are currently: The Bahamas, Benin, Botswana,
Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central
African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the
Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras,
Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South
Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, and
Zimbabwe.

Population below poverty line
National estimates of the percentage of the population lying below the
poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results
weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty
vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally
employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations.

Population growth rate
The average annual percent change in the population, resulting from a
surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths and the balance of migrants
entering and leaving a country. The rate may be positive or negative.
The growth rate is a factor in determining how great a burden would be
imposed on a country by the changing needs of its people for
infrastructure (e.g., schools, hospitals, housing, roads), resources
(e.g., food, water, electricity), and jobs. Rapid population growth can
be seen as threatening by neighboring countries.

Ports and harbors
This entry lists the major ports and harbors selected on the basis of
overall importance to each country.  This is determined by evaluating a
number of factors (e.g., dollar value of goods handled, gross tonnage,
facilities, military significance).

Radio broadcast stations
This entry includes the total number of AM, FM, and shortwave broadcast
stations.

Railways
This entry states the total route length of the railway network and of
its component parts by gauge: broad, dual, narrow, standard, and other.

Reference maps
This section includes world and regional maps.

Religions
This entry includes a rank ordering of religions by adherents starting
with the largest group and sometimes includes the percent of total
population.

Sex ratio
This entry includes the number of males for each female in five age
groups - at birth, under 15 years, 15-64 years, 65 years and over, and
for the total population. Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an
indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some countries. For
instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian countries are now
attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide due to a strong
preference for sons. This will affect future marriage patterns and
fertility patterns. Eventually it could cause unrest among young adult
males who are unable to find partners.

Suffrage
This entry gives the age at enfranchisement and whether the right to
vote is universal or restricted.

Telephone numbers
All telephone numbers in the Factbook consist of the country code in
brackets, the city or area code (where required) in parentheses, and
the local number. The one component that is not presented is the
international access code, which varies from country to country. For
example, an international direct dial telephone call placed from the US
to Madrid, Spain, would be as follows:

     011 [34] (1) 577-xxxx, where
     011 is the international access code for station-to-station calls;
01 is for calls other than station-to-station calls,
     [34] is the country code for Spain,
     (1) is the city code for Madrid,
     577 is the local exchange, and
     xxxx is the local telephone number.

An international direct dial telephone call placed from another country
to the US would be as follows:
     international access code + [1] (202) 939-xxxx, where
     [1] is the country code for the US,
     (202) is the area code for Washington, DC,
     939 is the local exchange, and
     xxxx is the local telephone number.

Telephone system
This entry includes a brief characterization of the system with details
on the domestic and international components. The following terms and
abbreviations are used throughout the entry:

     Africa ONE - a fiber-optic submarine cable link encircling the
continent of Africa.
     Arabsat - Arab Satellite Communications Organization (Riyadh,
Saudi Arabia).
     Autodin - Automatic Digital Network (US Department of Defense).
     CB - citizen's band mobile radio communications.
     cellular telephone system - the telephones in this system are
radio transceivers, with each instrument having its own private radio
frequency and sufficient radiated power to reach the booster station in
its area (cell), from which the telephone signal is fed to a telephone
exchange.
     Central American Microwave System - a trunk microwave radio relay
system that links the countries of Central America and Mexico with each
other.
     coaxial cable - a multichannel communication cable consisting of a
central conducting wire, surrounded by and insulated from a cylindrical
conducting shell; a large number of telephone channels can be made
available within the insulated space by the use of a large number of
carrier frequencies.
     Comsat - Communications Satellite Corporation (US).
     DSN - Defense Switched Network (formerly Automatic Voice Network
or Autovon); basic general-purpose, switched voice network of the
Defense Communications System (US Department of Defense).
     Eutelsat - European Telecommunications Satellite Organization
(Paris).
     fiber-optic cable - a multichannel communications cable using a
thread of optical glass fibers as a transmission medium in which the
signal (voice, video, etc.) is in the form of a coded pulse of light.
     GSM - a global system for mobile (cellular) communications devised
by the Groupe Special Mobile of the pan-European standardization
organization, Conference Europeanne des Posts et Telecommunications
(CEPT) in 1982.
     HF - high frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to 30,000-
kHz range.
     Inmarsat - International Mobile Satellite Organization (London);
provider of global mobile satellite communications for commercial,
distress, and safety applications at sea, in the air, and on land.
     Intelsat - International Telecommunications Satellite Organization
(Washington, DC).
     Intersputnik - International Organization of Space Communications
(Moscow); first established in the former Soviet Union and the East
European countries, it is now marketing its services worldwide with
earth stations in North America, Africa, and East Asia.
     landline - communication wire or cable of any sort that is
installed on poles or buried in the ground. Marecs - Maritime European
Communications Satellite used in the Inmarsat system on lease from the
European Space Agency.
     Marisat - satellites of the Comsat Corporation that participate in
the Inmarsat system.
     Medarabtel - the Middle East Telecommunications Project of the
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) providing a modern
telecommunications network, primarily by microwave radio relay, linking
Algeria, Djibouti, Egypt, Jordan, Libya, Morocco, Saudi Arabia,
Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen; it was initially started in
Morocco in 1970 by the Arab Telecommunications Union (ATU) and was
known at that time as the Middle East Mediterranean Telecommunications
Network.
     microwave radio relay - transmission of long distance telephone
calls and television programs by highly directional radio microwaves
that are received and sent on from one booster station to another on an
optical path.
     NMT - Nordic Mobile Telephone; an analog cellular telephone system
that was developed jointly by the national telecommunications
authorities of the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway,
and Sweden).
     Orbita - a Russian television service; also the trade name of a
packet-switched digital telephone network.
     radiotelephone communications - the two-way transmission and
reception of sounds by broadcast radio on authorized frequencies using
telephone handsets.
     PanAmSat - PanAmSat Corporation (Greenwich, CT).
     satellite communication system - a communication system consisting
of two or more earth stations and at least one satellite that provide
long distance transmission of voice, data, and television; the system
usually serves as a trunk connection between telephone exchanges; if
the earth stations are in the same country, it is a domestic system.
     satellite earth station - a communications facility with a
microwave radio transmitting and receiving antenna and required
receiving and transmitting equipment for communicating with satellites.
     satellite link - a radio connection between a satellite and an
earth station permitting communication between them, either one-way
(down link from satellite to earth station - television receive-only
transmission) or two-way (telephone channels).
     SHF - super high frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to
30,000-MHz range.
     shortwave - radio frequencies (from 1.605 to 30 MHz) that fall
above the commercial broadcast band and are used for communication over
long distances.
     Solidaridad - geosynchronous satellites in Mexico's system of
international telecommunications in the Western Hemisphere.
     Statsionar - Russia's geostationary system for satellite
telecommunications.
     submarine cable - a cable designed for service under water.
     TAT - Trans-Atlantic Telephone; any of a number of high-capacity
submarine coaxial telephone cables linking Europe with North America.
     telefax - facsimile service between subscriber stations via the
public switched telephone network or the international Datel network.
     telegraph - a telecommunications system designed for unmodulated
electric impulse transmission.
     telex - a communication service involving teletypewriters
connected by wire through automatic exchanges.
     tropospheric scatter - a form of microwave radio transmission in
which the troposphere is used to scatter and reflect a fraction of the
incident radio waves back to earth; powerful, highly directional
antennas are used to transmit and receive the microwave signals;
reliable over-the-horizon communications are realized for distances up
to 600 miles in a single hop; additional hops can extend the range of
this system for very long distances.
     trunk network - a network of switching centers, connected by
multichannel trunk lines.
     UHF - ultra high frequency; any radio frequency in the 300- to
3,000-MHz range.
     VHF - very high frequency; any radio frequency in the 30- to 300-
MHz range.

Telephones - main lines in use
This entry gives the total number of main telephone lines in use.

Telephones - mobile cellular
This entry gives the total number of mobile cellular telephones in use.

Television - broadcast stations
This entry gives the total number of separate broadcast stations plus
any repeater stations.

Terminology
Due to the highly structured nature of the Factbook database, some
collective generic terms have to be used. For example, the word Country
in the Country name entry refers to a wide variety of dependencies,
areas of special sovereignty, uninhabited islands, and other entities
in addition to the traditional countries or independent states.
Military is also used as an umbrella term for various civil defense,
security, and defense activities in many entries. The Independence
entry includes the usual colonial independence dates and former ruling
states as well as other significant nationhood dates such as the
traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation,
confederation, establishment, or state succession that are not strictly
independence dates. Dependent areas have the nature of their dependency
status noted in this same entry.

Terrain
This entry contains a brief description of the topography.

Total fertility rate
This entry gives a figure for the average number of children that would
be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing
years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each
age. The total fertility rate is a more direct measure of the level of
fertility than the crude birth rate, since it refers to births per
woman. This indicator shows the potential for population growth in the
country. High rates will also place some limits on the labor force
participation rates for women. Large numbers of children born to women
indicate large family sizes that might limit the ability of the
families to feed and educate their children.

Transnational Issues
This category includes only two entries at the present time - Disputes
- international and Illicit drugs - that deal with current issues going
beyond national boundaries.

Transportation
This category includes the entries dealing with the means for movement
of people and goods.

Transportation - note
This entry includes miscellaneous transportation information of
significance not included elsewhere.

Unemployment rate
This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without
jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted.

Waterways
This entry gives the total length and individual names of navigable
rivers, canals, and other inland bodies of water.

Years
All year references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as
fiscal year (FY). The calendar year is an accounting period of 12
months from 1 January to 31 December. The fiscal year is an accounting
period of 12 months other than 1 January to 31 December.

Note: Information for the US and US dependencies was compiled from
material in the public domain and does not represent Intelligence
Community estimates.


This page was last updated on 23 October, 2003



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A Brief History of Basic Intelligence and The World Factbook


The Intelligence Cycle is the process by which information is acquired,
converted into intelligence, and made available to policymakers.
Information is raw data from any source, data that may be fragmentary,
contradictory, unreliable, ambiguous, deceptive, or wrong.
Intelligence is information that has been collected, integrated,
evaluated, analyzed, and interpreted. Finished intelligence is the
final product of the Intelligence Cycle ready to be delivered to the
policymaker.

The three types of finished intelligence are: basic, current, and
estimative. Basic intelligence provides the fundamental and factual
reference material on a country or issue. Current intelligence reports
on new developments. Estimative intelligence judges probable outcomes.
The three are mutually supportive: basic intelligence is the foundation
on which the other two are constructed; current intelligence
continually updates the  inventory of knowledge; and estimative
intelligence revises overall interpretations of country and issue
prospects for guidance of basic and  current intelligence. The World
Factbook, The President's Daily Brief, and the National Intelligence
Estimates are examples of the three types of finished intelligence.

The United States has carried on foreign intelligence activities
since the days of George Washington but only since World War II have
they been coordinated on a government-wide basis. Three programs have
highlighted the development of coordinated basic intelligence since
that time: (1) the Joint Army Navy Intelligence Studies (JANIS), (2)
the National Intelligence Survey (NIS), and (3) The World Factbook.

During World War II, intelligence consumers realized that the
production of basic intelligence by different components of the US
Government resulted in a great duplication of effort and conflicting
information. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 brought home
to leaders in Congress and the executive branch the need for
integrating departmental reports to national policymakers. Detailed and
coordinated information was needed not only on such major powers as
Germany and Japan, but also on places of little previous interest. In
the Pacific Theater, for example, the Navy and Marines had to launch
amphibious operations against many islands about which information was
unconfirmed or nonexistent. Intelligence authorities resolved that the
United States should never again be caught unprepared.

In 1943, Gen. George B. Strong (G-2), Adm. H. C. Train (Office of
Naval Intelligence - ONI), and Gen. William J. Donovan (Director of the
Office of Strategic Services - OSS) decided that a joint effort should
be initiated. A steering committee was appointed on 27 April 1943 that
recommended the formation of a Joint Intelligence Study Publishing
Board to assemble, edit, coordinate, and publish the Joint Army Navy
Intelligence Studies (JANIS). JANIS was the first interdepartmental
basic intelligence program to fulfill the needs of the US Government
for an authoritative and coordinated appraisal of strategic basic
intelligence. Between April 1943 and July 1947, the board published 34
JANIS studies. JANIS performed well in the war effort, and numerous
letters of commendation were received, including a statement from Adm.
Forrest Sherman, Chief of Staff, Pacific Ocean Areas, which said,
"JANIS has become the indispensable reference work for the shore-based
planners."

The need for more comprehensive basic intelligence in the postwar
world was well expressed in 1946 by George S. Pettee, a noted author on
national security. He wrote in The Future of American Secret
Intelligence (Infantry Journal Press, 1946, page 46) that world
leadership in peace requires even more elaborate intelligence than in
war. "The conduct of peace involves all countries, all human activities
- not just the enemy and his war production."

The Central Intelligence Agency was established on 26 July 1947
and officially began operating on 18 September 1947. Effective 1
October 1947, the Director of Central Intelligence assumed operational
responsibility for JANIS. On 13 January 1948, the National Security
Council issued Intelligence Directive (NSCID) No. 3, which authorized
the National Intelligence Survey (NIS) program as a peacetime
replacement for the wartime JANIS program. Before adequate NIS country
sections could be produced, government agencies had to develop more
comprehensive gazetteers and better maps. The US Board on Geographic
Names (BGN) compiled the names; the Department of the Interior produced
the gazetteers; and CIA produced the maps.

The Hoover Commission's Clark Committee, set up in 1954 to study
the structure and administration of the CIA, reported to Congress in
1955 that: "The National Intelligence Survey is an invaluable
publication which provides the essential elements of basic intelligence
on all areas of the world. There will always be a continuing
requirement for keeping the Survey up-to-date." The Factbook was
created as an annual summary and update to the encyclopedic NIS
studies. The first classified Factbook was published in August 1962,
and the first unclassified version was published in June 1971. The NIS
program was terminated in 1973 except for the Factbook, map, and
gazetteer components. The 1975 Factbook was the first to be made
available to the public with sales through the US Government Printing
Office (GPO). The Factbook was first made available on the Internet in
June 1997. The year 2003 marks the 56th anniversary of the
establishment of the Central Intelligence Agency and the 60th year of
continuous basic intelligence support to the US Government by The World
Factbook and its two predecessor programs.


This page was last updated on 23 October, 2003



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Contributors and Copyright Information


In general, information available as of 1 January 2003 was used in the
preparation of this edition.

The World Factbook is prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency for
the use of US Government officials, and the style, format, coverage,
and content are designed to meet their specific requirements.
Information is provided by Antarctic Information Program (National
Science Foundation), Bureau of the Census (Department of Commerce),
Bureau of Labor Statistics (Department of Labor), Central Intelligence
Agency, Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs, Defense
Intelligence Agency (Department of Defense), Department of State, Fish
and Wildlife Service (Department of the Interior), Maritime
Administration (Department of Transportation), National Imagery and
Mapping Agency (Department of Defense), Naval Facilities Engineering
Command (Department of Defense), Office of Insular Affairs (Department
of the Interior), Office of Naval Intelligence (Department of Defense),
US Board on Geographic Names (Department of the Interior), US
Transportation Command (Department of Defense), and other public and
private sources.

The Factbook is in the public domain. Accordingly, it may be copied
freely without permission of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
The official seal of the CIA, however, may NOT be copied without
permission as required by the CIA Act of 1949 (50 U.S.C. section 403m).
Misuse of the official seal of the CIA could result in civil and
criminal penalties.

Comments and queries are welcome and may be addressed to:

Central Intelligence Agency
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  Example 1       43.2                 43
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                  26.4                 26
                  ----                 --
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  Example 2       42.8                 43
                  31.6                 32
                  25.6                 26
                  ----                 --
                 100.0                101

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This page was last updated on 21 October, 2003



=====================================================================



@Afghanistan

Introduction Afghanistan


Background:
  Afghanistan's recent history is characterized by war and civil
  unrest. The Soviet Union invaded in 1979, but was forced to withdraw
  10 years later by anti-Communist mujahidin forces supplied and
  trained by the US, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and others. Fighting
  subsequently continued among the various mujahidin factions, giving
  rise to a state of warlordism that eventually spawned the Taliban.
  Backed by foreign sponsors, the Taliban developed as a political
  force and eventually seized power. The Taliban were able to capture
  most of the country, aside from Northern Alliance strongholds
  primarily in the northeast, until US and allied military action in
  support of the opposition following the 11 September 2001 terrorist
  attacks forced the group's downfall. In late 2001, major leaders
  from the Afghan opposition groups and diaspora met in Bonn, Germany,
  and agreed on a plan for the formulation of a new government
  structure that resulted in the inauguration of Hamid KARZAI as
  Chairman of the Afghan Interim Authority (AIA) on 22 December 2001.
  The AIA held a nationwide Loya Jirga (Grand Assembly) in June 2002,
  and KARZAI was elected President by secret ballot of the
  Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan (TISA). The Transitional
  Authority has an 18-month mandate to hold a nationwide Loya Jirga to
  adopt a constitution and a 24-month mandate to hold nationwide
  elections. In December 2002, the TISA marked the one-year
  anniversary of the fall of the Taliban. In addition to occasionally
  violent political jockeying and ongoing military action to root out
  remaining terrorists and Taliban elements, the country suffers from
  enormous poverty, a crumbling infrastructure, and widespread land
  mines.

Geography Afghanistan


Location:
  Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran

Geographic coordinates:
  33 00 N, 65 00 E

Map references:
  Asia

Area:
  total: 647,500 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 647,500 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,529 km
  border countries: China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km,
  Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

Terrain:
  mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Amu Darya 258 m
  highest point: Nowshak 7,485 m

Natural resources:
  natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, chromite, talc, barites,
  sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones

Land use:
  arable land: 12.13%
  permanent crops: 0.22%
  other: 87.65% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  23,860 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; flooding;
  droughts

Environment - current issues:
  limited natural fresh water resources; inadequate supplies of
  potable water; soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of
  the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building
  materials); desertification; air and water pollution

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban
  signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous
  Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:
  landlocked; the Hindu Kush mountains that run northeast to
  southwest divide the northern provinces from the rest of the
  country; the highest peaks are in the northern Vakhan (Wakhan
  Corridor)

People Afghanistan


Population:
  28,717,213 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 41.8% (male 6,123,971; female 5,868,013)
  15-64 years: 55.4% (male 8,240,743; female 7,671,242)
  65 years and over: 2.8% (male 427,710; female 385,534) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 18.9 years
  male: 19.1 years
  female: 18.7 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  3.38%
  note: this rate does not take into consideration the recent war and
  its continuing impact (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  40.63 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  17.15 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  10.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.11 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 142.48 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 138.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 145.99 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 46.97 years
  male: 47.67 years
  female: 46.23 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  5.64 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.01% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Afghan(s)
  adjective: Afghan

Ethnic groups:
  Pashtun 44%, Tajik 25%, Hazara 10%, minor ethnic groups (Aimaks,
  Turkmen, Baloch, and others) 13%, Uzbek 8%

Religions:
  Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi'a Muslim 15%, other 1%

Languages:
  Pashtu 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic languages (primarily
  Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and
  Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  female: 21% (1999 est.)
  total population: 36%
  male: 51%

People - note:
  large numbers of Afghan refugees create burdens on neighboring
  states

Government Afghanistan


Country name:
  conventional long form: Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan
  conventional short form: Afghanistan
  local short form: Afghanestan
  former: Republic of Afghanistan
  local long form: Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan

Government type:
  transitional

Capital:
  Kabul

Administrative divisions:
  32 provinces (velayat, singular - velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis,
  Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand,
  Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Khowst, Konar, Kondoz,
  Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Nurestan, Oruzgan, Paktia,
  Paktika, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, and Zabol

Independence:
  19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign affairs)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 19 August (1919)

Constitution:
  the Bonn Agreement called for a Loya Jirga (Grand Council) to be
  convened within 18 months of the establishment of the Transitional
  Authority to draft a new constitution for the country; the basis for
  the next constitution is the 1964 Constitution, according to the
  Bonn Agreement

Legal system:
  the Bonn Agreement calls for a judicial commission to rebuild the
  justice system in accordance with Islamic principles, international
  standards, the rule of law, and Afghan legal traditions

Suffrage:
  NA; previously males 15-50 years of age

Executive branch:
  note: following the Taliban's refusal to hand over Usama bin LADIN
  to the US for his suspected involvement in the 11 September 2001
  terrorist attacks in the US, a US-led international coalition was
  formed; after several weeks of aerial bombardment by coalition
  forces and military action on the ground, including Afghan
  opposition forces, the Taliban was ousted from power on 17 November
  2001; in December 2001, a number of prominent Afghans met under UN
  auspices in Bonn, Germany, to decide on a plan for governing the
  country; as a result, the Afghan Interim Authority (AIA) - made up
  of 30 members, headed by a chairman - was inaugurated on 22 December
  2001 with a six-month mandate to be followed by a two-year
  Transitional Authority (TA), after which elections are to be held;
  the structure of the follow-on TA was announced on 10 June 2002,
  when the Loya Jirga (Grand Assembly) convened establishing the
  Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan (TISA), which has 18
  months to hold a Loya Jirga to adopt a constitution and 24 months to
  hold nationwide elections
  chief of state: President of the TISA, Hamid KARZAI (since 10 June
  2002); note - presently the president and head of government
  head of government: President of the TISA, Hamid KARZAI (since 10
  June 2002); note - presently the president and head of government
  cabinet: the 30-member TISA
  elections: nationwide elections are to be held by June 2004,
  according to the Bonn Agreement

Legislative branch:
  nonfunctioning as of June 1993

Judicial branch:
  the Bonn Agreement called for the establishment of a Supreme Court;
  there is also a Minister of Justice

Political parties and leaders:
  NA; note - political parties in Afghanistan are in flux and many
  prominent players have plans to create new parties; the Transitional
  Islamic State of Afghanistan (TISA) is headed by President Hamid
  KARZAI; the TISA is a coalition government formed of leaders from
  across the Afghan political spectrum; there are also several
  political factions not holding positions in the Transitional
  government that are forming new groups and parties in the hopes of
  participating in 2004 elections

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA; note - ministries formed under the Transitional Islamic State
  of Afghanistan (TISA) include former influential Afghans, diaspora
  members, and former political leaders

International organization participation:
  AsDB, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GUUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt,
  ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOM
  (observer), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: ambassador Seyyed Tayeb JAWAD
  chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  FAX: 202-483-6487
  consulate(s) general: New York
  telephone: 202-483-6410

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Robert Patrick John FINN; note -
  embassy in Kabul reopened 16 December 2001, following closure in
  January 1989
  embassy: Great Masood Road, Kabul
  mailing address: 6180 Kabul Place, Dulles, VA 20189-6180
  telephone: [93] (2) 290002, 290005, 290154
  FAX: 00932290153

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of black (hoist), red, and green, with a
  gold emblem centered on the red band; the emblem features a
  temple-like structure encircled by a wreath on the left and right
  and by a bold Islamic inscription above

Economy Afghanistan


Economy - overview:
  Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked country, highly
  dependent on foreign aid, farming and livestock raising (sheep and
  goats), and trade with neighboring countries. Economic
  considerations have played second fiddle to political and military
  upheavals during more than two decades of war, including the nearly
  10-year Soviet military occupation (which ended 15 February 1989).
  During that conflict, one-third of the population fled the country,
  with Pakistan and Iran sheltering a combined peak of 4 to 6 million
  refugees. Gross domestic product has fallen substantially over the
  past 20 years because of the loss of labor and capital and the
  disruption of trade and transport; severe drought added to the
  nation's difficulties in 1998-2002. The majority of the population
  continues to suffer from insufficient food, clothing, housing, and
  medical care, and a dearth of jobs, problems exacerbated by
  political uncertainties and the general level of lawlessness.
  International efforts to rebuild Afghanistan were addressed at the
  Tokyo Donors Conference for Afghan Reconstruction in January 2002,
  when $4.5 billion was pledged, $1.7 billion for 2002. Of that
  approximately $900 million was directed to humanitarian aid - food,
  clothing, and shelter - and another $90 million for the Afghan
  Transitional Authority. Further World Bank and other aid came in
  2003. Priority areas for reconstruction include upgrading education,
  health, and sanitation facilities; providing income generating
  opportunities; enhancing administrative and security arrangements,
  especially in regional areas; developing the agricultural sector;
  rebuilding transportation, energy, and telecommunication
  infrastructure; and reabsorbing 2 million returning refugees. The
  replacement of the opium trade - which may account for one-third of
  GDP - and the search for oil and gas resources in the northern
  region are two major long-term issues.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $19 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  NA%

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $700 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 60%
  industry: 20%
  services: 20% (1990 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  NA%

Labor force:
  10 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 80%, industry 10%, services 10% (1990 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $200 million
  expenditures: $550 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2003 plan est.)

Industries:
  small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes,
  fertilizer, cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, coal, copper

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  334.8 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 36.3%
  hydro: 63.7%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  511.4 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  200 million kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  3,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  0 bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  220 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  220 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  49.98 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  opium, wheat, fruits, nuts, wool, mutton, sheepskins, lambskins

Exports:
  $1.2 billion (not including illicit exports) (2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  opium, fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and
  pelts, precious and semi-precious gems

Exports - partners:
  Pakistan 26.8%, India 26.5%, Finland 5.8%, Germany 5.1%, UAE 4.4%,
  Belgium 4.3%, Russia 4.2%, US 4.2% (2002)

Imports:
  $1.3 billion (2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  capital goods, food, textiles, petroleum products

Imports - partners:
  Pakistan 25.1%, South Korea 14.4%, Japan 9.4%, US 9%, Kenya 5.8%,
  Germany 5.4% (2002)

Debt - external:
  NA (1996 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  international pledges made by more than 60 countries and
  international financial institutions at the Tokyo Donors Conference
  for Afghan reconstruction in January 2002 reached $4.5 billion
  through 2006, with $1.8 billion allocated for 2002; another $1.7
  billion was pledged for 2003.

Currency:
  afghani (AFA)

Currency code:
  AFA

Exchange rates:
  afghanis per US dollar - 3,000 (October-December 2002), 3,000
  (2001), 3,000 (2000), 3,000 (1999), 3,000 (1998), note: before 2002
  the market rate varied widely from the official rate; in 2002 the
  afghani was revalued and the currency stabilized

Fiscal year:
  21 March - 20 March

Communications Afghanistan


Telephones - main lines in use:
  29,000 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  NA

Telephone system:
  general assessment: very limited telephone and telegraph service
  domestic: in 1997, telecommunications links were established between
  Mazar-e Sharif, Herat, Kandahar, Jalalabad, and Kabul through
  satellite and microwave systems
  international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
  linked only to Iran and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region);
  commercial satellite telephone center in Ghazni

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 7 (6 are inactive; the active station is in Kabul), FM 1,
  shortwave 1 (broadcasts in Pashtu, Afghan Persian (Dari), Urdu, and
  English) (1999)

Radios:
  167,000 (1999)

Television broadcast stations:
  at least 10 (one government-run central television station in Kabul
  and regional stations in nine of the 32 provinces; the regional
  stations operate on a reduced schedule; also, in 1997, there was a
  station in Mazar-e Sharif reaching four northern Afghanistan
  provinces) (1998)

Televisions:
  100,000 (1999)

Internet country code:
  .af

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  NA

Transportation Afghanistan


Railways:
  total: 24.6 km
  broad gauge: 9.6 km 1.524-m gauge from Gushgy (Turkmenistan) to
  Towraghondi; 15 km 1.524-m gauge from Termiz (Uzbekistan) to
  Kheyrabad transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya (2001)

Highways:
  total: 21,000 km
  paved: 2,793 km
  unpaved: 18,207 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  1,200 km
  note: chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to 500 DWT (2001)

Pipelines:
  gas 651 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Kheyrabad, Shir Khan

Airports:
  47 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 10
  over 3,047 m: 3
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
  under 914 m: 1 (2002)
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 37
  under 914 m: 11 (2002)
  914 to 1,523 m: 4
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 14

Heliports:
  5 (2002)

Military Afghanistan


Military branches:
  NA; note - the December 2001 Bonn Agreement called for all militia
  forces to come under the authority of the central government, but
  regional leaders have continued to retain their militias and the
  formation of a nation army will be a gradual process; Afghanistan's
  forces continue to be factionalized, largely along ethnic lines

Military manpower - military age:
  22 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 7,160,603 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 3,837,646 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 275,223 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $525.2 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  7.7% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Afghanistan


Disputes - international:
  thousands of Afghan refugees still reside in Iran and Pakistan;
  isolating terrain and close ties among Pashtuns in Pakistan make
  cross-border activities difficult to control; prolonged regional
  drought strains water-sharing arrangements for Amu Darya and Helmand
  River states

Illicit drugs:
  world's largest producer of opium; cultivation of opium poppy -
  used to make heroin - expanded to 30,750 hectares in 2002, despite
  eradication; potential opium production of 1,278 metric tons; source
  of hashish; many narcotics-processing labs throughout the country;
  drug trade source of instability and some government groups profit
  from the trade; 80-90% of the heroin consumed in Europe comes from
  Afghan opium; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through the
  hawala system


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Albania

Introduction Albania


Background:
  Between 1990 and 1992 Albania ended 46 years of xenophobic
  Communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. The
  transition has proven difficult as corrupt governments have tried to
  deal with high unemployment, a dilapidated infrastructure,
  widespread gangsterism, and disruptive political opponents.
  International observers judged legislative elections in 2001 to be
  acceptable and a step toward democratic development, but identified
  serious deficiencies that should be addressed through reforms in the
  Albanian electoral code.

Geography Albania


Location:
  Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea,
  between Greece and Serbia and Montenegro

Geographic coordinates:
  41 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 28,748 sq km
  water: 1,350 sq km
  land: 27,398 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 720 km
  border countries: Greece 282 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
  Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km

Coastline:
  362 km

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers;
  interior is cooler and wetter

Terrain:
  mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
  highest point: Maja e Korabit (Golem Korab) 2,753 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, timber, nickel,
  hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 21.09%
  permanent crops: 4.45%
  other: 74.46% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  3,400 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along southwestern coast;
  floods; drought

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and
  domestic effluents

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous
  Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to
  Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

People Albania


Population:
  3,582,205 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 28.1% (male 520,714; female 486,911)
  15-64 years: 64.6% (male 1,115,887; female 1,196,477)
  65 years and over: 7.3% (male 115,754; female 146,462) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 26.5 years
  male: 24.8 years
  female: 28.1 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  1.03% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  18.2 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  6.48 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -1.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 37.28 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 34.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 39.68 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 72.37 years
  male: 69.53 years
  female: 75.42 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.22 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Albanian(s)
  adjective: Albanian

Ethnic groups:
  Albanian 95%, Greek 3%, other 2% (Vlach, Gypsy, Serb, and
  Bulgarian) (1989 est.)
  note: in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from
  1% (official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization)

Religions:
  Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%
  note: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious
  observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing
  private religious practice

Languages:
  Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek

Literacy:
  definition: age 9 and over can read and write
  total population: 86.5%
  male: 93.3%
  female: 79.5% (2003 est.)

Government Albania


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Albania
  conventional short form: Albania
  local short form: Shqiperia
  former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania
  local long form: Republika e Shqiperise

Government type:
  emerging democracy

Capital:
  Tirana

Administrative divisions:
  12 counties (qarqe, singular - qark); Qarku i Beratit, Qarku i
  Dibres, Qarku i Durresit, Qarku i Elbasanit, Qarku i Fierit, Qarku i
  Gjirokastres, Qarku i Korces, Qarku i Kukesit, Qarku i Lezhes, Qarku
  i Shkodres, Qarku i Tiranes, Qarku i Vlores

Independence:
  28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 28 November (1912)

Constitution:
  a constitution was adopted by popular referendum on 28 November
  1998; note - the opposition Democratic Party boycotted the vote

Legal system:
  has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President of the Republic Alfred MOISIU (since 24
  July 2002)
  head of government: Prime Minister Fatos NANO (since 31 July 2002)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and
  approved by the president
  elections: president elected by the People's Assembly for a
  five-year term; election last held 24 June 2002 (next to be held NA
  June 2007); prime minister appointed by the president
  election results: Alfred MOISIU elected president; People's Assembly
  vote by number - total votes 116, for 97, against 19

Legislative branch:
  unicameral People's Assembly or Kuvendi Popullor (140 seats; 100
  are elected by direct popular vote and 40 by proportional vote for
  four-year terms)
  elections: last held 24 June 2001 with subsequent rounds on 8 July,
  22 July, 29 July, 19 August 2001 (next to be held NA June 2005)
  election results: percent of vote by party - PS 41.5%, PD and
  coalition allies 36.8%, NDP 5.2%, PSD 3.6%, PBDNJ 2.6%, PASH 2.6%,
  PAD 2.5%; seats by party - PS 73, PD and coalition allies 46, NDP 6,
  PSD 4, PBDNJ 3, PASH 3, PAD 3, independents 2

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (chairman is elected by the People's Assembly for a
  four-year term)

Political parties and leaders:
  Agrarian Party of Albania or PASH [Lufter XHUVELI]; Christian
  Democratic Party or PDK [Zef BUSHATI]; Communist Party of Albania or
  PKSH [Hysni MILLOSHI]; Democratic Alliance or PAD [Nerltan CEKA];
  Democratic Party or PD [Sali BERISHA]; Legality Movement Party or
  PLL [Guri DUROLLARI]; National Front Party (Balli Kombetar) or PBK
  [Abaz ERMENJI]; Party of National Unity or PUK [Idajet BEQUIRI];
  Republican Party or PR [Fatmir MEDIU]; Social Democracy or DS
  [Paskal MILO]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Skender GJINUSHI];
  Socialist Party or PS (formerly the Albanian Party of Labor) [Fatos
  NANO]; Union for Human Rights Party or PBDNJ [Vasil MELO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Omonia [Vangjel DULES]

International organization participation:
  ACCT, BSEC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt,
  ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
  IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
  WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Fatos TARIFA
  FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342
  telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942
  chancery: 2100 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador James F. JEFFREY
  embassy: Rruga Elbasanit, Labinoti #103, Tirana
  mailing address: U. S. Department of State, 9510 Tirana Place,
  Washington, DC 20521-9510
  telephone: [355] (4) 247285
  FAX: [355] (4) 232222

Flag description:
  red with a black two-headed eagle in the center

Economy Albania


Economy - overview:
  Poor and backward by European standards, Albania is making the
  difficult transition to a more modern open-market economy. The
  government has taken measures to curb violent crime and to spur
  economic activity and trade. The economy is bolstered by remittances
  from abroad of $400-$600 million annually, mostly from Greece and
  Italy; this helps offset the sizable trade deficit. Agriculture,
  which accounts for half of GDP, is held back because of frequent
  drought and the need to modernize equipment and consolidate small
  plots of land. Severe energy shortages are forcing small firms out
  of business, increasing unemployment, scaring off foreign investors,
  and spurring inflation. The government plans to boost energy imports
  to relieve the shortages. In addition, the government is moving to
  improve the poor national road network, a long-standing barrier to
  sustained economic growth.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $15.69 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  7.3% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $4,400 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 49%
  industry: 27%
  services: 24% (2002 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  30% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  6% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  1.283 million (not including 352,000 emigrant workers and 261,000
  domestically unemployed) (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 50%, industry and services 50%

Unemployment rate:
  17% officially; may be as high as 30% (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $697 million
  expenditures: $1.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $368
  million (2002 est.)

Industries:
  food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil, cement,
  chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower

Industrial production growth rate:
  9% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production:
  5.289 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 2.9%
  hydro: 97.1%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  5.898 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  221 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  1.2 billion kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  5,952 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  22,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  185.5 million bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  30 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  30 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  3.316 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, sugar beets, grapes;
  meat, dairy products

Exports:
  $340 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  textiles and footwear; asphalt, metals and metallic ores, crude
  oil; vegetables, fruits, tobacco

Exports - partners:
  Italy 76.6%, Germany 5.6%, Greece 2.7% (2002)

Imports:
  $1.5 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, chemicals

Imports - partners:
  Italy 39.4%, Greece 24.5%, Turkey 6%, Germany 5% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $784 million (2000)

Economic aid - recipient:
  ODA: $315 million (top donors were Italy, EU, Germany) (2000 est.)

Currency:
  lek (ALL)

Currency code:
  ALL

Exchange rates:
  leke per US dollar - NA (2002), 143.49 (2001), 143.71 (2000),
  137.69 (1999), 150.63 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Albania


Telephones - main lines in use:
  120,000 (2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  250,000 (2001)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: Albania has the poorest telephone service in
  Europe with fewer than two telephones per 100 inhabitants; it is
  doubtful that every village has telephone service
  domestic: obsolete wire system; no longer provides a telephone for
  every village; in 1992, following the fall of the Communist
  government, peasants cut the wire to about 1,000 villages and used
  it to build fences
  international: inadequate; international traffic carried by
  microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 13, FM 4, shortwave 2 (2001)

Radios:
  1 million (2001)

Television broadcast stations:
  3 (plus 58 repeaters) (2001)

Televisions:
  700,000 (2001)

Internet country code:
  .al

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  10 (2001)

Internet users:
  12,000 (2001)

Transportation Albania


Railways:
  total: 447 km
  standard gauge: 447 km 1.435-m gauge (2002)

Highways:
  total: 18,000 km
  paved: 5,400 km
  unpaved: 12,600 km (2000)

Waterways:
  43 km
  note: includes Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid, and
  Lake Prespa (1990)

Pipelines:
  gas 339 km; oil 207 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore

Merchant marine:
  total: 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 21,954 GRT/34,412 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 11, roll on/roll off 1, includes some
  foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience:
  Croatia 1, Honduras 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:
  12 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 4
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 8
  914 to 1,523 m: 2
  under 914 m: 4 (2002)
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  over 3,047 m: 1

Heliports:
  1 (2002)

Military Albania


Military branches:
  Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Interior Ministry Troops,
  Border Guards

Military manpower - military age:
  19 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 906,168 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 742,837 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 36,985 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $56.5 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.49% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Albania


Disputes - international:
  the Albanian Government calls for the protection of the rights of
  ethnic Albanians outside its borders in the Kosovo region of Serbia
  and Montenegro, and in the northern Former Yugoslav Republic of
  Macedonia, while continuing to seek regional cooperation; some
  outside ethnic Albanian groups voice union with Albania

Illicit drugs:
  increasingly active transshipment point for Southwest Asian
  opiates, hashish, and cannabis transiting the Balkan route and - to
  a far lesser extent - cocaine from South America destined for
  Western Europe; limited opium and growing cannabis production;
  ethnic Albanian narcotrafficking organizations active and rapidly
  expanding in Europe; vulnerable to money laundering associated with
  regional trafficking in narcotics, arms, contraband, and illegal
  aliens


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Algeria

Introduction Algeria


Background:
  After a century of rule by France, Algeria became independent in
  1962. The surprising first round success of the fundamentalist FIS
  (Islamic Salvation Front) party in the December 1991 balloting
  caused the army to intervene, crack down on the FIS, and postpone
  the subsequent elections. The fundamentalist response has resulted
  in a continuous low-grade civil conflict with the secular state
  apparatus, which nonetheless has allowed elections featuring
  pro-government and moderate religious-based parties. The FIS's armed
  wing, the Islamic Salvation Army, disbanded in January 2000 and many
  armed militants of other groups surrendered under an amnesty program
  designed to promote national reconciliation. Nevertheless, small
  numbers of armed militants persist in confronting government forces
  and carrying out isolated attacks on villages and other types of
  terrorist attacks. Other concerns include Berber unrest, large-scale
  unemployment, a shortage of housing, and the need to diversify the
  petroleum-based economy.

Geography Algeria


Location:
  Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco
  and Tunisia

Geographic coordinates:
  28 00 N, 3 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 2,381,740 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 2,381,740 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 6,343 km
  border countries: Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km,
  Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km

Coastline:
  998 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along
  coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau;
  sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

Terrain:
  mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow,
  discontinuous coastal plain

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m
  highest point: Tahat 3,003 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc

Land use:
  arable land: 3.21%
  permanent crops: 0.21%
  other: 96.58% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  5,600 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mudslides and
  floods in rainy season

Environment - current issues:
  soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices;
  desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes,
  and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers
  and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming
  polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff;
  inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note:
  second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)

People Algeria


Population:
  32,818,500 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 32.8% (male 5,485,197; female 5,285,434)
  15-64 years: 63% (male 10,460,475; female 10,224,389)
  65 years and over: 4.2% (male 624,839; female 738,166) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 22.5 years
  male: 22.3 years
  female: 22.6 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  1.65% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  21.94 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  5.09 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 37.74 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 35.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 40.34 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 70.54 years
  male: 69.14 years
  female: 72.01 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.55 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.1% - note: no country specific models provided (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Algerian(s)
  adjective: Algerian

Ethnic groups:
  Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%

Religions:
  Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%

Languages:
  Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 70%
  male: 78.8%
  female: 61% (2003 est.)

Government Algeria


Country name:
  conventional long form: People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
  conventional short form: Algeria
  local short form: Al Jaza'ir
  local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash
  Sha'biyah

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  Algiers

Administrative divisions:
  48 provinces (wilayas, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain
  Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida,
  Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa,
  El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel,
  Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila,
  Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi
  Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret,
  Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen

Independence:
  5 July 1962 (from France)

National holiday:
  Revolution Day, 1 November (1954)

Constitution:
  19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised 3 November
  1988, 23 February 1989, and 28 November 1996

Legal system:
  socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of
  legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of
  various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices;
  has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 April 1999)
  head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed OUYAHIA (since 9 May 2003)
  cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  election last held 15 April 1999 (next to be held NA April 2004);
  prime minister appointed by the president
  election results: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA elected president; percent of
  vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA over 70%; note - his six opposing
  candidates withdrew on the eve of the election citing electoral fraud

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the National People's Assembly or
  Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani (389 seats - changed from 380 seats
  in the 2002 elections; members elected by popular vote to serve
  five-year terms) and the Council of Nations (144 seats; one-third of
  the members appointed by the president, two-thirds elected by
  indirect vote; members serve six-year terms; the constitution
  requires half the council to be renewed every three years)
  elections: National People's Assembly - last held 30 May 2002 (next
  to be held NA 2007); Council of Nations - last held 30 December 2000
  (next to be held NA 2003)
  election results: National People's Assembly - percent of vote by
  party - NA%; seats by party - FLN 199, RND 48, MRN 43, MSP 38, PT
  21, FNA 8, Nahda 1, PRA 1, MEN 1, independents 29; Council of
  Nations - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - RND 79,
  FLN 12, FFS 4, MSP 1 (remaining 48 seats appointed by the president,
  party breakdown NA)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders:
  Algerian National Front or FNA [Moussa TOUATI]; Democratic National
  Rally or RND [Ahmed OUYAHIA, chairman]; Islamic Salvation Front or
  FIS (outlawed April 1992) [Ali BELHADJ and Dr. Abassi MADANI, Rabeh
  KEBIR (self-exile in Germany)]; Society of Peace Movement or MSP
  [Boujerra SOLTANI]; National Entente Movement or MEN [Ali
  BOUKHAZNA]; National Liberation Front or FLN [Ali BENFLIS, secretary
  general]; National Reform Movement or MRN [Abdellah DJABALLAH];
  National Renewal Party or PRA [leader NA]; Progressive Republican
  Party [Khadir DRISS]; Rally for Culture and Democracy or RCD [Said
  SAADI, secretary general]; Renaissance Movement or EnNahda Movement
  [Lahbib ADAMI]; Social Liberal Party or PSL [Ahmed KHELIL];
  Socialist Forces Front or FFS [Hocine Ait AHMED, secretary general
  (self-exile in Switzerland)]; Union for Democracy and Liberty
  [Mouley BOUKHALAFA]; Workers Party or PT [Louisa HANOUN]
  note: a law banning political parties based on religion was enacted
  in March 1997

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77,
  IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
  IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
  MONUC, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, OSCE
  (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WCO, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Idriss JAZAIRY
  chancery: 2137 Wyoming Ave NW, Washington, DC 20008
  FAX: [1] (202) 667-2174
  telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Richard W. ERDMAN (as of 10 July 2003)
  embassy: 4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers
  mailing address: B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers
  telephone: [213] (21) 691-425/255/186
  FAX: [213] (21) 69-39-79

Flag description:
  two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white; a red,
  five-pointed star within a red crescent centered over the two-color
  boundary; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional
  symbols of Islam (the state religion)

Economy Algeria


Economy - overview:
  The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the economy, accounting
  for roughly 60% of budget revenues, 30% of GDP, and over 95% of
  export earnings. Algeria has the fifth-largest reserves of natural
  gas in the world and is the second-largest gas exporter; it ranks
  14th in oil reserves. Algeria's financial and economic indicators
  improved during the mid-1990s, in part because of policy reforms
  supported by the IMF and debt rescheduling from the Paris Club.
  Algeria's finances in 2000-03 benefited from substantial trade
  surpluses, record foreign exchange reserves, and reductions in
  foreign debt. Real GDP has risen due to higher oil output and
  increased government spending. The government's continued efforts to
  diversify the economy by attracting foreign and domestic investment
  outside the energy sector, however, has had little success in
  reducing high unemployment and improving living standards.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $173.8 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3.3% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $5,400 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 8%
  industry: 60%
  services: 32% (2002 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  23% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2.8%
  highest 10%: 26.8% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  35.3 (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  9.4 million (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  government 29%, agriculture 25%, construction and public works 15%,
  industry 11%, other 20% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  31% (2002 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $20.3 billion
  expenditures: $18.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.8
  billion (2001 est.)

Industries:
  petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical,
  petrochemical, food processing

Industrial production growth rate:
  6% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:
  24.69 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 99.7%
  hydro: 0.3%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  22.9 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  340 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  275 million kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  1.52 million bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  209,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  13.1 billion bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  80.3 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  22.32 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  57.98 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  4.739 trillion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle

Exports:
  $19.5 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products 97%

Exports - partners:
  Italy 18.9%, Spain 13.1%, France 13%, US 12.1%, Netherlands 6%,
  Brazil 5.9%, Canada 5.7%, Turkey 5.3%, Belgium 5.1% (2002)

Imports:
  $10.6 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods

Imports - partners:
  France 31%, Italy 10%, US 8.3%, Germany 6.6%, Spain 5.9%, Turkey
  4.2% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $21.6 billion (2002 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $162 million (2000 est.)

Currency:
  Algerian dinar (DZD)

Currency code:
  DZD

Exchange rates:
  Algerian dinars per US dollar - 79.68 (2002), 77.22 (2001), 75.26
  (2000), 66.57 (1999), 58.74 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Algeria


Telephones - main lines in use:
  2.3 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  33,500 (1999)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: telephone density in Algeria is very low, not
  exceeding five telephones per 100 persons; the number of fixed main
  lines increased in the last few years to a little more than
  2,000,000, but only about two-thirds of these have subscribers; much
  of the infrastructure is outdated and inefficient
  domestic: good service in north but sparse in south; domestic
  satellite system with 12 earth stations (20 additional domestic
  earth stations are planned)
  international: 5 submarine cables; microwave radio relay to Italy,
  France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and
  Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel; satellite earth stations - 2
  Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik, and
  1 Arabsat (1998)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 25, FM 1, shortwave 8 (1999)

Radios:
  7.1 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  46 (plus 216 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions:
  3.1 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .dz

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  180,000 (2001)

Transportation Algeria


Railways:
  total: 3,973 km
  standard gauge: 2,888 km 1.435-m gauge (283 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 1,085 km 1.055-m gauge (2002)

Highways:
  total: 104,000 km
  paved: 71,656 km (including 640 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 32,344 km (1999)

Waterways:
  none

Pipelines:
  condensate 1,344 km; gas 87,347 km; liquid petroleum gas 2,213 km;
  oil 6,496 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Beni Saf, Dellys, Djendjene,
  Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda, Tenes

Merchant marine:
  total: 69 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 884,032 GRT/1,010,777 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 23, chemical tanker 6, liquefied gas
  10, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 12, short-sea passenger 4,
  specialized tanker 1, includes some foreign-owned ships registered
  here as a flag of convenience: United Arab Emirates 2 (2002 est.)

Airports:
  136 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 54
  over 3,047 m: 9
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 27
  914 to 1,523 m: 5
  under 914 m: 1 (2002)
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 12

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 82
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 23
  under 914 m: 19 (2002)
  914 to 1,523 m: 38

Heliports:
  1 (2002)

Military Algeria


Military branches:
  People's National Army (ANP), Algerian National Navy (ANN), Air
  Force, Territorial Air Defense, National Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age:
  19 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 9,243,884 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 5,646,418 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 412,545 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $1.87 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  4.1% (FY99)

Transnational Issues Algeria


Disputes - international:
  Libya claims about 32,000 sq km in a dormant dispute still
  reflected on its maps in southeastern Algeria; armed bandits based
  in Mali attack southern Algerian towns; border with Morocco remains
  closed over mutual claims of harboring militants, arms smuggling;
  Algeria supports the exiled Sahrawi Polisario Front and rejects
  Moroccan administration of Western Sahara


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@American Samoa

Introduction American Samoa


Background:
  Settled as early as 1000 B.C., Samoa was "discovered" by European
  explorers in the 18th century. International rivalries in the latter
  half of the 19th century were settled by an 1899 treaty in which
  Germany and the US divided the Samoan archipelago. The US formally
  occupied its portion - a smaller group of eastern islands with the
  excellent harbor of Pago Pago - the following year.

Geography American Samoa


Location:
  Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about half
  way between Hawaii and New Zealand

Geographic coordinates:
  14 20 S, 170 00 W

Map references:
  Oceania

Area:
  total: 199 sq km
  note: includes Rose Island and Swains Island
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 199 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  116 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual
  rainfall averages about 3 m; rainy season from November to April,
  dry season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain:
  five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal plains,
  two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island)

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Lata 966 m

Natural resources:
  pumice, pumicite

Land use:
  arable land: 5%
  permanent crops: 10%
  other: 85% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  typhoons common from December to March

Environment - current issues:
  limited natural fresh water resources; the water division of the
  government has spent substantial funds in the past few years to
  improve water catchments and pipelines

Geography - note:
  Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the
  South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and
  protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic
  location in the South Pacific Ocean

People American Samoa


Population:
  70,260 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 37.5% (male 13,557; female 12,818)
  15-64 years: 57% (male 19,712; female 20,346)
  65 years and over: 5.4% (male 2,081; female 1,746) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 21.6 years
  male: 21.1 years
  female: 22.2 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  2.22% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  23.26 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  4.38 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  3.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.19 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 9.82 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 7.93 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 11.61 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 75.75 years
  male: 71.35 years
  female: 80.41 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.3 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: American Samoan(s)
  adjective: American Samoan

Ethnic groups:
  Samoan (Polynesian) 89%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan 4%, other 5%

Religions:
  Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%, Protestant and
  other 30%

Languages:
  Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian
  languages), English
  note: most people are bilingual

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 97%
  male: 98%
  female: 97% (1980 est.)

Government American Samoa


Country name:
  conventional long form: Territory of American Samoa
  conventional short form: American Samoa
  abbreviation: AS

Dependency status:
  unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US; administered by
  the Office of Insular Affairs, US Department of the Interior

Government type:
  NA

Capital:
  Pago Pago

Administrative divisions:
  none (territory of the US); there are no first-order administrative
  divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are three
  districts and two islands* at the second order; Eastern, Manu'a,
  Rose Island*, Swains Island*, Western

Independence:
  none (territory of the US)

National holiday:
  Flag Day, 17 April (1900)

Constitution:
  ratified 1966, in effect 1967

Legal system:
  NA

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President George W. BUSH of the US (since 20
  January 2001) and Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 January
  2001)
  election results: Tauese P. SUNIA reelected governor; percent of
  vote - Tauese P. SUNIA (Democrat) 50.7%, Lealaifuaneva Peter REID
  (independent) 47.8%
  note: Togiola TULAFONO became acting governor 26 March 2003 upon the
  death of Governor Tauese P. SUNIA
  elections: US president and vice president elected on the same
  ticket for four-year terms; governor and lieutenant governor elected
  on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election
  last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2004)
  head of government: Governor Togiola TULAFONO (since 7 April 2003)
  following the death of Governor Tauese P. SUNIA on 26 March 2003;
  TULAFONO had been the Lieutenant Governor
  cabinet: NA

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Fono or Legislative Assembly consists of the House of
  Representatives (21 seats - 20 of which are elected by popular vote
  and 1 is an appointed, nonvoting delegate from Swains Island;
  members serve two-year terms) and the Senate (18 seats; members are
  elected from local chiefs and serve four-year terms)
  election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by
  party - NA%; seats by party - NA; Senate - percent of vote by party
  - NA%; seats by party - independents 18
  note: American Samoa elects one nonvoting representative to the US
  House of Representatives; election last held 7 November 2002 (next
  to be held NA November 2004); results - Eni F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA
  (Democrat) reelected as delegate
  elections: House of Representatives - last held 7 November 2002
  (next to be held NA November 2004); Senate - last held 7 November
  2000 (next to be held NA November 2004)

Judicial branch:
  High Court (chief justice and associate justices are appointed by
  the US Secretary of the Interior)

Political parties and leaders:
  Democratic Party [leader NA]; Republican Party [leader NA]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ESCAP (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, SPC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (territory of the US)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (territory of the US)

Flag description:
  blue, with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the outer
  side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American bald
  eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional
  Samoan symbols of authority, a staff and a war club

Economy American Samoa


Economy - overview:
  This is a traditional Polynesian economy in which more than 90% of
  the land is communally owned. Economic activity is strongly linked
  to the US, with which American Samoa conducts most of its foreign
  trade. Tuna fishing and tuna processing plants are the backbone of
  the private sector, with canned tuna the primary export. Transfers
  from the US Government add substantially to American Samoa's
  economic well-being. Attempts by the government to develop a larger
  and broader economy are restrained by Samoa's remote location, its
  limited transportation, and its devastating hurricanes. Tourism, a
  developing sector, has been held back by the recurring financial
  difficulties in East Asia.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $500 million (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  NA%

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $8,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  NA%

Labor force:
  14,000 (1996)

Labor force - by occupation:
  government 33%, tuna canneries 34%, other 33% (1990)

Unemployment rate:
  6% (2000)

Budget:
  revenues: $121 million (37% in local revenue and 63% in US grants)
  expenditures: $127 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (FY96/97)

Industries:
  tuna canneries (largely supplied by foreign fishing vessels),
  handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  130 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  120.9 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  3,800 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products:
  bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams, copra,
  pineapples, papayas; dairy products, livestock

Exports:
  $345 million (1999)

Exports - commodities:
  canned tuna 93%

Exports - partners:
  Indonesia 71.1%, Japan 7.7%, Samoa 7.7%, Australia 6.7% (2002)

Imports:
  $452 million (1999)

Imports - commodities:
  materials for canneries 56%, food 8%, petroleum products 7%,
  machinery and parts 6%

Imports - partners:
  Australia 41%, New Zealand 23%, South Korea 18% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $NA

Economic aid - recipient:
  important financial support from the US, more than $40 million in
  1994

Currency:
  US dollar (USD)

Currency code:
  USD

Exchange rates:
  the US dollar is used

Fiscal year:
  1 October - 30 September

Communications American Samoa


Telephones - main lines in use:
  13,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  2,550 (1997)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: good telex, telegraph, facsimile and cellular telephone
  services; domestic satellite system with 1 Comsat earth station
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  57,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (1997)

Televisions:
  14,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .as

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  NA

Transportation American Samoa


Railways:
  0 km

Highways:
  total: 350 km
  paved: 150 km
  unpaved: 200 km

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  Aunu'u (new construction), Auasi, Faleosao, Ofu, Pago Pago, Ta'u

Merchant marine:
  none (2002 est.)

Airports:
  3 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2002)

Military American Samoa


Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the US

Transnational Issues American Samoa


Disputes - international:
  none


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Andorra

Introduction Andorra


Background:
  For 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, Andorrans lived under a unique
  co-principality, ruled by the French chief of state and the Spanish
  bishop of Urgel. In 1993, this feudal system was modified with the
  titular heads of state retained, but the government transformed into
  a parliamentary democracy. Long isolated and impoverished,
  mountainous Andorra achieved considerable prosperity since World War
  II through its tourist industry. Many immigrants (legal and illegal)
  are attracted to the thriving economy with its lack of income taxes.

Geography Andorra


Location:
  Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain

Geographic coordinates:
  42 30 N, 1 30 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 468 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 468 sq km

Area - comparative:
  2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  total: 120.3 km
  border countries: France 56.6 km, Spain 63.7 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

Terrain:
  rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m
  highest point: Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m

Natural resources:
  hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

Land use:
  arable land: 2.22%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 97.78% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  avalanches

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil
  erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Hazardous Wastes
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads in the
  Pyrenees

People Andorra


Population:
  69,150 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 15.1% (male 5,473; female 4,974)
  15-64 years: 71.7% (male 26,063; female 23,542)
  65 years and over: 13.2% (male 4,543; female 4,555) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 39.1 years
  male: 39.4 years
  female: 38.8 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  1.06% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  9.65 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  5.74 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  6.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.09 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 4.06 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 3.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 4.4 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 83.49 years
  male: 80.58 years
  female: 86.58 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.27 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Andorran(s)
  adjective: Andorran

Ethnic groups:
  Spanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%, other 6%
  (1998)

Religions:
  Roman Catholic (predominant)

Languages:
  Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese

Literacy:
  definition: NA
  total population: 100%
  male: NA%
  female: NA%

Government Andorra


Country name:
  conventional long form: Principality of Andorra
  conventional short form: Andorra
  local short form: Andorra
  local long form: Principat d'Andorra

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its
  heads of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president
  of France and bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain, who are represented
  locally by coprinces' representatives

Capital:
  Andorra la Vella

Administrative divisions:
  7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra la Vella,
  Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Escaldes-Engordany, Ordino, Sant Julia
  de Loria

Independence:
  1278 (was formed under the joint suzerainty of the French count of
  Foix and the Spanish bishop of Urgel)

National holiday:
  Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)

Constitution:
  Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; approved
  by referendum 14 March 1993; came into force 4 May 1993

Legal system:
  based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of
  legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: French Coprince Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995),
  represented by Philippe MASSONI (since 26 July 2002); Spanish
  Coprince Episcopal Monsignor Joan Enric VIVES SICILIA (since 12 May
  2003), represented by Nemesi MARQUES OSTE (since NA)
  elections: Executive Council president elected by the General
  Council and formally appointed by the coprinces for a four-year
  term; election last held 4 March 2001 (next to be held NA 2005)
  election results: Marc FORNE Molne elected executive council
  president; percent of General Council vote - NA%
  cabinet: Executive Council or Govern designated by the Executive
  Council president
  head of government: Executive Council President Marc FORNE MOLNE
  (since 21 December 1994)

Legislative branch:
  unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de las
  Valls (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote, 14 from
  a single national constituency and 14 to represent each of the 7
  parishes; members serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 4 March 2001 (next to be held NA March 2005)
  election results: percent of vote by party - PLA 46.1%, PSD 30%, PD
  23.8%, other 0.1%; seats by party - PLA 15, PSD 6, PD 5,
  independents 2

Judicial branch:
  Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts
  or Tribunal de Corts; Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or
  Tribunal Superior de Justicia d'Andorra; Supreme Council of Justice
  or Consell Superior de la Justicia; Fiscal Ministry or Ministeri
  Fiscal; Constitutional Tribunal or Tribunal Constitucional

Political parties and leaders:
  Democratic Party or PD (formerly part of National Democratic Group
  or AND) [Ladislau BARO SOLO]; Liberal Party of Andorra or PLA [Marc
  FORNE MOLNE] (used to be Liberal Union or UL); Liberal Union or UL
  [Francesc CERQUEDA]; National Democratic Group or AND [Ladislau BARO
  SOLO]; National Democratic Initiative or IDN [Vicenc MATEU ZAMORA];
  New Democracy or ND [Jaume BARTOMEU CASSANY]; Social Democratic
  Party or PSD (formerly part of National Democratic Group of AND)
  [leader NA]; Union of the People of Ordino (Unio Parroquial
  d'Ordino) or UPO [Simo DURO COMA]
  note: there are two other small parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  CE, ECE, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OSCE, UN,
  UNESCO, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Jelena V.
  PIA-COMELLA
  chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017
  FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630
  telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  the US does not have an embassy in Andorra; the US Ambassador to
  Spain is accredited to Andorra; US interests in Andorra are
  represented by the Consulate General's office in Barcelona (Spain);
  mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain;
  telephone: (3493) 280-2227; FAX: (3493) 205-7705

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red
  with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat
  of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad
  and Romania, which do not have a national coat of arms in the
  center, and the flag of Moldova, which does bear a national emblem

Economy Andorra


Economy - overview:
  Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do economy,
  accounts for roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 9 million tourists
  visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its
  summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative advantage has
  recently eroded as the economies of neighboring France and Spain
  have been opened up, providing broader availability of goods and
  lower tariffs. The banking sector, with its "tax haven" status, also
  contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is
  limited - only 2% of the land is arable - and most food has to be
  imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising.
  Manufacturing output consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and
  furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is
  treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs)
  and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $1.3 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3.8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $19,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  4.3% (2000)

Labor force:
  33,000 (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 1%, industry 21%, services 78% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  0%

Budget:
  revenues: $385 million
  expenditures: $342 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1997)

Industries:
  tourism (particularly skiing), cattle raising, timber, banking

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  NA kWh

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 0%
  hydro: 0%
  other: 0%
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  NA kWh

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  NA kWh; note - most electricity supplied by Spain and France;
  Andorra generates a small amount of hydropower

Agriculture - products:
  small quantities of rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables; sheep

Exports:
  $58 million f.o.b. (1998)

Exports - commodities:
  tobacco products, furniture

Exports - partners:
  Spain 58%, France 34% (2000)

Imports:
  $1.077 billion (1998)

Imports - commodities:
  consumer goods, food, electricity

Imports - partners:
  Spain 48%, France 35%, US 2.3% (2000)

Debt - external:
  $NA

Economic aid - recipient:
  none

Currency:
  euro (EUR)

Currency code:
  EUR

Exchange rates:
  euros per US dollar - 1.06 (2002), 1.12 (2001), 1.09 (2000), 0.94
  (1999)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Andorra


Telephones - main lines in use:
  32,946 (December 1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  14,117 (December 1998)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections
  between exchanges
  international: landline circuits to France and Spain

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 0, FM 15, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  16,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  0 (1997)

Televisions:
  27,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ad

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  24,500 (2001)

Transportation Andorra


Railways:
  0 km

Highways:
  total: 269 km
  paved: 198 km
  unpaved: 71 km (1994)

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  none

Airports:
  none (2002)

Military Andorra


Military branches:
  no regular military forces, but there is a police force

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of France and Spain

Transnational Issues Andorra


Disputes - international:
  none; border is undemarcated in sections but is not in dispute (a
  few French farmers still remain upset about the transfer of 35
  hectares of land to Andorra)


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Angola

Introduction Angola


Background:
  Civil war has been the norm in Angola since independence from
  Portugal in 1975. A 1994 peace accord between the government and the
  National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) provided
  for the integration of former UNITA insurgents into the government
  and armed forces. A national unity government was installed in April
  of 1997, but serious fighting resumed in late 1998, rendering
  hundreds of thousands of people homeless. Up to 1.5 million lives
  may have been lost in fighting over the past quarter century. The
  death of insurgent leader Jonas SAVIMBI in 2002 and a subsequent
  cease-fire with UNITA may bode well for the country.

Geography Angola


Location:
  Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between
  Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates:
  12 30 S, 18 30 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 1,246,700 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 1,246,700 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,198 km
  border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km (of
  which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province),
  Republic of the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km

Coastline:
  1,600 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 NM
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry
  season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

Terrain:
  narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Morro de Moco 2,620 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold,
  bauxite, uranium

Land use:
  arable land: 2.41%
  permanent crops: 0.4%
  other: 97.19% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  750 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau

Environment - current issues:
  overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to
  population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical
  rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical
  timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of
  biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and
  siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the
  Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of
  the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo

People Angola


Population:
  10,766,471 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 43.5% (male 2,363,829; female 2,317,610)
  15-64 years: 53.7% (male 2,941,999; female 2,842,923)
  65 years and over: 2.8% (male 134,330; female 165,780) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 18.2 years
  male: 18.2 years
  female: 18.2 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  1.97% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  45.57 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  25.83 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 193.82 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 180.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 206.26 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 36.96 years
  male: 36.13 years
  female: 37.83 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  6.38 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  5.5% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  350,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  24,000 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Angolan(s)
  adjective: Angolan

Ethnic groups:
  Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European
  and Native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%

Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (1998
  est.)

Languages:
  Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 42%
  male: 56%
  female: 28% (1998 est.)

Government Angola


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Angola
  conventional short form: Angola
  local short form: Angola
  former: People's Republic of Angola
  local long form: Republica de Angola

Government type:
  republic, nominally a multiparty democracy with a strong
  presidential system

Capital:
  Luanda

Administrative divisions:
  18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela,
  Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene,
  Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico,
  Namibe, Uige, Zaire

Independence:
  11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 11 November (1975)

Constitution:
  11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August 1980, 6 March
  1991, and 26 August 1992

Legal system:
  based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently
  modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use of
  free markets

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21
  September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and
  head of government
  head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21
  September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and
  head of government; Fernando de Piedade Dias DOS SANTOS was
  appointed Prime Minister on 6 December 2002, but this is not a
  position of real power
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
  elections: president elected by universal ballot for a NA-year term;
  President DOS SANTOS originally elected (in 1979) without opposition
  under a one-party system and stood for reelection in Angola's first
  multiparty elections 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA)
  election results: DOS SANTOS 49.6%, Jonas SAVIMBI 40.1%, making a
  run-off election necessary; the run-off was not held and SAVIMBI's
  National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA)
  repudiated the results of the first election; the civil war resumed

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats;
  members elected by proportional vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA)
  election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 54%, UNITA 34%,
  others 12%; seats by party - MPLA 129, UNITA 70, PRS 6, FNLA 5, PLD
  3, others 7

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Tribunal da Relacao (judges are appointed by the
  president)

Political parties and leaders:
  Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Analia de Victoria PEREIRA];
  National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA [disputed
  leadership: Lucas NGONDA, Holden ROBERTO]; National Union for the
  Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [interim leader: PAULO Lukamba
  "Gato"], largest opposition party has engaged in years of armed
  resistance; Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA
  [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS], ruling party in power since 1975; Social
  Renewal Party or PRS [disputed leadership: Eduardo KUANGANA, Antonio
  MUACHICUNGO]
  note: about a dozen minor parties participated in the 1992 elections
  but only won a few seats and have little influence in the National
  Assembly

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita
  Henriques TIAGO; Antonio Bento BEMBE]
  note: FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed
  struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province

International organization participation:
  ACP, AfDB, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt
  (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAS (observer),
  OAU, SADC, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Josefina Perpetua Pitra DIAKIDI
  FAX: [1] (202) 785-1258
  consulate(s) general: Houston and New York
  telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156
  chancery: 2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher William DELL
  embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne (in the Miramar area of
  Luanda), Luanda
  mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6468, Luanda;
  pouch: American Embassy Luanda, Department of State, Washington, DC
  20521-2550
  telephone: [244] (2) 445-481, 447-028, 446-224
  FAX: [244] (2) 446-924

Flag description:
  two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered
  yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a
  cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)

Economy Angola


Economy - overview:
  Angola has been an economy in disarray because of a quarter century
  of nearly continuous warfare. An apparently durable peace was
  established after the death of rebel leader Jonas SAVIMBI on
  February 22, 2002, but consequences from the conflict continue
  including the impact of wide-spread land mines. Subsistence
  agriculture provides the main livelihood for 85% of the population.
  Oil production and the supporting activities are vital to the
  economy, contributing about 45% to GDP and more than half of
  exports. Much of the country's food must still be imported. To fully
  take advantage of its rich natural resources - gold, diamonds,
  extensive forests, Atlantic fisheries, and large oil deposits -
  Angola will need to continue reforming government policies. While
  Angola made progress in bringing inflation down further, from 325%
  in 2000 to about 106% in 2002, the government has failed to make
  sufficient progress on reforms recommended by the IMF such as
  increasing foreign exchange reserves and promoting greater
  transparency in government spending. Increased oil production should
  bring about 6% GDP growth in 2003.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $18.36 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  9.4% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,700 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 8%
  industry: 67%
  services: 25% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  106% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  5 million (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 85%, industry and services 15% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  extensive unemployment and underemployment affecting more than half
  the population (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $928 million
  expenditures: $2.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $963
  million (1992 est.)

Industries:
  petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite,
  uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing;
  food processing; brewing; tobacco products; sugar; textiles

Industrial production growth rate:
  1%

Electricity - production:
  1.45 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 36.4%
  hydro: 63.6%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  1.348 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  742,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  31,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  5.691 billion bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  530 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  530 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  79.57 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, manioc (tapioca),
  tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish

Exports:
  $8.6 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas, coffee,
  sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton

Exports - partners:
  US 41.2%, China 13.7%, France 8%, Belgium 6.3%, Taiwan 6.3%, Japan
  4.9%, Spain 4.3% (2002)

Imports:
  $4.1 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts;
  medicines, food, textiles, military goods

Imports - partners:
  Portugal 20.2%, US 13.9%, South Africa 12.4%, France 6.7%, Brazil
  5.8%, Belgium 5.3%, Netherlands 4% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $9.9 billion (2002 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $383.5 million (1999)

Currency:
  kwanza (AOA)

Currency code:
  AOA

Exchange rates:
  kwanza per US dollar - 43.53 (2002), 22.06 (2001), 10.04 (2000),
  2.79 (1999), 0.39 (1998); note - in December 1999 the kwanza was
  revalued with six zeroes dropped off the old value

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Angola


Telephones - main lines in use:
  72,000 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  25,800 (2000)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: telephone service limited mostly to government
  and business use; HF radiotelephone used extensively for military
  links
  domestic: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and
  tropospheric scatter
  international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 21, FM 6, shortwave 7 (2000)

Radios:
  815,000 (2000)

Television broadcast stations:
  6 (2000)

Televisions:
  196,000 (2000)

Internet country code:
  .ao

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  60,000 (2002)

Transportation Angola


Railways:
  total: 2,761 km
  narrow gauge: 2,638 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2002)

Highways:
  total: 51,429 km
  paved: 5,349 km
  unpaved: 46,080 km (1999)

Waterways:
  1,295 km

Pipelines:
  gas 214 km; liquid natural gas 14 km; liquid petroleum gas 30 km;
  oil 845 km; refined products 56 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Ambriz, Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Malongo, Mocamedes, Namibe, Porto
  Amboim, Soyo

Merchant marine:
  total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 30,311 GRT/48,924 DWT
  ships by type: cargo 7, petroleum tanker 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:
  243 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 32
  over 3,047 m: 4
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
  914 to 1,523 m: 5
  under 914 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 211
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 30
  914 to 1,523 m: 95
  under 914 m: 80 (2002)

Military Angola


Military branches:
  Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Police Force

Military manpower - military age:
  18 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,568,082 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,290,884 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 109,752 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $222.7 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  5.4% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Angola


Disputes - international:
  gives shelter to thousands of refugees from the Democratic Republic
  of the Congo while thousands of Angolan refugees still remain in
  neighboring states as a consequence of the protracted civil wars in
  both states

Illicit drugs:
  used as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for Western
  Europe and other African states


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Anguilla

Introduction Anguilla


Background:
  Colonized by English settlers from Saint Kitts in 1650, Anguilla
  was administered by Great Britain until the early 19th century, when
  the island - against the wishes of the inhabitants - was
  incorporated into a single British dependency, along with Saint
  Kitts and Nevis. Several attempts at separation failed. In 1971, two
  years after a revolt, Anguilla was finally allowed to secede; this
  arrangement was formally recognized in 1980, with Anguilla becoming
  a separate British dependency.

Geography Anguilla


Location:
  Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic
  Ocean, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates:
  18 15 N, 63 10 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 102 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 102 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about half the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  61 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM
  territorial sea: 3 NM

Climate:
  tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

Terrain:
  flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Crocus Hill 65 m

Natural resources:
  salt, fish, lobster

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some
  commercial salt ponds) (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July to October)

Environment - current issues:
  supplies of potable water sometimes cannot meet increasing demand
  largely because of poor distribution system

Geography - note:
  the most northerly of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles

People Anguilla


Population:
  12,738 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 24.3% (male 1,575; female 1,526)
  15-64 years: 68.8% (male 4,504; female 4,262)
  65 years and over: 6.8% (male 387; female 484) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 30 years
  male: 30 years
  female: 29.9 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  2.21% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  14.68 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  5.42 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  12.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 22.8 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 15.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 29.84 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 76.7 years
  male: 73.79 years
  female: 79.7 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.76 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Anguillan(s)
  adjective: Anguillan

Ethnic groups:
  black (predominant), mulatto, white

Religions:
  Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%, Baptist 5%,
  Roman Catholic 3%, other 12%

Languages:
  English (official)

Literacy:
  definition: age 12 and over can read and write
  total population: 95%
  male: 95%
  female: 95% (1984 est.)

