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´╗┐Title: The 2007 CIA World Factbook
Author: United States. Central Intelligence Agency
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The 2007 CIA World Factbook" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



THE CIA WORLD FACTBOOK 2007



CONTENTS


Countries and Locations

Field Listings

Rank Orders

Appendixes

Notes and Definitions

History of the World Factbook

Contributors and Copyright Information

Purchasing Information

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)



======================================================================


What's New

- Country information has been updated as of 8 February 2007.

- In the Government category, the "Capital" entry has been greatly
expanded and now contains up to four subfields, including significant
new information having to do with time. The subfields consist of the
name of the capital itself, its geographic coordinates, the time
difference at the capital from coordinated universal time (UTC), and,
if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where
appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those
countries that have multiple time zones.

- The Transnational issues category now has a "Trafficking in persons"
entry. Human trafficking connotes modern-day slavery and this important
new field will include information on the most egregious countries
(Tier 2 Watch List and Tier 3) as listed in the US State Department's
annual report.

- A new Appendix G lists Weights and Measures. The appendix includes
information on mathematical notation and metric interrelationships, as
well as over 400 examples of standard conversion factors.

-Revision of some individual country maps, first introduced in the 2001
edition, is continued in this edition. Several regional maps have also
been updated to reflect boundary changes and place name spelling changes.



======================================================================



The World Factbook (2007) - Country Listing


[Transcriber's note: To search on a country in this file, prefix the
country's name with "@", e.g. "@Afghanistan".  "Afghanistan" will find
all occurrences; prefixing it with "@" will find the correct location.]



World


A

Afghanistan
Akrotiri
Albania
Algeria
American Samoa
Andorra
Angola
Anguilla
Antarctica
Antigua and Barbuda
Arctic Ocean
Argentina
Armenia
Aruba
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Atlantic Ocean
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan


B

Bahamas, The
Bahrain
Baker Island description under United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges
Bangladesh
Barbados
Bassas da India description under Iles Eparses
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bermuda
Bhutan
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Bouvet Island
Brazil
British Indian Ocean Territory
British Virgin Islands
Brunei
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burma
Burundi


C

Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Cayman Islands
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Christmas Island
Clipperton Island
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Colombia
Comoros
Congo, Democratic Republic of the
Congo, Republic of the
Cook Islands
Coral Sea Islands
Costa Rica
Cote d'Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic


D

Denmark
Dhekelia
Djibouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic


E

East Timor
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Europa Island description under Iles Eparses
European Union entry follows Taiwan


F

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Faroe Islands
Fiji
Finland
France
French Polynesia
French Southern and Antarctic Lands


G

Gabon
Gambia, The
Gaza Strip
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Gibraltar
Glorioso Islands description under Iles Eparses
Greece
Greenland
Grenada
Guam
Guatemala
Guernsey
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana


H

Haiti
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Holy See (Vatican City)
Honduras
Hong Kong
Howland Island description under United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges
Hungary


I

Iceland
Iles Eparses
India
Indian Ocean
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Ireland
Isle of Man
Israel
Italy


J

Jamaica
Jan Mayen
Japan
Jarvis Island description under United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges
Jersey
Johnston Atoll description under United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges
Jordan
Juan de Nova Island description under Iles Eparses


K

Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kingman Reef description under United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges
Kiribati
Korea, North
Korea, South
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan


L

Laos
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Luxembourg


M

Macau
Macedonia
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Marshall Islands
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mayotte
Mexico
Micronesia, Federated States of
Midway Islands description under United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges
Moldova
Monaco
Mongolia
Montenegro
Montserrat
Morocco
Mozambique


N

Namibia
Nauru
Navassa Island
Nepal
Netherlands
Netherlands Antilles
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Niue
Norfolk Island
Northern Mariana Islands
Norway


O

Oman


P

Pacific Ocean
Pakistan
Palau
Palmyra Atoll description under United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paracel Islands
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Pitcairn Islands
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico


Q

Qatar


R

Romania
Russia
Rwanda


S

Saint Helena
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Samoa
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Southern Ocean
Spain
Spratly Islands
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Svalbard
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria


T

Taiwan entry follows Zimbabwe
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Togo
Tokelau
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tromelin Island description under Iles Eparses
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Turks and Caicos Islands
Tuvalu


U

Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges
Uruguay
Uzbekistan


V

Vanuatu
Venezuela
Vietnam
Virgin Islands


W

Wake Island
Wallis and Futuna
West Bank
Western Sahara


Y

Yemen


Z

Zambia
Zimbabwe



Taiwan
European Union



=====================================================================



Field Listings


[Transcriber's note: To search on a field code in this file, prefix
the code number with "@", e.g. "@2001".  "2001" will find all
occurrences; prefixing it with "@" will find the correct location.]



Code    Field Description

2001    GDP (purchasing power parity)
2002    Population growth rate
2003    GDP - real growth rate
2004    GDP - per capita (PPP)
2006    Dependency status
2007    Diplomatic representation from the US
2008    Transportation - note
2010    Age structure
2011    Geographic coordinates
2012    GDP - composition by sector
2013    Radio broadcast stations
2015    Television broadcast stations
2018    Sex ratio
2019    Heliports
2020    Elevation extremes
2021    Natural hazards
2022    People - note
2023    Area - comparative
2024    Military service age and obligation
2025    Manpower fit for military service
2026    Manpower reaching military service age annually
2028    Background
2030    Airports - with paved runways
2031    Airports - with unpaved runways
2032    Environment - current issues
2033    Environment - international agreements
2034    Military expenditures - percent of GDP
2038    Electricity - production
2042    Electricity - consumption
2043    Electricity - imports
2044    Electricity - exports
2046    Population below poverty line
2047    Household income or consumption by percentage share
2048    Labor force - by occupation
2049    Exports - commodities
2050    Exports - partners
2051    Administrative divisions
2052    Agriculture - products
2053    Airports
2054    Birth rate
2055    Military branches
2056    Budget
2057    Capital
2058    Imports - commodities
2059    Climate
2060    Coastline
2061    Imports - partners
2062    Economic aid - donor
2063    Constitution
2064    Economic aid - recipient
2065    Currency (code)
2066    Death rate
2068    Dependent areas
2070    Disputes - international
2075    Ethnic groups
2076    Exchange rates
2077    Executive branch
2078    Exports
2079    Debt - external
2080    Fiscal year
2081    Flag description
2085    Roadways
2086    Illicit drugs
2087    Imports
2088    Independence
2089    Industrial production growth rate
2090    Industries
2091    Infant mortality rate
2092    Inflation rate (consumer prices)
2093    Waterways
2094    Judicial branch
2095    Labor force
2096    Land boundaries
2097    Land use
2098    Languages
2100    Legal system
2101    Legislative branch
2102    Life expectancy at birth
2103    Literacy
2105    Manpower available for military service
2106    Maritime claims
2107    International organization participation
2108    Merchant marine
2109    National holiday
2110    Nationality
2111    Natural resources
2112    Net migration rate
2113    Geography - note
2115    Political pressure groups and leaders
2116    Economy - overview
2117    Pipelines
2118    Political parties and leaders
2119    Population
2120    Ports and terminals
2121    Railways
2122    Religions
2123    Suffrage
2124    Telephone system
2125    Terrain
2127    Total fertility rate
2128    Government type
2129    Unemployment rate
2137    Military - note
2138    Communications - note
2140    Government - note
2142    Country name
2144    Location
2145    Map references
2146    Irrigated land
2147    Area
2149    Diplomatic representation in the US
2150    Telephones - main lines in use
2151    Telephones - mobile cellular
2153    Internet users
2154    Internet country code
2155    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
2156    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
2157    HIV/AIDS - deaths
2172    Distribution of family income - Gini index
2173    Oil - production
2174    Oil - consumption
2175    Oil - imports
2176    Oil - exports
2177    Median age
2178    Oil - proved reserves
2179    Natural gas - proved reserves
2180    Natural gas - production
2181    Natural gas - consumption
2182    Natural gas - imports
2183    Natural gas - exports
2184    Internet hosts
2185    Investment (gross fixed)
2186    Public debt
2187    Current account balance
2188    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
2193    Major infectious diseases
2194    Refugees and internally displaced persons
2195    GDP (official exchange rate)
2196    Trafficking in persons



=====================================================================



Rank Orders


[Transcriber's note: To search on a rank order in this file, prefix
the rank's name with "@", e.g. "@Population".  "Population" will find
all occurrences; prefixing it with "@" will find the correct location.]



Rank Order pages are presorted lists of data from selected Factbook
data fields. Rank Order pages are generally given in descending order -
highest to lowest - such as Population and Area. The two exceptions are
Unemployment Rate and Inflation Rate, which are in ascending - lowest
to highest - order. Rank Order pages are available for the following 47
fields in six of the nine Factbook categories.


Geography

Area - total


People

Population
Birth rate
Death rate
Infant mortality rate
Life expectancy at birth - total
Total fertility rate
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS - deaths


Economy

GDP (purchasing power parity)
GDP - real growth rate
GDP - per capita
Labor force
Unemployment rate
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
Investment (gross fixed)
Public debt
Industrial production growth rate
Electricity - production
Electricity - consumption
Oil - production
Oil - consumption
Oil - exports
Oil - imports
Oil - proved reserves
Natural Gas - production
Natural Gas - consumption
Natural Gas - exports
Natural Gas - imports
Natural Gas - proved reserves
Current account balance
Exports
Imports
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
Debt - external


Communications

Telephones - main lines in use
Telephones - mobile cellular
Internet hosts
Internet users


Transportation

Airports
Railways - total
Roadways - total
Waterways
Merchant marine - total


Military

Military expenditures - dollar figure
Military expenditures - percent of GDP


Factbook fields with Rank Order pages are easily identified with a
small bar chart icon to the right of the data field title.

Not all Rank Order pages include the same number of entries because
information for a particular field is not available for all countries.
In addition, not all data fields are suitable for displaying as Rank
Order pages, such as those containing textual information. Textual
information is more readily viewed by clicking on the Field Listing
icon next to the Data field title. The other icon next to the data
field title provides the definition of the field.

All of the 'Rank Order' pages can be downloaded as tab-delimited data
files and can be opened in other applications such as spreadsheets and
databases. To save a Rank Order page in a spreadsheet, first click on
the 'Download Datafile' choice above the Rank Order page you selected;
then, at the top of your browser window, click on 'File' and 'Save As'.
After saving the file, open the spreadsheet, find the saved file, and
'Open' it.

Additional Rank Order pages being considered for future updates of the
Factbook Web site include:

Median age
Literacy
Population below the poverty line


This page was last updated on 4 April, 2006



=====================================================================



Appendixes


Appendix A - Abbreviations

Appendix B - International Organizations and Groups

Appendix C - Selected International Environmental Agreements

Appendix D - Cross-Reference list of Country Data Codes

Appendix E - Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data Codes

Appendix F - Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names

Appendix G - Weights and Measures


======================================================================



Notes and Definitions


Along with regular information updates, The World Factbook features
several new or revised fields. In the Government category, the
"Capital" entry has been greatly expanded and now contains up to four
subfields, including significant new information having to do with
time. The subfields consist of the name of the capital itself, its
geographic coordinates, the time difference at the capital from
coordinated universal time (UTC), and, if applicable, information on
daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been
added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones. The
Transnational issues category now has a "Trafficking in persons" entry.
Human trafficking connotes modern-day slavery and this important new
field will include information on the most egregious countries (Tier 2
Watch List and Tier 3) as listed in the US State Department's annual
report.



Abbreviations:  This information is included in Appendix A:
Abbreviations, which includes all abbreviations and acronyms used in
the Factbook, with their expansions.

Acronyms:  An acronym is an abbreviation coined from the initial letter
of each successive word in a term or phrase. In general, an acronym
made up solely from the first letter of the major words in the expanded
form is rendered in all capital letters (NATO from North Atlantic
Treaty Organization; an exception would be ASEAN for Association of
Southeast Asian Nations). In general, an acronym made up of more than
the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered
with only an initial capital letter (Comsat from Communications
Satellite Corporation; an exception would be NAM from Nonaligned
Movement). Hybrid forms are sometimes used to distinguish between
initially identical terms (WTO: for World Trade Organization and WToO
for World Tourism Organization.)

Administrative divisions:  This entry generally gives the numbers,
designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved
by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been
reported but not yet acted on by BGN are noted.

Age structure:  This entry provides the distribution of the population
according to age. Information is included by sex and age group (0-14
years, 15-64 years, 65 years and over). The age structure of a
population affects a nation's key socioeconomic issues. Countries with
young populations (high percentage under age 15) need to invest more in
schools, while countries with older populations (high percentage ages
65 and over) need to invest more in the health sector. The age
structure can also be used to help predict potential political issues.
For example, the rapid growth of a young adult population unable to
find employment can lead to unrest.

Agriculture - products:  This entry is an ordered listing of major
crops and products starting with the most important.

Airports:  This entry gives the total number of airports or airfields
recognizable from the air. The runway(s) may be paved (concrete or
asphalt surfaces) or unpaved (grass, earth, sand, or gravel surfaces)
but may include closed or abandoned installations. Airports or
airfields that are no longer recognizable (overgrown, no facilities,
etc.) are not included. Note that not all airports have accomodations
for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control.

Airports - with paved runways:  This entry gives the total number of
airports with paved runways (concrete or asphalt surfaces) by length.
For airports with more than one runway, only the longest runway is
included according to the following five groups - (1) over 3,047 m, (2)
2,438 to 3,047 m, (3) 1,524 to 2,437 m, (4) 914 to 1,523 m, and (5)
under 914 m. Only airports with usable runways are included in this
listing. Not all airports have facilities for refueling, maintenance,
or air traffic control.

Airports - with unpaved runways:  This entry gives the total number of
airports with unpaved runways (grass, dirt, sand, or gravel surfaces)
by length. For airports with more than one runway, only the longest
runway is included according to the following five groups - (1) over
3,047 m, (2) 2,438 to 3,047 m, (3) 1,524 to 2,437 m, (4) 914 to 1,523
m, and (5) under 914 m. Only airports with usable runways are included
in this listing. Not all airports have facilities for refueling,
maintenance, or air traffic control.

Appendixes:  This section includes Factbook-related material by topic.

Area:  This entry includes three subfields. Total area is the sum of
all land and water areas delimited by international boundaries and/or
coastlines. Land area is the aggregate of all surfaces delimited by
international boundaries and/or coastlines, excluding inland water
bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). Water area is the sum of the
surfaces of all inland water bodies, such as lakes, reservoirs, or
rivers, as delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines.

Area - comparative:  This entry provides an area comparison based on
total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US
or one of the 50 states based on area measurements (1990 revised)
provided by the US Bureau of the Census. The smaller entities are
compared with Washington, DC (178 sq km, 69 sq mi) or The Mall in
Washington, DC (0.59 sq km, 0.23 sq mi, 146 acres).

Background:  This entry usually highlights major historic events and
current issues and may include a statement about one or two key future
trends.

Birth rate:  This entry gives the average annual number of births
during a year per 1,000 persons in the population at midyear; also
known as crude birth rate. The birth rate is usually the dominant
factor in determining the rate of population growth. It depends on both
the level of fertility and the age structure of the population.

Budget:  This entry includes revenues, expenditures, and capital
expenditures. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis,
i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.

Capital:  This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its
geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated
Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if
applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where
appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries
that have multiple time zones.

Climate:  This entry includes a brief description of typical weather
regimes throughout the year.

Coastline:  This entry gives the total length of the boundary between
the land area (including islands) and the sea.

Communications:  This category deals with the means of exchanging
information and includes the telephone, radio, television, and Internet
host entries.

Communications - note:  This entry includes miscellaneous
communications information of significance not included elsewhere.

Constitution:  This entry includes the dates of adoption, revisions,
and major amendments.

Coordinated Universal Time (UTC):  UTC is the international atomic time
scale that serves as the basis of timekeeping for most of the world.
The hours, minutes, and seconds expressed by UTC represent the time of
day at the Prime Meridian (0 deg. longitude) located near Greenwich,
England as reckoned from midnight. UTC is calculated by the Bureau
International des Poids et Measures (BIPM) in Sevres, France. The BIPM
averages data collected from more than 200 atomic time and frequency
standards located at about 50 laboratories worldwide. UTC is the basis
for all civil time with the Earth divided into time zones expressed as
positive or negative differences from UTC. UTC is also referred to as
"Zulu time." See the Standard Time Zones of the World map included with
the Reference Maps.

Country data codes:  see Data codes

Country map:  Most versions of the Factbook provide a country map in
color. The maps were produced from the best information available at
the time of preparation. Names and/or boundaries may have changed
subsequently.

Country name:  This entry includes all forms of the country's name
approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an
example): conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional short
form (Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form
(Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also
see the Terminology note.

Crude oil:  See entry for oil.

Currency (code):  This entry identifies the national medium of exchange
and, in parenthesis, gives the International Organization for
Standardization (ISO) 4217 alphabetic currency code for each country.

Current account balance:  This entry records a country's net trade in
goods and services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits,
and dividends, and net transfer payments (such as pension funds and
worker remittances) to and from the rest of the world during the period
specified. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis,
i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.

Data codes:  This information is presented in Appendix D: Cross-
Reference List of Country Data Codes and Appendix E: Cross-Reference
List of Hydrographic Data Codes.

Date of information:  In general, information available as of 1 January
2007, was used in the preparation of this edition.

Daylight Saving Time (DST):  This entry is included for those entities
that have adopted a policy of adjusting the official local time
forward, usually one hour, from Standard Time during summer months.
Such policies are most common in mid-latitude regions.

Death rate:  This entry gives the average annual number of deaths
during a year per 1,000 population at midyear; also known as crude
death rate. The death rate, while only a rough indicator of the
mortality situation in a country, accurately indicates the current
mortality impact on population growth. This indicator is significantly
affected by age distribution, and most countries will eventually show a
rise in the overall death rate, in spite of continued decline in
mortality at all ages, as declining fertility results in an aging
population.

Debt - external:  This entry gives the total public and private debt
owed to nonresidents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services.
These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in
purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.

Dependency status:  This entry describes the formal relationship
between a particular nonindependent entity and an independent state.

Dependent areas:  This entry contains an alphabetical listing of all
nonindependent entities associated in some way with a particular
independent state.

Diplomatic representation:  The US Government has diplomatic relations
with 188 independent states, including 187 of the 192 UN members
(excluded UN members are Bhutan, Cuba, Iran, North Korea, and the US
itself). In addition, the US has diplomatic relations with 1
independent state that is not in the UN, the Holy See, as well as with
the EU.

Diplomatic representation from the US:  This entry includes the chief
of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX
number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and
consulate locations.

Diplomatic representation in the US:  This entry includes the chief of
mission, chancery, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and
consulate locations.

Disputes - international:  This entry includes a wide variety of
situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to
unilateral claims of one sort or another. Information regarding
disputes over international terrestrial and maritime boundaries has
been reviewed by the US Department of State. References to other
situations involving borders or frontiers may also be included, such as
resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues;
however, inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance
or recognition by the US Government.

Distribution of family income - Gini index:  This index measures the
degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country.
The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative
family income is plotted against the number of families arranged from
the poorest to the richest. The index is the ratio of (a) the area
between a country's Lorenz curve and the 45 degree helping line to (b)
the entire triangular area under the 45 degree line. The more nearly
equal a country's income distribution, the closer its Lorenz curve to
the 45 degree line and the lower its Gini index, e.g., a Scandinavian
country with an index of 25. The more unequal a country's income
distribution, the farther its Lorenz curve from the 45 degree line and
the higher its Gini index, e.g., a Sub-Saharan country with an index of
50. If income were distributed with perfect equality, the Lorenz curve
would coincide with the 45 degree line and the index would be zero; if
income were distributed with perfect inequality, the Lorenz curve would
coincide with the horizontal axis and the right vertical axis and the
index would be 100.

Economic aid - donor:  This entry refers to net official development
assistance (ODA) from Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD) nations to developing countries and multilateral
organizations. ODA is defined as financial assistance that is
concessional in character, has the main objective to promote economic
development and welfare of the less developed countries (LDCs), and
contains a grant element of at least 25%. The entry does not cover
other official flows (OOF) or private flows. These figures are
calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power
parity (PPP) terms.

Economic aid - recipient:  This entry, which is subject to major
problems of definition and statistical coverage, refers to the net
inflow of Official Development Finance (ODF) to recipient countries.
The figure includes assistance from the World Bank, the IMF, and other
international organizations and from individual nation donors. Formal
commitments of aid are included in the data. Omitted from the data are
grants by private organizations. Aid comes in various forms including
outright grants and loans. The entry thus is the difference between new
inflows and repayments. These figures are calculated on an exchange
rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.

Economy:  This category includes the entries dealing with the size,
development, and management of productive resources, i.e., land, labor,
and capital.

Economy - overview:  This entry briefly describes the type of economy,
including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic
development, the most important natural resources, and the unique areas
of specialization. It also characterizes major economic events and
policy changes in the most recent 12 months and may include a statement
about one or two key future macroeconomic trends.

Electricity - consumption:  This entry consists of total electricity
generated annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in
kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity
generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is
accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution.

Electricity - exports:  This entry is the total exported electricity in
kilowatt-hours.

Electricity - imports:  This entry is the total imported electricity in
kilowatt-hours.

Electricity - production:  This entry is the annual electricity
generated expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the
amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed
and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and
distribution.

Elevation extremes:  This entry includes both the highest point and the
lowest point.

Entities:  Some of the independent states, dependencies, areas of
special sovereignty, and governments included in this publication are
not independent, and others are not officially recognized by the US
Government. "Independent state" refers to a people politically
organized into a sovereign state with a definite territory.
"Dependencies" and "areas of special sovereignty" refer to a broad
category of political entities that are associated in some way with an
independent state. "Country" names used in the table of contents or for
page headings are usually the short-form names as approved by the US
Board on Geographic Names and may include independent states,
dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty, or other geographic
entities. There are a total of 268 separate geographic entities in The
World Factbook that may be categorized as follows:

INDEPENDENT STATES

193 Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and
Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The
Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize,
Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil,
Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,
Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China,
Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the
Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, East Timor,
Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia,
Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany,
Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,
Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran,
Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan,
Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,
Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali,
Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated
States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco,
Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger,
Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea,
Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia,
Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia,
Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka,
Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan,
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,
Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay,
Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

OTHER
2 Taiwan, European Union

DEPENDENCIES AND AREAS OF SPECIAL SOVEREIGNTY
6 Australia - Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos
(Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald
Islands, Norfolk Island
2 China - Hong Kong, Macau
2 Denmark - Faroe Islands, Greenland
12 France - Bassas da India*, Clipperton Island, Europa Island*, French
Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands*, Juan
de Nova Island*, Mayotte, New Caledonia, Saint Pierre and Miquelon,
Tromelin Island*, Wallis and Futuna (* consolidated in Iles Eparses
entry)
2 Netherlands - Aruba, Netherlands Antilles
3 New Zealand - Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau
3 Norway - Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard
17 UK - Akrotiri, Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory,
British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Dhekelia, Falkland Islands,
Gibraltar, Guernsey, Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands,
Saint Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and
Caicos Islands
14 US - American Samoa, Baker Island*, Guam, Howland Island*, Jarvis
Island*, Johnston Atoll*, Kingman Reef*, Midway Islands*, Navassa
Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll*, Puerto Rico, Virgin
Islands, Wake Island (* consolidated in United States Pacific Island
Wildlife Refuges entry)

MISCELLANEOUS
6 Antarctica, Gaza Strip, Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands, West Bank,
Western Sahara

OTHER ENTITIES
5 oceans - Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean,
Southern Ocean
1 World

268 total

Environment - current issues:  This entry lists the most pressing and
important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations
are used throughout the entry:

Acidification - the lowering of soil and water pH due to acid
precipitation and deposition usually through precipitation; this
process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows and may kill freshwater fish
and plants dependent on more neutral or alkaline conditions (see acid
rain).

Acid rain - characterized as containing harmful levels of sulfur
dioxide or nitrogen oxide; acid rain is damaging and potentially deadly
to the earth's fragile ecosystems; acidity is measured using the pH
scale where 7 is neutral, values greater than 7 are considered
alkaline, and values below 5.6 are considered acid precipitation; note
- a pH of 2.4 (the acidity of vinegar) has been measured in rainfall in
New England.

Aerosol - a collection of airborne particles dispersed in a gas, smoke,
or fog.