Government Anguilla


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Anguilla

Dependency status:
  overseas territory of the UK

Government type:
  NA

Capital:
  The Valley

Administrative divisions:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday:
  Anguilla Day, 30 May

Constitution:
  Anguilla Constitutional Order 1 April 1982; amended 1990

Legal system:
  based on English common law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);
  represented by Governor Peter JOHNSTONE (since NA February 2000)
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by
  the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the
  majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually
  appointed chief minister by the governor
  head of government: Chief Minister Osbourne FLEMING (since 3 March
  2000)
  cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from among the
  elected members of the House of Assembly

Legislative branch:
  unicameral House of Assembly (11 seats total, 7 elected by direct
  popular vote, 2 ex officio members, and 2 appointed; members serve
  five-year terms)
  elections: last held 3 March 2000 (next to be held NA June 2005)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  ANA 3, AUP 2, ADP 1, independent 1

Judicial branch:
  High Court (judge provided by Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court)

Political parties and leaders:
  Anguilla United Party or AUP [Hubert HUGHES]; The United Front or
  UF [Osbourne FLEMING, Victor BANKS], a coalition of the Anguilla
  Democratic Party or ADP and the Anguilla National Alliance or ANA

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), OECS (associate),
  ECLAC (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description:
  blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
  the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag;
  the coat of arms depicts three orange dolphins in an interlocking
  circular design on a white background with blue wavy water below

Economy Anguilla


Economy - overview:
  Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy depends heavily
  on luxury tourism, offshore banking, lobster fishing, and
  remittances from emigrants. Increased activity in the tourism
  industry, which has spurred the growth of the construction sector,
  has contributed to economic growth. Anguillan officials have put
  substantial effort into developing the offshore financial sector,
  which is small, but growing. In the medium term, prospects for the
  economy will depend largely on the tourism sector and, therefore, on
  revived income growth in the industrialized nations as well as on
  favorable weather conditions.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $104 million (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  2.8% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $8,600 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 4%
  industry: 18%
  services: 78% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.3%

Labor force:
  6,049 (2001)

Labor force - by occupation:
  commerce 36%, services 29%, construction 18%, transportation and
  utilities 10%, manufacturing 3%, agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining
  4% (2000 est,)

Unemployment rate:
  6.7% (2001)

Budget:
  revenues: $22.8 million
  expenditures: $22.5 million, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2000 est.)

Industries:
  tourism, boat building, offshore financial services

Industrial production growth rate:
  3.1% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production:
  NA (2000)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: NA%
  hydro: NA%
  other: NA%
  nuclear: NA%

Electricity - consumption:
  42.6 million kWh

Agriculture - products:
  small quantities of tobacco, vegetables; cattle raising

Exports:
  $2.6 million (1999)

Exports - commodities:
  lobster, fish, livestock, salt, concrete blocks, rum

Exports - partners:
  UK, US, Puerto Rico, Saint-Martin (2000)

Imports:
  $80.9 million (1999)

Imports - commodities:
  fuels, foodstuffs, manufactures, chemicals, trucks, textiles

Imports - partners:
  US, Puerto Rico, UK (2000)

Debt - external:
  $8.8 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $3.5 million (1995)

Currency:
  East Caribbean dollar (XCD)

Currency code:
  XCD

Exchange rates:
  East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7000 (fixed rate since
  1976)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Anguilla


Telephones - main lines in use:
  4,974 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1,629 (2000)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: modern internal telephone system
  international: microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin
  (Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 5, FM 6, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  3,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (1997)

Televisions:
  1,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ai

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  16 (2000)

Internet users:
  919 (2000)

Transportation Anguilla


Railways:
  0 km

Highways:
  total: 105 km
  paved: 65 km
  unpaved: 40 km (1997)

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  Blowing Point, Road Bay

Merchant marine:
  none (2002 est.)

Airports:
  3 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 2
  under 914 m: 2 (2002)

Military Anguilla


Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues Anguilla


Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the
  US and Europe


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Antarctica

Introduction Antarctica


Background:
  Speculation over the existence of a "southern land" was not
  confirmed until the early 1820s when British and American commercial
  operators and British and Russian national expeditions began
  exploring the Antarctic Peninsula region and other areas south of
  the Antarctic Circle. Not until 1840 was it established that
  Antarctica was indeed a continent and not just a group of islands.
  Several exploration "firsts" were achieved in the early 20th
  century. Following World War II, there was an upsurge in scientific
  research on the continent. A number of countries have set up
  year-round research stations on Antarctica. Seven have made
  territorial claims, but no other country recognizes these claims. In
  order to form a legal framework for the activities of nations on the
  continent, an Antarctic Treaty was negotiated that neither denies
  nor gives recognition to existing territorial claims; signed in
  1959, it entered into force in 1961.

Geography Antarctica


Location:
  continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle

Geographic coordinates:
  90 00 S, 0 00 E

Map references:
  Antarctic Region

Area:
  total: 14 million sq km
  note: fifth-largest continent, following Asia, Africa, North
  America, and South America, but larger than Australia and the
  subcontinent of Europe
  land: 14 million sq km (280,000 sq km ice-free, 13.72 million sq km
  ice-covered) (est.)

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US

Land boundaries:
  0 km
  note: see entry on International disputes

Coastline:
  17,968 km

Maritime claims:
  none; 20 of 27 Antarctic consultative nations have made no claims
  to Antarctic territory (although Russia and the US have reserved the
  right to do so) and do not recognize the claims of the other
  nations; also see the Disputes - international entry

Climate:
  severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance
  from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica
  because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most
  moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along the
  coast and average slightly below freezing

Terrain:
  about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock, with
  average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges
  up to nearly 5,000 meters; ice-free coastal areas include parts of
  southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area,
  and parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves
  along about half of the coastline, and floating ice shelves
  constitute 11% of the area of the continent

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Bentley Subglacial Trench -2,555 m
  highest point: Vinson Massif 4,897 m
  note: the lowest known land point in Antarctica is hidden in the
  Bentley Subglacial Trench; at its surface is the deepest ice yet
  discovered and the world's lowest elevation not under seawater

Natural resources:
  iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum and other
  minerals, and coal and hydrocarbons have been found in small
  uncommercial quantities; none presently exploited; krill, finfish,
  and crab have been taken by commercial fisheries

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%) (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from the high
  interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the plateau;
  cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise along the
  coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West
  Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak; large icebergs may
  calve from ice shelf

Environment - current issues:
  in 1998, NASA satellite data showed that the antarctic ozone hole
  was the largest on record, covering 27 million square kilometers;
  researchers in 1997 found that increased ultraviolet light coming
  through the hole damages the DNA of icefish, an antarctic fish
  lacking hemoglobin; ozone depletion earlier was shown to harm
  one-celled antarctic marine plants; in 2002, significant areas of
  ice shelves disintegrated in response to regional warming

Geography - note:
  the coldest, windiest, highest (on average), and driest continent;
  during summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South
  Pole than is received at the Equator in an equivalent period; mostly
  uninhabitable

People Antarctica


Population:
  no indigenous inhabitants, but there are seasonally staffed
  research stations
  note: approximately 27 nations, all signatory to the Antarctic
  Treaty, send personnel to perform seasonal (summer) and year-round
  research on the continent and in its surrounding oceans; the
  population of persons doing and supporting science on the continent
  and its nearby islands south of 60 degrees south latitude (the
  region covered by the Antarctic Treaty) varies from approximately
  4,000 in summer to 1,000 in winter; in addition, approximately 1,000
  personnel including ship's crew and scientists doing onboard
  research are present in the waters of the treaty region; summer
  (January) population - 3,687 total; Argentina 302, Australia 201,
  Belgium 13, Brazil 80, Bulgaria 16, Chile 352, China 70, Finland 11,
  France 100, Germany 51, India 60, Italy 106, Japan 136, South Korea
  14, Netherlands 10, NZ 60, Norway 40, Peru 28, Poland 70, Russia
  254, South Africa 80, Spain 43, Sweden 20, UK 192, US 1,378
  (1998-99); winter (July) population - 964 total; Argentina 165,
  Australia 75, Brazil 12, Chile 129, China 33, France 33, Germany 9,
  India 25, Japan 40, South Korea 14, NZ 10, Poland 20, Russia 102,
  South Africa 10, UK 39, US 248 (1998-99); year-round stations - 42
  total; Argentina 6, Australia 4, Brazil 1, Chile 4, China 2, Finland
  1, France 1, Germany 1, India 1, Italy 1, Japan 1, South Korea 1, NZ
  1, Norway 1, Poland 1, Russia 6, South Africa 1, Spain 1, Ukraine 1,
  UK 2, US 3, Uruguay 1 (1998-99); summer-only stations - 32 total;
  Argentina 3, Australia 4, Bulgaria 1, Chile 7, Germany 1, India 1,
  Japan 3, NZ 1, Peru 1, Russia 3, Sweden 2, UK 5 (1998-99); in
  addition, during the austral summer some nations have numerous
  occupied locations such as tent camps, summer-long temporary
  facilities, and mobile traverses in support of research (July 2003
  est.)

Government Antarctica


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Antarctica

Government type:
  Antarctic Treaty Summary - the Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1
  December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961, establishes
  the legal framework for the management of Antarctica. The 24th
  Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was held in Russia in July
  2001. At the end of 2001, there were 45 treaty member nations: 27
  consultative and 18 non-consultative. Consultative (voting) members
  include the seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica as
  national territory (some claims overlap) and 20 nonclaimant nations.
  The US and Russia have reserved the right to make claims. The US
  does not recognize the claims of others. Antarctica is administered
  through meetings of the consultative member nations. Decisions from
  these meetings are carried out by these member nations (within their
  areas) in accordance with their own national laws. The year in
  parentheses indicates when an acceding nation was voted to full
  consultative (voting) status, while no date indicates the country
  was an original 1959 treaty signatory. Claimant nations are -
  Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the
  UK. Nonclaimant consultative nations are - Belgium, Brazil (1983),
  Bulgaria (1998) China (1985), Ecuador (1990), Finland (1989),
  Germany (1981), India (1983), Italy (1987), Japan, South Korea
  (1989), Netherlands (1990), Peru (1989), Poland (1977), Russia,
  South Africa, Spain (1988), Sweden (1988), Uruguay (1985), and the
  US. Non-consultative (nonvoting) members, with year of accession in
  parentheses, are - Austria (1987), Canada (1988), Colombia (1989),
  Cuba (1984), Czech Republic (1993), Denmark (1965), Estonia (2001),
  Greece (1987), Guatemala (1991), Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987),
  Papua New Guinea (1981), Romania (1971), Slovakia (1993),
  Switzerland (1990), Turkey (1995), Ukraine (1992), and Venezuela
  (1999). Article 1 - area to be used for peaceful purposes only;
  military activity, such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but
  military personnel and equipment may be used for scientific research
  or any other peaceful purpose; Article 2 - freedom of scientific
  investigation and cooperation shall continue; Article 3 - free
  exchange of information and personnel, cooperation with the UN and
  other international agencies; Article 4 - does not recognize,
  dispute, or establish territorial claims and no new claims shall be
  asserted while the treaty is in force; Article 5 - prohibits nuclear
  explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes; Article 6 - includes
  under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees 00
  minutes south and reserves high seas rights; Article 7 -
  treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial
  observation, to any area and may inspect all stations,
  installations, and equipment; advance notice of all expeditions and
  of the introduction of military personnel must be given; Article 8 -
  allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own
  states; Article 9 - frequent consultative meetings take place among
  member nations; Article 10 - treaty states will discourage
  activities by any country in Antarctica that are contrary to the
  treaty; Article 11 - disputes to be settled peacefully by the
  parties concerned or, ultimately, by the ICJ; Articles 12, 13, 14 -
  deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among
  involved nations. Other agreements - some 200 recommendations
  adopted at treaty consultative meetings and ratified by governments
  include - Agreed Measures for Fauna and Flora (1964) which were
  later incorporated into the Environmental Protocol; Convention for
  the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention on the
  Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980); a mineral
  resources agreement was signed in 1988 but remains unratified; the
  Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was
  signed 4 October 1991 and entered into force 14 January 1998; this
  agreement provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment
  through five specific annexes: 1) marine pollution, 2) fauna and
  flora, 3) environmental impact assessments, 4) waste management, and
  5) protected area management; it prohibits all activities relating
  to mineral resources except scientific research.

Legal system:
  Antarctica is administered through meetings of the consultative
  member nations. Decisions from these meetings are carried out by
  these member nations (within their areas) in accordance with their
  own national laws. US law, including certain criminal offenses by or
  against US nationals, such as murder, may apply extra-territorially.
  Some US laws directly apply to Antarctica. For example, the
  Antarctic Conservation Act, 16 U.S.C. section 2401 et seq., provides
  civil and criminal penalties for the following activities, unless
  authorized by regulation of statute: the taking of native mammals or
  birds; the introduction of nonindigenous plants and animals; entry
  into specially protected areas; the discharge or disposal of
  pollutants; and the importation into the US of certain items from
  Antarctica. Violation of the Antarctic Conservation Act carries
  penalties of up to $10,000 in fines and one year in prison. The
  National Science Foundation and Department of Justice share
  enforcement responsibilities. Public Law 95-541, the US Antarctic
  Conservation Act of 1978, as amended in 1996, requires expeditions
  from the US to Antarctica to notify, in advance, the Office of
  Oceans, Room 5805, Department of State, Washington, DC 20520, which
  reports such plans to other nations as required by the Antarctic
  Treaty. For more information, contact Permit Office, Office of Polar
  Programs, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia 22230;
  telephone: (703) 292-8030, or visit their website at www.nsf.gov.

Economy Antarctica


Economy - overview:
  Fishing off the coast and tourism, both based abroad, account for
  the limited economic activity. Antarctic fisheries in 2000-01 (1
  July-30 June) reported landing 112,934 metric tons. Unregulated
  fishing, particularly of tooth fish, is a serious problem. Allegedly
  illegal fishing in antarctic waters in 1998 resulted in the seizure
  (by France and Australia) of at least eight fishing ships. The
  Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources
  determines the recommended catch limits for marine species. A total
  of 12,248 tourists visited in the 2000-01 antarctic summer, down
  from the 14,762 who visited the previous year. Nearly all of them
  were passengers on 21 commercial (nongovernmental) ships and several
  yachts that made trips during the summer. Most tourist trips lasted
  approximately two weeks.

Communications Antarctica


Telephones - main lines in use:
  0
  note: information for US bases only (2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  NA; Iridium system in use

Telephone system:
  general assessment: local systems at some research stations
  domestic: NA
  international: via satellite from some research stations

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM NA, FM 2, shortwave 1
  note: information for US bases only (2002)

Radios:
  NA

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (cable system with six channels; American Forces Antarctic
  Network-McMurdo)
  note: information for US bases only (2002)

Televisions:
  several hundred at McMurdo Station (US)
  note: information for US bases only (2001)

Internet country code:
  .aq

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  NA

Transportation Antarctica


Ports and harbors:
  there are no developed ports and harbors in Antarctica; most
  coastal stations have offshore anchorages, and supplies are
  transferred from ship to shore by small boats, barges, and
  helicopters; a few stations have a basic wharf facility; US coastal
  stations include McMurdo (77 51 S, 166 40 E), Palmer (64 43 S, 64 03
  W); government use only except by permit (see Permit Office under
  "Legal System"); all ships at port are subject to inspection in
  accordance with Article 7, Antarctic Treaty; offshore anchorage is
  sparse and intermittent

Airports:
  30
  note: 30 stations, operated by 16 national governments party to the
  Antarctic Treaty, have aircraft landing facilities for either
  helicopters and/or fixed-wing aircraft; commercial enterprises
  operate two additional aircraft landing facilities; helicopter pads
  are available at 27 stations; runways at 15 locations are gravel,
  sea-ice, blue-ice, or compacted snow suitable for landing wheeled,
  fixed-wing aircraft; of these, 1 is greater than 3 km in length, 6
  are between 2 km and 3 km in length, 3 are between 1 km and 2 km in
  length, 3 are less than 1 km in length, and 2 are of unknown length;
  snow surface skiways, limited to use by ski-equipped, fixed-wing
  aircraft, are available at another 15 locations; of these, 4 are
  greater than 3 km in length, 3 are between 2 km and 3 km in length,
  2 are between 1 km and 2 km in length, 2 are less than 1 km in
  length, and 4 are of unknown length; aircraft landing facilities
  generally subject to severe restrictions and limitations resulting
  from extreme seasonal and geographic conditions; aircraft landing
  facilities do not meet ICAO standards; advance approval from the
  respective governmental or nongovernmental operating organization
  required for landing; landed aircraft are subject to inspection in
  accordance with Article 7, Antarctic Treaty (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 19
  over 3,047 m: 6
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
  914 to 1,523 m: 4
  under 914 m: 5 (2002)
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

Heliports:
  27 stations have helicopter landing facilities (helipads) (2002)

Military Antarctica


Military - note:
  the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a military nature,
  such as the establishment of military bases and fortifications, the
  carrying out of military maneuvers, or the testing of any type of
  weapon; it permits the use of military personnel or equipment for
  scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes

Transnational Issues Antarctica


Disputes - international:
  Antarctic Treaty freezes claims (see Antarctic Treaty Summary in
  Government type entry); sections (some overlapping) claimed by
  Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, NZ, Norway, and UK; the US and
  most other states do not recognize the territorial claims of other
  states and have made no claims themselves (the US and Russia reserve
  the right to do so); no claims have been made in the sector between
  90 degrees west and 150 degrees west; several states with land
  claims in Antarctica have expressed their intention to submit data
  to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf to
  extend their continental shelf claims to adjoining undersea ridges


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Antigua and Barbuda

Introduction Antigua and Barbuda


Background:
  The Siboney were the first to inhabit the islands of Antigua and
  Barbuda in 2400 B.C., but Arawak and Carib Indians populated the
  islands when Columbus landed on his second voyage in 1493. Early
  settlements by the Spanish and French were succeeded by the English
  who formed a colony in 1667. Slavery, established to run the sugar
  plantations on Antigua, was abolished in 1834. The islands became an
  independent state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981.

Geography Antigua and Barbuda


Location:
  Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic
  Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates:
  17 03 N, 61 48 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 443 sq km (Antigua 280 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km)
  water: 0 sq km
  note: includes Redonda, 1.6 sq km
  land: 443 sq km

Area - comparative:
  2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  153 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
  continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate:
  tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain:
  mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher
  volcanic areas

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m

Natural resources:
  NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism

Land use:
  arable land: 18.18%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 81.82% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts

Environment - current issues:
  water management - a major concern because of limited natural fresh
  water resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to
  increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
  Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  Antigua has a deeply indented shoreline with many natural harbors
  and beaches; Barbuda has a very large western harbor

People Antigua and Barbuda


Population:
  67,897 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 28.1% (male 9,706; female 9,371)
  15-64 years: 67.4% (male 22,929; female 22,845)
  65 years and over: 4.5% (male 1,218; female 1,828) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 29.1 years
  male: 28.6 years
  female: 29.6 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  0.64% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  18.23 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  5.64 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -6.19 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 20.9 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 16.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 25.14 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 71.31 years
  male: 68.99 years
  female: 73.75 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.28 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
  adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan

Ethnic groups:
  black, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrian

Religions:
  Christian, (predominantly Anglican with other Protestant, and some
  Roman Catholic)

Languages:
  English (official), local dialects

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of
  schooling
  total population: 89%
  male: 90%
  female: 88% (1960 est.)

Government Antigua and Barbuda


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda

Government type:
  constitutional monarchy with UK-style parliament

Capital:
  Saint John's

Administrative divisions:
  6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George,
  Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip

Independence:
  1 November 1981 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day (National Day), 1 November (1981)

Constitution:
  1 November 1981

Legal system:
  based on English common law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General James B. CARLISLE (since NA 1993)
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general chosen
  by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following
  legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the
  leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister
  by the governor general
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on
  the advice of the prime minister
  head of government: Prime Minister Lester Bryant BIRD (since 8 March
  1994); Deputy Prime Minister Robin YEARWOOD

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17-member body
  appointed by the governor general) and the House of Representatives
  (17 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to
  serve five-year terms)
  election results: percent of vote by party - ALP 53.2%, UPP 45.5%,
  independent 1.3%; seats by party - ALP 12, UPP 4, independent 1
  elections: House of Representatives - last held 9 March 1999 (next
  to be held prior to March 2004)

Judicial branch:
  Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia; one judge of
  the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the
  Court of Summary Jurisdiction)

Political parties and leaders:
  Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester Bryant BIRD]; Barbuda People's
  Movement or BPM [Thomas H. FRANK]; United Progressive Party or UPP
  [Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of three opposition parties - United
  National Democratic Party or UNDP, Antigua Caribbean Liberation
  Movement or ACLM, and Progressive Labor Movement or PLM)

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; People's
  Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]

International organization participation:
  ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU,
  ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO
  (subscriber), ITU, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
  chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
  telephone: [1] (202) 362-5211
  FAX: [1] (202) 362-5225
  consulate(s) general: Miami

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda (embassy
  closed 30 June 1994); the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to
  Antigua and Barbuda

Flag description:
  red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of
  the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black
  (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising sun in the black
  band

Economy Antigua and Barbuda


Economy - overview:
  Tourism continues to dominate the economy, accounting for more than
  half of GDP. Weak tourist arrival numbers since early 2000 have
  slowed the economy, however, and pressed the government into a tight
  fiscal corner. The dual-island nation's agricultural production is
  focused on the domestic market and constrained by a limited water
  supply and a labor shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages
  in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type
  assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts,
  and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the
  medium term will continue to depend on income growth in the
  industrialized world, especially in the US, which accounts for
  slightly more than one-third of tourist arrivals.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $750 million (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $11,000 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 3.9%
  industry: 19.2%
  services: 76.8% (2002)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  0.4% (2000 est.)

Labor force:
  30,000

Labor force - by occupation:
  commerce and services 82%, agriculture 11%, industry 7% (1983)

Unemployment rate:
  11% (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $123.7 million
  expenditures: $145.9 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2000 est.)

Industries:
  tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol,
  household appliances)

Industrial production growth rate:
  6% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production:
  105.3 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  97.89 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  3,600 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products:
  cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes,
  sugarcane; livestock

Exports:
  $40 million

Exports - commodities:
  petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, machinery and transport
  equipment 17%, food and live animals 4%, other 8%

Exports - partners:
  France 68.5%, Germany 26.4%, Italy 1.2% (2002)

Imports:
  $357 million (2000 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment,
  manufactures, chemicals, oil

Imports - partners:
  France 23.4%, Germany 14.2%, US 13.2%, Poland 9.8%, South Korea
  8.3%, Singapore 5%, UK 4.4% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $231 million (1999)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $2.3 million (1995)

Currency:
  East Caribbean dollar (XCD)

Currency code:
  XCD

Exchange rates:
  East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7 (2002), 2.7 (2001), 2.7
  (2000), 2.7 (1999), 2.7 (1998) (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Antigua and Barbuda


Telephones - main lines in use:
  28,000 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1,300 (1996)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: good automatic telephone system
  international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station -
  1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Saba
  (Netherlands Antilles) and Guadeloupe

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  36,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  2 (1997)

Televisions:
  31,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ag

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  16 (2000)

Internet users:
  5,000 (2001)

Transportation Antigua and Barbuda


Railways:
  total: 77 km
  narrow gauge: 64 km 0.760-m gauge; 13 km 0.610-m gauge (used almost
  exclusively for handling sugarcane) (2001 est.)

Highways:
  total: 250 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  Saint John's

Merchant marine:
  total: 816 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 5,135,866 GRT/6,648,143 DWT
  note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
  convenience: Australia 1, Bangladesh 2, Belgium 3, Colombia 1, Cuba
  1, Estonia 1, Germany 747, Greece 1, Iceland 8, Latvia 1, Lebanon 2,
  Lithuania 1, Netherlands 22, New Zealand 2, Portugal 1, Slovenia 6,
  South Africa 1, Sweden 2, United Kingdom 1, United States 7 (2002
  est.)
  ships by type: bulk 16, cargo 474, chemical tanker 8, combination
  bulk 3, container 255, liquefied gas 10, multi-functional large-load
  carrier 6, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 8, roll on/roll
  off 35

Airports:
  3 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2002)

Military Antigua and Barbuda


Military branches:
  Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal Antigua and Barbuda
  Police Force (including the Coast Guard)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  NA%

Transnational Issues Antigua and Barbuda


Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  considered a minor transshipment point for narcotics bound for the
  US and Europe; more significant as an offshore financial center


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Arctic Ocean

Introduction Arctic Ocean


Background:
  The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the world's five oceans (after
  the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and the recently
  delimited Southern Ocean). The Northwest Passage (US and Canada) and
  Northern Sea Route (Norway and Russia) are two important seasonal
  waterways. A sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes
  circumscribes the Arctic Ocean.

Geography Arctic Ocean


Location:
  body of water between Europe, Asia, and North America, mostly north
  of the Arctic Circle

Geographic coordinates:
  90 00 N, 0 00 E

Map references:
  Arctic Region

Area:
  total: 14.056 million sq km
  note: includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea,
  East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara
  Sea, Laptev Sea, Northwest Passage, and other tributary water bodies

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US

Coastline:
  45,389 km

Climate:
  polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively
  narrow annual temperature ranges; winters characterized by
  continuous darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear
  skies; summers characterized by continuous daylight, damp and foggy
  weather, and weak cyclones with rain or snow

Terrain:
  central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar icepack that
  averages about 3 meters in thickness, although pressure ridges may
  be three times that size; clockwise drift pattern in the Beaufort
  Gyral Stream, but nearly straight-line movement from the New
  Siberian Islands (Russia) to Denmark Strait (between Greenland and
  Iceland); the icepack is surrounded by open seas during the summer,
  but more than doubles in size during the winter and extends to the
  encircling landmasses; the ocean floor is about 50% continental
  shelf (highest percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a central
  basin interrupted by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera,
  Nansen Cordillera, and Lomonosov Ridge)

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Fram Basin -4,665 m
  highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources:
  sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules,
  oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales)

Natural hazards:
  ice islands occasionally break away from northern Ellesmere Island;
  icebergs calved from glaciers in western Greenland and extreme
  northeastern Canada; permafrost in islands; virtually ice locked
  from October to June; ships subject to superstructure icing from
  October to May

Environment - current issues:
  endangered marine species include walruses and whales; fragile
  ecosystem slow to change and slow to recover from disruptions or
  damage; thinning polar icepack

Geography - note:
  major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea (northern access to
  the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait); strategic location between
  North America and Russia; shortest marine link between the extremes
  of eastern and western Russia; floating research stations operated
  by the US and Russia; maximum snow cover in March or April about 20
  to 50 centimeters over the frozen ocean; snow cover lasts about 10
  months



Economy Arctic Ocean


Economy - overview:
  Economic activity is limited to the exploitation of natural
  resources, including petroleum, natural gas, fish, and seals.


Transportation Arctic Ocean


Ports and harbors:
  Churchill (Canada), Murmansk (Russia), Prudhoe Bay (US)

Transportation - note:
  sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes; the Northwest
  Passage (North America) and Northern Sea Route (Eurasia) are
  important seasonal waterways


Transnational Issues Arctic Ocean


Disputes - international:
  some maritime disputes (see littoral states)


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Argentina

Introduction Argentina


Background:
  Following independence from Spain in 1816, Argentina experienced
  periods of internal political conflict between conservatives and
  liberals and between civilian and military factions. After World War
  II, a long period of Peronist authoritarian rule and interference in
  subsequent governments was followed by a military junta that took
  power in 1976. Democracy returned in 1983, and numerous elections
  since then have underscored Argentina's progress in democratic
  consolidation.

Geography Argentina


Location:
  Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between
  Chile and Uruguay

Geographic coordinates:
  34 00 S, 64 00 W

Map references:
  South America

Area:
  total: 2,766,890 sq km
  land: 2,736,690 sq km
  water: 30,200 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US

Land boundaries:
  total: 9,665 km
  border countries: Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km, Chile 5,150 km,
  Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km

Coastline:
  4,989 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
  continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate:
  mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest

Terrain:
  rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau
  of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Salinas Chicas -40 m (located on Peninsula Valdes)
  highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,960 m

Natural resources:
  fertile plains of the Pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore,
  manganese, petroleum, uranium

Land use:
  arable land: 9.14%
  permanent crops: 0.8%
  other: 90.06% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  15,610 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to
  earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the
  Pampas and northeast; heavy flooding

Environment - current issues:
  environmental problems (urban and rural) typical of an
  industrializing economy such as deforestation, soil degradation,
  desertification, air pollution, and water pollution
  note: Argentina is a world leader in setting voluntary greenhouse
  gas targets

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living
  Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate
  Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
  Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:
  second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic
  location relative to sea lanes between the South Atlantic and the
  South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake
  Passage); Cerro Aconcagua is South America's tallest mountain, while
  the Valdes Peninsula is the lowest point on the continent

People Argentina


Population:
  38,740,807 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 26.2% (male 5,185,548; female 4,955,551)
  15-64 years: 63.4% (male 12,274,625; female 12,282,772)
  65 years and over: 10.4% (male 1,659,641; female 2,382,670) (2003
  est.)

Median age:
  total: 29 years
  male: 28 years
  female: 29.9 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  1.05% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  17.47 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  7.58 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 16.16 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 14.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 18.14 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 75.48 years
  male: 71.72 years
  female: 79.44 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.28 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.7% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  130,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  1,800 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Argentine(s)
  adjective: Argentine

Ethnic groups:
  white (mostly Spanish and Italian) 97%, mestizo, Amerindian, or
  other nonwhite groups 3%

Religions:
  nominally Roman Catholic 92% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant
  2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%

Languages:
  Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 97.1%
  male: 97.1%
  female: 97.1% (2003 est.)

Government Argentina


Country name:
  conventional long form: Argentine Republic
  conventional short form: Argentina
  local short form: Argentina
  local long form: Republica Argentina

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  Buenos Aires

Administrative divisions:
  23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), and 1 autonomous
  city* (distrito federal); Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires Capital
  Federal*, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios,
  Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquen, Rio
  Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del
  Estero, Tierra del Fuego - Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur,
  Tucuman
  note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica

Independence:
  9 July 1816 (from Spain)

National holiday:
  Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)

Constitution:
  1 May 1853; revised August 1994

Legal system:
  mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and mandatory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Nestor KIRCHNER (since 25 May 2003); note
  - declared winner of a runoff election by default after Carlos Saul
  MENEM withdrew his candidacy on the eve of the election; Vice
  President Daniel SCIOLI (since 25 May 2003); note - the president is
  both the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President Nestor KIRCHNER (since 25 May 2003);
  note - declared winner of a runoff election by default after Carlos
  Saul MENEM withdrew his candidacy on the eve of the election; Vice
  President Daniel SCIOLI (since 25 May 2003); note - the president is
  both the chief of state and head of government
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  election results: results of the presidential primary of 27 April
  2003: Carlos Saul MENEM 24.3%, Nestor KIRCHNER 22%, Ricardo Lopez
  MURPHY 16.4%, Adolfo Rodriguez SAA 14.4%, Elisa CARRIO 14.2%, other
  8.7%; the subsequent runoff election slated for 25 May 2003 was
  awarded to KIRCHNER by default after MENEM withdrew his candidacy on
  the eve of the election
  elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for four-year terms; the last election held was the
  presidential primary election of 27 April 2003 (next election to be
  held NA 2007); a runoff election slated for 25 May 2003 between the
  two candidates receiving the highest votes in the primary was
  awarded to KIRCHNER by default after MENEM withdrew his candidacy on
  the eve of the election

Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the
  Senate (72 seats; members are elected by direct vote; presently
  one-third of the members being elected every two years to a six-year
  term) and the Chamber of Deputies (257 seats; members are elected by
  direct vote; one-half of the members elected every two years to a
  four-year term)
  election results: Senate - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA%;
  seats by bloc or party - PJ 40, UCR 24, provincial parties 6,
  Frepaso 1, ARI 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by bloc or
  party - NA%; seats by bloc or party - PJ 113, UCR 74, provincial
  parties 27, Frepaso 17, ARI 17, AR 9
  elections: Senate - last held 14 October 2001 (next to be held
  intermittently by province before December 2003); Chamber of
  Deputies - last held 14 October 2001 (next to be held intermittently
  by province before December 2003)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (the nine Supreme Court judges are
  appointed by the president with approval by the Senate)

Political parties and leaders:
  Action for the Republic or AR [Domingo CAVALLO]; Alternative for a
  Republic of Equals or ARI [Elisa CARRIO]; Front for a Country in
  Solidarity or Frepaso (a four-party coalition) [Dario Pedro
  ALESSANDRO]; Justicialist Party or PJ [Carlos Saul MENEM] (Peronist
  umbrella political organization); Radical Civic Union or UCR [Angel
  ROZAS]; Federal Recreate Movement [Ricardo LOPEZ MURPHY]; several
  provincial parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs (CILFA); Argentine
  Industrial Union (manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural
  Society (large landowners' association); business organizations;
  General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning umbrella
  labor organization); Peronist-dominated labor movement; Roman
  Catholic Church; students

International organization participation:
  AfDB, Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, ECLAC, FAO, G-6, G-15, G-19,
  G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
  IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
  LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MINURSO, MIPONUH, MONUC, MTCR, NSG, OAS,
  OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO,
  UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOVIC, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL,
  WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Jose Octavio BORDON
  chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
  New York
  FAX: [1] (202) 332-3171
  telephone: [1] (202) 238-6400

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador James D. WALSH; note - Lino GUTIERREZ
  is designated to replace Ambassador WALSH
  embassy: Avenida Colombia 4300, C1425GMN Buenos Aires
  mailing address: international mail: use street address; APO
  address: Unit 4334, APO AA 34034
  telephone: [54] (11) 5777-4533
  FAX: [54] (11) 5777-4240

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and light
  blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a
  human face known as the Sun of May

Economy Argentina


Economy - overview:
  Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate
  population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a
  diversified industrial base. Over the past decade, however, the
  country has suffered recurring economic problems of inflation,
  external debt, capital flight, and budget deficits. Growth in 2000
  was a negative 0.8%, as both domestic and foreign investors remained
  skeptical of the government's ability to pay debts and maintain the
  peso's fixed exchange rate with the US dollar. The economic
  situation worsened in 2001 with the widening of spreads on Argentine
  bonds, massive withdrawals from the banks, and a further decline in
  consumer and investor confidence. Government efforts to achieve a
  "zero deficit," to stabilize the banking system, and to restore
  economic growth proved inadequate in the face of the mounting
  economic problems. The peso's peg to the dollar was abandoned in
  January 2002, and the peso was floated in February; the exchange
  rate plunged and inflation picked up rapidly, but by mid-2002 the
  economy had stabilized, albeit at a lower level. Strong demand for
  the peso compelled the Central Bank to intervene in foreign exchange
  markets to curb its appreciation in early 2003. Led by record
  exports, the economy began to recover with output up 5.5% in 2003,
  unemployment falling, and inflation sliced to 4.2% at year-end.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $403.8 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  -10.9% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $10,500 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 5%
  industry: 28%
  services: 66% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  37% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  41% (2002, yearend)

Labor force:
  15 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate:
  21.5% (37377)

Budget:
  revenues: $44 billion
  expenditures: $48 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2000 est.)

Industries:
  food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles,
  chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel

Industrial production growth rate:
  1% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production:
  97.17 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 52.2%
  hydro: 40.8%
  other: 0.2% (2001)
  nuclear: 6.7%

Electricity - consumption:
  92.12 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  5.662 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  7.417 billion kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  828,600 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  486,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  2.927 billion bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  37.15 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  31.1 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  6.05 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  768 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  sunflower seeds, lemons, soybeans, grapes, corn, tobacco, peanuts,
  tea, wheat; livestock

Exports:
  $25.3 billion f.o.b. (2002)

Exports - commodities:
  edible oils, fuels and energy, cereals, feed, motor vehicles

Exports - partners:
  Brazil 23.6%, US 10.9%, Chile 9.7%, Spain 4.3% (2002)

Imports:
  $9 billion f.o.b. (2002)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal
  manufactures, plastics

Imports - partners:
  Brazil 42%, US 12.8%, Germany 4.4% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $155 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $10 billion (2001 est.)

Currency:
  Argentine peso (ARS)

Currency code:
  ARS

Exchange rates:
  Argentine pesos per US dollar - 3.06 (2002), 1 (2001), 1 (2000), 1
  (1999), 1 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Argentina


Telephones - main lines in use:
  7.5 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  3 million (December 1999)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: by opening the telecommunications market to
  competition and foreign investment with the "Telecommunications
  Liberalization Plan of 1998," Argentina encouraged the growth of
  modern telecommunication technology; fiber-optic cable trunk lines
  are being installed between all major cities; the major networks are
  entirely digital and the availability of telephone service is being
  improved; however, telephone density is presently minimal, and
  making telephone service universally available will take time
  domestic: microwave radio relay, fiber-optic cable, and a domestic
  satellite system with 40 earth stations serve the trunk network;
  more than 110,000 pay telephones are installed and mobile telephone
  use is rapidly expanding
  international: satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Atlantic
  Ocean); Atlantis II and Unisur submarine cables; two international
  gateways near Buenos Aires (1999)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 260 (including 10 inactive stations), FM NA (probably more than
  1,000, mostly unlicensed), shortwave 6 (1998)

Radios:
  24.3 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  42 (plus 444 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:
  7.95 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ar

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  33 (2000)

Internet users:
  3.88 million (2001)

Transportation Argentina


Railways:
  total: 34,463 km (168 km electrified)
  broad gauge: 20,736 km 1.676-m gauge (142 km electrified)
  standard gauge: 3,115 km 1.435-m gauge (26 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 10,375 km 1.000-m gauge; 237 km 0.750-m gauge (2002)

Highways:
  total: 215,471 km
  paved: 63,348 km (including 734 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 152,123 km (1999)

Waterways:
  10,950 km

Pipelines:
  gas 26,797 km; liquid petroleum gas 41 km; oil 3,668 km; refined
  products 2,945 km; unknown (oil/water) 13 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Comodoro Rivadavia, Concepcion del
  Uruguay, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Necochea, Rio Gallegos, Rosario,
  Santa Fe, Ushuaia

Merchant marine:
  total: 23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 141,851 GRT/208,821 DWT
  ships by type: cargo 9, petroleum tanker 8, railcar carrier 1,
  refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 1, short-sea passenger 1,
  specialized tanker 1, includes some foreign-owned ships registered
  here as a flag of convenience: United Arab Emirates 1, Uruguay 1
  (2002 est.)

Airports:
  1,342 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 145
  over 3,047 m: 4
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 26
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 62
  914 to 1,523 m: 44
  under 914 m: 9 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1,197
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 50
  914 to 1,523 m: 572
  under 914 m: 571 (2002)

Military Argentina


Military branches:
  Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic (includes naval
  aviation and Marines), Coast Guard, Argentine Air Force, National
  Gendarmerie, National Aeronautical Police Force

Military manpower - military age:
  20 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 9,780,063 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 7,942,837 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 331,011 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $4.3 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.3% (FY00)

Transnational Issues Argentina


Disputes - international:
  claims UK-administered Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) and South
  Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands in its constitution, but in
  1995 ceded the right to settle the dispute by force; Beagle Channel
  islands dispute resolved through Papal mediation in 1984, but armed
  incidents persist since 1992 oil discovery; territorial claim in
  Antarctica partially overlaps UK and Chilean claims (see Antarctic
  disputes); unruly region at convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay
  borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and drug
  trafficking, and harbors Islamist militants; uncontested dispute
  between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera Island in the
  Quarai/Cuareim leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question

Illicit drugs:
  used as a transshipment country for cocaine headed for Europe and
  the US; some money-laundering activity, especially in the Tri-Border
  Area; domestic consumption of drugs in urban centers is increasing


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Armenia

Introduction Armenia


Background:
  Armenia prides itself on being the first nation to formally adopt
  Christianity (early 4th century). Despite periods of autonomy, over
  the centuries Armenia came under the sway of various empires
  including the Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Persian, and Ottoman. It was
  incorporated into Russia in 1828 and the USSR in 1920. Armenian
  leaders remain preoccupied by the long conflict with Muslim
  Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated
  region, assigned to Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s by Moscow.
  Armenia and Azerbaijan began fighting over the area in 1988; the
  struggle escalated after both countries attained independence from
  the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold,
  Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also a
  significant portion of Azerbaijan proper. The economies of both
  sides have been hurt by their inability to make substantial progress
  toward a peaceful resolution.

Geography Armenia


Location:
  Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey

Geographic coordinates:
  40 00 N, 45 00 E

Map references:
  Asia

Area:
  total: 29,800 sq km
  water: 1,400 sq km
  land: 28,400 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,254 km
  border countries: Azerbaijan-proper 566 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan
  exclave 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  highland continental, hot summers, cold winters

Terrain:
  Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing
  rivers; good soil in Aras River valley

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Debed River 400 m
  highest point: Aragats Lerrnagagat' 4,090 m

Natural resources:
  small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, alumina

Land use:
  arable land: 17.52%
  permanent crops: 2.3%
  other: 80.18% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  2,870 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts

Environment - current issues:
  soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; the energy crisis
  of the 1990s led to deforestation when citizens scavenged for
  firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the
  draining of Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan), a result of its use as a
  source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of
  Metsamor nuclear power plant in spite of its location in a
  seismically active zone

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban,
  Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Geography - note:
  landlocked in the Lesser Caucasus Mountains; Sevana Lich (Lake
  Sevan) is the largest lake in this mountain range

People Armenia


Population:
  3,326,448
  note: Armenia's first census since independence was conducted in
  October 2001; official results are not expected until late 2003
  (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 21.1% (male 356,587; female 346,648)
  15-64 years: 68.3% (male 1,113,241; female 1,158,245)
  65 years and over: 10.6% (male 147,156; female 204,571) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 32.3 years
  male: 30.6 years
  female: 34.1 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  -0.07% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  12.57 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  10.16 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -3.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 40.86 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 36.24 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 45.27 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 66.68 years
  male: 62.41 years
  female: 71.17 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.56 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.2% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  less than 2,400 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 100 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Armenian(s)
  adjective: Armenian

Ethnic groups:
  Armenian 93%, Azeri 1%, Russian 2%, other (mostly Yezidi Kurds) 4%
  (2002)
  note: as of the end of 1993, virtually all Azeris had emigrated from
  Armenia

Religions:
  Armenian Apostolic 94%, other Christian 4%, Yezidi
  (Zoroastrian/animist) 2%

Languages:
  Armenian 96%, Russian 2%, other 2%

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98.6%
  male: 99.4%
  female: 98% (2003 est.)

Government Armenia


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Armenia
  conventional short form: Armenia
  local short form: Hayastan
  former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic
  local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  Yerevan

Administrative divisions:
  11 provinces (marzer, singular - marz); Aragatsotn, Ararat,
  Armavir, Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak, Syunik', Tavush,
  Vayots' Dzor, Yerevan

Independence:
  21 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 21 September (1991)

Constitution:
  adopted by nationwide referendum 5 July 1995

Legal system:
  based on civil law system

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Robert KOCHARIAN (since 30 March 1998)
  head of government: Prime Minister Andranik MARKARYAN (since 12 May
  2000)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  election last held 19 February and 5 March 2003 (next to be held NA
  2008); prime minister appointed by the president; the prime minister
  and Council of Ministers must resign if the National Assembly
  refuses to accept their program
  election results: Robert KOCHARIAN reelected president; percent of
  vote - Robert KOCHARIAN 67.5%, Stepan DEMIRCHYAN 32.5%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or Azgayin Zhoghov (131
  seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms; 75
  members selected by direct vote, 56 by party list)
  elections: last held 25 May 2003 (next to be held in the spring of
  2007)
  election results: percent of vote by party - Republican Party 23.5%,
  Justice Bloc 13.6%, Rule of Law 12.3%, ARF (Dashnak) 11.4%, National
  Unity Party 8.8%, United Labor Party 5.7%; seats by party -
  Republican Party 23, Justice Bloc 14, Rule of Law 12, ARF (Dashnak)
  11, National Unity 9, United Labor 6; note - seats by party change
  frequently as deputies switch parties or announce themselves
  independent
  note: electoral law was changed in 2002 so ratio in next elections
  will be 75 deputies elected by party list, 56 by direct election

Judicial branch:
  Constitutional Court; Court of Cassation (Appeals Court)

Political parties and leaders:
  Agro-Industrial Party [Vladimir BADALIAN]; Armenia Party [Myasnik
  MALKHASYAN]; Armenian National Movement or ANM [Alex ARZUMANYAN,
  chairman]; Armenian Ramkavar Liberal Party or HRAK [Ruben
  MIRZAKHANYAN, chairman]; Armenian Revolutionary Federation
  ("Dashnak" Party) or ARF [Vahan HOVHANISSIAN]; Democratic Party
  [Aram SARKISYAN]; Justice Bloc (comprised of the Democratic Party,
  National Democratic Party, National Democratic Union, and the
  People's Party); National Democratic Party [Shavarsh KOCHARIAN];
  National Democratic Union or NDU [Vazgen MANUKIAN]; National Unity
  Party [Artashes GEGAMIAN, chairman]; People's Party of Armenia
  [Stepan DEMIRCHYAN]; Republic Party [Albert BAZEYAN and Aram
  SARKISYAN, chairmen]; Republican Party or RPA [Andranik MARKARYAN];
  Rule of Law Party [Artur BAGDASARIAN, chairman]; Union of
  Constitutional Rights [Hrant KHACHATURYAN]; United Labor Party
  [Gurgen ARSENIAN]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Yerkrapah Union [Manvel GRIGORIAN]

International organization participation:
  BSEC, CE, CIS, COE, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
  ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol,
  IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP,
  UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Arman KIRAKOSSIAN
  chancery: 2225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
  FAX: [1] (202) 319-2982
  telephone: [1] (202) 319-1976

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador John M. ORDWAY
  embassy: 18 Baghramyan Ave., Yerevan 375019
  mailing address: American Embassy Yerevan, Department of State, 7020
  Yerevan Place, Washington, DC 20521-7020
  telephone: [374](1) 521-611, 520-791, 542-177, 542-132, 524-661,
  527-001, 524-840
  FAX: [374](1) 520-800

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and orange

Economy Armenia


Economy - overview:
  Under the old Soviet central planning system, Armenia had developed
  a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and
  other manufactured goods to sister republics in exchange for raw
  materials and energy. Since the implosion of the USSR in December
  1991, Armenia has switched to small-scale agriculture away from the
  large agroindustrial complexes of the Soviet era. The agricultural
  sector has long-term needs for more investment and updated
  technology. The privatization of industry has been at a slower pace,
  but has been given renewed emphasis by the current administration.
  Armenia is a food importer, and its mineral deposits (copper, gold,
  bauxite) are small. The ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan over the
  ethnic Armenian-dominated region of Nagorno-Karabakh and the breakup
  of the centrally directed economic system of the former Soviet Union
  contributed to a severe economic decline in the early 1990s. By
  1994, however, the Armenian Government had launched an ambitious
  IMF-sponsored economic program that has resulted in positive growth
  rates in 1995-2003. Armenia also has managed to slash inflation,
  stabilize the local currency (the dram), and privatize most small-
  and medium-sized enterprises. The chronic energy shortages Armenia
  suffered in the early and mid-1990s have been offset by the energy
  supplied by one of its nuclear power plants at Metsamor. Armenia is
  now a net energy exporter, although it does not have sufficient
  generating capacity to replace Metsamor, which is under
  international pressure to close. The electricity distribution system
  was privatized in 2002. Armenia's severe trade imbalance has been
  offset somewhat by international aid, domestic restructuring of the
  economy, and foreign direct investment. Economic ties with Russia
  remain close, especially in the energy sector.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $12.13 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  12.9% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $3,600 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 30%
  industry: 26%
  services: 44% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  50% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2.3%
  highest 10%: 46.2% (1999)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  44.4 (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1.1% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  1.4 million (2001)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 45%, services 30%, industry 25% (2002 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  20% (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $402 million
  expenditures: $482 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2001 est.)

Industries:
  metal-cutting machine tools, forging-pressing machines, electric
  motors, tires, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, chemicals,
  trucks, instruments, microelectronics, gem cutting, jewelry
  manufacturing, software development, food processing, brandy

Industrial production growth rate:
  15% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  6.479 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 42.3%
  hydro: 27%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 30.7%

Electricity - consumption:
  5.784 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  704 million kWh; note - exports an unknown quantity to Georgia;
  includes exports to Nagorno-Karabakh region in Azerbaijan (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  463 million kWh; note - imports an unknown quantity from Iran (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  5,700 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  1.4 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  1.4 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  fruit (especially grapes), vegetables; livestock

Exports:
  $525 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  diamonds, mineral products, foodstuffs, energy

Exports - partners:
  Belgium 21.5%, Russia 14.6%, Israel 10.3%, Iran 9.4%, US 8.2%,
  Switzerland 6.8%, Germany 6.2% (2002)

Imports:
  $991 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  natural gas, petroleum, tobacco products, foodstuffs, diamonds

Imports - partners:
  US 15.3%, Russia 12.9%, Belgium 12.3%, Iran 10.3%, UAE 6.3%,
  Germany 5.5%, Italy 4.9% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $905 million (June 2001)

Economic aid - recipient:
  ODA $170 million (2000)

Currency:
  dram (AMD)

Currency code:
  AMD

Exchange rates:
  drams per US dollar - NA (2002), 555.08 (2001), 539.53 (2000),
  535.06 (1999), 504.92 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Armenia


Telephones - main lines in use:
  600,000 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  50,000 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: system inadequate; now 90% privately owned and
  undergoing modernization and expansion
  domestic: the majority of subscribers and the most modern equipment
  are in Yerevan (this includes paging and mobile cellular service)
  international: Yerevan is connected to the Trans-Asia-Europe
  fiber-optic cable through Iran; additional international service is
  available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the
  other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States and
  through the Moscow international switch and by satellite to the rest
  of the world; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (2000)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 9, FM 6, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  850,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  3 (plus an unknown number of repeaters); (1998)

Televisions:
  825,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .am

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  9 (2001)

Internet users:
  30,000 (2001)

Transportation Armenia


Railways:
  total: 852 km in common carrier service; does not include
  industrial lines
  broad gauge: 852 km 1.520-m gauge (779 km electrified) (2002)

Highways:
  total: 15,918 km
  paved: 15,329 km (includes 7,527 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 589 km (2000)

Waterways:
  NA km

Pipelines:
  gas 2,031 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  none

Airports:
  15 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 8
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 7
  over 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 3
  under 914 m: 1 (2002)

Military Armenia


Military branches:
  Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border Guards

Military manpower - military age:
  18 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 919,582 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 727,770 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 37,209 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $135 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  6.5% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Armenia


Disputes - international:
  Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh
  and militarily occupies 16% of Azerbaijan - Organization for
  Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate
  dispute; border with Turkey remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh
  dispute; traditional demands regarding former Armenian lands in
  Turkey have subsided; ethnic Armenian groups in Javakheti region of
  Georgia seek greater autonomy, closer ties with Armenia

Illicit drugs:
  illicit cultivation of small amount of cannabis for domestic
  consumption; used as a transit point for illicit drugs - mostly
  opium and hashish - moving from Southwest Asia to Russia and to a
  lesser extent the rest of Europe


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Aruba

Introduction Aruba


Background:
  Discovered and claimed for Spain in 1499, Aruba was acquired by the
  Dutch in 1636. The island's economy has been dominated by three main
  industries. A 19th century gold rush was followed by prosperity
  brought on by the opening in 1924 of an oil refinery. The last
  decades of the 20th century saw a boom in the tourism industry.
  Aruba seceded from the Netherlands Antilles in 1986 and became a
  separate, autonomous member of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
  Movement toward full independence was halted at Aruba's request in
  1990.

Geography Aruba


Location:
  Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Venezuela

Geographic coordinates:
  12 30 N, 69 58 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 193 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 193 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  68.5 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain:
  flat with a few hills; scant vegetation

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Mount Jamanota 188 m

Natural resources:
  NEGL; white sandy beaches

Land use:
  arable land: 10.53% (including aloe 0.01%)
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 89.47% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  0.01 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Geography - note:
  a flat, riverless island renowned for its white sand beaches; its
  tropical climate is moderated by constant trade winds from the
  Atlantic Ocean; the temperature is almost constant at about 27
  degrees Celsius (81 degrees Fahrenheit)

People Aruba


Population:
  70,844 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 20.7% (male 7,540; female 7,121)
  15-64 years: 68.3% (male 23,427; female 24,955)
  65 years and over: 11% (male 3,215; female 4,586) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 37.1 years
  male: 35.3 years
  female: 38.5 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  0.55% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  11.86 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  6.38 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 6.14 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 5.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 6.99 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 78.83 years
  male: 75.48 years
  female: 82.34 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.79 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Aruban(s)
  adjective: Aruban; Dutch

Ethnic groups:
  mixed white/Caribbean Amerindian 80%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant 8%, Hindu, Muslim, Confucian, Jewish

Languages:
  Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, English
  dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish

Literacy:
  definition:
  total population: 97%
  male: NA%
  female: NA%

Government Aruba


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Aruba

Dependency status:
  part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; full autonomy in internal
  affairs obtained in 1986 upon separation from the Netherlands
  Antilles; Dutch Government responsible for defense and foreign
  affairs

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  Oranjestad

Administrative divisions:
  none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

Independence:
  none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

National holiday:
  Flag Day, 18 March

Constitution:
  1 January 1986

Legal system:
  based on Dutch civil law system, with some English common law
  influence

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen BEATRIX of the Netherlands (since 30 April
  1980), represented by Governor General Olindo KOOLMAN (since 1
  January 1992)
  election results: Nelson O. ODUBER elected prime minister; percent
  of legislative vote - NA%
  elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed for
  a six-year term by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime
  minister elected by the Staten for four-year terms; election last
  held 28 September 2001 (next to be held by December 2005)
  head of government: Prime Minister Nelson O. ODUBER (since 30
  October 2001); Deputy Prime Minister Fredis REFUNJOL
  cabinet: Council of Ministers (elected by the Staten)

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Legislature or Staten (21 seats; members elected by
  direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 28 September 2001 (next to be held by NA 2005)
  election results: percent of vote by party - MEP 52.4%, AVP 26.7%,
  PPA 9.6%, OLA 5.7%, Aliansa 3.5%, other 2.1%; seats by party - MEP
  12, AVP 6, PPA 2, OLA 1

Judicial branch:
  Joint High Court of Justice (judges are appointed by the monarch)

Political parties and leaders:
  Aruba Solidarity Movement or MAS [leader NA]; Aruban Democratic
  Alliance or Aliansa [leader NA]; Aruban Democratic Party or PDA [Leo
  BERLINSKI]; Aruban Liberal Party or OLA [Glenbert CROES]; Aruban
  Patriotic Party or PPA [Benny NISBET]; Aruban People's Party or AVP
  [Jan (Henny) H. EMAN]; Concentration for the Liberation of Aruba or
  CLA [leader NA]; People's Electoral Movement Party or MEP [Nelson O.
  ODUBER]; For a Restructured Aruba Now or PARA [Urbana LOPEZ];
  National Democratic Action or ADN [Pedro Charro KELLY]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  Caricom (observer), ECLAC (associate), Interpol, IOC, UNESCO
  (associate), WCL, WToO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (represented by the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  the US does not have an embassy in Aruba; the Consul General to
  Netherlands Antilles is accredited to Aruba

Flag description:
  blue, with two narrow, horizontal, yellow stripes across the lower
  portion and a red, four-pointed star outlined in white in the upper
  hoist-side corner

Economy Aruba


Economy - overview:
  Tourism is the mainstay of the small, open Aruban economy, with
  offshore banking and oil refining and storage also important. The
  rapid growth of the tourism sector over the last decade has resulted
  in a substantial expansion of other activities. Construction has
  boomed, with hotel capacity five times the 1985 level. In addition,
  the reopening of the country's oil refinery in 1993, a major source
  of employment and foreign exchange earnings, has further spurred
  growth. Aruba's small labor force and low unemployment rate have led
  to a large number of unfilled job vacancies, despite sharp rises in
  wage rates in recent years. Tourist arrivals have declined in the
  aftermath of the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks on the US. The
  government now must deal with a budget deficit and a negative trade
  balance.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $1.94 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  -1.5% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $28,000 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.2% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  41,501 (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  most employment is in wholesale and retail trade and repair,
  followed by hotels and restaurants; oil refining

Unemployment rate:
  0.6%

Budget:
  revenues: $135.81 million
  expenditures: $147 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2000)

Industries:
  tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA

Electricity - production:
  531.9 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  494.7 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  6,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products:
  aloes; livestock; fish

Exports:
  $1.88 billion f.o.b. (including oil reexports) (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  live animals and animal products, art and collectibles, machinery
  and electrical equipment, transport equipment

Exports - partners:
  Netherlands 28.6%, Colombia 21.7%, Panama 16.8%, US 12.1%,
  Netherlands Antilles 8.3%, Venezuela 7.6% (2002)

Imports:
  $2.21 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and electrical equipment, crude oil for refining and
  reexport, chemicals; foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  US 54.7%, Netherlands 12.7%, UK 5.7% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $285 million (1996)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $26 million (1995); note - the Netherlands provided a $127 million
  aid package to Aruba and Suriname in 1996

Currency:
  Aruban guilder/florin (AWG)

Currency code:
  AWG

Exchange rates:
  Aruban guilders/florins per US dollar - 1.79 (2002), 1.79 (2001),
  1.79 (2000), 1.79 (1999), 1.79 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Aruba


Telephones - main lines in use:
  33,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  3,402 (1997)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: more than adequate
  international: 1 submarine cable to Sint Maarten (Netherlands
  Antilles); extensive interisland microwave radio relay links

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 4, FM 6, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  50,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (1997)

Televisions:
  20,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .aw

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  NA

Internet users:
  24,000 (2002)

Transportation Aruba


Railways:
  0 km

Highways:
  total: 800 km
  paved: 513 km
  note: most coastal roads are paved, while unpaved roads serve large
  tracts of the interior (1995)
  unpaved: 287 km

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  Barcadera, Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas

Merchant marine:
  total: 3
  note: there is one foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of
  convenience: Monaco 1 (2002 est.)
  ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 1, petroleum tanker 1

Airports:
  1 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2002)

Military Aruba


Military branches:
  no regular indigenous military forces; Royal Dutch Navy and
  Marines, Coast Guard

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the Kingdom of the Netherlands

Transnational Issues Aruba


Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  transit point for US- and Europe-bound narcotics with some
  accompanying money-laundering activity


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Introduction Ashmore and Cartier Islands


Background:
  These uninhabited islands came under Australian authority in 1931;
  formal administration began two years later. Ashmore Reef supports a
  rich and diverse avian and marine habitat; in 1983, it became a
  National Nature Reserve. Cartier Island, a former bombing range, is
  now a marine reserve.

Geography Ashmore and Cartier Islands


Location:
  Southeastern Asia, islands in the Indian Ocean, northwest of
  Australia, south of the Indonesian half of Timor island

Geographic coordinates:
  12 14 S, 123 05 E

Map references:
  Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 5 sq km
  note: includes Ashmore Reef (West, Middle, and East Islets) and
  Cartier Island
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 5 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about eight times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  74.1 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 12 NM
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
  territorial sea: 12 NM
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM

Climate:
  tropical

Terrain:
  low with sand and coral

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: unnamed location 3 m

Natural resources:
  fish

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100% (all grass and sand) (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  surrounded by shoals and reefs that can pose maritime hazards

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Geography - note:
  Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve established in August 1983

People Ashmore and Cartier Islands


Population:
  no indigenous inhabitants
  note: Indonesian fishermen are allowed access to the lagoon and
  fresh water at Ashmore Reef's West Island (July 2003 est.)

People - note:
  the landing of illegal immigrants from Indonesia's Rote Island has
  become an ongoing problem

Government Ashmore and Cartier Islands


Country name:
  conventional long form: Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands
  conventional short form: Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Dependency status:
  territory of Australia; administered by the Australian Department
  of Transport and Regional Services

Legal system:
  the laws of the Commonwealth of Australia and the laws of the
  Northern Territory of Australia, where applicable, apply

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (territory of Australia)

Flag description:
  the flag of Australia is used

Economy Ashmore and Cartier Islands


Economy - overview:
  no economic activity


Transportation Ashmore and Cartier Islands


Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  none; offshore anchorage only

Military Ashmore and Cartier Islands


Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of Australia; periodic visits by the
  Royal Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force

Transnational Issues Ashmore and Cartier Islands


Disputes - international:
  nationalist group in Indonesia reportedly seeks to populate reefs
  to assert claims; Australia has moved to close reefs to Indonesian
  traditional fishing and to create a national park while prospecting
  for hydrocarbons in the vicinity


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Atlantic Ocean

Introduction Atlantic Ocean


Background:
  The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's five oceans
  (after the Pacific Ocean, but larger than the Indian Ocean, Southern
  Ocean, and Arctic Ocean). The Kiel Canal (Germany), Oresund
  (Denmark-Sweden), Bosporus (Turkey), Strait of Gibraltar
  (Morocco-Spain), and the Saint Lawrence Seaway (Canada-US) are
  important strategic access waterways.

Geography Atlantic Ocean


Location:
  body of water between Africa, Europe, the Southern Ocean, and the
  Western Hemisphere

Geographic coordinates:
  0 00 N, 25 00 W

Map references:
  Political Map of the World

Area:
  total: 76.762 million sq km
  note: includes Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait,
  Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador
  Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea, almost all of the
  Scotia Sea, and other tributary water bodies

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than 6.5 times the size of the US

Coastline:
  111,866 km

Climate:
  tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of Africa near
  Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea; hurricanes can
  occur from May to December, but are most frequent from August to
  November

Terrain:
  surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea, Denmark
  Strait, and coastal portions of the Baltic Sea from October to June;
  clockwise warm-water gyre (broad, circular system of currents) in
  the northern Atlantic, counterclockwise warm-water gyre in the
  southern Atlantic; the ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic
  Ridge, a rugged north-south centerline for the entire Atlantic basin

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench -8,605 m
  highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources:
  oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales), sand
  and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules,
  precious stones

Natural hazards:
  icebergs common in Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, and the
  northwestern Atlantic Ocean from February to August and have been
  spotted as far south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands; ships
  subject to superstructure icing in extreme northern Atlantic from
  October to May; persistent fog can be a maritime hazard from May to
  September; hurricanes (May to December)

Environment - current issues:
  endangered marine species include the manatee, seals, sea lions,
  turtles, and whales; drift net fishing is hastening the decline of
  fish stocks and contributing to international disputes; municipal
  sludge pollution off eastern US, southern Brazil, and eastern
  Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Lake
  Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North Sea; industrial waste and
  municipal sewage pollution in Baltic Sea, North Sea, and
  Mediterranean Sea

Geography - note:
  major chokepoints include the Dardanelles, Strait of Gibraltar,
  access to the Panama and Suez Canals; strategic straits include the
  Strait of Dover, Straits of Florida, Mona Passage, The Sound
  (Oresund), and Windward Passage; the Equator divides the Atlantic
  Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean



Economy Atlantic Ocean


Economy - overview:
  The Atlantic Ocean provides some of the world's most heavily
  trafficked sea routes, between and within the Eastern and Western
  Hemispheres. Other economic activity includes the exploitation of
  natural resources, e.g., fishing, the dredging of aragonite sands
  (The Bahamas), and production of crude oil and natural gas
  (Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and North Sea).


Transportation Atlantic Ocean


Ports and harbors:
  Alexandria (Egypt), Algiers (Algeria), Antwerp (Belgium), Barcelona
  (Spain), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Casablanca (Morocco), Colon
  (Panama), Copenhagen (Denmark), Dakar (Senegal), Gdansk (Poland),
  Hamburg (Germany), Helsinki (Finland), Las Palmas (Canary Islands,
  Spain), Le Havre (France), Lisbon (Portugal), London (UK), Marseille
  (France), Montevideo (Uruguay), Montreal (Canada), Naples (Italy),
  New Orleans (US), New York (US), Oran (Algeria), Oslo (Norway),
  Peiraiefs or Piraeus (Greece), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Rotterdam
  (Netherlands), Saint Petersburg (Russia), Stockholm (Sweden)

Transportation - note:
  Kiel Canal and Saint Lawrence Seaway are two important waterways;
  significant domestic commercial and recreational use of Intracoastal
  Waterway on central and south Atlantic seaboard and Gulf of Mexico
  coast of US


Transnational Issues Atlantic Ocean


Disputes - international:
  some maritime disputes (see littoral states)


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Australia

Introduction Australia


Background:
  Australia became a commonwealth of the British Empire in 1901. It
  was able to take advantage of its natural resources to rapidly
  develop its agricultural and manufacturing industries and to make a
  major contribution to the British effort in World Wars I and II.
  Long-term concerns include pollution, particularly depletion of the
  ozone layer, and management and conservation of coastal areas,
  especially the Great Barrier Reef. A referendum to change
  Australia's status, from a commonwealth headed by the British
  monarch to a republic, was defeated in 1999.

Geography Australia


Location:
  Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific
  Ocean

Geographic coordinates:
  27 00 S, 133 00 E

Map references:
  Oceania

Area:
  total: 7,686,850 sq km
  water: 68,920 sq km
  note: includes Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island
  land: 7,617,930 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than the US contiguous 48 states

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  25,760 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
  continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate:
  generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical
  in north

Terrain:
  mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m
  highest point: Mount Kosciuszko 2,229 m

Natural resources:
  bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, gold, silver, uranium,
  nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas,
  petroleum

Land use:
  arable land: 6.88%
  permanent crops: 0.03%
  other: 93.09% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  24,000 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  cyclones along the coast; severe droughts; forest fires

Environment - current issues:
  soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development,
  urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due
  to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for
  agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique
  animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast
  coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by
  increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited
  natural fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living
  Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate
  Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
  Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
  Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands,
  Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note:
  world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; population
  concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; regular,
  tropical, invigorating, sea breeze known as "the Doctor" occurs
  along the west coast in the summer

People Australia


Population:
  19,731,984 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 20.2% (male 2,045,783; female 1,949,864)
  15-64 years: 67.1% (male 6,680,531; female 6,553,141)
  65 years and over: 12.7% (male 1,099,275; female 1,403,390) (2003
  est.)

Median age:
  total: 36 years
  male: 35.2 years
  female: 36.8 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  0.93% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  12.55 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  7.31 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  4.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 4.83 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 4.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 5.23 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 80.13 years
  male: 77.27 years
  female: 83.13 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.76 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  12,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 100 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Australian(s)
  adjective: Australian

Ethnic groups:
  Caucasian 92%, Asian 7%, aboriginal and other 1%

Religions:
  Anglican 26.1%, Roman Catholic 26%, other Christian 24.3%,
  non-Christian 11%, other 12.6%

Languages:
  English, native languages

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 100%
  male: 100%
  female: 100% (1980 est.)

Government Australia


Country name:
  conventional long form: Commonwealth of Australia
  conventional short form: Australia

Government type:
  democratic, federal-state system recognizing the British monarch as
  sovereign

Capital:
  Canberra

Administrative divisions:
  6 states and 2 territories*; Australian Capital Territory*, New
  South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland, South Australia,
  Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia

Dependent areas:
  Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling)
  Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands,
  Norfolk Island

Independence:
  1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)

National holiday:
  Australia Day, 26 January (1788)

Constitution:
  9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901

Legal system:
  based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
  with reservations

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen of Australia ELIZABETH II (since 6 February
  1952), represented by Governor General Maj. Gen. (Ret.) Michael
  JEFFREY (since 11 August 2003)
  head of government: Prime Minister John Winston HOWARD (since 11
  March 1996); Deputy Prime Minister John ANDERSON Deputy Prime
  Minister John ANDERSON (since 20 July 1999)
  cabinet: Parliament nominates and selects, from among its members, a
  list of candidates to serve as government ministers; from this list,
  the governor general swears in the final selections for the Cabinet
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
  appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime
  minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the
  majority party or leader of a majority coalition is sworn in as
  prime minister by the governor general
  note: government coalition - Liberal Party and National Party

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Federal Parliament consists of the Senate (76 seats - 12
  from each of the six states and two from each of the two mainland
  territories; one-half of the members elected every three years by
  popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of
  Representatives (150 seats - this is up from 148 seats in 2001
  election; members elected by popular vote on the basis of
  preferential representation to serve three-year terms; no state can
  have fewer than five representatives)
  elections: Senate - last held 10 November 2001 (next to be held by
  February 2005); House of Representatives - last held 10 November
  2001 (next to be held by February 2005)
  election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by
  party - Liberal Party-National Party coalition 35, Australian Labor
  Party 28, Australian Democrats 8, Green Party 2, One Nation Party 1,
  Country Labor Party 1, independent 1; House of Representatives -
  percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Liberal
  Party-National Party coalition 82, Australian Labor Party 65,
  independent and other 3

Judicial branch:
  High Court (the chief justice and six other justices are appointed
  by the governor general)

Political parties and leaders:
  Australian Democrats [Andrew BARTLETT]; Australian Labor Party
  [Mark LATHAM]; Australian Progressive Alliance [Meg LEES]; Country
  Labor Party [leader NA]; Australian Greens [Bob BROWN]; Liberal
  Party [John Winston HOWARD]; The Nationals [John ANDERSON]; One
  Nation Party [Len HARRIS]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Australian Monarchist League [leader NA]; Australian Republican
  Movement [leader NA]

International organization participation:
  ANZUS, APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue
  partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
  IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OECD,
  OPCW, PCA, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNMEE,
  UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Michael J. THAWLEY
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New
  York, and San Francisco
  FAX: [1] (202) 797-3168
  telephone: [1] (202) 797-3000
  chancery: 1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador J. Thomas SCHIEFFER
  embassy: Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital
  Territory 2600
  mailing address: APO AP 96549
  telephone: [61] (02) 6214-5600
  FAX: [61] (02) 6214-5970
  consulate(s) general: Melbourne, Perth, Sydney

Flag description:
  blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a
  large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant known as
  the Commonwealth Star, representing the federation of the colonies
  of Australia in 1901; the star depicts one point for each of the six
  original states and one representing all of Australia's internal and
  external territories; the remaining half is a representation of the
  Southern Cross constellation in white with one small five-pointed
  star and four larger, seven-pointed stars

Economy Australia


Economy - overview:
  Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist economy, with a
  per capita GDP on par with the four dominant West European
  economies. Rising output in the domestic economy has been offsetting
  the global slump, and business and consumer confidence remains
  robust. Australia's emphasis on reforms is another key factor behind
  the economy's strength. The stagnant economic conditions in major
  export partners and the impact of the worst drought in 100 years
  cast a shadow over prospects for 2003.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $525.5 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3.6% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $26,900 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 3%
  industry: 26%
  services: 71% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2%
  highest 10%: 25.4% (1994)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  35.2 (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.8% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  9.2 million (37256)

Labor force - by occupation:
  services 73%, industry 22%, agriculture 5% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  6.3% (2002)

Budget:
  revenues: $86.8 billion
  expenditures: $84.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (FY 00/01 est.)

Industries:
  mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing,
  chemicals, steel

Industrial production growth rate:
  4.3% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  198.2 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 90.8%
  hydro: 8.3%
  other: 0.9% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  184.4 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  731,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  796,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  523,400 bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  530,800 bbl/day (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  3.664 billion bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  33.08 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  23.33 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  9.744 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  2.407 trillion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits; cattle, sheep, poultry

Exports:
  $66.3 billion (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, iron ore, wheat, machinery and
  transport equipment

Exports - partners:
  Japan 18.5%, US 9.6%, South Korea 8.3%, China 6.9%, New Zealand
  6.5%, UK 4.7%, Singapore 4.1%, Taiwan 4% (2002)

Imports:
  $68 billion (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, computers and office machines,
  telecommunication equipment and parts; crude oil and petroleum
  products

Imports - partners:
  US 18.3%, Japan 12.3%, China 10.1%, Germany 5.7%, UK 4.6% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $176.8 billion (yearend 2002 est.)

Economic aid - donor:
  ODA, $894 million (FY 99/00)

Currency:
  Australian dollar (AUD)

Currency code:
  AUD

Exchange rates:
  Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.84 (2002), 1.93 (2001), 1.72
  (2000), 1.55 (1999), 1.59 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Australia


Telephones - main lines in use:
  10.05 million (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  8.6 million (2000)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: excellent domestic and international service
  domestic: domestic satellite system; much use of radiotelephone in
  areas of low population density; rapid growth of mobile cellular
  telephones
  international: submarine cables to New Zealand, Papua New Guinea,
  and Indonesia; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (4 Indian
  Ocean and 6 Pacific Ocean), 2 Inmarsat (Indian and Pacific Ocean
  regions) (1998)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 262, FM 345, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  25.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  104 (1997)

Televisions:
  10.15 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .au

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  571 (2002)

Internet users:
  10.63 million (2002)

Transportation Australia


Railways:
  total: 41,588 km (4,612 km electrified)
  broad gauge: 2,193 km 1.600-m gauge
  narrow gauge: 15,456 km 1.067-m gauge
  dual gauge: 291 km dual gauge (2002)
  standard gauge: 23,648 km 1.435-m gauge

Highways:
  total: 811,603 km
  paved: 314,090 km (including 18,619 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 497,513 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  8,368 km (mainly used by small, shallow-draft craft)

Pipelines:
  condensate 36 km; condensate/gas 243 km; gas 27,321 km; liquid
  petroleum gas 240 km; oil 4,779 km; oil/gas/water 104 km; water 40
  km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Devonport (Tasmania),
  Fremantle, Geelong, Hobart (Tasmania), Launceston (Tasmania),
  Mackay, Melbourne, Sydney, Townsville

Merchant marine:
  total: 51 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,415,810 GRT/1,806,554 DWT
  note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
  convenience: France 2, UK 2, US 14 (2002 est.)
  ships by type: bulk 20, cargo 6, chemical tanker 3, combination bulk
  1, container 2, liquefied gas 4, passenger 2, petroleum tanker 7,
  roll on/roll off 6

Airports:
  444 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 294
  over 3,047 m: 10
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 11
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 126
  914 to 1,523 m: 134
  under 914 m: 13 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 150
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 20
  914 to 1,523 m: 116
  under 914 m: 14 (2002)

Military Australia


Military branches:
  Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, Royal Australian Air Force

Military manpower - military age:
  17 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 5,037,538 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 4,339,011 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 142,377 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $11.39 billion (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.9% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Australia


Disputes - international:
  maritime delimitation and resource sharing agreements signed with
  East Timor resolve dispute over "Timor Gap" hydrocarbon reserves; no
  agreement reached on dividing Timor Sea with Indonesia (see Ashmore
  and Cartier Islands disputes); Australia asserts a territorial claim
  to Antarctica and to its continental shelf (see Antarctica)

Illicit drugs:
  Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate
  products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium
  poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Austria

Introduction Austria


Background:
  Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire,
  Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World
  War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent
  occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status
  remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended
  the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade
  unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year
  declared the country's "perpetual neutrality" as a condition for
  Soviet military withdrawal. This neutrality, once ingrained as part
  of the Austrian cultural identity, has been called into question
  since the Soviet collapse of 1991 and Austria's entry into the
  European Union in 1995. A prosperous country, Austria entered the
  European Monetary Union in 1999.

Geography Austria


Location:
  Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates:
  47 20 N, 13 20 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 83,858 sq km
  water: 1,120 sq km
  land: 82,738 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,562 km
  border countries: Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366
  km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 35 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 330
  km, Switzerland 164 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain in
  lowlands and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional showers

Terrain:
  in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern
  and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m
  highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m

Natural resources:
  iron ore, oil, timber, magnesite, lead, coal, lignite, copper,
  hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 16.89%
  permanent crops: 0.99%
  other: 82.12% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  457 sq km (2000 est.)

Natural hazards:
  landslides; avalanches; earthquakes

Environment - current issues:
  some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil
  pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air
  pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power
  stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria
  between northern and southern Europe

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air
  Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty,
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
  Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
  Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
  Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic
  Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol

Geography - note:
  landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe
  with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river
  is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands
  because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere

People Austria


Population:
  8,188,207 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 16.2% (male 678,944; female 646,390)
  15-64 years: 68.3% (male 2,827,736; female 2,768,480)
  65 years and over: 15.5% (male 490,979; female 775,678) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 39.4 years
  male: 38.2 years
  female: 40.7 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  0.22% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  9.43 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  9.69 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  2.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 4.33 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 4.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 4.38 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 78.17 years
  male: 75.02 years
  female: 81.48 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.41 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.2% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  9,900 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 100 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Austrian(s)
  adjective: Austrian

Ethnic groups:
  German 88%, non-nationals 9.3% (includes Croatians, Slovenes,
  Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Roma), naturalized 2% (includes those
  who have lived in Austria at least three generations)

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 78%, Protestant 5%, Muslim and other 17%

Languages:
  German

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98%
  male: NA%
  female: NA%

Government Austria


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Austria
  conventional short form: Austria
  local short form: Oesterreich
  local long form: Republik Oesterreich

Government type:
  federal republic

Capital:
  Vienna

Administrative divisions:
  9 states (Bundeslaender, singular - Bundesland); Burgenland,
  Kaernten, Niederoesterreich, Oberoesterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark,
  Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien

Independence:
  1156 (from Bavaria)

National holiday:
  National Day, 26 October (1955); note - commemorates the State
  Treaty restoring national sovereignty and the end of occupation and
  the passage of the law on permanent neutrality

Constitution:
  1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May 1945)

Legal system:
  civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of
  legislative acts by the Constitutional Court; separate
  administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; accepts compulsory
  ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal; compulsory for presidential elections

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Thomas KLESTIL (since 8 July 1992)
  head of government: Chancellor Wolfgang SCHUESSEL (OeVP)(since 4
  February 2000); Vice Chancellor Hubert GORBACH (since 21 October
  2003)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice
  of the chancellor
  elections: president elected by direct popular vote for a six-year
  term; presidential election last held 19 April 1998 (next to be held
  in the spring of 2004); chancellor traditionally chosen by the
  president from the plurality party in the National Council; vice
  chancellor chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor
  note: government coalition - OeVP and FPOe
  election results: Thomas KLESTIL reelected president; percent of
  vote - Thomas KLESTIL 63%, Gertraud KNOLL 14%, Heide SCHMIDT 11%,
  Richard LUGNER 10%, Karl NOWAK 2%

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of Federal
  Council or Bundesrat (64 members; members represent each of the
  states on the basis of population, but with each state having at
  least three representatives; members serve a four- or six-year term)
  and the National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members elected
  by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - OeVP
  42.3%, SPOe 36.9%, FPOe 10.2%, Greens 9%; seats by party - OeVP 79,
  SPOe 69, FPOe 19, Greens 16
  elections: National Council - last held 24 November 2002 (next to be
  held in the fall of 2006)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Judicial Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Administrative
  Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Constitutional Court or
  Verfassungsgerichtshof

Political parties and leaders:
  Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Wolfgang SCHUESSEL]; Freedom Party
  of Austria or FPOe [Herbert HAUPT]; Social Democratic Party of
  Austria or SPOe [Alfred GUSENBAUER]; The Greens Alternative or GA
  [Alexander VAN DER BELLEN]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Austrian Trade Union Federation (primarily Socialist) or OeGB;
  Federal Economic Chamber; OeVP-oriented League of Austrian
  Industrialists or VOeI; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief
  lay organization, Catholic Action; three composite leagues of the
  Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business, labor, and
  farmers

International organization participation:
  AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CE, CEI, CERN,
  EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
  IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG,
  OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF,
  UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMIK,
  UNMISET, UNMOGIP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU
  (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Eva NOWOTNY
  chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035
  consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
  FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750
  telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador William Lee LYONS BROWN, Jr.
  embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1090, Vienna
  mailing address: use embassy street address
  telephone: [43] (1) 31339, 31375, 31335
  FAX: [43] (1) 5125835

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red

Economy Austria


Economy - overview:
  Austria, with its well-developed market economy and high standard
  of living, is closely tied to other EU economies, especially
  Germany's. Membership in the EU has drawn an influx of foreign
  investors attracted by Austria's access to the single European
  market and proximity to EU aspirant economies. Slowing growth in
  Germany and elsewhere in the world held the economy to only 1.2%
  growth in 2001, 0.6% in 2002, and 0.8% in 2003.. To meet increased
  competition from both EU and Central European countries, Austria
  will need to emphasize knowledge-based sectors of the economy,
  continue to deregulate the service sector, and lower its tax burden.
  A key issue is the encouragement of much greater participation in
  the labor market by its ageing population.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $227.7 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  1.1% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $27,900 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 2%
  industry: 33%
  services: 65% (2002 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2.5%
  highest 10%: 22.5% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  31 (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1.8% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  4.3 million (2001)

Labor force - by occupation:
  services 67%, industry and crafts 29%, agriculture and forestry 4%
  (2001 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  4.8% (2002 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $53 billion
  expenditures: $54 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2001 est.)

Industries:
  construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, chemicals,
  lumber and wood processing, paper and paperboard, communications
  equipment, tourism

Industrial production growth rate:
  3.8% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:
  58.75 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 29.3%
  hydro: 67.2%
  other: 3.5% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  54.85 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  14.25 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  14.47 billion kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  20,670 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  262,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  35,470 bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  262,000 bbl/day (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  85.69 million bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  1.731 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  7.81 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  403 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  6.033 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  24.9 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  grains, potatoes, sugar beets, wine, fruit; dairy products, cattle,
  pigs, poultry; lumber

Exports:
  $70 billion f.o.b. (2001)

Exports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, paper and
  paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel; textiles,
  foodstuffs

Exports - partners:
  Germany 31.5%, Italy 9.3%, Switzerland 5.4%, US 4.9%, UK 4.9%,
  France 4.7%, Hungary 4.3% (2002)

Imports:
  $74 billion c.i.f. (2001)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal goods,
  oil and oil products; foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  Germany 42.6%, Italy 6.6%, Hungary 5.1%, Switzerland 4.8%,
  Netherlands 4.4% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $12.1 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid - donor:
  ODA, $410 million (2000)

Currency:
  euro (EUR)
  note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the
  euro as a common currency to be used by the financial institutions
  of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole
  currency for everyday transactions within the member countries

Currency code:
  EUR

Exchange rates:
  euros per US dollar - 1.06 (2002), 1.12 (2001), 1.09 (2000), 0.94
  (1999), 12.38 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Austria


Telephones - main lines in use:
  4 million (consisting of 3,600,000 analog main lines plus 400,000
  Integrated Services Digital Network connections); in addition, there
  are 100,000 Asymmetric Digital Services lines (2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  6 million (2001)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: highly developed and efficient
  domestic: there are 48 main lines for every 100 persons; the fiber
  optic net is very extensive; all telephone applications and Internet
  services are available
  international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic
  Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Eutelsat; in addition, there are
  about 600 VSAT (very small aperture terminals) (2002)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 160 (plus several hundred repeaters), shortwave 1 (2001)

Radios:
  6.08 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  45 (plus more than 1,000 repeaters) (2001)

Televisions:
  4.25 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .at

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  37 (2000)

Internet users:
  3.7 million (2002)

Transportation Austria


Railways:
  total: 6,024 km (3,641 km electrified)
  standard gauge: 5,566 km 1.435-m gauge (3,524 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 34 km 1.000-m gauge (28 km electrified); 424 km
  0.760-m gauge (89 km electrified) (2002)

Highways:
  total: 200,000 km
  paved: 200,000 km (including 1,633 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 0 km (2000)

Waterways:
  358 km (1999)

Pipelines:
  gas 2,722 km; oil 687 km; refined products 149 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Enns, Krems, Linz, Vienna

Merchant marine:
  total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 27,551 GRT/34,225 DWT
  ships by type: cargo 4, container 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:
  55 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 24
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
  914 to 1,523 m: 3
  under 914 m: 14 (2002)
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 31
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 3
  under 914 m: 27 (2002)

Heliports:
  1 (2002)

Military Austria


Military branches:
  Land Forces (KdoLdSK), Air Forces (KdoLuSK)

Military manpower - military age:
  19 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,093,821 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,725,123 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 49,090 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $1.497 billion (FY01/02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  0.8% (FY01/02)

Transnational Issues Austria


Disputes - international:
  minor disputes with Czech Republic and Slovenia continue over
  nuclear power plants and post-World War II treatment of
  German-speaking minorities

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South American
  cocaine destined for Western Europe


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Azerbaijan

Introduction Azerbaijan


Background:
  Azerbaijan - a nation with a Turkic and majority-Muslim population
  - regained its independence after the collapse of the Soviet Union
  in 1991. Despite a 1994 cease-fire, Azerbaijan has yet to resolve
  its conflict with Armenia over the Azerbaijani Nagorno-Karabakh
  enclave (largely Armenian populated). Azerbaijan has lost 16% of its
  territory and must support some 800,000 refugees and internally
  displaced persons as a result of the conflict. Corruption is
  ubiquitous and the promise of widespread wealth from Azerbaijan's
  undeveloped petroleum resources remains largely unfulfilled.

Geography Azerbaijan


Location:
  Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and
  Russia, with a small European portion north of the Caucasus range

Geographic coordinates:
  40 30 N, 47 30 E

Map references:
  Asia

Area:
  total: 86,600 sq km
  note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the
  Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by
  Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991
  water: 500 sq km
  land: 86,100 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,013 km
  border countries: Armenia (with Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia
  (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran
  (with Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan
  exclave) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (800
  km, est.)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  dry, semiarid steppe

Terrain:
  large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland) (much of it below
  sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag
  Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) in west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi
  (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
  highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, alumina

Land use:
  arable land: 19.31%
  permanent crops: 3.04%
  other: 77.65% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  14,550 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  droughts

Environment - current issues:
  local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron
  Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be
  the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe
  air, soil, and water pollution; soil pollution results from oil
  spills, from the use of DDT as a pesticide, and from toxic
  defoliants used in the production of cotton

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes,
  Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are
  landlocked

People Azerbaijan


Population:
  7,830,764 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 27.7% (male 1,101,320; female 1,064,214)
  15-64 years: 64.7% (male 2,468,772; female 2,601,312)
  65 years and over: 7.6% (male 236,683; female 358,463) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 27.1 years
  male: 25.7 years
  female: 28.6 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  0.44% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  19.28 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  9.68 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -5.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 82.41 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 80.32 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 84.4 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 63.16 years
  male: 58.95 years
  female: 67.58 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.34 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  less than 1,400 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 100 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Azerbaijani(s)
  adjective: Azerbaijani

Ethnic groups:
  Azeri 90%, Dagestani 3.2%, Russian 2.5%, Armenian 2%, other 2.3%
  (1998 est.)
  note: almost all Armenians live in the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh
  region

Religions:
  Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox 2.3%, other
  1.8% (1995 est.)
  note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan;
  percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower

Languages:
  Azerbaijani (Azeri) 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995
  est.)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 97%
  male: 99%
  female: 96% (1989 est.)

Government Azerbaijan


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Azerbaijan
  conventional short form: Azerbaijan
  local short form: none
  former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
  local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  Baku (Baki)

Administrative divisions:
  59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities* (saharlar; sahar
  - singular), 1 autonomous republic** (muxtar respublika); Abseron
  Rayonu, Agcabadi Rayonu, Agdam Rayonu, Agdas Rayonu, Agstafa Rayonu,
  Agsu Rayonu, Ali Bayramli Sahari*, Astara Rayonu, Baki Sahari*,
  Balakan Rayonu, Barda Rayonu, Beylaqan Rayonu, Bilasuvar Rayonu,
  Cabrayil Rayonu, Calilabad Rayonu, Daskasan Rayonu, Davaci Rayonu,
  Fuzuli Rayonu, Gadabay Rayonu, Ganca Sahari*, Goranboy Rayonu,
  Goycay Rayonu, Haciqabul Rayonu, Imisli Rayonu, Ismayilli Rayonu,
  Kalbacar Rayonu, Kurdamir Rayonu, Lacin Rayonu, Lankaran Rayonu,
  Lankaran Sahari*, Lerik Rayonu, Masalli Rayonu, Mingacevir Sahari*,
  Naftalan Sahari*, Naxcivan Muxtar Respublikasi**, Neftcala Rayonu,
  Oguz Rayonu, Qabala Rayonu, Qax Rayonu, Qazax Rayonu, Qobustan
  Rayonu, Quba Rayonu, Qubadli Rayonu, Qusar Rayonu, Saatli Rayonu,
  Sabirabad Rayonu, Saki Rayonu, Saki Sahari*, Salyan Rayonu, Samaxi
  Rayonu, Samkir Rayonu, Samux Rayonu, Siyazan Rayonu, Sumqayit
  Sahari*, Susa Rayonu, Susa Sahari*, Tartar Rayonu, Tovuz Rayonu,
  Ucar Rayonu, Xacmaz Rayonu, Xankandi Sahari*, Xanlar Rayonu, Xizi
  Rayonu, Xocali Rayonu, Xocavand Rayonu, Yardimli Rayonu, Yevlax
  Rayonu, Yevlax Sahari*, Zangilan Rayonu, Zaqatala Rayonu, Zardab
  Rayonu

Independence:
  30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday:
  Founding of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaidzhan, 28 May (1918)

Constitution:
  adopted 12 November 1995

Legal system:
  based on civil law system

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Ilham ALIYEV (since 31 October 2003)
  head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 4 November
  2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Abbas ABBASOV (since 10 November
  2003)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and
  confirmed by the National Assembly
  elections: president elected by popular vote to a five-year term;
  election last held 15 October 2003 (next to be held NA October
  2008); prime minister and first deputy prime ministers appointed by
  the president and confirmed by the National Assembly
  election results: Ilham ALIYEV elected president; percent of vote -
  Ilham ALIYEV 76.8%, Isa GAMBAROV 14%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats; members
  elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
  elections: last held 4 November 2000 (next to be held NA November
  2005)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  NAP and allies 108, APF "Reform" 6, CSP 3, PNIA 2, Musavat Party 2,
  CPA 2, APF "Classic" 1, Compatriot Party 1
  note: PNIA, Musavat, and APF "Classic" parties refused to take their
  seats
  note: 100 members of the current parliament were elected on the
  basis of single mandate constituencies, while 25 were elected based
  on proportional balloting; as a result of a 24 August 2002 national
  referendum on changes to the constitution, all 125 members of the
  next parliament will be elected from single mandate constituencies

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders:
  Azerbaijan Popular Front or APF [Ali KARIMLI, leader of "Reform"
  faction; Mirmahmud MIRALI-OGLU, leader of "Classic" faction]; Civic
  Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLY]; Civic Union Party
  [Ayaz MUTALIBOV]; Communist Party of Azerbaijan or CPA [Ramiz
  AHMADOV]; Compatriot Party [Mais SAFARLI]; Democratic Party for
  Azerbaijan or DPA [Rasul QULIYEV, chairman]; Justice Party [Ilyas
  ISMAILOV]; Liberal Party of Azerbaijan [Lala Shvkat HACIYEVA];
  Musavat [Isa GAMBAR, chairman]; New Azerbaijan Party or NAP [Heydar
  ALIYEV, chairman]; Party for National Independence of Azerbaijan or
  PNIA [Etibar MAMMADLI, chairman]; Social Democratic Party of
  Azerbaijan or SDP [Zardust ALIZADE]
  note: opposition parties regularly factionalize and form new parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Sadval, Lezgin movement; self-proclaimed Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh
  Republic; Talysh independence movement; Union of Pro-Azerbaijani
  Forces (UPAF)

International organization participation:
  AsDB, BSEC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, GUUAM, IAEA,
  IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, OAS (observer), OIC,
  OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Hafiz PASHAYEV
  FAX: [1] (202) 337-5911
  telephone: [1] (202) 337-3500
  chancery: 2741 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Ross L. WILSON
  embassy: 83 Azadliq Prospekt, Baku 370007
  mailing address: American Embassy Baku, Department of State, 7050
  Baku Place, Washington, DC 20521-7050
  telephone: [9] (9412) 98-03-35, 36, 37
  FAX: [9] (9412) 90-66-71

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green; a
  crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band

Economy Azerbaijan


Economy - overview:
  Azerbaijan's number one export is oil. Azerbaijan's oil production
  declined through 1997 but has registered an increase every year
  since. Negotiation of production-sharing arrangements (PSAs) with
  foreign firms, which have thus far committed $60 billion to
  long-term oilfield development, should generate the funds needed to
  spur future industrial development. Oil production under the first
  of these PSAs, with the Azerbaijan International Operating Company,
  began in November 1997. Azerbaijan shares all the formidable
  problems of the former Soviet republics in making the transition
  from a command to a market economy, but its considerable energy
  resources brighten its long-term prospects. Baku has only recently
  begun making progress on economic reform, and old economic ties and
  structures are slowly being replaced. One obstacle to economic
  progress is the need for stepped up foreign investment in the
  non-energy sector. A second obstacle is the continuing conflict with
  Armenia over the Nagorno-Karabakh region. Trade with Russia and the
  other former Soviet republics is declining in importance while trade
  is building with Turkey and the nations of Europe. Long-term
  prospects will depend on world oil prices, the location of new
  pipelines in the region, and Azerbaijan's ability to manage its oil
  wealth.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $28.61 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  10.6% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $3,700 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 20%
  industry: 33%
  services: 47% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  49% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2.8%
  highest 10%: 27.8% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  36 (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.6% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  3.7 million (2001)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture and forestry 41%, industry 7%, services 52% (2001)

Unemployment rate:
  16% (official rate is 1.2%) (2003 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $786 million
  expenditures: $807 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2001 est.)

Industries:
  petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment;
  steel, iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles

Industrial production growth rate:
  6% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  18.23 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 89.7%
  hydro: 10.3%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  16.65 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  700 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  400 million kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  307,200 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  140,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  589 million bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  5.72 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  6.72 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  1 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  62.3 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea, tobacco;
  cattle, pigs, sheep, goats

Exports:
  $2 billion f.o.b. (2002)

Exports - commodities:
  oil and gas 90%, machinery, cotton, foodstuffs

Exports - partners:
  Italy 28.7%, Germany 17.7%, Israel 10.6%, France 8.4%, Georgia
  6.7%, Russia 4.7% (2002)

Imports:
  $1.8 billion f.o.b. (2002)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, oil products, foodstuffs, metals, chemicals

Imports - partners:
  Russia 17.8%, Turkey 11.9%, Germany 10.7%, France 7%, Kazakhstan
  6.3%, China 6%, UK 5.5%, US 4.5% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $1.4 billion (2002)

Economic aid - recipient:
  ODA, $140 million (2000 est.)

Currency:
  Azerbaijani manat (AZM)

Currency code:
  AZM

Exchange rates:
  Azerbaijani manats per US dollar - 4,860.82 (2002), 4,656.58
  (2001), 4,474.15 (2000), 4,120.17 (1999), 3,869 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Azerbaijan


Telephones - main lines in use:
  865,000 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  800,000 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: inadequate; requires considerable expansion and
  modernization; teledensity of 10 main lines per 100 persons is low
  (2002)
  domestic: the majority of telephones are in Baku and other
  industrial centers - about 700 villages still without public
  telephone service; satellite service connects Baku to a modern
  switch in its exclave of Naxcivan
  international: the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still
  serviceable; a satellite connection to Turkey enables Baku to reach
  about 200 additional countries, some of which are directly connected
  to Baku by satellite providers other than Turkey (1997)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 10, FM 17, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  175,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  2 (1997)

Televisions:
  170,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .az

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  25,000 (2002)

Transportation Azerbaijan


Railways:
  total: 2,122 km
  broad gauge: 2,122 km 1.520-m gauge (1,278 km electrified) (2002)

Highways:
  total: 24,981 km
  paved: 23,057 km
  unpaved: 1,924 km (2000)

Waterways:
  none

Pipelines:
  gas 5,001 km; oil 1,631 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Baku (Baki)

Merchant marine:
  total: 55 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 251,004 GRT/313,193 DWT
  ships by type: cargo 13, petroleum tanker 40, roll on/roll off 2
  (2002 est.)

Airports:
  71 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 27
  over 3.047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
  914 to 1,523 m: 4
  under 914 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 44
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
  914 to 1,523 m: 9
  under 914 m: 27 (2002)

Military Azerbaijan


Military branches:
  Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces

Military manpower - military age:
  18 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,159,450 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,727,340 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 82,925 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $121 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.6% (FY99)

Transnational Issues Azerbaijan


Disputes - international:
  Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh
  and militarily occupies about one-sixth of Azerbaijan - Organization
  for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate
  dispute; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratify Caspian seabed
  delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to
  insist on an even one-fifth allocation and challenges Azerbaijan's
  hydrocarbon exploration in disputed waters; ICJ decision expected to
  resolve dispute with Turkmenistan over sovereignty of certain
  Caspian oilfields

Illicit drugs:
  limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for
  CIS consumption; small government eradication program; transit point
  for Southwest Asian opiates bound for Russia and to a lesser extent
  the rest of Europe


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Bahamas, The

Introduction Bahamas, The


Background:
  Arawak Indians inhabited the islands when Christopher Columbus
  first set foot in the New World on San Salvador in 1492. British
  settlement of the islands began in 1647; the islands became a colony
  in 1783. Since attaining independence from the UK in 1973, The
  Bahamas have prospered through tourism and international banking and
  investment management. Because of its geography, the country is a
  major transshipment point for illegal drugs, particularly shipments
  to the US, and its territory is used for smuggling illegal migrants
  into the US.

Geography Bahamas, The


Location:
  Caribbean, chain of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, southeast
  of Florida, northeast of Cuba

Geographic coordinates:
  24 15 N, 76 00 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 13,940 sq km
  water: 3,870 sq km
  land: 10,070 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  3,542 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream

Terrain:
  long, flat coral formations with some low rounded hills

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mount Alvernia, on Cat Island 63 m

Natural resources:
  salt, aragonite, timber, arable land

Land use:
  arable land: 0.6%
  permanent crops: 0.4%
  other: 99% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  hurricanes and other tropical storms cause extensive flood and wind
  damage

Environment - current issues:
  coral reef decay; solid waste disposal

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law
  of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
  Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  strategic location adjacent to US and Cuba; extensive island chain
  of which 30 are inhabited

People Bahamas, The


Population:
  297,477
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 28.8% (male 42,799; female 42,730)
  15-64 years: 65.4% (male 95,718; female 98,875)
  65 years and over: 5.8% (male 7,092; female 10,263) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 27 years
  male: 26.2 years
  female: 27.7 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  0.77% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  18.57 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  8.68 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -2.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 26.21 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 19.83 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 32.45 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 65.71 years
  male: 62.3 years
  female: 69.18 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.25 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  3.5% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  6,200 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  610 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bahamian(s)
  adjective: Bahamian

Ethnic groups:
  black 85%, white 12%, Asian and Hispanic 3%

Religions:
  Baptist 32%, Anglican 20%, Roman Catholic 19%, Methodist 6%, Church
  of God 6%, other Protestant 12%, none or unknown 3%, other 2%

Languages:
  English (official), Creole (among Haitian immigrants)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 95.6%
  male: 94.7%
  female: 96.5% (2003 est.)

Government Bahamas, The


Country name:
  conventional long form: Commonwealth of The Bahamas
  conventional short form: The Bahamas

Government type:
  constitutional parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  Nassau

Administrative divisions:
  21 districts; Acklins and Crooked Islands, Bimini, Cat Island,
  Exuma, Freeport, Fresh Creek, Governor's Harbour, Green Turtle Cay,
  Harbour Island, High Rock, Inagua, Kemps Bay, Long Island, Marsh
  Harbour, Mayaguana, New Providence, Nichollstown and Berry Islands,
  Ragged Island, Rock Sound, Sandy Point, San Salvador and Rum Cay

Independence:
  10 July 1973 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 10 July (1973)

Constitution:
  10 July 1973

Legal system:
  based on English common law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General Ivy DUMONT (since NA May 2002)
  head of government: Prime Minister Perry CHRISTIE (since 3 May 2002)
  and Deputy Prime Minister Cynthia PRATT (since 7 May 2002)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the prime
  minister's recommendation
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
  appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the
  leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition
  is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; the
  prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (16-member body
  appointed by the governor general upon the advice of the prime
  minister and the opposition leader for five-year terms) and the
  House of Assembly (40 seats; members elected by direct popular vote
  to serve five-year terms)
  elections: last held 1 May 2002 (next to be held by May 2007)
  election results: percent of vote by party - PLP 50.8%, FNM 41.1%,
  independents 5.2%; seats by party - PLP 29, FNM 7, independents 4

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; magistrates courts

Political parties and leaders:
  Free National Movement or FNM [Tommy TURNQUEST]; Progressive
  Liberal Party or PLP [Perry CHRISTIE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt
  (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC,
  ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Joshua SEARS
  consulate(s) general: Miami and New York
  FAX: [1] (202) 319-2668
  telephone: [1] (202) 319-2660
  chancery: 2220 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affairs Robert M.
  WITAJEWSKI
  embassy: 42 Queen Street, Nassau
  mailing address: local or express mail address: P. O. Box N-8197,
  Nassau; Department of State, 3370 Nassau Place, Washington, DC
  20521-3370
  telephone: [1] (242) 322-1181, 328-2206 (after hours)
  FAX: [1] (242) 356-0222

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of aquamarine (top), gold, and
  aquamarine, with a black equilateral triangle based on the hoist side

Economy Bahamas, The


Economy - overview:
  The Bahamas is a stable, developing nation with an economy heavily
  dependent on tourism and offshore banking. Tourism alone accounts
  for more than 60% of GDP and directly or indirectly employs half of
  the archipelago's labor force. Steady growth in tourism receipts and
  a boom in construction of new hotels, resorts, and residences had
  led to solid GDP growth in recent years, but the slowdown in the US
  economy and the attacks of 11 September 2001 held back growth in
  these sectors in 2002. Manufacturing and agriculture together
  contribute approximately a tenth of GDP and show little growth,
  despite government incentives aimed at those sectors. Overall growth
  prospects in the short run rest heavily on the fortunes of the
  tourism sector, which depends on growth in the US, the source of
  most of the visitors.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $4.59 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  0.1% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $15,300 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 3%
  industry: 7%
  services: 90% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1.8% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
  156,000 (1999)

Labor force - by occupation:
  tourism 50%, other services 40%, industry 5%, agriculture 5% (1999
  est.)

Unemployment rate:
  6.9% (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $918.5 million
  expenditures: $956.5 million, including capital expenditures of
  $106.7 million (FY 99/00)

Industries:
  tourism, banking, e-commerce, cement, oil refining and
  transshipment, salt, rum, aragonite, pharmaceuticals, spiral-welded
  steel pipe

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  1.56 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  1.451 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  23,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products:
  citrus, vegetables; poultry

Exports:
  $560.7 million (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  fish and crawfish; rum, salt, chemicals; fruit and vegetables

Exports - partners:
  US 39.1%, Germany 15.4%, Spain 10.8%, France 7.4%, Poland 4.6%,
  Switzerland 4.3% (2002)

Imports:
  $1.86 billion (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, mineral
  fuels; food and live animals

Imports - partners:
  US 20.3%, South Korea 20.1%, Germany 11.5%, Norway 11.5%, Japan
  10%, Italy 7.2% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $371.6 million (2001)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $9.8 million (1995)

Currency:
  Bahamian dollar (BSD)

Currency code:
  BSD

Exchange rates:
  Bahamian dollars per US dollar - 1 (2002), 1 (2001), 1 (2000), 1
  (1999), 1 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Bahamas, The


Telephones - main lines in use:
  96,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  6,152 (1997)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: modern facilities
  domestic: totally automatic system; highly developed
  international: tropospheric scatter and submarine cable to Florida;
  3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat
  (Atlantic Ocean) (1997)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 3, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  215,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (1997)

Televisions:
  67,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bs

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  19 (2000)

Internet users:
  16,900 (2002)

Transportation Bahamas, The


Railways:
  0 km

Highways:
  total: 2,693 km
  paved: 1,546 km
  unpaved: 1,147 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  Freeport, Matthew Town, Nassau

Merchant marine:
  total: 1,090 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 33,065,778 GRT/46,202,085 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 150, cargo 223, chemical tanker 45, combination
  bulk 12, combination ore/oil 18, container 108, liquefied gas 26,
  livestock carrier 2, multi-functional large-load carrier 8,
  passenger 102, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 178, refrigerated
  cargo 135, roll on/roll off 40, short-sea passenger 17, specialized
  tanker 2, vehicle carrier 23
  note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
  convenience: Angola 1, Argentina 1, Australia 4, Belgium 18, Bermuda
  1, Canada 5, Chile 1, China 3, Croatia 2, Cuba 3, Cyprus 2, Denmark
  27, Ecuador 1, Estonia 2, Finland 9, France 15, Germany 26, Greece
  173, Hong Kong 6, India 2, Indonesia 2, Ireland 1, Israel 3, Italy
  9, Jamaica 1, Japan 32, Kenya 3, Malaysia 10, Malta 2, Monaco 67,
  Netherlands 32, New Zealand 2, Norway 237, Panama 2, Philippines 3,
  Poland 13, Reunion 1, Russia 6, Saudi Arabia 9, Singapore 13,
  Slovenia 1, South Korea 2, Spain 7, Sweden 12, Switzerland 8,
  Thailand 1, Trinidad and Tobago 2, Turkey 2, Ukraine 2, United Arab
  Emirates 10, United Kingdom 107, United States 159, Uruguay 1 (2002
  est.)

Airports:
  64 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 30
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
  914 to 1,523 m: 11
  under 914 m: 2 (2002)
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 12

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 34
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
  914 to 1,523 m: 9
  under 914 m: 22 (2002)

Heliports:
  1 (2002)

Military Bahamas, The


Military branches:
  Royal Bahamas Defense Force (Coast Guard only), Royal Bahamas
  Police Force

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $20 million (FY95/96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  0.7% (FY99)

Transnational Issues Bahamas, The


Disputes - international:
  have not been able to agree on a maritime boundary with the US

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for US and
  Europe; offshore financial center


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Bahrain

Introduction Bahrain


Background:
  Bahrain's small size and central location among Persian Gulf
  countries require it to play a delicate balancing act in foreign
  affairs among its larger neighbors. Facing declining oil reserves,
  Bahrain has turned to petroleum processing and refining and has
  transformed itself into an international banking center. The new
  amir, installed in 1999, has pushed economic and political reforms
  and has worked to improve relations with the Shi'a community. In
  February 2001, Bahraini voters approved a referendum on the National
  Action Charter - the centerpiece of the amir's political
  liberalization program. In February 2002, Amir HAMAD bin Isa Al
  Khalifa proclaimed himself king. In October 2002, Bahrainis elected
  members of the lower house of Bahrain's reconstituted bicameral
  legislature, the National Assembly.

Geography Bahrain


Location:
  Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates:
  26 00 N, 50 33 E

Map references:
  Middle East

Area:
  total: 665 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 665 sq km

Area - comparative:
  3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  161 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM
  continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined

Climate:
  arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Terrain:
  mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
  highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 122 m

Natural resources:
  oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish, pearls

Land use:
  arable land: 4.35%
  permanent crops: 4.35%
  other: 91.3% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  50 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  periodic droughts; dust storms

Environment - current issues:
  desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable
  land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation
  (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting
  from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil
  refineries, and distribution stations; lack of freshwater resources,
  groundwater and seawater are the only sources for all water needs

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous
  Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic
  location in Persian Gulf, which much of Western world's petroleum
  must transit to reach open ocean

People Bahrain


Population:
  667,238
  note: includes 235,108 non-nationals (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 28.8% (male 97,294; female 94,930)
  15-64 years: 68% (male 266,351; female 187,473)
  65 years and over: 3.2% (male 10,807; female 10,383) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 28.7 years
  male: 31.6 years
  female: 25.1 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  1.61% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  19.02 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  3.99 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  1.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.42 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.28 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 18.59 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 15.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 21.65 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 73.72 years
  male: 71.28 years
  female: 76.24 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.71 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.3% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  less than 1,000

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Bahraini(s)
  adjective: Bahraini

Ethnic groups:
  Bahraini 63%, Asian 19%, other Arab 10%, Iranian 8%

Religions:
  Shi'a Muslim 70%, Sunni Muslim 30%

Languages:
  Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 89.1%
  male: 91.9%
  female: 85% (2003 est.)

Government Bahrain


Country name:
  conventional long form: Kingdom of Bahrain
  conventional short form: Bahrain
  local short form: Al Bahrayn
  former: Dilmun
  local long form: Mamlakat al Bahrayn

Government type:
  constitutional hereditary monarchy

Capital:
  Manama

Administrative divisions:
  12 municipalities (manatiq, singular - mintaqah); Al Hadd, Al
  Manamah, Al Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al Mintaqah al Wusta, Al Mintaqah
  ash Shamaliyah, Al Muharraq, Ar Rifa' wa al Mintaqah al Janubiyah,
  Jidd Hafs, Madinat Hamad, Madinat 'Isa, Juzur Hawar, Sitrah
  note: all municipalities administered from Manama

Independence:
  15 August 1971 (from UK)

National holiday:
  National Day, 16 December (1971); note - 15 August 1971 is the date
  of independence from the UK, 16 December 1971 is the date of
  independence from British protection

Constitution:
  adopted late December 2000; Bahrani voters approved on 13-14
  February 2001 a referendum on legislative changes (revised
  constitution calls for a partially elected legislature, a
  constitutional monarchy, and an independent judiciary)

Legal system:
  based on Islamic law and English common law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: King HAMAD bin Isa Al Khalifa (since 6 March 1999);
  Heir Apparent Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad (son of the monarch,
  born 21 October 1969)
  head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa
  (since NA 1971)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch
  elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister
  appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of Shura Council (40 members
  appointed by the King) and House of Deputies (40 members directly
  elected to serve four-year terms)
  elections: House of Deputies - last held 31 October 2002 (next
  election to be held NA 2006)
  note: first elections since 7 December 1973; unicameral National
  Assembly dissolved 26 August 1975; National Action Charter created
  bicameral legislature on 23 December 2000; approved by referendum 14
  February 2001; first legislative session of Parliament held on 25
  December 2002
  election results: House of Deputies - percent of vote by party -
  NA%; seats by party - independents 21, Sunni Islamists 9, other 10

Judicial branch:
  High Civil Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders:
  political parties prohibited but politically oriented societies are
  allowed

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Shi'a activists fomented unrest sporadically in 1994-97, demanding
  the return of an elected National Assembly and an end to
  unemployment; several small, clandestine leftist and Islamic
  fundamentalist groups are active

International organization participation:
  ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt
  (signatory), ICRM, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
  IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Khalifa bin Ali bin Rashid AL KHALIFA
  chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
  consulate(s) general: New York
  FAX: [1] (202) 362-2192
  telephone: [1] (202) 342-0741

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Ronald E. NEUMANN
  embassy: Building #979, Road 3119 (next to Al-Ahli Sports Club),
  Block 321, Zinj District, Manama
  mailing address: American Embassy Manama, PSC 451, FPO AE
  09834-5100; international mail: American Embassy, Box 26431, Manama
  telephone: [973] 273-300
  FAX: [973] 272-594

Flag description:
  red with a white serrated band (five white points) on the hoist
  side; the five points represent the five pillars of Islam

Economy Bahrain


Economy - overview:
  In Bahrain, petroleum production and refining account for about 60%
  of export receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 30% of GDP. With
  its highly developed communication and transport facilities, Bahrain
  is home to numerous multinational firms with business in the Gulf.
  Bahrain is dependent on Saudi Arabia for oil granted as aid. A large
  share of exports consists of petroleum products made from refining
  imported crude. Construction proceeds on several major industrial
  projects. Unemployment, especially among the young, and the
  depletion of oil and underground water resources are major long-term
  economic problems.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $9.91 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  2.9% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $15,100 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 1%
  industry: 35%
  services: 64% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  0.5% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  295,000
  note: 44% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national
  (1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  industry, commerce, and service 79%, government 20%, agriculture 1%
  (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  15% (1998 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $1.8 billion
  expenditures: $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $700
  million (2002 est.)

Industries:
  petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, offshore
  banking, ship repairing; tourism

Industrial production growth rate:
  2% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production:
  6.257 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  5.819 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  43,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  31,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  62.28 million bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  8.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  8.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  46 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products; shrimp, fish

Exports:
  $5.8 billion (2002)

Exports - commodities:
  petroleum and petroleum products, aluminum, textiles

Exports - partners:
  US 4.5%, India 3.2%, Saudi Arabia 2.1% (2002)

Imports:
  $4.2 billion (2002)

Imports - commodities:
  crude oil, machinery, chemicals

Imports - partners:
  Saudi Arabia 30.1%, US 11.7%, Japan 7.1%, Germany 6.5%, UK 5.6%
  (2002)

Debt - external:
  $3.7 billion (2002)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $150 million; note - $50 million annually since 1992 from each of
  Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Kuwait (2002)

Currency:
  Bahraini dinar (BHD)

Currency code:
  BHD

Exchange rates:
  Bahraini dinars per US dollar - 0.38 (2002), 0.38 (2001), 0.38
  (2000), 0.38 (1999), 0.38 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Bahrain


Telephones - main lines in use:
  152,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  58,543 (1997)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: modern system
  domestic: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network
  with rapidly growing use of mobile cellular telephones
  international: tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave
  radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to Qatar, UAE, and
  Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic
  Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat (1997)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  338,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  4 (1997)

Televisions:
  275,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bh

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  140,200 (2002)

Transportation Bahrain


Railways:
  0 km

Highways:
  total: 3,261 km
  paved: 2,531 km
  unpaved: 730 km (2000)

Waterways:
  none

Pipelines:
  gas 20 km; oil 53 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Manama, Mina' Salman, Sitrah

Merchant marine:
  total: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 234,599 GRT/336,528 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 1, container 2, petroleum tanker 1,
  includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of
  convenience: Kuwait 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:
  4 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 3
  over 3,047 m: 2
  1524 to 2437 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)

Heliports:
  1 (2002)

Military Bahrain


Military branches:
  Bahrain Defense Forces (BDF) comprising Ground Force (includes Air
  Defense), Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, Police Force, Amiri Guards,
  National Guard

Military manpower - military age:
  15 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 222,242 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 121,739 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 6,126 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $526.2 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  6.7% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Bahrain


Disputes - international:
  none


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Baker Island

Introduction Baker Island


Background:
  The US took possession of the island in 1857, and its guano
  deposits were mined by US and British companies during the second
  half of the 19th century. In 1935, a short-lived attempt at
  colonization was begun on this island - as well as on nearby Howland
  Island - but was disrupted by World War II and thereafter abandoned.
  Presently the island is a National Wildlife Refuge run by the US
  Department of the Interior; a day beacon is situated near the middle
  of the west coast.

Geography Baker Island


Location:
  Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about half way between
  Hawaii and Australia

Geographic coordinates:
  0 13 N, 176 31 W

Map references:
  Oceania

Area:
  total: 1.4 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 1.4 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about 2.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  4.8 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

Terrain:
  low, nearly level coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: unnamed location 8 m

Natural resources:
  guano (deposits worked until 1891), terrestrial and aquatic wildlife

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can be a maritime
  hazard

Environment - current issues:
  no natural fresh water resources

Geography - note:
  treeless, sparse, and scattered vegetation consisting of grasses,
  prostrate vines, and low growing shrubs; primarily a nesting,
  roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine
  wildlife

People Baker Island


Population:
  uninhabited
  note: American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and
  naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during
  World War II, but abandoned after the war; public entry is by
  special-use permit from US Fish and Wildlife Service only and
  generally restricted to scientists and educators; a cemetery and
  remnants of structures from early settlement are located near the
  middle of the west coast; visited annually by US Fish and Wildlife
  Service (July 2003 est.)

Government Baker Island


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Baker Island

Dependency status:
  unincorporated territory of the US; administered from Washington,
  DC, by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the
  Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge system

Legal system:
  the laws of the US, where applicable, apply

Flag description:
  the flag of the US is used

Economy Baker Island


Economy - overview:
  no economic activity


Transportation Baker Island


Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  none; offshore anchorage only; note - there is one small boat
  landing area along the middle of the west coast

Airports:
  1 abandoned World War II runway of 1,665 m, completely covered with
  vegetation and unusable (2002)

Transportation - note:
  there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast

Military Baker Island


Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US
  Coast Guard

Transnational Issues Baker Island


Disputes - international:
  none


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Bangladesh

Introduction Bangladesh


Background:
  Bangladesh came into existence in 1971 when Bengali East Pakistan
  seceded from its union with West Pakistan. About a third of this
  extremely poor country floods annually during the monsoon rainy
  season, hampering economic development.

Geography Bangladesh


Location:
  Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India

Geographic coordinates:
  24 00 N, 90 00 E

Map references:
  Asia

Area:
  total: 144,000 sq km
  land: 133,910 sq km
  water: 10,090 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Iowa

Land boundaries:
  total: 4,246 km
  border countries: Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km

Coastline:
  580 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 18 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM
  continental shelf: up to the outer limits of the continental margin
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

Climate:
  tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March
  to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)

Terrain:
  mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Keokradong 1,230 m

Natural resources:
  natural gas, arable land, timber, coal

Land use:
  arable land: 60.7%
  permanent crops: 2.61%
  other: 36.69% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  38,440 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  droughts, cyclones; much of the country routinely inundated during
  the summer monsoon season

Environment - current issues:
  many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate
  flood-prone land; water-borne diseases prevalent in surface water;
  water pollution, especially of fishing areas, results from the use
  of commercial pesticides; ground water contaminated by naturally
  occurring arsenic; intermittent water shortages because of falling
  water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil
  degradation and erosion; deforestation; severe overpopulation

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban,
  Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  most of the country is situated on deltas of large rivers flowing
  from the Himalayas: the Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel
  of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna to eventually empty
  into the Bay of Bengal

People Bangladesh


Population:
  138,448,210 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 34.1% (male 24,255,300; female 23,007,632)
  15-64 years: 62.5% (male 44,261,739; female 42,281,331)
  65 years and over: 3.4% (male 2,506,606; female 2,135,602) (2003
  est.)

Median age:
  total: 21.2 years
  male: 21.2 years
  female: 21.1 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  2.06% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  29.9 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  8.63 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.17 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 66.08 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 64.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 67.21 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 61.33 years
  male: 61.46 years
  female: 61.2 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.17 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  13,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  650 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bangladeshi(s)
  adjective: Bangladeshi

Ethnic groups:
  Bengali 98%, tribal groups, non-Bengali Muslims (1998)

Religions:
  Muslim 83%, Hindu 16%, other 1% (1998)

Languages:
  Bangla (official, also known as Bengali), English

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 43.1%
  male: 53.9%
  female: 31.8% (2003 est.)

Government Bangladesh


Country name:
  conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh
  conventional short form: Bangladesh
  former: East Pakistan

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  Dhaka

Administrative divisions:
  5 divisions; Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi; note -
  there may be one additional division named Sylhet

Independence:
  16 December 1971 (from West Pakistan); note - 26 March 1971 is the
  date of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is known
  as Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state
  of Bangladesh

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 26 March (1971); note - 26 March 1971 is the date
  of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is Victory Day
  and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh

Constitution:
  4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended following
  coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986, amended many times

Legal system:
  based on English common law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Iajuddin AHMED (since 6 September 2002);
  note - the president's duties are normally ceremonial, but with the
  13th amendment to the constitution ("Caretaker Government
  Amendment"), the president's role becomes significant at times when
  Parliament is dissolved and a caretaker government is installed - at
  presidential direction - to supervise the elections
  head of government: Prime Minister Khaleda ZIA (since 10 October
  2001)
  cabinet: Cabinet selected by the prime minister and appointed by the
  president
  elections: president elected by National Parliament for a five-year
  term; election scheduled for 16 September 2002 was not held since
  Iajuddin AHMED was the only presidential candidate; he was sworn in
  on 6 September 2002 (next election to be held by NA 2007); following
  legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins the most
  seats is usually appointed prime minister by the president
  election results: Iajuddin AHMED declared by the Election Commission
  elected unopposed as president; percent of National Parliament vote
  - NA%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Parliament or Jatiya Sangsad; 300 seats elected
  by popular vote from single territorial constituencies (the
  constitutional amendment reserving 30 seats for women over and above
  the 300 regular parliament seats expired in May 2001); members serve
  five-year terms
  elections: last held 1 October 2001 (next to be held before October
  2006)
  election results: percent of vote by party - BNP and alliance
  partners 46%, AL 42%; seats by party - BNP 191, AL 62, JI 18, JP
  (Ershad faction) 14, IOJ 2, JP (Naziur) 4, other 9; note - the
  election of October 2001 brought a majority BNP government aligned
  with three other smaller parties - Jamaat-i-Islami, Islami Oikya
  Jote, and Jatiya Party (Naziur)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (the chief justices and other judges are appointed by
  the president)

Political parties and leaders:
  Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA]; Bangladesh Communist Party or
  BCP [Saifuddin Ahmed MANIK]; Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP
  [Khaleda ZIA, chairperson]; Islami Oikya Jote or IOJ [Mufti Fazlul
  Haq AMINI]; Jamaat-E-Islami or JI [Motiur Rahman NIZAMI]; Jatiya
  Party or JP (Ershad faction) [Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD]; Jatiya Party
  (Manzur faction) [Naziur Rahman MANZUR]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  AsDB, C, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt
  (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF,
  IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OPCW,
  SAARC, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMEE,
  UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMISET, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNU, UPU, WCL, WCO,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Syed Hasan AHMAD
  consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York
  FAX: [1] (202) 244-5366
  telephone: [1] (202) 244-0183
  chancery: 3510 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Ann PETERS
  embassy: Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212
  mailing address: G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1000
  telephone: [880] (2) 8824700 through 8824722
  FAX: [880] (2) 8823744

Flag description:
  green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist side of center;
  the red sun of freedom represents the blood shed to achieve
  independence; the green field symbolizes the lush countryside, and
  secondarily, the traditional color of Islam

Economy Bangladesh


Economy - overview:
  Despite sustained domestic and international efforts to improve
  economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh remains a poor,
  overpopulated, and ill-governed nation. Although half of GDP is
  generated through the service sector, nearly two-thirds of
  Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector, with rice as
  the single-most-important product. Major impediments to growth
  include frequent cyclones and floods, inefficient state-owned
  enterprises, inadequate port facilities, a rapidly growing labor
  force that cannot be absorbed by agriculture, delays in exploiting
  energy resources (natural gas), insufficient power supplies, and
  slow implementation of economic reforms. Economic reform is stalled
  in many instances by political infighting and corruption at all
  levels of government. Progress also has been blocked by opposition
  from the bureaucracy, public sector unions, and other vested
  interest groups. The BNP government, led by Prime Minister Khaleda
  ZIA, has the parliamentary strength to push through needed reforms,
  but the party's political will to do so has been lacking in key
  areas.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $238.2 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  4.8% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,800 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 35%
  industry: 19%
  services: 46% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  35.6% (FY 95/96 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 3.9%
  highest 10%: 28.6% (1995-96 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  33.6 (FY 95/96)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.1% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  64.1 million
  note: extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman,
  Qatar, and Malaysia; workers' remittances estimated at $1.71 billion
  in 1998-99 (1998)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 63%, services 26%, industry 11% (FY 95/96)

Unemployment rate:
  40% (includes underemployment) (2002 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $4.9 billion
  expenditures: $6.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (FY99/00 est.)

Industries:
  cotton textiles, jute, garments, tea processing, paper newsprint,
  cement, chemical fertilizer, light engineering, sugar

Industrial production growth rate:
  1.8% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  15.33 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 93.7%
  hydro: 6.3%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  14.25 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  3,581 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  71,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  28.45 million bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  9.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  9.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  150.3 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes, tobacco, pulses,
  oilseeds, spices, fruit; beef, milk, poultry

Exports:
  $6.2 billion (2002)

Exports - commodities:
  garments, jute and jute goods, leather, frozen fish and seafood
  (2001)

Exports - partners:
  US 27.6%, Germany 10.4%, UK 9.8%, France 5.7%, Italy 4% (2002)

Imports:
  $8.5 billion (2002)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles,
  foodstuffs, petroleum products, cement (2000)

Imports - partners:
  India 14.6%, China 11.6%, Singapore 11.5%, Japan 7.6%, Hong Kong
  5.4%, South Korea 4.3% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $16.5 billion (2002)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $1.575 billion (2000 est.)

Currency:
  taka (BDT)

Currency code:
  BDT

Exchange rates:
  taka per US dollar - 57.89 (2002), 55.81 (2001), 52.14 (2000),
  49.09 (1999), 46.91 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Bangladesh


Telephones - main lines in use:
  500,000 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  283,000 (2000)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: totally inadequate for a modern country
  domestic: modernizing; introducing digital systems; trunk systems
  include VHF and UHF microwave radio relay links, and some
  fiber-optic cable in cities
  international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean);
  international radiotelephone communications and landline service to
  neighboring countries (2000)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 12, FM 12, shortwave 2 (1999)

Radios:
  6.15 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  15 (1999)

Televisions:
  770,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bd

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  10 (2000)

Internet users:
  150,000 (2002)

Transportation Bangladesh


Railways:
  total: 2,706 km
  broad gauge: 884 km 1.676-m gauge
  narrow gauge: 1,822 km 1.000-m gauge (2002)

Highways:
  total: 207,486 km
  paved: 19,773 km
  unpaved: 187,713 km (1999)

Waterways:
  up to 8,046 km depending on season
  note: includes 3,058 km main cargo routes

Pipelines:
  gas 2,016 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Chittagong, Dhaka, Mongla Port, Narayanganj

Merchant marine:
  total: 40 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 314,437 GRT/436,465 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 23, container 11, passenger 1,
  petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:
  18 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 15
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 6 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 3
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  under 914 m: 2 (2002)

Military Bangladesh


Military branches:
  Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, paramilitary forces (includes
  Bangladesh Rifles, Bangladesh Ansars, Village Defense Parties, Armed
  Police Battalions, National Cadet Corps)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 38,436,912 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 22,807,339 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $559 million (FY96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.8% (FY96)

Transnational Issues Bangladesh


Disputes - international:
  discussions with India remain stalled to delimit a small section of
  river boundary, demarcate and fence the porous land boundary,
  exchange 162 miniscule enclaves, allocate divided villages, and stop
  illegal cross-border trade and violence; Bangladesh protests India's
  attempts to fence off high-traffic sections of the porous boundary;
  dispute with India over New Moore/South Talpatty Island in the Bay
  of Bengal prevents maritime boundary delimitation; Burmese Muslim
  refugees strain Bangladesh's meager resources

Illicit drugs:
  transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring countries


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Barbados

Introduction Barbados


Background:
  The island was uninhabited when first settled by the British in
  1627. Slaves worked the sugar plantations established on the island
  until 1834 when slavery was abolished. The economy remained heavily
  dependent on sugar, rum, and molasses production through most of the
  20th century. The gradual introduction of social and political
  reforms in the 1940s and 1950s led to complete independence from the
  UK in 1966. In the 1990s, tourism and manufacturing surpassed the
  sugar industry in economic importance.

Geography Barbados


Location:
  Caribbean, island in the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of
  Venezuela

Geographic coordinates:
  13 10 N, 59 32 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 431 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 431 sq km

Area - comparative:
  2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  97 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  tropical; rainy season (June to October)

Terrain:
  relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mount Hillaby 336 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, fish, natural gas

Land use:
  arable land: 37.21%
  permanent crops: 2.33%
  other: 60.46% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  10 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  infrequent hurricanes; periodic landslides

Environment - current issues:
  pollution of coastal waters from waste disposal by ships; soil
  erosion; illegal solid waste disposal threatens contamination of
  aquifers

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
  Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
  signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity

Geography - note:
  easternmost Caribbean island

People Barbados


Population:
  277,264 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 21.2% (male 29,621; female 29,207)
  15-64 years: 70% (male 94,840; female 99,230)
  65 years and over: 8.8% (male 9,355; female 15,011) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 33.3 years
  male: 32.2 years
  female: 34.4 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  0.38% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  13.15 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  9.02 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.01 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 12.72 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 11.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 14.39 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 71.84 years
  male: 69.56 years
  female: 74.14 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.65 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  1.2% - note: no country specific models provided (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  1,800 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  250 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Barbadian(s) or Bajan (colloquial)
  adjective: Barbadian or Bajan (colloquial)

Ethnic groups:
  black 90%, white 4%, Asian and mixed 6%

Religions:
  Protestant 67% (Anglican 40%, Pentecostal 8%, Methodist 7%, other
  12%), Roman Catholic 4%, none 17%, other 12%

Languages:
  English

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
  total population: 97.4%
  male: 98%
  female: 96.8% (1995 est.)

Government Barbados


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Barbados

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy; independent sovereign state within the
  Commonwealth

Capital:
  Bridgetown

Administrative divisions:
  11 parishes; Christ Church, Saint Andrew, Saint George, Saint
  James, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Lucy, Saint Michael, Saint
  Peter, Saint Philip, Saint Thomas; note - the city of Bridgetown may
  be given parish status

Independence:
  30 November 1966 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 30 November (1966)

Constitution:
  30 November 1966

Legal system:
  English common law; no judicial review of legislative acts

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General Sir Clifford Straughn HUSBANDS
  (since 1 June 1996)
  head of government: Prime Minister Owen Seymour ARTHUR (since 6
  September 1994); Deputy Prime Minister Mia MOTTLEY (since 26 May
  2003)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of
  the prime minister
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
  appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the
  leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition
  is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; the
  prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (21-member body
  appointed by the governor general) and the House of Assembly (30
  seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year
  terms)
  elections: House of Assembly - last held 21 May 2003 (next to be
  held by May 2008)
  election results: House of Assembly - percent of vote by party -
  NA%; seats by party - BLP 23, DLP 7

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court of Judicature (judges are appointed by the Service
  Commissions for the Judicial and Legal Services)

Political parties and leaders:
  Barbados Labor Party or BLP [Owen ARTHUR]; Democratic Labor Party
  or DLP [Clyde Mascoll]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Barbados Workers Union [Leroy TROTMAN]; Clement Payne Labor Union
  [David COMMISSIONG]; People's Progressive Movement [Eric SEALY];
  Worker's Party of Barbados [Dr. George BELLE]

International organization participation:
  ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt,
  ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC,
  ISO, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
  WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Michael Ian KING
  consulate(s): Los Angeles
  consulate(s) general: Miami and New York
  FAX: [1] (202) 332-7467
  telephone: [1] (202) 339-9201
  chancery: 2144 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Earl N. PHILLIPS, Jr.
  embassy: Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce Building, Broad Street,
  Bridgetown; (courier) ALICO Building-Cheapside, Bridgetown
  mailing address: P. O. Box 302, Bridgetown; FPO AA 34055
  telephone: [1] (246) 436-4950
  FAX: [1] (246) 429-5246, 429-3379

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold, and blue
  with the head of a black trident centered on the gold band; the
  trident head represents independence and a break with the past (the
  colonial coat of arms contained a complete trident)

Economy Barbados


Economy - overview:
  Historically, the Barbadian economy had been dependent on sugarcane
  cultivation and related activities, but production in recent years
  has diversified into manufacturing and tourism. Offshore finance and
  information services are important foreign exchange earners, and
  there is also a light-manufacturing sector. The government continues
  its efforts to reduce unemployment, to encourage direct foreign
  investment, and to privatize remaining state-owned enterprises. The
  economy contracted in 2002 mainly due to a 3% decline in tourism.
  Growth should be positive in 2003, the precise level largely
  dependent on economic conditions in the US and Europe.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $4.153 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  -2.8% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $15,000 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 6%
  industry: 16%
  services: 78% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  -0.6% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  128,500 (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  services 75%, industry 15%, agriculture 10% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  10% (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $847 million (including grants)
  expenditures: $886 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2000 est.)

Industries:
  tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component assembly for export

Industrial production growth rate:
  -3.2% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production:
  780 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  725.4 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  1,271 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  10,900 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  1.254 million bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  29.17 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  29.17 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  70.79 million cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  sugarcane, vegetables, cotton

Exports:
  $227 million (2002)

Exports - commodities:
  sugar and molasses, rum, other foods and beverages, chemicals,
  electrical components

Exports - partners:
  US 14.7%, Trinidad and Tobago 12%, UK 10.6%, Jamaica 6.2%, Saint
  Lucia 4.7% (2002)

Imports:
  $987 million (2002)

Imports - commodities:
  consumer goods, machinery, foodstuffs, construction materials,
  chemicals, fuel, electrical components

Imports - partners:
  US 41.1%, Trinidad and Tobago 17%, UK 7.3%, Japan 4.2% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $692 million (2002)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $9.1 million (1995)

Currency:
  Barbadian dollar (BBD)

Currency code:
  BBD

Exchange rates:
  Barbadian dollars per US dollar - 2 (2002), 2 (2001), 2 (2000), 2
  (1999), 2 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Barbados


Telephones - main lines in use:
  108,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  8,013 (1997)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: island-wide automatic telephone system
  international: satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic
  Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Trinidad and Saint Lucia

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  237,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (plus two cable channels) (1997)

Televisions:
  76,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bb

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  19 (2000)

Internet users:
  6,000 (2000)

Transportation Barbados


Railways:
  0 km

Highways:
  total: 1,793 km
  paved: 1,719 km
  unpaved: 74 km (1999)

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  Bridgetown, Speightstown (Port Charles Marina)

Merchant marine:
  total: 34 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 284,222 GRT/439,810 DWT
  note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
  convenience: Australia 1, The Bahamas 1, Canada 4, Germany 1, Greece
  2, Hong Kong 7, Norway 7, UK 18 (2002 est.)
  ships by type: bulk 8, cargo 22, combination bulk 1, container 1,
  petroleum tanker 2

Airports:
  1 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  over 3,047 m: 1 (2002)

Military Barbados


Military branches:
  Royal Barbados Defense Force (including Ground Forces and Coast
  Guard), Royal Barbados Police Force

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 77,862 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 53,282 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  NA%

Transnational Issues Barbados


Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  one of many Caribbean transshipment points for narcotics bound for
  Europe and the US; offshore financial center


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Bassas da India

Introduction Bassas da India


Background:
  This atoll is a volcanic rock surrounded by reefs and is awash at
  high tide. A French possession since 1897, it was placed under the
  administration of a commissioner residing in Reunion in 1968.

Geography Bassas da India


Location:
  Southern Africa, islands in the southern Mozambique Channel, about
  one-half of the way from Madagascar to Mozambique

Geographic coordinates:
  21 30 S, 39 50 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 0.2 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 0.2 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about one-third the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  35.2 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  tropical

Terrain:
  volcanic rock

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: unnamed location 2.4 m

Natural resources:
  none

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100% (all rock) (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  maritime hazard since it is usually under water during high tide
  and surrounded by reefs; subject to periodic cyclones

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Geography - note:
  the islands emerge from a circular reef that sits atop a
  long-extinct, submerged volcano

People Bassas da India


Population:
  uninhabited (July 2003 est.)

Government Bassas da India


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Bassas da India

Dependency status:
  possession of France; administered by a high commissioner of the
  Republic, resident in Reunion

Legal system:
  the laws of France, where applicable, apply

Flag description:
  the flag of France is used

Economy Bassas da India


Economy - overview:
  no economic activity


Transportation Bassas da India


Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  none; offshore anchorage only

Military Bassas da India


Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues Bassas da India


Disputes - international:
  claimed by Madagascar


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Belarus

Introduction Belarus


Background:
  After seven decades as a constituent republic of the USSR, Belarus
  attained its independence in 1991. It has retained closer political
  and economic ties to Russia than any of the other former Soviet
  republics. Belarus and Russia signed a treaty on a two-state union
  on 8 December 1999 envisioning greater political and economic
  integration. Although Belarus agreed to a framework to carry out the
  accord, serious implementation has yet to take place.

Geography Belarus


Location:
  Eastern Europe, east of Poland

Geographic coordinates:
  53 00 N, 28 00 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 207,600 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 207,600 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Kansas

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,900 km
  border countries: Latvia 141 km, Lithuania 502 km, Poland 407 km,
  Russia 959 km, Ukraine 891 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between
  continental and maritime

Terrain:
  generally flat and contains much marshland

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Nyoman River 90 m
  highest point: Dzyarzhynskaya Hara 346 m

Natural resources:
  forests, peat deposits, small quantities of oil and natural gas,
  granite, dolomitic limestone, marl, chalk, sand, gravel, clay

Land use:
  arable land: 29.76%
  permanent crops: 0.69%
  other: 69.55% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  1,150 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  NA

Environment - current issues:
  soil pollution from pesticide use; southern part of the country
  contaminated with fallout from 1986 nuclear reactor accident at
  Chornobyl' in northern Ukraine

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Sulphur 85, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification,
  Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
  Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:
  landlocked; glacial scouring accounts for the flatness of
  Belarusian terrain and for its 11,000 lakes; the country is
  geologically well endowed with extensive deposits of granite,
  dolomitic limestone, marl, chalk, sand, gravel, and clay

People Belarus


Population:
  10,322,151 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 16.8% (male 885,265; female 848,516)
  15-64 years: 68.9% (male 3,456,769; female 3,652,766)
  65 years and over: 14.3% (male 490,529; female 988,306) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 36.7 years
  male: 34.1 years
  female: 39.3 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  -0.12% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  10.18 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  14.05 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  2.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.5 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.88 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 13.87 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 12.56 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 15.13 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 68.43 years
  male: 62.54 years
  female: 74.6 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.34 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.3% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  15,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  1,000 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Belarusian(s)
  adjective: Belarusian

Ethnic groups:
  Belarusian 81.2%, Russian 11.4%, Polish, Ukrainian, and other 7.4%

Religions:
  Eastern Orthodox 80%, other (including Roman Catholic, Protestant,
  Jewish, and Muslim) 20% (1997 est.)

Languages:
  Belarusian, Russian, other

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 99.6%
  male: 99.8%
  female: 99.5% (2003 est.)

Government Belarus


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Belarus
  conventional short form: Belarus
  local short form: none
  former: Belorussian (Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic
  local long form: Respublika Byelarus'

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  Minsk

Administrative divisions:
  6 voblastsi (singular - voblasts') and one municipality* (harady,
  singular - horad); Brestskaya (Brest), Homyel'skaya (Homyel'), Horad
  Minsk*, Hrodzyenskaya (Hrodna), Mahilyowskaya (Mahilyow), Minskaya,
  Vitsyebskaya (Vitsyebsk); note - when using a place name with the
  adjectival ending 'skaya,' the word voblasts' should be added to the
  place name
  note: voblasti have the administrative center name following in
  parentheses

Independence:
  25 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 3 July (1944); note - 3 July 1944 was the date
  Minsk was liberated from German troops, 25 August 1991 was the date
  of independence from the Soviet Union

Constitution:
  30 March 1994; revised by national referendum of 24 November 1996
  giving the presidency greatly expanded powers and became effective
  27 November 1996

Legal system:
  based on civil law system

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (since 20 July 1994)
  head of government: Prime Minister Sergei SIDORSKY (acting; since 10
  July 2003); Deputy Prime Ministers Andrei KOBYAKOV (since 13 March
  2000), Sergei SIDORSKY (since 24 September 2001), Vladimir DRAZHIN
  (since 24 September 2001), Roman VNUCHKO (since 10 July 2003)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers
  election results: Aleksandr LUKASHENKO reelected president; percent
  of vote - Aleksandr LUKASHENKO 75.6%, Vladimir GONCHARIK 15.4%
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  first election took place 23 June and 10 July 1994; according to the
  1994 constitution, the next election should have been held in 1999,
  however LUKASHENKO extended his term to 2001 via a November 1996
  referendum; new election held 9 September 2001 (next election to be
  held by September 2006); prime minister and deputy prime ministers
  appointed by the president

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament or Natsionalnoye Sobranie consists of the
  Council of the Republic or Soviet Respubliki (64 seats; 56 members
  elected by regional councils and 8 members appointed by the
  president, all for 4-year terms) and the Chamber of Representatives
  or Palata Pretsaviteley (110 seats; members elected by universal
  adult suffrage to serve 4-year terms)
  election results: party affiliation data unavailable; under present
  political conditions party designations are meaningless
  elections: last held October 2000 (next to be held NA 2004)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president);
  Constitutional Court (half of the judges appointed by the president
  and half appointed by the Chamber of Representatives)

Political parties and leaders:
  Agrarian Party or AP [Mikhail SHIMANSKY]; Belarusian Communist
  Party or KPB [Viktor CHIKIN, chairman]; Belarusian Ecological Green
  Party (merger of Belarusian Ecological Party and Green Party of
  Belarus) [leader NA]; Belarusian Patriotic Movement (Belarusian
  Patriotic Party) or BPR [Anatoliy BARANKEVICH, chairman]; Belarusian
  Popular Front or BNF [Vintsuk VYACHORKA]; Belarusian Social-Democrat
  Party or SDBP [Nikolay STATKEVICH, chairman]; Belarusian
  Social-Democratic Party or Hromada [Stanislav SHUSHKEVICH,
  chairman]; Belarusian Socialist Party [Vyacheslav KUZNETSOV]; Civic
  Accord Bloc (United Civic Party) or CAB [Anatol LIABEDZKA]; Liberal
  Democratic Party or LDPB [Sergei GAYDUKEVICH, chairman]; Party of
  Communists Belarusian or PKB [Sergei KALYAKIN, chairman]; Republican
  Party of Labor and Justice or RPPS [Anatoliy NETYLKIN, chairman];
  Social-Democrat Party of Popular Accord or PPA [Leanid SECHKA];
  Women's Party or "Nadezhda" [Valentina POLEVIKOVA, chairperson]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  CEI, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
  IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, NAM (observer),
  NSG, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Mikhail KHVOSTOV
  chancery: 1619 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
  consulate(s) general: New York
  FAX: [1] (202) 986-1805
  telephone: [1] (202) 986-1604

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Michael G. KOZAK
  embassy: 46 Starovilenskaya St., Minsk 220002
  mailing address: PSC 78, Box B Minsk, APO 09723
  telephone: [375] (17) 210-12-83
  FAX: [375] (17) 234-7853

Flag description:
  red horizontal band (top) and green horizontal band one-half the
  width of the red band; a white vertical stripe on the hoist side
  bears a Belarusian national ornament in red

Economy Belarus


Economy - overview:
  Belarus has seen little structural reform since 1995, when
  President LUKASHENKO launched the country on the path of "market
  socialism." In keeping with this policy, LUKASHENKO reimposed
  administrative controls over prices and currency exchange rates and
  expanded the state's right to intervene in the management of private
  enterprise. In addition to the burdens imposed by high inflation and
  persistent trade deficits, businesses have been subject to pressure
  on the part of central and local governments, e.g., arbitrary
  changes in regulations, numerous rigorous inspections, retroactive
  application of new business regulations, and arrests of "disruptive"
  businessmen and factory owners. A wide range of redistributive
  policies has helped those at the bottom of the ladder. Close
  relations with Russia, possibly leading to reunion, color the
  pattern of economic developments. For the time being, Belarus
  remains self-isolated from the West and its open-market economies.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $90.19 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  4.7% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $8,700 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 15%
  industry: 40%
  services: 45% (2002 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  22% (1995 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 5.1%
  highest 10%: 20% (1998)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  21.7 (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  42.8% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  4.8 million (2000)

Labor force - by occupation:
  industry and construction NA%, agriculture and forestry NA%,
  services NA%

Unemployment rate:
  2.1% officially registered unemployed (December 2000); large number
  of underemployed workers

Budget:
  revenues: $4 billion
  expenditures: $4.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $180
  million (1997 est.)

Industries:
  metal-cutting machine tools, tractors, trucks, earthmovers,
  motorcycles, television sets, chemical fibers, fertilizer, textiles,
  radios, refrigerators

Industrial production growth rate:
  2.5% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  24.4 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 99.5%
  hydro: 0.1%
  other: 0.4% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  26.69 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  300 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  4.3 billion kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  37,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  230,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Natural gas - production:
  200 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  18 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  17.8 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  grain, potatoes, vegetables, sugar beets, flax; beef, milk

Exports:
  $7.7 billion f.o.b. (2002)

Exports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, mineral products, chemicals, metals;
  textiles, foodstuffs

Exports - partners:
  Russia 50.8%, Latvia 7.3%, Ukraine 6.3%, Lithuania 4.1%, Germany
  4.1% (2002)

Imports:
  $8.8 billion f.o.b. (2002)

Imports - commodities:
  mineral products, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs,
  metals

Imports - partners:
  Russia 68.2%, Germany 9.4%, Ukraine 3.2% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $851 million (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $194.3 million (1995)

Currency:
  Belarusian ruble (BYB/BYR)

Currency code:
  BYB/BYR

Exchange rates:
  Belarusian rubles per US dollar - NA (2002), 1,390 (2001), 876.75
  (2000), 248.8 (1999), 46.13 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Belarus


Telephones - main lines in use:
  2.313 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  8,167 (1997)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: the Ministry of Telecommunications controls all
  telecommunications through its carrier (a joint stock company)
  Beltelcom which is a monopoly
  domestic: local - Minsk has a digital metropolitan network and a
  cellular NMT-450 network; waiting lists for telephones are long;
  local service outside Minsk is neglected and poor; intercity -
  Belarus has a partly developed fiber-optic backbone system presently
  serving at least 13 major cities (1998); Belarus's fiber optics form
  synchronous digital hierarchy rings through other countries'
  systems; an inadequate analog system remains operational
  international: Belarus is a member of the Trans-European Line (TEL),
  Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line, and has access to the
  Trans-Siberia Line (TSL); three fiber-optic segments provide
  connectivity to Latvia, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine; worldwide
  service is available to Belarus through this infrastructure;
  additional analog lines to Russia; Intelsat, Eutelsat, and
  Intersputnik earth stations

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 28, FM 37, shortwave 11 (1998)

Radios:
  3.02 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  47 (plus 27 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions:
  2.52 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .by

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  23 (2002)

Internet users:
  422,000 (2002)

Transportation Belarus


Railways:
  total: 5,523 km
  broad gauge: 5,523 km 1.520-m gauge (875 km electrified) (2002)

Highways:
  total: 74,385 km
  paved: 66,203 km
  unpaved: 8,182 km (2000)

Waterways:
  NA km; note - Belarus has extensive and widely used canal and river
  systems

Pipelines:
  gas 4,519 km; oil 1,811 km; refined products 1,686 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Mazyr

Airports:
  124 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 28
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 21
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
  under 914 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 96
  over 3,047 m: 3
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
  914 to 1,523 m: 14
  under 914 m: 67 (2002)

Military Belarus


Military branches:
  Army, Air Force (including air defense), Interior Ministry Troops,
  Border Guards

Military manpower - military age:
  18 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,756,572 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 2,158,875 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 86,654 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $176.1 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.4% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Belarus


Disputes - international:
  1997 boundary treaty with Ukraine remains unratified over
  unresolved financial claims, preventing demarcation and encouraging
  illegal border crossing; boundaries with Latvia and Lithuania remain
  undemarcated despite European Union financial support

Illicit drugs:
  limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for the
  domestic market; transshipment point for illicit drugs to and via
  Russia, and to the Baltics and Western Europe; lax money-laundering
  and banking regulations


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Belgium

Introduction Belgium


Background:
  Belgium became independent from the Netherlands in 1830 and was
  occupied by Germany during World Wars I and II. It has prospered in
  the past half century as a modern, technologically advanced European
  state and member of NATO and the EU. Tensions between the
  Dutch-speaking Flemings of the north and the French-speaking
  Walloons of the south have led in recent years to constitutional
  amendments granting these regions formal recognition and autonomy.