Afforestation - converting a bare or agricultural space by planting
trees and plants; reforestation involves replanting trees on areas that
have been cut or destroyed by fire.

Asbestos - a naturally occurring soft fibrous mineral commonly used in
fireproofing materials and considered to be highly carcinogenic in
particulate form.

Biodiversity - also biological diversity; the relative number of
species, diverse in form and function, at the genetic, organism,
community, and ecosystem level; loss of biodiversity reduces an
ecosystem's ability to recover from natural or man-induced disruption.

Bio-indicators - a plant or animal species whose presence, abundance,
and health reveal the general condition of its habitat.
Biomass - the total weight or volume of living matter in a given area
or volume.

Carbon cycle - the term used to describe the exchange of carbon (in
various forms, e.g., as carbon dioxide) between the atmosphere, ocean,
terrestrial biosphere, and geological deposits.

Catchments - assemblages used to capture and retain rainwater and
runoff; an important water management technique in areas with limited
freshwater resources, such as Gibraltar.

DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane) - a colorless, odorless
insecticide that has toxic effects on most animals; the use of DDT was
banned in the US in 1972.

Defoliants - chemicals which cause plants to lose their leaves
artificially; often used in agricultural practices for weed control,
and may have detrimental impacts on human and ecosystem health.

Deforestation - the destruction of vast areas of forest (e.g.,
unsustainable forestry practices, agricultural and range land clearing,
and the over exploitation of wood products for use as fuel) without
planting new growth.

Desertification - the spread of desert-like conditions in arid or semi-
arid areas, due to overgrazing, loss of agriculturally productive
soils, or climate change.

Dredging - the practice of deepening an existing waterway; also, a
technique used for collecting bottom-dwelling marine organisms (e.g.,
shellfish) or harvesting coral, often causing significant destruction
of reef and ocean-floor ecosystems.

Drift-net fishing - done with a net, miles in extent, that is generally
anchored to a boat and left to float with the tide; often results in an
over harvesting and waste of large populations of non-commercial marine
species (by-catch) by its effect of "sweeping the ocean clean".

Ecosystems - ecological units comprised of complex communities of
organisms and their specific environments.

Effluents - waste materials, such as smoke, sewage, or industrial waste
which are released into the environment, subsequently polluting it.

Endangered species - a species that is threatened with extinction
either by direct hunting or habitat destruction.

Freshwater - water with very low soluble mineral content; sources
include lakes, streams, rivers, glaciers, and underground aquifers.

Greenhouse gas - a gas that "traps" infrared radiation in the lower
atmosphere causing surface warming; water vapor, carbon dioxide,
nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons, and ozone are the primary
greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere.

Groundwater - water sources found below the surface of the earth often
in naturally occurring reservoirs in permeable rock strata; the source
for wells and natural springs.

Highlands Water Project - a series of dams constructed jointly by
Lesotho and South Africa to redirect Lesotho's abundant water supply
into a rapidly growing area in South Africa; while it is the largest
infrastructure project in southern Africa, it is also the most costly
and controversial; objections to the project include claims that it
forces people from their homes, submerges farmlands, and squanders
economic resources.

Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC) - represents the 145,000 Inuits of
Russia, Alaska, Canada, and Greenland in international environmental
issues; a General Assembly convenes every three years to determine the
focus of the ICC; the most current concerns are long-range transport of
pollutants, sustainable development, and climate change.

Metallurgical plants - industries which specialize in the science,
technology, and processing of metals; these plants produce highly
concentrated and toxic wastes which can contribute to pollution of
ground water and air when not properly disposed.

Noxious substances - injurious, very harmful to living beings.
Overgrazing - the grazing of animals on plant material faster than it
can naturally regrow leading to the permanent loss of plant cover, a
common effect of too many animals grazing limited range land.

Ozone shield - a layer of the atmosphere composed of ozone gas (O3)
that resides approximately 25 miles above the Earth's surface and
absorbs solar ultraviolet radiation that can be harmful to living
organisms.

Poaching - the illegal killing of animals or fish, a great concern with
respect to endangered or threatened species.

Pollution - the contamination of a healthy environment by man-made
waste.

Potable water - water that is drinkable, safe to be consumed.

Salination - the process through which fresh (drinkable) water becomes
salt (undrinkable) water; hence, desalination is the reverse process;
also involves the accumulation of salts in topsoil caused by
evaporation of excessive irrigation water, a process that can
eventually render soil incapable of supporting crops.

Siltation - occurs when water channels and reservoirs become clotted
with silt and mud, a side effect of deforestation and soil erosion.

Slash-and-burn agriculture - a rotating cultivation technique in which
trees are cut down and burned in order to clear land for temporary
agriculture; the land is used until its productivity declines at which
point a new plot is selected and the process repeats; this practice is
sustainable while population levels are low and time is permitted for
regrowth of natural vegetation; conversely, where these conditions do
not exist, the practice can have disastrous consequences for the
environment.

Soil degradation - damage to the land's productive capacity because of
poor agricultural practices such as the excessive use of pesticides or
fertilizers, soil compaction from heavy equipment, or erosion of
topsoil, eventually resulting in reduced ability to produce
agricultural products.

Soil erosion - the removal of soil by the action of water or wind,
compounded by poor agricultural practices, deforestation, overgrazing,
and desertification.

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation - a portion of the electromagnetic energy
emitted by the sun and naturally filtered in the upper atmosphere by
the ozone layer; UV radiation can be harmful to living organisms and
has been linked to increasing rates of skin cancer in humans.
Water-born diseases - those in which bacteria survive in, and are
transmitted through, water; always a serious threat in areas with an
untreated water supply.


Environment - international agreements:  This entry separates country
participation in international environmental agreements into two levels
- party to and signed, but not ratified. Agreements are listed in
alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name.

Environmental agreements:  This information is presented in Appendix C:
Selected International Environmental Agreements, which includes the
name, abbreviation, date opened for signature, date entered into force,
objective, and parties by category.

Ethnic groups:  This entry provides an ordered listing of ethnic groups
starting with the largest and normally includes the percent of total
population.

Exchange rates:  This entry provides the official value of a country's
monetary unit at a given date or over a given period of time, as
expressed in units of local currency per US dollar and as determined by
international market forces or official fiat.

Executive branch:  This entry includes several subfields. Chief of
state includes the name and title of the titular leader of the country
who represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but may
not be involved with the day-to-day activities of the government. Head
of government includes the name and title of the top administrative
leader who is designated to manage the day-to-day activities of the
government. For example, in the UK, the monarch is the chief of state,
and the prime minister is the head of government. In the US, the
president is both the chief of state and the head of government.
Cabinet includes the official name for this body of high-ranking
advisers and the method for selection of members. Elections includes
the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last
election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the
percent of vote for each candidate in the last election.

Exports:  This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise
exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are
calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power
parity (PPP) terms.

Exports - commodities:  This entry provides a rank ordering of exported
products starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the
percent of total dollar value.

Exports - partners:  This entry provides a rank ordering of trading
partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the
percent of total dollar value.

Fiscal year:  This entry identifies the beginning and ending months for
a country's accounting period of 12 months, which often is the calendar
year but which may begin in any month. All yearly references are for
the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year
(FY).

Flag description:  This entry provides a written flag description
produced from actual flags or the best information available at the
time the entry was written. The flags of independent states are used by
their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag.
Some disputed and other areas do not have flags.

Flag graphic:  Most versions of the Factbook include a color flag at
the beginning of the country profile. The flag graphics were produced
from actual flags or the best information available at the time of
preparation. The flags of independent states are used by their
dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some
disputed and other areas do not have flags.

GDP (official exchange rate):  This entry gives the gross domestic
product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within
a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at offical exchange rates
(OER) is the home-currency-denominated annual GDP figure divided by the
bilateral average US exchange rate with that country in that year. The
measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value
of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the
economic power an economy maintains vis-a-vis its neighbors, judging
that an exchange rate captures the purchasing power a nation enjoys in
the international marketplace. Official exchange rates, however, can be
artifically fixed and/or subject to manipulation - resulting in claims
of the country having an under- or over-valued currency - and are not
necessarily the equivalent of a market-determined exchange rate.
Moreover, even if the official exchange rate is market-determined,
market exchange rates are frequently established by a relatively small
set of goods and services (the ones the country trades) and may not
capture the value of the larger set of goods the country produces.
Furthermore, OER-converted GDP is not well suited to comparing domestic
GDP over time, since appreciation/depreciation from one year to the
next will make the OER GDP value rise/fall regardless of whether home-
currency-denominated GDP changed.

GDP (purchasing power parity):  This entry gives the gross domestic
product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within
a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity
(PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services
produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United
States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-
capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources
across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar
value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country
regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent
in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US
military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are
based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In
addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World
Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP
estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing
countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official
exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-
denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries
are generally much smaller.

GDP - composition by sector:  This entry gives the percentage
contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP. The
distribution will total less than 100 percent if the data are
incomplete.

GDP - per capita (PPP):  This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power
parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.

GDP - real growth rate:  This entry gives GDP growth on an annual basis
adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent.

GDP methodology:  In the Economy category, GDP dollar estimates for
countries are reported both on an official exchange rate (OER) and a
purchasing power parity (PPP) basis. Both measures contain information
that is useful to the reader. The PPP method involves the use of
standardized international dollar price weights, which are applied to
the quantities of final goods and services produced in a given economy.
The data derived from the PPP method probably provides the best
available starting point for comparisons of economic strength and well-
being between countries. In contrast, the currency exchange rate method
involves a variety of international and domestic financial forces that
may not capture the value of domestic output. Furthermore, exchange
rates may suddenly go up or down by 10% or more because of market
forces or official fiat whereas real output has remained unchanged. On
12 January 1994, for example, the 14 countries of the African Financial
Community (whose currencies are tied to the French franc) devalued
their currencies by 50%. This move, of course, did not cut the real
output of these countries by half. Whereas PPP estimates for OECD
countries are quite reliable, PPP estimates for developing countries
are often rough approximations. In developing countries with weak
currencies, the exchange rate estimate of GDP in dollars is typically
one-fourth to one-half the PPP estimate. Most of the GDP estimates for
developing countries are based on extrapolation of PPP numbers
published by the UN International Comparison Program (UNICP) and by
Professors Robert Summers and Alan Heston of the University of
Pennsylvania and their colleagues. GDP derived using the OER method
should be used for the purpose of calculating the share of items such
as exports, imports, military expenditures, external debt, or the
current account balance, because the dollar values presented in the
Factbook for these items have been converted at official exchange
rates, not at PPP. One should use the OER GDP figure to calculate the
proportion of, say, Chinese defense expenditures in GDP, because that
share will be the same as one calculated in local currency units.
Comparison of OER GDP with PPP GDP may also indicate whether a currency
is over- or under-valued. If OER GDP is smaller than PPP GDP, the
official exchange rate may be undervalued, and vice versa. However,
there is no strong historical evidence that market exchange rates move
in the direction implied by the PPP rate, at least not in the short- or
medium-term. Note: the numbers for GDP and other economic data should
not be chained together from successive volumes of the Factbook because
of changes in the US dollar measuring rod, revisions of data by
statistical agencies, use of new or different sources of information,
and changes in national statistical methods and practices.

GNP:  Gross national product (GNP) is the value of all final goods and
services produced within a nation in a given year, plus income earned
by its citizens abroad, minus income earned by foreigners from domestic
production. The Factbook, following current practice, uses GDP rather
than GNP to measure national production. However, the user must realize
that in certain countries net remittances from citizens working abroad
may be important to national well-being.

GWP:  This entry gives the gross world product (GWP) or aggregate value
of all final goods and services produced worldwide in a given year.

Geographic coordinates:  This entry includes rounded latitude and
longitude figures for the purpose of finding the approximate geographic
center of an entity and is based on the Gazetteer of Conventional
Names, Third Edition, August 1988, US Board on Geographic Names and on
other sources.

Geographic names:  This information is presented in Appendix F: Cross-
Reference List of Geographic Names. It includes a listing of various
alternate names, former names, local names, and regional names
referenced to one or more related Factbook entries. Spellings are
normally, but not always, those approved by the US Board on Geographic
Names (BGN). Alternate names and additional information are included in
parentheses.

Geography:  This category includes the entries dealing with the natural
environment and the effects of human activity.

Geography - note:  This entry includes miscellaneous geographic
information of significance not included elsewhere.

Gini index:  See entry for Distribution of family income - Gini index

Government:  This category includes the entries dealing with the system
for the adoption and administration of public policy.

Government - note:  This entry includes miscellaneous government
information of significance not included elsewhere.


Government type:  This entry gives the basic form of government.
Definitions of the major governmental terms are as follows:

Anarchy - a condition of lawlessness or political disorder brought
about by the absence of governmental authority.

Commonwealth - a nation, state, or other political entity founded on
law and united by a compact of the people for the common good.

Communism - a system of government in which the state plans and
controls the economy and a single - often authoritarian - party holds
power; state controls are imposed with the elimination of private
ownership of property or capital while claiming to make progress toward
a higher social order in which all goods are equally shared by the
people (i.e., a classless society).

Confederacy (Confederation) - a union by compact or treaty between
states, provinces, or territories, that creates a central government
with limited powers; the constituent entities retain supreme authority
over all matters except those delegated to the central government.

Constitutional - a government by or operating under an authoritative
document (constitution) that sets forth the system of fundamental laws
and principles that determines the nature, functions, and limits of
that government.

Constitutional democracy - a form of government in which the sovereign
power of the people is spelled out in a governing constitution.

Constitutional monarchy - a system of government in which a monarch is
guided by a constitution whereby his/her rights, duties, and
responsibilities are spelled out in written law or by custom.

Democracy - a form of government in which the supreme power is retained
by the people, but which is usually exercised indirectly through a
system of representation and delegated authority periodically renewed.

Democratic republic - a state in which the supreme power rests in the
body of citizens entitled to vote for officers and representatives
responsible to them.

Dictatorship - a form of government in which a ruler or small clique
wield absolute power (not restricted by a constitution or laws).

Ecclesiastical - a government administrated by a church.

Emirate - similar to a monarchy or sultanate, but a government in which
the supreme power is in the hands of an emir (the ruler of a Muslim
state); the emir may be an absolute overlord or a sovereign with
constitutionally limited authority.

Federal (Federative) - a form of government in which sovereign power is
formally divided - usually by means of a constitution - between a
central authority and a number of constituent regions (states,
colonies, or provinces) so that each region retains some management of
its internal affairs; differs from a confederacy in that the central
government exerts influence directly upon both individuals as well as
upon the regional units.

Federal republic - a state in which the powers of the central
government are restricted and in which the component parts (states,
colonies, or provinces) retain a degree of self-government; ultimate
sovereign power rests with the voters who chose their governmental
representatives.

Islamic republic - a particular form of government adoped by some
Muslim states; although such a state is, in theory, a theocracy, it
remains a republic, but its laws are required to be compatible with the
laws of Islam.

Maoism - the theory and practice of Marxism-Leninism developed in China
by Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung), which states that a continuous revolution
is necessary if the leaders of a communist state are to keep in touch
with the people.

Marxism - the political, economic, and social principles espoused by
19th century economist Karl Marx; he viewed the struggle of workers as
a progression of historical forces that would proceed from a class
struggle of the proletariat (workers) exploited by capitalists
(business owners), to a socialist "dictatorship of the proletariat,"
to, finally, a classless society - Communism.

Marxism-Leninism - an expanded form of communism developed by Lenin
from doctrines of Karl Marx; Lenin saw imperialism as the final stage
of capitalism and shifted the focus of workers' struggle from developed
to underdeveloped countries.

Monarchy - a government in which the supreme power is lodged in the
hands of a monarch who reigns over a state or territory, usually for
life and by hereditary right; the monarch may be either a sole absolute
ruler or a sovereign - such as a king, queen, or prince - with
constitutionally limited authority.

Oligarchy - a government in which control is exercised by a small group
of individuals whose authority generally is based on wealth or power.
Parliamentary democracy - a political system in which the legislature
(parliament) selects the government - a prime minister, premier, or
chancellor along with the cabinet ministers - according to party
strength as expressed in elections; by this system, the government
acquires a dual responsibility: to the people as well as to the
parliament.

Parliamentary government (Cabinet-Parliamentary government) - a
government in which members of an executive branch (the cabinet and its
leader - a prime minister, premier, or chancellor) are nominated to
their positions by a legislature or parliament, and are directly
responsible to it; this type of government can be dissolved at will by
the parliament (legislature) by means of a no confidence vote or the
leader of the cabinet may dissolve the parliament if it can no longer
function.

Parliamentary monarchy - a state headed by a monarch who is not
actively involved in policy formation or implementation (i.e., the
exercise of sovereign powers by a monarch in a ceremonial capacity);
true governmental leadership is carried out by a cabinet and its head -
a prime minister, premier, or chancellor - who are drawn from a
legislature (parliament).

Republic - a representative democracy in which the people's elected
deputies (representatives), not the people themselves, vote on
legislation.

Socialism - a government in which the means of planning, producing, and
distributing goods is controlled by a central government that
theoretically seeks a more just and equitable distribution of property
and labor; in actuality, most socialist governments have ended up being
no more than dictatorships over workers by a ruling elite.

Sultanate - similar to a monarchy, but a government in which the
supreme power is in the hands of a sultan (the head of a Muslim state);
the sultan may be an absolute ruler or a sovereign with
constitutionally limited authority.

Theocracy - a form of government in which a Deity is recognized as the
supreme civil ruler, but the Deity's laws are interpreted by
ecclesiastical authorities (bishops, mullahs, etc.); a government
subject to religious authority.

Totalitarian - a government that seeks to subordinate the individual to
the state by controlling not only all political and economic matters,
but also the attitudes, values, and beliefs of its population.


Greenwich Mean Time (GMT):  The mean solar time at the Greenwich
Meridian, Greenwich, England, with the hours and days, since 1925,
reckoned from midnight. GMT is now a historical term having been
replaced by UTC on 1 January 1972. See Coordinated Universal Time.

Gross domestic product:  see GDP

Gross national product:  see GNP

Gross world product:  see GWP

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:  This entry gives an estimate of the
percentage of adults (aged 15-49) living with HIV/AIDS. The adult
prevalence rate is calculated by dividing the estimated number of
adults living with HIV/AIDS at yearend by the total adult population at
yearend.

HIV/AIDS - deaths:  This entry gives an estimate of the number of
adults and children who died of AIDS during a given calendar year.

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:  This entry gives an estimate
of all people (adults and children) alive at yearend with HIV
infection, whether or not they have developed symptoms of AIDS.

Heliports:  This entry gives the total number of heliports with hard-
surface runways, helipads, or landing areas that support routine
sustained helicopter operations exclusively and have support facilities
including one or more of the following facilities: lighting, fuel,
passenger handling, or maintenance. It includes former airports used
exclusively for helicopter operations but excludes heliports limited to
day operations and natural clearings that could support helicopter
landings and takeoffs.

Household income or consumption by percentage share:  Data on household
income or consumption come from household surveys, the results adjusted
for household size. Nations use different standards and procedures in
collecting and adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will
normally show a more unequal distribution than surveys based on
consumption. The quality of surveys is improving with time, yet caution
is still necessary in making inter-country comparisons.

Hydrographic data codes:  see Data codes

Illicit drugs:  This entry gives information on the five categories of
illicit drugs - narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives),
hallucinogens, and cannabis. These categories include many drugs
legally produced and prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally
produced and sold outside of medical channels.

Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which provides
hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana
(pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC,
Marinol), hashish (hash), and hashish oil (hash oil).

Coca (mostly Erythroxylum coca) is a bush with leaves that contain the
stimulant used to make cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa,
which comes from cacao seeds and is used in making chocolate, cocoa,
and cocoa butter.

Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush.
Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and
include chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal,
phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone
(Quaalude), glutethimide (Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl,
Valmid).

Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental,
emotional, or behavioral change in an individual.

Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that
results in physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an
individual.

Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking, self-
awareness, and emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid, microdot),
mescaline and peyote (mexc, buttons, cactus), amphetamine variants
(PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust, hog), phencyclidine
analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others (psilocybin, psilocyn).
Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis
sativa).

Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine.

Mandrax is a trade name for methaqualone, a pharmaceutical depressant.
Marijuana is the dried leaf of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis
sativa).

Methaqualone is a pharmaceutical depressant, referred to as mandrax in
Southwest Asia and Africa.

Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer to
opium, opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics
include opium (paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol),
codeine (Tylenol with codeine, Empirin with codeine, Robitussan AC),
and thebaine. Semisynthetic narcotics include heroin (horse, smack),
and hydromorphone (Dilaudid). Synthetic narcotics include meperidine or
Pethidine (Demerol, Mepergan), methadone (Dolophine, Methadose), and
others (Darvon, Lomotil).

Opium is the brown, gummy exudate of the incised, unripe seedpod of the
opium poppy.

Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the source for the natural and
semisynthetic narcotics.

Poppy straw is the entire cut and dried opium poppy-plant material,
other than the seeds. Opium is extracted from poppy straw in commercial
operations that produce the drug for medical use.

Qat (kat, khat) is a stimulant from the buds or leaves of Catha edulis
that is chewed or drunk as tea.

Quaaludes is the North American slang term for methaqualone, a
pharmaceutical depressant.

Stimulants are drugs that relieve mild depression, increase energy and
activity, and include cocaine (coke, snow, crack), amphetamines
(Desoxyn, Dexedrine), ephedrine, ecstasy (clarity, essence, doctor,
Adam), phenmetrazine (Preludin), methylphenidate (Ritalin), and others
(Cylert, Sanorex, Tenuate).


Imports:  This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise
imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on
board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis,
i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.

Imports - commodities:  This entry provides a rank ordering of imported
products starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the
percent of total dollar value.

Imports - partners:  This entry provides a rank ordering of trading
partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the
percent of total dollar value.

Independence:  For most countries, this entry gives the date that
sovereignty was achieved and from which nation, empire, or trusteeship.
For the other countries, the date given may not represent
"independence" in the strict sense, but rather some significant
nationhood event such as the traditional founding date or the date of
unification, federation, confederation, establishment, fundamental
change in the form of government, or state succession. Dependent areas
include the notation "none" followed by the nature of their dependency
status. Also see the Terminology note.

Industrial production growth rate:  This entry gives the annual
percentage increase in industrial production (includes manufacturing,
mining, and construction).

Industries:  This entry provides a rank ordering of industries starting
with the largest by value of annual output.

Infant mortality rate:  This entry gives the number of deaths of
infants under one year old in a given year per 1,000 live births in the
same year; included is the total death rate, and deaths by sex, male
and female. This rate is often used as an indicator of the level of
health in a country.

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  This entry furnishes the annual
percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's
consumer prices.

International disputes:  see Disputes - international

International organization participation:  This entry lists in
alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in
which the subject country is a member or participates in some other
way.

International organizations:  This information is presented in Appendix
B: International Organizations and Groups which includes the name,
abbreviation, date established, aim, and members by category.

Internet country code:  This entry includes the two-letter codes
maintained by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
in the ISO 3166 Alpha-2 list and used by the Internet Assigned Numbers
Authority (IANA) to establish country-coded top-level domains (ccTLDs).

Internet hosts:  This entry lists the number of Internet hosts
available within a country. An Internet host is a computer connected
directly to the Internet; normally an Internet Service Provider's (ISP)
computer is a host. Internet users may use either a hard-wired
terminal, at an institution with a mainframe computer connected
directly to the Internet, or may connect remotely by way of a modem via
telephone line, cable, or satellite to the Internet Service Provider's
host computer. The number of hosts is one indicator of the extent of
Internet connectivity.

Internet users:  This entry gives the number of users within a country
that access the Internet. Statistics vary from country to country and
may include users who access the Internet at least several times a week
to those who access it only once within a period of several months.

Introduction:  This category includes one entry, Background.

Investment (gross fixed):  This entry records total business spending
on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings,
and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future
production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets,
i.e., it includes invesment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped
capital.

Irrigated land:  This entry gives the number of square kilometers of
land area that is artificially supplied with water.

Judicial branch:  This entry contains the name(s) of the highest
court(s) and a brief description of the selection process for members.

Labor force:  This entry contains the total labor force figure.

Labor force - by occupation:  This entry lists the percentage
distribution of the labor force by occupation. The distribution will
total less than 100 percent if the data are incomplete.