Geography Belgium


Location:
  Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between France and the
  Netherlands

Geographic coordinates:
  50 50 N, 4 00 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 30,510 sq km
  land: 30,230 sq km
  water: 280 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about the size of Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,385 km
  border countries: France 620 km, Germany 167 km, Luxembourg 148 km,
  Netherlands 450 km

Coastline:
  66 km

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: median line with neighbors
  territorial sea: 12 NM
  exclusive economic zone: median line with neighbors (extends about
  68 km from coast)

Climate:
  temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy

Terrain:
  flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills, rugged
  mountains of Ardennes Forest in southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: North Sea 0 m
  highest point: Signal de Botrange 694 m

Natural resources:
  coal, natural gas

Land use:
  arable land: 25%
  permanent crops: 0%
  note: includes Luxembourg (1998 est.)
  other: 75%

Irrigated land:
  40 sq km (includes Luxembourg) (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  flooding is a threat in areas of reclaimed coastal land, protected
  from the sea by concrete dikes

Environment - current issues:
  the environment is exposed to intense pressures from human
  activities: urbanization, dense transportation network, industry,
  extensive animal breeding and crop cultivation; air and water
  pollution also have repercussions for neighboring countries;
  uncertainties regarding federal and regional responsibilities (now
  resolved) have slowed progress in tackling environmental challenges

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Air
  Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
  Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic
  Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Kyoto
  Protocol, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation,
  Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
  Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Geography - note:
  crossroads of Western Europe; majority of West European capitals
  within 1,000 km of Brussels, the seat of both the European Union and
  NATO

People Belgium


Population:
  10,289,088 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 17.2% (male 905,856; female 865,589)
  15-64 years: 65.6% (male 3,400,419; female 3,346,182)
  65 years and over: 17.2% (male 725,162; female 1,045,880) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 40 years
  male: 38.7 years
  female: 41.3 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  0.14% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  10.45 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  10.07 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 4.57 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 3.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 5.16 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 78.29 years
  male: 74.97 years
  female: 81.78 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.62 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.2% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  8,500 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 100 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Belgian(s)
  adjective: Belgian

Ethnic groups:
  Fleming 58%, Walloon 31%, mixed or other 11%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 75%, Protestant or other 25%

Languages:
  Dutch (official) 60%, French (official) 40%, German (official) less
  than 1%, legally bilingual (Dutch and French)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98%
  male: NA%
  female: NA%

Government Belgium


Country name:
  conventional long form: Kingdom of Belgium
  conventional short form: Belgium
  local short form: Belgique/Belgie
  local long form: Royaume de Belgique/Koninkrijk Belgie

Government type:
  federal parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarch

Capital:
  Brussels

Administrative divisions:
  10 provinces (French: provinces, singular - province; Dutch:
  provincies, singular - provincie) and 3 regions* (French: regions;
  Dutch: gewesten); Antwerpen, Brabant Wallon, Brussels* (Bruxelles),
  Flanders*, Hainaut, Liege, Limburg, Luxembourg, Namur,
  Oost-Vlaanderen, Vlaams-Brabant, Wallonia*, West-Vlaanderen

Independence:
  4 October 1830 a provisional government declared independence from
  the Netherlands; 21 July 1831 the ascension of King Leopold I to the
  throne

National holiday:
  21 July (1831) ascension to the Throne of King Leopold I

Constitution:
  7 February 1831, last revised 14 July 1993; parliament approved a
  constitutional package creating a federal state

Legal system:
  civil law system influenced by English constitutional theory;
  judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: King ALBERT II (since 9 August 1993); Heir Apparent
  Prince PHILIPPE, son of the monarch
  head of government: Prime Minister Guy VERHOFSTADT (since 13 July
  1999)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch and approved
  by Parliament
  elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative
  elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the
  majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the
  monarch and then approved by Parliament
  note: government coalition - VLD, MR, PS, SP, AGALEV, and ECOLO

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of a Senate or Senaat in Dutch, Senat
  in French (71 seats; 40 members are directly elected by popular
  vote, 31 are indirectly elected; members serve four-year terms) and
  a Chamber of Deputies or Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordigers in Dutch,
  Chambre des Representants in French (150 seats; members are directly
  elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation
  to serve four-year terms)
  elections: Senate and Chamber of Deputies - last held 18 June 2003
  (next to be held in NA May 2007)
  note: as a result of the 1993 constitutional revision that furthered
  devolution into a federal state, there are now three levels of
  government (federal, regional, and linguistic community) with a
  complex division of responsibilities; this reality leaves six
  governments each with its own legislative assembly; for other
  acronyms of the listed parties see the Political parties and leaders
  entry
  election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - SP.A-Spirit
  15.5%, VLD 15.4%, CD & V 12.7%, PS 12.8%, MR 12.1%, VB 9.4%, CDH
  5.6%; seats by party - SP.A-Spirit 7, VLD 7, CD & V 6, PS 6, MR 5,
  VB 5, CDH 2, other 2 (note - there are also 31 indirectly elected
  senators); Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - VLD
  15.4%, SP.A-Spirit 14.9%, CD & V 13.3%, PS 13.0%, VB 11.6%, MR
  11.4%, CDH 5.5%, Ecolo 3.1%; seats by party - VLD 25, SP.A-Spirit
  23, CD & V 21, PS 25, VB 18, MR 24, CDH 8 Ecolo 4, other 2

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court of Justice or Hof van Cassatie (in Dutch) or Cour de
  Cassation (in French) (judges are appointed for life by the monarch,
  although selected by the Government)

Political parties and leaders:
  AGALEV (Flemish Greens) [Dirk HOLEMANS]; Christian Democrats and
  Flemish or CD & V [Yves LETERME]; note - used to be the Flemish
  Christian Democrats or CVP; Ecolo (Francophone Greens) [Jean-Michel
  JAVAUK, Evelyne HUYTEBROECK, Claude BROUIR]; Flemish Liberal
  Democrats or VLD [Karel DE GUCHT]; Francophone Humanist and
  Democratic Center of CDH (used to be Social Christian Party or PSC)
  [Joelle MILQUET]; Francophone Reformist Movement or MR (used to be
  Liberal Reformation Party or PRL) [Antoine DUQUESNE]; Francophone
  Socialist Party or PS [Elio DI RUPO]; National Front or FN [Daniel
  FERET]; New Flemish Alliance or NVA [Geert BOURGEOIS]; note - new
  party that emerged after the demise of the People's Union or VU;
  Social Progressive Alternative Party or SP.A [Steve STEVAERT]; note
  - was Flemish Socialist Party or SP; Spirit [Els VAN WEERT]; note -
  new party that emerged after the demise of the People's Union or VU;
  Vlaams Blok or VB [Frank VANHECKE]; other minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Christian and Socialist Trade Unions; Federation of Belgian
  Industries; numerous other associations representing bankers,
  manufacturers, middle-class artisans, and the legal and medical
  professions; various organizations represent the cultural interests
  of Flanders and Wallonia; various peace groups such as Pax Christi
  and groups representing immigrants

International organization participation:
  ACCT, AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CE, CERN, EAPC,
  EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
  IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS
  (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
  UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNMOP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WADB (nonregional), WCL,
  WCO, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Franciskus VAN DAELE
  chancery: 3330 Garfield Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
  FAX: [1] (202) 333-3079
  telephone: [1] (202) 333-6900

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Stephen Franklin BRAUER
  embassy: Regentlaan 27 Boulevard du Regent, B-1000 Brussels
  mailing address: PSC 82, Box 002, APO AE 09710
  telephone: [32] (2) 508-2111
  FAX: [32] (2) 511-2725

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), yellow, and red;
  the design was based on the flag of France

Economy Belgium


Economy - overview:
  This modern private enterprise economy has capitalized on its
  central geographic location, highly developed transport network, and
  diversified industrial and commercial base. Industry is concentrated
  mainly in the populous Flemish area in the north. With few natural
  resources, Belgium must import substantial quantities of raw
  materials and export a large volume of manufactures, making its
  economy unusually dependent on the state of world markets. Roughly
  three-quarters of its trade is with other EU countries. Public debt
  is about 100% of GDP, and the government has succeeded in balancing
  its budget. Belgium, together with 11 of its EU partners, began
  circulating the euro currency in January 2002. Economic growth in
  2001-03 dropped sharply due to the global economic slowdown.
  Prospects for 2004 again depend largely on recovery in the EU and
  the US.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $299.7 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  0.7% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $29,200 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 1.3%
  industry: 24.4%
  services: 74.3% (2001)

Population below poverty line:
  4%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 3.2%
  highest 10%: 23% (1996)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  28.7 (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1.7% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  4.44 million (2001)

Labor force - by occupation:
  services 73%, industry 25%, agriculture 2% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  7.2% (2002 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $113.4 billion
  expenditures: $106 billion, including capital expenditures of $7.17
  billion (2000)

Industries:
  engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly, processed
  food and beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles, glass,
  petroleum, coal

Industrial production growth rate:
  4.5% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production:
  74.28 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 38.4%
  hydro: 0.6%
  other: 1.8% (2001)
  nuclear: 59.3%

Electricity - consumption:
  78.18 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  6.712 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  15.82 billion kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  595,100 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  450,000 bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  1.042 million bbl/day (2001)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  15.5 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  15.4 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  sugar beets, fresh vegetables, fruits, grain, tobacco; beef, veal,
  pork, milk

Exports:
  $162 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, chemicals, diamonds, metals and metal
  products, foodstuffs

Exports - partners:
  Germany 18.6%, France 16.3%, Netherlands 11.6%, UK 9.6%, US 7.9%,
  Italy 5.4% (2002)

Imports:
  $152 billion f.o.b. (2001)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals and metal products,
  foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  Germany 17.2%, Netherlands 15.6%, France 12.8%, UK 7.3%, Ireland
  7%, US 6.4%, Italy 4% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $28.3 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - donor:
  ODA, $764 million (1997)

Currency:
  euro (EUR)
  note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the
  euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of
  member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole
  currency for everyday transactions within the member countries

Currency code:
  EUR

Exchange rates:
  euros per US dollar - 1.06 (2002), 1.12 (2001), 1.09 (2000), 0.94
  (1999), 36.3 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Belgium


Telephones - main lines in use:
  4.769 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  974,494 (1997)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: highly developed, technologically advanced, and
  completely automated domestic and international telephone and
  telegraph facilities
  domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; extensive cable
  network; limited microwave radio relay network
  international: 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Eutelsat

Radio broadcast stations:
  FM 79, AM 7, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  8.075 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  25 (plus 10 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:
  4.72 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .be

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  61 (2000)

Internet users:
  3.76 million (2002)

Transportation Belgium


Railways:
  total: 3,471 km
  standard gauge: 3,471 km 1.435-m gauge (2,631 km electrified) (2002)

Highways:
  total: 148,216 km
  paved: 116,687 km (including 1,727 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 31,529 km (2000)

Waterways:
  1,570 km (route length in regular commercial use) (2001)

Pipelines:
  gas 1,485 km; oil 158 km; refined products 535 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Antwerp (one of the world's busiest ports), Brugge, Gent, Hasselt,
  Liege, Mons, Namur, Oostende, Zeebrugge

Merchant marine:
  total: 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 32,215 GRT/55,725 DWT
  ships by type: cargo 6, chemical tanker 10, petroleum tanker 4,
  includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
  convenience: Finland 1, Netherlands 3 (2002 est.)

Airports:
  42 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 25
  over 3,047 m: 6
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 7 (2002)
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 17
  914 to 1,523 m: 2
  under 914 m: 15 (2002)

Heliports:
  1 (2002)

Military Belgium


Military branches:
  Army, Navy, Air Components, Federal Police

Military manpower - military age:
  19 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,497,423 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 2,059,131 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 60,921 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $3.077 billion (FY01/02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.4% (FY01/02)

Transnational Issues Belgium


Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  growing producer of synthetic drugs; transit point for US-bound
  ecstasy; source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine
  processors; transshipment point for cocaine, heroin, hashish, and
  marijuana entering Western Europe; money laundering related to
  trafficking of drugs, automobiles, alcohol, and tobacco


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Belize

Introduction Belize


Background:
  Territorial disputes between the UK and Guatemala delayed the
  independence of Belize (formerly British Honduras) until 1981.
  Guatemala refused to recognize the new nation until 1992. Tourism
  has become the mainstay of the economy. The country remains plagued
  by high unemployment, growing involvement in the South American drug
  trade, and increased urban crime.

Geography Belize


Location:
  Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala and
  Mexico

Geographic coordinates:
  17 15 N, 88 45 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 22,966 sq km
  water: 160 sq km
  land: 22,806 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries:
  total: 516 km
  border countries: Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 250 km

Coastline:
  386 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM in the north, 3 NM in the south; note - from
  the mouth of the Sarstoon River to Ranguana Cay, Belize's
  territorial sea is 3 NM; according to Belize's Maritime Areas Act,
  1992, the purpose of this limitation is to provide a framework for
  the negotiation of a definitive agreement on territorial differences
  with Guatemala

Climate:
  tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to November); dry
  season (February to May)

Terrain:
  flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Victoria Peak 1,160 m

Natural resources:
  arable land potential, timber, fish, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 2.81%
  permanent crops: 1.1%
  other: 96.09% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  30 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  frequent, devastating hurricanes (June to November) and coastal
  flooding (especially in south)

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation; water pollution from sewage, industrial effluents,
  agricultural runoff; solid and sewage waste disposal

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
  Ship Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  only country in Central America without a coastline on the North
  Pacific Ocean

People Belize


Population:
  266,440 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 41.1% (male 55,880; female 53,706)
  15-64 years: 55.3% (male 74,612; female 72,813)
  65 years and over: 3.5% (male 4,571; female 4,858) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 18.9 years
  male: 18.8 years
  female: 19 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  2.44% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  30.46 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  6.05 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 27.07 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 23.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 30.56 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 67.36 years
  male: 65.19 years
  female: 69.63 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.86 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  2% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  2,500 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  300 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Belizean(s)
  adjective: Belizean

Ethnic groups:
  mestizo 48.7%, Creole 24.9%, Maya 10.6%, Garifuna 6.1%, other 9.7%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 49.6%, Protestant 27% (Anglican 5.3%, Methodist
  3.5%, Mennonite 4.1%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5.2%, Pentecostal 7.4%,
  Jehovah's Witnesses 1.5%), none 9.4%, other 14% (2000)

Languages:
  English (official), Spanish, Mayan, Garifuna (Carib), Creole

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 94.1%
  male: 94.1%
  female: 94.1% (2003 est.)

Government Belize


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Belize
  former: British Honduras

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  Belmopan

Administrative divisions:
  6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal, Orange Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo

Independence:
  21 September 1981 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 21 September (1981)

Constitution:
  21 September 1981

Legal system:
  English law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General Sir Colville YOUNG, Sr. (since 17
  November 1993)
  head of government: Prime Minister Said Wilbert MUSA (since 28
  August 1998); Deputy Prime Minister John BRICENO (since 1 September
  1998)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of
  the prime minister
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
  appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the
  leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition
  is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; prime
  minister recommends the deputy prime minister

Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (12 members
  appointed by the governor general - six on the advice of the prime
  minister, three on the advice of the leader of the opposition, and
  one each on the advice of the Belize Council of Churches and
  Evangelical Association of Churches, the Belize Chamber of Commerce
  and Industry and the Belize Better Business Bureau, and the National
  Trade Union Congress and the Civil Society Steering Committee;
  members are appointed for five-year terms) and the House of
  Representatives (29 seats; members are elected by direct popular
  vote to serve five-year terms)
  elections: House of Representatives - last held 5 March 2003 (next
  to be held NA March 2008)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
  PUP 21, UDP 8

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (the chief justice is appointed by the governor
  general on the advice of the prime minister)

Political parties and leaders:
  People's United Party or PUP [Said MUSA]; United Democratic Party
  or UDP [Dean BARROW, party leader; Douglas SINGH, party chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Society for the Promotion of Education and Research or SPEAR [Adele
  CATZIM]

International organization participation:
  ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt,
  ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC,
  IOM, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
  WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Lisa M. SHOMAN
  consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
  FAX: [1] (202) 332-6888
  telephone: [1] (202) 332-9636
  chancery: 2535 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Russell F. FREEMAN
  embassy: 29 Gabourel Lane and Hutson Street, Belize City
  mailing address: P. O. Box 286, Unit 7401, APO AA 34025
  telephone: [501] 227-7161 through 7163
  FAX: [501] 30802

Flag description:
  blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the bottom edges;
  centered is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms; the coat of
  arms features a shield flanked by two workers in front of a mahogany
  tree with the related motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I Flourish in the
  Shade) on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a green garland

Economy Belize


Economy - overview:
  In this small, essentially private enterprise economy the tourism
  industry is the number one foreign exchange earner followed by cane
  sugar, citrus, marine products, bananas, and garments. The
  government's expansionary monetary and fiscal policies, initiated in
  September 1998, led to GDP growth of 6.5% in 1999, 10.8% in 2000,
  4.6% in 2001, and 3.7% in 2002. Major concerns continue to be the
  sizable trade deficit and foreign debt. A key short-term objective
  remains the reduction of poverty with the help of international
  donors.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $1.28 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3.7% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $4,900 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 18%
  industry: 24%
  services: 58% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  33% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1.9% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  90,000
  note: shortage of skilled labor and all types of technical personnel

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 27%, industry 18%, services 55% (2001 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  9.1% (2002)

Budget:
  revenues: $224 million
  expenditures: $209 million, including capital expenditures of $70
  million (2002 est.)

Industries:
  garment production, food processing, tourism, construction

Industrial production growth rate:
  4.6% (1999)

Electricity - production:
  199.5 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 59.9%
  hydro: 40.1%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  185.5 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  5,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products:
  bananas, coca, citrus, sugar; fish, cultured shrimp; lumber;
  garments

Exports:
  $290 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  sugar, bananas, citrus, clothing, fish products, molasses, wood

Exports - partners:
  US 40.5%, UK 23.2%, Peru 8.3% (2002)

Imports:
  $430 million c.i.f. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods; fuels,
  chemicals, pharmaceuticals; food, beverages, tobacco

Imports - partners:
  US 35.7%, Mexico 10.1%, Netherlands Antilles 6.1%, Japan 5.9%, Cuba
  5.7%, UK 5.4% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $475 million (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $NA

Currency:
  Belizean dollar (BZD)

Currency code:
  BZD

Exchange rates:
  Belizean dollars per US dollar - 2 (2002), 2 (2001), 2 (2000), 2
  (1999), 2 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Belize


Telephones - main lines in use:
  31,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  3,023 (1997)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: above-average system
  domestic: trunk network depends primarily on microwave radio relay
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 12, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  133,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  2 (1997)

Televisions:
  41,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bz

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  18,000 (2002)

Transportation Belize


Railways:
  0 km

Highways:
  total: 2,872 km
  paved: 488 km
  unpaved: 2,384 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  825 km (river network used by shallow-draft craft; seasonally
  navigable)

Ports and harbors:
  Belize City, Big Creek, Corozol, Punta Gorda

Merchant marine:
  total: 292 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,030,141 GRT/1,499,777 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 15, cargo 200, chemical tanker 7, combination
  ore/oil 1, container 12, petroleum tanker 31, refrigerated cargo 18,
  roll on/roll off 5, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 1
  note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
  convenience: Albania 2, Belgium 3, British Virgin Islands 6,
  Cambodia 1, China 38, Cyprus 1, Ecuador 1, Egypt 1, Equatorial
  Guinea 1, Eritrea 1, Estonia 7, Germany 3, Greece 4, Grenada 1,
  Honduras 1, Hong Kong 20, Indonesia 6, Italy 2, Japan 4, Jordan 1,
  Lebanon 1, Liberia 5, Malaysia 3, Malta 2, Man, Isle of 1, Marshall
  Islands 13, Mexico 1, Netherlands 1, Nigeria 1, Panama 12,
  Philippines 4, Portugal 1, Romania 1, Russia 3, Saint Vincent and
  the Grenadines 3, Saudi Arabia 1, Singapore 22, South Korea 10,
  Spain 4, Switzerland 1, Taiwan 1, Thailand 6, Tunisia 1, Turkey 1,
  Ukraine 3, United Arab Emirates 9, United Kingdom 2, United States
  4, Virgin Islands (UK) 6, Yemen 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:
  42 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 4
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 2 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 38
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 10
  under 914 m: 27 (2002)

Military Belize


Military branches:
  Belize Defense Force (includes Army, Maritime Wing, Air Wing, and
  Volunteer Guard)

Military manpower - military age:
  18 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 66,332 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 39,337 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 3,046 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $7.7 million (FY00/01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.87% (FY00/01)

Transnational Issues Belize


Disputes - international:
  Guatemala has claimed half of southern Belize; Guatemalan squatters
  continue to settle along the border despite a 2000 agreement; OAS
  brokered a Differendum in 2002 that created a small adjustment to
  land boundary, a large Guatemalan maritime corridor in the
  Caribbean, a joint ecological park for disputed Sapodilla Cays, and
  a substantial US-UK financial package, but agreement was not brought
  to a popular referendum

Illicit drugs:
  major transshipment point for cocaine; small-scale illicit producer
  of cannabis for the international drug trade; some money-laundering
  activity related to offshore sector


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Benin

Introduction Benin


Background:
  Present day Benin was the site of Dahomey, a prominent West African
  kingdom that rose in the 15th century. The territory became a French
  Colony in 1872 and achieved independence on 1 August 1960, as the
  Republic of Benin. A succession of military governments ended in
  1972 with the rise to power of Mathieu KEREKOU and the establishment
  of a government based on Marxist-Leninist principles. A move to
  representative government began in 1989. Two years later, free
  elections ushered in former Prime Minister Nicephore SOGLO as
  president, marking the first successful transfer of power in Africa
  from a dictatorship to a democracy. KEREKOU was returned to power by
  elections held in 1996 and 2001, though some irregularities were
  alleged.

Geography Benin


Location:
  Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Nigeria and
  Togo

Geographic coordinates:
  9 30 N, 2 15 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 112,620 sq km
  water: 2,000 sq km
  land: 110,620 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,989 km
  border countries: Burkina Faso 306 km, Niger 266 km, Nigeria 773 km,
  Togo 644 km

Coastline:
  121 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 200 NM

Climate:
  tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

Terrain:
  mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low mountains

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mont Sokbaro 658 m

Natural resources:
  small offshore oil deposits, limestone, marble, timber

Land use:
  arable land: 15.28%
  permanent crops: 1.36%
  other: 83.36% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  120 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north from December to
  March

Environment - current issues:
  inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching threatens wildlife
  populations; deforestation; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  sandbanks create difficult access to a coast with no natural
  harbors, river mouths, or islands

People Benin


Population:
  7,041,490
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 47% (male 1,668,817; female 1,638,291)
  15-64 years: 50.7% (male 1,739,517; female 1,834,231)
  65 years and over: 2.3% (male 67,504; female 93,130) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 16.4 years
  male: 15.9 years
  female: 16.9 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  2.95% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  43.15 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  13.65 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 86.76 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 81.58 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 91.79 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 51.08 years
  male: 50.35 years
  female: 51.84 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  6.04 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  3.6% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  120,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  8,100 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Beninese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Beninese

Ethnic groups:
  African 99% (42 ethnic groups, most important being Fon, Adja,
  Yoruba, Bariba), Europeans 5,500

Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 30%, Muslim 20%

Languages:
  French (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common vernaculars in
  south), tribal languages (at least six major ones in north)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 40.9%
  male: 56.2%
  female: 26.5% (2000)

Government Benin


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Benin
  conventional short form: Benin
  local short form: Benin
  former: Dahomey
  local long form: Republique du Benin

Government type:
  republic under multiparty democratic rule; dropped Marxism-Leninism
  December 1989; democratic reforms adopted February 1990; transition
  to multiparty system completed 4 April 1991

Capital:
  Porto-Novo is the official capital; Cotonou is the seat of
  government

Administrative divisions:
  12 departments; Alibori, Atakora, Atlantique, Borgou, Collines,
  Kouffo, Donga, Littoral, Mono, Oueme, Plateau, Zou

Independence:
  1 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday:
  National Day, 1 August (1960)

Constitution:
  December 1990

Legal system:
  based on French civil law and customary law; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4 April 1996);
  note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government
  head of government: President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4 April 1996);
  note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
  elections: president reelected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  runoff election held 22 March 2001 (next to be held NA March 2006)
  note: the four top-ranking contenders following the first-round
  presidential elections were: Mathieu KEREKOU (incumbent) 45.4%,
  Nicephore SOGOLO (former president) 27.1%, Adrien HOUNGBEDJI
  (National Assembly Speaker) 12.6%, and Bruno AMOUSSOU (Minister of
  State) 8.6%; the second-round balloting, originally scheduled for 18
  March 2001, was postponed four days because both SOGOLO and
  HOUNGBEDJI withdrew alleging electoral fraud; this left KEREKOU to
  run against his own Minister of State, AMOUSSOU, in what was termed
  a "friendly match"
  election results: Mathieu KEREKOU reelected president; percent of
  vote - Mathieu KEREKOU 84.1%, Bruno AMOUSSOU 15.9%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (83 seats;
  members are elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  Presidential Movement 52, opposition (PRB, PRD, E'toile, and 5 other
  small parties) 31
  elections: last held 30 March 2003 (next to be held NA March 2007)

Judicial branch:
  Constitutional Court or Cour Constitutionnelle; Supreme Court or
  Cour Supreme; High Court of Justice

Political parties and leaders:
  African Congress for Renewal or DUNYA [Saka SALEY]; African
  Movement for Democracy and Progress or MADEP [Sefou FAGBOHOUN];
  Alliance of the Social Democratic Party or PSD [Bruno AMOUSSOU];
  Coalition of Democratic Forces [Gatien HOUNGBEDJI]; Democratic
  Renewal Party or PRD [Adrien HOUNGBEDJI]; Front for Renewal and
  Development or FARD-ALAFIA [Jerome Sakia KINA]; Impulse for Progress
  and Democracy or IPD [Bertin BORNA]; Key Force or FC [leader NA];
  Presidential Movement (UBF, MADEP, FC, IDP, and 4 other small
  parties); Renaissance Party du Benin or PRB [Nicephore SOGLO]; The
  Star Alliance (Alliance E'toile) [Sacca LAFIA]; Union of Tomorrow's
  Benin or UBF [Bruno AMOUSSOU]
  note: approximately 20 additional minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACP, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
  ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WCO,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Cyrille Segbe OGUIN
  FAX: [1] (202) 265-1996
  telephone: [1] (202) 232-6656
  chancery: 2124 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Wayne NEILL
  embassy: Rue Caporal Bernard Anani, Cotonou
  mailing address: 01 B. P. 2012, Cotonou
  telephone: [229] 30-06-50
  FAX: [229] 30-06-70

Flag description:
  two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red with a vertical
  green band on the hoist side

Economy Benin


Economy - overview:
  The economy of Benin remains underdeveloped and dependent on
  subsistence agriculture, cotton production, and regional trade.
  Growth in real output has averaged a stable 5% in the past six
  years, but rapid population rise has offset much of this increase.
  Inflation has subsided over the past several years. In order to
  raise growth still further, Benin plans to attract more foreign
  investment, place more emphasis on tourism, facilitate the
  development of new food processing systems and agricultural
  products, and encourage new information and communication
  technology. The 2001 privatization policy should continue in
  telecommunications, water, electricity, and agriculture in spite of
  initial government reluctance. The Paris Club and bilateral
  creditors have eased the external debt situation, while pressing for
  speeded-up structural reforms.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $7.38 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  6% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,100 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 38%
  industry: 15%
  services: 47% (2002 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  37% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.3% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  NA

Unemployment rate:
  NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $377.4 million
  expenditures: $561.8 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2001)

Industries:
  textiles, food processing, chemical production, construction
  materials (2001)

Industrial production growth rate:
  8.3% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:
  274.3 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 14.2%
  hydro: 85.8%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  631.1 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  376 million kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  700 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  11,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  4.105 million bbl (37257)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  608.8 million cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  cotton, corn, cassava (tapioca), yams, beans, palm oil, peanuts,
  livestock (2001)

Exports:
  $207 million f.o.b. (2002)

Exports - commodities:
  cotton, crude oil, palm products, cocoa

Exports - partners:
  India 25%, Italy 11.1%, Indonesia 7.4%, China 7.2%, Thailand 6.7%,
  Brazil 6.1%, UK 4.4%, Niger 4% (2002)

Imports:
  $479 million c.i.f. (2002)

Imports - commodities:
  foodstuffs, capital goods, petroleum products

Imports - partners:
  China 30.7%, France 15.7%, UK 4.8%, Italy 4.2% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $1.6 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $342.6 million (2000)

Currency:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible
  authority is the Central Bank of the West African States

Currency code:
  XOF

Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 696.99
  (2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.7 (1999), 589.95 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Benin


Telephones - main lines in use:
  51,000 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  55,500 (2000)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: fair system of open-wire, microwave radio relay, and
  cellular connections
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic
  Ocean); submarine cable

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 4 (2000)

Radios:
  660,000 (2000)

Television broadcast stations:
  1;; (2001)

Televisions:
  66,000 (2000)

Internet country code:
  .bj

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  4 (2002)

Internet users:
  25,000 (2002)

Transportation Benin


Railways:
  total: 578 km
  narrow gauge: 578 km 1.000-m gauge (2002)

Highways:
  total: 6,787 km
  paved: 1,357 km (including 10 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 5,430 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  streams navigable along small sections, important only locally

Ports and harbors:
  Cotonou, Porto-Novo

Merchant marine:
  none (2002 est.)

Airports:
  5 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 4
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2002)

Military Benin


Military branches:
  Armed Forces (including Army, Navy, Air Force), National Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age:
  18 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  note: both sexes are liable for military service
  females age 15-49: 1,536,036 (2003 est.)
  males age 15-49: 1,597,562

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 805,603
  females age 15-49: 809,961 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 75,021
  females: 78,998 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $80.8 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.7% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Benin


Disputes - international:
  two villages are in dispute along the border with Burkina Faso;
  much of Benin-Niger boundary, including tripoint with Nigeria,
  remains undemarcated, but states accept 2001 arbitration over
  disputed Niger River islands; several villages along the Okpara
  River are in dispute with Nigeria; in 2001, Benin claimed Togo moved
  the boundary stones - joint commission presently resurveying the
  boundary

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for narcotics associated with Nigerian
  trafficking organizations and most commonly destined for Western
  Europe and the US; vulnerable to money laundering due to a poorly
  regulated financial infrastructure


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Bermuda

Introduction Bermuda


Background:
  Bermuda was first settled in 1609 by shipwrecked English colonists
  headed for Virginia. Tourism to the island to escape North American
  winters first developed in Victorian times. Tourism continues to be
  important to the island's economy, although international business
  has overtaken it in recent years. Bermuda has developed into a
  highly successful offshore financial center. A referendum on
  independence was soundly defeated in 1995.

Geography Bermuda


Location:
  North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, east
  of North Carolina (US)

Geographic coordinates:
  32 20 N, 64 45 W

Map references:
  North America

Area:
  total: 53.3 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 53.3 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about one-third the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  103 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter

Terrain:
  low hills separated by fertile depressions

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Town Hill 76 m

Natural resources:
  limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism

Land use:
  arable land: 6%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 94% (55% developed, 45% rural/open space) (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  hurricanes (June to November)

Environment - current issues:
  asbestos disposal; water pollution; preservation of open space;
  sustainable development

Geography - note:
  consists of about 138 coral islands and islets with ample rainfall,
  but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land was leased by US
  Government from 1941 to 1995

People Bermuda


Population:
  64,482 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 19.2% (male 6,195; female 6,205)
  15-64 years: 69.3% (male 22,110; female 22,574)
  65 years and over: 11.5% (male 3,215; female 4,183) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 38.7 years
  male: 37.8 years
  female: 39.6 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  0.72% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  12.13 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  7.46 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  2.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 9.05 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 7.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 10.77 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 77.41 years
  male: 75.38 years
  female: 79.49 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.9 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Bermudian(s)
  adjective: Bermudian

Ethnic groups:
  black 58%, white 36%, other 6%

Religions:
  non-Anglican Protestant 39%, Anglican 27%, Roman Catholic 15%,
  other 19%

Languages:
  English (official), Portuguese

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98%
  male: 98%
  female: 99% (1970 est.)

Government Bermuda


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Bermuda
  former: Somers Islands

Dependency status:
  overseas territory of the UK

Government type:
  parliamentary British overseas territory with internal
  self-government

Capital:
  Hamilton

Administrative divisions:
  9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*,
  Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint George's, Sandys, Smith's,
  Southampton, Warwick

Independence:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday:
  Bermuda Day, 24 May

Constitution:
  8 June 1968, amended 1989

Legal system:
  English law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor Sir John VEREKER (since NA April 2002)
  head of government: Premier Alex SCOTT (since 24 July 2003)
  cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by
  the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the
  majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually
  appointed premier by the governor

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (an 11-member body
  appointed by the governor, the premier, and the opposition) and the
  House of Assembly (36 seats; members are elected by popular vote to
  serve five-year terms)
  elections: last general election held 24 July 2003 (next to be held
  NA July 2008)
  election results: percent of vote by party - PLP 51.7%, UBP 48%;
  seats by party - PLP 22, UBP 14

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrate Courts

Political parties and leaders:
  National Liberal Party or NLP [Dessaline WALDRON]; Progressive
  Labor Party or PLP [Jennifer SMITH]; United Bermuda Party or UBP
  [Chairman Wayne FURBERT]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Bermuda Employer's Union [Eddie SAINTS]; Bermuda Industrial Union
  or BIU [Derrick BURGESS]; Bermuda Public Services Association or
  BPSA [leader NA]; Bermuda Union of Teachers [Michael CHARLES]

International organization participation:
  Caricom (observer), ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), IOC, WCO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Consul General Denis Patrick COLEMAN, Jr.
  consulate(s) general: Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire DVO3
  mailing address: P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; American Consulate
  General Hamilton, Department of State, 5300 Hamilton Place,
  Washington, DC 20520-5300
  telephone: [1] (441) 295-1342
  FAX: [1] (441) 295-1592, [1] (441) 296-9233

Flag description:
  red, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
  the Bermudian coat of arms (white and green shield with a red lion
  holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea
  Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag

Economy Bermuda


Economy - overview:
  Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in the world,
  with its economy primarily based on providing financial services for
  international business and luxury facilities for tourists. The
  effects of 11 September 2001 have had both positive and negative
  ramifications for Bermuda. On the positive side, a number of new
  reinsurance companies have located on the island, contributing to
  the expansion of an already robust international business sector. On
  the negative side, Bermuda's tourism industry - which derives over
  80% of its visitors from the US - has been severely hit as American
  tourists have chosen not to travel. Tourism rebounded somewhat in
  2002, but remains below the pre-11 September level. Most capital
  equipment and food must be imported. Bermuda's industrial sector is
  small, although construction continues to be important. Agriculture
  is limited, only 6% of the land being arable.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $2.25 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  0.5% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $35,200 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 1%
  industry: 10%
  services: 89% (2002 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.3% (July 2002)

Labor force:
  37,472 (2000)

Labor force - by occupation:
  clerical 22%, services 20%, laborers 17%, professional and
  technical 17%, administrative and managerial 13%, sales 8%,
  agriculture and fishing 3% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  4.5% (1993)

Budget:
  revenues: $609.5 million
  expenditures: $574.6 million, including capital expenditures of
  $54.8 million (FY 00/01)

Industries:
  tourism, international business, light manufacturing

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  643.7 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  598.6 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  4,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products:
  bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy products

Exports:
  $51 million (2000)

Exports - commodities:
  reexports of pharmaceuticals

Exports - partners:
  France 77.4%, UK 2.8%, US 2.4% (2002)

Imports:
  $719 million (2000)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, construction materials,
  chemicals, food and live animals

Imports - partners:
  Kazakhstan 30.9%, France 24.7%, Italy 10.5%, US 9.7%, South Korea
  8.4%, Mexico 4.3% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $145 million (FY 99/00)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $NA

Currency:
  Bermudian dollar (BMD)

Currency code:
  BMD

Exchange rates:
  Bermudian dollar per US dollar - 1.0000 (fixed rate pegged to the
  US dollar)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Bermuda


Telephones - main lines in use:
  52,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  7,980 (1996)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: modern, fully automatic telephone system
  international: 3 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 5, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  82,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  3 (1997)

Televisions:
  66,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bm

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  20 (2000)

Internet users:
  25,000 (2000)

Transportation Bermuda


Railways:
  0 km

Highways:
  total: 450 km
  paved: 450 km
  note: public roads - 209 km; private roads - 241 km (2002)
  unpaved: 0 km

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  Hamilton, Saint George's, Dockyard

Merchant marine:
  total: 93 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 4,993,227 GRT/7,089,760 DWT
  note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
  convenience: Croatia 5, Denmark 2, Germany 1, Greece 1, Hong Kong 9,
  Indonesia 1, Norway 2, Sweden 11, United Kingdom 52, United States
  13 (2002 est.)
  ships by type: bulk 25, cargo 4, chemical tanker 1, container 14,
  liquefied gas 9, passenger 5, petroleum tanker 11, refrigerated
  cargo 13, roll on/roll off 7, short-sea passenger 4

Airports:
  1 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2002)

Military Bermuda


Military branches:
  no regular indigenous military forces; Bermuda Regiment, Bermuda
  Police Force, Bermuda Reserve Constabulary

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $4.028 million (January 2002)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  0.11% (FY00/01)

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues Bermuda


Disputes - international:
  none


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Bhutan

Introduction Bhutan


Background:
  In 1865, Britain and Bhutan signed the Treaty of Sinchulu, under
  which Bhutan would receive an annual subsidy in exchange for ceding
  some border land. Under British influence, a monarchy was set up in
  1907; three years later, a treaty was signed whereby the British
  agreed not to interfere in Bhutanese internal affairs and Bhutan
  allowed Britain to direct its foreign affairs. This role was assumed
  by independent India after 1947. Two years later, a formal
  Indo-Bhutanese accord returned the areas of Bhutan annexed by the
  British, formalized the annual subsidies the country received, and
  defined India's responsibilities in defense and foreign relations. A
  refugee issue of some 100,000 Bhutanese in Nepal remains unresolved;
  90% of the refugees are housed in seven United Nations Office of the
  High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) camps. Maoist Assamese
  separatists from India, who have established themselves in the
  southeast portion of Bhutan, have drawn Indian cross-border
  incursions.

Geography Bhutan


Location:
  Southern Asia, between China and India

Geographic coordinates:
  27 30 N, 90 30 E

Map references:
  Asia

Area:
  total: 47,000 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 47,000 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about half the size of Indiana

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,075 km
  border countries: China 470 km, India 605 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers
  in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas

Terrain:
  mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Drangme Chhu 97 m
  highest point: Kula Kangri 7,553 m

Natural resources:
  timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide

Land use:
  arable land: 2.98%
  permanent crops: 0.43%
  other: 96.59% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  400 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  violent storms from the Himalayas are the source of the country's
  name which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon; frequent
  landslides during the rainy season

Environment - current issues:
  soil erosion; limited access to potable water

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:
  landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls
  several key Himalayan mountain passes

People Bhutan


Population:
  2,139,549
  note: other estimates range as low as 810,000 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 39.6% (male 438,784; female 407,919)
  15-64 years: 56.4% (male 621,666; female 585,550)
  65 years and over: 4% (male 43,262; female 42,368) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 20.1 years
  male: 19.9 years
  female: 20.3 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  2.14% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  34.82 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  13.47 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.02 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 104.68 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 106.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 102.49 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 53.58 years
  male: 53.9 years
  female: 53.25 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  4.94 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  less than 100 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Bhutanese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Bhutanese

Ethnic groups:
  Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35% (includes Lhotsampas--one of several
  Nepalese ethnic groups), indigenous or migrant tribes 15%

Religions:
  Lamaistic Buddhist 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced Hinduism 25%

Languages:
  Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects,
  Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 42.2%
  male: 56.2%
  female: 28.1% (1995 est.)

Government Bhutan


Country name:
  conventional long form: Kingdom of Bhutan
  conventional short form: Bhutan

Government type:
  monarchy; special treaty relationship with India

Capital:
  Thimphu

Administrative divisions:
  18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and plural); Bumthang, Chhukha,
  Chirang, Dagana, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi, Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel,
  Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang, Tashigang, Thimphu,
  Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang
  note: there may be two new districts named Gasa and Yangtse

Independence:
  8 August 1949 (from India)

National holiday:
  National Day (Ugyen WANGCHUCK became first hereditary king), 17
  December (1907)

Constitution:
  no written constitution or bill of rights; note - the King
  commissioned a committee to draft a constitution in 2001, but has
  yet to be approved

Legal system:
  based on Indian law and English common law; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  each family has one vote in village-level elections

Executive branch:
  chief of state: King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972)
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary, but democratic reforms
  in July 1998 grant the National Assembly authority to remove the
  monarch with two-thirds vote
  head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Lyonpo
  Jigme Y. THINLEY (since 30 August 2003)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog) nominated by the
  monarch, approved by the National Assembly; members serve fixed,
  five-year terms; note - there is also a Royal Advisory Council
  (Lodoi Tsokde), members nominated by the monarch

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Tshogdu (150 seats; 105 elected
  from village constituencies, 10 represent religious bodies, and 35
  are designated by the monarch to represent government and other
  secular interests; members serve three-year terms)
  elections: local elections last held November 2002 (next to be held
  NA 2005)
  election results: NA

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court of Appeal (the monarch); High Court (judges appointed
  by the monarch)

Political parties and leaders:
  no legal parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Buddhist clergy; ethnic Nepalese organizations leading militant
  antigovernment campaign; Indian merchant community; United Front for
  Democracy (exiled)

International organization participation:
  AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF, IOC, IOM
  (observer), ITU, NAM, OPCW (signatory), SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none; note - Bhutan has a Permanent Mission to the UN; address: 2
  United Nations Plaza, 27th Floor, New York, NY 10017; telephone [1]
  (212) 826-1919; the Bhutanese mission to the UN has consular
  jurisdiction in the US
  consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  the US and Bhutan have no formal diplomatic relations, although
  informal contact is maintained between the Bhutanese and US Embassy
  in New Delhi (India)

Flag description:
  divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper
  triangle is yellow and the lower triangle is orange; centered along
  the dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing away from
  the hoist side

Economy Bhutan


Economy - overview:
  The economy, one of the world's smallest and least developed, is
  based on agriculture and forestry, providing the main livelihood for
  more than 90% of the population. Agriculture consists largely of
  subsistence farming and animal husbandry. Rugged mountains dominate
  the terrain and make the building of roads and other infrastructure
  difficult and expensive. The economy is closely aligned with India's
  through strong trade and monetary links and dependence on India's
  financial assistance. The industrial sector is technologically
  backward, with most production of the cottage industry type. Most
  development projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian
  migrant labor. Bhutan's hydropower potential and its attraction for
  tourists are key resources. The government has made some progress in
  expanding the nation's productive base and improving social welfare.
  Model education, social, and environment programs are underway with
  support from multilateral development organizations. Each economic
  program takes into account the government's desire to protect the
  country's environment and cultural traditions. Detailed controls and
  uncertain policies in areas like industrial licensing, trade, labor,
  and finance continue to hamper foreign investment.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $2.7 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  7.7% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,300 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 45%
  industry: 10%
  services: 45% (2002 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  NA
  note: massive lack of skilled labor

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry and commerce 2%

Unemployment rate:
  NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $146 million
  expenditures: $152 million, including capital expenditures of NA
  note: the government of India finances nearly three-fifths of
  Bhutan's budget expenditures (FY95/96 est.)

Industries:
  cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages,
  calcium carbide

Industrial production growth rate:
  9.3% (1996 est.)

Electricity - production:
  1.896 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 0.1%
  hydro: 99.9%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  379.5 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  1.4 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  16 million kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  1,020 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products:
  rice, corn, root crops, citrus, foodgrains; dairy products, eggs

Exports:
  $154 million f.o.b. (2000 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  electricity (to India), cardamom, gypsum, timber, handicrafts,
  cement, fruit, precious stones, spices

Exports - partners:
  US 24.1%, UK 23.9%, Pakistan 23.1%, France 13.9% (2002)

Imports:
  $196 million c.i.f. (2000 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts, vehicles, fabrics,
  rice

Imports - partners:
  Japan 44.5%, Germany 12.2%, UK 8.5%, Singapore 6%, South Korea 5%,
  US 4.2% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $245 million (2000)

Economic aid - recipient:
  substantial aid from India and other nations

Currency:
  ngultrum (BTN); Indian rupee (INR)

Currency code:
  BTN; INR

Exchange rates:
  ngultrum per US dollar - 48.61 (2002), 47.19 (2001), 44.94 (2000),
  43.06 (1999), 41.26 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Bhutan


Telephones - main lines in use:
  6,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  NA

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: domestic telephone service is very poor with few
  telephones in use
  international: international telephone and telegraph service is by
  landline through India; a satellite earth station was planned (1990)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 0, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  37,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  0 (1997)

Televisions:
  11,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bt

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  NA

Internet users:
  2,500 (2002)

Transportation Bhutan


Railways:
  0 km

Highways:
  total: 3,690 km
  paved: 2,240 km
  unpaved: 1,450 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  none

Airports:
  2 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)

Military Bhutan


Military branches:
  Royal Bhutan Army, Royal Bodyguard, National Militia, Royal Bhutan
  Police, Forest Guards

Military manpower - military age:
  18 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 530,860 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 283,493 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 22,755 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $9.3 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.9% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Bhutan


Disputes - international:
  approximately 100,000 Bhutanese refugees living in Nepal, 90% of
  whom reside in seven UN Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees
  camps, place decades-long strains on Nepal


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Bolivia

Introduction Bolivia


Background:
  Bolivia, named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR, broke away
  from Spanish rule in 1825; much of its subsequent history has
  consisted of a series of nearly 200 coups and counter-coups.
  Comparatively democratic civilian rule was established in the 1980s,
  but leaders have faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty,
  social unrest, and drug production. Current goals include attracting
  foreign investment, strengthening the educational system, resolving
  disputes with coca growers over Bolivia's counterdrug efforts,
  continuing the privatization program, and waging an anticorruption
  campaign.

Geography Bolivia


Location:
  Central South America, southwest of Brazil

Geographic coordinates:
  17 00 S, 65 00 W

Map references:
  South America

Area:
  total: 1,098,580 sq km
  water: 14,190 sq km
  land: 1,084,390 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries:
  total: 6,743 km
  border countries: Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400 km, Chile 861 km,
  Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid

Terrain:
  rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills,
  lowland plains of the Amazon Basin

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Rio Paraguay 90 m
  highest point: Nevado Sajama 6,542 m

Natural resources:
  tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver,
  iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 1.73%
  permanent crops: 0.21%
  other: 98.06% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  1,280 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  flooding in the northeast (March-April)

Environment - current issues:
  the clearing of land for agricultural purposes and the
  international demand for tropical timber are contributing to
  deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation
  methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification;
  loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used
  for drinking and irrigation

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law
  of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
  Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine
  Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection

Geography - note:
  landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest
  navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru

People Bolivia


Population:
  8,586,443 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 37.1% (male 1,624,366; female 1,562,501)
  15-64 years: 58.4% (male 2,452,892; female 2,561,873)
  65 years and over: 4.5% (male 172,292; female 212,519) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 20.8 years
  male: 20.1 years
  female: 21.5 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  1.63% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  25.53 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  7.91 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -1.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 56.05 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 52.16 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 59.75 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 64.78 years
  male: 62.2 years
  female: 67.48 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.23 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.1% - note: no country specific models provided (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  4,600 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  290 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bolivian(s)
  adjective: Bolivian

Ethnic groups:
  Quechua 30%, mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) 30%,
  Aymara 25%, white 15%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist)

Languages:
  Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 87.2%
  male: 93.1%
  female: 81.6% (2003 est.)

Government Bolivia


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Bolivia
  conventional short form: Bolivia
  local short form: Bolivia
  local long form: Republica de Bolivia

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat of
  judiciary)

Administrative divisions:
  9 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Chuquisaca,
  Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija

Independence:
  6 August 1825 (from Spain)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 6 August (1825)

Constitution:
  2 February 1967; revised in August 1994

Legal system:
  based on Spanish law and Napoleonic Code; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age, universal and compulsory (married); 21 years of
  age, universal and compulsory (single)

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Carlos Diego MESA Gisbert (since 17
  October 2003); Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both
  the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President Carlos Diego MESA Gisbert (since 17
  October 2003); Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both
  the chief of state and head of government
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 30 June 2002
  (next to be held NA June 2007)
  election results: as a result of no candidate winning a majority in
  the 30 June 2002 election, Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA Bustamante was
  chosen president by Congress; Congressional votes - Gonzalo SANCHEZ
  DE LOZADA Bustamante 84, Evo MORALES 43; note - following the
  resignation of the elected president on 17 October 2003, Vice
  President Carlos Diego MESA Gisbert assumed the presidency

Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of
  Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (27 seats; members are
  directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and
  Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130 seats; members are
  directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms; note -
  some members are drawn from party lists, thus not directly elected)
  elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies - last held
  30 June 2002 (next to be held NA June 2007)
  election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party -
  NA%; seats by party - MNR 11, MAS 8, MIR 5, NFR 2, other 1; Chamber
  of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MNR
  36, MAS 27, MIR 26, NFR 25, others 16

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges appointed for 10-year terms
  by National Congress); District Courts (one in each department);
  provincial and local courts (to try minor cases)

Political parties and leaders:
  Bolivian Socialist Falange or FSB [Romel PANTOJA]; Civic Solidarity
  Union or UCS [Johnny FERNANDEZ]; Free Bolivia Movement or MBL [Franz
  BARRIOS]; Marshal of Ayacucho Institutional Vanguard or VIMA [Freddy
  ZABALA]; Movement of the Revolutionary Left or MIR [Jaime PAZ
  Zamora]; Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Evo MORALES]; Movement
  Without Fear or MSM [Juan DEL GRANADO]; Nationalist Democratic
  Action or ADN [Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez]; Nationalist
  Revolutionary Movement or MNR [Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA]; New
  Republican Force or NFR [Manfred REYES-VILLA]; Pachakuti Indigenous
  Movement or MIP [Felipe QUISPE]; Socialist Party or PS [Jeres
  JUSTINIANO]
  note: the MNR, MIR, and UCS comprise the ruling coalition

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Cocalero Groups; indigenous organizations; labor unions; Sole
  Confederation of Campesino Workers of Bolivia or CSUTCB [Felipe
  QUISPE]

International organization participation:
  ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD,
  IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent),
  ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MONUC, NAM, OAS, OPANAL,
  OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMISET,
  UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Jaime APARICIO Otero
  chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  consulate(s) general: Miami, New York, and San Francisco
  consulate(s): Washington, DC
  FAX: [1] (202) 328-3712
  telephone: [1] (202) 483-4410

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador David N. GREENLEE
  embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, San Jorge, La Paz
  mailing address: P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34032
  telephone: [591] (2) 2430120, 2430251
  FAX: [591] (2) 2433900

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with
  the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to the flag of
  Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the
  yellow band

Economy Bolivia


Economy - overview:
  Bolivia, long one of the poorest and least developed Latin American
  countries, made considerable progress in the 1990s toward the
  development of a market-oriented economy. Successes under President
  SANCHEZ DE LOZADA (1993-97) included the signing of a free trade
  agreement with Mexico and becoming an associate member of the
  Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur), as well as the privatization
  of the state airline, telephone company, railroad, electric power
  company, and oil company. Growth slowed in 1999, in part due to
  tight government budget policies, which limited needed
  appropriations for anti-poverty programs, and the fallout from the
  Asian financial crisis. In 2000, major civil disturbances held down
  growth to 2.5%. Bolivia's GDP failed to grow in 2001 due to the
  global slowdown and laggard domestic activity. Growth picked up
  slightly in 2002, but the first quarter of 2003 saw extensive civil
  riots and looting and loss of confidence in the government. Bolivia
  will remain highly dependent on foreign aid unless and until it can
  develop its substantial natural resources.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $21.15 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  2.8% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $2,500 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 20%
  industry: 20%
  services: 60% (2002 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  70% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 1.3%
  highest 10%: 32% (1999)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  58.9 (1997)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
  2.5 million

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate:
  7.6%
  note: widespread underemployment (2000)

Budget:
  revenues: $4 billion
  expenditures: $4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2002 est.)

Industries:
  mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco,
  handicrafts, clothing

Industrial production growth rate:
  3.9% (1998)

Electricity - production:
  3.901 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 44.4%
  hydro: 54%
  other: 1.5% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  3.634 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  3 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  9 million kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  44,340 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  49,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  458.8 million bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  4.05 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  1.15 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  2.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  727.2 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  soybeans, coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice, potatoes;
  timber

Exports:
  $1.3 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  soybeans, natural gas, zinc, gold, wood (2000)

Exports - partners:
  Brazil 24.3%, Switzerland 15.7%, US 14.1%, Venezuela 12.8%,
  Colombia 10.2%, Peru 5.4% (2002)

Imports:
  $1.6 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  capital goods, raw materials and semi-manufactures, chemicals,
  petroleum, food

Imports - partners:
  Brazil 22%, Argentina 17.4%, US 15.6%, Chile 7%, Japan 5.5%, Peru
  5.4%, China 4.8% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $5.9 billion (2002 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $588 million (1997)

Currency:
  boliviano (BOB)

Currency code:
  BOB

Exchange rates:
  bolivianos per US dollar - 7.17 (2002), 6.61 (2001), 6.18 (2000),
  5.81 (1999), 5.51 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Bolivia


Telephones - main lines in use:
  327,600 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  116,000 (1997)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: new subscribers face bureaucratic difficulties;
  most telephones are concentrated in La Paz and other cities; mobile
  cellular telephone use expanding rapidly
  domestic: primary trunk system, which is being expanded, employs
  digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic
  cable; mobile cellular systems are being expanded
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 171, FM 73, shortwave 77 (1999)

Radios:
  5.25 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  48 (1997)

Televisions:
  900,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bo

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  9 (2000)

Internet users:
  78,000 (2000)

Transportation Bolivia


Railways:
  total: 3,519 km
  narrow gauge: 3,519 km 1.000-m gauge (2002)

Highways:
  total: 53,790 km
  paved: 3,496 km (including 13 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 50,294 km (2000 est.)

Waterways:
  10,000 km (commercially navigable)

Pipelines:
  gas 4,860 km; liquid petroleum gas 47 km; oil 2,460 km; refined
  products 1,589 km; unknown (oil/water) 247 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Puerto Aguirre (on the Paraguay/Parana waterway, at the
  Bolivia/Brazil border); also, Bolivia has free port privileges in
  maritime ports in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay

Merchant marine:
  total: 53 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 347,535 GRT/591,113 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 25, chemical tanker 4, container 4,
  livestock carrier 1, petroleum tanker 12, roll on/roll off 1,
  short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 1
  note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
  Belize 2, China 2, Cuba 1, Cyprus 1, Egypt 1, Honduras 1, Latvia 2,
  Liberia 2, Panama 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Saudi
  Arabia 1, Singapore 1, South Korea 3, Switzerland 1, Ukraine 1, UAE
  5, US 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:
  1,081 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 12
  over 3,047 m: 4
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1,069
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 64
  914 to 1,523 m: 225
  under 914 m: 776 (2002)

Military Bolivia


Military branches:
  Army (Ejercito Boliviano), Navy (Fuerza Naval, includes Marines),
  Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana), National Police Force (Policia
  Nacional de Bolivia)

Military manpower - military age:
  19 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,118,908 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,380,883 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 96,003 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $147 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.8% (FY99)

Transnational Issues Bolivia


Disputes - international:
  continues to press Chile and Peru to restore the Atacama corridor
  ceded to Chile in 1884; Chile demands water rights to Bolivia's Rio
  Lauca and Silala Spring

Illicit drugs:
  world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Colombia and Peru)
  with an estimated 24,400 hectares under cultivation in June 2002, a
  23% increase from June 2001; intermediate coca products and cocaine
  exported to or through Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile to the
  US and other international drug markets; eradication and alternative
  crop programs under the SANCHEZ DE LOZADA administration have been
  unable to keep pace with farmers' attempts to increase cultivation
  after significant reductions in 1998 and 1999; money-laundering
  activity related to narcotics trade, especially along the borders
  with Brazil and Paraguay


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Bosnia and Herzegovina

Introduction Bosnia and Herzegovina


Background:
  Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in October
  1991, was followed by a declaration of independence from the former
  Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic
  Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and
  Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning
  the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form
  a "greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the
  number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement
  creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed
  a peace agreement that brought to a halt three years of interethnic
  civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December
  1995). The Dayton Agreement retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's
  international boundaries and created a joint multi-ethnic and
  democratic government. This national government was charged with
  conducting foreign, economic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was
  a second tier of government comprised of two entities roughly equal
  in size: the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and
  the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS
  governments were charged with overseeing internal functions. In
  1995-96, a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of
  60,000 troops served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military
  aspects of the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led
  Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission is to deter renewed
  hostilities. SFOR remains in place although troop levels were
  reduced to approximately 12,000 by the close of 2002.

Geography Bosnia and Herzegovina


Location:
  Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia

Geographic coordinates:
  44 00 N, 18 00 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 51,129 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 51,129 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,459 km
  border countries: Croatia 932 km, Serbia and Montenegro 527 km

Coastline:
  20 km

Maritime claims:
  NA

Climate:
  hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short,
  cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along
  coast

Terrain:
  mountains and valleys

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
  highest point: Maglic 2,386 m

Natural resources:
  coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, forests, copper, chromium, lead,
  zinc, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 9.8%
  permanent crops: 2.94%
  other: 87.26% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  20 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues:
  air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of
  urban waste are limited; water shortages and destruction of
  infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of
  the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders, the country is
  divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the
  territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about
  49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous
  to Croatia and Serbia and Montenegro (Montenegro), and traditionally
  has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority in the west and an
  ethnic Serb majority in the east

People Bosnia and Herzegovina


Population:
  3,989,018 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 19.4% (male 397,810; female 377,005)
  15-64 years: 70.5% (male 1,439,383; female 1,372,891)
  65 years and over: 10.1% (male 171,643; female 230,286) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 35.5 years
  male: 35.1 years
  female: 35.9 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  0.48% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  12.65 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  8.21 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 22.7 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 19.85 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 25.37 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 72.29 years
  male: 69.56 years
  female: 75.22 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.71 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  100 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bosnian(s)
  adjective: Bosnian

Ethnic groups:
  Serb 37.1%, Bosniak 48%, Croat 14.3%, other 0.6% (2000)
  note: Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid
  confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam

Religions:
  Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%, other
  10%

Languages:
  Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian

Literacy:
  definition: NA
  total population: NA%
  male: NA%
  female: NA%

Government Bosnia and Herzegovina


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina
  local long form: none
  local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina

Government type:
  emerging federal democratic republic

Capital:
  Sarajevo

Administrative divisions:
  there are two first-order administrative divisions and one
  internationally supervised district* - Brcko district (Brcko
  Distrikt)*, the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
  (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika
  Srpska; note - Brcko district is in northeastern Bosnia and is an
  administrative unit under the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina;
  the district remains under international supervision

Independence:
  1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia; referendum for independence was
  completed 1 March 1992; independence was declared 3 March 1992)

National holiday:
  National Day, 25 November (1943)

Constitution:
  the Dayton Agreement, signed 14 December 1995, included a new
  constitution now in force; note - each of the entities also has its
  own constitution

Legal system:
  based on civil law system

Suffrage:
  16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Dragan COVIC (chairman
  since 27 June 2003; presidency member since 5 October 2002 - Croat)
  other members of the three-member rotating (every eight months)
  presidency: Sulejman TIHIC (since 5 October 2002 - Bosniak) and
  Borislav PARAVAC (since 10 April 2003 - Serb); note - Mirko SAROVIC
  resigned 2 April 2003
  elections: the three members of the presidency (one Bosniak, one
  Croat, one Serb) are elected by popular vote for a four-year term;
  the member with the most votes becomes the chairman unless he or she
  was the incumbent chairman at the time of the election, but the
  chairmanship rotates every eight months; election last held 5
  October 2002 (next to be held NA 2006); the chairman of the Council
  of Ministers is appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the
  National House of Representatives
  head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Adnan
  TERZIC (since 20 December 2002),
  cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman;
  approved by the National House of Representatives
  election results: percent of vote - Mirko SAROVIC with 35.5% of the
  Serb vote was elected chairman of the collective presidency for the
  first eight months; Dragan COVIC received 61.5% of the Croat vote;
  Sulejman TIHIC received 37% of the Bosniak vote
  note: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Niko
  LOZANCIC (since 27 January 2003); Vice Presidents Sahbaz DZIHANOVIC
  (since NA 2003) and Desnica RADIVOJEVIC (since NA 2003); President
  of the Republika Srpska: Dragan COVIC (since 28 November 2002)

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina consists of the
  National House of Representatives or Predstavnicki Dom (42 seats -
  elected by proportional representation, 28 seats allocated from the
  Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 14 seats from the Republika
  Srpska; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  and the House of Peoples or Dom Naroda (15 seats - 5 Bosniak, 5
  Croat, 5 Serb; members elected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's
  House of Representatives and the Republika Srpska's National
  Assembly to serve four-year terms); note - Bosnia's election law
  specifies four-year terms for the state and first-order
  administrative division entity legislatures
  election results: National House of Representatives - percent of
  vote by party/coalition - SDA 21.9%, SDS 14.0%, SBiH 10.5%, SDP
  10.4%, SNSD 9.8%, HDZ 9.5%, PDP 4.6%, others 19.3%; seats by
  party/coalition - SDA 10, SDS 5, SBiH 6, SDP 4, SNSD 3, HDZ 5, PDP
  2, others 7; House of Peoples - percent of vote by party/coalition -
  NA%; seats by party/coalition - NA
  elections: National House of Representatives - elections last held 5
  October 2002 (next to be held in NA 2006); House of Peoples - last
  constituted NA January 2003 (next to be constituted in 2007)
  note: the Bosniak/Croat Federation has a bicameral legislature that
  consists of a House of Representatives (98 seats; members elected by
  popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held 5
  October 2002 (next to be held NA October 2006); percent of vote by
  party - NA%; seats by party/coalition - SDA 32, HDZ-BiH 16, SDP 15,
  SBiH 15, other 20; and a House of Peoples (60 seats - 30 Bosniak, 30
  Croat); last constituted December 2002; the Republika Srpska has a
  National Assembly (83 seats; members elected by popular vote to
  serve four-year terms); elections last held 5 October 2002 (next to
  be held in the fall of 2006); percent of vote by party - NA%; seats
  by party/coalition - SDS 26, SNSD 19, PDP 9, SDA 6, SRS 4, SPRS 3,
  DNZ 3, SBiH 4, SDP 3, others 6; as a result of the 2002
  constitutional reform process, a 28-member Republika Srpska Council
  of Peoples (COP) was established in the Republika Srpska National
  Assembly; each constituent nation and "others" will have eight
  delegates

Judicial branch:
  BiH Constitutional Court (consists of nine members: four members
  are selected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of
  Representatives, two members by the Republika Srpska's National
  Assembly, and three non-Bosnian members by the president of the
  European Court of Human Rights); BiH State Court (consists of nine
  judges and three divisions - Administrative, Appellate and Criminal
  - having jurisdiction over cases related to state-level law and
  appellate jurisdiction over cases initiated in the entities; note -
  a War Crimes Chamber may be added at a future date)
  note: the entities each have a Supreme Court; each entity also has a
  number of lower courts; there are 10 cantonal courts in the
  Federation, plus a number of municipal courts; the Republika Srpska
  has five municipal courts

Political parties and leaders:
  Alliance of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK];
  Bosnian Party or BOSS [Mirnes AJANOVIC]; Civic Democratic Party or
  GDS [Ilija SIMIC]; Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and
  Herzegovina or HDZ [Barisa COLAK (acting)]; Croat Christian
  Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HKDU [Mijo
  IVANIC-LONIC]; Croat Party of Rights or HSP [Zdravko HRISTIC]; Croat
  Peasants Party or HSS [Ilija SIMIC]; Democratic National Union or
  DNZ [Fikret ABDIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDS [Rasim KADIC];
  New Croat Initiative or NHI [Kresimir ZUBAK]; Party for Bosnia and
  Herzegovina or SBiH [Safet HALILOVIC]; Party of Democratic Action or
  SDA [Sulejman TIHIC]; Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Mladen
  IVANIC]; Pro-European People's Party or PROENS [Jadranko PRLIC];
  Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Dragan KALINIC]; Serb Radical Party of
  the Republika Srpska or SRS-RS [Radislav KANJERIC]; Social
  Democratic Party of BIH or SDP [Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA]; Socialist Party
  of Republika Srpska or SPRS [Petar DJOKIC]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  BIS, CE, CEI, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, IDA,
  IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO,
  ITU, NAM (guest), OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
  (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Igor DAVIDOVIC
  chancery: 2109 E Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
  telephone: [1] (202) 337-1500
  consulate(s) general: New York
  FAX: [1] (202) 337-1502

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Clifford G. BOND
  embassy: Alipasina 43, 71000 Sarajevo
  mailing address: use street address
  telephone: [387] (33) 445-700
  FAX: [387] (33) 659-722
  branch office(s): Banja Luka, Mostar

Flag description:
  a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow
  isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the
  remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full five-pointed
  white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse
  of the triangle

Government - note:
  The Dayton Agreement, signed in Paris on 14 December 1995, retained
  Bosnia and Herzegovina's exterior border and created a joint
  multi-ethnic and democratic government. This national government -
  based on proportional representation similar to that which existed
  in the former socialist regime - is charged with conducting foreign,
  economic, and fiscal policy. The Dayton Agreement also recognized a
  second tier of government, comprised of two entities - a joint
  Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian
  Serb Republika Srpska (RS) - each presiding over roughly one-half
  the territory. The Federation and RS governments are charged with
  overseeing internal functions. The Bosniak/Croat Federation is
  further divided into 10 cantons. The Dayton Agreement established
  the Office of the High Representative (OHR) to oversee the
  implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement.

Economy Bosnia and Herzegovina


Economy - overview:
  Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to The Former Yugoslav Republic
  of Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old Yugoslav federation.
  Although agriculture is almost all in private hands, farms are small
  and inefficient, and the republic traditionally is a net importer of
  food. Industry has been greatly overstaffed, one reflection of the
  socialist economic structure of Yugoslavia. TITO had pushed the
  development of military industries in the republic with the result
  that Bosnia hosted a number of Yugoslavia's defense plants. The
  bitter interethnic warfare in Bosnia caused production to plummet by
  80% from 1990 to 1995, unemployment to soar, and human misery to
  multiply. With an uneasy peace in place, output recovered in 1996-99
  at high percentage rates from a low base; but output growth slowed
  in 2000-02. GDP remains far below the 1990 level. Economic data are
  of limited use because, although both entities issue figures,
  national-level statistics are limited. Moreover, official data do
  not capture the large share of black market activity. The marka -
  the national currency introduced in 1998 - is now pegged to the
  euro, and the Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina has
  dramatically increased its reserve holdings. Implementation of
  privatization, however, has been slow, and local entities only
  reluctantly support national-level institutions. Banking reform
  accelerated in 2001 as all the Communist-era payments bureaus were
  shut down. The country receives substantial amounts of
  reconstruction assistance and humanitarian aid from the
  international community but will have to prepare for an era of
  declining assistance.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $7.3 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  2.3% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,900 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 13%
  industry: 40.9%
  services: 46.1% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.5% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  1.026 million

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate:
  40% (2002 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $1.9 billion
  expenditures: $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1999 est.)

Industries:
  steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, vehicle
  assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank and
  aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining (2001)

Industrial production growth rate:
  7% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  9.979 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 53.5%
  hydro: 46.5%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  8.116 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  2.569 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  1.405 billion kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  20,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  300 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  300 million cu m (2001 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock

Exports:
  $1.15 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  metals, clothing, wood products

Exports - partners:
  Italy 31.6%, Croatia 18%, Germany 12.9%, Austria 10.1%, Slovenia
  6.9%, Greece 4.3% (2002)

Imports:
  $2.8 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  Croatia 23.7%, Slovenia 14.8%, Germany 14%, Italy 13.1%, Hungary
  8%, Austria 7.7% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $2.8 billion (2001)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $650 million (2001 est.)

Currency:
  marka (BAM)

Currency code:
  BAM

Exchange rates:
  marka per US dollar - NA (2002), 2.19 (2001), 2.12 (2000), 1.84
  (1999), 1.76 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Bosnia and Herzegovina


Telephones - main lines in use:
  303,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  9,000 (1997)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: telephone and telegraph network needs
  modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below average as
  contrasted with services in other former Yugoslav republics
  domestic: NA
  international: no satellite earth stations

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 8, FM 16, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  940,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  33 (plus 277 repeaters) (September 1995)

Televisions:
  NA

Internet country code:
  .ba

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  3 (2000)

Internet users:
  45,000 (2002)

Transportation Bosnia and Herzegovina


Railways:
  total: 1,021 km (795 km electrified)
  standard gauge: 1,021 km 1.435-m gauge (2002)

Highways:
  total: 21,846 km
  paved: 11,424 km
  unpaved: 10,422 km (1999 est)

Waterways:
  NA km; large sections of the Sava blocked by downed bridges, silt,
  and debris

Pipelines:
  gas 170 km; oil 9 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac, and Brcko (all
  inland waterway ports on the Sava), Orasje

Merchant marine:
  none (2002 est.)

Airports:
  32 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 14
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
  under 914 m: 3 (2002)
  914 to 1523 m: 1

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 18
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 7
  under 914 m: 10 (2002)

Heliports:
  5 (2002)

Military Bosnia and Herzegovina


Military branches:
  VF Army (the air and air defense forces are subordinate commands
  within the Army), VRS Army (the air and air defense forces are
  subordinate commands within the Army)

Military manpower - military age:
  19 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 1,132,476 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 897,856 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 29,861 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $234.3 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  4.5% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Bosnia and Herzegovina


Disputes - international:
  Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia and Montenegro have delimited
  about half of their boundary, but sections along the Drina River
  remain in dispute; discussions continue with Croatia on problem
  sections of the Una River and villages at the base of Mount
  Pljesevica

Illicit drugs:
  minor transit point for marijuana and opiate trafficking routes to
  Western Europe; organized crime launders money, but the lack of a
  well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility
  as a money-laundering center


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Botswana

Introduction Botswana


Background:
  Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted
  its new name upon independence in 1966. Four decades of
  uninterrupted civilian leadership, progressive social policies, and
  significant capital investment have created one of the most dynamic
  economies in Africa. Mineral extraction, principally diamond mining,
  dominates economic activity, though tourism is a growing sector due
  to the country's conservation practices and extensive nature
  preserves. Botswana has the world's highest known rate of HIV/AIDS
  infection, but also one of Africa's most progressive and
  comprehensive programs for dealing with the disease.

Geography Botswana


Location:
  Southern Africa, north of South Africa

Geographic coordinates:
  22 00 S, 24 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 600,370 sq km
  water: 15,000 sq km
  land: 585,370 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 4,013 km
  border countries: Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe
  813 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

Terrain:
  predominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in
  southwest

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m
  highest point: Tsodilo Hills 1,489 m

Natural resources:
  diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore,
  silver

Land use:
  arable land: 0.61%
  permanent crops: 0.01%
  other: 99.38% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  10 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west,
  carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure
  visibility

Environment - current issues:
  overgrazing; desertification; limited fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
  Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country

People Botswana


Population:
  1,573,267
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 39.5% (male 314,764; female 307,024)
  15-64 years: 56% (male 424,726; female 455,967)
  65 years and over: 4.5% (male 30,599; female 40,187) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 19.1 years
  male: 18.4 years
  female: 19.8 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  -0.55% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  25.5 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  31 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 67.34 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 66.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 68.36 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 32.26 years
  male: 32.2 years
  female: 32.32 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.27 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  38.8% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  330,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  26,000 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
  adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

Ethnic groups:
  Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, other, including
  Kgalagadi and white 7%

Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 85%, Christian 15%

Languages:
  English (official), Setswana

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 79.8%
  male: 76.9%
  female: 82.4% (2003 est.)

Government Botswana


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Botswana
  conventional short form: Botswana
  former: Bechuanaland

Government type:
  parliamentary republic

Capital:
  Gaborone

Administrative divisions:
  9 districts and four town councils*; Central, Francistown*,
  Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Lobatse*,
  Northwest, Northeast, Selebi-Pikwe*, Southeast, Southern

Independence:
  30 September 1966 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day (Botswana Day), 30 September (1966)

Constitution:
  March 1965, effective 30 September 1966

Legal system:
  based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; judicial review
  limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory
  ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Festus MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) and
  Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 July 1998); note - the
  president is both the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President Festus MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) and
  Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 July 1998); note - the
  president is both the chief of state and head of government
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a
  five-year term; election last held 16 October 1999 (next to be held
  NA October 2004); vice president appointed by the president
  election results: Festus MOGAE elected president; percent of
  National Assembly vote - 54.3%

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Chiefs (a largely
  advisory 15-member body consisting of the chiefs of the eight
  principal tribes, four elected subchiefs, and three members selected
  by the other 12 members) and the National Assembly (44 seats, 40
  members are directly elected by popular vote and 4 are appointed by
  the majority party; members serve five-year terms)
  elections: National Assembly elections last held 16 October 1999
  (next to be held NA October 2004)
  election results: percent of vote by party - BDP 54.3%, BNF 24.7%,
  other 21%; seats by party - BDP 33, BNF 6, other 1

Judicial branch:
  High Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrates' Courts (one in each
  district)

Political parties and leaders:
  Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Festus MOGAE]; Botswana National
  Front or BNF [Otswoletse MOUPO]; Botswana Congress Party or BCP
  [Mokgweetsi KGOSIPULA]; Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Ephraim
  Lepetu SETSHWAELO]
  note: a number of minor parties joined forces in 1999 to form the
  BAM but did not capture any parliamentary seats; the BAM parties
  are: the United Action Party [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO], the
  Independence Freedom Party or IFP [Motsamai MPHO], and the Botswana
  Progressive Union [D. K. KWELE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACP, AfDB, C, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM,
  IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU,
  OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Lapologang Caesar LEKOA
  chancery: 1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
  FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164
  telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph HUGGINS
  embassy: address NA, Gaborone
  mailing address: Embassy Enclave, P. O. Box 90, Gaborone
  telephone: [267] 353982
  FAX: [267] 312782

Flag description:
  light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center

Economy Botswana


Economy - overview:
  Botswana has maintained one of the world's highest growth rates
  since independence in 1966. Through fiscal discipline and sound
  management, Botswana has transformed itself from one of the poorest
  countries in the world to a middle-income country with a per capita
  GDP of $9,500 in 2002. Two major investment services rank Botswana
  as the best credit risk in Africa. Diamond mining has fueled much of
  the expansion and currently accounts for more than one-third of GDP
  and for nine-tenths of export earnings. Tourism, subsistence
  farming, and cattle raising are other key sectors. On the downside,
  the government must deal with high rates of unemployment and
  poverty. Unemployment officially is 21%, but unofficial estimates
  place it closer to 40%. HIV/AIDS infection rates are the highest in
  the world and threaten Botswana's impressive economic gains.
  Long-term prospects are overshadowed by the prospects of a leveling
  off in diamond mining production.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $13.48 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  4.2% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $8,500 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 4%
  industry: 44% (including 36% mining)
  services: 52% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  47%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  8.1% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  264,000 formal sector employees (2000)

Labor force - by occupation:
  NA

Unemployment rate:
  40% (official rate is 21%) (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $2.3 billion
  expenditures: $2.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (FY 01/02)

Industries:
  diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash; livestock
  processing; textiles

Industrial production growth rate:
  2.4% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:
  409.8 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  1.564 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  1.183 billion kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  16,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products:
  livestock, sorghum, maize, millet, beans, sunflowers, groundnuts

Exports:
  $2.4 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  diamonds 90%, copper, nickel, soda ash, meat, textiles

Exports - partners:
  European Free Trade Association (EFTA) 87%, Southern African
  Customs Union (SACU) 7%, Zimbabwe 4% (2000)

Imports:
  $1.9 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  foodstuffs, machinery, electrical goods, transport equipment,
  textiles, fuel and petroleum products, wood and paper products,
  metal and metal products

Imports - partners:
  Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 74%, EFTA 17%, Zimbabwe 4%
  (2000)

Debt - external:
  $360 million (2002)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $73 million (1995)

Currency:
  pula (BWP)

Currency code:
  BWP

Exchange rates:
  pulas per US dollar - 6.33 (2002), 5.84 (2001), 5.1 (2000), 4.62
  (1999), 4.23 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Botswana


Telephones - main lines in use:
  131,000 (September 2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  270,000 (September 2001)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: the system is expanding with the growth of
  mobile cellular service and participation in regional development
  domestic: small system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay
  links, and a few radiotelephone communication stations; mobile
  cellular service is growing fast
  international: two international exchanges; digital microwave radio
  relay links to Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa;
  satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 8, FM 13, shortwave 4 (2001)

Radios:
  252,720 (2000)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2001)

Televisions:
  31,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bw

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  11 (2001)

Internet users:
  33,000 (2001)

Transportation Botswana


Railways:
  total: 888 km
  narrow gauge: 888 km 1.067-m gauge (2002)

Highways:
  total: 10,217 km
  paved: 5,619 km
  unpaved: 4,598 km (1999)

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  none

Airports:
  86 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 10
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 76
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
  914 to 1,523 m: 55
  under 914 m: 18 (2002)

Military Botswana


Military branches:
  Botswana Defense Force (including Army and Air Wing), Botswana
  National Police

Military manpower - military age:
  18 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 381,056 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 201,402 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 20,476 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $207.3 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  3.5% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Botswana


Disputes - international:
  established a commission with Namibia to resolve small residual
  disputes along the Caprivi Strip, including the Situngu marshlands
  along the Linyanti River; downstream Botswana residents protest
  Namibia's planned construction of the Okavango hydroelectric dam on
  Popa Falls; dormant dispute remains where Botswana, Namibia, Zambia,
  and Zimbabwe boundaries converge


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Bouvet Island

Introduction Bouvet Island


Background:
  This uninhabited volcanic island is almost entirely covered by
  glaciers and is difficult to approach. It was discovered in 1739 by
  a French naval officer after whom the island was named. No claim was
  made until 1825, when the British flag was raised. In 1928, the UK
  waived its claim in favor of Norway, which had occupied the island
  the previous year. In 1971, Bouvet Island and the adjacent
  territorial waters were designated a nature reserve. Since 1977,
  Norway has run an automated meteorological station on the island.

Geography Bouvet Island


Location:
  island in the South Atlantic Ocean, southwest of the Cape of Good
  Hope (South Africa)

Geographic coordinates:
  54 26 S, 3 24 E

Map references:
  Antarctic Region

Area:
  total: 58.5 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 58.5 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  29.6 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 4 NM

Climate:
  antarctic

Terrain:
  volcanic; coast is mostly inaccessible

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: South Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Olav Peak 935 m

Natural resources:
  none

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100% (93% ice) (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  NA

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Geography - note:
  covered by glacial ice; declared a nature reserve

People Bouvet Island


Population:
  uninhabited (July 2003 est.)

Government Bouvet Island


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Bouvet Island

Dependency status:
  territory of Norway; administered by the Polar Department of the
  Ministry of Justice and Police from Oslo

Legal system:
  the laws of Norway, where applicable, apply

Flag description:
  the flag of Norway is used

Economy Bouvet Island


Economy - overview:
  no economic activity; declared a nature reserve

Communications Bouvet Island


Internet country code:
  .bv

Communications - note:
  automatic meteorological station

Transportation Bouvet Island


Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  none; offshore anchorage only

Military Bouvet Island


Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of Norway

Transnational Issues Bouvet Island


Disputes - international:
  none


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Brazil

Introduction Brazil


Background:
  Following three centuries under the rule of Portugal, Brazil became
  an independent nation in 1822. By far the largest and most populous
  country in South America, Brazil has overcome more than half a
  century of military intervention in the governance of the country to
  pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of the
  interior. Exploiting vast natural resources and a large labor pool,
  Brazil is today South America's leading economic power and a
  regional leader. Highly unequal income distribution remains a
  pressing problem.

Geography Brazil


Location:
  Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean

Geographic coordinates:
  10 00 S, 55 00 W

Map references:
  South America

Area:
  total: 8,511,965 sq km
  land: 8,456,510 sq km
  note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas,
  Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao
  Paulo
  water: 55,455 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries:
  total: 14,691 km
  border countries: Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia 3,400 km, Colombia
  1,643 km, French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km, Paraguay 1,290 km,
  Peru 1,560 km, Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km, Venezuela 2,200 km

Coastline:
  7,491 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM
  continental shelf: 200 NM or to edge of the continental margin
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

Climate:
  mostly tropical, but temperate in south

Terrain:
  mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills,
  mountains, and narrow coastal belt

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Pico da Neblina 3,014 m

Natural resources:
  bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum,
  tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber

Land use:
  arable land: 6.3%
  permanent crops: 1.42%
  other: 92.28% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  26,560 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in
  south

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a
  multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; there
  is a lucrative illegal wildlife trade; air and water pollution in
  Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land
  degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining
  activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spills

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living
  Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate
  Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
  Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with
  every South American country except Chile and Ecuador

People Brazil


Population:
  182,032,604
  note: Brazil took a count in August 2000, which reported a
  population of 169,799,170; that figure was about 3.3% lower than
  projections by the US Census Bureau, and is close to the implied
  underenumeration of 4.6% for the 1991 census; estimates for this
  country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality
  due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant
  mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and
  changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would
  otherwise be expected (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 27.1% (male 25,151,855; female 24,196,506)
  15-64 years: 67.2% (male 60,667,014; female 61,683,580)
  65 years and over: 5.7% (male 4,232,784; female 6,100,865) (2003
  est.)

Median age:
  total: 27 years
  male: 26.2 years
  female: 27.7 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  1.15% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  17.67 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  6.13 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 31.74 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 27.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 35.61 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 71.13 years
  male: 67.16 years
  female: 75.3 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.01 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.7% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  610,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  8,400 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Brazilian(s)
  adjective: Brazilian

Ethnic groups:
  white (includes Portuguese, German, Italian, Spanish, Polish) 55%,
  mixed white and black 38%, black 6%, other (includes Japanese, Arab,
  Amerindian) 1%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic (nominal) 80%

Languages:
  Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 86.4%
  male: 86.1%
  female: 86.6% (2003 est.)

Government Brazil


Country name:
  conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
  conventional short form: Brazil
  local short form: Brasil
  local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil

Government type:
  federative republic

Capital:
  Brasilia

Administrative divisions:
  26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district*
  (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara,
  Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso,
  Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco,
  Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul,
  Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins

Independence:
  7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 7 September (1822)

Constitution:
  5 October 1988

Legal system:
  based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory
  over 18 and under 70 years of age

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (since 1
  January 2003); Vice President Jose ALENCAR (since 1 January 2003);
  note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government
  election results: in runoff election 27 October 2002, Luiz Inacio
  LULA DA SILVA (PT) was elected with 61.3% of the vote; Jose SERRA
  (PSDB) 38.7%
  elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 6 October
  2002 (next to be held NA October 2006); runoff election held 27
  October 2002
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  head of government: President Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (since 1
  January 2003); Vice President Jose ALENCAR (since 1 January 2003);
  note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government

Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of the
  Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; three members from each
  state or federal district elected according to the principle of
  majority to serve eight-year terms; one-third elected after a
  four-year period, two-thirds elected after the next four-year
  period) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513
  seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve
  four-year terms)
  election results: Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%;
  seats by party PMBD 19, PFL 19, PT 14, PSDB 11, PDT 5, PSB 4, PL 3,
  PTB 3, PPS 1, PSD 1, PPB 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by
  party - NA%; seats by party - PT 91, PFL 84, PMDB 74, PSDB 71, PPB
  49, PL 26, PTB 26, PSB 22, PDT 21, PPS 15, PCdoB 12, PRONA 6, PV 5,
  other 11
  elections: Federal Senate - last held 6 October 2002 for two-thirds
  of the Senate (next to be held NA October 2006 for one-third of the
  Senate); Chamber of Deputies - last held 6 October 2002 (next to be
  held NA October 2006)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Federal Tribunal (11 ministers are appointed by the
  president and confirmed by the Senate); Higher Tribunal of Justice;
  Regional Federal Tribunals (judges are appointed for life)

Political parties and leaders:
  Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Michel TEMER];
  Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Jose Carlos MARTINEZ]; Brazilian
  Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Senator Jose ANIBAL]; Brazilian
  Socialist Party or PSB [Miguel ARRAES]; Brazilian Progressive Party
  or PPB [Paulo Salim MALUF]; Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB
  [Renato RABELLO]; Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Leonel BRIZOLA];
  Green Party or PV [leader NA]; Liberal Front Party or PFL [Jorge
  BORNHAUSEN]; Liberal Party or PL [Deputy Valdemar COSTA Neto];
  National Order Reconstruction Party or PRONA [Dr. Eneas CARNEIRO];
  Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Senator Roberto FREIRE]; Social
  Democratic Party or PSD [leader NA]; Worker's Party or PT [Jose
  GENOINO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  left wing of the Catholic Church; Landless Worker's Movement; labor
  unions allied to leftist Worker's Party

International organization participation:
  AfDB, BIS, ECLAC, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF,
  IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur,
  NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMISET, UNMOP, UNMOVIC, UNU, UPU, WCL, WCO,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Rubens Antonio BARBOSA; note -
  Ambassador-Designate Roberto ABDENUR expected to arrive March 2004
  FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827
  consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
  New York, and San Francisco
  chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Donna J. HRINAK
  embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Distrito Federal
  Cep 70403-900, Brasilia
  mailing address: Unit 3500, APO AA 34030
  telephone: [55] (61) 312-7000
  FAX: [55] (61) 225-9136
  consulate(s) general: Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
  consulate(s): Recife

Flag description:
  green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue
  celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one for each state
  and the Federal District) arranged in the same pattern as the night
  sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band with the
  motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)

Economy Brazil


Economy - overview:
  Possessing large and well-developed agricultural, mining,
  manufacturing, and service sectors, Brazil's economy outweighs that
  of all other South American countries and is expanding its presence
  in world markets. The maintenance of large current account deficits
  via capital account surpluses became problematic as investors became
  more risk averse to emerging markets as a consequence of the Asian
  financial crisis in 1997 and the Russian bond default in August
  1998. After crafting a fiscal adjustment program and pledging
  progress on structural reform, Brazil received a $41.5 billion
  IMF-led international support program in November 1998. In January
  1999, the Brazilian Central Bank announced that the real would no
  longer be pegged to the US dollar. The consequent devaluation helped
  moderate the downturn in economic growth in 1999, and the country
  posted moderate GDP growth in 2000. Economic growth slowed
  considerably in 2001-03 - to less than 2% - because of a slowdown in
  major markets and the hiking of interest rates by the Central Bank
  to combat inflationary pressures. New president DA SILVA, who took
  office 1 January 2003, has given priority to reforming the complex
  tax code, trimming the overblown civil service pension system, and
  continuing the fight against inflation.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $1.376 trillion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  1.5% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $7,600 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 8%
  industry: 36%
  services: 56% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  22% (1998 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 0.7%
  highest 10%: 48% (1998)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  60.7 (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  8.3% (2002)

Labor force:
  79 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  services 53%, agriculture 23%, industry 24%

Unemployment rate:
  6.4% (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $100.6 billion
  expenditures: $91.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2000)

Industries:
  textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel,
  aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment

Industrial production growth rate:
  2.3% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  321.2 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 8.3%
  hydro: 82.7%
  other: 4.6% (2001)
  nuclear: 4.4%

Electricity - consumption:
  335.9 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  37.19 billion kWh; note - supplied by Paraguay (2001)

Oil - production:
  1.561 million bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  2.199 million bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  8.507 billion bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  5.95 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  9.59 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  3.64 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  221.7 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef

Exports:
  $59.4 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  transport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, autos

Exports - partners:
  US 23.8%, Argentina 8.5%, Germany 5%, China 4.3%, Netherlands 4.2%
  (2002)

Imports:
  $46.2 billion f.o.b. (2002)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery, electrical, and transport equipment, chemical products,
  oil

Imports - partners:
  US 23.3%, Argentina 12.6%, Germany 8.7%, France 5.2% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $222.4 billion (2002)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $30 billion IMF disbursement (2002)

Currency:
  real (BRL)

Currency code:
  BRL

Exchange rates:
  reals per US dollar - 2.92 (2002), 2.36 (2001), 1.83 (2000), 1.81
  (1999), 1.16 (1998)
  note: from October 1994 through 14 January 1999, the official rate
  was determined by a managed float; since 15 January 1999, the
  official rate floats independently with respect to the US dollar

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Brazil


Telephones - main lines in use:
  17.039 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  4.4 million (1997)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: good working system
  domestic: extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic
  satellite system with 64 earth stations
  international: 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations
  - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region
  east), connected by microwave relay system to Mercosur Brazilsat B3
  satellite earth station

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1,365, FM 296, shortwave 161 (of which 91 are collocated with AM
  stations) (1999)

Radios:
  71 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  138 (1997)

Televisions:
  36.5 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .br

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  50 (2000)

Internet users:
  13.98 million (2002)

Transportation Brazil


Railways:
  total: 31,543 km (1,981 km electrified)
  broad gauge: 4,961 km 1.600-m gauge (692 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 25,992 km 1.000-m gauge (581 km electrified)
  dual gauge: 396 km 1.000-m and 1.600-m gauges (three rails) (78 km
  electrified) (2002)
  standard gauge: 194 km 1.440-m gauge (630 km electrified)

Highways:
  total: 1,724,929 km
  paved: 94,871 km
  unpaved: 1,630,058 km (2000)

Waterways:
  50,000 km

Pipelines:
  condensate/gas 243 km; gas 10,984 km; liquid petroleum gas 341 km;
  oil 5,113 km; refined products 4,800 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Belem, Fortaleza, Ilheus, Imbituba, Manaus, Paranagua, Porto
  Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande, Salvador, Santos, Vitoria

Merchant marine:
  total: 159 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 3,257,186 GRT/5,101,578 DWT
  note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
  convenience: Chile 2, Germany 6, Greece 1, Monaco 1 (2002 est.)
  ships by type: bulk 29, cargo 23, chemical tanker 7, combination
  ore/oil 7, container 12, liquefied gas 11, multi-functional
  large-load carrier 1, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 53, roll
  on/roll off 10, short-sea passenger 1

Airports:
  3,590 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 665
  over 3,047 m: 7
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 23
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 155
  914 to 1,523 m: 435
  under 914 m: 45 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 2,925
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 70
  914 to 1,523 m: 1,384
  under 914 m: 1,471 (2002)

Military Brazil


Military branches:
  Brazilian Army, Brazilian Navy (includes naval air and marines),
  Brazilian Air Force, Federal Police (paramilitary)

Military manpower - military age:
  18 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 51,381,048 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 34,347,078 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 1,744,148 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $13.408 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.9% (FY99)

Transnational Issues Brazil


Disputes - international:
  unruly region at convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay borders
  is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and drug trafficking,
  and harbors Islamist militants; uncontested dispute with Uruguay
  over certain islands in the Quarai/Cuareim and Invernada boundary
  streams and the resulting tripoint with Argentina

Illicit drugs:
  illicit producer of cannabis; minor coca cultivation in the Amazon
  region, used for domestic consumption; government has a large-scale
  eradication program to control cannabis; important transshipment
  country for Colombian and Peruvian cocaine headed for the US and
  Europe; also used by traffickers as a way station for narcotics air
  transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in drug-related
  violence and weapons smuggling; important market for Colombian,
  Bolivian, and Peruvian cocaine; illicit narcotics proceeds earned in
  Brazil are often laundered through the financial system; significant
  illicit financial activity in the Tri-Border Area


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@British Indian Ocean Territory

Introduction British Indian Ocean Territory


Background:
  Established as a territory of the UK in 1965, a number of the
  British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT) islands were transferred to
  the Seychelles when it attained independence in 1976. Subsequently,
  BIOT has consisted only of the six main island groups comprising the
  Chagos Archipelago. The largest and most southerly of the islands,
  Diego Garcia, contains a joint UK-US naval support facility. All of
  the remaining islands are uninhabited. Former agricultural workers,
  earlier residents in the islands, were relocated primarily to
  Mauritius but also to the Seychelles, between 1967 and 1973. In
  2000, a British High Court ruling invalidated the local immigration
  order that had excluded them from the archipelago, but upheld the
  special military status of Diego Garcia.

Geography British Indian Ocean Territory


Location:
  archipelago in the Indian Ocean, south of India, about one-half the
  way from Africa to Indonesia

Geographic coordinates:
  6 00 S, 71 30 E

Map references:
  Political Map of the World

Area:
  total: 60 sq km
  note: includes the entire Chagos Archipelago
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 60 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  698 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM
  territorial sea: 3 NM

Climate:
  tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds

Terrain:
  flat and low (most areas do not exceed four meters in elevation)

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: unnamed location on Diego Garcia 15 m

Natural resources:
  coconuts, fish, sugarcane

Land use:
  arable land: NEGL
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  NA

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Geography - note:
  archipelago of 2,300 islands; Diego Garcia, largest and
  southernmost island, occupies strategic location in central Indian
  Ocean; island is site of joint US-UK military facility

People British Indian Ocean Territory


Population:
  no indigenous inhabitants
  note: approximately 1,200 former agricultural workers resident in
  the Chagos Archipelago, often referred to as Chagossians or Ilois,
  were relocated to Mauritius and the Seychelles in the 1960's and
  1970's, in November 2000 they were granted the right of return by a
  British High Court ruling, though no timetable has been set; in
  2001, there were approximately 1,500 UK and US military personnel
  and 2,000 civilian contractors living on the island of Diego Garcia
  (July 2003 est.)

Government British Indian Ocean Territory


Country name:
  conventional long form: British Indian Ocean Territory
  conventional short form: none
  abbreviation: BIOT

Dependency status:
  overseas territory of the UK; administered by a commissioner,
  resident in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in London

Legal system:
  the laws of the UK, where applicable, apply

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
  head of government: Commissioner Alan HUCKLE (since 2001);
  Administrator Louise SAVILL (since NA); note - both reside in the UK
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; commissioner and
  administrator appointed by the monarch
  cabinet: NA

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description:
  white with six blue wavy horizontal stripes; the flag of the UK is
  in the upper hoist-side quadrant; the striped section bears a palm
  tree and yellow crown centered on the outer half of the flag

Economy British Indian Ocean Territory


Economy - overview:
  All economic activity is concentrated on the largest island of
  Diego Garcia, where joint UK-US defense facilities are located.
  Construction projects and various services needed to support the
  military installations are done by military and contract employees
  from the UK, Mauritius, the Philippines, and the US. There are no
  industrial or agricultural activities on the islands. When the Ilois
  return, they plan to reestablish sugarcane production and fishing.

Electricity - production:
  NA kWh; note - electricity supplied by the US military

Electricity - consumption:
  NA kWh

Communications British Indian Ocean Territory


Telephones - main lines in use:
  NA

Telephone system:
  general assessment: separate facilities for military and public
  needs are available
  domestic: all commercial telephone services are available, including
  connection to the Internet
  international: international telephone service is carried by
  satellite (2000)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  NA

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (1997)

Televisions:
  NA

Internet country code:
  .io

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Transportation British Indian Ocean Territory


Highways:
  total: NA km
  paved: short section of paved road between port and airfield on
  Diego Garcia
  unpaved: NA km

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  Diego Garcia

Airports:
  1 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  over 3,047 m: 1 (2002)

Military British Indian Ocean Territory


Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the UK; the US lease on Diego
  Garcia expires in 2016

Transnational Issues British Indian Ocean Territory


Disputes - international:
  Mauritius and Seychelles claim the Chagos Archipelago and its
  former inhabitants, who reside chiefly in Mauritius, but in 2001
  were granted UK citizenship and the right to repatriation since
  eviction in 1965; repatriation is complicated by the US military
  lease of Diego Garcia, the largest island in the chain


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@British Virgin Islands

Introduction British Virgin Islands


Background:
  First settled by the Dutch in 1648, the islands were annexed in
  1672 by the English. The economy is closely tied to the larger and
  more populous US Virgin Islands to the west; the US dollar is the
  legal currency.

Geography British Virgin Islands


Location:
  Caribbean, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean,
  east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates:
  18 30 N, 64 30 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 153 sq km
  note: comprised of 16 inhabited and more than 20 uninhabited
  islands; includes the island of Anegada
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 153 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  80 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM
  territorial sea: 3 NM

Climate:
  subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds

Terrain:
  coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep, hilly

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Mount Sage 521 m

Natural resources:
  NEGL

Land use:
  arable land: 20%
  permanent crops: 6.67%
  other: 73.33% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October)

Environment - current issues:
  limited natural fresh water resources (except for a few seasonal
  streams and springs on Tortola, most of the islands' water supply
  comes from wells and rainwater catchments)

Geography - note:
  strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico

People British Virgin Islands


Population:
  21,730 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 21.9% (male 2,401; female 2,358)
  15-64 years: 73.1% (male 8,181; female 7,709)
  65 years and over: 5% (male 578; female 503) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 30.7 years
  male: 31 years
  female: 30.4 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  2.1% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  15 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  4.46 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  10.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.15 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 18.8 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 15.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 21.86 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 76.06 years
  male: 75.07 years
  female: 77.1 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.72 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: British Virgin Islander(s)
  adjective: British Virgin Islander

Ethnic groups:
  black 83%, white, Indian, Asian and mixed

Religions:
  Protestant 86% (Methodist 33%, Anglican 17%, Church of God 9%,
  Seventh-Day Adventist 6%, Baptist 4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 2%, other
  15%), Roman Catholic 10%, none 2%, other 2% (1991)

Languages:
  English (official)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 97.8% (1991 est.)
  male: NA%
  female: NA%

Government British Virgin Islands


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: British Virgin Islands
  abbreviation: BVI

Dependency status:
  overseas territory of the UK; internal self-governing

Government type:
  NA

Capital:
  Road Town

Administrative divisions:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday:
  Territory Day, 1 July

Constitution:
  1 June 1977

Legal system:
  English law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor Tom MACAN (since 14 October 2002)
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by
  the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the
  majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually
  appointed chief minister by the governor
  head of government: Chief Minister Orlando SMITH (since 17 June 2003)
  cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from members of
  the Legislative Council

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Legislative Council (13 seats; members are elected by
  direct popular vote, one member from each of 9 electoral districts,
  four at-large members; members serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 16 May 2003 (next to be held NA 2007)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  NDP 8, VIP 5

Judicial branch:
  Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, consisting of the High Court of
  Justice and the Court of Appeal (one judge of the Supreme Court is a
  resident of the islands and presides over the High Court);
  Magistrate's Court; Juvenile Court; Court of Summary Jurisdiction

Political parties and leaders:
  Concerned Citizens Movement or CCM [Ethlyn SMITH]; National
  Democratic Party or NDP [Orlando SMITH]; United Party or UP [Gregory
  MADURO]; Virgin Islands Party or VIP [Ralph T. O'NEAL]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  Caricom (associate), CDB, ECLAC (associate), Interpol (subbureau),
  IOC, OECS (associate), UNESCO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description:
  blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
  the Virgin Islander coat of arms centered in the outer half of the
  flag; the coat of arms depicts a woman flanked on either side by a
  vertical column of six oil lamps above a scroll bearing the Latin
  word VIGILATE (Be Watchful)

Economy British Virgin Islands


Economy - overview:
  The economy, one of the most stable and prosperous in the
  Caribbean, is highly dependent on tourism, generating an estimated
  45% of the national income. An estimated 350,000 tourists, mainly
  from the US, visited the islands in 1998. Tourism suffered in 2002
  because of the lackluster US economy. In the mid-1980s, the
  government began offering offshore registration to companies wishing
  to incorporate in the islands, and incorporation fees now generate
  substantial revenues. Roughly 400,000 companies were on the offshore
  registry by yearend 2000. The adoption of a comprehensive insurance
  law in late 1994, which provides a blanket of confidentiality with
  regulated statutory gateways for investigation of criminal offenses,
  is expected to make the British Virgin Islands even more attractive
  to international business. Livestock raising is the most important
  agricultural activity; poor soils limit the islands' ability to meet
  domestic food requirements. Because of traditionally close links
  with the US Virgin Islands, the British Virgin Islands has used the
  dollar as its currency since 1959.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $320 million (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  1% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $16,000 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 1.8%
  industry: 6.2%
  services: 92% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.5% (2002)

Labor force:
  4,911 (1980)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate:
  3% (1995)

Budget:
  revenues: $121.5 million
  expenditures: $115.5 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1997)

Industries:
  tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete block,
  offshore financial center

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA

Electricity - production:
  38.1 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  35.43 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  420 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products:
  fruits, vegetables; livestock, poultry; fish

Exports:
  $25.3 million (2002)

Exports - commodities:
  rum, fresh fish, fruits, animals; gravel, sand

Exports - partners:
  Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

Imports:
  $187 million (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  building materials, automobiles, foodstuffs, machinery

Imports - partners:
  Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

Debt - external:
  $36.1 million (1997)

Economic aid - recipient:
  NA%

Currency:
  US dollar (USD)

Currency code:
  USD

Exchange rates:
  the US dollar is used

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications British Virgin Islands


Telephones - main lines in use:
  10,000 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  NA

Telephone system:
  general assessment: worldwide telephone service
  domestic: NA
  international: submarine cable to Bermuda

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  9,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (plus one cable company) (1997)

Televisions:
  4,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .vg

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  16 (2000)

Internet users:
  NA

Transportation British Virgin Islands


Railways:
  0 km

Highways:
  total: 177 km
  paved: 177 km
  unpaved: 0 km (2000)

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  Road Town

Merchant marine:
  total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) 19,203 GRT/28,864 DWT
  ships by type: cargo 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:
  3 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)

Military British Virgin Islands


Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues British Virgin Islands


Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the
  US and Europe; large offshore financial center


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Brunei

Introduction Brunei


Background:
  The Sultanate of Brunei's influence peaked between the 15th and
  17th centuries when its control extended over coastal areas of
  northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Brunei subsequently
  entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal
  succession, colonial expansion of European powers, and piracy. In
  1888, Brunei became a British protectorate; independence was
  achieved in 1984. The same family has ruled Brunei for over six
  centuries. Brunei benefits from extensive petroleum and natural gas
  fields, the source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in the
  developing world.

Geography Brunei


Location:
  Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia

Geographic coordinates:
  4 30 N, 114 40 E

Map references:
  Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 5,770 sq km
  water: 500 sq km
  land: 5,270 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries:
  total: 381 km
  border countries: Malaysia 381 km

Coastline:
  161 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM or to median line
  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  tropical; hot, humid, rainy

Terrain:
  flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
  highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, natural gas, timber

Land use:
  arable land: 0.57%
  permanent crops: 0.76%
  other: 98.67% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  10 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare

Environment - current issues:
  seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and
  Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost
  an enclave of Malaysia

People Brunei


Population:
  358,098 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 29.6% (male 54,118; female 51,902)
  15-64 years: 67.6% (male 128,421; female 113,480)
  65 years and over: 2.8% (male 4,804; female 5,373) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 26.4 years
  male: 27 years
  female: 25.7 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  2% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  19.68 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  3.39 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  3.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.1 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 13.5 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 9.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 17.09 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 74.3 years
  male: 71.9 years
  female: 76.82 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.37 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.2% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  less than 100 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Bruneian(s)
  adjective: Bruneian

Ethnic groups:
  Malay 67%, Chinese 15%, indigenous 6%, other 12%

Religions:
  Muslim (official) 67%, Buddhist 13%, Christian 10%, indigenous
  beliefs and other 10%

Languages:
  Malay (official), English, Chinese

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 91.8%
  male: 94.8%
  female: 88.5% (2003 est.)

Government Brunei


Country name:
  conventional long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
  conventional short form: Brunei

Government type:
  constitutional sultanate

Capital:
  Bandar Seri Begawan

Administrative divisions:
  4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei and
  Muara, Temburong, Tutong

Independence:
  1 January 1984 (from UK)

National holiday:
  National Day, 23 February (1984); note - 1 January 1984 was the
  date of independence from the UK, 23 February 1984 was the date of
  independence from British protection

Constitution:
  29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of
  Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1
  January 1984)

Legal system:
  based on English common law; for Muslims, Islamic Shari'a law
  supersedes civil law in a number of areas

Suffrage:
  none

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah
  (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of
  state and head of government
  head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah
  (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of
  state and head of government
  cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by
  the monarch; deals with executive matters; note - there is also a
  Religious Council (members appointed by the monarch) that advises on
  religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the
  monarch) that deals with constitutional matters, and the Council of
  Succession (members appointed by the monarch) that determines the
  succession to the throne if the need arises
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Legislative Council or Majlis Masyuarat Megeri (a privy
  council that serves only in a consultative capacity; NA seats;
  members appointed by the monarch)
  elections: last held in March 1962
  note: in 1970 the Council was changed to an appointive body by
  decree of the monarch; an elected Legislative Council is being
  considered as part of constitutional reform, but elections are
  unlikely for several years

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (chief justice and judges are sworn in by the monarch
  for three-year terms)

Political parties and leaders:
  Brunei Solidarity National Party or PPKB in Malay [Haji Mohd HATTA
  bin Haji Zainal Abidin, president]; note - the PPKB is the only
  legal political party in Brunei; it was registered in 1985 but
  became largely inactive after 1988; it was revived in 1995 and again
  in 1998; it has less than 200 registered party members; other
  parties include Brunei People's Party or PRB (banned in 1962) and
  Brunei National Democratic Party (registered in May 1965,
  deregistered by the Brunei Government in 1988)

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  APEC, ARF, ASEAN, C, ESCAP, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFRCS,
  IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW,
  UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Anak Dato Haji PUTEH
  FAX: [1] (202) 885-0560
  telephone: [1] (202) 237-1838
  chancery: 3520 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Gene B. CHRISTY
  embassy: Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri
  Begawan
  mailing address: PSC 470 (BSB), FPO AP 96507
  telephone: [673] (2) 229670
  FAX: [673] (2) 225293

Flag description:
  yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width)
  and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in
  red is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a
  swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an upturned
  crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands

Economy Brunei


Economy - overview:
  This small, wealthy economy encompasses a mixture of foreign and
  domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation, welfare measures,
  and village tradition. Crude oil and natural gas production account
  for nearly half of GDP. Per capita GDP is far above most other Third
  World countries, and substantial income from overseas investment
  supplements income from domestic production. The government provides
  for all medical services and subsidizes rice and housing. Brunei's
  leaders are concerned that steadily increased integration in the
  world economy will undermine internal social cohesion, although it
  became a more prominent player by serving as chairman for the 2000
  APEC (Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation) forum. Plans for the
  future include upgrading the labor force, reducing unemployment,
  strengthening the banking and tourist sectors, and, in general,
  further widening the economic base beyond oil and gas.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $6.5 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $18,600 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 5%
  industry: 45%
  services: 50% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  -2% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  143,400
  note: includes foreign workers and military personnel; temporary
  residents make up about 40% of labor force (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  government 48%, production of oil, natural gas, services, and
  construction 42%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 10% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  10% (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $2.5 billion
  expenditures: $2.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.35
  billion (1997 est.)

Industries:
  petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction

Industrial production growth rate:
  5% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  2.497 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  2.322 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  217,200 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  13,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  1.255 billion bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  10.35 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  1.35 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  9 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  315 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  rice, vegetables, fruits, chickens, water buffalo

Exports:
  $3 billion f.o.b. (2000 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  crude oil, natural gas, refined products

Exports - partners:
  Japan 40.3%, South Korea 12.3%, Thailand 12.1%, Australia 9.2%, US
  8.1%, China 6.4%, Singapore 5.7% (2002)

Imports:
  $1.4 billion c.i.f. (2000 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food,
  chemicals

Imports - partners:
  Singapore 30.6%, Japan 21.5%, Malaysia 17.4%, UK 6.1%, Hong Kong 4%
  (2002)

Debt - external:
  $0

Economic aid - recipient:
  $4.3 million (1995)

Currency:
  Bruneian dollar (BND)

Currency code:
  BND

Exchange rates:
  Bruneian dollars per US dollar - 1.79 (2002), 1.79 (2001), 1.72
  (2000), 1.69 (1999), 1.67 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Brunei


Telephones - main lines in use:
  79,000 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  43,524 (1996)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: service throughout the country is excellent;
  international service is good to East Asia, Europe, and the US
  domestic: every service available
  international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean
  and 1 Pacific Ocean); digital submarine cable links to Malaysia, the
  Philippines, and Singapore (2001)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 3, FM 10, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  329,000 (1998)

Television broadcast stations:
  2 (1997)

Televisions:
  201,900 (1998)

Internet country code:
  .bn

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  35,000 (2002)

Transportation Brunei


Railways:
  total: 13 km (private line)
  narrow gauge: 13 km 0.610-m gauge (2001 est.)

Highways:
  total: 2,525 km
  paved: 2,525 km
  unpaved: 0 km (2000)

Waterways:
  209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m

Pipelines:
  gas 665 km; oil 439 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Bandar Seri Begawan, Kuala Belait, Muara, Seria, Tutong

Merchant marine:
  total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 465,937 GRT/413,393 DWT
  ships by type: liquefied gas 8
  note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
  convenience: UK 7 (2002 est.)

Airports:
  2 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  over 3,047 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)

Heliports:
  3 (2002)

Military Brunei


Military branches:
  Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Royal Brunei Police

Military manpower - military age:
  18 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 110,888 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 63,966 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 3,277 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $329.7 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  5% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Brunei


Disputes - international:
  Involved in dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia,
  Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam; Brunei established an exclusive
  economic fishing zone encompassing Louisa Reef in southern Spratly
  Islands in 1984 but makes no public territorial claim to the
  offshore reefs; claimants in November 2002 signed the "Declaration
  on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea", a mechanism to
  ease tension but which fell short of a legally binding "code of
  conduct"

Illicit drugs:
  drug trafficking and illegally importing controlled substances are
  serious offenses in Brunei and carry a mandatory death penalty


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Bulgaria

Introduction Bulgaria


Background:
  The Bulgars, a Central Asian Turkic tribe, merged with the local
  Slavic inhabitants in the late 7th century to form the first
  Bulgarian state. In succeeding centuries, Bulgaria struggled with
  the Byzantine Empire to assert its place in the Balkans, but by the
  end of the 14th century the country was overrun by the Ottoman
  Turks. Bulgaria regained its independence in 1878, but having fought
  on the losing side in both World Wars, it fell within the Soviet
  sphere of influence and became a People's Republic in 1946.
  Communist domination ended in 1990, when Bulgaria held its first
  multiparty election since World War II and began the contentious
  process of moving toward political democracy and a market economy
  while combating inflation, unemployment, corruption, and crime.
  Today, reforms and democratization keep Bulgaria on a path toward
  eventual integration into NATO and the EU - with which it began
  accession negotiations in 2000.

Geography Bulgaria


Location:
  Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania and
  Turkey

Geographic coordinates:
  43 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 110,910 sq km
  water: 360 sq km
  land: 110,550 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,808 km
  border countries: Greece 494 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
  Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia and Montenegro 318 km,
  Turkey 240 km

Coastline:
  354 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 NM
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

Terrain:
  mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
  highest point: Musala 2,925 m

Natural resources:
  bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land

Land use:
  arable land: 39%
  permanent crops: 1.8%
  other: 59.2% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  8,000 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  earthquakes, landslides

Environment - current issues:
  air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw
  sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from
  air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy
  metals from metallurgical plants and industrial wastes

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85,
  Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
  Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty,
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
  Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
  Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Climate
  Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note:
  strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes
  from Europe to Middle East and Asia

People Bulgaria


Population:
  7,537,929 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 14.2% (male 549,142; female 520,057)
  15-64 years: 68.8% (male 2,551,548; female 2,632,978)
  65 years and over: 17% (male 535,165; female 749,039) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 40.5 years
  male: 38.4 years
  female: 42.4 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  -1.09% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  8.02 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  14.34 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -4.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 13.7 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 11.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 15.43 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 71.8 years
  male: 68.26 years
  female: 75.56 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.13 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% - note: no country specific models provided (2001
  est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  346 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  100 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bulgarian(s)
  adjective: Bulgarian

Ethnic groups:
  Bulgarian 83.6%, Turk 9.5%, Roma 4.6%, other 2.3% (including
  Macedonian, Armenian, Tatar, Circassian) (1998)

Religions:
  Bulgarian Orthodox 83.8%, Muslim 12.1%, Roman Catholic 1.7%, Jewish
  0.1%, Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian, and other 2.3% (1998)

Languages:
  Bulgarian, secondary languages closely correspond to ethnic
  breakdown

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98.6%
  male: 99.1%
  female: 98.2% (2003 est.)

Government Bulgaria


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Bulgaria
  conventional short form: Bulgaria

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  Sofia

Administrative divisions:
  28 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast); Blagoevgrad, Burgas,
  Dobrich, Gabrovo, Khaskovo, Kurdzhali, Kyustendil, Lovech, Montana,
  Pazardzhik, Pernik, Pleven, Plovdiv, Razgrad, Ruse, Shumen,
  Silistra, Sliven, Smolyan, Sofiya, Sofiya-Grad, Stara Zagora,
  Turgovishte, Varna, Veliko Turnovo, Vidin, Vratsa, Yambol

Independence:
  3 March 1878 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday:
  Liberation Day, 3 March (1878)

Constitution:
  adopted 12 July 1991

Legal system:
  civil law and criminal law based on Roman law; accepts compulsory
  ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Georgi PURVANOV (since 22 January 2002);
  Vice President Angel MARIN (since 22 January 2002)
  head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime
  Minister) Simeon SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA (since 24 July 2001); Deputy
  Prime Ministers Nikolay VASILEV (since 24 July 2001), and Lidiya
  SHULEVA (since 24 July 2001), Plamen PANAYOTOV (since 17 July 2003)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly
  elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 11 November
  and 18 November 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); chairman of the
  Council of Ministers (prime minister) nominated by the president;
  deputy prime ministers nominated by the prime minister
  election results: Georgi PURVANOV elected president; percent of vote
  - Georgi PURVANOV 54.13%, Petar STOYANOV 45.87%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sobranie (240 seats;
  members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 17 June 2001 (next to be held NA June 2005)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NMS2 42.74%, UtdDF
  18.18%, CfB 17.15%, MRF 7.45%; seats by party - NMS2 120, UtdDF 51,
  CfB 48, MRF 21; note - seating as of March 2003 - NMS2 110, UtdDF
  50, CfB 48, MRF 20, independents 12

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Administrative Court; Supreme Court of Cassation;
  Constitutional Court (12 justices appointed or elected for nine-year
  terms); Supreme Judicial Council (consists of the chairmen of the
  two Supreme Courts, the Chief Prosecutor, and 22 other members;
  responsible for appointing the justices, prosecutors, and
  investigating magistrates in the justice system; members of the
  Supreme Judicial Council elected for five-year terms, 11 elected by
  the National Assembly and 11 by bodies of the judiciary)

Political parties and leaders:
  Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Sergei STANISHEV]; Coalition for
  Bulgaria or CfB (coalition of parties dominated by BSP) [Sergei
  STANISHEV]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization or VMRO
  [Krasimir KARAKACHANOV]; Movement for Rights and Freedoms or MRF
  [Ahmed DOGAN]; National Movement for Simeon II or NMS2 [Simeon
  SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA]; Union of Democratic Forces or UDF [Nadezhda
  MIKHAYLOVA]; Union of Free Democrats or UFD [Stefan SOFIYANSKI];
  United Democratic Forces or UtdDF (a coalition between the UDF and
  other center-right parties)

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  agrarian movement; Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of
  Bulgaria or CITUB; Podkrepa Labor Confederation; numerous regional,
  ethnic, and national interest groups with various agendas

International organization participation:
  ACCT, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE,
  EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC,
  IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO,
  ITU, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UN
  Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIBH,
  UNMIK, UNMOP, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Elena B. POPTODOROVA
  consulate(s): New York
  FAX: [1] (202) 234-7973
  telephone: [1] (202) 387-0174
  chancery: 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador James William PARDEW
  embassy: 1 Suborna Street, Sofia 1000
  mailing address: American Embassy Sofia, Department of State, 5740
  Sofia Place, Washington, DC 20521-5740
  telephone: [359] (2) 937-5100
  FAX: [359] (2) 981-89-77

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; the
  national emblem formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe has
  been removed - it contained a rampant lion within a wreath of wheat
  ears below a red five-pointed star and above a ribbon bearing the
  dates 681 (first Bulgarian state established) and 1944 (liberation
  from Nazi control)

Economy Bulgaria


Economy - overview:
  Bulgaria, a former communist country striving to enter the European
  Union, has experienced macroeconomic stability and strong growth
  since a major economic downturn in 1996 led to the fall of the then
  socialist government. As a result, the government became committed
  to economic reform and responsible fiscal planning. A $300 million
  stand-by agreement negotiated with the IMF at the end of 2001 has
  supported government efforts to overcome high rates of poverty and
  unemployment.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $49.23 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  4.8% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $6,500 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 13.7%
  industry: 28.5%
  services: 57.9% (2001)

Population below poverty line:
  12.6% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 4.5%
  highest 10%: 22.8% (1997)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  26.4 (2001)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  5.9% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  3.83 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 26%, industry 31%, services 43% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  18% (2002 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $5.57 billion
  expenditures: $5.68 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2001 est.)

Industries:
  electricity, gas and water; food, beverages and tobacco; machinery
  and equipment, base metals, chemical products, coke, refined
  petroleum, nuclear fuel

Industrial production growth rate:
  2% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  41.38 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 47.8%
  hydro: 8.1%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 44.1%

Electricity - consumption:
  32.52 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  6.79 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  830 million kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  603 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  94,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  8.1 million bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  4 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  5.804 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  5.8 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  3.724 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  vegetables, fruits, tobacco, livestock, wine, wheat, barley,
  sunflowers, sugar beets

Exports:
  $5.3 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  clothing, footwear, iron and steel, machinery and equipment, fuels

Exports - partners:
  Italy 15.5%, Germany 9.6%, Turkey 9.4%, Greece 9.2%, France 5.3%,
  US 4.8% (2002)

Imports:
  $6.9 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  fuels, minerals, and raw materials; machinery and equipment; metals
  and ores; chemicals and plastics; food, textiles

Imports - partners:
  Russia 14.6%, Germany 14.4%, Italy 11.4%, Greece 6.1%, France 5.7%,
  Turkey 5% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $10.3 billion (yearend 2002)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $300 million (2000 est.)

Currency:
  lev (BGL)

Currency code:
  BGN

Exchange rates:
  leva per US dollar - 2.08 (2002), 2.18 (2001), 2.12 (2000), 1.84
  (1999), 1.76 (1998)
  note: on 5 July 1999, the lev was redenominated; the post-5 July
  1999 lev is equal to 1,000 of the pre-5 July 1999 lev

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Bulgaria


Telephones - main lines in use:
  3,186,731 (2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1.054 million (2001)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: extensive but antiquated
  domestic: more than two-thirds of the lines are residential;
  telephone service is available in most villages; a fairly modern
  digital cable trunk line now connects switching centers in most of
  the regions, the others are connected by digital microwave radio
  relay
  international: direct dialing to 58 countries; satellite earth
  stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); 2 Intelsat
  (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 31, FM 63, shortwave 2 (2001)

Radios:
  4.51 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  39 (plus 1,242 repeaters) (2001)

Televisions:
  3.31 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bg

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  200 (2001)

Internet users:
  585,000 (2001)

Transportation Bulgaria


Railways:
  total: 4,294 km
  standard gauge: 4,049 km 1.435-m gauge (2,710 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 245 km 0.760-m gauge (2002)

Highways:
  total: 37,286 km
  paved: 35,049 km (including 324 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 2,237 km (2000)

Waterways:
  470 km (1987)

Pipelines:
  gas 2,425 km; oil 339 km; refined products 156 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Burgas, Lom, Nesebur, Ruse, Varna, Vidin

Merchant marine:
  total: 69 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 829,421 GRT/1,252,496 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 42, cargo 10, chemical tanker 4, container 2,
  passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 4, railcar carrier 2, roll
  on/roll off 2, short-sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 1 (2002
  est.)

Airports:
  216 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 128
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 20
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 92 (2002)
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 14

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 88
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
  914 to 1,523 m: 10
  under 914 m: 74 (2002)

Heliports:
  1 (2002)

Military Bulgaria


Military branches:
  Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces (subordinate to Ministry of
  Defense), Internal Forces (subordinate to Ministry of Interior),
  Civil Defense Forces (subordinate to the president)

Military manpower - military age:
  19 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 1,854,049 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,551,485 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 54,107 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $356 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.7% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Bulgaria


Disputes - international:
  joint boundary commission is rectifying boundary with Romania based
  on shifts in Danube since last delimitation in 1920

Illicit drugs:
  major European transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and,
  to a lesser degree, South American cocaine for the European market;
  limited producer of precursor chemicals; some money laundering of
  drug-related proceeds through financial institutions


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Burkina Faso

Introduction Burkina Faso


Background:
  Independence from France came to Burkina Faso (formerly Upper
  Volta) in 1960. Repeated military coups during the 1970s and 1980s
  were followed by multiparty elections in the early 1990s. Burkina
  Faso's high population density and limited natural resources result
  in poor economic prospects for the majority of its citizens. Every
  year, several hundred thousand seasonal farm workers seek employment
  in Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana and are adversely affected by instability
  in those regions.

Geography Burkina Faso


Location:
  Western Africa, north of Ghana

Geographic coordinates:
  13 00 N, 2 00 W

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 274,200 sq km
  water: 400 sq km
  land: 273,800 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than Colorado

Land boundaries:
  total: 3,193 km
  border countries: Benin 306 km, Cote d'Ivoire 584 km, Ghana 549 km,
  Mali 1,000 km, Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers

Terrain:
  mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west and
  southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Mouhoun (Black Volta) River 200 m
  highest point: Tena Kourou 749 m

Natural resources:
  manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of gold, antimony,
  copper, nickel, bauxite, lead, phosphates, zinc, silver

Land use:
  arable land: 12.43%
  permanent crops: 0.18%
  other: 87.39% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  250 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  recurring droughts

Environment - current issues:
  recent droughts and desertification severely affecting agricultural
  activities, population distribution, and the economy; overgrazing;
  soil degradation; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note:
  landlocked savanna cut by the three principal rivers of the Black,
  Red, and White Voltas

People Burkina Faso


Population:
  13,228,460
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 46.1% (male 3,057,855; female 3,036,705)
  15-64 years: 51% (male 3,296,726; female 3,455,817)
  65 years and over: 2.9% (male 161,914; female 219,443) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 16.8 years
  male: 16.4 years
  female: 17.2 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  2.6% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  44.78 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  18.76 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 99.78 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 91.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 107.87 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 44.46 years
  male: 43.02 years
  female: 45.94 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  6.34 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  6.5% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  440,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  44,000 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Burkinabe (singular and plural)
  adjective: Burkinabe

Ethnic groups:
  Mossi over 40%, Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande, Fulani

Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 40%, Muslim 50%, Christian (mainly Roman
  Catholic) 10%

Languages:
  French (official), native African languages belonging to Sudanic
  family spoken by 90% of the population

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 26.6%
  male: 36.9%
  female: 16.6% (2003 est.)

Government Burkina Faso


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Burkina Faso
  former: Upper Volta, Republic of Upper Volta

Government type:
  parliamentary republic

Capital:
  Ouagadougou

Administrative divisions:
  45 provinces; Bale, Bam, Banwa, Bazega, Bougouriba, Boulgou,
  Boulkiemde, Comoe, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Ioba, Kadiogo,
  Kenedougou, Komondjari, Kompienga, Kossi, Koulpelogo, Kouritenga,
  Kourweogo, Leraba, Loroum, Mouhoun, Namentenga, Nahouri, Nayala,
  Noumbiel, Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Sanguie, Sanmatenga,
  Seno, Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Tuy, Yagha, Yatenga, Ziro,
  Zondoma, Zoundweogo

Independence:
  5 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday:
  Republic Day, 11 December (1958)

Constitution:
  2 June 1991 approved by referendum; 11 June 1991 formally adopted

Legal system:
  based on French civil law system and customary law

Suffrage:
  universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October 1987)
  head of government: Prime Minister Ernest Paramanga YONLI (since 6
  November 2000)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
  recommendation of the prime minister
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  election last held 15 November 1998 (next to be held NA 2005); in
  April 2000, the constitution was amended reducing the presidential
  term from seven to five years, enforceable as of 2005, and allowing
  the president to be reelected only once; it is unclear whether this
  amendment will be applied retroactively or not; prime minister
  appointed by the president with the consent of the legislature
  note: President COMPAORE faces an increasingly well-coordinated
  opposition; recent charges against a former member of his
  Presidential Guard in the 1998 assassination of a newspaper editor
  signify an attempt to defuse chronic areas of dissatisfaction
  election results: Blaise COMPAORE reelected president with 87.5%
  percent of the vote

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (111 seats;
  members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  CDP 57, RDA-ADF 17, PDP/PS 10, CFD 5, PAI 5, others 17
  elections: National Assembly election last held 5 May 2002 (next to
  be held NA May 2007)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court; Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders:
  African Democratic Rally-Alliance for Democracy and Federation or
  RDA-ADF [Herman YAMEOGO]; Confederation for Federation and Democracy
  or CFD [Amadou Diemdioda DICKO]; Congress for Democracy and Progress
  or CDP [Roch Marc-Christian KABORE]; Movement for Tolerance and
  Progress or MTP [Nayabtigungou Congo KABORE]; Party for African
  Independence or PAI [Philippe OUEDRAOGO]; Party for Democracy and
  Progress or PDP [Joseph KI-ZERBO]; Union of Greens for the
  Development of Burkina Faso or UVDB [Ram OVEDRAGO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Burkinabe General Confederation of Labor or CGTB; Burkinabe
  Movement for Human Rights or MBDHP; Group of 14 February; National
  Confederation of Burkinabe Workers or CNTB; National Organization of
  Free Unions or ONSL; watchdog/political action groups throughout the
  country in both organizations and communities

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
  IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OIC,
  OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU,
  WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Tertius ZONGO
  chancery: 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  FAX: [1] (202) 667-1882
  telephone: [1] (202) 332-5577

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Anthony HOLMES
  embassy: 602 Avenue Raoul Follereau, Koulouba, Secteur 4
  mailing address: 01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou 01; pouch mail - U. S.
  Department of State, 2440 Ouagadougou Place, Washington, DC
  20521-2440
  telephone: [226] 306723
  FAX: [226] 303890

Flag description:
  two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow
  five-pointed star in the center; uses the popular pan-African colors
  of Ethiopia

Economy Burkina Faso


Economy - overview:
  One of the poorest countries in the world, landlocked Burkina Faso
  has few natural resources, a fragile soil, and a highly unequal
  distribution of income. About 90% of the population is engaged in
  (mainly subsistence) agriculture, which is vulnerable to variations
  in rainfall. Industry remains dominated by unprofitable
  government-controlled corporations. Following the African franc
  currency devaluation in January 1994 the government updated its
  development program in conjunction with international agencies, and
  exports and economic growth have increased. Maintenance of
  macroeconomic progress depends on continued low inflation, reduction
  in the trade deficit, and reforms designed to encourage private
  investment. The internal crisis in neighboring Cote d'Ivoire
  continues to hurt trade and industrial prospects and deepens the
  need for international assistance.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $14.51 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  4.6% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,100 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 35%
  industry: 17%
  services: 48% (2001)

Population below poverty line:
  45% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2%
  highest 10%: 46.8% (1994)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  48.2 (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.5% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
  5 million
  note: a large part of the male labor force migrates annually to
  neighboring countries for seasonal employment (2002)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 90% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $316 million
  expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001)

Industries:
  cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes,
  textiles, gold

Industrial production growth rate:
  14% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:
  279.2 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 69.9%
  hydro: 30.1%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  259.6 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  8,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products:
  cotton, peanuts, shea nuts, sesame, sorghum, millet, corn, rice;
  livestock

Exports:
  $250 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  cotton, livestock, gold

Exports - partners:
  Singapore 14.7%, Italy 11.3%, Colombia 8.6%, France 7.7%, India
  6.9%, Ghana 6%, Japan 4.4%, Thailand 4.3% (2002)

Imports:
  $525 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  capital goods, foodstuffs, petroleum

Imports - partners:
  France 27.7%, Cote d'Ivoire 23%, Togo 4.3% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $1.3 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $484.1 million (1995)

Currency:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible
  authority is the Central Bank of the West African States

Currency code:
  XOF

Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 696.99
  (2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.7 (1999), 589.95 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Burkina Faso


Telephones - main lines in use:
  53,200 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  25,200 (2000)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: all services only fair
  domestic: microwave radio relay, open-wire, and radiotelephone
  communication stations
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 3, FM 17, shortwave 3 (2002)

Radios:
  394,020 (2000)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2002)

Televisions:
  131,340 (2002)

Internet country code:
  .bf

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2002)

Internet users:
  25,000 (2002)

Transportation Burkina Faso


Railways:
  total: 622 km
  narrow gauge: 622 km 1.000-m gauge
  note:: another 660 km of this railway extends into Cote D'Ivoire
  (2002)

Highways:
  total: 12,506 km
  paved: 2,001 km
  unpaved: 10,505 km (1999)

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  none

Airports:
  33 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 2
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 31
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
  914 to 1,523 m: 11
  under 914 m: 17 (2002)

Military Burkina Faso


Military branches:
  Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Police, People's
  Militia

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,957,710 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,506,944 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $45.83 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.4% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Burkina Faso


Disputes - international:
  two villages are in dispute along the border with Benin; Burkina
  Faso border regions have become a staging area for Liberia and Cote
  d'Ivoire rebels and an asylum for refugees caught in regional
  fighting; the Ivorian Government accuses Burkina Faso of supporting
  Ivorian rebels


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Burma

Introduction Burma


Background:
  Britain conquered Burma over a period of 62 years (1824-1886) and
  incorporated it into its Indian Empire. Burma was administered as a
  province of India until 1937 when it became a separate,
  self-governing colony; independence outside of the Commonwealth was
  attained in 1948. Gen. NE WIN dominated the government from 1962 to
  1988, first as military ruler, then as president, and later as
  political kingmaker. Despite multiparty elections in 1990 that
  resulted in the main opposition party winning a decisive victory,
  the ruling military junta refused to hand over power. Key opposition
  leader and Nobel Peace Prize recipient AUNG SAN SUU KYI, under house
  arrest from 1989 to 1995, was again placed under house detention
  from September 2000 to May 2002 and again in May 2003; her
  supporters are routinely harassed or jailed.

Geography Burma


Location:
  Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal,
  between Bangladesh and Thailand

Geographic coordinates:
  22 00 N, 98 00 E

Map references:
  Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 678,500 sq km
  land: 657,740 sq km
  water: 20,760 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,876 km
  border countries: Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km,
  Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km

Coastline:
  1,930 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM
  continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

Climate:
  tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest
  monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild
  temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon,
  December to April)

Terrain:
  central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Andaman Sea 0 m
  highest point: Hkakabo Razi 5,881 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead,
  coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas,
  hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 14.53%
  permanent crops: 0.9%
  other: 84.57% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  15,920 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides
  common during rainy season (June to September); periodic droughts

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation; industrial pollution of air, soil, and water;
  inadequate sanitation and water treatment contribute to disease

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
  Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes

People Burma


Population:
  42,510,537
  note: estimates for this country take into account the effects of
  excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life
  expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 28.1% (male 6,091,220; female 5,840,968)
  15-64 years: 67% (male 14,162,190; female 14,347,751)
  65 years and over: 4.9% (male 916,702; female 1,151,706) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 25.3 years
  male: 24.8 years
  female: 25.9 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  0.52% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  19.15 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  12.17 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -1.81 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 70.35 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 63.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 76.48 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 55.79 years
  male: 54.12 years
  female: 57.56 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.15 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  1.99% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  530,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  65,000 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Burmese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Burmese

Ethnic groups:
  Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%, Indian 2%,
  Mon 2%, other 5%

Religions:
  Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%), Muslim
  4%, animist 1%, other 2%

Languages:
  Burmese, minority ethnic groups have their own languages

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 83.1%
  male: 88.7%
  female: 77.7% (1995 est.)
  note: these are official statistics; estimates of functional
  literacy are likely closer to 30% (1999 est.)

Government Burma


Country name:
  conventional long form: Union of Burma
  conventional short form: Burma
  local short form: Myanma Naingngandaw
  local long form: Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the
  US Government as Union of Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of
  Myanmar)
  former: Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma
  note: since 1989 the military authorities in Burma have promoted the
  name Myanmar as a conventional name for their state; this decision
  was not approved by any sitting legislature in Burma, and the US
  Government did not adopt the name, which is a derivative of the
  Burmese short-form name Myanma Naingngandaw

Government type:
  military regime

Capital:
  Rangoon (regime refers to the capital as Yangon)

Administrative divisions:
  7 divisions* (taing-myar, singular - taing) and 7 states (pyi
  ne-myar, singular - pyi ne); Chin State, Ayeyarwady*, Bago*, Kachin
  State, Kayin State, Kayah State, Magway*, Mandalay*, Mon State,
  Rakhine State, Sagaing*, Shan State, Tanintharyi*, Yangon*

Independence:
  4 January 1948 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 4 January (1948)

Constitution:
  3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988); national
  convention started on 9 January 1993 to draft a new constitution;
  progress has since been stalled

Legal system:
  has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council
  Sr. Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992)
  head of government: Chairman of the State Peace and Development
  Council Sr. Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992); note - the
  appointed Prime Minister, Gen. KNIN NYUNT (since 25 August 2003), is
  not the head of government
  cabinet: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC); military junta,
  so named 15 November 1997, which initially assumed power 18
  September 1988 under the name State Law and Order Restoration
  Council; the SPDC oversees the cabinet
  elections: none

Legislative branch:
  unicameral People's Assembly or Pyithu Hluttaw (485 seats; members
  elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 27 May 1990, but Assembly never convened
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  NLD 392, SNLD 23, NUP 10, other 60

Judicial branch:
  remnants of the British-era legal system are in place, but there is
  no guarantee of a fair public trial; the judiciary is not
  independent of the executive

Political parties and leaders:
  National League for Democracy or NLD [AUNG SHWE, chairman, AUNG SAN
  SUU KYI, general secretary]; National Unity Party or NUP (proregime)
  [THA KYAW]; Shan Nationalities League for Democracy or SNLD [KHUN
  TUN OO]; Union Solidarity and Development Association or USDA
  (proregime, a social and political organization) [THAN AUNG, general
  secretary]; and other smaller parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  All Burma Student Democratic Front or ABSDF; Kachin Independence
  Army or KIA; Karen National Union or KNU; National Coalition
  Government of the Union of Burma or NCGUB [Dr. SEIN WIN] consists of
  individuals legitimately elected to the People's Assembly but not
  recognized by the military regime (the group fled to a border area
  and joined with insurgents in December 1990 to form a parallel
  government); several Shan factions; United Wa State Army or UWSA

International organization participation:
  ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM,
  IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OPCW
  (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
  WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador LINN MYAING
  consulate(s) general: New York
  FAX: [1] (202) 332-9046
  telephone: [1] (202) 332-9044
  chancery: 2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Permanent Charge d'Affaires Carmen M. MARTINEZ
  embassy: 581 Merchant Street, Rangoon (GPO 521)
  mailing address: Box B, APO AP 96546
  telephone: [95] (1) 379 880, 379 881
  FAX: [95] (1) 256 018

Flag description:
  red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing,
  all in white, 14 five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel containing
  a stalk of rice; the 14 stars represent the 14 administrative
  divisions

Economy Burma


Economy - overview:
  Burma is a resource-rich country that suffers from abject rural
  poverty. The military regime took steps in the early 1990s to
  liberalize the economy after decades of failure under the "Burmese
  Way to Socialism", but those efforts have since stalled. Burma has
  been unable to achieve monetary or fiscal stability, resulting in an
  economy that suffers from serious macroeconomic imbalances -
  including a steep inflation rate and an official exchange rate that
  overvalues the Burmese kyat by more than 100 times the market rate.
  In addition, most overseas development assistance ceased after the
  junta suppressed the democracy movement in 1988 and subsequently
  ignored the results of the 1990 election. Burma is data poor, and
  official statistics are often dated and inaccurate. Published
  estimates of Burma's foreign trade are greatly understated because
  of the size of the black market and border trade - often estimated
  to be one to two times the official economy.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $73.69 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5.3% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,700 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 60%
  industry: 9%
  services: 31% (2002 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  25% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2.8%
  highest 10%: 32.4% (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  53.7% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  23.7 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 70%, industry 7%, services 23% (2001 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  5.1% (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $7.9 billion
  expenditures: $12.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.7
  billion (FY96/97)

Industries:
  agricultural processing; knit and woven apparel; wood and wood
  products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction materials;
  pharmaceuticals; fertilizer

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  6.139 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 44.4%
  hydro: 55.6%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  5.709 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  14,170 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  38,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  142.5 million bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  7.35 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  2.15 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  5.2 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  314.4 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  rice, pulses, beans, sesame, groundnuts, sugarcane; hardwood; fish
  and fish products

Exports:
  $2.7 billion f.o.b. (2002)

Exports - commodities:
  gas, wood products, pulses, beans, fish, rice

Exports - partners:
  Thailand 31.4%, US 13%, India 7.4%, China 4.7% (2002)

Imports:
  $2.5 billion f.o.b. (2002)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery, transport equipment, construction materials, crude oil;
  food products

Imports - partners:
  China 27%, Singapore 19.5%, Thailand 12%, Malaysia 9.1%, Taiwan
  6.3%, South Korea 5.3%, Japan 4.3% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $6.1 billion (2002 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $99 million (FY98/99)

Currency:
  kyat (MMK)

Currency code:
  MMK

Exchange rates:
  kyats per US dollar - 6.64 (2002), 6.75 (2001), 6.52 (2000), 6.29
  (1999), 6.34 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Burma


Telephones - main lines in use:
  250,000 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  8,492 (1997)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: meets minimum requirements for local and
  intercity service for business and government; international service
  is good
  domestic: NA
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios:
  4.2 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  2 (1998)

Televisions:
  320,000 (2000)

Internet country code:
  .mm

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1
  note: as of September 2000, Internet connections were legal only for
  the government, tourist offices, and a few large businesses (2000)

Internet users:
  10,000 (2002)

Transportation Burma


Railways:
  total: 3,955 km
  narrow gauge: 3,955 km 1.000-m gauge (2002)

Highways:
  total: 28,200 km
  paved: 3,440 km
  unpaved: 24,760 km (1996 est.)

Waterways:
  12,800 km
  note: 3,200 km navigable by large commercial vessels

Pipelines:
  gas 2,056 km; oil 558 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Bassein, Bhamo, Chauk, Mandalay, Moulmein, Myitkyina, Rangoon,
  Akyab (Sittwe), Tavoy

Merchant marine:
  total: 33 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 352,765 GRT/536,396 DWT
  note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
  convenience: Germany 5, Japan 4 (2002 est.)
  ships by type: bulk 7, cargo 21, container 1, passenger/cargo 3,
  petroleum tanker 1

Airports:
  80 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 8
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 72
  under 914 m: 34 (2002)
  914 to 1,523 m: 20
  over 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 16

Heliports:
  1 (2002)

Military Burma


Military branches:
  Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower - military age:
  18 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 12,349,921
  note: both sexes liable for military service (2003 est.)
  females age 15-49: 12,358,507

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 6,566,122
  females age 15-49: 6,553,458 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 453,420
  females: 455,422 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $39 million (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.1% (FY97)

Transnational Issues Burma


Disputes - international:
  despite continuing border committee talks, significant differences
  remain with Thailand over boundary alignment and the handling of
  ethnic rebels, refugees, and illegal cross-border activities

Illicit drugs:
  world's second largest producer of illicit opium (potential
  production in 2002 - 630 metric tons, down 27% due to drought and,
  to a lesser extent, eradication; cultivation in 2002 - 77,000
  hectares, a 27% decline from 2001); surrender of drug warlord KHUN
  SA's Mong Tai Army in January 1996 was hailed by Rangoon as a major
  counternarcotics success, but lack of government will and ability to
  take on major narcotrafficking groups and lack of serious commitment
  against money laundering continues to hinder the overall antidrug
  effort; major source of methamphetamine and heroin for regional
  consumption


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Burundi

Introduction Burundi


Background:
  Burundi's first democratically elected president was assassinated
  in October 1993 after only four months in office. Since then, some
  200,000 Burundians have perished in widespread, often intense ethnic
  violence between Hutu and Tutsi factions. Hundreds of thousands have
  been internally displaced or have become refugees in neighboring
  countries. Burundi troops, seeking to secure their borders,
  intervened in the conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
  in 1998. More recently, many of these troops have been redeployed
  back to Burundi to deal with periodic upsurges in rebel activity. A
  new transitional government, inaugurated on 1 November 2001, was to
  be the first step toward holding national elections in three years.
  While the Government of Burundi signed a cease-fire agreement in
  December 2002 with three of Burundi's four Hutu rebel groups,
  implementation of the agreement has been problematic and one rebel
  group refuses to sign on, clouding prospects for a sustainable peace.

Geography Burundi


Location:
  Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates:
  3 30 S, 30 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 27,830 sq km
  water: 2,180 sq km
  land: 25,650 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 974 km
  border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 233 km, Rwanda
  290 km, Tanzania 451 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772
  m to 2,670 m above sea level); average annual temperature varies
  with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally
  moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual
  rainfall is about 150 cm; wet seasons from February to May and
  September to November, and dry seasons from June to August and
  December to January

Terrain:
  hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some plains

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Lake Tanganyika 772 m
  highest point: Mount Heha 2,670 m

Natural resources:
  nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum
  (not yet exploited), vanadium, arable land, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 29.98%
  permanent crops: 12.85%
  other: 57.17% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  740 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  flooding, landslides, drought

Environment - current issues:
  soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of
  agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land
  remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat
  loss threatens wildlife populations

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes,
  Ozone Layer Protection
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note:
  landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed; the
  Kagera, which drains into Lake Victoria, is the most remote
  headstream of the White Nile

People Burundi


Population:
  6,096,156
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 46.7% (male 1,438,759; female 1,409,567)
  15-64 years: 50.6% (male 1,516,833; female 1,564,513)
  65 years and over: 2.7% (male 66,355; female 100,129) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 16.3 years
  male: 15.9 years
  female: 16.7 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  2.18% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  39.72 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  17.8 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 71.54 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 64.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 78.45 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 43.2 years
  male: 42.54 years
  female: 43.88 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  5.99 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  8.3% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  390,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  40,000 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Burundian(s)
  adjective: Burundian

Ethnic groups:
  Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%, Europeans
  3,000, South Asians 2,000

Religions:
  Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%), indigenous
  beliefs 23%, Muslim 10%

Languages:
  Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake
  Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 51.6%
  male: 58.5%
  female: 45.2% (2003 est.)

Government Burundi


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Burundi
  conventional short form: Burundi
  local short form: Burundi
  local long form: Republika y'u Burundi
  former: Urundi

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  Bujumbura

Administrative divisions:
  16 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke,
  Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Mwaro,
  Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi

Independence:
  1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

Constitution:
  13 March 1992; provided for establishment of a plural political
  system; supplanted on 6 June 1998 by a Transitional Constitution
  which enlarged the National Assembly and created two vice presidents

Legal system:
  based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary law; has not
  accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Domitien NDAYIZEYE (since 30 April 2003);
  note - NDAYIZEYE, a Hutu, was sworn in as president for the second
  half of the three-year transitional government inaugurated on 1
  November 2001; Vice President Alphonse KADEGE (since 30 April 2003);
  note - from the Tutsi minority
  head of government: President Domitien NDAYIZEYE (since 30 April
  2003); note - NDAYIZEYE, a Hutu, was sworn in as president for the
  second half of the three-year transitional government inaugurated on
  1 November 2001; Vice President Alphonse KADEGE (since 30 April
  2003); note - from the Tutsi minority
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president
  elections: NA; current president assumed power on 30 April 2003 as
  part of the transitional government established by the 2000 Arusha
  Accord

Legislative branch:
  bicameral, consists of a National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale
  (expanded from 121 to approximately 140 seats under the transitional
  government inaugurated 1 November 2001; members are elected by
  popular vote to serve five-year terms) and a Senate (54 seats; term
  length is undefined, the current senators will likely serve out the
  three-year transition period)
  elections: last held 29 June 1993 (next was scheduled to be held in
  1998, but was suspended by presidential decree in 1996; elections
  are planned to follow the completion of the three-year transitional
  government)
  election results: percent of vote by party - FRODEBU 71.04%, UPRONA
  21.4%, other 7.56%; seats by party - FRODEBU 65, UPRONA 16,
  civilians 27, other parties 13

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Constitutional Court; Courts of
  Appeal (there are three in separate locations); Tribunals of First
  Instance (17 at the province level and 123 small local tribunals)

Political parties and leaders:
  the two national, mainstream, governing parties are: Unity for
  National Progress or UPRONA [Alphonse KADEGE, president]; Burundi
  Democratic Front or FRODEBU [Jean MINANI, president]
  note: a multiparty system was introduced after 1998, included are:
  Burundi African Alliance for the Salvation or ABASA [Terrence
  NSANZE]; Rally for Democracy and Economic and Social Development or
  RADDES [Joseph NZEYIMANA]; Party for National Redress or PARENA
  [Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA]; People's Reconciliation Party or PRP
  [Mathias HITIMANA]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  loosely organized Hutu and Tutsi militias, often affiliated with
  Hutu and Tutsi extremist parties or subordinate to government
  security forces

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt
  (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC,
  IOM (observer), ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Antoine NTAMOBWA
  chancery: Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
  FAX: [1] (202) 342-2578
  telephone: [1] (202) 342-2574

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador James Howard YELLIN
  embassy: Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura
  mailing address: B. P. 1720, Bujumbura
  telephone: [257] 223454
  FAX: [257] 222926

Flag description:
  divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom)
  and green panels (hoist side and outer side) with a white disk
  superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars
  outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above,
  two stars below)

Economy Burundi


Economy - overview:
  Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country with an
  underdeveloped manufacturing sector. The economy is predominantly
  agricultural with roughly 90% of the population dependent on
  subsistence agriculture. Economic growth depends on coffee and tea
  exports, which account for 90% of foreign exchange earnings. The
  ability to pay for imports, therefore, rests primarily on weather
  conditions and international coffee and tea prices. The Tutsi
  minority, 14% of the population, dominates the government and the
  coffee trade at the expense of the Hutu majority, 85% of the
  population. Since October 1993 an ethnic-based war has resulted in
  the death of over 200,000 persons, sent 800,000 refugees into
  Tanzania, and displaced 525,000 others internally. Doubts about the
  prospects for sustainable peace continue to impede development. Only
  one in two children go to school, and approximately one in ten
  adults has HIV/AIDS. Food, medicine, and electricity remain in short
  supply.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $3.146 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  4.5% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $500 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 50%
  industry: 19%
  services: 31% (2002 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  70% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 1.8%
  highest 10%: 32.9% (1998)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  42.5 (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  12% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  3.7 million (2000)

Labor force - by occupation:
  NA

Unemployment rate:
  NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $125 million
  expenditures: $176 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2000 est.)