Land boundaries:  This entry contains the total length of all land
boundaries and the individual lengths for each of the contiguous border
countries. When available, official lengths published by national
statistical agencies are used. Because surveying methods may differ,
country border lengths reported by contiguous countries may differ.

Land use:  This entry contains the percentage shares of total land area
for three different types of land use: arable land - land cultivated
for crops like wheat, maize, and rice that are replanted after each
harvest; permanent crops - land cultivated for crops like citrus,
coffee, and rubber that are not replanted after each harvest; includes
land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but
excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber; other - any land
not arable or under permanent crops; includes permanent meadows and
pastures, forests and woodlands, built-on areas, roads, barren land,
etc.

Languages:  This entry provides a rank ordering of languages starting
with the largest and sometimes includes the percent of total population
speaking that language.

Legal system:  This entry contains a brief description of the legal
system's historical roots, role in government, and acceptance of
International Court of Justice (ICJ) jurisdiction.

Legislative branch:  This entry contains information on the structure
(unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and
term of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or
accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next
election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number
of seats held by each party in the last election.

Life expectancy at birth:  This entry contains the average number of
years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if
mortality at each age remains constant in the future. The entry
includes total population as well as the male and female components.
Life expectancy at birth is also a measure of overall quality of life
in a country and summarizes the mortality at all ages. It can also be
thought of as indicating the potential return on investment in human
capital and is necessary for the calculation of various actuarial
measures.

Literacy:  This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census
Bureau percentages for the total population, males, and females. There
are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless
otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition
- the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the
standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read
and write is beyond the scope of the Factbook. Information on literacy,
while not a perfect measure of educational results, is probably the
most easily available and valid for international comparisons. Low
levels of literacy, and education in general, can impede the economic
development of a country in the current rapidly changing, technology-
driven world.

Location:  This entry identifies the country's regional location,
neighboring countries, and adjacent bodies of water.

Major infectious diseases:  This entry lists major infectious diseases
likely to be encountered in countries where the risk of such diseases
is assessed to be very high as compared to the United States. These
infectious diseases represent risks to US government personnel
traveling to the specified country for a period of less than three
years. The degree of risk is assessed by considering the foreign nature
of these infectious diseases, their severity, and the probability of
being affected by the diseases present. The diseases listed do not
necessarily represent the total disease burden experienced by the local
population.
The risk to an individual traveler varies considerably by the specific
location, visit duration, type of activities, type of accommodations,
time of year, and other factors. Consultation with a travel medicine
physician is needed to evaluate individual risk and recommend
appropriate preventive measures such as vaccines.
Diseases are organized into the following six exposure categories shown
in italics and listed in typical descending order of risk. Note - The
sequence of exposure categories listed in individual country entries
may vary according to local conditions.

food or waterborne diseases acquired through eating or drinking on the
local economy:

Hepatitis A - viral disease that interferes with the functioning of the
liver; spread through consumption of food or water contaminated with
fecal matter, principally in areas of poor sanitation; victims exhibit
fever, jaundice, and diarrhea; 15% of victims will experience prolonged
symptoms over 6-9 months; vaccine available.

Hepatitis E - water-borne viral disease that interferes with the
functioning of the liver; most commonly spread through fecal
contamination of drinking water; victims exhibit jaundice, fatigue,
abdominal pain, and dark colored urine.

Typhoid fever - bacterial disease spread through contact with food or
water contaminated by fecal matter or sewage; victims exhibit sustained
high fevers; left untreated, mortality rates can reach 20%.

vectorborne diseases acquired through the bite of an infected
arthropod:

Malaria - caused by single-cell parasitic protozoa Plasmodium;
transmitted to humans via the bite of the female Anopheles mosquito;
parasites multiply in the liver attacking red blood cells resulting in
cycles of fever, chills, and sweats accompanied by anemia; death due to
damage to vital organs and interruption of blood supply to the brain;
endemic in 100, mostly tropical, countries with 90% of cases and the
majority of 1.5-2.5 million estimated annual deaths occurring in sub-
Saharan Africa.

Dengue fever - mosquito-borne (Aedes aegypti) viral disease associated
with urban environments; manifests as sudden onset of fever and severe
headache; occasionally produces shock and hemorrhage leading to death
in 5% of cases.

Yellow fever - mosquito-borne viral disease; severity ranges from
influenza-like symptoms to severe hepatitis and hemorrhagic fever;
occurs only in tropical South America and sub-Saharan Africa, where
most cases are reported; fatality rate is less than 20%.

Japanese Encephalitis - mosquito-borne (Culex tritaeniorhynchus) viral
disease associated with rural areas in Asia; acute encephalitis can
progress to paralysis, coma, and death; fatality rates 30%.

African Trypanosomiasis - caused by the parasitic protozoa Trypanosoma;
transmitted to humans via the bite of bloodsucking Tsetse flies;
infection leads to malaise and irregular fevers and, in advanced cases
when the parasites invade the central nervous system, coma and death;
endemic in 36 countries of sub-Saharan Africa; cattle and wild animals
act as reservoir hosts for the parasites.

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis - caused by the parasitic protozoa leishmania;
transmitted to humans via the bite of sandflies; results in skin
lesions that may become chronic; endemic in 88 countries; 90% of cases
occur in Iran, Afghanistan, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Brazil, and Peru; wild
and domesticated animals as well as humans can act as reservoirs of
infection.

Plague - bacterial disease transmitted by fleas normally associated
with rats; person-to-person airborne transmission also possible; recent
plague epidemics occurred in areas of Asia, Africa, and South America
associated with rural areas or small towns and villages; manifests as
fever, headache, and painfully swollen lymph nodes; disease progresses
rapidly and without antibiotic treatment leads to pneumonic form with a
death rate in excess of 50%.

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever - tick-borne viral disease; infection
may also result from exposure to infected animal blood or tissue;
geographic distribution includes Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and
Eastern Europe; sudden onset of fever, headache, and muscle aches
followed by hemorrhaging in the bowels, urine, nose, and gums;
mortality rate is approximately 30%.

Rift Valley fever - viral disease affecting domesticated animals and
humans; transmission is by mosquito and other biting insects; infection
may also occur through handling of infected meat or contact with blood;
geographic distribution includes eastern and southern Africa where
cattle and sheep are raised; symptoms are generally mild with fever and
some liver abnormalities, but the disease may progress to hemorrhagic
fever, encephalitis, or ocular disease; fatality rates are low at about
1% of cases.

Chikungunya - mosquito-borne (Aedes aegypti) viral disease associated
with urban environments, similar to Dengue Fever; characterized by
sudden onset of fever, rash, and severe joint pain usually lasting 3-7
days, some cases result in persistent arthritis.

water contact diseases acquired through swimming or wading in
freshwater lakes, streams, and rivers:

Leptospirosis - bacterial disease that affects animals and humans;
infection occurs through contact with water, food, or soil contaminated
by animal urine; symptoms include high fever, severe headache,
vomiting, jaundice, and diarrhea; untreated, the disease can result in
kidney damage, liver failure, meningitis, or respiratory distress;
fatality rates are low but left untreated recovery can take months.

Schistosomiasis - caused by parasitic trematode flatworm Schistosoma;
fresh water snails act as intermediate host and release larval form of
parasite that penetrates the skin of people exposed to contaminated
water; worms mature and reproduce in the blood vessels, liver, kidneys,
and intestines releasing eggs, which become trapped in tissues
triggering an immune response; may manifest as either urinary or
intestinal disease resulting in decreased work or learning capacity;
mortality, while generally low, may occur in advanced cases usually due
to bladder cancer; endemic in 74 developing countries with 80% of
infected people living in sub-Saharan Africa; humans act as the
reservoir for this parasite.

aerosolized dust or soil contact disease acquired through inhalation of
aerosols contaminated with rodent urine:

Lassa fever - viral disease carried by rats of the genus Mastomys;
endemic in portions of West Africa; infection occurs through direct
contact with or consumption of food contaminated by rodent urine or
fecal matter containing virus particles; fatality rate can reach 50% in
epidemic outbreaks.

respiratory disease acquired through close contact with an infectious
person:

Meningococcal meningitis - bacterial disease causing an inflammation of
the lining of the brain and spinal cord; one of the most important
bacterial pathogens is Neisseria meningitidis because of its potential
to cause epidemics; symptoms include stiff neck, high fever, headaches,
and vomiting; bacteria are transmitted from person to person by
respiratory droplets and facilitated by close and prolonged contact
resulting from crowded living conditions, often with a seasonal
distribution; death occurs in 5-15% of cases, typically within 24-48
hours of onset of symptoms; highest burden of meningococcal disease
occurs in the hyperendemic region of sub-Saharan Africa known as the
"Meningitis Belt" which stretches from Senegal east to Ethiopia.

animal contact disease acquired through direct contact with local
animals:

Rabies - viral disease of mammals usually transmitted through the bite
of an infected animal, most commonly dogs; virus affects the central
nervous system causing brain alteration and death; symptoms initially
are non-specific fever and headache progressing to neurological
symptoms; death occurs within days of the onset of symptoms.


Manpower available for military service:  This entry gives the number
of males and females falling in the military age range for the country
and assumes that every individual is fit to serve.

Manpower fit for military service:  This entry gives the number of
males and females falling in the military age range for the country and
who are not otherwise disqualified for health reasons; accounts for the
health situation in the country and provides a more realistic estimate
of the actual number fit to serve.

Manpower reaching military service age annually:  This entry gives the
number of draft-age males and females entering the military manpower
pool in any given year and is a measure of the availability of draft-
age young adults.

Map references:  This entry includes the name of the Factbook reference
map on which a country may be found. The entry on Geographic
coordinates may be helpful in finding some smaller countries.

Maritime claims:  This entry includes the following claims, the
definitions of which are excerpted from the United Nations Convention
on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which alone contains the full and
definitive descriptions:

territorial sea - the sovereignty of a coastal state extends beyond its
land territory and internal waters to an adjacent belt of sea,
described as the territorial sea in the UNCLOS (Part II); this
sovereignty extends to the air space over the territorial sea as well
as its underlying seabed and subsoil; every state has the right to
establish the breadth of its territorial sea up to a limit not
exceeding 12 nautical miles; the normal baseline for measuring the
breadth of the territorial sea is the low-water line along the coast as
marked on large-scale charts officially recognized by the coastal
state; the UNCLOS describes specific rules for archipelagic states.

contiguous zone - according to the UNCLOS (Article 33), this is a zone
contiguous to a coastal state's territorial sea, over which it may
exercise the control necessary to: prevent infringement of its customs,
fiscal, immigration, or sanitary laws and regulations within its
territory or territorial sea; punish infringement of the above laws and
regulations committed within its territory or territorial sea; the
contiguous zone may not extend beyond 24 nautical miles from the
baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured
(e.g. the US has claimed a 12-nautical mile contiguous zone in addition
to its 12-nautical mile territorial sea).

exclusive economic zone (EEZ) - the UNCLOS (Part V) defines the EEZ as
a zone beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea in which a coastal
state has: sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring and
exploiting, conserving and managing the natural resources, whether
living or non-living, of the waters superjacent to the seabed and of
the seabed and its subsoil, and with regard to other activities for the
economic exploitation and exploration of the zone, such as the
production of energy from the water, currents, and winds; jurisdiction
with regard to the establishment and use of artificial islands,
installations, and structures; marine scientific research; the
protection and preservation of the marine environment; the outer limit
of the exclusive economic zone shall not exceed 200 nautical miles from
the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is
measured.

continental shelf - the UNCLOS (Article 76) defines the continental
shelf of a coastal state as comprising the seabed and subsoil of the
submarine areas that extend beyond its territorial sea throughout the
natural prolongation of its land territory to the outer edge of the
continental margin, or to a distance of 200 nautical miles from the
baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured
where the outer edge of the continental margin does not extend up to
that distance; the continental margin comprises the submerged
prolongation of the landmass of the coastal state, and consists of the
seabed and subsoil of the shelf, the slope and the rise; wherever the
continental margin extends beyond 200 nautical miles from the baseline,
coastal states may extend their claim to a distance not to exceed 350
nautical miles from the baseline or 100 nautical miles from the 2500
meter isobath; it does not include the deep ocean floor with its
oceanic ridges or the subsoil thereof.

exclusive fishing zone - while this term is not used in the UNCLOS,
some states (e.g., the United Kingdom) have chosen not to claim an EEZ,
but rather to claim jurisdiction over the living resources off their
coast; in such cases, the term exclusive fishing zone is often used;
the breadth of this zone is normally the same as the EEZ or 200
nautical miles.


Median age:  This entry is the age that divides a population into two
numerically equal groups; that is, half the people are younger than
this age and half are older. It is a single index that summarizes the
age distribution of a population. Currently, the median age ranges from
a low of about 15 in Uganda and Gaza Strip to 40 or more in several
European countries and Japan. See the entry for "Age structure" for the
importance of a young versus an older age structure and, by
implication, a low versus a higher median age.

Merchant marine:  Merchant marine may be defined as all ships engaged
in the carriage of goods; or all commercial vessels (as opposed to all
nonmilitary ships), which excludes tugs, fishing vessels, offshore oil
rigs, etc. This entry contains information in four fields - total,
ships by type, foreign-owned, and registered in other countries.

Total includes the number of ships (1,000 GRT or over), total DWT for
those ships, and total GRT for those ships. DWT or dead weight tonnage
is the total weight of cargo, plus bunkers, stores, etc., that a ship
can carry when immersed to the appropriate load line. GRT or gross
register tonnage is a figure obtained by measuring the entire sheltered
volume of a ship available for cargo and passengers and converting it
to tons on the basis of 100 cubic feet per ton; there is no stable
relationship between GRT and DWT.

Ships by type includes a listing of barge carriers, bulk cargo ships,
cargo ships, chemical tankers, combination bulk carriers, combination
ore/oil carriers, container ships, liquefied gas tankers, livestock
carriers, multifunctional large-load carriers, petroleum tankers,
passenger ships, passenger/cargo ships, railcar carriers, refrigerated
cargo ships, roll-on/roll-off cargo ships, short-sea passenger ships,
specialized tankers, and vehicle carriers.

Foreign-owned are ships that fly the flag of one country but belong to
owners in another.

Registered in other countries are ships that belong to owners in one
country but fly the flag of another.


Military:  This category includes the entries dealing with a country's
military structure, manpower, and expenditures.

Military - note:  This entry includes miscellaneous military
information of significance not included elsewhere.

Military branches:  This entry lists the service branches subordinate
to defense ministries or the equivalent (typically ground, naval, air,
and marine forces).

Military expenditures - dollar figure:  This entry gives spending on
defense programs in US dollars for the most recent year available;
dollar figures for military expenditures should be treated with caution
because of different price patterns and accounting methods among
nations, as well as wide variations in the strength of different
currencies.

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:  This entry gives spending on
defense programs for the most recent year available as a percent of
gross domestic product (GDP); the GDP is calculated on an exchange rate
basis, i.e., not in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP).

Military service age and obligation:  This entry gives the required
ages for voluntary or conscript military service and the length of
sevice obligation.

Money figures:  All money figures are expressed in contemporaneous US
dollars unless otherwise indicated.

National holiday:  This entry gives the primary national day of
celebration - usually independence day.

Nationality:  This entry provides the identifying terms for citizens -
noun and adjective.

Natural gas - consumption:  This entry is the total natural gas
consumed in cubic meters (cu m). The discrepancy between the amount of
natural gas produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or
exported is due to the omission of stock changes and other complicating
factors.

Natural gas - exports:  This entry is the total natural gas exported in
cubic meters (cu m).

Natural gas - imports:  This entry is the total natural gas imported in
cubic meters (cu m).

Natural gas - production:  This entry is the total natural gas produced
in cubic meters (cu m). The discrepancy between the amount of natural
gas produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is
due to the omission of stock changes and other complicating factors.

Natural gas - proved reserves:  This entry is the stock of proved
reserves of natural gas in cubic meters (cu m). Proved reserves are
those quantities of natural gas, which, by analysis of geological and
engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to
be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known
reservoirs and under current economic conditions.

Natural hazards:  This entry lists potential natural disasters.

Natural resources:  This entry lists a country's mineral, petroleum,
hydropower, and other resources of commercial importance.

Net migration rate:  This entry includes the figure for the difference
between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during the
year per 1,000 persons (based on midyear population). An excess of
persons entering the country is referred to as net immigration (e.g.,
3.56 migrants/1,000 population); an excess of persons leaving the
country as net emigration (e.g., -9.26 migrants/1,000 population). The
net migration rate indicates the contribution of migration to the
overall level of population change. High levels of migration can cause
problems such as increasing unemployment and potential ethnic strife
(if people are coming in) or a reduction in the labor force, perhaps in
certain key sectors (if people are leaving).

Oil - consumption:  This entry is the total oil consumed in barrels per
day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced
and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the
omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating
factors.

Oil - exports:  This entry is the total oil exported in barrels per day
(bbl/day), including both crude oil and oil products.

Oil - imports:  This entry is the total oil imported in barrels per day
(bbl/day), including both crude oil and oil products.

Oil - production:  This entry is the total oil produced in barrels per
day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced
and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the
omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating
factors.

Oil - proved reserves:  This entry is the stock of proved reserves of
crude oil in barrels (bbl). Proved reserves are those quantities of
petroleum which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be
estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially
recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under
current economic conditions.

People:  This category includes the entries dealing with the
characteristics of the people and their society.

People - note:  This entry includes miscellaneous demographic
information of significance not included elsewhere.

Personal Names - Capitalization:  The Factbook capitalizes the surname
or family name of individuals for the convenience of our users who are
faced with a world of different cultures and naming conventions. The
need for capitalization, bold type, underlining, italics, or some other
indicator of the individual's surname is apparent in the following
examples: MAO Zedong, Fidel CASTRO Ruz, George W. BUSH, and TUNKU
SALAHUDDIN Abdul Aziz Shah ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Hisammuddin Alam Shah.
By knowing the surname, a short form without all capital letters can be
used with confidence as in President Castro, Chairman Mao, President
Bush, or Sultan Tunku Salahuddin. The same system of capitalization is
extended to the names of leaders with surnames that are not commonly
used such as Queen ELIZABETH II. For Vietnamese names, the given name
is capitalized because officials are referred to by their given name
rather than by their surname. For example, the president of Vietnam is
Tran Duc LUONG. His surname is Tran, but he is referred to by his given
name - President LUONG.

Personal Names - Spelling:  The romanization of personal names in the
Factbook normally follows the same transliteration system used by the
US Board on Geographic Names for spelling place names. At times,
however, a foreign leader expressly indicates a preference for, or the
media or official documents regularly use, a romanized spelling that
differs from the transliteration derived from the US Government
standard. In such cases, the Factbook uses the alternative spelling.

Personal Names - Titles:  The Factbook capitalizes any valid title (or
short form of it) immediately preceding a person's name. A title
standing alone is not capitalized. Examples: President PUTIN and
President BUSH are chiefs of state. In Russia, the president is chief
of state and the premier is the head of the government, while in the
US, the president is both chief of state and head of government.

Petroleum:  See entries under Oil.

Petroleum products:  See entries under Oil.

Pipelines:  This entry gives the lengths and types of pipelines for
transporting products like natural gas, crude oil, or petroleum
products.

Political parties and leaders:  This entry includes a listing of
significant political organizations and their leaders.

Political pressure groups and leaders:  This entry includes a listing
of organizations with leaders involved in politics, but not standing
for legislative election.

Population:  This entry gives an estimate from the US Bureau of the
Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital statistics
registration systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past
and on assumptions about future trends. The total population presents
one overall measure of the potential impact of the country on the world
and within its region. Note: starting with the 1993 Factbook,
demographic estimates for some countries (mostly African) have
explicitly taken into account the effects of the growing impact of the
HIV/AIDS epidemic. These countries are currently: The Bahamas, Benin,
Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,
Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of
the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guyana, Haiti,
Honduras, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda,
South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, and
Zimbabwe.

Population below poverty line:  National estimates of the percentage of
the population falling below the poverty line are based on surveys of
sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each
group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For
example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of
poverty than poor nations.

Population growth rate:  The average annual percent change in the
population, resulting from a surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths
and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country. The rate
may be positive or negative. The growth rate is a factor in determining
how great a burden would be imposed on a country by the changing needs
of its people for infrastructure (e.g., schools, hospitals, housing,
roads), resources (e.g., food, water, electricity), and jobs. Rapid
population growth can be seen as threatening by neighboring countries.

Ports and terminals:  This entry lists major ports and terminals
primarily on the basis of the amount of cargo tonnage shipped through
the facilities on an annual basis. In some instances, the number of
containers handled or ship visits were also considered.

Public debt:  This entry records the cumulatiive total of all
government borrowings less repayments that are denominated in a
country's home currency. Public debt should not be confused with
external debt, which reflects the foreign currency liabilities of both
the private and public sector and must be financed out of foreign
exchange earnings.

Radio broadcast stations:  This entry includes the total number of AM,
FM, and shortwave broadcast stations.

Railways:  This entry states the total route length of the railway
network and of its component parts by gauge: broad, standard, narrow,
and dual. Other gauges are listed under note.

Reference maps:  This section includes world and regional maps.

Refugees and internally displaced persons:  This entry includes those
persons residing in a country as refugees or internally displaced
persons (IDPs). The definition of a refugee according to a United
Nations Convention is "a person who is outside his/her country of
nationality or habitual residence; has a well-founded fear of
persecution because of his/her race, religion, nationality, membership
in a particular social group or political opinion; and is unable or
unwilling to avail himself/herself of the protection of that country,
or to return there, for fear of persecution." The UN established the
Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in 1950 to
handle refugee matters worldwide. The UN Relief and Works Agency for
Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) has a different,
operational definition for a Palestinian refugee: "a person whose
normal place of residence was Palestine during the period 1 June 1946
to 15 May 1948 and who lost both home and means of livelihood as a
result of the 1948 conflict." However, UNHCR also assists some 400,000
Palestinian refugees not covered under the UNRWA definition. The term
"internally displaced person" is not specifically covered in the UN
Convention; it is used to describe people who have fled their homes for
reasons similar to refugees, but who remain within their own national
territory and are subject to the laws of that state.

Religions:  This entry is an ordered listing of religions by adherents
starting with the largest group and sometimes includes the percent of
total population.

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:  This entry gives the dollar
value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the
central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of
payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This
category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a
country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International
Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund.

Roadways:  This entry gives the total length of the road network and
includes the length of the paved and unpaved portions.

Sex ratio:  This entry includes the number of males for each female in
five age groups - at birth, under 15 years, 15-64 years, 65 years and
over, and for the total population. Sex ratio at birth has recently
emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some
countries. For instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian
countries are now attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide
due to a strong preference for sons. This will affect future marriage
patterns and fertility patterns. Eventually, it could cause unrest
among young adult males who are unable to find partners.

Suffrage:  This entry gives the age at enfranchisement and whether the
right to vote is universal or restricted.

Telephone numbers:  All telephone numbers in The World Factbook consist
of the country code in brackets, the city or area code (where required)
in parentheses, and the local number. The one component that is not
presented is the international access code, which varies from country
to country. For example, an international direct dial telephone call
placed from the US to Madrid, Spain, would be as follows: 011 [34] (1)
577-xxxx, where 011 is the international access code for station-to-
station calls; 01 is for calls other than station-to-station calls,
[34] is the country code for Spain, (1) is the city code for Madrid,
577 is the local exchange, and xxxx is the local telephone number. An
international direct dial telephone call placed from another country to
the US would be as follows: international access code + [1] (202) 939-
xxxx, where [ 1] is the country code for the US, (202) is the area code
for Washington, DC, 939 is the local exchange, and xxxx is the local
telephone number.

Telephone system:  This entry includes a brief general assessment of
the system with details on the domestic and international components.
The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:

Arabsat - Arab Satellite Communications Organization (Riyadh, Saudi
Arabia).

Autodin - Automatic Digital Network (US Department of Defense).

CB - citizen's band mobile radio communications.

Cellular telephone system - the telephones in this system are radio
transceivers, with each instrument having its own private radio
frequency and sufficient radiated power to reach the booster station in
its area (cell), from which the telephone signal is fed to a telephone
exchange.

Central American Microwave System - a trunk microwave radio relay
system that links the countries of Central America and Mexico with each
other.

Coaxial cable - a multichannel communication cable consisting of a
central conducting wire, surrounded by and insulated from a cylindrical
conducting shell; a large number of telephone channels can be made
available within the insulated space by the use of a large number of
carrier frequencies.