Industries:
  light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap; assembly of
  imported components; public works construction; food processing

Industrial production growth rate:
  18% (2001)

Electricity - production:
  155.4 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 0.6%
  hydro: 99.4%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  177.5 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  33 million kWh; note - supplied by the Democratic Republic of the
  Congo (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  2,750 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products:
  coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc
  (tapioca); beef, milk, hides

Exports:
  $26 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  coffee, tea, sugar, cotton, hides

Exports - partners:
  Switzerland 28.8%, Germany 20.2%, Belgium 9.4%, Kenya 7.8%, Rwanda
  6.5%, Netherlands 4.6% (2002)

Imports:
  $135 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  capital goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  Belgium 12.4%, Saudi Arabia 12.3%, Tanzania 9.3%, Kenya 7.7%,
  France 7.4%, India 4.5% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $1.14 billion (2001)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $92.7 million (2000)

Currency:
  Burundi franc (BIF)

Currency code:
  BIF

Exchange rates:
  Burundi francs per US dollar - NA (2002), 830.35 (2001), 720.67
  (2000), 563.56 (1999), 447.77 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Burundi


Telephones - main lines in use:
  18,000 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  30,000 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: primitive system
  domestic: sparse system of open-wire, radiotelephone communications,
  and low-capacity microwave radio relay
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 0, FM 4, shortwave 1 (2001)

Radios:
  440,000 (2001)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2001)

Televisions:
  25,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bi

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  6,000 (2002)

Transportation Burundi


Railways:
  0 km

Highways:
  total: 14,480 km
  paved: 1,028 km
  unpaved: 13,452 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  Lake Tanganyika

Ports and harbors:
  Bujumbura

Airports:
  7 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  over 3,047 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 6
  914 to 1,523 m: 3
  under 914 m: 3 (2002)

Military Burundi


Military branches:
  Army (including naval and air units), Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age:
  16 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 1,375,900 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 723,516 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 79,462 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $42.13 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  5.3% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Burundi


Disputes - international:
  Tutsi, Hutu, and other conflicting ethnic groups, associated
  political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces
  continue fighting in the Great Lakes region, transcending the
  boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and
  Uganda to gain control over populated and natural resource areas;
  government heads pledge to end conflict, but localized violence
  continues despite UN peacekeeping efforts


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Cambodia

Introduction Cambodia


Background:
  Following a five-year struggle, Communist Khmer Rouge forces
  captured Phnom Penh in 1975 and ordered the evacuation of all cities
  and towns; over 1 million displaced people died from execution or
  enforced hardships. A 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge
  into the countryside and touched off almost 20 years of fighting.
  UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of
  normalcy as did the rapid diminishment of the Khmer Rouge in the
  mid-1990s. A coalition government, formed after national elections
  in 1998, brought renewed political stability and the surrender of
  remaining Khmer Rouge forces in 1998.

Geography Cambodia


Location:
  Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between
  Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos

Geographic coordinates:
  13 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references:
  Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 181,040 sq km
  land: 176,520 sq km
  water: 4,520 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Oklahoma

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,572 km
  border countries: Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km

Coastline:
  443 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM
  continental shelf: 200 NM
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

Climate:
  tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season
  (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain:
  mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
  highest point: Phnum Aoral 1,810 m

Natural resources:
  timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower
  potential

Land use:
  arable land: 20.96%
  permanent crops: 0.61%
  other: 78.43% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  2,700 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts

Environment - current issues:
  illegal logging activities throughout the country and strip mining
  for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand have
  resulted in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular,
  destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); soil
  erosion; in rural areas, a majority of the population does not have
  access to potable water; toxic waste delivery from Taiwan sparked
  unrest in Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville) in December 1998

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography - note:
  a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and
  Tonle Sap

People Cambodia


Population:
  13,124,764
  note: estimates for this country take into account the effects of
  excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life
  expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 39.3% (male 2,606,568; female 2,557,736)
  15-64 years: 57.6% (male 3,599,216; female 3,962,520)
  65 years and over: 3.1% (male 148,287; female 250,437) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 19.2 years
  male: 18.4 years
  female: 20 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  1.8% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  27.28 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  9.26 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 75.94 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 66.51 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 84.96 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 57.92 years
  male: 55.49 years
  female: 60.47 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.58 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  2.7% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  170,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  12,000 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Cambodian(s)
  adjective: Cambodian

Ethnic groups:
  Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%

Religions:
  Theravada Buddhist 95%, other 5%

Languages:
  Khmer (official) 95%, French, English

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 69.9%
  male: 80.5%
  female: 60.3% (2003 est.)

Government Cambodia


Country name:
  conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia
  conventional short form: Cambodia
  local short form: Kampuchea
  local long form: Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea
  former: Khmer Republic, Kampuchea Republic

Government type:
  multiparty democracy under a constitutional monarchy established in
  September 1993

Capital:
  Phnom Penh

Administrative divisions:
  20 provinces (khett, singular and plural) and 4 municipalities*
  (krong, singular and plural); Banteay Mean Cheay, Batdambang,
  Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum, Kampot,
  Kandal, Kaoh Kong, Keb*, Kracheh, Mondol Kiri, Otdar Mean Cheay,
  Pailin*, Phnum Penh*, Pouthisat, Preah Seihanu*, Preah Vihear, Prey
  Veng, Rotanah Kiri, Siem Reab, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takev

Independence:
  9 November 1953 (from France)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 9 November (1953)

Constitution:
  promulgated 21 September 1993

Legal system:
  primarily a civil law mixture of French-influenced codes from the
  United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) period,
  royal decrees, and acts of the legislature, with influences of
  customary law and remnants of communist legal theory; increasing
  influence of common law in recent years

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: King Norodom SIHANOUK (reinstated 24 September 1993)
  head of government: Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 30 November 1998)
  and Deputy Prime Ministers SAR KHENG (since 1993) and TOL LAH (since
  1998)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch
  elections: none; the monarch is chosen by a Royal Throne Council;
  following legislative elections, a member of the majority party or
  majority coalition is named prime minister by the Chairman of the
  National Assembly and appointed by the king

Legislative branch:
  bicameral consists of the National Assembly (122 seats; members
  elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Senate (61
  seats; two members appointed by the monarch, two elected by the
  National Assembly, and 57 elected by "functional constituencies";
  members serve five-year terms)
  elections: National Assembly - last held 27 July 2003 (next to be
  held in July 2007); Senate - last held 2 March 1999 (next to be held
  in 2004)
  election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CPP
  47%, SRP 22%, FUNCINPEC 21%, other 10%; seats by party - CPP 73,
  FUNCINPEC 26, SRP 24; Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats
  by party - CPP 31, FUNCINPEC 21, SRP 7, other 2 (2003)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Council of the Magistracy (provided for in the constitution
  and formed in December 1997); Supreme Court (and lower courts)
  exercises judicial authority

Political parties and leaders:
  Buddhist Liberal Party or BLP [IENG MOULY]; Cambodian Pracheachon
  Party or Cambodian People's Party or CPP [CHEA SIM]; Khmer Citizen
  Party or KCP [NGUON SOEUR]; National United Front for an
  Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia or
  FUNCINPEC [Prince NORODOM RANARIDDH]; Sam Rangsi Party or SRP
  (formerly Khmer Nation Party or KNP) [SAM RANGSI]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
  ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC,
  IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM, OPCW (signatory), PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador ROLAND ENG
  FAX: [1] (202) 726-8381
  telephone: [1] (202) 726-7742
  chancery: 4530 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Charles Aaron RAY
  embassy: 27 EO Street 240, Phnom Penh
  mailing address: Box P, APO AP 96546
  telephone: [855] (23) 216-436/438
  FAX: [855] (23) 216-437/811

Flag description:
  three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double width), and blue
  with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat outlined
  in black in the center of the red band

Economy Cambodia


Economy - overview:
  Cambodia's economy slowed dramatically in 1997-1998 due to the
  regional economic crisis, civil violence, and political infighting.
  Foreign investment and tourism fell off. In 1999, the first full
  year of peace in 30 years, progress was made on economic reforms and
  growth resumed at 5.0%. Despite severe flooding, GDP grew at 5.0% in
  2000, 6.3% in 2001, and 5.2% in 2002. Tourism was Cambodia's fastest
  growing industry, with arrivals up 34% in 2000 and up another 40% in
  2001 before the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the US. Even
  given these stout growth estimates, the long-term development of the
  economy after decades of war remains a daunting challenge. The
  population lacks education and productive skills, particularly in
  the poverty-ridden countryside, which suffers from an almost total
  lack of basic infrastructure. Fear of renewed political instability
  and corruption within the government discourage foreign investment
  and delay foreign aid. The government is addressing these issues
  with assistance from bilateral and multilateral donors.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $20.42 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  4.5% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,600 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 40%
  industry: 20%
  services: 40% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  36% (1997 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2.9%
  highest 10%: 33.8% (1997)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  40.4 (1997)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.3% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  6 million (1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 80% (2001 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  2.8% (1999 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $396 million
  expenditures: $607 million, including capital expenditures of $254
  million (2001 est.)

Industries:
  tourism, garments, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products,
  rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles

Industrial production growth rate:
  16% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:
  119 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 65%
  hydro: 35%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  110.6 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  3,600 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products:
  rice, rubber, corn, vegetables

Exports:
  $1.38 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  timber, garments, rubber, rice, fish

Exports - partners:
  US 60.2%, Germany 9.1%, UK 7.1%, Singapore 4.4% (2002)

Imports:
  $1.73 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  petroleum products, cigarettes, gold, construction materials,
  machinery, motor vehicles

Imports - partners:
  Thailand 24.8%, Singapore 16.9%, China 12.1%, Hong Kong 10.9%,
  South Korea 5.5%, Vietnam 5.2% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $829 million (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $548 million pledged in grants and concessional loans for 2001 by
  international donors

Currency:
  riel (KHR)

Currency code:
  KHR

Exchange rates:
  riels per US dollar - 3,912.08 (2002), 3,916.33 (2001), 3,840.75
  (2000), 3,807.83 (1999), 3,744.42 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Cambodia


Telephones - main lines in use:
  21,800 (mid-1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  80,000 (2000)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: adequate landline and/or cellular service in
  Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; rural areas have little
  telephone service
  domestic: NA
  international: adequate but expensive landline and cellular service
  available to all countries from Phnom Penh and major provincial
  cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean
  region)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 7, FM 3, shortwave 3 (1999)

Radios:
  1.34 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  6 (2003)

Televisions:
  94,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .kh

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  10,000 (2002)

Transportation Cambodia


Railways:
  total: 602 km
  narrow gauge: 602 km 1.000-m gauge (2002)

Highways:
  total: 12,323 km
  paved: 1,996 km
  unpaved: 10,327 km (2000 est)

Waterways:
  3,700 km
  note: navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6 m or less; 282 km
  navigable to craft drawing as much as 1.8 m

Ports and harbors:
  Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville), Kampot, Krong Kaoh Kong, Phnom Penh

Merchant marine:
  total: 527 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 2,328,371 GRT/3,294,028 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 49, cargo 412, chemical tanker 2, combination
  bulk 4, container 17, liquefied gas 1, livestock carrier 2,
  multi-functional large-load carrier 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum
  tanker 18, refrigerated cargo 11, roll on/roll off 7, short-sea
  passenger 2
  note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
  convenience: Aruba 1, Belize 11, Bulgaria 3, Cambodia 194, Canada 4,
  China 25, Cyprus 14, Egypt 10, Estonia 2, France 1, Georgia 1,
  Germany 1, Gibraltar 1, Greece 13, Honduras 8, Hong Kong 12, Iceland
  1, Indonesia 2, Iran 1, Ireland 1, Italy 2, Japan 2, Jordan 1, North
  Korea, 1, South Korea, 25, Latvia 3, Lebanon 6, Liberia 7, Malaysia
  1, Malta 1, Marshall Islands 4, Netherlands 1, Norway 1, Panama 10,
  Romania 2, Russia 75, Saint Kitts and Nevis 4, Saint Vincent and the
  Grenadines 5, Singapore 17, Syria 20, Turkey 18, Ukraine 16, United
  Arab Emirates 3, United Kingdom 1, United States 5, Vietnam 3 (2002
  est.)

Airports:
  21 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 5
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 16
  under 914 m: 1 (2002)
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 13

Heliports:
  2 (2002)

Military Cambodia


Military branches:
  Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF): Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower - military age:
  18 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 3,275,533 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,829,535 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 165,395 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $112 million (FY01 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  3% (FY01 est.)

Transnational Issues Cambodia


Disputes - international:
  completed boundary demarcation with Thailand; accuses Vietnam of
  moving and destroying boundary markers and encroachments, initiating
  border incidents; accuses Thailand of preventing access to Preah
  Vihear temple ruins awarded to Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962;
  maritime boundary with Vietnam hampered by dispute over offshore
  islands

Illicit drugs:
  narcotics-related corruption reportedly involving some in the
  government, military, and police; possible small-scale opium,
  heroin, and amphetamine production; large producer of cannabis for
  the international market; vulnerable to money laundering due to its
  cash-based economy and porous borders


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Cameroon

Introduction Cameroon


Background:
  The former French Cameroon and part of British Cameroon merged in
  1961 to form the present country. Cameroon has generally enjoyed
  stability, which has permitted the development of agriculture,
  roads, and railways, as well as a petroleum industry. Despite
  movement toward democratic reform, political power remains firmly in
  the hands of an ethnic oligarchy.

Geography Cameroon


Location:
  Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between Equatorial
  Guinea and Nigeria

Geographic coordinates:
  6 00 N, 12 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 475,440 sq km
  water: 6,000 sq km
  land: 469,440 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
  total: 4,591 km
  border countries: Central African Republic 797 km, Chad 1,094 km,
  Republic of the Congo 523 km, Equatorial Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298
  km, Nigeria 1,690 km

Coastline:
  402 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 50 NM

Climate:
  varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot
  in north

Terrain:
  diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau in
  center, mountains in west, plains in north

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Fako (on Cameroon Mountain) 4,095 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 12.81%
  permanent crops: 2.58%
  other: 84.61% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  330 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  volcanic activity with periodic releases of poisonous gases from
  Lake Nyos and Lake Monoun volcanoes

Environment - current issues:
  water-borne diseases are prevalent; deforestation; overgrazing;
  desertification; poaching; overfishing

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
  Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94
  signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note:
  sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa; throughout the
  country there are areas of thermal springs and indications of
  current or prior volcanic activity; Mount Cameroon, the highest
  mountain in Sub-Saharan west Africa, is an active volcano

People Cameroon


Population:
  15,746,179
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 42.3% (male 3,372,129; female 3,291,295)
  15-64 years: 54.5% (male 4,315,672; female 4,265,286)
  65 years and over: 3.2% (male 227,444; female 274,353) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 18.4 years
  male: 18.2 years
  female: 18.5 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  2.02% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  35.49 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  15.3 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 70.12 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 65.91 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 74.2 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 48.05 years
  male: 47.15 years
  female: 48.97 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  4.63 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  11.8% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  920,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  53,000 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Cameroonian(s)
  adjective: Cameroonian

Ethnic groups:
  Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%, Fulani
  10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other African 13%,
  non-African less than 1%

Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 40%, Christian 40%, Muslim 20%

Languages:
  24 major African language groups, English (official), French
  (official)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 79%
  male: 84.7%
  female: 73.4% (2003 est.)

Government Cameroon


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Cameroon
  conventional short form: Cameroon
  former: French Cameroon

Government type:
  unitary republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition
  parties legalized in 1990)
  note: preponderance of power remains with the president

Capital:
  Yaounde

Administrative divisions:
  10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est, Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord,
  Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest

Independence:
  1 January 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday:
  Republic Day (National Day), 20 May (1972)

Constitution:
  20 May 1972 approved by referendum; 2 June 1972 formally adopted;
  revised January 1996

Legal system:
  based on French civil law system, with common law influence; has
  not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  20 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982)
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term;
  election last held 12 October 1997 (next to be held NA October
  2004); prime minister appointed by the president
  head of government: Prime Minister Peter Mafany MUSONGE (since 19
  September 1996)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from proposals submitted
  by the prime minister
  election results: President Paul BIYA reelected; percent of vote -
  Paul BIYA 92.6%; note - supporters of the opposition candidates
  boycotted the elections, making a comparison of vote shares
  relatively meaningless

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (180 seats;
  members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms;
  note - the president can either lengthen or shorten the term of the
  legislature)
  elections: last held 23 June 2002 (next to be held NA 2007)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  RDCP 133, SDF 21, UDC 5, other 21
  note: the constitution calls for an upper chamber for the
  legislature, to be called a Senate, but it has yet to be established

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); High Court
  of Justice (consists of 9 judges and 6 substitute judges, elected by
  the National Assembly)

Political parties and leaders:
  Cameroonian Democratic Union or UDC [Adamou NDAM NJOYA]; Democratic
  Rally of the Cameroon People or RDCP [Paul BIYA]; Movement for the
  Defense of the Republic or MDR [Dakole DAISSALA]; Movement for the
  Liberation and Development of Cameroon or MLDC [leader Marcel
  YONDO]; Movement for the Youth of Cameroon or MYC [Dieudonne TINA];
  National Union for Democracy and Progress or UNDP [Maigari BELLO
  BOUBA]; Social Democratic Front or SDF [John FRU NDI]; Union of
  Cameroonian Populations or UPC [Augustin Frederic KODOCK]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Southern Cameroon National Council [Frederick Ebong ALOBWEDE];
  Human Rights Defense Group [Albert MUKONG, president]

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, C, CEEAC, CEMAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-19, G-77,
  IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
  IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent),
  ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UN Security Council
  (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
  WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Jerome MENDOUGA
  chancery: 2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  FAX: [1] (202) 387-3826
  telephone: [1] (202) 265-8790

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador George McDade STAPLES
  embassy: Rue Nachtigal, Yaounde
  mailing address: P. O. Box 817, Yaounde; pouch: American Embassy,
  Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2520
  telephone: [237] 223-05-12, 222-25-89, 222-17-94, 223-40-14
  FAX: [237] 223-07-53
  branch office(s): Douala

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), red, and yellow
  with a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band; uses the
  popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Economy Cameroon


Economy - overview:
  Because of its oil resources and favorable agricultural conditions,
  Cameroon has one of the best-endowed primary commodity economies in
  sub-Saharan Africa. Still, it faces many of the serious problems
  facing other underdeveloped countries, such as a top-heavy civil
  service and a generally unfavorable climate for business enterprise.
  Since 1990, the government has embarked on various IMF and World
  Bank programs designed to spur business investment, increase
  efficiency in agriculture, improve trade, and recapitalize the
  nation's banks. In June 2000, the government completed an
  IMF-sponsored, three-year structural adjustment program; however,
  the IMF is pressing for more reforms, including increased budget
  transparency, privatization, and poverty reduction programs.
  International oil and cocoa prices have considerable impact on the
  economy.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $26.84 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  4% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,700 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 46%
  industry: 21%
  services: 33% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  48% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 1.9%
  highest 10%: 36.6% (1996)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  47.7 (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  4.5% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  NA

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 70%, industry and commerce 13%, other 17%

Unemployment rate:
  30% (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $2.2 billion
  expenditures: $2.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (FY 00/01 est.)

Industries:
  petroleum production and refining, food processing, light consumer
  goods, textiles, lumber

Industrial production growth rate:
  4.2% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production:
  3.613 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 2.7%
  hydro: 97.3%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  3.36 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  76,650 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  22,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  200 million bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  55.22 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  coffee, cocoa, cotton, rubber, bananas, oilseed, grains, root
  starches; livestock; timber

Exports:
  $1.9 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  crude oil and petroleum products, lumber, cocoa beans, aluminum,
  coffee, cotton

Exports - partners:
  Italy 16.7%, Spain 16%, France 12.8%, US 8.3%, Netherlands 8.2%,
  Taiwan 7.7%, China 5.2%, UK 4.4% (2002)

Imports:
  $1.7 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery, electrical equipment, transport equipment, fuel, food

Imports - partners:
  France 28.2%, Nigeria 12.8%, US 8%, Belgium 5.7%, Germany 5.3%,
  Italy 4.3% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $8.6 billion (2002 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  on 23 January 2001, the Paris Club agreed to reduce Cameroon's debt
  of $1.3 billion by $900 million; total debt relief now amounts to
  $1.26 billion

Currency:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible
  authority is the Bank of the Central African States

Currency code:
  XAF

Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 696.99
  (2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.7 (1999), 589.95 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Cameroon


Telephones - main lines in use:
  95,000 (2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  300,000 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: available only to business and government
  domestic: cable, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter
  international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 3 (2002)

Radios:
  2.27 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2002)

Televisions:
  450,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .cm

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2002)

Internet users:
  45,000
  note: Cameroon also had more than 100 cyber-cafes in 2001 (December
  2001)

Transportation Cameroon


Railways:
  total: 1,008 km
  narrow gauge: 1,008 km 1.000-m gauge (2002)

Highways:
  total: 34,300 km
  paved: 4,288 km
  unpaved: 30,012 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  2,090 km (of decreasing importance) (2002)

Pipelines:
  gas 90 km; liquid petroleum gas 9 km; oil 1,124 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Bonaberi, Douala, Garoua, Kribi, Tiko

Airports:
  49 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 11
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 38
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
  914 to 1,523 m: 20
  under 914 m: 11 (2002)

Military Cameroon


Military branches:
  Army, Navy (includes naval infantry), Air Force, National
  Gendarmerie, Presidential Guard

Military manpower - military age:
  18 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 3,799,841 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,928,285 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 179,586 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $118.6 million (FY00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.4% (FY98)

Transnational Issues Cameroon


Disputes - international:
  ICJ ruled in 2002 on the Cameroon-Nigeria land and maritime
  boundary by awarding the potentially petroleum-rich Bakassi
  Peninsula and offshore region to Cameroon; Nigeria rejected cession
  of the peninsula, but the parties have formed a Joint Border
  Commission to resolve differences bilaterally and have commenced
  with demarcation in less-contested sections of the boundary; Lake
  Chad Commission continues to urge signatories Cameroon, Chad, Niger,
  and Nigeria to ratify delimitation treaty over the lake region,
  which remains the site of armed clashes among local populations and
  militias; Nigeria agreed to ratify the treaty and relinquish
  sovereignty of disputed lands to Cameroon by December 2003


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Canada

Introduction Canada


Background:
  A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became
  a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the
  British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has
  developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across
  an unfortified border. Its paramount political problem continues to
  be the relationship of the province of Quebec, with its
  French-speaking residents and unique culture, to the remainder of
  the country.

Geography Canada


Location:
  Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the
  east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the
  north, north of the conterminous US

Geographic coordinates:
  60 00 N, 95 00 W

Map references:
  North America

Area:
  total: 9,984,670 sq km
  land: 9,093,507 sq km
  water: 891,163 sq km

Area - comparative:
  somewhat larger than the US

Land boundaries:
  total: 8,893 km
  border countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)

Coastline:
  202,080 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM
  continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

Climate:
  varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north

Terrain:
  mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m

Natural resources:
  iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash,
  diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural
  gas, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 4.94%
  permanent crops: 0.02%
  other: 95.04% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  7,200 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to
  development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a
  result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and
  North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and
  snow east of the mountains

Environment - current issues:
  air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and
  damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and
  vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity;
  ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial,
  mining, and forestry activities

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85,
  Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources,
  Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
  Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
  Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
  Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law
  of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:
  second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location
  between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 85% of
  the population is concentrated within 300 km of the US border

People Canada


Population:
  32,207,113 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 18.5% (male 3,052,005; female 2,903,007)
  15-64 years: 68.6% (male 11,099,907; female 10,984,903)
  65 years and over: 12.9% (male 1,774,262; female 2,393,029) (2003
  est.)

Median age:
  total: 37.8 years
  male: 36.9 years
  female: 38.8 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  0.94% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  10.99 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  7.61 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  6.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 4.88 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 4.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 5.36 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 79.83 years
  male: 76.44 years
  female: 83.38 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.61 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.3% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  55,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 500 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Canadian(s)
  adjective: Canadian

Ethnic groups:
  British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other European 15%,
  Amerindian 2%, other, mostly Asian, African, Arab 6%, mixed
  background 26%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 46%, Protestant 36%, other 18%
  note: based on the 1991 census

Languages:
  English 59.3% (official), French 23.2% (official), other 17.5%

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 97% (1986 est.)
  male: NA%
  female: NA%

Government Canada


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Canada

Government type:
  confederation with parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  Ottawa

Administrative divisions:
  10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia,
  Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest
  Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island,
  Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*

Independence:
  1 July 1867 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Canada Day, 1 July (1867)

Constitution:
  17 April 1982 (Constitution Act); originally, the machinery of the
  government was set up in the British North America Act of 1867;
  charter of rights and unwritten customs

Legal system:
  based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law
  system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General Adrienne CLARKSON (since 7 October
  1999)
  elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; governor general
  appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a
  five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the
  majority party or the leader of the majority coalition in the House
  of Commons is automatically designated prime minister by the
  governor general
  head of government: Prime Minister Paul MARTIN (since 12 December
  2003); Deputy Prime Minister Anne MCLELLAN (since 12 December 2003)
  cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister from among
  the members of his own party sitting in Parliament

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat
  (members appointed by the governor general with the advice of the
  prime minister and serve until reaching 75 years of age; its normal
  limit is 105 senators) and the House of Commons or Chambre des
  Communes (301 seats; members elected by direct, popular vote to
  serve for up to five-year terms)
  elections: House of Commons - last held 27 November 2000 (next to be
  held by 2005)
  election results: House of Commons - percent of vote by party -
  Liberal Party 41%, Canadian Alliance 26%, Bloc Quebecois 11%, New
  Democratic Party 9%, Progressive Conservative Party 12%; seats by
  party - Liberal Party 172, Canadian Alliance 66, Bloc Quebecois 38,
  New Democratic Party 13, Progressive Conservative Party 12; note -
  percent of vote by party as of January 2002 - Liberal Party 51%,
  Canadian Alliance 10%, Bloc Quebecois 10%, New Democratic Party 9%,
  Progressive Conservative Party 18%; seats by party - Liberal Party
  172, Canadian Alliance 66, Bloc Quebecois 38, New Democratic Party
  13, Progressive Conservative Party 12

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court of Canada (judges are appointed by the prime minister
  through the governor general); Federal Court of Canada; Federal
  Court of Appeal; Provincial Courts (these are named variously Court
  of Appeal, Court of Queens Bench, Superior Court, Supreme Court, and
  Court of Justice)

Political parties and leaders:
  Bloc Quebecois [Gilles DUCEPPE]; Canadian Alliance [Stephen
  HARPER]; Liberal Party [Paul MARTIN]; New Democratic Party [Jack
  LAYTON]; Progressive Conservative Party [Peter MACKAY]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACCT, AfDB, APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue
  partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CDB, CE (observer), EAPC, EBRD,
  ECE, ECLAC, ESA (cooperating state), FAO, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB,
  IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC,
  IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURCA,
  MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPCW, OSCE,
  PCA, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNMEE,
  UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOVIC, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Michael F. KERGIN
  chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001
  FAX: [1] (202) 682-7726
  telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas,
  Detroit, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, and Seattle
  consulate(s): Miami, Princeton, San Francisco, and San Jose

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Paul CELLUCCI
  embassy: 490 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 1G8
  mailing address: P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburgh, NY 13669-0430
  telephone: [1] (613) 238-5335, 4470
  FAX: [1] (613) 688-3097
  consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto,
  and Vancouver

Flag description:
  two vertical bands of red (hoist and fly side, half width), with
  white square between them; an 11-pointed red maple leaf is centered
  in the white square; the official colors of Canada are red and white

Economy Canada


Economy - overview:
  As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada today closely
  resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of
  production, and high living standards. Since World War II, the
  impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors
  has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one
  primarily industrial and urban. The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade
  Agreement (FTA) and the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement
  (NAFTA) (which includes Mexico) touched off a dramatic increase in
  trade and economic integration with the US. As a result of the close
  cross-border relationship, the economic sluggishness in the United
  States in 2001-02 had a negative impact on the Canadian economy.
  Real growth averaged nearly 3% during 1993-2000, but declined in
  2001, with moderate recovery in 2002. Unemployment is up, with
  contraction in the manufacturing and natural resource sectors.
  Nevertheless, given its great natural resources, skilled labor
  force, and modern capital plant Canada enjoys solid economic
  prospects. Two shadows loom, the first being the continuing
  constitutional impasse between English- and French-speaking areas,
  which has been raising the specter of a split in the federation.
  Another long-term concern is the flow south to the US of
  professionals lured by higher pay, lower taxes, and the immense
  high-tech infrastructure. A key strength in the economy is the
  substantial trade surplus.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $934.1 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3.3% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $29,300 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 2.3%
  industry: 26.5%
  services: 71.2% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2.8%
  highest 10%: 23.8% (1994)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  31.5 (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.2% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  16.4 million (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  services 74%, manufacturing 15%, construction 5%, agriculture 3%,
  other 3% (2000)

Unemployment rate:
  7.6% (2002 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $178.6 billion
  expenditures: $161.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (FY 00/01 est.)

Industries:
  transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed
  minerals, food products; wood and paper products; fish products,
  petroleum and natural gas

Industrial production growth rate:
  2.2% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  566.3 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 28%
  hydro: 57.9%
  other: 1.3% (2001)
  nuclear: 12.9%

Electricity - consumption:
  504.4 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  38.4 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  16.11 billion kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  2.738 million bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  1.703 million bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  2.008 million bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  1.145 million bbl/day (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  5.112 billion bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  186.8 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  82.25 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  109 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  4.46 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  1.691 trillion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy
  products; forest products; fish

Exports:
  $260.5 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft,
  telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood
  pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum

Exports - partners:
  US 87.7%, Japan 2%, UK 1.1% (2002)

Imports:
  $229 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil,
  chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods

Imports - partners:
  US 62.6%, China 4.6%, Japan 4.4% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $1.9 billion $NA (2000)

Economic aid - donor:
  ODA, $1.3 billion (1999)

Currency:
  Canadian dollar (CAD)

Currency code:
  CAD

Exchange rates:
  Canadian dollars per US dollar - 1.57 (2002), 1.55 (2001), 1.49
  (2000), 1.49 (1999), 1.48 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Canada


Telephones - main lines in use:
  20,802,900 (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  8,751,300 (1997)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: excellent service provided by modern technology
  domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations
  international: 5 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations
  - 5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and 2
  Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 535, FM 53, shortwave 6 (1998)

Radios:
  32.3 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  80 (plus many repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:
  21.5 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ca

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  760 (2000 est.)

Internet users:
  16.84 million (2002)

Transportation Canada


Railways:
  total: 49,422 km
  standard gauge: 49,422 km 1.435-m gauge (129 km electrified) (2002)

Highways:
  total: 1.408 million km
  paved: 497,306 km (including 16,900 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 911,494 km (2002)

Waterways:
  3,000 km (including Saint Lawrence Seaway)

Pipelines:
  crude and refined oil 23,564 km; natural gas 74,980 km

Ports and harbors:
  Becancour (Quebec), Churchill, Halifax, Hamilton, Montreal, New
  Westminster, Prince Rupert, Quebec, Saint John (New Brunswick), St.
  John's (Newfoundland), Sept Isles, Sydney, Trois-Rivieres, Thunder
  Bay, Toronto, Vancouver, Windsor

Merchant marine:
  total: 122 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,840,272 GRT/2,740,864 DWT
  ships by type: barge carrier 1, bulk 64, cargo 11, chemical tanker
  6, combination bulk 2, combination ore/oil 1, container 1, passenger
  2, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 18, railcar carrier 2, roll
  on/roll off 9, short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 1
  note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
  convenience: Germany 3, Monaco 16, United Kingdom 1, United States 1
  (2002 est.)

Airports:
  1,389 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 507
  over 3,047 m: 18
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 15
  914 to 1,523 m: 245
  under 914 m: 80 (2002)
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 149

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 882
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 73
  914 to 1,523 m: 363
  under 914 m: 446 (2002)

Heliports:
  12 (2002)

Military Canada


Military branches:
  Canadian Armed Forces (comprising Land Forces Command, Maritime
  Command, Air Command, Communications Command, Training Command)

Military manpower - military age:
  16 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 8,391,120 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 7,158,016 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 216,488 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $7.861 billion (FY01/02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.1% (FY01/02)

Transnational Issues Canada


Disputes - international:
  managed maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance,
  Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and around the disputed
  Machias Seal Island and North Rock; uncontested dispute with Denmark
  over Hans Island sovereignty in the Kennedy Channel between
  Ellesmere Island and Greenland

Illicit drugs:
  illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market; use of
  hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of
  high-quality marijuana indoors; transit point for heroin and cocaine
  entering the US market; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering
  because of its mature financial services sector


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Cape Verde

Introduction Cape Verde


Background:
  The uninhabited islands were discovered and colonized by the
  Portuguese in the 15th century; they subsequently became a trading
  center for African slaves and later an important coaling and
  resupply stop for whaling and transatlantic shipping. Following
  independence in 1975, and a tentative interest in unification with
  Guinea-Bissau, a one-party system was established and maintained
  until multi-party elections were held in 1990. Cape Verde continues
  to exhibit one of Africa's most stable democratic governments.
  Repeated droughts during the second half of the 20th century caused
  significant hardship and prompted heavy emigration. As a result,
  Cape Verde's expatriate population is greater than its domestic one.
  Most Cape Verdeans have both African and Portuguese antecedents.

Geography Cape Verde


Location:
  Western Africa, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, west
  of Senegal

Geographic coordinates:
  16 00 N, 24 00 W

Map references:
  Political Map of the World

Area:
  total: 4,033 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 4,033 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than Rhode Island

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  965 km

Maritime claims:
  measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
  territorial sea: 12 NM
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
  contiguous zone: 24 NM

Climate:
  temperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and very erratic

Terrain:
  steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mt. Fogo 2,829 m (a volcano on Fogo Island)

Natural resources:
  salt, basalt rock, limestone, kaolin, fish

Land use:
  arable land: 9.68%
  permanent crops: 0.5%
  other: 89.82% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  30 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  prolonged droughts; seasonal harmattan wind produces obscuring
  dust; volcanically and seismically active

Environment - current issues:
  soil erosion; demand for wood used as fuel has resulted in
  deforestation; desertification; environmental damage has threatened
  several species of birds and reptiles; illegal beach sand
  extraction; overfishing

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification,
  Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
  Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa near major
  north-south sea routes; important communications station; important
  sea and air refueling site

People Cape Verde


Population:
  412,137 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 41% (male 85,254; female 83,716)
  15-64 years: 52.3% (male 103,690; female 111,992)
  65 years and over: 6.7% (male 10,498; female 16,987) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 18.7 years
  male: 17.9 years
  female: 19.6 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  0.79% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  26.95 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  6.86 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -12.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 50.5 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 45.01 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 55.83 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 69.83 years
  male: 66.53 years
  female: 73.23 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.77 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.04% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  775 (2001)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  225 (as of 2001)

Nationality:
  noun: Cape Verdean(s)
  adjective: Cape Verdean

Ethnic groups:
  Creole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic (infused with indigenous beliefs); Protestant
  (mostly Church of the Nazarene)

Languages:
  Portuguese, Crioulo (a blend of Portuguese and West African words)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 76.6%
  male: 85.8%
  female: 69.2% (2003 est.)

Government Cape Verde


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Cape Verde
  conventional short form: Cape Verde
  local short form: Cabo Verde
  local long form: Republica de Cabo Verde

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  Praia

Administrative divisions:
  17 municipalities (concelhos, singular - concelho); Boa Vista,
  Brava, Maio, Mosteiros, Paul, Praia, Porto Novo, Ribeira Grande,
  Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Sao Domingos, Sao Filipe, Sao
  Miguel, Sao Nicolau, Sao Vicente, Tarrafal

Independence:
  5 July 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 5 July (1975)

Constitution:
  new constitution came into force 25 September 1992; underwent a
  major revision on 23 November 1995, substantially increasing the
  powers of the president, and a further revision in 1999, to create
  the position of national ombudsman (Provedor de Justica)

Legal system:
  derived from the legal system of Portugal

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Pedro PIRES (since 22 March 2001)
  head of government: Prime Minister Jose Maria Pereira NEVES (since 1
  February 2001)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
  recommendation of the prime minister
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  election last held 11 and 25 February 2001 (next to be held NA
  February 2006); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly
  and appointed by the president
  election results: Pedro PIRES elected president; percent of vote -
  Pedro PIRES (PAICV) 49.43%, Carlos VIEGA (MPD) 49.42%; note - the
  election was won by only twelve votes

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (72 seats;
  members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
  elections: last held 14 January 2001 (next to be held NA December
  2005)
  election results: percent of vote by party - PAICV 47.3%, MPD 39.8%,
  ADM 6%, other 6.9%; seats by party - PAICV 40, MPD 30, ADM 2

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Supremo Tribunal de Justia

Political parties and leaders:
  African Party for Independence of Cape Verde or PAICV [Jose Maria
  Pereira NEVES, chairman]; Democratic Alliance for Change or ADM [Dr.
  Eurico MONTEIRO] (a coalition of PCD, PTS, and UCID); Democratic
  Christian Party or PDC [Manuel RODRIGUES, chairman]; Democratic
  Renovation Party or PRD [Jacinto SANTOS, president]; Movement for
  Democracy or MPD [Agostinho LOPES, president]; Party for Democratic
  Convergence or PCD [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO, president]; Party of Work
  and Solidarity or PTS [Anibal MEDINA, president]; Social Democratic
  Party or PSD [Joao ALEM, president]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt
  (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW (signatory),
  UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
  (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Jose BRITO
  consulate(s) general: Boston
  FAX: [1] (202) 965-1207
  telephone: [1] (202) 965-6820
  chancery: 3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Donald C. JOHNSON
  embassy: Rua Abilio m. Macedo 81, Praia
  mailing address: C. P. 201, Praia
  telephone: [238] 61 56 16, 61 56 17
  FAX: [238] 61 13 55

Flag description:
  three horizontal bands of light blue (top, double width), white
  (with a horizontal red stripe in the middle third), and light blue;
  a circle of 10 yellow five-pointed stars is centered on the hoist
  end of the red stripe and extends into the upper and lower blue bands

Economy Cape Verde


Economy - overview:
  This island economy suffers from a poor natural resource base,
  including serious water shortages exacerbated by cycles of long-term
  drought. The economy is service-oriented, with commerce, transport,
  tourism, and public services accounting for 72% of GDP. Although
  nearly 70% of the population lives in rural areas, the share of
  agriculture in GDP in 2001 was only 11%, of which fishing accounts
  for 1.5%. About 82% of food must be imported. The fishing potential,
  mostly lobster and tuna, is not fully exploited. Cape Verde annually
  runs a high trade deficit, financed by foreign aid and remittances
  from emigrants; remittances supplement GDP by more than 20%.
  Economic reforms are aimed at developing the private sector and
  attracting foreign investment to diversify the economy. Prospects
  for 2003 depend heavily on the maintenance of aid flows, tourism,
  remittances, and the momentum of the government's development
  program.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $600 million (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  4% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,400 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 11%
  industry: 17%
  services: 72% (2001)

Population below poverty line:
  30% (2000)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3% (2002)

Labor force:
  NA

Unemployment rate:
  21% (2000 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $112 million
  expenditures: $198 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2000)

Industries:
  food and beverages, fish processing, shoes and garments, salt
  mining, ship repair

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  42.03 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  39.08 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  2,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products:
  bananas, corn, beans, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, coffee, peanuts;
  fish

Exports:
  $30 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  fuel, shoes, garments, fish, hides

Exports - partners:
  Portugal 38.5%, UK 26.4%, France 23.1%, US 8.2% (2002)

Imports:
  $220 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  foodstuffs, industrial products, transport equipment, fuels

Imports - partners:
  Portugal 49.1%, Netherlands 7.2%, Germany 5.7% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $325 million (2002)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $136 million (1999)

Currency:
  Cape Verdean escudo (CVE)

Currency code:
  CVE

Exchange rates:
  Cape Verdean escudos (CVE) per US dollar - NA (2002), 123.21
  (2001), 115.88 (2000), 102.7 (1999), 98.16 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Cape Verde


Telephones - main lines in use:
  60,935 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  28,119 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: effective system, being improved
  domestic: interisland microwave radio relay system with both analog
  and digital exchanges; work is in progress on a submarine
  fiber-optic cable system which is scheduled for completion in 2003
  international: 2 coaxial submarine cables; HF radiotelephone to
  Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat
  (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 0, FM 15 (and 17 repeaters), shortwave 0 (2002)

Radios:
  100,000 (2002 est.)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (and 7 repeaters) (2002)

Televisions:
  15,000 (2002 est.)

Internet country code:
  .cv

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2002)

Internet users:
  12,000 (2002)

Transportation Cape Verde


Railways:
  0 km

Highways:
  total: 1,100 km
  paved: 858 km
  unpaved: 242 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  Mindelo, Praia, Tarrafal

Merchant marine:
  total: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 5,395 GRT/6,614 DWT
  ships by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 1, passenger/cargo 1
  note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of
  convenience: United Kingdom 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:
  9
  note: 3 airports are reported to be nonoperational (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 6
  over 3,047 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 5 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 3
  914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2002)

Military Cape Verde


Military branches:
  Army, Coast Guard

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 95,450 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 53,842 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $9.3 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.6% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Cape Verde


Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  used as a transshipment point for illicit drugs moving from Latin
  America and Asia destined for Western Europe; the lack of a
  well-developed financial system limits the country's utility as a
  money-laundering center


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Cayman Islands

Introduction Cayman Islands


Background:
  The Cayman Islands were colonized from Jamaica by the British
  during the 18th and 19th centuries. Administered by Jamaica since
  1863, they remained a British dependency after 1962 when the former
  became independent.

Geography Cayman Islands


Location:
  Caribbean, island group in Caribbean Sea, nearly one-half of the
  way from Cuba to Honduras

Geographic coordinates:
  19 30 N, 80 30 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 262 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 262 sq km

Area - comparative:
  1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  160 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and cool,
  relatively dry winters (November to April)

Terrain:
  low-lying limestone base surrounded by coral reefs

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: The Bluff 43 m

Natural resources:
  fish, climate and beaches that foster tourism

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  hurricanes (July to November)

Environment - current issues:
  no natural fresh water resources; drinking water supplies must be
  met by rainwater catchments

Geography - note:
  important location between Cuba and Central America

People Cayman Islands


Population:
  41,934 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 21.6% (male 4,525; female 4,541)
  15-64 years: 70.6% (male 14,463; female 15,157)
  65 years and over: 7.7% (male 1,515; female 1,733) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 36.1 years
  male: 35.8 years
  female: 36.4 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  2.79% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  13.33 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  4.7 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  19.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population
  note: major destination for Cubans trying to migrate to the US (2003
  est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 8.64 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 7.35 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 9.9 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 79.67 years
  male: 77.08 years
  female: 82.3 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.91 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Caymanian(s)
  adjective: Caymanian

Ethnic groups:
  mixed 40%, white 20%, black 20%, expatriates of various ethnic
  groups 20%

Religions:
  United Church (Presbyterian and Congregational), Anglican, Baptist,
  Church of God, other Protestant, Roman Catholic

Languages:
  English

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
  total population: 98%
  male: 98%
  female: 98% (1970 est.)

Government Cayman Islands


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Cayman Islands

Dependency status:
  overseas territory of the UK

Government type:
  British crown colony

Capital:
  George Town

Administrative divisions:
  8 districts; Creek, Eastern, Midland, South Town, Spot Bay, Stake
  Bay, West End, Western

Independence:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday:
  Constitution Day, first Monday in July

Constitution:
  1959, revised 1972 and 1992

Legal system:
  British common law and local statutes

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);
  Governor Bruce DINWIDDY (since 29 May 2002)
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the governor is
  appointed by the monarch; the chief secretary is appointed by the
  governor
  head of government: Chief Secretary W. McKeeva BUSH (since NA
  December 2001)
  cabinet: Executive Council (three members appointed by the governor,
  four members elected by the Legislative Assembly)

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Legislative Assembly (18 seats, three appointed members
  from the Executive Council and 15 elected by popular vote; members
  serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 8 November 2000 (next to be held NA November
  2004)
  election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - NA

Judicial branch:
  Summary Court; Grand Court; Cayman Islands Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders:
  there are no formal political parties but the following loose
  groupings act as political organizations; National Team [leader NA];
  Democratic Alliance [leader NA]; Team Cayman [leader NA]; United
  Democratic Party [leader NA]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), IOC, UNESCO
  (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description:
  blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
  the Caymanian coat of arms centered on the outer half of the flag;
  the coat of arms includes a pineapple and turtle above a shield with
  three stars (representing the three islands) and a scroll at the
  bottom bearing the motto HE HATH FOUNDED IT UPON THE SEAS

Economy Cayman Islands


Economy - overview:
  With no direct taxation, the islands are a thriving offshore
  financial center. More than 40,000 companies were registered in the
  Cayman Islands as of 1998, including almost 600 banks and trust
  companies; banking assets exceed $500 billion. A stock exchange was
  opened in 1997. Tourism is also a mainstay, accounting for about 70%
  of GDP and 75% of foreign currency earnings. The tourist industry is
  aimed at the luxury market and caters mainly to visitors from North
  America. Total tourist arrivals exceeded 1.2 million in 1997, with
  600,000 from the US. About 90% of the islands' food and consumer
  goods must be imported. The Caymanians enjoy one of the highest
  outputs per capita and one of the highest standards of living in the
  world.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $1.27 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  1.7% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $35,000 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 1.4%
  industry: 3.2%
  services: 95.4% (1994 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.8% (2002)

Labor force:
  19,820 (1995)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 1.4%, industry 12.6%, services 86% (1995)

Unemployment rate:
  4.1% (1997)

Budget:
  revenues: $265.2 million
  expenditures: $248.9 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1997)

Industries:
  tourism, banking, insurance and finance, construction, construction
  materials, furniture

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  381.9 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  355.2 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  2,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products:
  vegetables, fruit; livestock, turtle farming

Exports:
  $1.2 million (1999)

Exports - commodities:
  turtle products, manufactured consumer goods

Exports - partners:
  mostly US

Imports:
  $457.4 million (1999)

Imports - commodities:
  foodstuffs, manufactured goods

Imports - partners:
  US, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, Netherlands Antilles, Japan

Debt - external:
  $70 million (1996)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $NA

Currency:
  Caymanian dollar (KYD)

Currency code:
  KYD

Exchange rates:
  Caymanian dollars per US dollar - 0.82 (29 October 2001), 0.83 (3
  November 1995), 0.85 (22 November 1993)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Cayman Islands


Telephones - main lines in use:
  19,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  2,534 (1995)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: NA
  international: 1 submarine coaxial cable; satellite earth station -
  1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  36,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 with cable system

Televisions:
  7,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ky

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  16 (2000)

Internet users:
  NA

Transportation Cayman Islands


Railways:
  0 km

Highways:
  total: 785 km
  paved: 785 km (2000)

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  Cayman Brac, George Town

Merchant marine:
  total: 123 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 2,402,058 GRT/3,792,094 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 22, cargo 5, chemical tanker 31, container 2,
  liquefied gas 1, petroleum tanker 21, refrigerated cargo 35, roll
  on/roll off 5, specialized tanker 1
  note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
  convenience: Bahrain 2, China 1, Germany 4, Greece 27, Hong Kong 3,
  Italy 2, Japan 1, Norway 14, Sweden 13, United Kingdom 15, United
  States 35 (2002 est.)

Airports:
  3 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)

Military Cayman Islands


Military branches:
  no regular indigenous military forces; Royal Cayman Islands Police
  Force (RCIPF)

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues Cayman Islands


Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  offshore financial center; vulnerable to drug transshipment to the
  US and Europe


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Central African Republic

Introduction Central African Republic


Background:
  The former French colony of Ubangi-Shari became the Central African
  Republic upon independence in 1960. After three tumultuous decades
  of misrule - mostly by military governments - civilian rule was
  established in 1993 and lasted for one decade. In March 2003 a
  military coup deposed the civilian government of President
  Ange-Felix PATASSE and has since established a new government.

Geography Central African Republic


Location:
  Central Africa, north of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates:
  7 00 N, 21 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 622,984 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 622,984 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,203 km
  border countries: Cameroon 797 km, Chad 1,197 km, Democratic
  Republic of the Congo 1,577 km, Republic of the Congo 467 km, Sudan
  1,165 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers

Terrain:
  vast, flat to rolling, monotonous plateau; scattered hills in
  northeast and southwest

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Oubangui River 335 m
  highest point: Mont Ngaoui 1,420 m

Natural resources:
  diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, oil, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 3.1%
  permanent crops: 0.14%
  other: 96.76% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds affect northern areas; floods are
  common

Environment - current issues:
  tap water is not potable; poaching has diminished its reputation as
  one of the last great wildlife refuges; desertification;
  deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 94
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:
  landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa

People Central African Republic


Population:
  3,683,538
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 43.1% (male 799,241; female 788,370)
  15-64 years: 53.5% (male 969,581; female 1,000,740)
  65 years and over: 3.4% (male 53,322; female 72,284) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 17.9 years
  male: 17.6 years
  female: 18.3 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  1.62% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  35.93 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  19.73 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 93.3 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 86.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 100.35 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 41.71 years
  male: 40.18 years
  female: 43.29 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  4.68 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  12.9% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  250,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  22,000 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Central African(s)
  adjective: Central African

Ethnic groups:
  Baya 33%, Banda 27%, Mandjia 13%, Sara 10%, Mboum 7%, M'Baka 4%,
  Yakoma 4%, other 2%

Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 35%, Protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, Muslim
  15%
  note: animistic beliefs and practices strongly influence the
  Christian majority

Languages:
  French (official), Sangho (lingua franca and national language),
  tribal languages

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 51%
  male: 63.3%
  female: 39.9% (2003 est.)

Government Central African Republic


Country name:
  conventional long form: Central African Republic
  conventional short form: none
  local short form: none
  local long form: Republique Centrafricaine
  former: Ubangi-Shari, Central African Empire
  abbreviation: CAR

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  Bangui

Administrative divisions:
  14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture), 2 economic
  prefectures* (prefectures economiques, singular - prefecture
  economique), and 1 commune**; Bamingui-Bangoran, Bangui**,
  Basse-Kotto, Haute-Kotto, Haut-Mbomou, Kemo, Lobaye, Mambere-Kadei,
  Mbomou, Nana-Grebizi*, Nana-Mambere, Ombella-Mpoko, Ouaka, Ouham,
  Ouham-Pende, Sangha-Mbaere*, Vakaga

Independence:
  13 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday:
  Republic Day, 1 December (1958)

Constitution:
  passed by referendum 29 December 1994; adopted 7 January 1995

Legal system:
  based on French law

Suffrage:
  21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Francois BOZIZE (since 15 March 2003 coup)
  head of government: Prime Minister Abel GOUMBA (since NA March 2003)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers
  elections: NA; current president assumed power following a coup on
  15 March 2003 in which former President Ange-Felix PATASSE was
  overthrown (President BOZIZE has stated that elections will be held
  by NA 2004); prime minister appointed by the president

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (109 seats;
  members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms; note -
  there were 85 seats in the National Assembly before the 1998
  election)
  elections: last held 22-23 November and 13 December 1998 (next to be
  held NA 2003)
  election results: percent of vote by party - MLPC 43%, RDC 18%, MDD
  9%, FPP 6%, PSD 5%, ADP 4%, PUN 3%, FODEM 2%, PLD 2%, UPR 1%, FC 1%,
  independents 6%; seats by party - MLPC 47, RDC 20, MDD 8, FPP 7, PSD
  6, ADP 5, PUN 3, FODEM 2, PLD 2, UPR 1, FC 1, independents 7

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Constitutional Court (3 judges
  appointed by the president, 3 by the president of the National
  Assembly, and 3 by fellow judges); Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts;
  Inferior Courts

Political parties and leaders:
  Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP [Jacques MBOLIEDAS];
  Central African Democratic Assembly or RDC [Andre KOLINGBA]; Civic
  Forum or FC [Gen. Timothee MALENDOMA]; Democratic Forum for
  Modernity or FODEM [Charles MASSI]; Liberal Democratic Party or PLD
  [Nestor KOMBO-NAGUEMON]; Movement for Democracy and Development or
  MDD [David DACKO]; Movement for the Liberation of the Central
  African People or MLPC [the party of deposed president, Ange-Felix
  PATASSE]; Patriotic Front for Progress or FPP [Abel GOUMBA];
  People's Union for the Republic or UPR [Pierre Sammy MAKFOY];
  National Unity Party or PUN [Jean-Paul NGOUPANDE]; Social Democratic
  Party or PSD [Enoch LAKOUE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, CEMAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA,
  IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
  Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC (observer), OPCW (signatory), UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Emmanuel TOUABOY
  FAX: [1] (202) 332-9893
  telephone: [1] (202) 483-7800
  chancery: 1618 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Mattie R. SHARPLESS
  embassy: Avenue David Dacko, Bangui
  mailing address: B. P. 924, Bangui
  telephone: [236] 61 02 00
  FAX: [236] 61 44 94

Flag description:
  four equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, green, and yellow
  with a vertical red band in center; there is a yellow five-pointed
  star on the hoist side of the blue band

Economy Central African Republic


Economy - overview:
  Subsistence agriculture, together with forestry, remains the
  backbone of the economy of the Central African Republic (CAR), with
  more than 70% of the population living in outlying areas. The
  agricultural sector generates half of GDP. Timber has accounted for
  about 16% of export earnings and the diamond industry for 54%.
  Important constraints to economic development include the CAR's
  landlocked position, a poor transportation system, a largely
  unskilled work force, and a legacy of misdirected macroeconomic
  policies. Factional fighting between the government and its
  opponents remains a drag on economic revitalization, with GDP growth
  likely to be no more than 1.3% in 2003. Distribution of income is
  extraordinarily unequal. Grants from France and the international
  community can only partially meet humanitarian needs.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $4.296 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  1.5% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,200 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 55%
  industry: 20%
  services: 25% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 0.7%
  highest 10%: 47.7% (1993)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  61.3 (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.6% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
  NA

Unemployment rate:
  8% (23% for Bangui) (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $NA
  expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries:
  diamond mining, logging, brewing, textiles, footwear, assembly of
  bicycles and motorcycles

Industrial production growth rate:
  3% (2002)

Electricity - production:
  106 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 19.8%
  hydro: 80.2%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  98.63 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  2,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products:
  cotton, coffee, tobacco, manioc (tapioca), yams, millet, corn,
  bananas; timber

Exports:
  $134 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  diamonds, timber, cotton, coffee, tobacco

Exports - partners:
  Belgium 66.8%, Spain 6.4%, Kazakhstan 4% (2002)

Imports:
  $102 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  food, textiles, petroleum products, machinery, electrical
  equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals

Imports - partners:
  France 30%, US 5.2%, Cameroon 4.5%, Germany 4.3% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $881.4 million (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  ODA $73 million; note - traditional budget subsidies from France
  (2000 est.)

Currency:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible
  authority is the Bank of the Central African States

Currency code:
  XAF

Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 696.99
  (2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.7 (1999), 589.95 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Central African Republic


Telephones - main lines in use:
  9,500 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  710 (1998)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: fair system
  domestic: network consists principally of microwave radio relay and
  low-capacity, low-powered radiotelephone communication
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 1 (2002)

Radios:
  283,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2001)

Televisions:
  18,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .cf

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2002)

Internet users:
  2,000 (2002)

Transportation Central African Republic


Railways:
  0 km

Highways:
  total: 23,810 km
  paved: 643 km
  unpaved: 23,167 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  900 km
  note: traditional trade carried on by means of shallow-draft
  dugouts; Oubangui is the most important river, navigable all year to
  craft drawing 0.6 m or less; 282 km navigable to craft drawing as
  much as 1.8 m

Ports and harbors:
  Bangui, Nola, Salo, Nzinga

Airports:
  50 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 3
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 47
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
  914 to 1,523 m: 23
  under 914 m: 13 (2002)

Military Central African Republic


Military branches:
  Central African Armed Forces (FACA) (including Republican Guard,
  Ground Forces, Naval Forces, and Air Force), Presidential Security
  Guard, Gendarmerie, National Police

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 858,671 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 449,466 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $13.43 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.1% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Central African Republic


Disputes - international:
  internal political instabilities with fighting and violence overlap
  into Chad and CAR, leaving refugees and rebel groups in both
  countries; violent ethnic skirmishes persist along the border with
  Sudan


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Chad

Introduction Chad


Background:
  Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three
  decades of ethnic warfare as well as invasions by Libya before a
  semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government
  eventually suppressed or came to terms with most political-military
  groups, settled a territorial dispute with Libya on terms favorable
  to Chad, drafted a democratic constitution, and held multiparty
  presidential and National Assembly elections in 1996 and 1997,
  respectively. In 1998, a new rebellion broke out in northern Chad,
  which continued to escalate throughout 2000. A peace agreement,
  signed in January 2002 between the government and the rebels,
  provides for the demobilization of the rebels and their
  reintegration into the political system. Despite movement toward
  democratic reform, power remains in the hands of a northern ethnic
  oligarchy.

Geography Chad


Location:
  Central Africa, south of Libya

Geographic coordinates:
  15 00 N, 19 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 1.284 million sq km
  water: 24,800 sq km
  land: 1,259,200 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly more than three times the size of California

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,968 km
  border countries: Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197
  km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  tropical in south, desert in north

Terrain:
  broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in
  northwest, lowlands in south

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Djourab Depression 160 m
  highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum (unexploited but exploration under way), uranium, natron,
  kaolin, fish (Lake Chad)

Land use:
  arable land: 2.78%
  permanent crops: 0.02%
  other: 97.2% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  200 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts;
  locust plagues

Environment - current issues:
  inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in
  rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography - note:
  landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the
  Sahel

People Chad


Population:
  9,253,493 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 47.9% (male 2,228,605; female 2,201,368)
  15-64 years: 49.3% (male 2,171,169; female 2,393,184)
  65 years and over: 2.8% (male 105,686; female 153,481) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 16 years
  male: 15.2 years
  female: 16.8 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  3.07% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  47.06 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  16.38 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 95.74 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 86.11 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 105 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 48.51 years
  male: 46.97 years
  female: 50.1 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  6.44 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  3.6% 5%-7% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  150,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  14,000 (confirmed AIDS cases, actual number far higher but
  difficult to estimate) (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Chadian(s)
  adjective: Chadian

Ethnic groups:
  200 distinct groups; in the north and center: Arabs, Gorane
  (Toubou, Daza, Kreda), Zaghawa, Kanembou, Ouaddai, Baguirmi,
  Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Hausa, Boulala, and Maba, most of whom are
  Muslim; in the south: Sara (Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye), Moundang,
  Moussei, Massa, most of whom are Christian or animist; about 1,000
  French citizens live in Chad

Religions:
  Muslim 51%, Christian 35%, animist 7%, other 7%

Languages:
  French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than
  120 different languages and dialects

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic
  total population: 47.5%
  male: 56%
  female: 39.3% (2003 est.)

Government Chad


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Chad
  conventional short form: Chad
  local long form: Republique du Tchad
  local short form: Tchad

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  N'Djamena

Administrative divisions:
  14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture); Batha,
  Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Kanem, Lac,
  Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari,
  Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile
  note: instead of 14 prefectures, there may be a new administrative
  structure of 28 departments (departments, singular - department),
  and 1 city*; Assongha, Baguirmi, Bahr El Gazal, Bahr Koh, Batha
  Oriental, Batha Occidental, Biltine, Borkou, Dababa, Ennedi, Guera,
  Hadjer Lamis, Kabia, Kanem, Lac, Lac Iro, Logone Occidental, Logone
  Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Boneye, Mayo-Dallah, Monts de Lam,
  N'Djamena*, Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, Tandjile Oriental, Tandjile
  Occidental, Tibesti

Independence:
  11 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 11 August (1960)

Constitution:
  passed by referendum 31 March 1996

Legal system:
  based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law; has not
  accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (since 4 December
  1990)
  head of government: Prime Minister Moussa Faki MAHAMAT (since NA
  July 2003)
  cabinet: Council of State, members appointed by the president on the
  recommendation of the prime minister
  election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY reelected president; percent
  of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 63%, Ngarlegy YORONGAR 16%, Saleh
  KEBZABO 7%
  note: government coalition - MPS, UNDR, and URD
  elections: president elected by popular vote to serve five-year
  term; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the
  two candidates receiving the most votes must stand for a second
  round of voting; last held 20 May 2001 (next to be held NA 2006);
  prime minister appointed by the president

Legislative branch:
  bicameral according to constitution, consists of a National
  Assembly (155 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve
  four-year terms) and a Senate (not yet created and size unspecified,
  members to serve six-year terms, one-third of membership renewable
  every two years)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  MPS 110, RDP 12, FAR 9, RNDP 5, URD 5, UNDR 3, others 11
  elections: National Assembly - last held 21 April 2002 (next to be
  held in NA April 2006)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts; Magistrate Courts

Political parties and leaders:
  Federation Action for the Republic or FAR [Ngarlejy YORONGAR];
  National Rally for Development and Progress or RNDP [Mamadou BISSO];
  National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO];
  Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Mahamat Saleh AHMAT, chairman]
  (originally in opposition but now the party in power and the party
  of the president); Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Gen.
  Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE]; Viva Rally for Development and Progress
  or Viva RNDP [Delwa Kassire COUMAKOYE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, CEMAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
  ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW (signatory), UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Hassaballah Abdelhadi Ahmat SOUBIANE
  chancery: 2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
  FAX: [1] (202) 265-1937
  telephone: [1] (202) 462-4009

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher E. GOLDTHWAIT
  embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
  mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena
  telephone: [235] (51) 70-09
  FAX: [235] (51) 56-54

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red;
  similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flags of Andorra
  and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of arms centered in
  the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France

Economy Chad


Economy - overview:
  Chad's primarily agricultural economy will continue to be boosted
  by major oilfield and pipeline projects that began in 2000. Over 80%
  of Chad's population relies on subsistence farming and stock raising
  for its livelihood. Cotton, cattle, and gum arabic provide the bulk
  of Chad's export earnings, but Chad will begin to export oil in
  2004. Chad's economy has long been handicapped by its landlocked
  position, high energy costs, and a history of instability. Chad
  relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital for most public and
  private sector investment projects. A consortium led by two US
  companies has been investing $3.7 billion to develop oil reserves
  estimated at 1 billion barrels in southern Chad. Oil production is
  scheduled to come on stream in late 2003.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $9.297 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  7.4% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,000 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 38%
  industry: 13%
  services: 49% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  80% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  6% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  NA

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture more than 80% (subsistence farming, herding, and
  fishing)

Unemployment rate:
  NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $198 million
  expenditures: $218 million, including capital expenditures of $146
  million (1998 est.)

Industries:
  oil, cotton textiles, meatpacking, beer brewing, natron (sodium
  carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials

Industrial production growth rate:
  5% (1995)

Electricity - production:
  94.04 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  87.46 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  1,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products:
  cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca);
  cattle, sheep, goats, camels

Exports:
  $197 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  cotton, cattle, gum arabic

Exports - partners:
  Portugal 28.3%, Germany 13.6%, US 7.8%, Czech Republic 6.5%, France
  5.8%, Nigeria 5.8%, Poland 5.5%, Spain 5.2%, Morocco 4.5% (2002)

Imports:
  $570 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, petroleum
  products, foodstuffs, textiles

Imports - partners:
  France 31.5%, US 31.4%, Germany 5.5%, Nigeria 4.6% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $1.1 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $238.3 million; note - $125 million committed by Taiwan (August
  1997); $30 million committed by African Development Bank; ODA $150
  million

Currency:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible
  authority is the Bank of the Central African States

Currency code:
  XAF

Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 696.99
  (2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.7 (1999), 589.95 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Chad


Telephones - main lines in use:
  9,700 (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  5,500 (2000)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: primitive system
  domestic: fair system of radiotelephone communication stations
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 4, shortwave 5 (2002)

Radios:
  1.67 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2002)

Televisions:
  10,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .td

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2002)

Internet users:
  4,000 (2002)

Transportation Chad


Railways:
  0 km

Highways:
  total: 33,400 km
  paved: 267 km
  unpaved: 33,133 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  2,000 km

Pipelines:
  oil 205 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  none

Airports:
  50 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 7
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 43
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
  914 to 1,523 m: 20
  under 914 m: 10 (2002)

Military Chad


Military branches:
  Armed Forces (including National Army, Air Force, and Gendarmerie),
  Rapid Intervention Force, National and Nomadic Guard (GNNT),
  Presidential Security Guard, Police

Military manpower - military age:
  20 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 1,940,328 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,015,982 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 86,953 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $40.74 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.9% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Chad


Disputes - international:
  internal political instabilities with fighting and violence overlap
  into Chad and Central African Republic, leaving refugees and rebel
  groups in both countries; Chadian Aozou rebels reside in southern
  Libya; Lake Chad Commission continues to urge signatories Cameroon,
  Chad, Niger, and Nigeria to ratify delimitation treaty over lake
  region, which remains the site of armed clashes among local
  populations and militias; Chad rejects Nigerian request to
  redemarcate boundary, the site of continuing cross-border incidents


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Chile

Introduction Chile


Background:
  A three-year-old Marxist government was overthrown in 1973 by a
  dictatorial military regime led by Augusto PINOCHET, who ruled until
  a freely elected president was installed in 1990. Sound economic
  policies, first implemented by the PINOCHET dictatorship, led to
  unprecedented growth in 1991-97 and have helped secure the country's
  commitment to democratic and representative government.

Geography Chile


Location:
  Southern South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between
  Argentina and Peru

Geographic coordinates:
  30 00 S, 71 00 W

Map references:
  South America

Area:
  total: 756,950 sq km
  land: 748,800 sq km
  note: includes Easter Island (Isla de Pascua) and Isla Sala y Gomez
  water: 8,150 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana

Land boundaries:
  total: 6,171 km
  border countries: Argentina 5,150 km, Bolivia 861 km, Peru 160 km

Coastline:
  6,435 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM
  continental shelf: 200/350 NM
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

Climate:
  temperate; desert in north; Mediterranean in central region; cool
  and damp in south

Terrain:
  low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes in east

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Nevado Ojos del Salado 6,880 m

Natural resources:
  copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum,
  hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 2.65%
  permanent crops: 0.42%
  other: 96.93% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  18,000 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis

Environment - current issues:
  widespread deforestation and mining threaten natural resources; air
  pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution
  from raw sewage

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living
  Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate
  Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
  Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Nuclear
  Test Ban

Geography - note:
  strategic location relative to sea lanes between Atlantic and
  Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage);
  Atacama Desert is one of world's driest regions

People Chile


Population:
  15,665,216 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 26.4% (male 2,112,251; female 2,018,099)
  15-64 years: 66% (male 5,151,551; female 5,180,607)
  65 years and over: 7.7% (male 499,441; female 703,267) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 29.5 years
  male: 28.6 years
  female: 30.4 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  1.05% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  16.1 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  5.63 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 8.88 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 8.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 9.68 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 76.35 years
  male: 73.04 years
  female: 79.82 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.09 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.3% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  20,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  220 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Chilean(s)
  adjective: Chilean

Ethnic groups:
  white and white-Amerindian 95%, Amerindian 3%, other 2%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 11%, Jewish NEGL%

Languages:
  Spanish

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 96.2%
  male: 96.4%
  female: 96.1% (2003 est.)

Government Chile


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Chile
  conventional short form: Chile
  local long form: Republica de Chile
  local short form: Chile

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  Santiago

Administrative divisions:
  13 regions (regiones, singular - region); Aisen del General Carlos
  Ibanez del Campo, Antofagasta, Araucania, Atacama, Bio-Bio,
  Coquimbo, Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los Lagos,
  Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena, Maule, Region Metropolitana
  (Santiago), Tarapaca, Valparaiso
  note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica

Independence:
  18 September 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 18 September (1810)

Constitution:
  11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981, amended 30 July 1989,
  1993, and 1997

Legal system:
  based on Code of 1857 derived from Spanish law and subsequent codes
  influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial review of
  legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory
  ICJ jurisdiction
  note: Chile is in the process of completely overhauling its criminal
  justice system; a new, US-style adversarial system is being
  gradually implemented throughout the country

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Ricardo LAGOS Escobar (since 11 March
  2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government
  head of government: President Ricardo LAGOS Escobar (since 11 March
  2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  election results: Ricardo LAGOS Escobar elected president; percent
  of vote - Ricardo LAGOS Escobar 51.32%, Joaquin LAVIN 48.68%
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
  election last held 12 December 1999, with runoff election held 16
  January 2000 (next to be held NA December 2005)

Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the
  Senate or Senado (49 seats, 38 elected by popular vote, 9 designated
  members, and 2 former presidents who serve six-year terms and are
  senators for life); elected members serve eight-year terms (one-half
  elected every four years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de
  Diputados (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
  four-year terms)
  election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by
  party - CPD 20 (PDC 12, PS 5, PPD 3), APC 16 (UDI 9, RN 7),
  independents 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party -
  NA%; seats by party - CPD 62 (PDC 24, PPD 21, PS 11, PRSD 6), UDI
  35, RN 22, independent 1
  elections: Senate - last held 16 December 2001 (next to be held NA
  December 2005); Chamber of Deputies - last held 16 December 2001
  (next to be held NA December 2005)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges are appointed by the
  president and ratified by the Senate from lists of candidates
  provided by the court itself; the president of the Supreme Court is
  elected by the 21-member court); Constitutional Tribunal

Political parties and leaders:
  Alliance for Chile ("Alianza") or APC - including RN and UDI;
  Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Adolfo ZALDIVAR]; Coalition of
  Parties for Democracy ("Concertacion") or CPD - including PDC, PS,
  PPD, PRSD; Communist Party or PC [Gladys MARIN]; Independent
  Democratic Union or UDI [Pablo LONGUEIRA]; National Renewal or RN
  [Sebastian PINERA]; Party for Democracy or PPD [Guido GIRARDI];
  Radical Social Democratic Party or PRSD [Orlando CANTUARIAS];
  Socialist Party or PS [Camilo ESCALONA]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  revitalized university student federations at all major
  universities; Roman Catholic Church; United Labor Central or CUT
  includes trade unionists from the country's five largest labor
  confederations

International organization participation:
  APEC, ECLAC, FAO, G-15, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt
  (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), NAM,
  OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UN Security Council (temporary),
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UNU,
  UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Andres BIANCHI
  chancery: 1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
  consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New
  York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
  FAX: [1] (202) 887-5579
  telephone: [1] (202) 785-1746

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador William R. BROWNFIELD
  embassy: Avenida Andres Bello 2800, Las Condes, Santiago
  mailing address: APO AA 34033
  telephone: [56] (2) 232-2600
  FAX: [56] (2) 330-3710

Flag description:
  two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is a blue
  square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of
  the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the
  center representing a guide to progress and honor; blue symbolizes
  the sky, white is for the snow-covered Andes, and red stands for the
  blood spilled to achieve independence; design was influenced by the
  US flag

Economy Chile


Economy - overview:
  Chile has a market-oriented economy characterized by a high level
  of foreign trade. During the early 1990s, Chile's reputation as a
  role model for economic reform was strengthened when the democratic
  government of Patricio AYLWIN - which took over from the military in
  1990 - deepened the economic reform initiated by the military
  government. Growth in real GDP averaged 8% during 1991-97, but fell
  to half that level in 1998 because of tight monetary policies
  implemented to keep the current account deficit in check and because
  of lower export earnings - the latter a product of the global
  financial crisis. A severe drought exacerbated the recession in
  1999, reducing crop yields and causing hydroelectric shortfalls and
  electricity rationing, and Chile experienced negative economic
  growth for the first time in more than 15 years. Despite the effects
  of the recession, Chile maintained its reputation for strong
  financial institutions and sound policy that have given it the
  strongest sovereign bond rating in South America. By the end of
  1999, exports and economic activity had begun to recover, and growth
  rebounded to 4.4% in 2000. Growth fell back to 2.8% in 2001 and 1.8%
  in 2002, largely due to lackluster global growth and the devaluation
  of the Argentine peso. Unemployment remains stubbornly high, putting
  pressure on President LAGOS to improve living standards. One bright
  spot was the signing of a free trade agreement with the US, which
  will take effect on 1 January 2004.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $156.1 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  2.1% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $10,100 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 11%
  industry: 34%
  services: 56% (2001)

Population below poverty line:
  21% (1998 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 1.3%
  highest 10%: 45.6% (1998)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  56.7 (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.5% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  5.9 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 14%, industry 27%, services 59% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  9.2% (2002)

Budget:
  revenues: $17 billion
  expenditures: $17 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2001 est.)