Comsat - Communications Satellite Corporation (US).

DSN - Defense Switched Network (formerly Automatic Voice Network or
Autovon); basic general-purpose, switched voice network of the Defense
Communications System (US Department of Defense).

Eutelsat - European Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Paris).
Fiber-optic cable - a multichannel communications cable using a thread
of optical glass fibers as a transmission medium in which the signal
(voice, video, etc.) is in the form of a coded pulse of light.

GSM - a global system for mobile (cellular) communications devised by
the Groupe Special Mobile of the pan-European standardization
organization, Conference Europeanne des Posts et Telecommunications
(CEPT) in 1982.

HF - high frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to 30,000-kHz
range.

Inmarsat - International Maritime Satellite Organization (London);
provider of global mobile satellite communications for commercial,
distress, and safety applications at sea, in the air, and on land.

Intelsat - International Telecommunications Satellite Organization
(Washington, DC).

Intersputnik - International Organization of Space Communications
(Moscow); first established in the former Soviet Union and the East
European countries, it is now marketing its services worldwide with
earth stations in North America, Africa, and East Asia.

Landline - communication wire or cable of any sort that is installed on
poles or buried in the ground.

Marecs - Maritime European Communications Satellite used in the
Inmarsat system on lease from the European Space Agency.

Marisat - satellites of the Comsat Corporation that participate in the
Inmarsat system.

Medarabtel - the Middle East Telecommunications Project of the
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) providing a modern
telecommunications network, primarily by microwave radio relay, linking
Algeria, Djibouti, Egypt, Jordan, Libya, Morocco, Saudi Arabia,
Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen; it was initially started in
Morocco in 1970 by the Arab Telecommunications Union (ATU) and was
known at that time as the Middle East Mediterranean Telecommunications
Network.

Microwave radio relay - transmission of long distance telephone calls
and television programs by highly directional radio microwaves that are
received and sent on from one booster station to another on an optical
path.

NMT - Nordic Mobile Telephone; an analog cellular telephone system that
was developed jointly by the national telecommunications authorities of
the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden).
Orbita - a Russian television service; also the trade name of a packet-
switched digital telephone network.

Radiotelephone communications - the two-way transmission and reception
of sounds by broadcast radio on authorized frequencies using telephone
handsets.

PanAmSat - PanAmSat Corporation (Greenwich, CT).

SAFE - South African Far East Cable

Satellite communication system - a communication system consisting of
two or more earth stations and at least one satellite that provide long
distance transmission of voice, data, and television; the system
usually serves as a trunk connection between telephone exchanges; if
the earth stations are in the same country, it is a domestic system.

Satellite earth station - a communications facility with a microwave
radio transmitting and receiving antenna and required receiving and
transmitting equipment for communicating with satellites.

Satellite link - a radio connection between a satellite and an earth
station permitting communication between them, either one-way (down
link from satellite to earth station - television receive-only
transmission) or two-way (telephone channels).

SHF - super high frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to
30,000-MHz range.

Shortwave - radio frequencies (from 1.605 to 30 MHz) that fall above
the commercial broadcast band and are used for communication over long
distances.

Solidaridad - geosynchronous satellites in Mexico's system of
international telecommunications in the Western Hemisphere.

Statsionar - Russia's geostationary system for satellite
telecommunications.

Submarine cable - a cable designed for service under water.

TAT - Trans-Atlantic Telephone; any of a number of high-capacity
submarine coaxial telephone cables linking Europe with North America.

Telefax - facsimile service between subscriber stations via the public
switched telephone network or the international Datel network.

Telegraph - a telecommunications system designed for unmodulated
electric impulse transmission.

Telex - a communication service involving teletypewriters connected by
wire through automatic exchanges.

Tropospheric scatter - a form of microwave radio transmission in which
the troposphere is used to scatter and reflect a fraction of the
incident radio waves back to earth; powerful, highly directional
antennas are used to transmit and receive the microwave signals;
reliable over-the-horizon communications are realized for distances up
to 600 miles in a single hop; additional hops can extend the range of
this system for very long distances.

Trunk network - a network of switching centers, connected by
multichannel trunk lines.

UHF - ultra high frequency; any radio frequency in the 300- to 3,000-
MHz range.

VHF - very high frequency; any radio frequency in the 30- to 300-MHz
range.


Telephones - main lines in use:  This entry gives the total number of
main telephone lines in use.

Telephones - mobile cellular:  This entry gives the total number of
mobile cellular telephone subscribers.

Television broadcast stations:  This entry gives the total number of
separate broadcast stations plus any repeater stations.

Terminology:  Due to the highly structured nature of the Factbook
database, some collective generic terms have to be used. For example,
the word Country in the Country name entry refers to a wide variety of
dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, uninhabited islands, and
other entities in addition to the traditional countries or independent
states. Military is also used as an umbrella term for various civil
defense, security, and defense activities in many entries. The
Independence entry includes the usual colonial independence dates and
former ruling states as well as other significant nationhood dates such
as the traditional founding date or the date of unification,
federation, confederation, establishment, or state succession that are
not strictly independence dates. Dependent areas have the nature of
their dependency status noted in this same entry.

Terrain:  This entry contains a brief description of the topography.

Time Difference:  This entry is expressed in The World Factbook in two
ways. First, it is stated as the difference in hours between the
capital of an entity and Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) during
Standard Time. Additionally, the difference in time between the capital
of an entity and that observed in Washington, D.C. is also provided.
Note that the time difference assumes both locations are simultaneously
observing Standard Time or Daylight Saving Time.

Time zones:  Ten countries (Australia, Brazil, Canada, Indonesia,
Kazakhstan, Mexico, New Zealand, Russia, Spain, and the United States)
and the island of Greenland observe more than one official time
depending on the number of designated time zones within their
boundaries. An illustration of time zones throughout the world and
within countries can be seen in the Standard Time Zones of the World
map included in the Reference Maps section of The World Factbook.

Total fertility rate:  This entry gives a figure for the average number
of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end
of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given
fertility rate at each age. The total fertility rate (TFR) is a more
direct measure of the level of fertility than the crude birth rate,
since it refers to births per woman. This indicator shows the potential
for population change in the country. A rate of two children per woman
is considered the replacement rate for a population, resulting in
relative stability in terms of total numbers. Rates above two children
indicate populations growing in size and whose median age is declining.
Higher rates may also indicate difficulties for families, in some
situations, to feed and educate their children and for women to enter
the labor force. Rates below two children indicate populations
decreasing in size and growing older. Global fertility rates are in
general decline and this trend is most pronounced in industrialized
countries, especially Western Europe, where populations are projected
to decline dramatically over the next 50 years.

Trafficking in persons:  Trafficking in persons is modern-day slavery,
involving victims who are forced, defrauded, or coerced into labor or
sexual exploitation. The International Labor Organization (ILO), the UN
agency charged with addressing labor standards, employment, and social
protection issues, estimates that 12.3 million people worldwide are
enslaved in forced labor, bonded labor, forced child labor, sexual
servitude, and involuntary servitude at any given time. Human
trafficking is a multi-dimensional threat, depriving people of their
human rights and freedoms, risking global health, promoting social
breakdown, inhibiting development by depriving countries of their human
capital, and helping fuel the growth of organized crime. In 2000, the
US Congress passed the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA),
reauthorized in 2003 and 2005, which provides tools for the US to
combat trafficking in persons, both domestically and abroad. One of the
law's key components is the creation of the US Department of State's
annual Trafficking in Persons Report, which assesses the government
response in some 150 countries with a significant number of victims
trafficked across their borders who are recruited, harbored,
transported, provided, or obtained for forced labor or sexual
exploitation. Countries in the annual report are rated in three tiers,
based on government efforts to combat trafficking. The countries
identified in this entry are those listed in the 2006 Trafficking in
Persons Report as Tier 2 Watch List or Tier 3 based on the following
definitions:

Tier 2 Watch List countries do not fully comply with the minimum
standards for the elimination of trafficking but are making significant
efforts to do so, and meet one of the following criteria:

1. they display a high or significantly increasing number victims,

2. they have failed to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat
trafficking in persons, or,

3. they have committed to take action over the next year.

Tier 3 countries neither satisfy the minimum standards for the
elimination of trafficking nor demonstrate a significant effort to do
so. Countries in this tier are subject to potential non-humanitarian
and non-trade sanctions.

Transnational issues:  This category includes four entries - Disputes -
international, Refugees and internally displaced persons, Trafficking
in persons, and Illicit drugs - that deal with current issues going
beyond national boundaries.

Transportation:  This category includes the entries dealing with the
means for movement of people and goods.

Transportation - note:  This entry includes miscellaneous
transportation information of significance not included elsewhere.

UTC (Coordinated Universal Time):  See entry for Coordinated Universal
Time.

Unemployment rate:  This entry contains the percent of the labor force
that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted.

Waterways:  This entry gives the total length of navigable rivers,
canals, and other inland bodies of water.

Weights and Measures:  This information is presented in Appendix G:
Weights and Measures and includes mathematical notations (mathematical
powers and names), metric interrelationships (prefix; symbol; length,
weight, or capacity; area; volume), and standard conversion factors.

Years:  All year references are for the calendar year (CY) unless
indicated as fiscal year (FY). The calendar year is an accounting
period of 12 months from 1 January to 31 December. The fiscal year is
an accounting period of 12 months other than 1 January to 31 December.


Note: Information for the US and US dependencies was compiled from
material in the public domain and does not represent Intelligence
Community estimates.


This page was last updated on 8 February 2007



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CIA - The World Factbook -- History


A Brief History of Basic Intelligence and The World Factbook

The Intelligence Cycle is the process by which information is
acquired, converted into intelligence, and made available to
policymakers. Information is raw data from any source, data that may
be fragmentary, contradictory, unreliable, ambiguous, deceptive, or
wrong. Intelligence is information that has been collected,
integrated, evaluated, analyzed, and interpreted. Finished
intelligence is the final product of the Intelligence Cycle ready to
be delivered to the policymaker.

The three types of finished intelligence are: basic, current, and
estimative. Basic intelligence provides the fundamental and factual
reference material on a country or issue. Current intelligence
reports on new developments. Estimative intelligence judges probable
outcomes. The three are mutually supportive: basic intelligence is
the foundation on which the other two are constructed; current
intelligence continually updates the inventory of knowledge; and
estimative intelligence revises overall interpretations of country
and issue prospects for guidance of basic and current intelligence.
The World Factbook, The President's Daily Brief, and the National
Intelligence Estimates are examples of the three types of finished
intelligence.

The United States has carried on foreign intelligence activities
since the days of George Washington but only since World War II have
they been coordinated on a government-wide basis. Three programs
have highlighted the development of coordinated basic intelligence
since that time: (1 ) the Joint Army Navy Intelligence Studies
(JANIS), (2 ) the National Intelligence Survey (NIS), and (3) The
World Factbook.

During World War II, intelligence consumers realized that the
production of basic intelligence by different components of the US
Government resulted in a great duplication of effort and conflicting
information. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 brought
home to leaders in Congress and the executive branch the need for
integrating departmental reports to national policymakers. Detailed
and coordinated information was needed not only on such major powers
as Germany and Japan, but also on places of little previous
interest. In the Pacific Theater, for example, the Navy and Marines
had to launch amphibious operations against many islands about which
information was unconfirmed or nonexistent. Intelligence authorities
resolved that the United States should never again be caught
unprepared.

In 1943, Gen. George B. Strong (G-2), Adm. H. C. Train (Office of
Naval Intelligence - ONI), and Gen. William J. Donovan (Director of
the Office of Strategic Services - OSS) decided that a joint effort
should be initiated. A steering committee was appointed on 27 April
1943 that recommended the formation of a Joint Intelligence Study
Publishing Board to assemble, edit, coordinate, and publish the
Joint Army Navy Intelligence Studies (JANIS). JANIS was the first
interdepartmental basic intelligence program to fulfill the needs of
the US Government for an authoritative and coordinated appraisal of
strategic basic intelligence. Between April 1943 and July 1947, the
board published 34 JANIS studies. JANIS performed well in the war
effort, and numerous letters of commendation were received,
including a statement from Adm. Forrest Sherman, Chief of Staff,
Pacific Ocean Areas, which said, "JANIS has become the indispensable
reference work for the shore-based planners."

The need for more comprehensive basic intelligence in the postwar
world was well expressed in 1946 by George S. Pettee, a noted author
on national security. He wrote in The Future of American Secret
Intelligence (Infantry Journal Press, 1946, page 46) that world
leadership in peace requires even more elaborate intelligence than
in war. "The conduct of peace involves all countries, all human
activities - not just the enemy and his war production."

The Central Intelligence Agency was established on 26 July 1947 and
officially began operating on 18 September 1947. Effective 1 October
1947, the Director of Central Intelligence assumed operational
responsibility for JANIS. On 13 January 1948, the National Security
Council issued Intelligence Directive (NSCID) No. 3, which
authorized the National Intelligence Survey (NIS) program as a
peacetime replacement for the wartime JANIS program. Before adequate
NIS country sections could be produced, government agencies had to
develop more comprehensive gazetteers and better maps. The US Board
on Geographic Names (BGN) compiled the names; the Department of the
Interior produced the gazetteers; and CIA produced the maps.
The Hoover Commission's Clark Committee, set up in 1954 to study the
structure and administration of the CIA, reported to Congress in
1955 that: "The National Intelligence Survey is an invaluable
publication which provides the essential elements of basic
intelligence on all areas of the world. There will always be a
continuing requirement for keeping the Survey up-to-date." The
Factbook was created as an annual summary and update to the
encyclopedic NIS studies. The first classified Factbook was
published in August 1962, and the first unclassified version was
published in June 1971. The NIS program was terminated in 1973
except for the Factbook, map, and gazetteer components. The 1975
Factbook was the first to be made available to the public with sales
through the US Government Printing Office (GPO). The Factbook was
first made available on the Internet in June 1997. The year 2007
marks the 60th anniversary of the establishment of the Central
Intelligence Agency and the 64th year of continuous basic
intelligence support to the US Government by The World Factbook and
its two predecessor programs.


The Evolution of The World Factbook

National Basic Intelligence Factbook produced semiannually until
1980. Country entries include sections on Land, Water, People,
Government, Economy, Communications, and Defense Forces.

1981 - Publication becomes an annual product and is renamed The
World Factbook. A total of 165 nations are covered on 225 pages.

1983 - Appendices (Conversion Factors, International Organizations)
first introduced.

1984 - Appendices expanded; now include: A. The United Nations, B.
Selected United Nations Organizations, C. Selected International
Organizations, D. Country Membership in Selected Organizations, E.
Conversion Factors.

1987 - A new Geography section replaces the former separate Land and
Water sections. UN Organizations and Selected International
Organizations appendices merged into a new International
Organizations appendix. First multi-color-cover Factbook.

1988 - More than 40 new geographic entities added to provide
complete world coverage without overlap or omission. Among the new
entities are Antarctica, oceans (Arctic, Atlantic, Indian, Pacific),
and the World. The front-of-the-book explanatory introduction
expanded and retitled to Notes, Definitions, and Abbreviations. Two
new Appendices added: Weights and Measures (in place of Conversion
Factors) and a Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names. Factbook
size reaches 300 pages.

1989 - Economy section completely revised and now includes an
Overview briefly describing a country's economy. New entries added
under People, Government, and Communications.

1990 - The Government section revised and considerably expanded with
new entries.

1991 - A new International Organizations and Groups appendix added.
Factbook size reaches 405 pages.

1992 - Twenty new successor state entries replace those of the
Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. New countries are respectively:
Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan,
Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan,
Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan; and Bosnia and Hercegovina,
Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovenia. Number of
nations in the Factbook rises to 188.

1993 - Czechoslovakia's split necessitates new Czech Republic and
Slovakia entries. New Eritrea entry added after it secedes from
Ethiopia. Substantial enhancements made to Geography section.

1994 - Two new appendices address Selected International
Environmental Agreements. The gross domestic product (GDP) of most
developing countries changed to a purchasing power parity (PPP)
basis rather than an exchange rate basis. Factbook size up to 512
pages.

1995 - The GDP of all countries now presented on a PPP basis. New
appendix lists estimates of GDP on an exchange rate basis.
Communications category split; Railroads, Highways, Inland
waterways, Pipelines, Merchant marine, and Airports entries now make
up a new Transportation category. The World Factbook is first
produced on CD-ROM.

1996 - Maps accompanying each entry now present more detail. Flags
also introduced for nearly all entities. Various new entries appear
under Geography and Communications. Factbook abbreviations
consolidated into a new Appendix A. Two new appendices present a
Cross-Reference List of Country Data Codes and a Cross-Reference
List of Hydrogeographic Data Codes. Geographic coordinates added to
Appendix H, Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names. Factbook size
expands by 95 pages in one year to reach 652.

1997 - A special edition for the CIA's 50 th anniversary. A schema
or Guide to Country Profiles introduced. New color maps and flags
now accompany each country profile. Category headings distinguished
by shaded backgrounds. Number of categories expanded to nine - the
current number - with the addition of an Introduction (for only a
few countries) and Transnational Issues (which includes
Disputes-international and Illicit drugs). The World Factbook
introduced onto the Internet.

1998 - The Introduction category with two entries, Current issues
and Historical perspective, expanded to more countries. Last year
for the production of CD-ROM versions of the Factbook.

1999 - Historical perspective and Current issues entries in the
Introduction category combined into a new Background statement.
Several new Economy entries introduced. A new physical map of the
world added to the back-of-the-book reference maps.

2000 - A new "country profile" added on the Southern Ocean. The
Background statements dramatically expanded to over 200 countries
and possessions. A number of new Communications entries added.

2001 - Background entries completed for all 267 entities in the
Factbook. Several new HIV/AIDS entries introduced under the People
category. Revision begun on individual country maps to include
elevation extremes and a partial geographic grid. Weights and
Measures appendix deleted.

2002 - New entry on Distribution of Family income - Gini index
added. Revision of individual country maps continued (process still
ongoing as of 2007).

2003 - In the Economy category, petroleum entries added for oil
production, consumption, exports, imports, and proved reserves, as
well as natural gas proved reserves.

2004 - Additional petroleum entries included for natural gas
production, consumption, exports, and imports. In the Transportation
category, under Merchant marine, subfields added for foreign-owned
vessels and those registered in other countries. Descriptions of the
many forms of government mentioned in the Factbook incorporated into
the Notes and Definitions.

2005 - In the People category, a Major infectious diseases field
added for countries deemed to pose a higher risk for travelers. In
the Economy category, entries included for Current account balance,
Investment, Public debt, and Reserves of foreign exchange and gold.
The Transnational issues category expanded to include Refugees and
internally displaced persons. Category headings receive distinctive
colored backgrounds. These distinguishing colors are used in both
the printed and online versions of the Factbook. Size of the printed
Factbook reaches 702 pages.

2006 - In the Economy category, national GDP figures now presented
at Official Exchange Rates (OER) in addition to GDP at purchasing
power parity (PPP).

2007 - In the Government category, the Capital entry significantly
expanded with up to four subfields, including new information having
to do with time. The subfields consist of the name of the capital
itself, its geographic coordinates, the time difference at the
capital from coordinated universal time (UTC), and, if applicable,
information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a
special note is added to highlight those countries with multiple
time zones. A Trafficking in persons entry added to the
Transnational issues category. A new appendix, Weights and Measures,
(re)introduced to the online version of the Factbook.



=====================================================================



CIA - The World Factbook -- Contributors and Copyright Information


The World Factbook is prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency
for the use of US Government officials, and the style, format,
coverage, and content are designed to meet their specific
requirements. Information is provided by Antarctic Information
Program (National Science Foundation), Armed Forces Medical
Intelligence Center (Department of Defense), Bureau of the Census
(Department of Commerce), Bureau of Labor Statistics (Department of
Labor), Central Intelligence Agency, Council of Managers of National
Antarctic Programs, Defense Intelligence Agency (Department of
Defense), Department of Energy, Department of State, Fish and
Wildlife Service (Department of the Interior), Maritime
Administration (Department of Transportation), National
Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (Department of Defense), Naval
Facilities Engineering Command (Department of Defense), Office of
Insular Affairs (Department of the Interior), Office of Naval
Intelligence (Department of Defense), US Board on Geographic Names
(Department of the Interior), US Transportation Command (Department
of Defense), Oil & Gas Journal, and other public and private sources.

The Factbook is in the public domain. Accordingly, it may be copied
freely without permission of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
The official seal of the CIA, however, may NOT be copied without
permission as required by the CIA Act of 1949 (50 U.S.C. section
403m).  Misuse of the official seal of the CIA could result in civil
and criminal penalties.

Comments and queries are welcome and may be addressed to:

Central Intelligence Agency
Attn.: Office of Public Affairs
Washington, DC 20505
Hours: Monday-Friday 8:00 AM-4:30 PM Eastern Standard Time
Telephone: [1] (703) 482-0623
FAX: [1] (703) 482-1739



=====================================================================



CIA - The World Factbook -- Purchasing Information


The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) publishes The World Factbook
in printed and Internet versions. US Government officials may obtain
information about availability of the Factbook from their
organizations or through liaison channels to the CIA. Other users
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The World Factbook can be accessed on the Internet at:
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=====================================================================



CIA - The World Factbook -- FAQs


Frequently Asked Questions

The World Factbook staff thanks you for your comments, suggestions,
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Answers to many frequently asked questions (FAQs) are explained in
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answer other common questions. Select from the following categories
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General
Geography
Spelling and Pronunciation
Policies and Procedures
Technical


General

Can you provide additional information for a specific country?
The staff cannot provide data beyond what appears in The World
Factbook. The format and information in the Factbook are tailored to
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focused on their current and anticipated needs. The staff welcomes
suggestions for new entries.

How often is The World Factbook updated?
Formerly our Web site (and the published Factbook) were only updated
annually. Beginning in November 2001 we instituted a new system of
more frequent online updates. The World Factbook is currently
updated every two weeks.

The annual printed version of the Factbook is usually released about
midyear. US Government officials may obtain information about
Factbook availability from their own organizations or through
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information through the following channels:

Superintendent of Documents
P. O. Box 371954 Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954
Telephone: [1] (202) 512-1800
FAX: [1] (202) 512-2250
http://bookstore.gpo.gov

National Technical Information Service
5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22161
Telephone: [1] (800) 553-6847 (only in the US);
[1] (703) 605-6000 (for outside US)
FAX: [1] (703) 605-6900
http://www.ntis.gov

Can I use some or all of The World Factbook for my Web site (book,
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The World Factbook is in the public domain and may be used freely by
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Why doesn't The World Factbook include information on states,
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The World Factbook provides national-level information on countries,
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units within a country. A good encyclopedia should provide
state/province-level information.

Is it possible to access older editions of The World Factbook to do
comparative research and trend analysis?

Previous versions of the Factbook, beginning with the 2000 edition,
are available for downloading - but not browsing - on the CIA Web
site. Hardcopy editions for earlier years are available from
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Would it be possible to set up a partnership or collaboration
between the producers of The World Factbook and other organizations
or individuals?

The World Factbook does not partner with other organizations or
individuals, but we do welcome comments and suggestions that such
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Geography

I can't find a geographic name for a particular country. Why not?

The World Factbook is not a gazetteer (a dictionary or index of
places, usually with descriptive or statistical information) and
cannot provide more than the names of the administrative divisions
(in the Government category) and major cities/towns (on the country
maps). Our expanded Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names,
however, includes many of the world's major geographic features as
well as historic (former) names of countries and cities mentioned in
The World Factbook.

Why are Taiwan and the European Union listed out of alphabetical
order at the end of the Factbook entries?

Taiwan is listed after the regular entries because even though the
mainland People's Republic of China claims Taiwan, elected Taiwanese
authorities de facto administer the island and reject mainland
sovereignty claims. With the establishment of diplomatic relations
with China on January 1, 1979, the US Government recognized the
People's Republic of China as the sole legal government of China,
acknowledging the Chinese position that there is only one China and
that Taiwan is part of China.

The European Union (EU) is not a country, but it has taken on many
nation-like attributes and these are likely to be expanded in the
future. A more complete explanation on the inclusion of the EU into
the Factbook may be found in the Preliminary statement.

Since we have an ambassador who represents the US at the Vatican,
why is this entity not listed in the Factbook?