Industries:
  copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and
  steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles

Industrial production growth rate:
  -1.5% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  41.66 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 47%
  hydro: 51.5%
  other: 1.4% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  40.13 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  1.386 billion kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  13,640 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  241,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  81.05 million bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  1.2 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  6.47 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  5.27 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  67.78 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  wheat, corn, grapes, beans, sugar beets, potatoes, fruit; beef,
  poultry, wool; fish; timber

Exports:
  $17.8 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  copper, fish, fruits, paper and pulp, chemicals

Exports - partners:
  US 19.1%, Japan 10.5%, China 6.7%, Mexico 5%, Italy 4.7%, UK 4.4%
  (2002)

Imports:
  $15.6 billion f.o.b. (2002)

Imports - commodities:
  consumer goods, chemicals, motor vehicles, fuels, electrical
  machinery, heavy industrial machinery, food

Imports - partners:
  Argentina 18%, US 14.9%, Brazil 9.5%, China 6.5%, Germany 4.3%
  (2002)

Debt - external:
  $40.4 billion (2002)

Economic aid - recipient:
  ODA, $40 million (2001 est.)

Currency:
  Chilean peso (CLP)

Currency code:
  CLP

Exchange rates:
  Chilean pesos per US dollar - 688.95 (2002), 634.94 (2001), 535.47
  (2000), 508.78 (1999), 460.29 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Chile


Telephones - main lines in use:
  2.603 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  944,225 (1998)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: modern system based on extensive microwave
  radio relay facilities
  domestic: extensive microwave radio relay links; domestic satellite
  system with 3 earth stations
  international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 180 (eight inactive), FM 64, shortwave 17 (one inactive) (1998)

Radios:
  5.18 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  63 (plus 121 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:
  3.15 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .cl

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  7 (2000)

Internet users:
  3.1 million (2002)

Transportation Chile


Railways:
  total: 6,585 km
  broad gauge: 2,831 km 1.676-m gauge (1,317 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 3,754 km 1.000-m gauge (2002)

Highways:
  total: 79,814 km
  paved: 15,484 km (including 294 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 64,330 km (2000)

Waterways:
  725 km

Pipelines:
  gas 2,267 km; gas/liquid petroleum gas 42 km; liquid petroleum gas
  531 km; oil 983 km; refined products 545 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Antofagasta, Arica, Chanaral, Coquimbo, Iquique, Puerto Montt,
  Punta Arenas, San Antonio, San Vicente, Talcahuano, Valparaiso

Merchant marine:
  total: 50 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 696,202 GRT/900,317 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 6, chemical tanker 9, container 4,
  liquefied gas 2, passenger 4, petroleum tanker 6, roll on/roll off
  6, vehicle carrier 4
  note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of
  convenience: Netherlands 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:
  363 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 71
  over 3,047 m: 6
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 21
  914 to 1,523 m: 23
  under 914 m: 15 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 292
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
  914 to 1,523 m: 60
  under 914 m: 216 (2002)

Military Chile


Military branches:
  Army of the Nation, National Navy (including naval air, coast
  guard, and marines), Air Force of the Nation, Chilean Carabineros
  (National Police), Investigations Police

Military manpower - military age:
  19 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 4,154,636 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 3,070,140 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 131,324 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $2.5 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  3.1% (FY99)

Transnational Issues Chile


Disputes - international:
  Bolivia continues to press Chile and Peru to restore the Atacama
  corridor ceded to Chile in 1884; dispute with Peru over the economic
  zone delimited by the maritime boundary; Chile demands water rights
  to Bolivia's Rio Lauca and Silala Spring; Beagle Channel islands
  dispute resolved through Papal mediation in 1984, but armed
  incidents persist since 1992 oil discovery; territorial claim in
  Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps
  Argentine and British claims

Illicit drugs:
  a growing transshipment country for cocaine destined for the US and
  Europe; economic prosperity and increasing trade have made Chile
  more attractive to traffickers seeking to launder drug profits,
  especially through the Iquique Free Trade Zone; imported precursors
  passed on to Bolivia; domestic cocaine consumption is rising


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@China

Introduction China


Background:
  For centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the
  rest of the world in the arts and sciences. But in the 19th and
  early 20th centuries, China was beset by civil unrest, major
  famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War
  II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established a dictatorship that,
  while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over
  everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people.
  After 1978, his successor DENG Xiaoping gradually introduced
  market-oriented reforms and decentralized economic decision-making.
  Output quadrupled by 2000. Political controls remain tight while
  economic controls continue to be relaxed.

Geography China


Location:
  Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea,
  and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam

Geographic coordinates:
  35 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references:
  Asia

Area:
  total: 9,596,960 sq km
  land: 9,326,410 sq km
  water: 270,550 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries:
  total: 22,147.34 km
  border countries: Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km,
  Hong Kong 30 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea
  1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Macau 0.34 km, Mongolia
  4,677 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605
  km, Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281 km

Coastline:
  14,500 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 NM
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
  continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north

Terrain:
  mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas,
  and hills in east

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m
  highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m (1999 est.)

Natural resources:
  coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten,
  antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum,
  lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)

Land use:
  arable land: 13.31%
  permanent crops: 1.2%
  other: 85.49% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  525,800 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern
  coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land
  subsidence

Environment - current issues:
  air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from
  reliance on coal produces acid rain; water shortages, particularly
  in the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation;
  estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil
  erosion and economic development; desertification; trade in
  endangered species

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
  Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
  Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
  Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note:
  world's fourth-largest country (after Russia, Canada, and US);
  Mount Everest on the border with Nepal is the world's tallest peak;

People China


Population:
  1,286,975,468 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 23.1% (male 155,473,656; female 141,737,406)
  15-64 years: 69.5% (male 461,223,219; female 433,154,970)
  65 years and over: 7.4% (male 44,954,643; female 50,431,574) (2003
  est.)

Median age:
  total: 31.5 years
  male: 31.2 years
  female: 31.7 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  0.6% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  12.96 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  6.74 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.09 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 25.26 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 25.65 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 24.91 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 72.22 years
  male: 70.33 years
  female: 74.28 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.7 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  850,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  30,000 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Chinese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Chinese

Ethnic groups:
  Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu,
  Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%

Religions:
  Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Muslim 1%-2%, Christian 3%-4%
  note: officially atheist (2002 est.)

Languages:
  Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing
  dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan
  (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages
  (see Ethnic groups entry)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 86%
  male: 92.9%
  female: 78.8% (2003 est.)

Government China


Country name:
  conventional long form: People's Republic of China
  conventional short form: China
  local short form: Zhong Guo
  abbreviation: PRC
  local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo

Government type:
  Communist state

Capital:
  Beijing

Administrative divisions:
  23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions*
  (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities** (shi,
  singular and plural); Anhui, Beijing**, Chongqing**, Fujian, Gansu,
  Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan,
  Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol*,
  Ningxia*, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai**, Shanxi, Sichuan,
  Tianjin**, Xinjiang*, Xizang* (Tibet), Yunnan, Zhejiang; note -
  China considers Taiwan its 23rd province; see separate entries for
  the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau

Independence:
  221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty 221 BC; Qing or
  Ch'ing Dynasty replaced by the Republic on 12 February 1912;
  People's Republic established 1 October 1949)

National holiday:
  Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China, 1
  October (1949)

Constitution:
  most recent promulgation 4 December 1982

Legal system:
  a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely criminal law;
  rudimentary civil code in effect since 1 January 1987; new legal
  codes in effect since 1 January 1980; continuing efforts are being
  made to improve civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President HU Jintao (since 15 March 2003) and Vice
  President ZENG Qinghong (since 15 March 2003)
  elections: president and vice president elected by the National
  People's Congress for five-year terms; elections last held 15-17
  March 2003 (next to be held mid-March 2008); premier nominated by
  the president, confirmed by the National People's Congress
  head of government: Premier WEN Jiabao (since 16 March 2003); Vice
  Premiers HUANG Ju (since 17 March 2003), WU Yi (17 March 2003), ZENG
  Peiyan (since 17 March 2003), and HUI Liangyu (since 17 March 2003)
  cabinet: State Council appointed by the National People's Congress
  (NPC)
  election results: HU Jintao elected president by the Tenth National
  People's Congress with a total of 2,937 votes (4 delegates voted
  against him, 4 abstained, and 38 did not vote); ZENG Qinghong
  elected vice president by the Tenth National People's Congress with
  a total of 2,578 votes (177 delegates voted against him, 190
  abstained, and 38 did not vote); 2 seats were vacant

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao
  Dahui (2,985 seats; members elected by municipal, regional, and
  provincial people's congresses to serve five-year terms)
  elections: last held NA December 2002-NA February 2003 (next to be
  held late 2007-NA February 2008)
  election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - NA

Judicial branch:
  Supreme People's Court (judges appointed by the National People's
  Congress); Local Peoples Courts (comprise higher, intermediate and
  local courts); Special Peoples Courts (primarily military, maritime,
  and railway transport courts)

Political parties and leaders:
  Chinese Communist Party or CCP [HU Jintao, General Secretary of the
  Central Committee]; eight registered small parties controlled by CCP

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  no substantial political opposition groups exist, although the
  government has identified the Falungong sect and the China Democracy
  Party as potential rivals

International organization participation:
  APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS,
  CDB, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD,
  IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
  LAIA (observer), MINURSO, MONUC, NAM (observer), OPCW, PCA, SCO, UN,
  UN Security Council, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, IFC, UNHCR, UNIDO,
  AfDB, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMOVIC, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCO,
  WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador YANG Jiechi
  consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and
  San Francisco
  FAX: [1] (202) 328-2582
  telephone: [1] (202) 328-2500
  chancery: 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Clark T. RANDT, Jr.
  embassy: Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, 100600 Beijing
  mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002
  telephone: [86] (10) 6532-3831
  FAX: [86] (10) 6532-6929
  consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Shanghai,
  Shenyang

Flag description:
  red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow
  five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle of
  the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner

Economy China


Economy - overview:
  In late 1978 the Chinese leadership began moving the economy from a
  sluggish, Soviet-style centrally planned economy to a more
  market-oriented system. Whereas the system operates within a
  political framework of strict Communist control, the economic
  influence of non-state organizations and individual citizens has
  been steadily increasing. The authorities switched to a system of
  household and village responsibility in agriculture in place of the
  old collectivization, increased the authority of local officials and
  plant managers in industry, permitted a wide variety of small-scale
  enterprises in services and light manufacturing, and opened the
  economy to increased foreign trade and investment. The result has
  been a quadrupling of GDP since 1978. In 2003, with its 1.3 billion
  people but a GDP of just $5,000 per capita, China stood as the
  second-largest economy in the world after the US (measured on a
  purchasing power parity basis). Agriculture and industry have posted
  major gains, especially in coastal areas near Hong Kong and opposite
  Taiwan, where foreign investment has helped spur output of both
  domestic and export goods. The leadership, however, often has
  experienced - as a result of its hybrid system - the worst results
  of socialism (bureaucracy and lassitude) and of capitalism (windfall
  gains and growing income disparities). China thus has periodically
  backtracked, retightening central controls at intervals. The
  government has struggled to (a) collect revenues due from provinces,
  businesses, and individuals; (b) reduce corruption and other
  economic crimes; and (c) keep afloat the large state-owned
  enterprises, many of which had been shielded from competition by
  subsidies and had been losing the ability to pay full wages and
  pensions. From 80 to 120 million surplus rural workers are adrift
  between the villages and the cities, many subsisting through
  part-time low-paying jobs. Popular resistance, changes in central
  policy, and loss of authority by rural cadres have weakened China's
  population control program, which is essential to maintaining
  long-term growth in living standards. Another long-term threat to
  growth is the deterioration in the environment, notably air
  pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table
  especially in the north. China continues to lose arable land because
  of erosion and economic development. Beijing says it will intensify
  efforts to stimulate growth through spending on infrastructure -
  such as water control and power grids - and poverty relief and
  through rural tax reform aimed at eliminating arbitrary local levies
  on farmers. Accession to the World Trade Organization helps
  strengthen China's ability to maintain strong growth rates but at
  the same time puts additional pressure on the hybrid system of
  strong political controls and growing market influences. China has
  benefited from a huge expansion in computer internet use. Foreign
  investment remains a strong element in China's remarkable economic
  growth.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $5.989 trillion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  8% (official data) (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $4,700 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 15.2%
  industry and construction: 51.2%
  services: 33.6% (2001)

Population below poverty line:
  10% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2.4%
  highest 10%: 30.4% (1998)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  40 (2001)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  -0.8% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  744 million (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 50%, industry 22%, services 28% (2001 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  urban unemployment roughly 10%; substantial unemployment and
  underemployment in rural areas (2002 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $224.8 billion
  expenditures: $267.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2000)

Industries:
  iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textiles and
  apparel, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers, footwear, toys,
  food processing, automobiles, consumer electronics,
  telecommunications

Industrial production growth rate:
  12.6% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  1.42 trillion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 80.2%
  hydro: 18.5%
  other: 0.1% (2001)
  nuclear: 1.2%

Electricity - consumption:
  1.312 trillion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  10.3 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  1.55 billion kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  3.3 million bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  4.975 million bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  26.75 billion bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  30.3 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  30.3 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  1.29 trillion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  rice, wheat, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley,
  cotton, oilseed; pork; fish

Exports:
  $325.6 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment; textiles and clothing, footwear, toys and
  sporting goods; mineral fuels

Exports - partners:
  US 21.5%, Hong Kong 18%, Japan 14.9%, South Korea 4.8% (2002)

Imports:
  $295.3 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, plastics, iron and steel,
  chemicals

Imports - partners:
  Japan 18.1%, Taiwan 10.5%, South Korea 9.7%, US 9.2%, Germany 5.6%
  (2002)

Debt - external:
  $149.4 billion (2002 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $NA

Currency:
  yuan (CNY)
  note:: also referred to as the Renminbi (RMB)

Currency code:
  CNY

Exchange rates:
  yuan per US dollar - 8.28 (2002), 8.28 (2001), 8.28 (2000), 8.28
  (1999), 8.28 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications China


Telephones - main lines in use:
  135 million (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  65 million (January 2001)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: domestic and international services are
  increasingly available for private use; unevenly distributed
  domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and
  many towns
  domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular
  telephone systems have been installed; a domestic satellite system
  with 55 earth stations is in place
  international: satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Pacific
  Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region) and
  1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean regions); several international
  fiber-optic links to Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong, Russia, and
  Germany (2000)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 369, FM 259, shortwave 45 (1998)

Radios:
  417 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  3,240 (of which 209 are operated by China Central Television, 31
  are provincial TV stations and nearly 3,000 are local city stations)
  (1997)

Televisions:
  400 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .cn

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  3 (2000)

Internet users:
  45.8 million (2002)

Transportation China


Railways:
  total: 71,600 km
  standard gauge: 68,000 km 1.435-m gauge (14,600 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 3,600 km 1.000-m and 0.750-m gauge local industrial
  lines (2002)

Highways:
  total: 1,402,698 km
  paved: 314,204 km (with at least 16,314 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 1,088,494 km (2000)

Waterways:
  110,000 km (1999)

Pipelines:
  gas 13,845 km; oil 15,143 km; refined products 3,280 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Dalian, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Haikou, Huangpu, Lianyungang, Nanjing,
  Nantong, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shantou, Shenzhen,
  Tianjin, Wenzhou, Xiamen, Xingang, Yantai, Zhanjiang (2001)

Merchant marine:
  total: 1,817 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 18,047,962 GRT/27,035,740 DWT
  ships by type: barge carrier 2, bulk 348, cargo 824, chemical tanker
  28, combination bulk 10, combination ore/oil 2, container 150,
  liquefied gas 28, multi-functional large-load carrier 6, passenger
  6, passenger/cargo 47, petroleum tanker 267, refrigerated cargo 26,
  roll on/roll off 21, short-sea passenger 42, specialized tanker 8,
  vehicle carrier 2
  note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
  convenience: Croatia 1, Germany 1, Hong Kong 16, Japan 2, Panama 2,
  South Korea 1, Spain 1, Taiwan 9, Tanzania 1, Turkey 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:
  500 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 351
  over 3,047 m: 32
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 108
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 143
  914 to 1,523 m: 29
  under 914 m: 39 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 149
  over 3,047 m: 4
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 25
  914 to 1,523 m: 48
  under 914 m: 71 (2002)

Military China


Military branches:
  People's Liberation Army (PLA): comprises ground forces, Navy
  (including naval infantry and naval aviation), Air Force, and II
  Artillery Corps (strategic missile force), People's Armed Police
  Force (internal security troops, nominally a state security body but
  included by the Chinese as part of the "armed forces" and considered
  to be an adjunct to the PLA), militia

Military manpower - military age:
  18 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 375,520,255 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 206 million (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 10,973,761 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $55.91 billion (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  4.3% (FY02)

Transnational Issues China


Disputes - international:
  involved in complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with Malaysia,
  Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; claimants in
  November 2002 signed the "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in
  the South China Sea", a mechanism to ease tension but which fell
  short of a legally binding "code of conduct"; much of the rugged,
  militarized boundary with India is in dispute, but the two sides
  have participated in more than 13 rounds of joint working group
  sessions on this issue; India objects to Pakistan ceding lands to
  China in 1965 boundary agreement that India believes are part of
  disputed Kashmir; China, as well as Taiwan, claims
  Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) islands;
  negotiations with Tajikistan resolved the longstanding boundary
  dispute; China and Kazakhstan have resolved their border dispute and
  are working to delimit their large open borders to control
  population migration, illegal activities, and trade; Kyrgyzstan's
  constitutional court rules that 1,270 sq km ceded to China in 2000
  delimitation agreement were legally transferred; certain islands in
  Yalu and Tumen rivers are in uncontested dispute with North Korea
  and a section of boundary around Mount Paektu is indefinite - China
  objects to illegal migration of North Koreans into northern China;
  China continues to seek a mutually acceptable solution to the
  disputed alluvial islands with Russia at the confluence of the Amur
  and Ussuri rivers and a small island on the Argun river as part of
  the 2001 Treaty of Good Neighborliness, Friendship, and Cooperation;
  boundary agreements signed in 2002 with Tajikistan cedes 1,000 sq km
  of Pamir Mountain range to China in return for China's relinquishing
  claims to 28,000 sq km; demarcation of land boundary with Vietnam
  continues but maritime boundary and joint fishing zone agreement
  remains unratified; China occupies Paracel Islands also claimed by
  Vietnam and Taiwan

Illicit drugs:
  major transshipment point for heroin produced in the Golden
  Triangle; growing domestic drug abuse problem; source country for
  chemical precursors and methamphetamine


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Christmas Island

Introduction Christmas Island


Background:
  Named in 1643 for the day of its discovery, the island was annexed
  and settlement was begun by the UK in 1888. Phosphate mining began
  in the 1890s. The UK transferred sovereignty to Australia in 1958.
  Almost two-thirds of the island has been declared a national park.

Geography Christmas Island


Location:
  Southeastern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of Indonesia

Geographic coordinates:
  10 30 S, 105 40 E

Map references:
  Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 135 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 135 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  80 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 12 NM
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  tropical; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds

Terrain:
  steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Murray Hill 361 m

Natural resources:
  phosphate, beaches

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100%
  note: mainly tropical rainforest; 63% of the island is a national
  park (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can be a maritime
  hazard

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Geography - note:
  located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean

People Christmas Island


Population:
  433 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: NA%
  15-64 years: NA%
  65 years and over: NA% (2003 est.)

Population growth rate:
  -9% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  NA births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  NA deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  NA (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: NA%
  male: NA%
  female: NA%

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: NA years
  male: NA years
  female: NA years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  NA children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Christmas Islander(s)
  adjective: Christmas Island

Ethnic groups:
  Chinese 70%, European 20%, Malay 10%
  note: no indigenous population (2001)

Religions:
  Buddhist 36%, Muslim 25%, Christian 18%, other 21% (1997)

Languages:
  English (official), Chinese, Malay

Literacy:
  NA

Government Christmas Island


Country name:
  conventional long form: Territory of Christmas Island
  conventional short form: Christmas Island

Dependency status:
  territory of Australia; administered by the Australian Department
  of Transport and Regional Services

Government type:
  NA

Capital:
  The Settlement

Administrative divisions:
  none (territory of Australia)

Independence:
  none (territory of Australia)

National holiday:
  NA

Constitution:
  NA

Legal system:
  under the authority of the governor general of Australia and
  Australian law

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by the Australian governor general
  head of government: Administrator William Leonard TAYLOR (since 4
  February 1999)
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed
  by the governor general of Australia and represents the monarch and
  Australia

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Christmas Island Shire Council (9 seats; members elected
  by popular vote to serve one-year terms)
  election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - independents 9
  elections: last held NA December 2002 (next to be held NA December
  2003)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court; District Court; Magistrate's Court

Political parties and leaders:
  none

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  none

International organization participation:
  none

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (territory of Australia)

Flag description:
  the flag of Australia is used; note - in early 1986, the Christmas
  Island Assembly held a design competition for an island flag,
  however, the winning design has never been formally adopted as the
  official flag of the territory

Economy Christmas Island


Economy - overview:
  Phosphate mining had been the only significant economic activity,
  but in December 1987 the Australian Government closed the mine. In
  1991, the mine was reopened. With the support of the government, a
  $34 million casino opened in 1993. The casino closed in 1998. The
  Australian Government in 2001 agreed to support the creation of a
  commercial space-launching site on the island, slated to begin
  operation in 2003.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - real growth rate:
  NA%

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  NA%

Labor force:
  NA

Labor force - by occupation:
  tourism 400 people, mining 100 people (1995)

Unemployment rate:
  NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $NA
  expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries:
  tourism, phosphate extraction (near depletion)

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  NA kWh

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: NA%
  hydro: NA%
  other: NA%
  nuclear: NA%

Electricity - consumption:
  NA kWh

Agriculture - products:
  NA

Exports:
  $NA

Exports - commodities:
  phosphate

Exports - partners:
  Australia, NZ

Imports:
  $NA

Imports - commodities:
  consumer goods

Imports - partners:
  principally Australia

Debt - external:
  $NA

Economic aid - recipient:
  $NA

Currency:
  Australian dollar (AUD)

Currency code:
  AUD

Exchange rates:
  Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.9354 (2002), 1.9320 (2001),
  1.7173(2000), 1.5497 (1999), 1.5888 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Christmas Island


Telephones - main lines in use:
  NA

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  NA

Telephone system:
  general assessment: service provided by the Australian network
  domestic: only analog mobile telephone service is available
  international: satellite earth stations - one Intelsat earth station
  provides telephone and telex service (2000)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  1,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  NA

Televisions:
  600 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .cx

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  NA

Transportation Christmas Island


Railways:
  24 km to serve phosphate mines

Highways:
  total: 240 km
  paved: 30 km
  unpaved: 210 km (2000)

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  Flying Fish Cove

Merchant marine:
  none (2002 est.)

Airports:
  1 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)

Military Christmas Island


Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of Australia

Transnational Issues Christmas Island


Disputes - international:
  none


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Clipperton Island

Introduction Clipperton Island


Background:
  This isolated island was named for John CLIPPERTON, a pirate who
  made it his hideout early in the 18th century. Annexed by France in
  1855, it was seized by Mexico in 1897. Arbitration eventually
  awarded the island to France, which took possession in 1935.

Geography Clipperton Island


Location:
  Middle America, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, 1,120 km
  southwest of Mexico

Geographic coordinates:
  10 17 N, 109 13 W

Map references:
  Political Map of the World

Area:
  total: 6 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 6 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about 12 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  11.1 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  tropical; humid, average temperature 20-32 degrees C, rains
  May-October

Terrain:
  coral atoll

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Rocher Clipperton 29 m

Natural resources:
  fish

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100% (all coral) (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  NA

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Geography - note:
  reef 12 km in circumference

People Clipperton Island


Population:
  uninhabited (July 2003 est.)

Government Clipperton Island


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Clipperton Island
  local short form: Ile Clipperton
  local long form: none
  former: sometimes called Ile de la Passion

Dependency status:
  possession of France; administered by France from French Polynesia
  by a high commissioner of the Republic

Legal system:
  the laws of France, where applicable, apply

Flag description:
  the flag of France is used

Economy Clipperton Island


Economy - overview:
  Although 115 species of fish have been identified in the
  territorial waters of Clipperton Island, the only economic activity
  is tuna fishing.


Transportation Clipperton Island


Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  none; offshore anchorage only

Military Clipperton Island


Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues Clipperton Island


Disputes - international:
  none


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Introduction Cocos (Keeling) Islands


Background:
  There are 27 coral islands in the group. Captain William Keeling
  discovered the islands in 1609, but they remained uninhabited until
  the 19th century. Annexed by the UK in 1857, they were transferred
  to the Australian Government in 1955. The population on the two
  inhabited islands generally is split between the ethnic Europeans on
  West Island and the ethnic Malays on Home Island.

Geography Cocos (Keeling) Islands


Location:
  Southeastern Asia, group of islands in the Indian Ocean, southwest
  of Indonesia, about halfway from Australia to Sri Lanka

Geographic coordinates:
  12 30 S, 96 50 E

Map references:
  Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 14 sq km
  note: includes the two main islands of West Island and Home Island
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 14 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about 24 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  26 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  tropical with high humidity, moderated by the southeast trade winds
  for about nine months of the year

Terrain:
  flat, low-lying coral atolls

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: unnamed location 5 m

Natural resources:
  fish

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  cyclone season is October to April

Environment - current issues:
  fresh water resources are limited to rainwater accumulations in
  natural underground reservoirs

Geography - note:
  islands are thickly covered with coconut palms and other vegetation

People Cocos (Keeling) Islands


Population:
  630 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: NA%
  15-64 years: NA%
  65 years and over: NA% (2003 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  NA births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  NA deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: NA%
  male: NA%
  female: NA%

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: NA years
  male: NA years
  female: NA years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  NA children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Cocos Islander(s)
  adjective: Cocos Islander

Ethnic groups:
  Europeans, Cocos Malays

Religions:
  Sunni Muslim 80%, other 20% (2002 est.)

Languages:
  Malay (Cocos dialect), English

Government Cocos (Keeling) Islands


Country name:
  conventional long form: Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands
  conventional short form: Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Dependency status:
  territory of Australia; administered from Canberra by the
  Australian Department of Transport and Regional Services

Government type:
  NA

Capital:
  West Island

Administrative divisions:
  none (territory of Australia)

Independence:
  none (territory of Australia)

National holiday:
  NA

Constitution:
  Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act of 1955

Legal system:
  based upon the laws of Australia and local laws

Suffrage:
  NA

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by the Australian governor general
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed
  by the governor general of Australia and represents the monarch and
  Australia
  head of government: Administrator (nonresident) William Leonard
  TAYLOR (since 4 February 1999)
  cabinet: NA

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Cocos (Keeling) Islands Shire Council (7 seats)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court; Magistrate's Court

Political parties and leaders:
  none

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  none

International organization participation:
  none

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (territory of Australia)

Flag description:
  the flag of Australia is used

Economy Cocos (Keeling) Islands


Economy - overview:
  Grown throughout the islands, coconuts are the sole cash crop.
  Small local gardens and fishing contribute to the food supply, but
  additional food and most other necessities must be imported from
  Australia. There is a small tourist industry.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - real growth rate:
  NA%

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  NA%

Labor force:
  NA

Labor force - by occupation:
  the Cocos Islands Cooperative Society Ltd. employs construction
  workers, stevedores, and lighterage workers; tourism employs others

Unemployment rate:
  60% (2000 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $NA
  expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries:
  copra products and tourism

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  NA kWh

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: NA%
  hydro: NA%
  other: NA%
  nuclear: NA%

Electricity - consumption:
  NA kWh

Agriculture - products:
  vegetables, bananas, pawpaws, coconuts

Exports:
  $NA

Exports - commodities:
  copra

Exports - partners:
  Australia (1999)

Imports:
  $NA

Imports - commodities:
  foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  Australia (1999)

Debt - external:
  $NA

Economic aid - recipient:
  $NA

Currency:
  Australian dollar (AUD)

Currency code:
  AUD

Exchange rates:
  Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.9354 (2002), 1.9320 (2001),
  1.7173 (2000), 1.5497 (1999), 1.5888 (1998), 1.3439 (1997)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Cocos (Keeling) Islands


Telephones - main lines in use:
  287 (1992)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  NA

Telephone system:
  general assessment: connected within Australia's telecommunication
  system
  domestic: NA
  international: telephone, telex, and facsimile communications with
  Australia and elsewhere via satellite; 1 satellite earth station of
  NA type (2002)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0 (2000)

Radios:
  300 (1992)

Television broadcast stations:
  NA

Televisions:
  NA

Internet country code:
  .cc

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  NA

Transportation Cocos (Keeling) Islands


Railways:
  0 km

Highways:
  total: 15 km
  paved: NA km
  unpaved: NA km (2003)

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  none; lagoon anchorage only

Merchant marine:
  none (2002 est.)

Airports:
  1 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)

Military Cocos (Keeling) Islands


Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of Australia; the territory does have
  a five-person police force

Transnational Issues Cocos (Keeling) Islands


Disputes - international:
  none


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Colombia

Introduction Colombia


Background:
  Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged from the
  collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Ecuador and
  Venezuela). A 40-year insurgent campaign to overthrow the Colombian
  Government escalated during the 1990s, undergirded in part by funds
  from the drug trade. Although the violence is deadly and large
  swaths of the countryside are under guerrilla influence, the
  movement lacks the military strength or popular support necessary to
  overthrow the government. An anti-insurgent army of paramilitaries
  has grown to be several thousand strong in recent years, challenging
  the insurgents for control of territory and illicit industries such
  as the drug trade and the government's ability to exert its dominion
  over rural areas. While Bogota steps up efforts to reassert
  government control throughout the country, neighboring countries
  worry about the violence spilling over their borders.

Geography Colombia


Location:
  Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama
  and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between
  Ecuador and Panama

Geographic coordinates:
  4 00 N, 72 00 W

Map references:
  South America

Area:
  total: 1,138,910 sq km
  land: 1,038,700 sq km
  note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and
  Serranilla Bank
  water: 100,210 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries:
  total: 6,004 km
  border countries: Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km,
  Peru 1,496 km (est.), Venezuela 2,050 km

Coastline:
  3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
  territorial sea: 12 NM
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

Climate:
  tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands

Terrain:
  flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains,
  eastern lowland plains

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Pico Cristobal Colon 5,775 m
  note: nearby Pico Simon Bolivar also has the same elevation

Natural resources:
  petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper,
  emeralds, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 1.9%
  other: 96.14% (1998 est.)
  permanent crops: 1.96%

Irrigated land:
  8,500 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes;
  periodic droughts

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation; soil and water quality damage from overuse of
  pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle
  emissions

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate
  Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species,
  Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
  Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
  Timber 94, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of
  the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography - note:
  only South American country with coastlines on both North Pacific
  Ocean and Caribbean Sea

People Colombia


Population:
  41,662,073 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 31.3% (male 6,601,581; female 6,447,679)
  15-64 years: 63.7% (male 12,931,093; female 13,626,333)
  65 years and over: 4.9% (male 913,798; female 1,141,589) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 25.6 years
  male: 24.8 years
  female: 26.4 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  1.56% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  21.59 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  5.63 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 22.47 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 18.34 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 26.46 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 71.14 years
  male: 67.29 years
  female: 75.12 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.61 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.4% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  140,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  5,600 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Colombian(s)
  adjective: Colombian

Ethnic groups:
  mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed
  black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 90%

Languages:
  Spanish

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 92.5%
  male: 92.4%
  female: 92.6% (2003 est.)

Government Colombia


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Colombia
  conventional short form: Colombia
  local short form: Colombia
  local long form: Republica de Colombia

Government type:
  republic; executive branch dominates government structure

Capital:
  Bogota

Administrative divisions:
  32 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1
  capital district* (distrito capital); Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca,
  Atlantico, Distrito Capital de Bogota*, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas,
  Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca,
  Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte
  de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y
  Providencia, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes,
  Vichada

Independence:
  20 July 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 20 July (1810)

Constitution:
  5 July 1991

Legal system:
  based on Spanish law; a new criminal code modeled after US
  procedures was enacted in 1992-93; judicial review of executive and
  legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
  reservations

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Alvaro URIBE Velez (since 7 August 2002);
  Vice President Francisco SANTOS (since 7 August 2002); note - the
  president is both the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President Alvaro URIBE Velez (since 7 August
  2002); Vice President Francisco SANTOS (since 7 August 2002); note -
  the president is both the chief of state and head of government
  cabinet: Cabinet consists of a coalition of the two dominant parties
  - the PL and PSC - and independents
  elections: president and vice president elected by popular vote for
  a four-year term; election last held 26 May 2002 (next to be held NA
  May 2006)
  election results: President Alvaro URIBE Velez received 53% of the
  vote; Vice President Francisco SANTOS was elected on the same ticket

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the Senate or Senado
  (102 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year
  terms) and the House of Representatives or Camara de Representantes
  (166 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year
  terms)
  elections: Senate - last held 10 March 2002 (next to be held NA
  March 2006); House of Representatives - last held 10 March 2002
  (next to be held NA March 2006)
  election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by
  party - PL 28, PSC 13, independents and smaller parties (many
  aligned with conservatives) 61; House of Representatives - percent
  of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PL 54, PSC 21, independents
  and other parties 91

Judicial branch:
  four coequal, supreme judicial organs; Supreme Court of Justice or
  Corte Suprema de Justical (highest court of criminal law; judges are
  selected from the nominees of the Higher Council of Justice for
  eight-year terms); Council of State (highest court of administrative
  law, judges are selected from the nominees of the Higher Council of
  Justice for eight-year terms); Constitutional Court (guards
  integrity and supremacy of the constitution, rules on
  constitutionality of laws, amendments to the constitution, and
  international treaties); Higher Council of Justice (administers and
  disciplines the civilian judiciary; members of the disciplinary
  chamber resolve jurisdictional conflicts arising between other
  courts; members are elected by three sister courts and Congress for
  eight-year terms)

Political parties and leaders:
  Conservative Party or PSC [Carlos HOLGUIN Sardi]; Liberal Party or
  PL [Piedad CORDOBA and Juan Manuel LOPEZ Cabrales]; Colombian
  Communist Party or PCC [Jaime CAICEDO]; 19 of April Movement or M-19
  [Antonio NAVARRO Wolff]
  note: Colombia has about 60 formally recognized political parties,
  most of which do not have a presence in either house of Congress

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  two largest insurgent groups active in Colombia - Revolutionary
  Armed Forces of Colombia or FARC and National Liberation Army or
  ELN; largest anti-insurgent paramilitary group is United
  Self-Defense Groups of Colombia or AUC

International organization participation:
  BCIE, CAN, Caricom (observer), CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-15, G-3, G-24,
  G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD,
  IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES,
  LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
  UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Luis Alberto MORENO Mejia
  chancery: 2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
  consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
  New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and
  Washington, DC
  consulate(s): Atlanta
  FAX: [1] (202) 232-8643
  telephone: [1] (202) 387-8338

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Anne W. PATTERSON
  embassy: Calle 22D-BIS, numbers 47-51, Apartado Aereo 3831
  mailing address: Carrera 45 #22D-45, Bogota, D.C., APO AA 34038
  telephone: [57] (1) 315-0811
  FAX: [57] (1) 315-2197

Flag description:
  three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and
  red; similar to the flag of Ecuador, which is longer and bears the
  Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center

Economy Colombia


Economy - overview:
  Colombia's economy suffers from weak domestic and foreign demand,
  austere government budgets, and serious internal armed conflict.
  Other economic problems facing the new president URIBE range from
  reforming the pension system to reducing high unemployment. Two of
  Colombia's leading exports, oil and coffee, face an uncertain
  future; new exploration is needed to offset declining oil
  production, while coffee harvests and prices are depressed.
  Colombian business leaders are calling for greater progress in
  solving the conflict with insurgent groups. On the positive side,
  several international financial institutions have praised the
  economic reforms introduced by President URIBE and have pledged
  enough funding to cover Colombia's debt servicing costs in 2003.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $251.6 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  1.5% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $6,100 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 13%
  industry: 30%
  services: 57% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  55% (2001)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 1%
  highest 10%: 44% (1999)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  57.1 (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  6.2% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  18.3 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  services 46%, agriculture 30%, industry 24% (1990)

Unemployment rate:
  17.4% (2002 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $24 billion
  expenditures: $25.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2001 est.)

Industries:
  textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages,
  chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds

Industrial production growth rate:
  4% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:
  42.99 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 26%
  hydro: 72.7%
  other: 1.3% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  39.81 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  210 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  40 million kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  614,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  252,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  1.8 billion bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  5.7 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  5.7 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  132 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa
  beans, oilseed, vegetables; forest products; shrimp

Exports:
  $12.9 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  petroleum, coffee, coal, apparel, bananas, cut flowers

Exports - partners:
  US 44.8%, Venezuela 9.4%, Ecuador 6.8% (2002)

Imports:
  $12.5 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer goods,
  chemicals, paper products, fuels, electricity

Imports - partners:
  US 32.6%, Venezuela 7%, Mexico 5.3%, Japan 5.3%, Brazil 5.2%,
  Germany 4.2% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $38.4 billion (2002 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $NA

Currency:
  Colombian peso (COP)

Currency code:
  COP

Exchange rates:
  Colombian pesos per US dollar - 2,504.24 (2002), 2,299.63 (2001),
  2,087.9 (2000), 1,756.23 (1999), 1,426.04 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Colombia


Telephones - main lines in use:
  5,433,565 (December 1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1,800,229 (December 1998)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: modern system in many respects
  domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system; domestic
  satellite system with 41 earth stations; fiber-optic network linking
  50 cities
  international: satellite earth stations - 6 Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat; 3
  fully digitalized international switching centers; 8 submarine cables

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 454, FM 34, shortwave 27 (1999)

Radios:
  21 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  60 (includes seven low-power stations) (1997)

Televisions:
  4.59 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .co

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  18 (2000)

Internet users:
  1.15 million (2002)

Transportation Colombia


Railways:
  total: 3,304 km
  standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge
  narrow gauge: 3,154 km 0.914-m gauge (2002)

Highways:
  total: 110,000 km
  paved: 26,000 km
  unpaved: 84,000 km (2000)

Waterways:
  18,140 km (navigable by river boats) (April 1996)

Pipelines:
  gas 4,360 km; oil 6,134 km; refined products 3,140 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Bahia de Portete, Barranquilla, Buenaventura, Cartagena, Leticia,
  Puerto Bolivar, San Andres, Santa Marta, Tumaco, Turbo

Merchant marine:
  total: 15 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 51,445 GRT/55,930 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 6, container 1, petroleum tanker 3
  note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of
  convenience: Germany 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:
  1,050 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 96
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
  914 to 1,523 m: 36
  under 914 m: 11 (2002)
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 38

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 954
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 51
  under 914 m: 587 (2002)
  914 to 1,523 m: 315

Heliports:
  1 (2002)

Military Colombia


Military branches:
  Army (Ejercito Nacional), Navy (Armada Nacional, including Marines
  and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Colombiana), National
  Police (Policia Nacional)

Military manpower - military age:
  18 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 11,101,719 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 7,403,433 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 392,468 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $3.3 billion (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  3.4% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Colombia


Disputes - international:
  Nicaragua filed a claim against Honduras in 1999 and against
  Colombia in 2001 at the ICJ over disputed maritime boundary
  involving 50,000 sq km in the Caribbean Sea, including the
  Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank;
  maritime boundary dispute with Venezuela in the Gulf of Venezuela;
  Colombian drug activities penetrate Peruvian border area

Illicit drugs:
  illicit producer of coca, opium poppy, and cannabis; world's
  leading coca cultivator (cultivation of coca in 2002 was 144,450
  hectares, a 15% decline since 2001); potential production of opium
  between 2001 and 2002 declined by 25% to 91 metric tons; potential
  production of heroin declined to 11.3 metric tons; the world's
  largest processor of coca derivatives into cocaine; supplier of
  about 90% of the cocaine to the US market and the great majority of
  cocaine to other international drug markets; important supplier of
  heroin to the US market; active aerial eradication program; a
  significant portion of non-US narcotics proceeds are either
  laundered or invested in Colombia through the black market peso
  exchange


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Comoros

Introduction Comoros


Background:
  Unstable Comoros has endured 19 coups or attempted coups since
  gaining independence from France in 1975. In 1997, the islands of
  Anjouan and Moheli declared their independence from Comoros. In
  1999, military chief Col. AZALI seized power. He pledged to resolve
  the secessionist crisis through a confederal arrangement named the
  2000 Fomboni Accord. In December 2001, voters approved a new
  constitution and presidential elections took place in the spring of
  2002. Each island in the archipelago elected its own president and a
  new union president was sworn in on May 26, 2002.

Geography Comoros


Location:
  Southern Africa, group of islands at the northern mouth of the
  Mozambique Channel, about two-thirds of the way between northern
  Madagascar and northern Mozambique

Geographic coordinates:
  12 10 S, 44 15 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 2,170 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 2,170 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly more than 12 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  340 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)

Terrain:
  volcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains to low hills

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Le Kartala 2,360 m

Natural resources:
  NEGL

Land use:
  arable land: 34.98%
  permanent crops: 17.94%
  other: 47.08% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  cyclones possible during rainy season (December to April); Le
  Kartala on Grand Comore is an active volcano

Environment - current issues:
  soil degradation and erosion results from crop cultivation on
  slopes without proper terracing; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
  Ship Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  important location at northern end of Mozambique Channel

People Comoros


Population:
  632,948 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 42.9% (male 136,060; female 135,277)
  15-64 years: 54.2% (male 169,121; female 173,822)
  65 years and over: 2.9% (male 8,863; female 9,805) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 18.6 years
  male: 18.3 years
  female: 18.9 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  2.96% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  38.5 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  8.86 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 79.51 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 70.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 88.32 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 61.18 years
  male: 58.92 years
  female: 63.5 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  5.21 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.12% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Comoran(s)
  adjective: Comoran

Ethnic groups:
  Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava

Religions:
  Sunni Muslim 98%, Roman Catholic 2%

Languages:
  Arabic (official), French (official), Shikomoro (a blend of Swahili
  and Arabic)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 56.5%
  male: 63.6%
  female: 49.3% (2003 est.)

Government Comoros


Country name:
  conventional long form: Union of the Comoros
  conventional short form: Comoros
  local short form: Comores
  local long form: Union des Comores

Government type:
  independent republic

Capital:
  Moroni

Administrative divisions:
  3 islands; Grande Comore (Njazidja), Anjouan (Nzwani), and Moheli
  (Mwali); note - there are also four municipalities named Domoni,
  Fomboni, Moroni, and Moutsamoudou

Independence:
  6 July 1975 (from France)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 6 July (1975)

Constitution:
  23 December 2001
  note: a Transitional National Unity Government (GUNT) was formed on
  20 January 2002 following the passing of the new constitution; the
  GUNT governed until the presidential elections on 14 April 2002

Legal system:
  French and Sharia (Islamic) law in a new consolidated code

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President AZALI Assoumani (since 26 May 2002); note
  - following a 1999 coup AZALI was appointed president; in January
  2002 he resigned his position to run in the 14 April 2002
  presidential elections; Prime Minister Hamada Madi BOLERO was
  appointed interim president until replaced again by AZALI in May
  2002 when BOLERO was appointed Minister of External Defense and
  Territorial Security; the president is both the chief of state and
  the head of government
  election results: President AZALI Assoumani elected president with
  75% of the vote
  elections: as defined by the 2001 constitution, the presidency
  rotates every four years among the elected presidents from the three
  main islands in the Union; election last held 14 April 2002 (next to
  be held NA April 2007); prime minister appointed by the president;
  note - AZALI has not appointed a Prime Minister since he was sworn
  into office in May 2002
  head of government: President AZALI Assoumani (since 26 May 2002);
  note - following a 1999 coup AZALI was appointed president; in
  January 2002 he resigned his position to run in the 14 April 2002
  presidential elections; Prime Minister Hamada Madi BOLERO was
  appointed interim president until replaced again by AZALI in May
  2002 when BOLERO was appointed Minister of External Defense and
  Territorial Security; the president is both the chief of state and
  the head of government
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Assembly of the Union (30 seats; half the deputies are
  selected by the individual islands' local assemblies and the other
  half by universal suffrage; deputies serve for five years) note -
  elections for the former legislature, the Federal Assembly,
  dissolved in 1999, where held on 1 and 8 December 1996; the next
  elections for the Assembly of the Union were scheduled to be held in
  April 2003 but have yet to occur

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Cour Supremes (two members appointed by the
  president, two members elected by the Federal Assembly, one elected
  by the Council of each island, and others are former presidents of
  the republic)

Political parties and leaders:
  Forces pour l'Action Republicaine or FAR [Col. Abdourazak
  ABDULHAMID]; Forum pour la Redressement National or FRN (alliance of
  12 parties); Front Democratique or FD [Moustoifa Said CHEIKH]; Front
  National pour la Justice or FNJ (Islamic party in opposition) [Ahmed
  RACHID]; Movement des Citoyens pour la Republique or MCR [Mahamoud
  MRADABI]; Mouvement Populaire Anjouanais or MPA (Anjouan separatist
  movement) [leader NA]; Mouvement pour la Democratie et le Progress
  or MDP-NGDC [Abbas DJOUSSOUF]; Movement pour le Socialisme et la
  Democratie or MSD (splinter group of FD) [Abdou SOEFOU]; Parti
  Comorien pour la Democratie et le Progress or PCDP [Ali MROUDJAE];
  Rassemblement National pour le Development or RND (party of the
  government) [Omar TAMOU, Abdoulhamid AFFRAITANE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO,
  ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (associate), ILO,
  IMF, IMO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW (signatory),
  UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Mahmoud M. ABOUD (ambassador to the US
  and Canada and permanent representative to the UN)
  chancery: (temporary) care of the Permanent Mission of the Union of
  the Comoros to the United Nations, 420 East 50th Street, New York,
  NY 10022
  telephone: [1] (212) 972-8010 and 223-2711
  FAX: [1] (212) 983-4712 and 715-0699

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  the US does not have an embassy in Comoros; the ambassador to
  Mauritius is accredited to Comoros

Flag description:
  four equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), white, red, and blue
  with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist; centered within
  the triangle is a white crescent with the convex side facing the
  hoist and four white, five-pointed stars placed vertically in a line
  between the points of the crescent; the horizontal bands and the
  four stars represent the four main islands of the archipelago -
  Mwali, Njazidja, Nzwani, and Mayotte (a territorial collectivity of
  France, but claimed by Comoros); the crescent, stars, and color
  green are traditional symbols of Islam

Economy Comoros


Economy - overview:
  One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros is made up of three
  islands that have inadequate transportation links, a young and
  rapidly increasing population, and few natural resources. The low
  educational level of the labor force contributes to a subsistence
  level of economic activity, high unemployment, and a heavy
  dependence on foreign grants and technical assistance. Agriculture,
  including fishing, hunting, and forestry, contributes 40% to GDP,
  employs 80% of the labor force, and provides most of the exports.
  The country is not self-sufficient in food production; rice, the
  main staple, accounts for the bulk of imports. The government -
  which is hampered by internal political disputes - is struggling to
  upgrade education and technical training, to privatize commercial
  and industrial enterprises, to improve health services, to diversify
  exports, to promote tourism, and to reduce the high population
  growth rate. Increased foreign support is essential if the goal of
  4% annual GDP growth is to be met. Remittances from 150,000 Comorans
  abroad help supplement GDP.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $441 million (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  2% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $700 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 40%
  industry: 4%
  services: 56% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  60% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.5% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
  144,500 (1996 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 80%

Unemployment rate:
  20% (1996 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $27.6 million
  expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries:
  tourism, perfume distillation

Industrial production growth rate:
  -2% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production:
  21.27 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 90.6%
  hydro: 9.4%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  19.78 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  700 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products:
  vanilla, cloves, perfume essences, copra, coconuts, bananas,
  cassava (tapioca)

Exports:
  $16.3 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  vanilla, ylang-ylang, cloves, perfume oil, copra

Exports - partners:
  France 32.4%, Germany 19.4%, US 17.6%, Singapore 11.5%, Netherlands
  6.5% (2002)

Imports:
  $39.8 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  rice and other foodstuffs, consumer goods; petroleum products,
  cement, transport equipment

Imports - partners:
  France 34.3%, South Africa 12%, Japan 6.1%, Kenya 5.9%, UAE 5.8%,
  Mauritius 4.9%, Thailand 4.6% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $232 million (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $10 million (2001 est.)

Currency:
  Comoran franc (KMF)

Currency code:
  KMF

Exchange rates:
  Comoran francs (KMF) per US dollar - 522.74 (2002), 549.78 (2001),
  533.98 (2000), 461.78 (1999), 442.46 (1998)
  note: prior to January 1999, the official rate was pegged to the
  French franc at 75 Comoran francs per French franc; since 1 January
  1999, the Comoran franc is pegged to the euro at a rate of 491.9677
  Comoran francs per euro

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Comoros


Telephones - main lines in use:
  7,000 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  NA

Telephone system:
  general assessment: sparse system of microwave radio relay and HF
  radiotelephone communication stations
  domestic: HF radiotelephone communications and microwave radio relay
  international: HF radiotelephone communications to Madagascar and
  Reunion

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 4, shortwave 1 (2001)

Radios:
  90,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  NA

Televisions:
  1,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .km

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  2,500 (2002)

Transportation Comoros


Railways:
  0 km

Highways:
  total: 880 km
  paved: 673 km
  unpaved: 207 km (1999 est)

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  Fomboni, Moroni, Moutsamoudou

Merchant marine:
  total: 28 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 432,132 GRT/796,734 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 4, cargo 15, chemical tanker 1, petroleum tanker
  5, refrigerated cargo 1, specialized tanker 2
  note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
  convenience: Malta 1, Pakistan 1, Turkey 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:
  4 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 4
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2002)

Military Comoros


Military branches:
  Comoran Security Force

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 150,079 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 89,090 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $6 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  3% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Comoros


Disputes - international:
  claims French-administered Mayotte


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Congo, Democratic Republic of the

Introduction Congo, Democratic Republic of the


Background:
  Since 1997, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DROC; formerly
  called Zaire) has been rent by ethnic strife and civil war, touched
  off by a massive inflow in 1994 of refugees from the fighting in
  Rwanda and Burundi. The government of former president MOBUTU Sese
  Seko was toppled by a rebellion led by Laurent KABILA in May 1997;
  his regime was subsequently challenged by a Rwanda- and
  Uganda-backed rebellion in August 1998. Troops from Zimbabwe,
  Angola, Namibia, Chad, and Sudan intervened to support the Kinshasa
  regime. A cease-fire was signed on 10 July 1999 by the DROC,
  Zimbabwe, Angola, Uganda, Namibia, Rwanda, and Congolese armed rebel
  groups, but sporadic fighting continued. KABILA was assassinated on
  16 January 2001 and his son Joseph KABILA was named head of state
  ten days later. In October 2002, the new president was successful in
  getting occupying Rwandan forces to withdraw from eastern Congo; two
  months later, an agreement was signed by all remaining warring
  parties to end the fighting and set up a government of national
  unity.

Geography Congo, Democratic Republic of the


Location:
  Central Africa, northeast of Angola

Geographic coordinates:
  0 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 2,345,410 sq km
  water: 77,810 sq km
  land: 2,267,600 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than one-fourth the size of the US

Land boundaries:
  total: 10,730 km
  border countries: Angola 2,511 km (of which 225 km is the boundary
  of Angola's discontiguous Cabinda Province), Burundi 233 km, Central
  African Republic 1,577 km, Republic of the Congo 2,410 km, Rwanda
  217 km, Sudan 628 km, Tanzania 459 km, Uganda 765 km, Zambia 1,930 km

Coastline:
  37 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: boundaries with neighbors
  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and drier
  in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands; north
  of Equator - wet season April to October, dry season December to
  February; south of Equator - wet season November to March, dry
  season April to October

Terrain:
  vast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains in east

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Pic Marguerite on Mont Ngaliema (Mount Stanley) 5,110
  m

Natural resources:
  cobalt, copper, cadmium, petroleum, industrial and gem diamonds,
  gold, silver, zinc, manganese, tin, germanium, uranium, radium,
  bauxite, iron ore, coal, hydropower, timber

Land use:
  arable land: 2.96%
  permanent crops: 0.52%
  other: 96.52% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  110 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  periodic droughts in south; Congo River floods (seasonal); in the
  east, in the Great Rift Valley, there are active volcanoes

Environment - current issues:
  poaching threatens wildlife populations; water pollution;
  deforestation; refugees responsible for significant deforestation,
  soil erosion, and wildlife poaching; mining of minerals (coltan - a
  mineral used in creating capacitors, diamonds, and gold) causing
  environmental damage

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
  Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
  Timber 94, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Geography - note:
  straddles equator; has very narrow strip of land that controls the
  lower Congo River and is only outlet to South Atlantic Ocean; dense
  tropical rain forest in central river basin and eastern highlands

People Congo, Democratic Republic of the


Population:
  56,625,039
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 48.3% (male 13,734,706; female 13,624,579)
  15-64 years: 49.2% (male 13,648,155; female 14,203,077)
  65 years and over: 2.5% (male 583,366; female 831,156) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 15.8 years
  female: 16.1 years (2002)
  male: 15.4 years

Population growth rate:
  2.9% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  45.12 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  14.87 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -1.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population
  note: fighting between the Congolese Government and Uganda- and
  Rwanda-backed Congolese rebels spawned a regional war in DROC in
  August 1998, which left 1.8 million Congolese internally displaced
  and caused 300,000 Congolese refugees to flee to surrounding
  countries (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 96.56 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 87.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 105.15 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 48.93 years
  male: 46.83 years
  female: 51.09 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  6.69 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  4.9% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  1.3 million (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  120,000 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Congolese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Congolese or Congo

Ethnic groups:
  over 200 African ethnic groups of which the majority are Bantu; the
  four largest tribes - Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all Bantu), and the
  Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) make up about 45% of the population

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Kimbanguist 10%, Muslim 10%,
  other syncretic sects and indigenous beliefs 10%

Languages:
  French (official), Lingala (a lingua franca trade language),
  Kingwana (a dialect of Kiswahili or Swahili), Kikongo, Tshiluba

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write French, Lingala,
  Kingwana, or Tshiluba
  total population: 65.5%
  male: 76.2%
  female: 55.1% (2003 est.)

Government Congo, Democratic Republic of the


Country name:
  conventional long form: Democratic Republic of the Congo
  conventional short form: none
  local short form: none
  former: Congo Free State, Belgian Congo, Congo/Leopoldville,
  Congo/Kinshasa, Zaire
  local long form: Republique Democratique du Congo
  abbreviation: DROC

Government type:
  dictatorship; presumably undergoing a transition to representative
  government

Capital:
  Kinshasa

Administrative divisions:
  10 provinces (provinces, singular - province) and one city*
  (ville); Bandundu, Bas-Congo, Equateur, Kasai-Occidental,
  Kasai-Oriental, Katanga, Kinshasa*, Maniema, Nord-Kivu, Orientale,
  Sud-Kivu

Independence:
  30 June 1960 (from Belgium)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 30 June (1960)

Constitution:
  24 June 1967, amended August 1974, revised 15 February 1978,
  amended April 1990; transitional constitution promulgated in April
  1994; in November 1998, a draft constitution was approved by former
  President Laurent KABILA but it was not ratified by a national
  referendum; one outcome of the ongoing inter-Congolese dialogue is
  to be a new constitution

Legal system:
  based on Belgian civil law system and tribal law; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Joseph KABILA (since 26 January 2001);
  note - following the assassination of his father, Laurent Desire
  KABILA, on 16 January 2001, Joseph KABILA succeeded to the
  presidency; the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government
  head of government: President Joseph KABILA (since 26 January 2001);
  note - following the assassination of his father, Laurent Desire
  KABILA, on 16 January 2001, Joseph KABILA succeeded to the
  presidency; the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government
  cabinet: National Executive Council, appointed by the president
  elections: prior to the overthrow of MOBUTU Sese Seko, the president
  was elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last
  held 29 July 1984 (next was scheduled to be held in May 1997);
  formerly, there was also a prime minister who was elected by the
  High Council of the Republic; note - a Transitional Government is
  drafting a new constitution with free elections scheduled to be held
  in NA 2005
  note: Joseph KABILA succeeded his father, Laurent Desire KABILA,
  following the latter's assassination in January 2001, negotiations
  with rebel leaders led to the establishment of a Transitional
  Government in July 2003 with free elections scheduled to be held in
  NA 2005
  election results: results of the last election were: MOBUTU Sese
  Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga reelected president in 1984 without
  opposition

Legislative branch:
  a 300-member Transitional Constituent Assembly established in
  August 2000
  elections: NA; members of the Transitional Constituent Assembly were
  appointed by former President Laurent Desire KABILA

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders:
  Democratic Social Christian Party or PDSC [Andre BO-BOLIKO]; Forces
  for Renovation for Union and Solidarity or FONUS [Joseph
  OLENGHANKOY]; National Congolese Lumumbist Movement or MNC [Francois
  LUMUMBA]; Popular Movement of the Revolution or MPR (three factions:
  MPR-Fait Prive [Catherine NZUZI wa Mbombo]; MPR/Vunduawe [Felix
  VUNDUAWE]; MPR/Mananga [MANANGA Dintoka Mpholo]); Unified Lumumbast
  Party or PALU [Antoine GIZENGA]; Union for Democracy and Social
  Progress or UDPS [Etienne TSHISEKEDI wa Mulumba]; Union of
  Federalists and Independent Republicans or UFERI (two factions:
  UFERI [Lokambo OMOKOKO]; UFERI/OR [Adolph Kishwe MAYA])

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA,
  IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF,
  IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW (signatory), PCA, SADC,
  UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
  WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Faida MITIFU
  FAX: [1] (202) 234-2609
  telephone: [1] (202) 234-7690, 7691
  chancery: 1800 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Aubrey HOOKS
  embassy: 310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa
  mailing address: Unit 31550, APO AE 09828
  telephone: [243] (88) 43608
  FAX: [243] (88) 43467

Flag description:
  light blue with a large yellow five-pointed star in the center and
  a columnar arrangement of six small yellow five-pointed stars along
  the hoist side

Economy Congo, Democratic Republic of the


Economy - overview:
  The economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo - a nation
  endowed with vast potential wealth - has declined drastically since
  the mid-1980s. The war, which began in August 1998, has dramatically
  reduced national output and government revenue, has increased
  external debt, and has resulted in the deaths from war, famine, and
  disease of perhaps 3.5 million people. Foreign businesses have
  curtailed operations due to uncertainty about the outcome of the
  conflict, lack of infrastructure, and the difficult operating
  environment. The war has intensified the impact of such basic
  problems as an uncertain legal framework, corruption, inflation, and
  lack of openness in government economic policy and financial
  operations. Conditions improved in late 2002 with the withdrawal of
  a large portion of the invading foreign troops. A number of IMF and
  World Bank missions have met with the government to help it develop
  a coherent economic plan, and President KABILA has begun
  implementing reforms. Much economic activity lies outside the GDP
  data.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $34 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3.5% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $600 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 55%
  industry: 11%
  services: 34% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  16% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  14.51 million (1993 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  NA

Unemployment rate:
  NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $269 million
  expenditures: $244 million, including capital expenditures of $24
  million (1996 est.)

Industries:
  mining (diamonds, copper, zinc), mineral processing, consumer
  products (including textiles, footwear, cigarettes, processed foods
  and beverages), cement

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  5.243 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 1.8%
  hydro: 98.2%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  3.839 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  1.097 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  60 million kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  24,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  14,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  1.538 billion bbl (37257)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  104.8 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  coffee, sugar, palm oil, rubber, tea, quinine, cassava (tapioca),
  palm oil, bananas, root crops, corn, fruits; wood products

Exports:
  $1.2 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  diamonds, copper, crude oil, coffee, cobalt

Exports - partners:
  Belgium 64.4%, US 13.4%, Zimbabwe 6.7%, Finland 4.9% (2002)

Imports:
  $890 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  foodstuffs, mining and other machinery, transport equipment, fuels

Imports - partners:
  Belgium 14.6%, South Africa 14.2%, Nigeria 10.3%, France 9.5%,
  Germany 7.3%, Netherlands 5.3%, Kenya 5.2% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $12.9 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $195.3 million (1995)

Currency:
  Congolese franc (CDF)

Currency code:
  CDF

Exchange rates:
  Congolese francs per US dollar - 346.49 (2002), 206.62 (2001),
  21.82 (2000), 4.02 (1999), 1.61 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Congo, Democratic Republic of the


Telephones - main lines in use:
  20,000 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  15,000 (2000)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: poor
  domestic: barely adequate wire and microwave radio relay service in
  and between urban areas; domestic satellite system with 14 earth
  stations
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 3, FM 11, shortwave 2 (2001)

Radios:
  18.03 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  4 (2001)

Televisions:
  6.478 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .cd

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2001)

Internet users:
  6,000 (2002)

Transportation Congo, Democratic Republic of the


Railways:
  total: 4,772 km
  narrow gauge: 3,621 km 1.067-m gauge (858 km electrified); 125 km
  1.000-m gauge; 1,026 km 0.600-m gauge (2002)

Highways:
  total: 157,000 km (including 30 km of expressways)
  paved: NA km
  unpaved: NA km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  15,000 km (including the Congo and its tributaries, and unconnected
  lakes)

Pipelines:
  gas 54 km; oil 71 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Banana, Boma, Bukavu, Bumba, Goma, Kalemie, Kindu, Kinshasa,
  Kisangani, Matadi, Mbandaka

Merchant marine:
  none (2002 est.)

Airports:
  229 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 24
  over 3,047 m: 4
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2002)
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 16

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 205
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
  914 to 1,523 m: 95
  under 914 m: 91 (2002)

Heliports:
  1 (2002)

Military Congo, Democratic Republic of the


Military branches:
  Army, Navy, Air Force, Special Security Battalion

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 12,292,933 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 6,267,752 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $250 million (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  4.6% (FY97)

Transnational Issues Congo, Democratic Republic of the


Disputes - international:
  Democratic Republic of the Congo is in the grip of a civil war that
  has drawn in military forces from neighboring states, with Uganda
  and Rwanda supporting the rebel movements that occupy much of the
  eastern portion of the state - Tutsi, Hutu, Lendu, Hema and other
  conflicting ethnic groups, political rebels, and various government
  forces continue fighting in Great Lakes region, transcending the
  boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and
  Uganda - heads of the Great Lakes states pledge to end conflict, but
  localized violence continues despite UN peacekeeping efforts; most
  of the Congo River boundary with the Republic of the Congo is
  indefinite (no agreement has been reached on the division of the
  river or its islands, except in the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area)

Illicit drugs:
  illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for domestic consumption;
  while rampant corruption and inadequate supervision leaves the
  banking system vulnerable to money laundering, the lack of a
  well-developed financial system limits the country's utility as a
  money-laundering center


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Congo, Republic of the

Introduction Congo, Republic of the


Background:
  Upon independence in 1960, the former French region of Middle Congo
  became the Republic of the Congo. A quarter century of
  experimentation with Marxism was abandoned in 1990 and a
  democratically elected government installed in 1992. A brief civil
  war in 1997 restored former Marxist President SASSOU-NGUESSO, but
  ushered in a period of ethnically based unrest. Southern-based rebel
  groups agreed to a final peace accord in March 2003. The Republic of
  Congo is one of Africa's largest petroleum producers with
  significant potential for offshore development.

Geography Congo, Republic of the


Location:
  Western Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola
  and Gabon

Geographic coordinates:
  1 00 S, 15 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 342,000 sq km
  water: 500 sq km
  land: 341,500 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,504 km
  border countries: Angola 201 km, Cameroon 523 km, Central African
  Republic 467 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,410 km, Gabon
  1,903 km

Coastline:
  169 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 200 NM

Climate:
  tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to
  October); constantly high temperatures and humidity; particularly
  enervating climate astride the Equator

Terrain:
  coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern basin

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mount Berongou 903 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium, copper, phosphates,
  natural gas, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 0.5%
  permanent crops: 0.13%
  other: 99.37% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  10 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  seasonal flooding

Environment - current issues:
  air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from the
  dumping of raw sewage; tap water is not potable; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber
  94, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:
  about 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, or
  along the railroad between them

People Congo, Republic of the


Population:
  2,954,258
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 38.4% (male 570,491; female 563,079)
  15-64 years: 58% (male 844,655; female 868,851)
  65 years and over: 3.6% (male 44,166; female 63,016) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 20.2 years
  male: 19.8 years
  female: 20.7 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  1.53% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  29.46 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  14.2 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 95.34 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 89.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 101.45 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 50.02 years
  male: 49.04 years
  female: 51.02 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.65 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  7.2% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  110,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  11,000 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Congolese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Congolese or Congo

Ethnic groups:
  Kongo 48%, Sangha 20%, M'Bochi 12%, Teke 17%, Europeans and other 3%
  note: Europeans estimated at 8,500, mostly French, before the 1997
  civil war; may be half that in 1998, following the widespread
  destruction of foreign businesses in 1997

Religions:
  Christian 50%, animist 48%, Muslim 2%

Languages:
  French (official), Lingala and Monokutuba (lingua franca trade
  languages), many local languages and dialects (of which Kikongo has
  the most users)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 83.8%
  male: 89.6%
  female: 78.4% (2003 est.)

Government Congo, Republic of the


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of the Congo
  conventional short form: Congo (Brazzaville)
  local short form: none
  former: Middle Congo, Congo/Brazzaville, Congo
  local long form: Republique du Congo

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  Brazzaville

Administrative divisions:
  9 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 commune*; Bouenza,
  Brazzaville*, Cuvette, Kouilou, Lekoumou, Likouala, Niari, Plateaux,
  Pool, Sangha

Independence:
  15 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 15 August (1960)

Constitution:
  constitution approved by referendum 20 January 2002

Legal system:
  based on French civil law system and customary law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO (since 25 October
  1997, following the civil war in which he toppled elected president
  Pascal LISSOUBA); note - the president is both the chief of state
  and head of government
  head of government: President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO (since 25 October
  1997, following the civil war in which he toppled elected president
  Pascal LISSOUBA); note - the president is both the chief of state
  and head of government
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term
  (eligible for a second seven-year term); election last held 10 March
  2002 (next to be held NA 2009)
  election results: Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO reelected president; percent
  of vote - Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO 89.4%, Joseph Kignoumbi Kia MBOUNGOU
  2.7%

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (66 seats; members are
  elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the National
  Assembly (137 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
  five-year terms)
  elections: Senate - last held 11 July 2002 (next to be held NA July
  2007); National Assembly - last held 27 May and 26 June 2002 (next
  to be held by NA May 2007)
  election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by
  party - FDP 56, other 10; National Assembly - percent of vote by
  party - NA%; seats by party - FDP 83, UDR 6, UPADS 3, other 45

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders:
  the most important of the many parties are the Democratic and
  Patriotic Forces or FDP (an alliance of Convention for Alternative
  Democracy, Congolese Labor Party or PCT, Liberal Republican Party,
  National Union for Democracy and Progress, Patriotic Union for the
  National Reconstruction, and Union for the National Renewal) [Denis
  SASSOU-NGUESSO, president]; Congolese Movement for Democracy and
  Integral Development or MCDDI [Michel MAMPOUYA]; Pan-African Union
  for Social Development or UPADS [Martin MBERI]; Rally for Democracy
  and Social Progress or RDPS [Jean-Pierre Thystere TCHICAYA,
  president]; Rally for Democracy and the Republic or RDR [Raymond
  Damasge NGOLLO]; Union for Democracy and Republic or UDR [leader
  NA]; Union of Democratic Forces or UFD [Sebastian EBAO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Congolese Trade Union Congress or CSC; General Union of Congolese
  Pupils and Students or UGEEC; Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women
  or URFC; Union of Congolese Socialist Youth or UJSC

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, CEMAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
  IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW (signatory), UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
  WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Serge MOMBOULI
  FAX: [1] (202) 726-1860
  telephone: [1] (202) 726-5500
  chancery: 4891 Colorado Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20011

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Robin R. SANDERS
  embassy: NA
  mailing address: NA
  telephone: [243] (88) 43608
  note: the embassy is temporarily collocated with the US Embassy in
  the Democratic Republic of the Congo (US Embassy Kinshasa, 310
  Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa)

Flag description:
  divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a yellow band; the
  upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is red;
  uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Economy Congo, Republic of the


Economy - overview:
  The economy is a mixture of village agriculture and handicrafts, an
  industrial sector based largely on oil, support services, and a
  government characterized by budget problems and overstaffing. Oil
  has supplanted forestry as the mainstay of the economy, providing a
  major share of government revenues and exports. In the early 1980s,
  rapidly rising oil revenues enabled the government to finance
  large-scale development projects with GDP growth averaging 5%
  annually, one of the highest rates in Africa. The government has
  mortgaged a substantial portion of its oil earnings, contributing to
  a shortage of revenues. The 12 January 1994 devaluation of Franc
  Zone currencies by 50% resulted in inflation of 61% in 1994, but
  inflation has subsided since. Economic reform efforts continued with
  the support of international organizations, notably the World Bank
  and the IMF. The reform program came to a halt in June 1997 when
  civil war erupted. Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO, who returned to power when
  the war ended in October 1997, publicly expressed interest in moving
  forward on economic reforms and privatization and in renewing
  cooperation with international financial institutions. However,
  economic progress was badly hurt by slumping oil prices and the
  resumption of armed conflict in December 1998, which worsened the
  republic's budget deficit. The current administration presides over
  an uneasy internal peace and faces difficult economic problems of
  stimulating recovery and reducing poverty.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $2.5 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  0% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $900 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 10%
  industry: 48%
  services: 42% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  4% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  NA

Unemployment rate:
  NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $870 million
  expenditures: $970 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1997 est.)

Industries:
  petroleum extraction, cement, lumber, brewing, sugar, palm oil,
  soap, flour, cigarettes

Industrial production growth rate:
  0% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  358.1 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 0.3%
  hydro: 99.7%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  633 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  300 million kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  275,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  5,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  93.5 million bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  495.5 million cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  cassava (tapioca), sugar, rice, corn, peanuts, vegetables, coffee,
  cocoa; forest products

Exports:
  $2.4 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  petroleum, lumber, plywood, sugar, cocoa, coffee, diamonds

Exports - partners:
  Taiwan 28.1%, South Korea 20.4%, China 9.3%, US 8.4%, Germany 6.6%,
  France 5.2% (2002)

Imports:
  $730 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  capital equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  France 22.1%, Italy 8.5%, Belgium 6%, US 5.2%, India 4.1% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $5 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $159.1 million (1995)

Currency:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible
  authority is the Bank of the Central African States

Currency code:
  XAF

Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 697
  (2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.7 (1999), 589.95 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Congo, Republic of the


Telephones - main lines in use:
  22,000 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  3,300 (1998)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: services barely adequate for government use;
  key exchanges are in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo;
  intercity lines frequently out of order
  domestic: primary network consists of microwave radio relay and
  coaxial cable
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 3 (2001)

Radios:
  341,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2002)

Televisions:
  33,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .cg

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  500 (2001)

Transportation Congo, Republic of the


Railways:
  total: 894 km
  narrow gauge: 894 km 1.067-m gauge (2002)

Highways:
  total: 12,800 km
  paved: 1,242 km
  unpaved: 11,558 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  1,120 km
  note: the Congo and Ubangi (Oubangui) rivers provide 1,120 km of
  commercially navigable water transport; other rivers are used for
  local traffic only

Pipelines:
  gas 53 km; oil 673 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Brazzaville, Impfondo, Ouesso, Oyo, Pointe-Noire

Airports:
  31 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 4
  over 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 27
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
  914 to 1,523 m: 10
  under 914 m: 11 (2002)

Military Congo, Republic of the


Military branches:
  Army, Air Force, Navy, Gendarmerie, National Police

Military manpower - military age:
  20 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 754,814 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 381,556 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 31,644 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $84 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.8% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Congo, Republic of the


Disputes - international:
  most of the Congo River boundary with the Democratic Republic of
  the Congo is indefinite (no agreement has been reached on the
  division of the river or its islands, except in the Stanley
  Pool/Pool Malebo area)


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Cook Islands

Introduction Cook Islands


Background:
  Named after Captain Cook, who sighted them in 1770, the islands
  became a British protectorate in 1888. By 1900, administrative
  control was transferred to New Zealand; in 1965 residents chose
  self-government in free association with New Zealand. The emigration
  of skilled workers to New Zealand and government deficits are
  continuing problems.