Vatican City is found under Holy See. The term "Holy See" refers to
the authority, jurisdiction, and sovereignty vested in the Pope and
his advisors to direct the worldwide Catholic Church. The Holy See
has a legal personality that allows it to enter into treaties as the
juridical equal of a state and to send and receive diplomatic
representatives. Vatican City, created in 1929 to administer
properties belonging to the Holy See in Rome, is recognized under
international law as a sovereign state, but it does not send or
receive diplomatic representatives. Consequently, Holy See is
included as a Factbook entry, with Vatican City cross-referenced in
the Geographic Names appendix.

Why is Palestine not listed in The World Factbook?

The areas that could potentially form a future Palestinian state --
the West Bank and Gaza Strip -- do appear in the Factbook. These
areas are presently Israeli-occupied with current status subject to
the Israeli-Palestinian 1995 Interim Agreement; their permanent
status is to be determined through further negotiation.

Why are the Golan Heights not shown as part of Israel or Northern
Cyprus with Turkey?

Territorial occupations/annexations not recognized by the United
States Government are not shown on US Government maps.

Why don't you include information on entities such as Tibet,
Kashmir, or Kosovo?

The World Factbook provides information on the administrative
divisions of a country as recommended by the United States Board on
Geographic Names (BGN). The BGN is a component of the US Government
that develops policies, principles, and procedures governing the
spelling, use, and application of geographic names--domestic,
foreign, Antarctic, and undersea. Its decisions enable all
departments and agencies of the US Government to have access to
uniform names of geographic features.

Also included in the Factbook are entries on parts of the world
whose status has not yet been resolved (e.g., West Bank, Spratly
Islands). Specific regions within a country or areas in dispute
among countries are not covered.

What do you mean when you say that a country is "doubly landlocked"?
A doubly landlocked country is one that is separated from an ocean
or an ocean-accessible sea by two intervening countries. Uzbekistan
and Liechtenstein are the only countries that fit this definition.

Why is the area of the United States described as "slightly larger
than China" in the Factbook, while other sources list China as
larger in area than the United States?

It all depends on whether one is looking at total area (land and
water) when making the comparison (which is the criterion used by
the Factbook) or just land area (which excludes inland water
features such as rivers or lakes).

Total area (combining land and water)

United States = 9,631,418 sq km
China = 9,596,960 sq km

Land only (without any water features)

United States = 9,161,923 sq km
China = 9,326,410 sq km

Why has The World Factbook dropped the four French departments of
Guadeloupe, Martinique, Reunion, and French Guiana?

The reason the four entities are no longer in The World Factbook is
because their status has changed. While they are overseas
departments of France, they are also now recognized as French
regions, having equal status to the 22 metropolitan regions that
make up European France. In other words, they are now recognized as
being part of France proper. Their status is somewhat analogous to
Alaska and Hawaii vis-a-vis the contiguous United States. Although
separated from the larger geographic entity, they are still
considered to be an integral part of it.


Spelling and Pronunciation

Why is the spelling of proper names such as rulers, presidents, and
prime ministers in The World Factbook different than their spelling
in my country?

The Factbook staff applies the names and spellings from the Chiefs
of State link on the CIA Web site. The World Factbook is prepared
using the standard American English computer keyboard and does not
use any special characters, symbols, or most diacritical markings in
its spellings. Surnames are always spelled with capital letters;
they may appear first in some cultures.

The spelling of geographic names, features, cities, administrative
divisions, etc. in the Factbook differs from those used in my
country. Why is this?

The United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) recommends and
approves names and spellings. The BGN is the component of the United
States Government that develops policies, principles, and procedures
governing the spelling, use, and application of geographic
names--domestic, foreign, Antarctic, and undersea. Its decisions
enable all departments and agencies of the US Government to use
uniform names of geographic features. (A note is usually included
where changes may have occurred but have not yet been approved by
the BGN). The World Factbook is prepared using the standard American
English computer keyboard and does not use any special characters,
symbols, or most diacritical markings in its spellings.

Why doesn't The World Factbook include pronunciations of country or
leader names?

There are too many variations in pronunciation among
English-speaking countries, not to mention English renditions of
non-English names, for pronunciations to be included. American
English pronunciations are included for some countries like Qatar
and Kiribati.

Why is the name of the Labour party misspelled?

When American and British spellings of common English words differ,
The World Factbook always uses the American spelling, even when
these common words form part of a proper name in British English.


Policies and Procedures

What is The World Factbook's source for a specific subject field?

The Factbook staff uses many different sources to publish what we
judge are the most reliable and consistent data for any particular
category. Space considerations preclude a listing of these various
sources.

The names of some geographic features provided in the Factbook
differ from those used in other publications. For example, in Asia
the Factbook has Burma as the country name, but in other
publications Myanmar is used; also, the Factbook uses Sea of Japan
whereas other publications label it East Sea. What is your policy on
naming geographic features?

The Factbook staff follows the guidance of the United States Board
on Geographic Names (BGN). The BGN is the component of the United
States Government that develops policies, principles, and procedures
governing the spelling, use, and application of geographic
names--domestic, foreign, Antarctic, and undersea. Its decisions
enable all departments and agencies of the US Government to have
access to uniform names of geographic features. The position of the
BGN is that the names Burma and Sea of Japan be used in official US
Government maps and publications.

Why is most of the statistical information in the Factbook given in
metric units, rather than the units standard to US measure?

US Federal agencies are required by the Metric Conversion Act of
1975 (Public Law 94-168) and by Executive Order 12770 of July 1991
to use the International System of Units, commonly referred to as
the metric system or SI. In addition, the metric system is used by
over 95 percent of the world's population.

Why don't you include information on minimum and maximum temperature
extremes?

The Factbook staff judges that this information would only be useful
for some (generally smaller) countries. Larger countries can have
large temperature extremes that do not represent the landmass as a
whole. In the future, such a category may be adopted listing the
extremes, but also adding a normal temperature range found
throughout most of a country's territory.

What information sources are used for the country flags?

Flag designs used in The World Factbook are those recognized by the
protocol office of the US Department of State.

Why do your GDP (Gross Domestic Product) statistics differ from
other sources?

We have two sets of GDP dollar estimates in The World Factbook, one
derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations and the
other derived using official exchange rates (OER). Other sources
probably use one of the two. See the Notes and Definitions section
on GDP and GDP methodology for more information.

On the CIA Web site, Chiefs of State is updated weekly, but the last
update for the Factbook was an earlier date. Why the discrepancy?

Although Chiefs of State and The World Factbook both appear on the
CIA Web site, they are produced and updated by separate staffs.
Chiefs of State includes fewer countries but more leaders, and is
updated more frequently than The World Factbook, which has a much
larger database, and includes all countries.

Some percentage distributions do not add to 100. Why not?

Because of rounding, percentage distributions do not always add
precisely to 100%. Rounding of numbers always results in a loss of
precision--i.e., error. This error becomes apparent when percentage
data are totaled, as the following two examples show:


                Original Data      Rounded to whole integer

Example 1                43.2                            43
                         30.4                            30
                         26.4                            26
                         ----                            --
                        100.0                            99

Example 2                42.8                            43
                         31.6                            32
                         25.6                            26
                         ----                            --
                        100.0                           101

When this occurs, we do not force the numbers to add exactly to 100,
because doing so would introduce additional error into the
distribution.

What rounding convention does The World Factbook use?

In deciding on the number of digits to present, the Factbook staff
assesses the accuracy of the original data and the needs of US
Government officials. All of the economic data are processed by
computer--either at the source or by the Factbook staff. The economic
data presented in The Factbook, therefore, follow the rounding
convention used by virtually all numerical software applications,
namely, any digit followed by a "5" is rounded up to the next higher
digit, no matter whether the original digit is even or odd. Thus,
for example, when rounded to the nearest integer, 2.5 becomes 3,
rather than 2, as occurred in some pre-computer rounding systems.

Why do you list "Independence" dates for countries like France,
Germany, and the United Kingdom?

For most countries, this entry presents the date that sovereignty
was achieved and from which nation, empire, or trusteeship. For
other countries, the date may be some other significant nationhood
event such as the traditional founding date or the date of
unification, federation, confederation, establishment, or state
succession and so may not strictly be an "Independence" date.
Dependent entities have the nature of their dependency status noted
in this same entry.


Technical

Does The World Factbook comply with Section 508 of the
Rehabilitation Act regarding accessibility of Web pages?

The World Factbook home page has a link entitled "Text/Low Bandwidth
Version." The country data in the text version is fully accessible.
We believe The World Factbook is compliant with the Section 508 law
in both fact and spirit. If you are experiencing difficulty, please
use our comment form to provide us details of the specific problem
you are experiencing and the assistive software and/or hardware that
you are using so that we can work with our technical support staff
to find and implement a solution. We welcome visitors' suggestions
to improve accessibility of The World Factbook and the CIA Web site.

I am using the Factbook online and it is not working. What is wrong?

Hundreds of "Factbook" look-alikes exist on the Internet. The
Factbook site at: www.cia.gov is the only official site.

When I attempt to download a PDF (Portable Document Format) map file
(or some other map) the file has no image. Can you fix this?

Some of the files on The World Factbook Web site are large and could
take several minutes to download on a dial-up connection. The screen
might be blank during the download process.

When I open a map on The World Factbook site, it is fuzzy or
granular, or too big or too small. Why?

Adjusting the resolution setting on your monitor should correct this
problem.

Is The World Factbook country data available in machine-readable
format? All I can find is HTML, but I'm looking for simple tabular
data.

The Factbook Web site now features "Rank Order" pages for selected
Factbook entries. "Rank Order" pages are available for those data
fields identified with a small bar chart icon located next to the
title of the data entry. In addition, all of the "Rank Order" pages
can be downloaded as tab-delimited data files that can be opened in
other applications such as spreadsheets and databases.



=====================================================================



@Afghanistan

Introduction Afghanistan


Background:
  Ahmad Shah DURRANI unified the Pashtun tribes and founded
  Afghanistan in 1747. The country served as a buffer between the
  British and Russian empires until it won independence from notional
  British control in 1919. A brief experiment in democracy ended in a
  1973 coup and a 1978 Communist counter-coup. The Soviet Union
  invaded in 1979 to support the tottering Afghan Communist regime,
  touching off a long and destructive war. The USSR withdrew in 1989
  under relentless pressure by internationally supported
  anti-Communist mujahedin rebels. Subsequently, a series of civil
  wars saw Kabul finally fall in 1996 to the Taliban, a hardline
  Pakistani-sponsored movement that emerged in 1994 to end the
  country's civil war and anarchy. Following the 11 September 2001
  terrorist attacks, a US, Allied, and anti-Taliban Northern Alliance
  military action toppled the Taliban for sheltering Osama BIN LADIN.
  The UN-sponsored Bonn Conference in 2001 established a process for
  political reconstruction that included the adoption of a new
  constitution and a presidential election in 2004, and National
  Assembly elections in 2005. On 7 December 2004, Hamid KARZAI became
  the first democratically elected president of Afghanistan. The
  National Assembly was inaugurated on 19 December 2005.

Geography Afghanistan


Location:
  Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran

Geographic coordinates:
  33 00 N, 65 00 E

Map references:
  Asia

Area:
  total: 647,500 sq km
  land: 647,500 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,529 km
  border countries: China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km,
  Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

Terrain:
  mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Amu Darya 258 m
  highest point: Nowshak 7,485 m

Natural resources:
  natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, chromite, talc, barites,
  sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones

Land use:
  arable land: 12.13%
  permanent crops: 0.21%
  other: 87.66% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  27,200 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; flooding;
  droughts

Environment - current issues:
  limited natural fresh water resources; inadequate supplies of
  potable water; soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of
  the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building
  materials); desertification; air and water pollution

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping
  signed, but not ratified: Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
  Life Conservation

Geography - note:
  landlocked; the Hindu Kush mountains that run northeast to
  southwest divide the northern provinces from the rest of the
  country; the highest peaks are in the northern Vakhan (Wakhan
  Corridor)

People Afghanistan


Population:
  31,056,997 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 44.6% (male 7,095,117/female 6,763,759)
  15-64 years: 53% (male 8,436,716/female 8,008,463)
  65 years and over: 2.4% (male 366,642/female 386,300) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 17.6 years
  male: 17.6 years
  female: 17.6 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.67% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  46.6 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  20.34 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 160.23 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 164.77 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 155.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 43.34 years
  male: 43.16 years
  female: 43.53 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  6.69 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.01% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: high
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea,
  hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
  vectorborne disease: malaria is a high risk countrywide below 2,000
  meters from March through November
  animal contact disease: rabies
  note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified
  among birds in this country or surrounding region; it poses a
  negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens
  who have close contact with birds (2007)

Nationality:
  noun: Afghan(s)
  adjective: Afghan

Ethnic groups:
  Pashtun 42%, Tajik 27%, Hazara 9%, Uzbek 9%, Aimak 4%, Turkmen 3%,
  Baloch 2%, other 4%

Religions:
  Sunni Muslim 80%, Shi'a Muslim 19%, other 1%

Languages:
  Afghan Persian or Dari (official) 50%, Pashtu (official) 35%,
  Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor
  languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 36%
  male: 51%
  female: 21% (1999 est.)

People - note:
  of the estimated 4 million refugees in October 2001, 2.3 million
  have returned

Government Afghanistan


Country name:
  conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
  conventional short form: Afghanistan
  local long form: Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Afghanestan
  local short form: Afghanestan
  former: Republic of Afghanistan

Government type:
  Islamic republic

Capital:
  name: Kabul
  geographic coordinates: 34 31 N, 69 12 E
  time difference: UTC+4.5 (9.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  34 provinces (velayat, singular - velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis,
  Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Daykondi, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr,
  Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Khowst, Konar,
  Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Nurestan, Oruzgan,
  Paktia, Paktika, Panjshir, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar,
  Vardak, Zabol

Independence:
  19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign affairs)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 19 August (1919)

Constitution:
  new constitution drafted 14 December 2003-4 January 2004; signed 16
  January 2004

Legal system:
  according to the new constitution, no law should be "contrary to
  Islam"; the state is obliged to create a prosperous and progressive
  society based on social justice, protection of human dignity,
  protection of human rights, realization of democracy, and to ensure
  national unity and equality among all ethnic groups and tribes; the
  state shall abide by the UN charter, international treaties,
  international conventions that Afghanistan signed, and the Universal
  Declaration of Human Rights

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
  Hamid KARZAI (since 7 December 2004); Vice Presidents Ahmad Zia
  MASOOD and Abdul Karim KHALILI (since 7 December 2004); note - the
  president is both the chief of state and head of government; former
  King ZAHIR Shah holds the honorific, "Father of the Country," and
  presides symbolically over certain occasions, but lacks any
  governing authority; the honorific is not hereditary
  head of government: President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
  Hamid KARZAI (since 7 December 2004); Vice Presidents Ahmad Zia
  MASOOD and Abdul Karim KHALILI (since 7 December 2004)
  cabinet: 25 ministers; note - under the new constitution, ministers
  are appointed by the president and approved by the National Assembly
  elections: the president and two vice presidents are elected by
  direct vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); if no
  candidate receives 50% or more of the vote in the first round of
  voting, the two candidates with the most votes will participate in a
  second round; a president can only be elected for two terms;
  election last held 9 October 2004 (next to be held in 2009)
  election results: Hamid KARZAI elected president; percent of vote -
  Hamid KARZAI 55.4%, Yunus QANUNI 16.3%, Ustad Mohammad MOHAQQEQ
  11.6%, Abdul Rashid DOSTAM 10.0%, Abdul Latif PEDRAM 1.4%, Masooda
  JALAL 1.2%

Legislative branch:
  the bicameral National Assembly consists of the Wolesi Jirga or
  House of People (no more than 249 seats), directly elected for
  five-year terms, and the Meshrano Jirga or House of Elders (102
  seats, one-third elected from provincial councils for four-year
  terms, one-third elected from local district councils for three-year
  terms
  note: on rare occasions the government may convene a Loya Jirga
  (Grand Council) on issues of independence, national sovereignty, and
  territorial integrity; it can amend the provisions of the
  constitution and prosecute the president; it is made up of members
  of the National Assembly and chairpersons of the provincial and
  district councils
  elections: last held 18 September 2005 (next to be held for the
  Wolesi Jirga by September 2009; next to be held for the provincial
  councils to the Meshrano Jirga by September 2008)
  election results: the single non-transferable vote (SNTV) system
  used in the election did not make use of political party slates;
  most candidates ran as independents

Judicial branch:
  the constitution establishes a nine-member Stera Mahkama or Supreme
  Court (its nine justices are appointed for 10-year terms by the
  president with approval of the Wolesi Jirga) and subordinate High
  Courts and Appeals Courts; there is also a minister of justice; a
  separate Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission established by
  the Bonn Agreement is charged with investigating human rights abuses
  and war crimes

Political parties and leaders:
  note - includes only political parties approved by the Ministry of
  Justice; De Afghan Watan Islami Gond [Mohammad Osman SALEKZADA]; De
  Afghanistan De Mili Mubarizeeno Islami Gond [Amanat NINGARHAREE]; De
  Afghanistan De Mili Wahdat Wolesi Tahreek [Abdul Hakim NOORZAI]; De
  Afghanistan De Solay Ghorzang Gond [Shahnawaz TANAI]; De Afghanistan
  De Solay Mili Islami Gond [Shah Mohammood Popal ZAI]; Hezb-e
  Esteqlal-e-Mili Afghanistan [Taj Mohammad WARDAK]; Hezb-e
  Hambastagee Mili Aqwam-e-Afghanistan [Mohammad Zarif NASERI]; Hezb-e
  Harakat-e-Islami-e-Afghanistan [Mohammad Ali JAWID]; Hezb-e
  Jamihat-e-Islami [Ustad RABBANI]; Hezb-e Paiwand Mihahani
  Afghanistan [Sayed Kamal SADAT];
  Hezb-e-Aarman-e-Mardom-e-Afghanistan [Ilhaj Saraj-u-din ZAFAREE];
  Hezb-e-Aazaadi Khwahan Maihan [Abdul Hadi DABEER]; Hezb-e-Aazadee
  Khwahan Mardom-e-Afghanistan [Feda Mohammad EHSAS];
  Hezb-e-Adalat-e-Islami Afghanistan [Mohammad Kabir MARZBAN];
  Hezb-e-Afghan Melat [Anwarul Haq AHADI]; Hezb-e-Afghanistan-e-Naween
  [Mohammad Yunis QANUNI]; Hezb-e-Afghanistan-e-Wahid [Mohammad Wasil
  RAHIMEE]; Hezb-e-Azadee-e-Afghanistan [Ilaj Abdul MALEK];
  Hezb-e-Democracy Afghanistan [Tawos ARAB];
  Hezb-e-Domcrat-e-Afghanistan [Abdul Kabir RANJBAR];
  Hezb-e-Eatedal-e-Mili Islami-e-Afghanistan [Qara Bik Eized YAAR];
  Hezb-e-Eqtedar-e-Mili [Sayed Mustafa KAZEMI];
  Hezb-e-Falah-e-Mardom-e-Afghanistan [Ustad Mohammad ZAREEF];
  Hezb-e-Hambastagee Mili Jawanan-e-Afghanistan [Mohammad Jamil
  KARZAI]; Hezb-e-Hambastagee-e-Afghanistan [Abdul Khaleq NEMAT];
  Hezb-e-Harakat-e-Islami Mardom-e-Afghanistan [Ilhaj Said Hussain
  ANWARY]; Hezb-e-Harakat-e-Mili Wahdat-e-Afghanistan [Mohammad Nadir
  AATASH]; Hezb-e-Ifazat Az Uqooq-e-Bashar Wa Inkishaf-e-Afghanistan
  [Baryalai NASRATI]; Hezb-e-Islami-e-Afghanistan-e-Jawan [Sayed Jawad
  HUSSINEE]; Hezb-e-Isteqlal-e-Afghanistan [Dr. Ghulam Farooq
  NEJRABEE]; Hezb-e-Jamahat-ul-Dawat ilal Quran-wa-Sunat-e-Afghanistan
  [Mawlawee Samiullah NAJEEBEE]; Hezb-e-Jamhoree Khwahane-Afghanistan
  [Sebghatullah SANJAR]; Hezb-e-Junbish Democracy Mardom-e-Afghanistan
  [Sharif NAZARI]; Hezb-e-Junbish Mili Islami-e-Afghanistan [Sayed
  NOORULLAH]; Hezb-e-Kangra-e-Mili-e-Afghanistan [Abdul Latif PEDRAM];
  Hezb-e-Kar Wa Tawsiha-e-Afghanistan [Zulfiqar OMID];
  Hezb-e-Lebral-e-Aazadee Khwa-e-Afghanistan [Ajmal SUHAIL];
  Hezb-e-Majmeh Mili Faleen-Sulh-e-Afghanistan [Shamsul Haq Noor
  SHAMS]; Hezb-e-Mardom-e-Afghanistan [Ahmad Shah ASAR];
  Hezb-e-Mardom-e-Mosalman-e-Afghanistan [Besmellah JOYAN];
  Hezb-e-Mili Afghanistan [Abdul Rashid ARYAN]; Hezb-e-Mili Heward
  [GHULAM MOHAMMAD]; Hezb-e-Mili Islami-e-Afghanistan [Rohullah
  LOUDIN]; Hezb-e-Mili Wahdat-e-Aqwam-e-Islami-e-Afghanistan [Mohammad
  Shah KHOGYANI]; Hezb-e-Mutahed Mili [Noorul Haq ULOOMI];
  Hezb-e-Nahzat-e-Aazadee Wa Democracy-e-Afghanistan [Abdul Raqib
  Jawid KOHISTANEE]; Hezb-e-Nahzat-e-Hambastagee Mili-e-Afghanistan
  [Pir Sayed Eshaq GAILANEE]; Hezb-e-Nakhbagan-e-Mardom-e-Afghanistan
  [Abdul Hamid JAWAD]; Hezb-e-Paiwand Mili Afghanistan [Sayed Mansoor
  NADREEI]; Hezb-e-Rastakhaiz-e-Mardom-e-Afghanistan [Sayed Zahir
  Qayed Omul BELADI]; Hezb-e-Refah-e-Afghanistan [Meer Asef ZAEEFI];
  Hezb-e-Refah-e-Mardom-e-Afghanistan [Mia Gul WASIQ];
  Hezb-e-Refah-e-Mili Afghanistan [Mohammad Hassan JAHFAREE];
  Hezb-e-Resalat-e-Mardom-e-Afghanistan [Noor Aqa ROEENE];
  Hezb-e-Sahadat-e-Mardom-e-Afghanistan [Mohammad Zubair PAIROZ];
  Hezb-e-Sahadat-e-Mili Islami-e-Afghanistan [Mohammad Osman
  SALEKZADA]; Hezb-e-Subat-e-Mili Islami-e-Afghanistan [Mohammad Same
  KHAROTI]; Hezb-e-Sulh Wa Wahdat-e-Mili-e-Afghanistan [Gulabuddin
  Shir ZAEE]; Hezb-e-Sulh-e-Mili Islami Aqwam-e-Afghanistan [Abdul
  Qaher SHARIATEE]; Hezb-e-Tafahum Wa Democracy-e-Afghanistan [Ahamad
  SHAHEEN]; Hezb-e-Tahreek Wahdat-e-Mili-e-Afghanistan [Sultan
  Mohammad GHAZI]; Hezb-e-Tahreek Wahdat-ul-Musimeen Afghanistan
  [Wazir Mohammad WAHDAT]; Hezb-e-Tanzim Jabha Mili
  Nejat-e-Afghanistan [Seghatullah MOJADDEDI]; Hezb-e-Taraqee Democrat
  Afghanistan [Wali ARYA]; Hezb-e-Taraqee Mili Afghanistan [Dr. Aref
  BAKTASH]; Hezb-e-Umat-e-Islam-e-Afghanistan [Toran Noor Aqa Ahmad
  ZAI]; Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Islami Mardom-e-Afghanistan [Ustad Mohammad
  MOHAQQEQ]; Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Islami-e-Afghanistan [Mohammad Karim
  KHALILI]; Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Islami-e-Melat-e-Afghanistan [Qurban Ali
  URFANI]; Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Mili Afghanistan [Abdul Rashid JALILI];
  Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Mili Islami-e-Afghanistan [Mohammad AKBAREE];
  Mahaz-e-Mili Islami Afghanistan [Pir Sayed Ahmad GAILANEE]; Mili
  Dreez Gong [Habibullah JANBDAD];
  Nahzat-e-Hakemyat-e-Mardom-e-Afghanistan [Hayatullah SUBHANEE];
  Nahzat-e-Mili Afghanistan [Ahmad Wali MASOOUD]; Tanzim
  Daawat-e-Islami-e-Afghanistan [Abdul Rasoul SAYYAF]; (20 August 2005)

Political pressure groups and leaders:


International organization participation:
  AsDB, CP, ECO, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
  IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent),
  ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE (partner), SACEP, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Said Tayeb JAWAD
  chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] 202-483-6410
  FAX: [1] 202-483-6488
  consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Ronald E. NEUMANN
  embassy: The Great Masood Road, Kabul
  mailing address: U.S. Embassy Kabul, APO, AE 09806
  telephone: [00 93] (20) 230-0436
  FAX: [00 93] (20) 230-1364

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of black (hoist), red, and green, with a
  gold emblem centered on the red band; the emblem features a
  temple-like structure encircled by a wreath on the left and right
  and by a bold Islamic inscription above

Economy Afghanistan


Economy - overview:
  Afghanistan's economy is recovering from decades of conflict. The
  economy has improved significantly since the fall of the Taliban
  regime in 2001 largely because of the infusion of international
  assistance, the recovery of the agricultural sector, and service
  sector growth. Real GDP growth probably exceeded 8% in 2006. Despite
  the progress of the past few years, Afghanistan is extremely poor,
  landlocked, and highly dependent on foreign aid, agriculture, and
  trade with neighboring countries. Much of the population continues
  to suffer from shortages of housing, clean water, electricity,
  medical care, and jobs. Criminality, insecurity, and the Afghan
  Government's inability to extend rule of law to all parts of the
  country pose challenges to future economic growth. It will probably
  take the remainder of the decade and continuing donor aid and
  attention to significantly raise Afghanistan's living standards from
  its current status, among the lowest in the world. While the
  international community remains committed to Afghanistan's
  development, pledging over $24 billion at three donors' conferences
  since 2002, Kabul will need to overcome a number of challenges.
  Expanding poppy cultivation and a growing opium trade generate
  roughly $3 billion in illicit economic activity and looms as one of
  Kabul's most serious policy concerns. Other long-term challenges
  include: budget sustainability, job creation, corruption, government
  capacity, and rebuilding war torn infrastructure.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $21.5 billion (2004 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $7.095 billion (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  8.4% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $800 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 38%
  industry: 24%
  services: 38%
  note: data exclude opium production (2005 est.)