Geography Cook Islands


Location:
  Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about
  one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates:
  21 14 S, 159 46 W

Map references:
  Oceania

Area:
  total: 240 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 240 sq km

Area - comparative:
  1.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  120 km

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
  territorial sea: 12 NM
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

Climate:
  tropical; moderated by trade winds

Terrain:
  low coral atolls in north; volcanic, hilly islands in south

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Te Manga 652 m

Natural resources:
  NEGL

Land use:
  arable land: 17.39%
  permanent crops: 13.04%
  other: 69.57% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  typhoons (November to March)

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  the northern Cook Islands are seven low-lying, sparsely populated,
  coral atolls; the southern Cook Islands consist of eight elevated,
  fertile, volcanic isles where most of the populace lives

People Cook Islands


Population:
  21,008 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: NA%
  15-64 years: NA%
  65 years and over: NA% (2003 est.)

Population growth rate:
  NA% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  NA births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  NA deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  NA (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: NA%
  male: NA%
  female: NA%

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: NA years
  male: NA years
  female: NA years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  NA children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Cook Islander(s)
  adjective: Cook Islander

Ethnic groups:
  Polynesian (full blood) 81.3%, Polynesian and European 7.7%,
  Polynesian and non-European 7.7%, European 2.4%, other 0.9%

Religions:
  Christian (majority of populace are members of the Cook Islands
  Christian Church)

Languages:
  English (official), Maori

Literacy:
  definition: NA
  total population: 95%
  male: NA%
  female: NA%

Government Cook Islands


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Cook Islands
  former: Harvey Islands

Dependency status:
  self-governing in free association with New Zealand; Cook Islands
  is fully responsible for internal affairs; New Zealand retains
  responsibility for external affairs and defense, in consultation
  with the Cook Islands

Government type:
  self-governing parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  Avarua

Administrative divisions:
  none

Independence:
  none (became self-governing in free association with New Zealand on
  4 August 1965 and has the right at any time to move to full
  independence by unilateral action)

National holiday:
  Constitution Day, first Monday in August (1965)

Constitution:
  4 August 1965

Legal system:
  based on New Zealand law and English common law

Suffrage:
  NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Frederick GOODWIN (since NA); New Zealand High
  Commissioner Kurt MEYER (since NA), representative of New Zealand
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the UK representative is
  appointed by the monarch; the New Zealand high commissioner is
  appointed by the New Zealand Government; following legislative
  elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the
  majority coalition usually becomes prime minister
  head of government: Prime Minister Dr. Robert WOONTON (since 12
  February 2002); Deputy Prime Minister Ngamau MUNOKOA (since 5
  November 2003)
  cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister; collectively
  responsible to Parliament

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Parliament (25 seats; members elected by popular vote to
  serve five-year terms)
  elections: last held 16 June 1999 (next to be held by NA 2004)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  CIP 12, DAP 12, NAP 1
  note: the House of Ariki (chiefs) advises on traditional matters and
  maintains considerable influence, but has no legislative powers

Judicial branch:
  High Court

Political parties and leaders:
  Cook Islands People's Party or CIP [Geoffrey HENRY]; Democratic
  Alliance Party or DAP [Terepai MAOATE]; New Alliance Party or NAP
  [Norman GEORGE]; Cook Islands National Party or CIN [Teariki HEATHER]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACP, AsDB, ESCAP (associate), FAO, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, IFRCS
  (associate), IOC, OPCW, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (self-governing in free association with New Zealand)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (self-governing in free association with New Zealand)

Flag description:
  blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
  a large circle of 15 white five-pointed stars (one for every island)
  centered in the outer half of the flag

Economy Cook Islands


Economy - overview:
  Like many other South Pacific island nations, the Cook Islands'
  economic development is hindered by the isolation of the country
  from foreign markets, the limited size of domestic markets, lack of
  natural resources, periodic devastation from natural disasters, and
  inadequate infrastructure. Agriculture provides the economic base
  with major exports made up of copra and citrus fruit. Manufacturing
  activities are limited to fruit processing, clothing, and
  handicrafts. Trade deficits are offset by remittances from emigrants
  and by foreign aid, overwhelmingly from New Zealand. In the 1980s
  and 1990s, the country lived beyond its means, maintaining a bloated
  public service and accumulating a large foreign debt. Subsequent
  reforms, including the sale of state assets, the strengthening of
  economic management, the encouragement of tourism, and a debt
  restructuring agreement, have rekindled investment and growth.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $105 million (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  7.1% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $5,000 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 17%
  industry: 7.8%
  services: 75.2% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.2% (2000 est.)

Labor force:
  8,000 (1996)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 29%, industry 15%, services 56%
  note: shortage of skilled labor (1995)

Unemployment rate:
  13% (1996)

Budget:
  revenues: $28 million
  expenditures: $27 million, including capital expenditures of $3.3
  million (FY 00/01 est.)

Industries:
  fruit processing, tourism, fishing, clothing, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate:
  1% (2002)

Electricity - production:
  27.43 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  25.51 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  450 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products:
  copra, citrus, pineapples, tomatoes, beans, pawpaws, bananas, yams,
  taro, coffee; pigs, poultry

Exports:
  $9.1 million (2000)

Exports - commodities:
  copra, papayas, fresh and canned citrus fruit, coffee; fish; pearls
  and pearl shells; clothing

Exports - partners:
  Australia 34%, Japan 27%, New Zealand 25%, US 8% (2000)

Imports:
  $50.7 million (2000)

Imports - commodities:
  foodstuffs, textiles, fuels, timber, capital goods

Imports - partners:
  NZ 61%, Fiji 19%, US 9%, Australia 6%, Japan 2% (2000)

Debt - external:
  $141 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $13.1 million; note - New Zealand continues to furnish the greater
  part (1995)

Currency:
  New Zealand dollar (NZD)

Currency code:
  NZD

Exchange rates:
  New Zealand dollars per US dollar - 2.3535 (January 2002), 2.3776
  (2001), 2.1863 (2000), 1.8886 (1999), 1.8632 (1998), 1.5083 (1997)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Cook Islands


Telephones - main lines in use:
  5,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  0 (1994)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: the individual islands are connected by a combination of
  satellite earth stations, microwave systems, and VHF and HF
  radiotelephone; within the islands, service is provided by small
  exchanges connected to subscribers by open-wire, cable, and
  fiber-optic cable
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  14,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  2 (plus eight low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:
  4,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ck

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  3 (2000)

Internet users:
  NA

Transportation Cook Islands


Railways:
  0 km

Highways:
  total: 320 km
  paved: 33 km
  unpaved: 287 km (2000)

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  Avarua, Avatiu

Airports:
  7 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 6
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
  914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2002)

Military Cook Islands


Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of New Zealand, in consultation with
  the Cook Islands and at its request

Transnational Issues Cook Islands


Disputes - international:
  none


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Coral Sea Islands

Introduction Coral Sea Islands


Background:
  Scattered over some 1 million square kilometers of ocean, the Coral
  Sea Islands were declared a territory of Australia in 1969. They are
  uninhabited except for a small meteorological staff on the Willis
  Islets. Automated weather stations, beacons, and a lighthouse occupy
  many other islands and reefs.

Geography Coral Sea Islands


Location:
  Oceania, islands in the Coral Sea, northeast of Australia

Geographic coordinates:
  18 00 S, 152 00 E

Map references:
  Oceania

Area:
  total: less than 3 sq km
  note: includes numerous small islands and reefs scattered over a sea
  area of about 780,000 sq km, with the Willis Islets the most
  important
  water: 0 sq km
  land: less than 3 sq km

Area - comparative:
  NA

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  3,095 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM
  territorial sea: 3 NM

Climate:
  tropical

Terrain:
  sand and coral reefs and islands (or cays)

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: unnamed location on Cato Island 6 m

Natural resources:
  NEGL

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100% (mostly grass or scrub cover) (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  occasional tropical cyclones

Environment - current issues:
  no permanent fresh water resources

Geography - note:
  important nesting area for birds and turtles

People Coral Sea Islands


Population:
  no indigenous inhabitants
  note: there is a staff of three to four at the meteorological
  station (July 2003 est.)

Government Coral Sea Islands


Country name:
  conventional long form: Coral Sea Islands Territory
  conventional short form: Coral Sea Islands

Dependency status:
  territory of Australia; administered from Canberra by the
  Department of the Environment, Sport, and Territories

Legal system:
  the laws of Australia, where applicable, apply

Executive branch:
  administered from Canberra by the Department of the Environment,
  Sport, and Territories

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (territory of Australia)

Flag description:
  the flag of Australia is used

Economy Coral Sea Islands


Economy - overview:
  no economic activity

Communications Coral Sea Islands


Communications - note:
  there are automatic weather stations on many of the isles and reefs
  relaying data to the mainland

Transportation Coral Sea Islands


Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  none; offshore anchorage only

Military Coral Sea Islands


Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of Australia; visited regularly by
  the Royal Australian Navy; Australia has control over the activities
  of visitors

Transnational Issues Coral Sea Islands


Disputes - international:
  none


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Costa Rica

Introduction Costa Rica


Background:
  Costa Rica is a Central American success story: since the late 19th
  century, only two brief periods of violence have marred its
  democratic development. Although still a largely agricultural
  country, it has expanded its economy to include strong technology
  and tourism sectors. The standard of living is relatively high. Land
  ownership is widespread.

Geography Costa Rica


Location:
  Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North
  Pacific Ocean, between Nicaragua and Panama

Geographic coordinates:
  10 00 N, 84 00 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 51,100 sq km
  water: 440 sq km
  note: includes Isla del Coco
  land: 50,660 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
  total: 639 km
  border countries: Nicaragua 309 km, Panama 330 km

Coastline:
  1,290 km

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: 200 NM
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  tropical and subtropical; dry season (December to April); rainy
  season (May to November); cooler in highlands

Terrain:
  coastal plains separated by rugged mountains including over 100
  volcanic cones, of which several are major volcanoes

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Cerro Chirripo 3,810 m

Natural resources:
  hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 4.41%
  permanent crops: 5.48%
  other: 90.11% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  1,260 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  occasional earthquakes, hurricanes along Atlantic coast; frequent
  flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season and landslides; active
  volcanoes

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation and land use change, largely a result of the clearing
  of land for cattle ranching and agriculture; soil erosion; coastal
  marine pollution; fisheries protection; solid waste management; air
  pollution

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
  Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life
  Conservation

Geography - note:
  four volcanoes, two of them active, rise near the capital of San
  Jose in the center of the country; one of the volcanoes, Irazu,
  erupted destructively in 1963-65

People Costa Rica


Population:
  3,896,092 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 30.1% (male 600,812; female 573,375)
  15-64 years: 64.4% (male 1,269,667; female 1,241,097)
  65 years and over: 5.4% (male 98,156; female 112,985) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 25.4 years
  male: 24.9 years
  female: 25.8 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  1.56% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  19.4 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  4.31 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0.51 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 10.56 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 9.59 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 11.49 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 76.43 years
  male: 73.87 years
  female: 79.11 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.38 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.6% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  11,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  890 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Costa Rican(s)
  adjective: Costa Rican

Ethnic groups:
  white (including mestizo) 94%, black 3%, Amerindian 1%, Chinese 1%,
  other 1%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 76.3%, Evangelical 13.7%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.3%,
  other Protestant 0.7%, other 4.8%, none 3.2%

Languages:
  Spanish (official), English

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 96%
  male: 95.9%
  female: 96.1% (2003 est.)

Government Costa Rica


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Costa Rica
  conventional short form: Costa Rica
  local short form: Costa Rica
  local long form: Republica de Costa Rica

Government type:
  democratic republic

Capital:
  San Jose

Administrative divisions:
  7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Alajuela, Cartago,
  Guanacaste, Heredia, Limon, Puntarenas, San Jose

Independence:
  15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution:
  7 November 1949

Legal system:
  based on Spanish civil law system; judicial review of legislative
  acts in the Supreme Court; has accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Abel PACHECO (since 8 May 2002); First
  Vice President Lineth SABORIO (since NA May 2002); Second Vice
  President Luis FISHMAN (since NA May 2002); note - the president is
  both the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President Abel PACHECO (since 8 May 2002); First
  Vice President Lineth SABORIO (since NA May 2002); Second Vice
  President Luis FISHMAN (since NA May 2002); note - the president is
  both the chief of state and head of government
  cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president
  elections: president and vice presidents elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 3 February
  2002; run-off election held 7 April 2002 (next to be held NA
  February 2006)
  election results: Abel PACHECO elected president; percent of vote -
  Abel PACHECO (PUSC) 58%; Rolando ARAYA (PLN) 42%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa (57 seats;
  members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 3 February 2002 (next to be held 3 February
  2006)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
  PUSC 19, PLN 17, PAC 14, PML 6, PRC 1

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (22 justices are elected for
  eight-year terms by the Legislative Assembly)

Political parties and leaders:
  Agricultural Labor Action or PALA [Carlos Alberto SOLIS Blanco];
  Citizen Action Party or PAC [Otton SOLIS]; Costa Rican Renovation
  Party or PRC [Justo OROZCO]; Democratic Force Party or PFD [Jose M.
  NUNEZ]; Libertarian Movement Party or PML [Otto GUEVARA Guth];
  National Christian Alliance Party or ANC [Alejandro MADRIGAL];
  National Independent Party or PNI [Jorge GONZALEZ Marten]; National
  Integration Party or PIN [Walter MUNOZ Cespedes]; National
  Liberation Party or PLN [Sonia PICADO]; Social Christian Unity Party
  or PUSC [Luis Manuel CHACON]
  note: mainly a two-party system - PUSC and PLN - until the 3
  February 2002 election in which the PAC captured a significant
  percentage, forcing a run-off in April 2002

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Authentic Confederation of Democratic Workers or CATD (Communist
  Party affiliate); Chamber of Coffee Growers; Confederated Union of
  Workers or CUT (Communist Party affiliate); Costa Rican
  Confederation of Democratic Workers or CCTD (Liberation Party
  affiliate); Federation of Public Service Workers or FTSP; National
  Association for Economic Development or ANFE; National Association
  of Educators or ANDE; Rerum Novarum or CTRN (PLN affiliate) [Gilbert
  Brown]

International organization participation:
  BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt,
  ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC,
  IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL,
  OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU,
  WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Jaime DAREMBLUM Rosenstein
  chancery: 2114 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Denver, Durham (North
  Carolina), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York,
  Phoenix, San Antonio, San Francisco, St. Paul, and Tampa
  consulate(s): Austin
  FAX: [1] (202) 265-4795
  telephone: [1] (202) 234-2945

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador John J. DANILOVICH
  embassy: Calle 120 Avenida O, Pavas, San Jose
  mailing address: APO AA 34020
  telephone: [506] 220-3939
  FAX: [506] 220-2305

Flag description:
  five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red (double width),
  white, and blue, with the coat of arms in a white elliptical disk on
  the hoist side of the red band; above the coat of arms a light blue
  ribbon contains the words, AMERICA CENTRAL, and just below it near
  the top of the coat of arms is a white ribbon with the words,
  REPUBLICA COSTA RICA

Economy Costa Rica


Economy - overview:
  Costa Rica's basically stable economy depends on tourism,
  agriculture, and electronics exports. Poverty has been substantially
  reduced over the past 15 years, and a strong social safety net has
  been put into place. At the same time, distribution of income
  remains severely unequal. Foreign investors remain attracted by the
  country's political stability and high education levels, and tourism
  continues to bring in foreign exchange. However, traditional export
  sectors have not kept pace. Low coffee prices and an overabundance
  of bananas have hurt the agricultural sector. The government
  continues to grapple with its large deficit and massive internal
  debt, with the need to modernize the state-owned electricity and
  telecommunications sector, and with the problem of bringing down
  inflation.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $32 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  2.8% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $8,300 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 9%
  industry: 30%
  services: 61% (2002 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  20.6% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 1.7%
  highest 10%: 34.6% (2001)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  45.9 (1997)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  9.1% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  1.9 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 20%, industry 22%, services 58% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  6.3% (2002 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $1.91 billion
  expenditures: $2.35 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2000 est.)

Industries:
  microprocessors, food processing, textiles and clothing,
  construction materials, fertilizer, plastic products

Industrial production growth rate:
  2.9% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  6.839 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 1.5%
  hydro: 81.9%
  other: 16.6% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  6.109 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  379 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  128 million kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  37,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products:
  coffee, pineapples, bananas, sugar, corn, rice, beans, potatoes;
  beef; timber

Exports:
  $5.1 billion (2002)

Exports - commodities:
  coffee, bananas, sugar; pineapples; textiles, electronic
  components, medical equipment

Exports - partners:
  US 31.5%, Netherlands 8.9%, UK 4.5% (2002)

Imports:
  $6.4 billion (2002)

Imports - commodities:
  raw materials, consumer goods, capital equipment, petroleum

Imports - partners:
  US 36.7%, Japan 4.4%, Mexico 4.2% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $4.8 billion (2002 est.)

Currency:
  Costa Rican colon (CRC)

Currency code:
  CRC

Exchange rates:
  Costa Rican colones per US dollar - 359.82 (2002), 328.87 (2001),
  308.19 (2000), 285.69 (1999), 257.23 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Costa Rica


Telephones - main lines in use:
  450,000 (1998)
  note: 584,000 installed in 1997, but only about 450,000 were in use
  in 1998

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  143,000 (2000)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: very good domestic telephone service
  domestic: point-to-point and point-to-multi-point microwave,
  fiber-optic, and coaxial cable link rural areas; Internet service is
  available
  international: connected to Central American Microwave System;
  satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); two
  submarine cables (1999)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 50, FM 43, shortwave 19 (1998)

Radios:
  980,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  6 (plus 11 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:
  525,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .cr

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  3 (of which only one is legal) (2000)

Internet users:
  384,000 (2002)

Transportation Costa Rica


Railways:
  total: 950 km
  narrow gauge: 950 km 1.067-m gauge (260 km electrified) (2002)

Highways:
  total: 35,892 km
  paved: 7,896 km
  unpaved: 27,996 km (2000)

Waterways:
  730 km (seasonally navigable)

Pipelines:
  refined products 421 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Caldera, Golfito, Moin, Puerto Limon, Puerto Quepos, Puntarenas

Merchant marine:
  total: 1 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,716 GRT/ DWT
  ships by type: passenger 1 (2002 est.)

Airports:
  151 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 30
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 19
  under 914 m: 8 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 121
  914 to 1,523 m: 28
  under 914 m: 93 (2002)

Military Costa Rica


Military branches:
  no regular indigenous military forces; Air Section, Ministry of
  Public Forces (Fuerza Publica)

Military manpower - military age:
  18 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 1,080,254 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 722,043 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 41,453 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $69 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.6% (FY99)

Transnational Issues Costa Rica


Disputes - international:
  legal dispute over navigational rights of Rio San Juan on border
  with Nicaragua

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment country for cocaine and heroin from South America;
  illicit production of cannabis on small, scattered plots; domestic
  cocaine consumption is rising, particularly crack cocaine


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Cote d'Ivoire

Introduction Cote d'Ivoire


Background:
  Close ties to France since independence in 1960, the development of
  cocoa production for export, and foreign investment made Cote
  d'Ivoire one of the most prosperous of the tropical African states,
  but did not protect it from political turmoil. On 25 December 1999,
  a military coup - the first ever in Cote d'Ivoire's history -
  overthrew the government led by President Henri Konan BEDIE. Junta
  leader Robert GUEI held elections in late 2000, but excluded
  prominent opposition leader Alassane OUATTARA, blatantly rigged the
  polling results, and declared himself winner. Popular protest forced
  GUEI to step aside and brought runner-up Laurent GBAGBO into power.
  GBAGBO spent his first two years in office trying to consolidate
  power to strengthen his weak mandate, but he was unable to appease
  his opponents, who launched a failed coup attempt in September 2002.
  Rebel forces claimed the northern half of the country and in January
  2003 were granted ministerial positions in a unity government.
  However, the central government has yet to exert control over the
  northern regions and tension remains high between GBAGBO and rebel
  leaders. Several thousand French and West African troops remain in
  Cote d'Ivoire to maintain peace and help implement the peace accords.

Geography Cote d'Ivoire


Location:
  Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Ghana
  and Liberia

Geographic coordinates:
  8 00 N, 5 00 W

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 322,460 sq km
  water: 4,460 sq km
  land: 318,000 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries:
  total: 3,110 km
  border countries: Burkina Faso 584 km, Ghana 668 km, Guinea 610 km,
  Liberia 716 km, Mali 532 km

Coastline:
  515 km

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: 200 NM
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons - warm
  and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and wet
  (June to October)

Terrain:
  mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Gulf of Guinea 0 m
  highest point: Mont Nimba 1,752 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, natural gas, diamonds, manganese, iron ore, cobalt,
  bauxite, copper, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 9.28%
  permanent crops: 13.84%
  other: 76.88% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  730 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; during the rainy
  season torrential flooding is possible

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation (most of the country's forests - once the largest in
  West Africa - have been heavily logged); water pollution from sewage
  and industrial and agricultural effluents

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
  Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber
  83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  most of the inhabitants live along the sandy coastal region; apart
  from the capital area, the forested interior is sparsely populated

People Cote d'Ivoire


Population:
  16,962,491
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 45.4% (male 3,796,393; female 3,902,210)
  15-64 years: 52.4% (male 4,541,997; female 4,347,531)
  65 years and over: 2.2% (male 179,323; female 195,037) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 17 years
  male: 17.3 years
  female: 16.6 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  2.15% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  40.01 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  18.41 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 98.33 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 80.86 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 115.29 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 42.65 years
  male: 40.34 years
  female: 45.04 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  5.51 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  9.7% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  770,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  75,000 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Ivorian(s)
  adjective: Ivorian

Ethnic groups:
  Akan 42.1%, Voltaiques or Gur 17.6%, Northern Mandes 16.5%, Krous
  11%, Southern Mandes 10%, other 2.8% (includes 130,000 Lebanese and
  20,000 French) (1998)

Religions:
  Christian 20-30%, Muslim 35-40%, indigenous 25-40% (2001)
  note: the majority of foreigners (migratory workers) are Muslim
  (70%) and Christian (20%)

Languages:
  French (official), 60 native dialects with Dioula the most widely
  spoken

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 50.9%
  male: 57.9%
  female: 43.6% (2003 est.)

Government Cote d'Ivoire


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Cote d'Ivoire
  conventional short form: Cote d'Ivoire
  local short form: Cote d'Ivoire
  former: Ivory Coast
  local long form: Republique de Cote d'Ivoire

Government type:
  republic; multiparty presidential regime established 1960

Capital:
  Yamoussoukro; note - although Yamoussoukro has been the official
  capital since 1983, Abidjan remains the commercial and
  administrative center; the US, like other countries, maintains its
  Embassy in Abidjan

Administrative divisions:
  58 departments (departements, singular - departement); Abengourou,
  Abidjan, Aboisso, Adiake, Adzope, Agboville, Agnibilekrou, Alepe,
  Bocanda, Bangolo, Beoumi, Biankouma, Bondoukou, Bongouanou, Bouafle,
  Bouake, Bouna, Boundiali, Dabakala, Dabou, Daloa, Danane, Daoukro,
  Dimbokro, Divo, Duekoue, Ferkessedougou, Gagnoa, Grand-Bassam,
  Grand-Lahou, Guiglo, Issia, Jacqueville, Katiola, Korhogo, Lakota,
  Man, Mankono, Mbahiakro, Odienne, Oume, Sakassou, San-Pedro,
  Sassandra, Seguela, Sinfra, Soubre, Tabou, Tanda, Tiebissou,
  Tingrela, Tiassale, Touba, Toulepleu, Toumodi, Vavoua, Yamoussoukro,
  Zuenoula

Independence:
  7 August (1960) (from France)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 7 August (1960)

Constitution:
  3 November 1960; has been amended numerous times, last time 27 July
  1998

Legal system:
  based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review
  in the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Laurent GBAGBO (since 26 October 2000);
  note - took power following a popular overthrow of the interim
  leader Gen. Robert GUEI who had claimed a dubious victory in
  presidential elections; Gen. GUEI himself had assumed power on 25
  December 1999, following a military coup against the government of
  former President Henri Konan BEDIE
  head of government: Prime Minister Seydou DIARRA (since 25 January
  2003); note - appointed as transitional Prime Minister by President
  GBAGBO as part of a French brokered peace plan
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  election last held 26 October 2000 (next to be held NA 2005); prime
  minister appointed by the president
  election results: Laurent GBAGBO elected president; percent of vote
  - Laurent GBAGBO 59.4%, Robert GUEI 32.7%, Francis WODIE 5.7%, other
  2.2%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (225 seats;
  members are elected in single- and multi-district elections by
  direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)
  elections: elections last held 10 December 2000 with by-elections on
  14 January 2001 (next to be held NA 2005)
  note: a Senate is scheduled to be created in the next full election
  in 2005
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  FPI 96, PDCI-RDA 94, RDR 5, PIT 4, other 2, independents 22, vacant 2

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Cour Supreme consists of four chambers: Judicial
  Chamber for criminal cases, Audit Chamber for financial cases,
  Constitutional Chamber for judicial review cases, and Administrative
  Chamber for civil cases; there is no legal limit to the number of
  members

Political parties and leaders:
  Democratic Party of Cote d'Ivoire-African Democratic Rally or
  PDCI-RDA [Aime Henri Konan BEDIE]; Ivorian Popular Front or FPI
  [Laurent GBAGBO]; Ivorian Worker's Party or PIT [Francis WODIE];
  Rally of the Republicans or RDR [Alassane OUATTARA]; Union for
  Democracy and Peace or UDPCI [leader NA]; over 20 smaller parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACP, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
  ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OIC,
  OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU,
  WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Pascal Dago KOKORA
  chancery: 3421 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
  FAX: [1] (202) 462-9444
  telephone: [1] (202) 797-0300

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Arlene RENDER
  embassy: 5 Rue Jesse Owens, Abidjan
  mailing address: B. P. 1712, Abidjan 01
  telephone: [225] 20 21 09 79
  FAX: [225] 20 22 32 59

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side), white, and
  green; similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and has the
  colors reversed - green (hoist side), white, and orange; also
  similar to the flag of Italy, which is green (hoist side), white,
  and red; design was based on the flag of France

Economy Cote d'Ivoire


Economy - overview:
  Cote d'Ivoire is among the world's largest producers and exporters
  of coffee, cocoa beans, and palm oil. Consequently, the economy is
  highly sensitive to fluctuations in international prices for these
  products and to weather conditions. Despite government attempts to
  diversify the economy, it is still largely dependent on agriculture
  and related activities, which engage roughly 68% of the population.
  After several years of lagging performance, the Ivorian economy
  began a comeback in 1994, due to the 50% devaluation of the CFA
  franc and improved prices for cocoa and coffee, growth in
  nontraditional primary exports such as pineapples and rubber,
  limited trade and banking liberalization, offshore oil and gas
  discoveries, and generous external financing and debt rescheduling
  by multilateral lenders and France. Moreover, government adherence
  to donor-mandated reforms led to a jump in growth to 5% annually
  during 1996-99. Growth was negative in 2000-02 because of the
  difficulty of meeting the conditions of international donors,
  continued low prices of key exports, and severe civil war fighting.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $24.03 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  -1.6% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,400 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 29%
  industry: 22%
  services: 49% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  37% (1995)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 3.1%
  highest 10%: 28.8% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  36.7 (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.2% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  68% agricultural (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  13% in urban areas (1998)

Budget:
  revenues: $1.72 billion
  expenditures: $2.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $420
  million (2001 est.)

Industries:
  foodstuffs, beverages; wood products, oil refining, truck and bus
  assembly, textiles, fertilizer, building materials, electricity

Industrial production growth rate:
  15% (1998 est.)

Electricity - production:
  4.605 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 61.9%
  hydro: 38.1%
  other: 0% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  2.983 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  1.3 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  11,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  32,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  50 million bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  1.35 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  1.35 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  14.87 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  coffee, cocoa beans, bananas, palm kernels, corn, rice, manioc
  (tapioca), sweet potatoes, sugar, cotton, rubber; timber

Exports:
  $4.4 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  cocoa, coffee, timber, petroleum, cotton, bananas, pineapples, palm
  oil, fish

Exports - partners:
  France 14.5%, Netherlands 12.9%, US 7.6%, Germany 5.4%, Mali 4.6%,
  Belgium 4.4%, Spain 4.3% (2002)

Imports:
  $2.5 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  fuel, capital equipment, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  France 22.7%, Nigeria 16.6%, China 7.9%, Italy 4.2% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $10.3 billion (2002 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  ODA, $1 billion (1996 est.)

Currency:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible
  authority is the Central Bank of the West African States

Currency code:
  XOF

Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 696.99
  (2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.7 (1999), 589.95 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Cote d'Ivoire


Telephones - main lines in use:
  263,700 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  450,000 (2000)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: well developed by African standards but
  operating well below capacity
  domestic: open-wire lines and microwave radio relay; 90% digitalized
  international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic
  Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean); 2 coaxial submarine cables (June 1999)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios:
  2.26 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  14 (1999)

Televisions:
  1.09 million (2000)

Internet country code:
  .ci

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  5 (2001)

Internet users:
  70,000 (2002)

Transportation Cote d'Ivoire


Railways:
  total: 660 km
  narrow gauge: 660 km 1.000-meter gauge
  note: an additional 622 km of this railroad extends into Burkina
  Faso (2002)

Highways:
  total: 50,400 km
  paved: 4,889 km
  unpaved: 45,511 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  980 km (navigable rivers, canals, and numerous coastal lagoons)

Pipelines:
  condensate 107 km; gas 223 km; oil 104 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Abidjan, Aboisso, Dabou, San-Pedro

Airports:
  36 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 7
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 29
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
  914 to 1,523 m: 14
  under 914 m: 8 (2002)

Military Cote d'Ivoire


Military branches:
  Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie, Republican Guard
  (includes Presidential Guard)

Military manpower - military age:
  18 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 4,035,462 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 2,110,276 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 198,115 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $143.5 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.4% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Cote d'Ivoire


Disputes - international:
  rebel fighting extended to neighboring states and has driven out
  nationals and foreign workers to nearby countries; the Ivorian
  Government accuses Burkina Faso and Liberia of supporting Ivorian
  rebels

Illicit drugs:
  illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for local consumption;
  transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin to
  Europe and occasionally to the US, and for Latin American cocaine
  destined for Europe and South Africa; while rampant corruption and
  inadequate supervision leave the banking system vulnerable to money
  laundering, the lack of a developed financial system limits the
  country's utility as a major money-laundering center


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Croatia

Introduction Croatia


Background:
  In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a kingdom known
  after 1929 as Yugoslavia. Following World War II, Yugoslavia became
  a federal independent Communist state under the strong hand of
  Marshal TITO. Although Croatia declared its independence from
  Yugoslavia in 1991, it took four years of sporadic, but often
  bitter, fighting before occupying Serb armies were mostly cleared
  from Croatian lands. Under UN supervision, the last Serb-held
  enclave in eastern Slavonia was returned to Croatia in 1998.

Geography Croatia


Location:
  Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and
  Herzegovina and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates:
  45 10 N, 15 30 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 56,542 sq km
  water: 128 sq km
  land: 56,414 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,197 km
  border countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina 932 km, Hungary 329 km,
  Serbia and Montenegro (north) 241 km, Serbia and Montenegro (south)
  25 km, Slovenia 670 km

Coastline:
  5,835 km (mainland 1,777 km, islands 4,058 km)

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with
  hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast

Terrain:
  geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low
  mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
  highest point: Dinara 1,830 m

Natural resources:
  oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, natural
  asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 23.55%
  permanent crops: 2.24%
  other: 74.21% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  30 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues:
  air pollution (from metallurgical plants) and resulting acid rain
  is damaging the forests; coastal pollution from industrial and
  domestic waste; landmine removal and reconstruction of
  infrastructure consequent to 1992-95 civil strife

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Biodiversity,
  Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous
  Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
  Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic
  Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note:
  controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and
  Turkish Straits

People Croatia


Population:
  4,422,248 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 18.3% (male 415,873; female 394,414)
  15-64 years: 66.1% (male 1,465,488; female 1,454,778)
  65 years and over: 15.6% (male 258,943; female 432,752) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 38.9 years
  male: 37.1 years
  female: 40.7 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  0.31% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  12.76 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  11.25 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  1.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 6.92 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 6.01 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 7.78 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 74.37 years
  male: 70.76 years
  female: 78.2 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.93 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  200 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 10 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Croat(s), Croatian(s)
  adjective: Croatian

Ethnic groups:
  Croat 89.6%, Serb 4.5%, Bosniak 0.5%, Hungarian 0.4%, Slovene 0.3%,
  Czech 0.2%, Roma 0.2%, Albanian 0.1%, Montenegrin 0.1%, others 4.1%
  (2001)

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 87.8%, Orthodox 4.4%, Muslim 1.3%, Protestant 0.3%,
  others and unknown 6.2% (2001)

Languages:
  Croatian 96%, other 4% (including Italian, Hungarian, Czech,
  Slovak, and German)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98.5%
  male: 99.4%
  female: 97.8% (2003 est.)

Government Croatia


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Croatia
  conventional short form: Croatia
  local short form: Hrvatska
  local long form: Republika Hrvatska

Government type:
  presidential/parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  Zagreb

Administrative divisions:
  20 counties (zupanije, zupanija - singular) and 1 city* (grad -
  singular); Bjelovarsko-Bilogorska Zupanija, Brodsko-Posavska
  Zupanija, Dubrovacko-Neretvanska Zupanija, Istarska Zupanija,
  Karlovacka Zupanija, Koprivnicko-Krizevacka Zupanija,
  Krapinsko-Zagorska Zupanija, Licko-Senjska Zupanija, Medimurska
  Zupanija, Osjecko-Baranjska Zupanija, Pozesko-Slavonska Zupanija,
  Primorsko-Goranska Zupanija, Sibensko-Kninska Zupanija,
  Sisacko-Moslavacka Zupanija, Splitsko-Dalmatinska Zupanija,
  Varazdinska Zupanija, Viroviticko-Podravska Zupanija,
  Vukovarsko-Srijemska Zupanija, Zadarska Zupanija, Zagreb*,
  Zagrebacka Zupanija

Independence:
  25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday:
  Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)

Constitution:
  adopted on 22 December 1990

Legal system:
  based on civil law system

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Stjepan (Stipe) MESIC (since 18 February
  2000)
  head of government: Prime Minister Ivica RACAN (since 27 January
  2000); Deputy Prime Ministers Goran GRANIC (since 27 January 2000),
  Ante SIMONIC (since 30 July 2002), Zeljka ANTUNOVI (since 27 January
  2000), Slavko LINIC (since 27 January 2000)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and
  approved by the House of Representatives
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  election last held 7 February 2000 (next to be held NA 2005); prime
  minister nominated by the president in line with the balance of
  power in the Assembly
  note: government coalition - SDP, HSLS, HSS, LP, HNS; a sixth party,
  the Istrian Democratic Assembly (IDS), withdrew in June 2001
  election results: Stjepan MESIC elected president; percent of vote -
  Stjepan MESIC (HNS) 56%, Drazen BUDISA (HSLS) 44%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Assembly or Sabor (152 seats; note - one seat was added
  in the November Parliamentary elections; members elected by popular
  vote to serve four-year terms); note - House of Counties was
  abolished in March 2001
  election results: Assembly (then referred to as the House of
  Representatives) - percent of vote by party - HDZ 43.4%, SDP 23%,
  HNS 7.4%, HSS 6.57%, HSP 6%; seats by party - HDZ 66, SDP 34, HNS
  10, HSS 9, HSP 7; note - these are preliminary results
  elections: Assembly - last held 23 November 2003 (next to be held in
  2007)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; judges for both courts
  appointed for eight-year terms by the Judicial Council of the
  Republic, which is elected by the House of Representatives

Political parties and leaders:
  Croatian Bloc or HB [Ivic PASALIC]; Croatian Christian Democratic
  Union or HKDU [Anto KOVACEVIC]; Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ
  [Ivo SANADER]; Croatian Party of Rights or HSP [Anto DJAPIC];
  Croatian Peasant Party or HSS [Zlatko TOMCIC]; Croatian People's
  Party or HNS [Vesna PUSIC]; Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS
  [Drazen BUDISA]; Croatian True Revival Party or HIP [Miroslav
  TUDJMAN]; Democratic Centre or DC [Mate GRANIC]; Istrian Democratic
  Assembly or IDS [Ivan JAKOVCIC]; Liberal Party or LS [Ivo BANAC];
  Party of Liberal Democrats or LIBRA [Goran GRANIC]; Social
  Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP [Ivica RACAN]
  note: the Social Democratic Party or SDP and the Croatian Social
  Liberal Party or HSLS formed a coalition as did the HSS, HNS, LP,
  and IDS, which together defeated the Croatian Democratic Union or
  HDZ in the 2000 lower house parliamentary election; the IDS
  subsequently left the governing coalition in June 2001 over its
  inability to win greater autonomy for Istria

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  BIS, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt,
  ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
  IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA,
  PFP, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMOGIP, UPU, WCO,
  WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Ivan GRDESIC
  FAX: [1] (202) 588-8936
  consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
  telephone: [1] (202) 588-5899
  chancery: 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Ralph FRANK
  embassy: Thomasa Jeffersona 2, 10010 Zagreb
  mailing address: use street address
  telephone: [385] (1) 661-2200
  FAX: [385] (1) 661-2373

Flag description:
  red, white, and blue horizontal bands with Croatian coat of arms
  (red and white checkered)

Economy Croatia


Economy - overview:
  Before the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the Republic of Croatia,
  after Slovenia, was the most prosperous and industrialized area,
  with a per capita output perhaps one-third above the Yugoslav
  average. The economy emerged from its mild recession in 2000 with
  tourism the main factor, but massive structural unemployment remains
  a key negative element. The government's failure to press the
  economic reforms needed to spur growth is largely the result of
  coalition politics and public resistance, particularly from the
  trade unions. Opponents fear reforms would cut jobs, wages, and
  social benefits. The government has a heavy backload of civil cases,
  many involving tenure land. The country is likely to experience only
  moderate growth without disciplined fiscal and structural reform.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $43.12 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5.2% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $9,800 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 9%
  industry: 33%
  services: 58% (2002 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 3.7%
  highest 10%: 23.3% (1998)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  29 (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.2% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  1.7 million (2001)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 13.2% NA, industry 25.4% NA, services 46.4% NA (2002)

Unemployment rate:
  21.7% (2002 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $8.6 billion
  expenditures: $9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2001 est.)

Industries:
  chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal,
  electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper,
  wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding,
  petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages; tourism

Industrial production growth rate:
  2.8% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  12.12 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 33.6%
  hydro: 66%
  other: 0.4% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  14.27 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  386 million kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  3.386 billion kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  29,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  89,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  93.6 million bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  1.76 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  2.84 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  1.08 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  34.36 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed, barley, alfalfa, clover,
  olives, citrus, grapes, soybeans, potatoes; livestock, dairy products

Exports:
  $4.9 billion f.o.b. (2002)

Exports - commodities:
  transport equipment, textiles, chemicals, foodstuffs, fuels

Exports - partners:
  Italy 22.4%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 14.4%, Germany 12.5%, Slovenia
  8%, Austria 7.3% (2002)

Imports:
  $10.7 billion c.i.f. (2002)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery, transport and electrical equipment, chemicals, fuels and
  lubricants, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  Italy 16.8%, Germany 16.4%, Slovenia 7.8%, Russia 6.8%, Austria
  6.7%, France 5.2% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $16.5 billion (yearend 2002 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  ODA $66 million (2000)

Currency:
  kuna (HRK)

Currency code:
  HRK

Exchange rates:
  kuna per US dollar - 7.87 (2002), 8.34 (2001), 8.28 (2000), 7.11
  (1999), 6.36 (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Croatia


Telephones - main lines in use:
  1,721,139 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1.3 million (2001)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: reconstruction plan calls for replacement of all analog
  circuits with digital and enlarging the network; a backup will be
  included in the plan for the main trunk
  international: digital international service is provided through the
  main switch in Zagreb; Croatia participates in the Trans-Asia-Europe
  (TEL) fiber-optic project, which consists of two fiber-optic trunk
  connections with Slovenia and a fiber-optic trunk line from Rijeka
  to Split and Dubrovnik; Croatia is also investing in ADRIA 1, a
  joint fiber-optic project with Germany, Albania, and Greece (2000)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 16, FM 98, shortwave 5 (1999)

Radios:
  1.51 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  36 (plus 321 repeaters) (September 1995)

Televisions:
  1.22 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .hr

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  9 (2000)

Internet users:
  480,000 (2001)

Transportation Croatia


Railways:
  total: 2,296 km
  standard gauge: 2,296 km 1.435-m gauge (983 km electrified) (2002)

Highways:
  total: 28,123 km
  paved: 23,792 km (including 410 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 4,331 km (2000)

Waterways:
  785 km
  note: (perennially navigable; large sections of Sava blocked by
  downed bridges, silt, and debris)

Pipelines:
  gas 1,374 km; oil 583 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Dubrovnik, Dugi Rat, Omisalj, Ploce, Pula, Rijeka, Sibenik, Split,
  Vukovar (inland waterway port on Danube), Zadar

Merchant marine:
  total: 56 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 765,830 GRT/1,188,948 DWT
  note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of
  convenience: Hong Kong 1 (2002 est.)
  ships by type: bulk 14, cargo 16, chemical tanker 4, combination
  bulk 5, multi-functional large-load carrier 3, passenger 1,
  petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 3, roll on/roll off 6,
  short-sea passenger 3

Airports:
  59 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 16
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  under 914 m: 9 (2002)
  914 to 1,523 m: 4

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 43
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 8
  under 914 m: 34 (2002)

Heliports:
  1 (2002)

Military Croatia


Military branches:
  Ground Forces (Hrvatska Vojska, HV), Naval Forces, Air and Air
  Defense Forces

Military manpower - military age:
  19 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 1,081,135 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 856,946 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 30,096 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $520 million (2002 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.39% (2002 est.)

Transnational Issues Croatia


Disputes - international:
  discussions continue with Bosnia and Herzegovina on sections of the
  Una River and villages at the base of Mount Pljesevica;
  parliamentarians are far from ratifying the Croatia-Slovenia land
  and maritime boundary agreement, which would have ceded most of
  Pirin Bay and maritime access to Slovenia and several villages to
  Croatia; in late 2002, Croatia and Serbia and Montenegro adopted an
  interim agreement to settle the disputed Prevlaka Peninsula,
  allowing the withdrawal of the UN monitoring mission (UNMOP), but
  discussions could be complicated by the inability of Serbia and
  Montenegro to come to an agreement on the economic aspects of the
  new federal union; Croatia and Italy continue to debate bilateral
  property and ethnic minority rights issues stemming from border
  changes after the Second World War

Illicit drugs:
  transit point along the Balkan route for Southwest Asian heroin to
  Western Europe; has been used as a transit point for maritime
  shipments of South American cocaine bound for Western Europe


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Cuba

Introduction Cuba


Background:
  Fidel CASTRO led a rebel army to victory in 1959; his iron rule has
  held the country together since then. Cuba's Communist revolution,
  with Soviet support, was exported throughout Latin America and
  Africa during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. The country is now slowly
  recovering from a severe economic recession in 1990, following the
  withdrawal of former Soviet subsidies, worth $4 billion to $6
  billion annually. Cuba portrays its difficulties as the result of
  the US embargo in place since 1961. Illicit migration to the US -
  using homemade rafts, alien smugglers, or falsified visas - is a
  continuing problem. Some 2,500 Cubans attempted the crossing of the
  Straits of Florida in 2002; the US Coast Guard apprehended about 60%
  of the individuals.

Geography Cuba


Location:
  Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic
  Ocean, 150 km south of Key West, Florida

Geographic coordinates:
  21 30 N, 80 00 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 110,860 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  land: 110,860 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries:
  total: 29 km
  border countries: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay 29 km
  note: Guantanamo Naval Base is leased by the US and thus remains
  part of Cuba

Coastline:
  3,735 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to April);
  rainy season (May to October)

Terrain:
  mostly flat to rolling plains, with rugged hills and mountains in
  the southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Pico Turquino 2,005 m

Natural resources:
  cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt, timber, silica,
  petroleum, arable land

Land use:
  arable land: 33.04%
  other: 59.35% (1998 est.)
  permanent crops: 7.61%

Irrigated land:
  870 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  the east coast is subject to hurricanes from August to October (in
  general, the country averages about one hurricane every other year);
  droughts are common

Environment - current issues:
  air and water pollution; biodiversity loss; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
  Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate
  Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:
  largest country in Caribbean and westernmost island of the Greater
  Antilles

People Cuba


Population:
  11,263,429 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 20.1% (male 1,164,376; female 1,103,061)
  15-64 years: 69.6% (male 3,932,604; female 3,909,523)
  65 years and over: 10.2% (male 531,608; female 622,257) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 34.5 years
  male: 33.9 years
  female: 35.1 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  0.34% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  11.87 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  7.38 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -1.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
  total population: 1 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 7.15 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 6.19 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 8.06 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 76.8 years
  male: 74.38 years
  female: 79.36 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.61 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  3,200 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  120 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Cuban(s)
  adjective: Cuban

Ethnic groups:
  mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11%, Chinese 1%

Religions:
  nominally 85% Roman Catholic prior to CASTRO assuming power;
  Protestants, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jews, and Santeria are also
  represented

Languages:
  Spanish

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  female: 96.9% (2003 est.)
  male: 97.2%
  total population: 97%

People - note:
  illicit migration is a continuing problem; Cubans attempt to depart
  the island and enter the US using homemade rafts, alien smugglers,
  direct flights, or falsified visas; some 2,500 Cubans took to the
  Straits of Florida in 2002; the US Coast Guard interdicted about 60%
  of these migrants; Cubans also use non-maritime routes to enter the
  US; some 1,500 Cubans arrived overland via the southwest border and
  direct flights to Miami in 2002

Government Cuba


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Cuba
  conventional short form: Cuba
  local short form: Cuba
  local long form: Republica de Cuba

Government type:
  Communist state

Capital:
  Havana

Administrative divisions:
  14 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 special
  municipality* (municipio especial); Camaguey, Ciego de Avila,
  Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La Habana, Granma, Guantanamo, Holguin, Isla
  de la Juventud*, La Habana, Las Tunas, Matanzas, Pinar del Rio,
  Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa Clara

Independence:
  20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898; administered by the US
  from 1898 to 1902)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 10 December (1898); note - 10 December 1898 is
  the date of independence from Spain, 20 May 1902 is the date of
  independence from US administration; Rebellion Day, 26 July (1953)

Constitution:
  24 February 1976, amended July 1992 and June 2002

Legal system:
  based on Spanish and American law, with large elements of Communist
  legal theory; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  16 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President of the Council of State and President of
  the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (prime minister from
  February 1959 until 24 February 1976 when office was abolished;
  president since 2 December 1976); First Vice President of the
  Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of
  Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December 1976); note - the
  president is both the chief of state and head of government
  elections: president and vice president elected by the National
  Assembly; election last held 6 March 2003 (next to be held in 2008)
  election results: Fidel CASTRO Ruz reelected president; percent of
  legislative vote - 100%; Raul CASTRO Ruz elected vice president;
  percent of legislative vote - 100%
  cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the president of the
  Council of State, appointed by the National Assembly; note - there
  is also a Council of State whose members are elected by the National
  Assembly
  head of government: President of the Council of State and President
  of the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (prime minister from
  February 1959 until 24 February 1976 when office was abolished;
  president since 2 December 1976); First Vice President of the
  Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of
  Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December 1976); note - the
  president is both the chief of state and head of government

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly of People's Power or Asemblea Nacional
  del Poder Popular (609 seats, elected directly from slates approved
  by special candidacy commissions; members serve five-year terms)
  elections: last held 19 January 2003 (next to be held in 2008)
  election results: percent of vote - PCC 97.6%; seats - PCC 609

Judicial branch:
  People's Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo Popular (president, vice
  president, and other judges are elected by the National Assembly)

Political parties and leaders:
  only party - Cuban Communist Party or PCC [Fidel CASTRO Ruz, first
  secretary]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IAEA, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
  IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS
  (excluded from formal participation since 1962), OPANAL, OPCW, PCA,
  UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
  WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none; note - Cuba has an Interests Section in the Swiss Embassy,
  headed by Principal Officer Dagoberto RODRIGUEZ Barrera (since
  August 2001); address: Cuban Interests Section, Swiss Embassy, 2630
  16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009; telephone: [1] (202) 797-8518

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none; note - the US has an Interests Section in the Swiss Embassy,
  headed by Principal Officer James C. CASON; address: USINT, Swiss
  Embassy, Calzada between L and M Streets, Vedado, Havana; telephone:
  [53] (7) 33-3551 through 3559 (operator assistance required); FAX:
  [53] (7) 33-3700; protecting power in Cuba is Switzerland

Flag description:
  five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and bottom) alternating
  with white; a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist side bears
  a white, five-pointed star in the center; design influenced by the
  US flag

Economy Cuba


Economy - overview:
  The government continues to balance the need for economic loosening
  against a desire for firm political control. It has undertaken
  limited reforms in recent years to increase enterprise efficiency
  and alleviate serious shortages of food, consumer goods, and
  services but is unlikely to implement extensive changes. A major
  feature of the economy is the dichotomy between relatively efficient
  export enclaves and inefficient domestic sectors. The average
  Cuban's standard of living remains at a lower level than before the
  severe economic depression of the early 1990s, which was caused by
  the loss of Soviet aid and domestic inefficiencies. High oil import
  prices, recessions in key export markets, damage from Hurricanes
  Isidore and Lili, and the tourist slump after 11 September 2001
  hampered growth in 2002.

GDP:
  purchasing power parity - $30.69 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  1.1% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $2,700 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 7.6%
  industry: 34.5%
  services: 57.9% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  7.1% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  4.3 million
  note: state sector 78%, non-state sector 22% (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 24%, industry 25%, services 51% (1999)

Unemployment rate:
  4.1% (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $14.9 billion
  expenditures: $15.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2000 est.)

Industries:
  sugar, petroleum, tobacco, chemicals, construction, services,
  nickel, steel, cement, agricultural machinery, biotechnology

Industrial production growth rate:
  0.2% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:
  14.38 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 93.9%
  hydro: 0.6%
  other: 5.4% (2001)
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  13.38 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  50,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  163,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  532 million bbl (37257)

Natural gas - production:
  600 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  600 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  42.62 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products:
  sugar, tobacco, citrus, coffee, rice, potatoes, beans; livestock

Exports:
  $1.8 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  sugar, nickel, tobacco, fish, medical products, citrus, coffee

Exports - partners:
  Netherlands 19.1%, Russia 18.1%, Canada 14.3%, Spain 9.5%, China
  7.3% (2002)

Imports:
  $4.8 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  petroleum, food, machinery and equipment, chemicals

Imports - partners:
  Spain 17.2%, China 12%, Italy 9.1%, France 7.6%, Mexico 7.3%,
  Canada 6.2%, US 5.6%, Brazil 4.7% (2002)

Debt - external:
  $12.3 billion (convertible currency); another $15 billion -$20
  billion owed to Russia (2002 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $68.2 million (1997 est.)

Currency:
  Cuban peso (CUP)

Currency code:
  CUP

Exchange rates:
  Cuban pesos per US dollar - 1.0000 (nonconvertible, official rate,
  for international transactions, pegged to the US dollar);
  convertible peso sold for domestic use at a rate of 1.00 US dollar
  per 27 pesos by the Government of Cuba (2002)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Cuba


Telephones - main lines in use:
  473,031 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  2,994 (1997)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: principal trunk system, end to end of country, is coaxial
  cable; fiber-optic distribution in Havana and on Isla de la
  Juventud; 2 microwave radio relay installations (one is old,
  US-built; the other newer, built during the period of Soviet
  support); both analog and digital mobile cellular service established
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic
  Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 169, FM 55, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  3.9 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  58 (1997)

Televisions:
  2.64 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .cu

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  5 (2001)

Internet users:
  120,000 (2002)

Transportation Cuba


Railways:
  total: 3,442 km
  standard gauge: 3,442 km 1.435-m gauge (142 km electrified)
  note: an additional 7,742 km of track is used by sugar plantations;
  about 65% of this track is standard gauge; the rest is narrow gauge
  (2002)

Highways:
  total: 60,858 km
  paved: 29,820 km (including 638 km of expressway)
  unpaved: 31,038 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  240 km

Pipelines:
  gas 49 km; oil 230 km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Cienfuegos, Havana, Manzanillo, Mariel, Matanzas, Nuevitas,
  Santiago de Cuba

Merchant marine:
  total: 15 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 59,257 GRT/90,295 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 5, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 1,
  petroleum tanker 3, refrigerated cargo 2 (2002 est.)

Airports:
  161 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 70
  over 3,047 m: 7
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 22
  under 914 m: 31 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 91
  914 to 1,523 m: 28
  under 914 m: 63 (2002)

Military Cuba


Military branches:
  Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) including Revolutionary Army (ER),
  Revolutionary Navy (MGR), Air and Air Defense Force (DAAFAR),
  Territorial Militia Troops (MTT), and Youth Labor Army (EJT); note -
  the Border Guard Troops (TGF) are controlled by the Interior Ministry

Military manpower - military age:
  17 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 3,120,702
  note: both sexes are liable for military service (2003 est.)
  females age 15-49: 3,049,927

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,923,967
  females age 15-49: 1,875,412 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 81,095
  females: 87,780 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  roughly 4% (FY95 est.)

Military - note:
  Moscow, for decades the key military supporter and supplier of
  Cuba, cut off almost all military aid by 1993

Transnational Issues Cuba


Disputes - international:
  US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased to US and only mutual
  agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease

Illicit drugs:
  territorial waters and air space serve as transshipment zone for
  cocaine and heroin bound for the US and Europe; established the
  death penalty for certain drug-related crimes in 1999


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



======================================================================



@Cyprus

Introduction Cyprus


Background:
  Independence from the UK was approved in 1960, with constitutional
  guarantees by the Greek Cypriot majority to the Turkish Cypriot
  minority. In 1974, a Greek-sponsored attempt to seize the government
  was met by military intervention from Turkey, which soon controlled
  almost 40% of the island. In 1983, the Turkish-held area declared
  itself the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus," but it is
  recognized only by Turkey. UN-led direct talks between the two sides
  to reach a comprehensive settlement to the division of the island
  began in January 2002.

Geography Cyprus


Location:
  Middle East, island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Turkey

Geographic coordinates:
  35 00 N, 33 00 E

Map references:
  Middle East

Area:
  total: 9,250 sq km (of which 3,355 sq km are in the Turkish Cypriot
  area)
  water: 10 sq km
  land: 9,240 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about 0.6 times the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  648 km

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
  territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate:
  temperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool winters

Terrain:
  central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered but
  significant plains along southern coast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Olympus 1,951 m

Natural resources:
  copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt, marble, clay earth
  pigment

Land use:
  arable land: 10.61%
  permanent crops: 4.65%
  other: 84.74% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  400 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  moderate earthquake activity; droughts

Environment - current issues:
  water resource problems (no natural reservoir catchments, seasonal
  disparity in rainfall, sea water intrusion to island's largest
  aquifer, increased salination in the north); water pollution from
  sewage and industrial wastes; coastal degradation; loss of wildlife
  habitats from urbanization

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate
  Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species,
  Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
  Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Geography - note:
  the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily and
  Sardinia)

People Cyprus


Population:
  771,657 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 21.9% (male 86,446; female 82,769)
  15-64 years: 67% (male 261,404; female 255,409)
  65 years and over: 11.1% (male 37,345; female 48,284) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 34.2 years
  male: 33.1 years
  female: 35.2 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  0.56% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  12.77 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  7.63 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
  total population: 1 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 7.54 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 5.54 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 9.43 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 77.27 years
  male: 74.94 years
  female: 79.71 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.88 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.3% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  less than 1,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Cypriot(s)
  adjective: Cypriot

Ethnic groups:
  Greek 85.2%, Turkish 11.6%, other 3.2% (2000)

Religions:
  Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian Apostolic, and
  other 4%

Languages:
  Greek, Turkish, English

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 97.6%
  male: 98.9%
  female: 96.3% (2003 est.)

Government Cyprus


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Cyprus
  conventional short form: Cyprus
  note: the Turkish Cypriot area refers to itself as the "Turkish
  Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC)

Government type:
  republic
  note: a disaggregation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the
  island began following the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this
  separation was further solidified after the Turkish intervention in
  July 1974 after a Greek junta-based coup attempt gave the Turkish
  Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the
  only internationally recognized government; on 15 November 1983
  Turkish Cypriot "President" Rauf DENKTASH declared independence and
  the formation of a "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC),
  recognized only by Turkey; both sides publicly support a settlement
  based on a federation (Greek Cypriot position) or confederation
  (Turkish Cypriot position)

Capital:
  Nicosia

Administrative divisions:
  6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia,
  Paphos; note - Turkish Cypriot area's administrative divisions
  include Kyrenia, all but a small part of Famagusta, and small parts
  of Lefkosa (Nicosia) and Larnaca

Independence:
  16 August 1960 (from UK); note - Turkish Cypriot area proclaimed
  self-rule on 13 February 1975

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 1 October (1960); note - Turkish Cypriot area
  celebrates 15 November (1983) as Independence Day

Constitution:
  16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for a new or
  revised constitution to govern the island and to better relations
  between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently; in
  1975 Turkish Cypriots created their own constitution and governing
  bodies within the "Turkish Federated State of Cyprus," which was
  renamed the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" in 1983; a new
  constitution for the Turkish Cypriot area passed by referendum on 5
  May 1985

Legal system:
  based on common law, with civil law modifications

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Tassos PAPADOPOULOS (since 1 March 2003);
  note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the
  1960 constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot
  head of government: President Tassos PAPADOPOULOS (since 1 March
  2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the
  1960 constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed jointly by the president and
  vice president
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  election last held 16 February 2003 (next to be held NA February
  2008)
  note: Rauf R. DENKTASH has been "president" of the Turkish Cypriot
  area since 13 February 1975 ("president" elected by popular vote for
  a five-year term); elections last held 15 April 2000 (next to be
  held NA April 2005); results - Rauf R. DENKTASH reelected president
  after the other contender withdrew; Dervis EROGLU has been "prime
  minister" of the Turkish Cypriot area since 16 August 1996; there is
  a Council of Ministers (cabinet) in the Turkish Cypriot area
  election results: Tassos PAPADOPOULOS elected president; percent of
  vote - Tassos PAPADOPOULOS 51.5%, Glafkos KLIRIDIS 38.8%, Alekos
  MARKIDIS 6.6%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral - Greek Cypriot area: House of Representatives or Vouli
  Antiprosopon (80 seats; 56 assigned to the Greek Cypriots, 24 to
  Turkish Cypriots; note - only those assigned to Greek Cypriots are
  filled; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year
  terms); Turkish Cypriot area: Assembly of the Republic or Cumhuriyet
  Meclisi (50 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
  five-year terms)
  election results: Greek Cypriot area: House of Representatives -
  percent of vote by party - AKEL 34.71%, DISY 34%, DIKO 14.84%, KISOS
  6.51%, others 9.94%; seats by party - AKEL (Communist) 20, DISY 19,
  DIKO 9, KISOS 4, others 4; Turkish Cypriot area: Assembly of the
  Republic - percent of vote by party - UBP 40.3%, DP 22.6%, TKP
  15.4%, CTP 13.4%, UDP 4.6%, YBH 2.5%, BP 1.2%; seats by party - UBP
  24, DP 13, TKP 7, CTP 6
  elections: Greek Cypriot area: last held 27 May 2001 (next to be
  held NA May 2006); Turkish Cypriot area: last held 6 December 1998
  (next to be held NA December 2003)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (judges are appointed jointly by the president and
  vice president)
  note: there is also a Supreme Court in the Turkish Cypriot area

Political parties and leaders:
  Greek Cypriot area: Democratic Party or DIKO [Tassos PAPADOPOULOS];
  Democratic Rally or DISY [Nikos ANASTASIADHIS]; Fighting Democratic
  Movement or ADIK [Dinos MIKHAILIDIS]; Green Party of Cyprus [George
  PERDIKIS]; New Horizons [Nikolaus KOUTSOU]; Restorative Party of the
  Working People or AKEL (Communist Party) [Dimitrios CHRISTOFIAS];
  Social Democrats Movement or KISOS (formerly United Democratic Union
  of Cyprus or EDEK) [Yiannakis OMIROU]; United Democrats Movement or
  EDE [George VASSILIOU]; Turkish Cypriot area: Communal Liberation
  Party or TKP [Mustafa AKINCI]; Democratic Party or DP [Serder
  DENKTASH]; National Birth Party or UDP [Enver EMIN]; National Unity
  Party or UBP [Dervis EROGLU]; Our Party or BP [Okyay SADIKOGLU];
  Patriotic Unity Movement or YBH [Izzet IZCAN]; Republican Turkish
  Party or CTP [Mehmet ALI TALAT]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Confederation of Cypriot Workers or SEK (pro-West); Confederation
  of Revolutionary Labor Unions or Dev-Is; Federation of Turkish
  Cypriot Labor Unions or Turk-Sen; Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation or
  PEO (Communist controlled)

International organization participation:
  Australia Group, C, CE, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G-77, IAEA,
  IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (associate),
  IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, NSG, OAS
  (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
  WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Euripides L. EVRIVIADES
  chancery: 2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  FAX: [1] (202) 483-6710
  note: representative of the Turkish Cypriot area in the US is Osman
  ERTUG; office at 1667 K Street NW, Washington, DC; telephone [1]
  (202) 887-6198
  consulate(s): New York
  consulate(s) general: New York
  telephone: [1] (202) 462-5772

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Michael KLOSSON
  embassy: corner of Metochiou and Ploutarchou Streets, Engomi, 2407
  Nicosia
  mailing address: P. O. Box 24536, 1385 Nikosia
  telephone: [357] (22) 776400
  FAX: [357] (22) 780944

Flag description:
  white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the name
  Cyprus is derived from the Greek word for copper) above two green
  crossed olive branches in the center of the flag; the branches
  symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek
  and Turkish communities
  note: the Turkish Cypriot flag has a horizontal red stripe at the
  top and bottom between which is a red crescent and red star on a
  white field

Economy Cyprus


Economy - overview:
  The Greek Cypriot economy is prosperous but highly susceptible to
  external shocks. Erratic growth rates over the past decade reflect
  the economy's vulnerability to swings in tourist arrivals, caused by
  political instability in the region and fluctuations in economic
  conditions in Western Europe. Economic policy is focused on meeting
  the criteria for admission to the EU. As in the Turkish sector,
  water shortages are a perennial problem; a few desalination plants
  are now online. The Turkish Cypriot economy has roughly one-third of
  the per capita GDP of the south. Because it is recognized only by
  Turkey, it has had much difficulty arranging foreign financing and
  investment. It remains heavily dependent on agriculture and
  government service, which together employ about half of the work
  force. To compensate for the economy's weakness, Turkey provides
  grants and loans to support economic development. Ankara provided
  $200 million in 2002 and pledged $450 million for the 2003-05
  period. Future events throughout the island will be highly
  influenced by the outcome of negotiations on the UN-sponsored
  agreement to unite the Greek and Turkish areas and by the
  arrangements under which the island joins the EU.

GDP:
  Greek Cypriot area: purchasing power parity - $9.4 billion (2001
  est.); Turkish Cypriot area: purchasing power parity - $787 million
  (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  Greek Cypriot area: 1.7% (2001 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: 2.6%
  (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  Greek Cypriot area: purchasing power parity - $15,000 (2001 est.);
  Turkish Cypriot area: purchasing power parity - $6,000 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  Greek Cypriot area: agriculture 4.6%; industry 19.9%; services 19.9%
  Turkish Cypriot area: agriculture 75.5%; industry 20.7%; services
  71% (2001)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  Greek Cypriot area: 2.8% (2001 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: 24.5%
  (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  Greek Cypriot area: 291,000; Turkish Cypriot area: 86,300 (2000)

Labor force - by occupation:
  Greek Cypriot area: services 73%, industry 22%, agriculture 5%
  (2000); Turkish Cypriot area: services 56.4%, industry 22.8%,
  agriculture 20.8% (1998)

Unemployment rate:
  Greek Cypriot area: 3.3%; Turkish Cypriot area: 5.6% (2002 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: Greek Cypriot area - $4.4 billion, Turkish Cypriot area -
  $231.3 million (2002 est.)
  expenditures: $3.7 billion, Greek Cypriot area - $539 million,
  including capital expenditures of $539 million, Turkish Cypriot area
  - $432.8 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)

Industries:
  food, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metal products, tourism, wood
  products

Industrial production growth rate:
  Greek Cypriot area: -1.4% (2002); Turkish Cypriot area: -0.3% (2002)

Electricity - production:
  3.401 billion kWh; Turkish Cypriot area: NA kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  other: 0% (2001)
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:
  Greek Cypriot area: 3.163 billion kWh; Turkish Cypriot area: NA kWh
  (2001)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  49,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA (2001)

Agriculture - products:
  potatoes, citrus, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives, vegetables

Exports:
  Greek Cypriot area: $1.03 billion f.o.b. Turkish Cypriot area: $46
  million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  Greek Cypriot area: citrus, potatoes, pharmaceuticals, cement,
  clothing and cigarettes; Turkish Cypriot area: citrus, potatoes,
  textiles

Exports - partners:
  UK 28.2%, Greece 7%, UAE 5.3%, France 5.2% (2002)

Imports:
  Greek Cypriot area: $3.9 billion f.o.b.; Turkish Cypriot area: $301
  million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  Greek Cypriot area: consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants,
  intermediate goods, machinery, transport equipment; Turkish Cypriot
  area: food, minerals, chemicals, machinery

Imports - partners:
  Russia 17.9%, Greece 7.4%, Germany 6.7%, France 6.6%, UK 6.6%,
  Italy 6.6%, South Korea 5.7%, Japan 5.3% (2002)

Debt - external:
  Greek Cypriot area: $8 billion; Turkish Cypriot area: $NA (2002)

Economic aid - recipient:
  Greek Cypriot area - $17 million (1998);; Turkish Cypriot area -
  $700 million from Turkey in grants and loans (1990-97), which are
  usually forgiven (1998)

Currency:
  Greek Cypriot area: Cypriot pound (CYP); Turkish Cypriot area:
  Turkish lira (TRL)

Currency code:
  CYP; TRL

Exchange rates:
  Cypriot pounds per US dollar - 0.61 (2002), 0.64 (2001), 0.62
  (2000), 0.54 (1999), 0.52 (1998), Turkish lira per US dollar NA
  (2002), 1,225,590 (2001), 625,218 (2000), 418,783 (1999), 260,724
  (1998)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Cyprus


Telephones - main lines in use:
  Greek Cypriot area: 405,000 (1998);; Turkish Cypriot area: 83,162
  (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  Greek Cypriot area: 68,000 (1998); Turkish Cypriot area: 70,000
  (1999)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: excellent in both the Greek Cypriot and Turkish
  Cypriot areas
  domestic: open-wire, fiber-optic cable, and microwave radio relay
  international: tropospheric scatter; 3 coaxial and 5 fiber-optic
  submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic
  Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations:
  Greek Cypriot area: AM 7, FM 60, shortwave 1 (1998); Turkish
  Cypriot area: AM 3, FM 11, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  Greek Cypriot area: 310,000 (1997); Turkish Cypriot area: 56,450
  (1994)

Television broadcast stations:
  Greek Cypriot area: 4 (plus 225 low-power repeaters) (September
  1995);; Turkish Cypriot area: 4 (plus 5 repeaters) (September 1995)

Televisions:
  Greek Cypriot area: 248,000 (1997); Turkish Cypriot area: 52,300
  (1994)

Internet country code:
  .cy

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  6 (2000)

Internet users:
  150,000 (2002)

Transportation Cyprus


Railways:
  0 km

Highways:
  total: 13,491 km
  note: Greek Cypriot area: 11,141 km; Turkish Cypriot area: 2,350 km
  unpaved: Greek Cypriot area: 4,713 km; Turkish Cypriot area: 980 km
  (2000/1996)
  paved: Greek Cypriot area: 6,428 km; Turkish Cypriot area: 1,370 km

Waterways:
  none

Ports and harbors:
  Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Paphos, Vasilikos

Merchant marine:
  total: 1,180 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 23,106,229 GRT/37,032,163 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 421, cargo 325, chemical tanker 25, combination
  bulk 24, combination ore/oil 2, container 151, liquefied gas 2,
  passenger 8, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 124, refrigerated
  cargo 45, roll on/roll off 37, short-sea passenger 9, specialized
  tanker 3, vehicle carrier 3
  note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of
  convenience: Austria 12, Belgium 2, Bulgaria 2, Canada 3, Chile 2,
  China 16, Croatia 2, Cuba 11, Finland 1, Germany 229, Greece 607,
  Guam 1, Hong Kong 6, India 6, Iran 1, Ireland 1, Israel 5, Italy 1,
  Japan 26, Latvia 14, Lebanon 1, Lithuania 2, Mexico 1, Monaco 10,
  Netherlands 30, Norway 23, Panama 1, Philippines 2, Poland 19,
  Portugal 2, Russia 57, Singapore 2, Slovenia 2, South Korea 4, Spain
  7, Sudan 2, Sweden 6, Switzerland 4, Turkey 1, Ukraine 1, United
  Arab Emirates 13, United Kingdom 6, United States 4, Vietnam 1 (2002
  est.)

Airports:
  16 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 13
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  under 914 m: 1 (2002)
  914 to 1,523 m: 3

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 3
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 2 (2002)

Heliports:
  10 (2002)

Military Cyprus


Military branches:
  Greek Cypriot area: Greek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG; including
  air and naval elements), Greek Cypriot Police
  Turkish Cypriot area: Turkish Cypriot Security Force (GKK)

Military manpower - military age:
  18 years of age (2003 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
  males age 15-49: 201,606 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 138,336 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
  males: 6,638 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $384 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  3.8% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Cyprus


Disputes - international:
  hostilities in 1974 divided the island into two de facto autonomous
  areas, a Greek Cypriot area controlled by the internationally
  recognized Cypriot Government and a Turkish-Cypriot area, separated
  by a UN buffer zone; UN deadline on sides accepting a federation
  plan for reunification have expired, diminishing chances of
  Turkish-Cypriot participation in EU membership in 2004

Illicit drugs:
  minor transit point for heroin and hashish via air routes and
  container traffic to Europe, especially from Lebanon and Turkey;
  some cocaine transits as well; anti-money-laundering laws
  strengthened but few convictions


This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003



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@Czech Republic

Introduction Czech Republic


Background:
  Following the First World War, the closely related Czechs and
  Slovaks of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire merged to form
  Czechoslovakia. During the interwar years, the new country's leaders
  were frequently preoccupied with meeting the demands of other ethnic
  minorities within the republic, most notably the Sudeten Germans and
  the Ruthenians (Ukrainians). After World War II, a truncated
  Czechoslovakia fell within the Soviet sphere of influence. In 1968,
  an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's
  leaders to liberalize Communist party rule and create "socialism
  with a human face." Anti-Soviet demonstrations the following year
  ushered in a period of harsh repression. With the collapse of Soviet
  authority in 1989, Czechoslovakia regained its freedom through a
  peaceful "Velvet Revolution." On 1 January 1993, the country
  underwent a "velvet divorce" into its two national components, the
  Czech Republic and Slovakia. Now a member of NATO, the Czech
  Republic has moved toward integration in world markets, a
  development that poses both opportunities and risks. In December
  2002, the Czech Republic was invited to join the European Union
  (EU). It is expected that the Czech Republic will accede to the EU
  in 2004.

Geography Czech Republic


Location:
  Central Europe, southeast of Germany

Geographic coordinates:
  49 45 N, 15 30 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 78,866 sq km
  water: 1,590 sq km
  land: 77,276 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,881 km
  border countries: Austria 362 km, Germany 646 km, Poland 658 km,
  Slovakia 215 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain:
  Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and plateaus
  surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of very
  hilly country

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Elbe River 115 m
  highest point: Snezka 1,602 m

Natural resources:
  hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite, timber

Land use:
  arable land: 40%
  permanent crops: 3.04%
  other: 56.96% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:
  240 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  flooding

Environment - current issues:
  air and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia and in
  northern Moravia around Ostrava present health risks; acid rain
  damaging forests; efforts to bring industry up to EU code should
  improve domestic pollution

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air
  Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty,
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
  Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
  Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic
  Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol

Geography - note:
  landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most
  significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional
  military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in
  central Europe

People Czech Republic


Population:
  10,249,216 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 15.4% (male 809,697; female 768,747)
  15-64 years: 70.6% (male 3,617,214; female 3,614,060)
  65 years and over: 14% (male 554,922; female 884,576) (2003 est.)

Median age:
  total: 38.4 years
  male: 36.6 years
  female: 40.2 years (2002)

Population growth rate:
  -0.08% (2003 est.)

Birth rate:
  9.01 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate:
  10.74 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 5.37 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 4.87 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
  male: 5.85 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 75.18 years
  male: 71.69 years
  female: 78.87 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.18 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  500 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 10 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Czech(s)
  adjective: Czech

Ethnic groups:
  Czech 81.2%, Moravian 13.2%, Slovak 3.1%, Polish 0.6%, German 0.5%,
  Silesian 0.4%, Roma 0.3%, Hungarian 0.2%, other 0.5% (1991)

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 39.2%, Protestant 4.6%, Orthodox 3%, other 13.4%,
  atheist 39.8%

Languages:
  Czech

Literacy:
  definition: NA
  total population: 99.9% (1999 est.)
  male: NA%
  female: NA%

Government Czech Republic


Country name:
  conventional long form: Czech Republic
  conventional short form: Czech Republic
  local short form: Ceska Republika
  local long form: Ceska Republika

Gov