Labor force:
  15 million (2004 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 80%
  industry: 10%
  services: 10% (2004 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  40% (2005 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  53% (2003)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  16.3% (2005 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $269 million
  expenditures: $561 million; including capital expenditures of $41.7
  million
  note: Afghanistan has also received $273 million from the
  Reconstruction Trust Fund and $63 million from the Law and Order
  Trust Fund (FY04-05 budget est.)

Agriculture - products:
  opium, wheat, fruits, nuts; wool, mutton, sheepskins, lambskins

Industries:
  small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes,
  fertilizer, cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, coal, copper

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  734.3 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 36.3%
  hydro: 63.7%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  782.9 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  100 million kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - consumption:
  4,500 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day (2005)

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day (2005)

Oil - proved reserves:
  0 bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  20 million cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  20 million cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  99.96 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Exports:
  $471 million; note - not including illicit exports or reexports
  (2005 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  opium, fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and
  pelts, precious and semi-precious gems

Exports - partners:
  US 25.8%, India 21.2%, Pakistan 20.3%, Finland 4.1% (2005)

Imports:
  $3.87 billion (2005 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  capital goods, food, textiles, petroleum products

Imports - partners:
  Pakistan 38.6%, US 9.5%, Germany 5.5%, India 5.2%, Turkey 4.1%,
  Turkmenistan 4% (2005)

Debt - external:
  $8 billion in bilateral debt, mostly to Russia; Afghanistan has
  $500 million in debt to Multilateral Development Banks (2004)

Economic aid - recipient:
  international pledges made by more than 60 countries and
  international financial institutions at the Berlin Donors Conference
  for Afghan reconstruction in March 2004 reached $8.9 billion for
  2004-09

Currency (code):
  afghani (AFA)

Currency code:
  AFA

Exchange rates:
  afghanis per US dollar - 541 (2005), 48 (2004), 49 (2003), 41
  (2002), note, in 2002, the afghani was revalued and the currency
  stabilized at about 50 afghanis to the dollar; before 2002, the
  market rate varied widely from the official rate

Fiscal year:
  21 March - 20 March

Communications Afghanistan


Telephones - main lines in use:
  280,000 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1.4 million (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: very limited telephone and telegraph service;
  many Afghans utilize growing cellular phone coverage in major cities
  domestic: telephone service is improving with the licensing of
  several wireless telephone service providers in 2005 and 2006;
  approximately 4 in 100 Afghans own a wireless telephone; telephone
  main lines remain limited.
  international: country code - 93; five VSAT's installed in Kabul,
  Herat, Mazar-e-Sharif, Kandahar, and Jalalabad provide international
  and domestic voice and data connectivity

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 21, FM 5, shortwave 1 (broadcasts in Pashtu, Afghan Persian
  (Dari), Urdu, and English) (2006)

Radios:
  167,000 (1999)

Television broadcast stations:
  at least 7 (one government-run central television station in Kabul
  and regional stations in nine of the 34 provinces; the regional
  stations operate on a reduced schedule; also, in 1997, there was a
  station in Mazar-e-Sharif reaching four northern Afghanistan
  provinces) (2006)

Televisions:
  100,000 (1999)

Internet country code:
  .af

Internet hosts:
  22 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  30,000 (2005)

Communications - note:
  in March 2003, 'af' was established as Afghanistan's domain name;
  Internet access is growing through Internet cafes as well as public
  "telekiosks" in Kabul (2002)

Transportation Afghanistan


Airports:
  46 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 11
  over 3,047 m: 3
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 35
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
  914 to 1,523 m: 4
  under 914 m: 9 (2006)

Heliports:
  9 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 466 km (2006)

Roadways:
  total: 34,782 km
  paved: 8,229 km
  unpaved: 26,553 km (2004)

Waterways:
  1,200 km (chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to 500 DWT)
  (2005)

Ports and terminals:
  Kheyrabad, Shir Khan

Military Afghanistan


Military branches:
  Afghan National Army (includes Afghan Air Force) (2006)

Military service age and obligation:
  22 years of age; inductees are contracted into service for a 4-year
  term (2005)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 22-49: 4,952,812
  females age 22-49: 4,663,963 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 22-49: 2,662,946
  females age 22-49: 2,508,574 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 275,362
  females age 22-49: 259,935 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $122.4 million (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.7% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Afghanistan


Disputes - international:
  most Afghan refugees in Pakistan have been repatriated, but
  thousands still remain in Iran, many at their own choosing;
  Coalition and Pakistani forces continue to patrol remote tribal
  areas to control the borders and stem organized terrorist and other
  illegal cross-border activities; regular meetings between Pakistani
  and Coalition allies aim to resolve periodic claims of boundary
  encroachments; regional conflicts over water-sharing arrangements
  with Amu Darya and Helmand River states

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  IDPs: 136,565 (mostly Pashtuns and Kuchis displaced in south and
  west due to drought and instability) (2006)

Illicit drugs:
  world's largest producer of opium; cultivation dropped 48% to
  107,400 hectares in 2005; better weather and lack of widespread
  disease returned opium yields to normal levels, meaning potential
  opium production declined by only 10% to 4,475 metric tons; if the
  entire poppy crop were processed, it is estimated that 526 metric
  tons of heroin could be processed; source of hashish; many
  narcotics-processing labs throughout the country; drug trade source
  of instability and some antigovernment groups profit from the trade;
  80-90% of the heroin consumed in Europe comes from Afghan opium;
  vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through informal financial
  networks


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Akrotiri

Introduction Akrotiri


Background:
  By terms of the 1960 Treaty of Establishment that created the
  independent Republic of Cyprus, the UK retained full sovereignty and
  jurisdiction over two areas of almost 254 square kilometers -
  Akrotiri and Dhekelia. The southernmost and smallest of these is the
  Akrotiri Sovereign Base Area, which is also referred to as the
  Western Sovereign Base Area.

Geography Akrotiri


Location:
  peninsula on the southwest coast of Cyprus

Geographic coordinates:
  34 37 N, 32 58 E

Map references:
  Middle East

Area:
  total: 123 sq km
  note: includes a salt lake and wetlands

Area - comparative:
  about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  total: 47.4 km
  border countries: Cyprus 47.4 km

Coastline:
  56.3 km

Climate:
  temperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool winters

Environment - current issues:
  shooting around the salt lake; note - breeding place for loggerhead
  and green turtles; only remaining colony of griffon vultures is on
  the base

Geography - note:
  British extraterritorial rights also extended to several small
  off-post sites scattered across Cyprus

People Akrotiri


Population:
  no indigenous inhabitants
  note: approximately 1,300 military personnel are on the base; there
  are another 5,000 British citizens who are families of military
  personnel or civilian staff on both Akrotiri and Dhekelia; Cyprus
  citizens work on the base, but do not live there

Languages:
  English, Greek

Government Akrotiri


Country name:
  conventional long form: Akrotiri Sovereign Base Area
  conventional short form: Akrotiri

Dependency status:
  overseas territory of UK; administered by an administrator who is
  also the Commander, British Forces Cyprus

Capital:
  name: Episkopi Cantonment; also serves as capital of Dhekelia
  geographic coordinates: 34 40 N, 32 51 E
  time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last
  Sunday in October

Constitution:
  Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia Order in Council
  1960, effective 16 August 1960

Legal system:
  the laws of the UK, where applicable, apply

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
  head of government: Administrator Air Vice-Marshal Richard LACEY
  (since 26 April 2006); note - reports to the British Ministry of
  Defence
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the administrator is
  appointed by the monarch

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description:
  the flag of the UK is used

Economy Akrotiri


Economy - overview:
  Economic activity is limited to providing services to the military
  and their families located in Akrotiri. All food and manufactured
  goods must be imported.

Currency (code):
  Cypriot pound (CYP)

Exchange rates:
  Cypriot pounds per US dollar - 0.46019 (2006), 0.4641 (2005),
  0.4686 (2004), 0.5174 (2003), 0.6107 (2002)

Communications Akrotiri


Radio broadcast stations:
  FM 1
  note: British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) provides Radio 1
  and Radio 2 service to Akrotiri, Dhekelia, and Nicosia (2006)

Television broadcast stations:
  British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) provides multi-channel
  satellite service to Akrotiri, Dhekelia, and Nicosia (2006)


Military Akrotiri


Military - note:
  Akrotiri has a full RAF base, Headquarters for British Forces on
  Cyprus, and Episkopi Support Unit



This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Albania

Introduction Albania


Background:
  Between 1990 and 1992 Albania ended 46 years of xenophobic
  Communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. The
  transition has proven challenging as successive governments have
  tried to deal with high unemployment, widespread corruption, a
  dilapidated physical infrastructure, powerful organized crime
  networks, and combative political opponents. Albania has made
  progress in its democratic development since first holding
  multiparty elections in 1991, but deficiencies remain. International
  observers judged elections to be largely free and fair since the
  restoration of political stability following the collapse of pyramid
  schemes in 1997. In the 2005 general elections, the Democratic Party
  and its allies won a decisive victory on pledges of reducing crime
  and corruption, promoting economic growth, and decreasing the size
  of government. The election, and particularly the orderly transition
  of power, was considered an important step forward. Although
  Albania's economy continues to grow, the country is still one of the
  poorest in Europe, hampered by a large informal economy and an
  inadequate energy and transportation infrastructure. Albania has
  played a largely helpful role in managing inter-ethnic tensions in
  southeastern Europe, and is continuing to work toward joining NATO
  and the EU. Albania, with troops in Iraq and Afghanistan, has been a
  strong supporter of the global war on terrorism.

Geography Albania


Location:
  Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea,
  between Greece and Serbia and Montenegro

Geographic coordinates:
  41 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 28,748 sq km
  land: 27,398 sq km
  water: 1,350 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 720 km
  border countries: Greece 282 km, Macedonia 151 km, Montenegro 172
  km, Serbia 115 km

Coastline:
  362 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate:
  mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers;
  interior is cooler and wetter

Terrain:
  mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
  highest point: Maja e Korabit (Golem Korab) 2,764 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, natural gas, coal, bauxite, chromite, copper, iron ore,
  nickel, salt, timber, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 20.1%
  permanent crops: 4.21%
  other: 75.69% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  3,530 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along southwestern coast;
  floods; drought

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and
  domestic effluents

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
  Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to
  Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

People Albania


Population:
  3,581,655 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 24.8% (male 464,954/female 423,003)
  15-64 years: 66.3% (male 1,214,942/female 1,158,562)
  65 years and over: 8.9% (male 148,028/female 172,166) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 28.9 years
  male: 28.3 years
  female: 29.5 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.52% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  15.11 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  5.22 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -4.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.1 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 20.75 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 21.2 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 20.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 77.43 years
  male: 74.78 years
  female: 80.34 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.03 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Albanian(s)
  adjective: Albanian

Ethnic groups:
  Albanian 95%, Greek 3%, other 2% (Vlach, Roma (Gypsy), Serb,
  Macedonian, Bulgarian) (1989 est.)
  note: in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from
  1% (official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization)

Religions:
  Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%
  note: percentages are estimates; there are no available current
  statistics on religious affiliation; all mosques and churches were
  closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November
  1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice

Languages:
  Albanian (official - derived from Tosk dialect), Greek, Vlach,
  Romani, Slavic dialects

Literacy:
  definition: age 9 and over can read and write
  total population: 86.5%
  male: 93.3%
  female: 79.5% (2003 est.)

Government Albania


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Albania
  conventional short form: Albania
  local long form: Republika e Shqiperise
  local short form: Shqiperia
  former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania

Government type:
  emerging democracy

Capital:
  name: Tirana (Tirane)
  geographic coordinates: 41 20 N, 19 50 E
  time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last
  Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
  12 counties (qarqe, singular - qark); Qarku i Beratit, Qarku i
  Dibres, Qarku i Durresit, Qarku i Elbasanit, Qarku i Fierit, Qarku i
  Gjirokastres, Qarku i Korces, Qarku i Kukesit, Qarku i Lezhes, Qarku
  i Shkodres, Qarku i Tiranes, Qarku i Vlores

Independence:
  28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 28 November (1912)

Constitution:
  adopted by popular referendum on 28 November 1998

Legal system:
  has a civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction; has accepted jurisdiction of the International
  Criminal Court for its citizens

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President of the Republic Alfred MOISIU (since 24
  June 2002)
  head of government: Prime Minister Sali BERISHA (since 10 September
  2005)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister,
  nominated by the president, and approved by parliament
  elections: president elected by the People's Assembly for a
  five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 24
  June 2002 (next to be held June 2007); prime minister appointed by
  the president
  election results: Alfred MOISIU elected president; People's Assembly
  vote by number - total votes 134: for 97, against 19, abstained 14,
  invalid votes 4

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Assembly or Kuvendi (140 seats; 100 are elected by
  direct popular vote and 40 by proportional vote for four-year terms)
  elections: last held 3 July 2005 (next to be held in 2009)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PD
  56, PS 42, PR 11, PSD 7, LSI 5, other 19

Judicial branch:
  Constitutional Court, Supreme Court (chairman is elected by the
  People's Assembly for a four-year term), and multiple appeals and
  district courts

Political parties and leaders:
  Agrarian Environmentalist Party or PAA [Lufter XHUVELI]; Christian
  Democratic Party or PDK [Nard NDOKA]; Communist Party of Albania or
  PKSH [Hysni MILLOSHI]; Democratic Alliance Party or AD [Neritan
  CEKA]; Democratic Party or PD [Sali BERISHA]; Legality Movement
  Party or PLL [Ekrem SPAHIU]; Liberal Union Party or BLD [Arjan
  STAROVA]; National Front Party (Balli Kombetar) or PBK [Adriatik
  ALIMADHI]; New Democratic Party or PDR [Genc POLLO]; Party of
  National Unity or PUK [Idajet BEQIRI]; Renewed Democratic Party or
  PDRN [Dashamir SHEHI]; Republican Party or PR [Fatmir MEDIU]; Social
  Democracy Party of Albania or PDSSh [Paskal MILO]; Social Democratic
  Party or PSD [Skender GJINUSHI]; Socialist Movement for Integration
  or LSI [Ilir META]; Socialist Party or PS [Edi RAMA]; Union for
  Human Rights Party or PBDNj [Vangjel DULE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Citizens Advocacy Office [Kreshnik SPAHIU]; Confederation of Trade
  Unions of Albania or KSSH [Kastriot MUCO]; Front for Albanian
  National Unification or FBKSH [Gafur ADILI]; Mjaft Movement [Erion
  VELIAJ]; Omonia [Jani JANI]; Union of Independent Trade Unions of
  Albania or BSPSH [Gezim KALAJA]

International organization participation:
  BSEC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA,
  IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO
  (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, MIGA, OIC, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SECI,
  UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
  WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Aleksander SALLABANDA
  chancery: 2100 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942
  FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Marcie B. RIES
  embassy: Rruga e Elbasanit, Labinoti #103, Tirana
  mailing address: US Department of State, 9510 Tirana Place, Dulles,
  VA 20189-9510
  telephone: [355] (4) 247285
  FAX: [355] (4) 232222

Flag description:
  red with a black two-headed eagle in the center

Economy Albania


Economy - overview:
  Lagging behind its Balkan neighbors, Albania is making the
  difficult transition to a more modern open-market economy. The
  government has taken measures to curb violent crime and reduce the
  large grey economy. The economy is bolstered by annual remittances
  from abroad of $600-$800 million, mostly from Albanians residing in
  Greece and Italy; this helps offset the towering trade deficit.
  Agriculture, which accounts for about one-quarter of GDP, is held
  back because of lack of modern equipment, unclear property rights,
  and the prevalence of small, inefficient plots of land. Energy
  shortages and antiquated and inadequate infrastructure contribute to
  Albania's poor business environment, which make it difficult to
  attract and sustain foreign investment. The planned construction of
  a new thermal power plant near Vlore and improved transmission and
  distribution facilities eventually will help relieve the energy
  shortages. Also, the government is moving slowly to improve the poor
  national road and rail network, a long-standing barrier to sustained
  economic growth. On the positive side: growth was strong in 2003-06
  and inflation is low and stable.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $20.21 billion
  note: Albania has a large gray economy that may be as large as 50%
  of official GDP (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $9.306 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $5,600 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 23.3%
  industry: 18.8%
  services: 57.9% (2006 est.)

Labor force:
  1.09 million (not including 352,000 emigrant workers) (2004 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 58%
  industry: 19%
  services: 23% (2004 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  14.3% official rate, but may exceed 30% due to preponderance of
  near-subsistence farming (2005 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  25% (2004 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  28.2 (2002)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.8% (2006 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  24.5% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $2.323 billion
  expenditures: $2.587 billion; including capital expenditures of $500
  million (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, sugar beets, grapes;
  meat, dairy products

Industries:
  food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil, cement,
  chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower

Industrial production growth rate:
  3.1% (2004 est.)

Electricity - production:
  5.434 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 2.9%
  hydro: 97.1%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  5.231 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  390 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  567 million kWh (2004 est.)

Oil - production:
  3,600 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  25,200 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - exports:
  0 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - imports:
  21,600 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - proved reserves:
  185.5 million bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  30 million cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  30 million cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  2.832 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Current account balance:
  $-679.9 million (2006 est.)

Exports:
  $763.2 million f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  textiles and footwear; asphalt, metals and metallic ores, crude
  oil; vegetables, fruits, tobacco

Exports - partners:
  Italy 72.4%, Greece 10.5%, Serbia and Montenegro 5% (2005)

Imports:
  $2.901 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, chemicals

Imports - partners:
  Italy 29.3%, Greece 16.4%, Turkey 7.5%, China 6.6%, Germany 5.4%,
  Russia 4% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $1.621 billion (2006 est.)

Debt - external:
  $1.55 billion (2004)

Economic aid - recipient:
  ODA: $366 million (top donors were Italy, EU, Germany) (2003 est.)

Currency (code):
  lek (ALL)
  note: the plural of lek is leke

Currency code:
  ALL

Exchange rates:
  leke per US dollar - 98.5927 (2006), 102.649 (2005), 102.78 (2004),
  121.863 (2003), 140.155 (2002)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Albania


Telephones - main lines in use:
  255,000 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1.259 million (2004)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: despite new investment in fixed lines, the
  density of main lines remains the lowest in Europe with roughly
  seven lines per 100 people; however, cellular telephone use is
  widespread and generally effective
  domestic: offsetting the shortage of fixed line capacity, mobile
  phone service has been available since 1996; by 2003 two companies
  were providing mobile services at a greater density than some of
  Albania's Balkan neighbors
  international: country code - 355; inadequate fixed main lines;
  adequate cellular connections; international traffic carried by
  fiber optic cable and, when necessary, by microwave radio relay from
  the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece (2003)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 13, FM 46 (3 national, 62 local), shortwave 1 (2005)

Radios:
  1 million (2001)

Television broadcast stations:
  65 (3 national, 62 local); note - 2 cable networks (2005)

Televisions:
  700,000 (2001)

Internet country code:
  .al

Internet hosts:
  430 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  10 (2001)

Internet users:
  75,000 (2005)

Transportation Albania


Airports:
  11 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 3
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 8
  over 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 4 (2006)

Heliports:
  1 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 339 km; oil 207 km (2006)

Railways:
  total: 447 km
  standard gauge: 447 km 1.435-m gauge (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 18,000 km
  paved: 7,020 km
  unpaved: 10,980 km (2002)

Waterways:
  43 km (2006)

Merchant marine:
  total: 24 ships (1000 GRT or over) 52,987 GRT/79,863 DWT
  by type: cargo 23, roll on/roll off 1
  foreign-owned: 1 (Turkey 1)
  registered in other countries: 1 (Georgia 1) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore

Military Albania


Military branches:
  General Staff Headquarters, Land Forces Command (Army), Naval
  Forces Command, Air Defense Command, Logistics Command, Training and
  Doctrine Command

Military service age and obligation:
  19 years of age (2004)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 19-49: 809,524
  females age 19-49: 784,199 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 19-49: 668,526
  females age 19-49: 648,334 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 37,407
  females age 19-49: 34,587 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $56.5 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.49% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Albania


Disputes - international:
  the Albanian Government calls for the protection of the rights of
  ethnic Albanians in neighboring countries, and the peaceful
  resolution of interethnic disputes; some ethnic Albanian groups in
  neighboring countries advocate for a "greater Albania," but the idea
  has little appeal among Albanian nationals; thousands of unemployed
  Albanians emigrate annually to nearby Italy and other developed
  countries

Illicit drugs:
  increasingly active transshipment point for Southwest Asian
  opiates, hashish, and cannabis transiting the Balkan route and - to
  a far lesser extent - cocaine from South America destined for
  Western Europe; limited opium and growing cannabis production;
  ethnic Albanian narcotrafficking organizations active and expanding
  in Europe; vulnerable to money laundering associated with regional
  trafficking in narcotics, arms, contraband, and illegal aliens


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Algeria

Introduction Algeria


Background:
  After more than a century of rule by France, Algerians fought
  through much of the 1950s to achieve independence in 1962. Algeria's
  primary political party, the National Liberation Front (FLN), has
  dominated politics ever since. Many Algerians in the subsequent
  generation were not satisfied, however, and moved to counter the
  FLN's centrality in Algerian politics. The surprising first round
  success of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) in the December 1991
  balloting spurred the Algerian army to intervene and postpone the
  second round of elections to prevent what the secular elite feared
  would be an extremist-led government from assuming power. The army
  began a crack down on the FIS that spurred FIS supporters to begin
  attacking government targets. The government later allowed elections
  featuring pro-government and moderate religious-based parties, but
  did not appease the activists who progressively widened their
  attacks. The fighting escalated into an insurgency, which saw
  intense fighting between 1992-98 and which resulted in over 100,000
  deaths - many attributed to indiscriminate massacres of villagers by
  extremists. The government gained the upper hand by the late-1990s
  and FIS's armed wing, the Islamic Salvation Army, disbanded in
  January 2000. However, small numbers of armed militants persist in
  confronting government forces and conducting ambushes and occasional
  attacks on villages. The army placed Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA in the
  presidency in 1999 in a fraudulent election but claimed neutrality
  in his 2004 landslide reelection victory. Longstanding problems
  continue to face BOUTEFLIKA in his second term, including the ethnic
  minority Berbers' ongoing autonomy campaign, large-scale
  unemployment, a shortage of housing, unreliable electrical and water
  supplies, government inefficiencies and corruption, and the
  continuing - although significantly degraded - activities of
  extremist militants. Algeria must also diversify its petroleum-based
  economy, which has yielded a large cash reserve but which has not
  been used to redress Algeria's many social and infrastructure
  problems.

Geography Algeria


Location:
  Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco
  and Tunisia

Geographic coordinates:
  28 00 N, 3 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 2,381,740 sq km
  land: 2,381,740 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 6,343 km
  border countries: Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km,
  Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km

Coastline:
  998 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 nm

Climate:
  arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along
  coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau;
  sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

Terrain:
  mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow,
  discontinuous coastal plain

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m
  highest point: Tahat 3,003 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc

Land use:
  arable land: 3.17%
  permanent crops: 0.28%
  other: 96.55% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  5,690 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mudslides and
  floods in rainy season

Environment - current issues:
  soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices;
  desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes,
  and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers
  and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming
  polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff;
  inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)

People Algeria


Population:
  32,930,091 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 28.1% (male 4,722,076/female 4,539,713)
  15-64 years: 67.1% (male 11,133,802/female 10,964,502)
  65 years and over: 4.8% (male 735,444/female 834,554) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 24.9 years
  male: 24.7 years
  female: 25.1 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.22% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  17.14 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  4.61 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 29.87 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 33.62 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 25.94 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 73.26 years
  male: 71.68 years
  female: 74.92 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.89 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.1% ; note - no country specific models provided (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  9,100 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 500 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: intermediate
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and
  typhoid fever
  vectorborne disease: cutaneous leishmaniasis is a high risk in some
  locations (2007)

Nationality:
  noun: Algerian(s)
  adjective: Algerian

Ethnic groups:
  Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%
  note: almost all Algerians are Berber in origin, not Arab; the
  minority who identify themselves as Berber live mostly in the
  mountainous region of Kabylie east of Algiers; the Berbers are also
  Muslim but identify with their Berber rather than Arab cultural
  heritage; Berbers have long agitated, sometimes violently, for
  autonomy; the government is unlikely to grant autonomy but has
  offered to begin sponsoring teaching Berber language in schools

Religions:
  Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%

Languages:
  Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 70%
  male: 78.8%
  female: 61% (2003 est.)

Government Algeria


Country name:
  conventional long form: People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
  conventional short form: Algeria
  local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash
  Sha'biyah
  local short form: Al Jaza'ir

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  name: Algiers
  geographic coordinates: 36 47 N, 2 03 E
  time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  48 provinces (wilayat, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain
  Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida,
  Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa,
  El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel,
  Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila,
  Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi
  Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret,
  Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen

Independence:
  5 July 1962 (from France)

National holiday:
  Revolution Day, 1 November (1954)

Constitution:
  8 September 1963; revised 19 November 1976, effective 22 November
  1976; revised 3 November 1988, 23 February 1989, and 28 November 1996

Legal system:
  socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of
  legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of
  various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices;
  has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 April 1999)
  head of government: Prime Minister Abdelaziz BELKHADEM
  cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term
  (eligible for a second term); election last held 8 April 2004 (next
  to be held in April 2009); prime minister appointed by the president
  election results: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA reelected president for
  second term; percent of vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA 85%, Ali BENFLIS
  6.4%, Abdellah DJABALLAH 5%

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consisting of the National People's Assembly
  or Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani (389 seats - formerly 380 seats;
  members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the
  Council of Nations (Senate) (144 seats; one-third of the members
  appointed by the president, two-thirds elected by indirect vote;
  members serve six-year terms; the constitution requires half the
  council to be renewed every three years)
  elections: National People's Assembly - last held 30 May 2002 (next
  to be held in 2007); Council of Nations (Senate) - last held 30
  December 2003 (next to be held in 2006)
  election results: National People's Assembly - percent of vote by
  party - NA; seats by party - FLN 199, RND 47, Islah 43, MSP 38, PT
  21, FNA 8, EnNahda 1, PRA 1, MEN 1, independents 30; Council of
  Nations - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party NA

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders:
  Algerian National Front or FNA [Moussa TOUATI]; National Democratic
  Rally (Rassemblement National Democratique) or RND [Ahmed OUYAHIA,
  secretary general]; Islamic Salvation Front or FIS (outlawed April
  1992) [Ali BELHADJ, Dr. Abassi MADANI, Rabeh KEBIR]; National
  Entente Movement or MEN [Ali BOUKHAZNA]; National Liberation Front
  or FLN [Abdelaziz BELKHADEM, secretary general]; National Reform
  Movement or Islah (formerly MRN) [Abdellah DJABALLAH]; National
  Renewal Party or PRA [Yacine TERKMANE]; Progressive Republican Party
  [Khadir DRISS]; Rally for Culture and Democracy or RCD [Said SADI];
  Renaissance Movement or EnNahda Movement [Fatah RABEI]; Socialist
  Forces Front or FFS [Hocine Ait AHMED, secretary general]; Social
  Liberal Party or PSL [Ahmed KHELIL]; Society of Peace Movement or
  MSP [Boudjerra SOLTANI]; Workers Party or PT [Louisa HANOUN]
  note: a law banning political parties based on religion was enacted
  in March 1997

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  The Algerian Human Rights League or LADH or LADDH [Yahia Ali
  ABDENOUR]; SOS Disparus [Nacera DUTOUR]; Somoud [Ali MERABET]

International organization participation:
  ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BIS, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA,
  IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
  IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, LAS,
  MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, ONUB, OPCW, OPEC, OSCE
  (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNWTO, UPU, WCO,
  WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Amine KHERBI
  chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800
  FAX: [1] (202) 667-2174

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Robert S. FORD
  embassy: 04 Chemin Cheikh Bachir Ibrahimi El-Biar 16030, Algiers
  mailing address: B. P. 408, Alger-Gare, 16030 Algiers
  telephone: [213] (021) 69-12-55
  FAX: [213] (021) 69-39-79

Flag description:
  two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white; a red,
  five-pointed star within a red crescent centered over the two-color
  boundary; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional
  symbols of Islam (the state religion)

Economy Algeria


Economy - overview:
  The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the economy, accounting
  for roughly 60% of budget revenues, 30% of GDP, and over 95% of
  export earnings. Algeria has the seventh-largest reserves of natural
  gas in the world and is the second-largest gas exporter; it ranks
  14th in oil reserves. Sustained high oil prices in recent years,
  along with macroeconomic policy reforms supported by the IMF, have
  helped improve Algeria's financial and macroeconomic indicators.
  Algeria is running substantial trade surpluses and building up
  record foreign exchange reserves. Algeria has decreased its external
  debt to less than 10% of GDP after repaying its Paris Club and
  London Club debt in 2006. Real GDP has risen due to higher oil
  output and increased government spending. The government's continued
  efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and domestic
  investment outside the energy sector, however, has had little
  success in reducing high unemployment and improving living
  standards. Structural reform within the economy, such as development
  of the banking sector and the construction of infrastructure, moves
  ahead slowly hampered by corruption and bureaucratic resistance.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $253.4 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $92.22 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5.6% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $7,700 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 9.4%
  industry: 58.1%
  services: 32.5% (2006 est.)

Labor force:
  9.31 million (2006 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 14%, industry 14%, construction and public works 10%,
  trade 13.4%, government 32%, other 10% (2003 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  15.7% (2006 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  25% (2005 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2.8%
  highest 10%: 26.8% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  35.3 (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3% (2006 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  23.4% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $59.26 billion
  expenditures: $49.14 billion; including capital expenditures of $5.8
  billion (2006 est.)

Public debt:
  18.6% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle

Industries:
  petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical,
  petrochemical, food processing

Industrial production growth rate:
  10% (2006 est.)

Electricity - production:
  29.39 billion kWh (2004 est.)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 99.7%
  hydro: 0.3%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  27.4 billion kWh (2004 est.)

Electricity - exports:
  230 million kWh (2004 est.)

Electricity - imports:
  300 million kWh (2004 est.)

Oil - production:
  1.373 million bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  233,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  1.127 million bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - imports:
  0 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - proved reserves:
  11 billion bbl (2006 est.)

Natural gas - production:
  80.15 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  19.28 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  60.87 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  4.545 trillion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Current account balance:
  $25.8 billion (2006 est.)

Exports:
  $55.6 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products 97%

Exports - partners:
  US 22.6%, Italy 16%, Spain 10.5%, France 10%, Canada 7.9%, Brazil
  6.5%, Belgium 4.3%, Germany 4.2% (2005)

Imports:
  $27.6 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods

Imports - partners:
  France 28.1%, Italy 7.8%, Spain 7.2%, China 6.6%, Germany 6.3%, US
  5.5% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $71.96 billion (2006 est.)

Debt - external:
  $5 billion (2006 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $313 million (2004 est.)

Currency (code):
  Algerian dinar (DZD)

Currency code:
  DZD

Exchange rates:
  Algerian dinars per US dollar - 73.2 (2006), 73.276 (2005), 72.061
  (2004), 77.395 (2003), 79.682 (2002)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Algeria


Telephones - main lines in use:
  2.572 million (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  13.661 million (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: telephone density in Algeria is very low, not
  exceeding five telephones per 100 persons; the number of fixed main
  lines increased in the last few years to nearly 2.6 million, but
  only about two-thirds of these have subscribers; much of the
  infrastructure is outdated and inefficient
  domestic: good service in north but sparse in south; domestic
  satellite system with 12 earth stations (20 additional domestic
  earth stations are planned)
  international: country code - 213; submarine cables - 5; microwave
  radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial
  cable to Morocco and Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel; satellite
  earth stations - 51 (Intelsat, Intersputnik, and Arabsat) (2005)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 25, FM 1, shortwave 8 (1999)

Radios:
  7.1 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  46 (plus 216 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions:
  3.1 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .dz

Internet hosts:
  1,202 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  1.92 million (2005)

Transportation Algeria


Airports:
  142 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 52
  over 3,047 m: 10
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 27
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
  914 to 1,523 m: 4
  under 914 m: 1 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 90
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 26
  914 to 1,523 m: 39
  under 914 m: 23 (2006)

Heliports:
  1 (2006)

Pipelines:
  condensate 1,344 km; gas 85,946 km; liquid petroleum gas 2,213 km;
  oil 6,496 km (2005)

Railways:
  total: 3,973 km
  standard gauge: 2,888 km 1.435-m gauge (283 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 1,085 km 1.055-m gauge (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 108,302 km
  paved: 76,028 km
  unpaved: 32,274 km (2004)

Merchant marine:
  total: 41 ships (1000 GRT or over) 744,406 GRT/766,764 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 7, cargo 10, chemical tanker 2, liquefied gas
  9, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 5, roll on/roll off 3,
  specialized tanker 1
  foreign-owned: 13 (UK 13) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Djendjene, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran,
  Skikda

Military Algeria


Military branches:
  National Popular Army (ANP; includes Land Forces), Algerian
  National Navy (MRA), Air Force (QJJ), Territorial Air Defense Force
  (2005)

Military service age and obligation:
  19-30 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript
  service obligation - 18 months (6 months basic training, 12 months
  civil projects) (2006)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 19-49: 8,033,049
  females age 19-49: 7,926,351 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 19-49: 6,590,079
  females age 19-49: 6,711,285 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 374,639
  females age 19-49: 369,021 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $3 billion (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  3.2% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Algeria


Disputes - international:
  Algeria supports the exiled Sahrawi Polisario Front and rejects
  Moroccan administration of Western Sahara; most of the approximately
  102,000 Western Saharan Sahrawi refugees are sheltered in camps in
  Tindouf, Algeria; Algeria's border with Morocco remains an irritant
  to bilateral relations, each nation accusing the other of harboring
  militants and arms smuggling; in an attempt to improve relations,
  Morocco, in mid-2004, unilaterally lifted the requirement that
  Algerians visiting Morocco possess entry visas - a gesture not
  reciprocated by Algeria; Algeria remains concerned about armed
  bandits operating throughout the Sahel who sometimes destabilize
  southern Algerian towns; dormant disputes include Libyan claims of
  about 32,000 sq km still reflected on its maps of southeastern
  Algeria and the FLN's assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in
  southeastern Morocco

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  refugees (country of origin): 90,000 (Western Saharan Sahrawi,
  mostly living in Algerian-sponsored camps in the southwestern
  Algerian town of Tindouf)
  IDPs: 400,000-600,000 (conflict between government forces, Islamic
  insurgents) (2006)

Trafficking in persons:
  current situation: Algeria is a transit and destination country for
  men, women, and children from sub-Saharan Africa and Asia trafficked
  for forced labor and sexual exploitation; many victims willingly
  migrate to Algeria en route to European countries with the help of
  smugglers, where they are often forced into prostitution, labor, and
  begging to pay off their smuggling debt; armed militants reportedly
  traffic women for sexual exploitation and involuntary servitude, and
  children may be trafficked for forced labor as domestic servants or
  street vendors
  tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Algeria took no steps to assess the
  scope of trafficking in the country and reported no investigations
  or prosecutions for trafficking offenses this year


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@American Samoa

Introduction American Samoa


Background:
  Settled as early as 1000 B.C., Samoa was "discovered" by European
  explorers in the 18th century. International rivalries in the latter
  half of the 19th century were settled by an 1899 treaty in which
  Germany and the US divided the Samoan archipelago. The US formally
  occupied its portion - a smaller group of eastern islands with the
  excellent harbor of Pago Pago - the following year.

Geography American Samoa


Location:
  Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about half
  way between Hawaii and New Zealand

Geographic coordinates:
  14 20 S, 170 00 W

Map references:
  Oceania

Area:
  total: 199 sq km
  land: 199 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  note: includes Rose Island and Swains Island

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  116 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual
  rainfall averages about 3 m; rainy season (November to April), dry
  season (May to October); little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain:
  five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal plains,
  two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island)

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Lata Mountain 964 m

Natural resources:
  pumice, pumicite

Land use:
  arable land: 10%
  permanent crops: 15%
  other: 75% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  NA

Natural hazards:
  typhoons common from December to March

Environment - current issues:
  limited natural fresh water resources; the water division of the
  government has spent substantial funds in the past few years to
  improve water catchments and pipelines

Geography - note:
  Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the
  South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and
  protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic
  location in the South Pacific Ocean

People American Samoa


Population:
  57,794 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 34.7% (male 10,388/female 9,654)
  15-64 years: 62.4% (male 18,698/female 17,350)
  65 years and over: 2.9% (male 633/female 1,071) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 23.2 years
  male: 22.9 years
  female: 23.4 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  -0.19% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  22.46 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  3.27 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -21.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 9.07 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 9.66 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 8.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 76.05 years
  male: 72.48 years
  female: 79.82 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.16 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: American Samoan(s) (US nationals)
  adjective: American Samoan

Ethnic groups:
  native Pacific islander 92.9%, Asian 2.9%, white 1.2%, mixed 2.8%,
  other 0.2% (2000 census)

Religions:
  Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%, Protestant and
  other 30%

Languages:
  Samoan 90.6% (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian
  languages), English 2.9%, Tongan 2.4%, other Pacific islander 2.1%,
  other 2%
  note: most people are bilingual (2000 census)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 97%
  male: 98%
  female: 97% (1980 est.)

Government American Samoa


Country name:
  conventional long form: Territory of American Samoa
  conventional short form: American Samoa
  abbreviation: AS

Dependency status:
  unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US; administered by
  the Office of Insular Affairs, US Department of the Interior

Government type:
  NA

Capital:
  name: Pago Pago
  geographic coordinates: 14 16 S, 170 42 W
  time difference: UTC-11 (6 hours behind Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  none (territory of the US); there are no first-order administrative
  divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are three
  districts and two islands* at the second order; Eastern, Manu'a,
  Rose Island*, Swains Island*, Western

Independence:
  none (territory of the US)

National holiday:
  Flag Day, 17 April (1900)

Constitution:
  ratified 2 June 1966, effective 1 July 1967

Legal system:
  NA

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President George W. BUSH of the US (since 20
  January 2001); Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 January
  2001)
  head of government: Governor Togiola TULAFONO (since 7 April 2003)
  cabinet: Cabinet made up of 12 department directors
  elections: under the US Consitution, residents of unincorporated
  territories, such as American Samoa, do not vote in elections for US
  president and vice president; governor and lieutenant governor
  elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms
  (eligible for a second term); election last held 2 and 16 November
  2004 (next to be held November 2008)
  election results: Togiola TULAFONO elected governor; percent of vote
  - Togiola TULAFONO 55.7%, Afoa Moega LUTU 44.3%

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Fono or Legislative Assembly consists of the House of
  Representatives (21 seats - 20 of which are elected by popular vote
  and 1 is an appointed, nonvoting delegate from Swains Island;
  members serve two-year terms) and the Senate (18 seats; members are
  elected from local chiefs and serve four-year terms)
  elections: House of Representatives - last held 7 November 2006
  (next to be held November 2008); Senate - last held 2 November 2004
  (next to be held November 2008)
  election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by
  party - NA; seats by party - NA; Senate - percent of vote by party -
  NA; seats by party - independents 18
  note: American Samoa elects one nonvoting representative to the US
  House of Representatives; election last held 7 November 2006 (next
  to be held November 2008); results - Eni F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA
  (Democrat) reelected as delegate

Judicial branch:
  High Court (chief justice and associate justices are appointed by
  the US Secretary of the Interior)

Political parties and leaders:
  Democratic Party [Oreta M. TOGAFAU]; Republican Party [Tautai A. F.
  FAALEVAO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  Interpol (subbureau), IOC, SPC, UPU

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (territory of the US)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (territory of the US)

Flag description:
  blue, with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the outer
  side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American bald
  eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional
  Samoan symbols of authority, a staff and a war club

Economy American Samoa


Economy - overview:
  American Samoa has a traditional Polynesian economy in which more
  than 90% of the land is communally owned. Economic activity is
  strongly linked to the US with which American Samoa conducts most of
  its foreign trade. Tuna fishing and tuna processing plants are the
  backbone of the private sector, with canned tuna the primary export.
  Transfers from the US Government add substantially to American
  Samoa's economic well being. Attempts by the government to develop a
  larger and broader economy are restrained by Samoa's remote
  location, its limited transportation, and its devastating
  hurricanes. Tourism is a promising developing sector.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $510.1 million (2003 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $333.8 million (2005)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3% (2003)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $5,800 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Labor force:
  17,630 (2005)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 34%
  industry: 33%
  services: 33% (1990)

Unemployment rate:
  29.8% (2005)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $121 million (37% in local revenue and 63% in US grants)
  expenditures: $127 million; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (FY96/97)

Agriculture - products:
  bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams, copra,
  pineapples, papayas; dairy products, livestock

Industries:
  tuna canneries (largely supplied by foreign fishing vessels),
  handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  128 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  119 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - consumption:
  3,900 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $445.6 million (FY04 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  canned tuna 93% (2004 est.)

Exports - partners:
  Indonesia 28.2%, India 22.3%, Australia 15.3%, Japan 11.2%, NZ 7.1%
  (2005)

Imports:
  $308.8 million (FY04 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  materials for canneries 56%, food 8%, petroleum products 7%,
  machinery and parts 6% (2004 est.)

Imports - partners:
  Australia 66%, Samoa 13.8%, NZ 10.8% (2005)

Debt - external:
  $NA

Economic aid - recipient:
  important financial support from the US, more than $40 million in
  1994

Currency (code):
  US dollar (USD)

Currency code:
  USD

Exchange rates:
  the US dollar is used

Fiscal year:
  1 October - 30 September

Communications American Samoa


Telephones - main lines in use:
  15,000 (2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  2,377 (1999)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: good telex, telegraph, facsimile and cellular telephone
  services; domestic satellite system with 1 Comsat earth station
  international: country code - 684; satellite earth station - 1
  (Intelsat-Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 (2006)

Radios:
  57,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (Low Power TV); note - one cable TV station (2006)

Televisions:
  14,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .as

Internet hosts:
  1,456 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  NA

Transportation American Samoa


Airports:
  3 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 2
  over 3,047 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2006)

Roadways:
  total: 185 km (2004)

Ports and terminals:
  Pago Pago

Military American Samoa


Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the US

Transnational Issues American Samoa


Disputes - international:
  none


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Andorra

Introduction Andorra


Background:
  For 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, Andorrans lived under a unique
  co-principality, ruled by French and Spanish leaders (from 1607
  onward, the French chief of state and the Spanish bishop of Urgel).
  In 1993, this feudal system was modified with the titular heads of
  state retained, but the government transformed into a parliamentary
  democracy. Long isolated and impoverished, mountainous Andorra
  achieved considerable prosperity since World War II through its
  tourist industry. Many immigrants (legal and illegal) are attracted
  to the thriving economy with its lack of income taxes.

Geography Andorra


Location:
  Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain

Geographic coordinates:
  42 30 N, 1 30 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 468 sq km
  land: 468 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  total: 120.3 km
  border countries: France 56.6 km, Spain 63.7 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

Terrain:
  rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m
  highest point: Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m

Natural resources:
  hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

Land use:
  arable land: 2.13%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 97.87% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  NA

Natural hazards:
  avalanches

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil
  erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Hazardous Wastes, Biodiversity
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads in the
  Pyrenees

People Andorra


Population:
  71,201 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 14.7% (male 5,456/female 4,994)
  15-64 years: 71.4% (male 26,632/female 24,172)
  65 years and over: 14% (male 4,918/female 5,029) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 40.9 years
  male: 41.2 years
  female: 40.7 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.89% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  8.71 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  6.25 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  6.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.98 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 4.04 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 4.38 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 3.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 83.51 years
  male: 80.61 years
  female: 86.61 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.3 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Andorran(s)
  adjective: Andorran

Ethnic groups:
  Spanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%, other 6%
  (1998)

Religions:
  Roman Catholic (predominant)

Languages:
  Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese

Literacy:
  definition: NA
  total population: 100%
  male: 100%
  female: 100%

Government Andorra


Country name:
  conventional long form: Principality of Andorra
  conventional short form: Andorra
  local long form: Principat d'Andorra
  local short form: Andorra

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its
  chiefs of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president
  of France and bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain, who are represented
  locally by coprinces' representatives

Capital:
  name: Andorra la Vella
  geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 1 30 E
  time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last
  Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
  7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra la Vella,
  Canillo, Encamp, Escaldes-Engordany, La Massana, Ordino, Sant Julia
  de Loria

Independence:
  1278 (formed under the joint suzerainty of the French count of Foix
  and the Spanish bishop of Urgel)

National holiday:
  Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)

Constitution:
  Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991, approved
  by referendum 14 March 1993, effective 4 May 1993

Legal system:
  based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of
  legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: French Coprince Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995),
  represented by Philippe MASSONI (since 26 July 2002); Spanish
  Coprince Bishop Joan Enric VIVES i SICILIA (since 12 May 2003),
  represented by Nemesi MARQUES i OSTE (since NA)
  head of government: Executive Council President Albert PINTAT
  SANTOLARIA (since 27 May 2005)
  cabinet: Executive Council or Govern designated by the Executive
  Council president
  elections: Executive Council president elected by the General
  Council and formally appointed by the coprinces for a four-year
  term; election last held 24 April 2005 (next to be held April-May
  2009)
  election results: Albert PINTAT SANTOLARIA elected executive council
  president; percent of General Council vote - NA

Legislative branch:
  unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de las
  Valls (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote, 14 from
  a single national constituency and 14 to represent each of the seven
  parishes; members serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 24 April 2005 (next to be held March-April 2009)
  election results: percent of vote by party - PLA 41.2%, PS 38.1%,
  CDA-S21 11%, other 9.7%; seats by party - PLA 14, PS 12, CDA-S21 2

Judicial branch:
  Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts
  or Tribunal de Corts; Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or
  Tribunal Superior de Justicia d'Andorra; Supreme Council of Justice
  or Consell Superior de la Justicia; Fiscal Ministry or Ministeri
  Fiscal; Constitutional Tribunal or Tribunal Constitucional

Political parties and leaders:
  Andorran Democratic Center Party or CDA (formerly Democratic Party
  or PD); Century 21 or S21 [Enric TARRADO]; Liberal Party of Andorra
  or PLA (formerly Liberal Union or UL) [Albert PINTAT SANTOLARIA];
  Social Democratic Party or PS (formerly part of National Democratic
  Group or AND) [Jaume BARTUMEU CASSANY]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  CE, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITU, OIF, OIF
  (associate member), OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNWTO, WCO, WHO,
  WIPO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Julian VILA COMA
  chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017
  telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064
  FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  the US does not have an embassy in Andorra; the US Ambassador to
  Spain is accredited to Andorra; US interests in Andorra are
  represented by the Consulate General's office in Barcelona (Spain);
  mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda de Montcada, 23, 08034
  Barcelona, Spain; telephone: [34] (3) 280-2227; FAX: [34] (3)
  205-5206

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red
  with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat
  of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad
  and Romania, which do not have a national coat of arms in the
  center, and the flag of Moldova, which does bear a national emblem

Economy Andorra


Economy - overview:
  Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do economy,
  accounts for more than 80% of GDP. An estimated 11.6 million
  tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and
  by its summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative advantage
  has recently eroded as the economies of neighboring France and Spain
  have been opened up, providing broader availability of goods and
  lower tariffs. The banking sector, with its partial "tax haven"
  status, also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural
  production is limited - only 2% of the land is arable - and most
  food has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep
  raising. Manufacturing output consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars,
  and furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is
  treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs)
  and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $1.84 billion (2004)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  NA

GDP - real growth rate:
  4% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $24,000 (2004)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Labor force:
  48,740 (2004)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 0.3%
  industry: 19.6%
  services: 80% (2004)

Unemployment rate:
  0% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.4% (2004)

Budget:
  revenues: $373.5 million
  expenditures: $373.5 million; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2004)

Agriculture - products:
  small quantities of rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables; sheep

Industries:
  tourism (particularly skiing), cattle raising, timber, banking,
  tobacco, furniture

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  NA kWh

Electricity - production by source:
  NA

Electricity - consumption:
  NA kWh

Electricity - exports:
  NA kWh

Electricity - imports:
  NA kWh; note - most electricity supplied by Spain and France;
  Andorra generates a small amount of hydropower

Exports:
  $145 million f.o.b. (2004)

Exports - commodities:
  tobacco products, furniture

Exports - partners:
  Spain 59.5%, France 17.0% (2005)

Imports:
  $1.077 billion (1998)

Imports - commodities:
  consumer goods, food, electricity

Imports - partners:
  Spain 53.2%, France 21.1% (2005)

Debt - external:
  $NA

Economic aid - recipient:
  none

Currency (code):
  euro (EUR)

Currency code:
  EUR

Exchange rates:
  euros per US dollar - 0.79669 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004),
  0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Andorra


Telephones - main lines in use:
  35,400 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  64,600 (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections
  between exchanges
  international: country code - 376; landline circuits to France and
  Spain

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 0, FM 15, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  16,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  0 (1997)

Televisions:
  27,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ad

Internet hosts:
  14,944 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  21,900 (2005)

Transportation Andorra


Roadways:
  total: 269 km
  paved: 198 km
  unpaved: 71 km

Military Andorra


Military branches:
  no regular military forces, Police Service of Andorra

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 18,418 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 14,721 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 369 (2005 est.)

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of France and Spain

Transnational Issues Andorra


Disputes - international:
  none


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Angola

Introduction Angola


Background:
  Angola is slowly rebuilding its country after the end of a 27-year
  civil war in 2002. Fighting between the Popular Movement for the
  Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, and the
  National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by
  Jonas SAVIMBI, followed independence from Portugal in 1975. Peace
  seemed imminent in 1992 when Angola held national elections, but
  UNITA renewed fighting after being beaten by the MPLA at the polls.
  Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people
  displaced - in the quarter century of fighting. SAVIMBI's death in
  2002 ended UNITA's insurgency and strengthened the MPLA's hold on
  power. DOS SANTOS has pledged to hold legislative elections in 2007,
  but 2008 may be more realistic.

Geography Angola


Location:
  Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between
  Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates:
  12 30 S, 18 30 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 1,246,700 sq km
  land: 1,246,700 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,198 km
  border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km (of
  which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province),
  Republic of the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km

Coastline:
  1,600 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry
  season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

Terrain:
  narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Morro de Moco 2,620 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold,
  bauxite, uranium

Land use:
  arable land: 2.65%
  permanent crops: 0.23%
  other: 97.12% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  800 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau

Environment - current issues:
  overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to
  population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical
  rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical
  timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of
  biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and
  siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the
  Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of
  the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo

People Angola


Population:
  12,127,071 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 43.7% (male 2,678,185/female 2,625,933)
  15-64 years: 53.5% (male 3,291,954/female 3,195,688)
  65 years and over: 2.8% (male 148,944/female 186,367) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 18 years
  male: 18 years
  female: 18 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.45% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  45.11 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  24.2 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  3.55 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 185.36 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 197.56 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 172.54 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 38.62 years
  male: 37.47 years
  female: 39.83 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  6.35 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  3.9% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  240,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  21,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: very high
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea,
  hepatitis A, typhoid fever
  vectorborne diseases: malaria, African trypanosomiasis (sleeping
  sickness) are high risks in some locations
  respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
  water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2007)

Nationality:
  noun: Angolan(s)
  adjective: Angolan

Ethnic groups:
  Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European
  and native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%

Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (1998
  est.)

Languages:
  Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 66.8%
  male: 82.1%
  female: 53.8% (2001 est.)

Government Angola


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Angola
  conventional short form: Angola
  local long form: Republica de Angola
  local short form: Angola
  former: People's Republic of Angola

Government type:
  republic; multiparty presidential regime

Capital:
  name: Luanda
  geographic coordinates: 8 48 S, 13 14 E
  time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela,
  Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene,
  Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico,
  Namibe, Uige, Zaire

Independence:
  11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 11 November (1975)

Constitution:
  adopted by People's Assembly 25 August 1992

Legal system:
  based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently
  modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use of
  free markets

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21
  September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and
  head of government
  head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21
  September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and
  head of government; Fernando de Piedade Dias DOS SANTOS was
  appointed Prime Minister on 6 December 2002
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
  elections: president elected by universal ballot for a five-year
  term (eligible for a second consecutive or discontinuous term) under
  the 1992 constitution; President DOS SANTOS originally elected (in
  1979) without opposition under a one-party system and stood for
  reelection in Angola's first multiparty elections 29-30 September
  1992 (next to be held in 2009)
  election results: Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS 49.6%, Jonas SAVIMBI
  40.1%, making a run-off election necessary; the run-off was not held
  and SAVIMBI's National Union for the Total Independence of Angola
  (UNITA) repudiated the results of the first election; the civil war
  resumed leaving DOS SANTOS in his current position as the president

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats;
  members elected by proportional vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held September
  2008)
  election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 54%, UNITA 34%,
  other 12%; seats by party - MPLA 129, UNITA 70, PRS 6, FNLA 5, PLD
  3, other 7

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court and separate provincial courts (judges are appointed
  by the president)

Political parties and leaders:
  Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Analia de Victoria PEREIRA];
  National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA [disputed
  leadership: Lucas NGONDA, Holden ROBERTO]; National Union for the
  Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Isaias SAMAKUVA] (largest
  opposition party); Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or
  MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS] (ruling party in power since 1975);
  Social Renewal Party or PRS [disputed leadership: Eduardo KUANGANA,
  Antonio MUACHICUNGO]
  note: about a dozen minor parties participated in the 1992 elections
  but only won a few seats; they and the other 115 smaller parties
  have little influence in the National Assembly

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita
  Henriques TIAGO, Antonio Bento BEMBE]
  note: FLEC's small-scale, highly factionalized armed struggle for
  the independence of Cabinda Province has largely ended

International organization participation:
  ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt
  (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
  IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OAS
  (observer), SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU,
  WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Josefina Perpetua Pitra DIAKITI
  chancery: 2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
  telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156
  FAX: [1] (202) 785-1258
  consulate(s) general: Houston, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Cynthia EFIRD
  embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne (in the Miramar area of
  Luanda), Luanda
  mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6468, Luanda;
  pouch: US Embassy Luanda,US Department of State, 2550 Luanda Place,
  Washington, DC 20521-2550
  telephone: [244] (222) 64-1000
  FAX: [244] (222) 64-1232

Flag description:
  two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered
  yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a
  cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)

Economy Angola


Economy - overview:
  Angola's high growth rate is driven by its oil sector, with record
  oil prices and rising petroleum production. Oil production and its
  supporting activities contribute about half of GDP and 90% of
  exports. Increased oil production supported 12% growth in 2004, 19%
  growth in 2005, and nearly 17% growth in 2006. A postwar
  reconstruction boom and resettlement of displaced persons has led to
  high rates of growth in construction and agriculture as well. Much
  of the country's infrastructure is still damaged or undeveloped from
  the 27-year-long civil war. Remnants of the conflict such as
  widespread land mines still mar the countryside even though an
  apparently durable peace was established after the death of rebel
  leader Jonas SAVIMBI in February 2002. Subsistence agriculture
  provides the main livelihood for half of the population, but half of
  the country's food must still be imported. In 2005, the government
  started using a $2 billion line of credit from China to rebuild
  Angola's public infrastructure, and several large-scale projects
  were completed in 2006. The central bank in 2003 implemented an
  exchange rate stabilization program using foreign exchange reserves
  to buy kwanzas out of circulation, a policy that was more
  sustainable in 2005 because of strong oil export earnings, and has
  significantly reduced inflation. Consumer inflation declined from
  325% in 2000 to about 13% in 2006, but the stabilization policy
  places pressure on international net liquidity. To fully take
  advantage of its rich national resources - gold, diamonds, extensive
  forests, Atlantic fisheries, and large oil deposits - Angola will
  need to continue reforming government policies and to reduce
  corruption. The government has made little progress on reforms
  recommended by the IMF such as promoting greater transparency in
  government spending and continues to be without a formal monitoring
  agreement with the institution. Corruption, especially in the
  extractive sectors, is a major challenge facing Angola.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $51.95 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $28.37 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  14% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $4,300 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 9.6%
  industry: 65.8%
  services: 24.6% (2005 est.)

Labor force:
  6.393 million (2006 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 85%
  industry and services: 15% (2003 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  extensive unemployment and underemployment affecting more than half
  the population (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  70% (2003 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  13.2% (2006 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  14.6% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $10.98 billion
  expenditures: $9.7 billion; including capital expenditures of $963
  million (2006 est.)

Public debt:
  32.7% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, manioc (tapioca),
  tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish

Industries:
  petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite,
  uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing;
  food processing, brewing, tobacco products, sugar; textiles; ship
  repair

Industrial production growth rate:
  13.5% (2004)

Electricity - production:
  2.194 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 36.4%
  hydro: 63.6%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  2.04 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  1.6 million bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  48,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  25 billion bbl (2006 est.)

Natural gas - production:
  750 million cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  750 million cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  45.87 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Current account balance:
  $7.7 billion (2006 est.)

Exports:
  $35.53 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas, coffee,
  sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton

Exports - partners:
  US 39.8%, China 29.6%, France 7.8%, Chile 5.4%, Taiwan 4.4% (2005)

Imports:
  $10.21 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts;
  medicines, food, textiles, military goods

Imports - partners:
  South Korea 20.5%, Portugal 13.4%, US 12.5%, South Africa 7.4%,
  Brazil 7%, France 5.1%, China 5% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $6.75 billion (2006 est.)

Debt - external:
  $11.24 billion (2006 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $383.5 million (1999)

Currency (code):
  kwanza (AOA)

Currency code:
  AOA

Exchange rates:
  kwanza per US dollar - 80.3 (2006), 88.6 (2005), 83.541 (2004),
  74.606 (2003), 43.53 (2002)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Angola


Telephones - main lines in use:
  94,300 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1,094,100 (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: telephone service limited mostly to government
  and business use; HF radiotelephone used extensively for military
  links
  domestic: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and
  tropospheric scatter
  international: country code - 244; satellite earth stations - 29;
  fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC) provides connectivity to
  Europe and Asia (2005)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 21, FM 6, shortwave 7 (2000)

Radios:
  815,000 (2000)

Television broadcast stations:
  6 (2000)

Televisions:
  196,000 (2000)

Internet country code:
  .ao

Internet hosts:
  2,525 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  172,000 (2005)

Transportation Angola


Airports:
  244 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 31
  over 3,047 m: 5
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
  914 to 1,523 m: 5
  under 914 m: 1 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 213
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 30
  914 to 1,523 m: 95
  under 914 m: 81 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 235 km; liquid petroleum gas 122 km; oil 867 km; oil/gas/water
  5 km (2006)

Railways:
  total: 2,761 km
  narrow gauge: 2,638 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 51,429 km
  paved: 5,349 km
  unpaved: 46,080 km (2001)

Waterways:
  1,300 km (2005)

Merchant marine:
  total: 4 ships (1000 GRT or over) 4,343 GRT/4,643 DWT
  by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1
  registered in other countries: 5 (Bahamas 5) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Cabinda, Luanda, Soyo

Military Angola


Military branches:
  Army, Navy (Marinha de Guerra, MdG), Air and Air Defense Forces
  (FANA) (2006)

Military service age and obligation:
  17 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service
  obligation - two years plus time for training (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 17-49: 2,548,455
  females age 17-49: 2,462,601 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 17-49: 1,282,195
  females age 17-49: 1,256,390 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 126,694
  females age 17-49: 123,586 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $2 billion (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  8.8% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Angola


Disputes - international:
  many Cabinda exclave secessionists have sought shelter in
  neighboring states

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  refugees (country of origin): 13,464 (Democratic Republic of Congo)
  IDPs: 61,700 (27-year civil war ending in 2002; 4 million IDPs
  already have returned) (2006)

Illicit drugs:
  used as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for Western
  Europe and other African states


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Anguilla

Introduction Anguilla


Background:
  Colonized by English settlers from Saint Kitts in 1650, Anguilla
  was administered by Great Britain until the early 19th century, when
  the island - against the wishes of the inhabitants - was
  incorporated into a single British dependency, along with Saint
  Kitts and Nevis. Several attempts at separation failed. In 1971, two
  years after a revolt, Anguilla was finally allowed to secede; this
  arrangement was formally recognized in 1980, with Anguilla becoming
  a separate British dependency.

Geography Anguilla


Location:
  Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic
  Ocean, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates:
  18 15 N, 63 10 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 102 sq km
  land: 102 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about half the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  61 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 3 nm
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

Terrain:
  flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Crocus Hill 65 m

Natural resources:
  salt, fish, lobster

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some
  commercial salt ponds) (2005)

Irrigated land:
  NA

Natural hazards:
  frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July to October)

Environment - current issues:
  supplies of potable water sometimes cannot meet increasing demand
  largely because of poor distribution system

Geography - note:
  the most northerly of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles

People Anguilla


Population:
  13,477 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 22.8% (male 1,557/female 1,510)
  15-64 years: 70.4% (male 4,878/female 4,608)
  65 years and over: 6.9% (male 412/female 512) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 31.2 years
  male: 31.2 years
  female: 31.1 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.57% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  14.17 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  5.34 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  6.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 20.32 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 26.67 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 13.79 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 77.28 years
  male: 74.35 years
  female: 80.3 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.73 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Anguillan(s)
  adjective: Anguillan

Ethnic groups:
  black (predominant) 90.1%, mixed, mulatto 4.6%, white 3.7%, other
  1.5% (2001 Census)

Religions:
  Anglican 29%, Methodist 23.9%, other Protestant 30.2%, Roman
  Catholic 5.7%, other Christian 1.7%, other 5.2%, none or unspecified
  4.3% (2001 Census)

Languages:
  English (official)

Literacy:
  definition: age 12 and over can read and write
  total population: 95%
  male: 95%
  female: 95% (1984 est.)

Government Anguilla


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Anguilla

Dependency status:
  overseas territory of the UK

Government type:
  NA

Capital:
  name: The Valley
  geographic coordinates: 18 13 N, 63 04 W
  time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday:
  Anguilla Day, 30 May

Constitution:
  Anguilla Constitutional Order 1 April 1982; amended 1990

Legal system:
  based on English common law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);
  represented by Governor Andrew N. GEORGE (since 10 July 2006)
  head of government: Chief Minister Osbourne FLEMING (since 3 March
  2000)
  cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from among the
  elected members of the House of Assembly
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by
  the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the
  majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually
  appointed chief minister by the governor

Legislative branch:
  unicameral House of Assembly (11 seats total, 7 elected by direct
  popular vote, 2 ex officio members, and 2 appointed; members serve
  five-year terms)
  elections: last held 21 February 2005 (next to be held 2010)
  election results: percent of vote by party - AUF 38.9%, ANSA 19.2%,
  AUM 19.4%, APP 9.5%, independents 13%; seats by party - AUF 4, ANSA
  2, AUM 1

Judicial branch:
  High Court (judge provided by Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court)

Political parties and leaders:
  Anguilla United Movement or AUM [Hubert HUGHES]; The Anguilla
  United Front or AUF [Osbourne FLEMING, Victor BANKS], a coalition of
  the Anguilla Democratic Party or ADP and the Anguilla National
  Alliance or ANA; Anguilla Progressive Party or APP [Roy ROGERS];
  Anguilla Strategic Alternative or ANSA [Edison BAIRD]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), OECS (associate),
  UPU

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description:
  blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
  the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag;
  the coat of arms depicts three orange dolphins in an interlocking
  circular design on a white background with blue wavy water below

Economy Anguilla


Economy - overview:
  Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy depends heavily
  on luxury tourism, offshore banking, lobster fishing, and
  remittances from emigrants. Increased activity in the tourism
  industry, which has spurred the growth of the construction sector,
  has contributed to economic growth. Anguillan officials have put
  substantial effort into developing the offshore financial sector,
  which is small, but growing. In the medium term, prospects for the
  economy will depend largely on the tourism sector and, therefore, on
  revived income growth in the industrialized nations as well as on
  favorable weather conditions.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $108.9 million (2004 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $108.9 million (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  10.2% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $8,800 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 4%
  industry: 18%
  services: 78% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  6,049 (2001)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining 4%, manufacturing 4%,
  construction 18%, transportation and utilities 3%, commerce 36%,
  services 18% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  8% (2002)

Population below poverty line:
  23% (2002)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  5.3% (2006 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $22.8 million
  expenditures: $22.5 million; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2000 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  small quantities of tobacco, vegetables; cattle raising

Industries:
  tourism, boat building, offshore financial services

Industrial production growth rate:
  3.1% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production:
  NA kWh

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: NA
  hydro: NA
  nuclear: NA
  other: NA

Electricity - consumption:
  42.6 million kWh

Current account balance:
  $-42.87 million (2003 est.)

Exports:
  $14.56 million (2005 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  lobster, fish, livestock, salt, concrete blocks, rum

Exports - partners:
  UK, US, Puerto Rico, Saint-Martin (2004)

Imports:
  $129.9 million (2005 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  fuels, foodstuffs, manufactures, chemicals, trucks, textiles

Imports - partners:
  US, Puerto Rico, UK (2004)

Debt - external:
  $8.8 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $9 million (2004 est.)

Currency (code):
  East Caribbean dollar (XCD)

Currency code:
  XCD

Exchange rates:
  East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7 (2005), 2.7 (2004), 2.7
  (2003), 2.7 (2002), note, fixed rate since 1976

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Anguilla


Telephones - main lines in use:
  6,200 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1,800 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: modern internal telephone system
  international: country code - 1-264; microwave radio relay to island
  of Saint Martin (Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 7, shortwave 0 (2004)

Radios:
  3,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (1997)

Televisions:
  1,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ai

Internet hosts:
  403 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  16 (2000)

Internet users:
  3,000 (2002)

Transportation Anguilla


Airports:
  3 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 2
  under 914 m: 2 (2006)

Roadways:
  total: 175 km
  paved: 82 km
  unpaved: 93 km (2004)

Merchant marine:
  registered in other countries: 1 (Panama 1) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Blowing Point, Road Bay

Military Anguilla


Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 3,614 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 2,986 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 120 (2005 est.)

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues Anguilla


Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the
  US and Europe


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Antarctica



Background:
  Speculation over the existence of a "southern land" was not
  confirmed until the early 1820s when British and American commercial
  operators and British and Russian national expeditions began
  exploring the Antarctic Peninsula region and other areas south of
  the Antarctic Circle. Not until 1840 was it established that
  Antarctica was indeed a continent and not just a group of islands.
  Several exploration "firsts" were achieved in the early 20th
  century. Following World War II, there was an upsurge in scientific
  research on the continent. A number of countries have set up
  year-round research stations on Antarctica. Seven have made
  territorial claims, but not all countries recognize these claims. In
  order to form a legal framework for the activities of nations on the
  continent, an Antarctic Treaty was negotiated that neither denies
  nor gives recognition to existing territorial claims; signed in
  1959, it entered into force in 1961.

Geography Antarctica


Location:
  continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle

Geographic coordinates:
  90 00 S, 0 00 E

Map references:
  Antarctic Region

Area:
  total: 14 million sq km
  land: 14 million sq km (280,000 sq km ice-free, 13.72 million sq km
  ice-covered) (est.)
  note: fifth-largest continent, following Asia, Africa, North
  America, and South America, but larger than Australia and the
  subcontinent of Europe

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US

Land boundaries:
  0 km
  note: see entry on Disputes - international

Coastline:
  17,968 km

Maritime claims:
  Australia, Chile, and Argentina claim Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)
  rights or similar over 200 nm extensions seaward from their
  continental claims, but like the claims themselves, these zones are
  not accepted by other countries; 21 of 28 Antarctic consultative
  nations have made no claims to Antarctic territory (although Russia
  and the US have reserved the right to do so) and do not recognize
  the claims of the other nations; also see the Disputes -
  international entry

Climate:
  severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance
  from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica
  because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most
  moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along the
  coast and average slightly below freezing

Terrain:
  about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock, with
  average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges
  up to nearly 5,000 meters; ice-free coastal areas include parts of
  southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area,
  and parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves
  along about half of the coastline, and floating ice shelves
  constitute 11% of the area of the continent

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Bentley Subglacial Trench -2,555 m
  highest point: Vinson Massif 4,897 m
  note: the lowest known land point in Antarctica is hidden in the
  Bentley Subglacial Trench; at its surface is the deepest ice yet
  discovered and the world's lowest elevation not under seawater

Natural resources:
  iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum and other
  minerals, and coal and hydrocarbons have been found in small
  uncommercial quantities; none presently exploited; krill, finfish,
  and crab have been taken by commercial fisheries

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%) (2005)

Natural hazards:
  katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from the high
  interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the plateau;
  cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise along the
  coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West
  Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak; large icebergs may
  calve from ice shelf

Environment - current issues:
  in 1998, NASA satellite data showed that the Antarctic ozone hole
  was the largest on record, covering 27 million square kilometers;
  researchers in 1997 found that increased ultraviolet light passing
  through the hole damages the DNA of icefish, an Antarctic fish
  lacking hemoglobin; ozone depletion earlier was shown to harm
  one-celled Antarctic marine plants; in 2002, significant areas of
  ice shelves disintegrated in response to regional warming

Geography - note:
  the coldest, windiest, highest (on average), and driest continent;
  during summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South
  Pole than is received at the Equator in an equivalent period; mostly
  uninhabitable

People Antarctica


Population:
  no indigenous inhabitants, but there are both permanent and
  summer-only staffed research stations
  note: 26 nations, all signatory to the Antarctic Treaty, operate
  through their National Antarctic Program a number of seasonal-only
  (summer) and year-round research stations on the continent and its
  nearby islands south of 60 degrees south latitude (the region
  covered by the Antarctic Treaty); these stations' population of
  persons doing and supporting science or engaged in the management
  and protection of the Antarctic region varies from approximately
  4,000 in summer to 1,000 in winter; in addition, approximately 1,000
  personnel, including ship's crew and scientists doing onboard
  research, are present in the waters of the treaty region; peak
  summer (December-February) population - 3,822 total; Argentina 417,
  Australia 213, Brazil 40, Bulgaria 15, Chile 224, China 70, Ecuador
  22, Finland 20, France 123, Germany 78, India 65, Italy 112, Japan
  150, South Korea 60, NZ 85, Norway 44, Peru 28, Poland 40, Russia
  429, South Africa 80, Spain 28, Sweden 20, Ukraine 24, UK 205, US
  1,170, Uruguay 60 (2005-2006); winter (June-August) station
  population - 1,028 total; Argentina 176, Australia 62, Brazil 12,
  Chile 88, China 29, France 37, Germany 9, India 25, Italy 2, Japan
  40, South Korea 15, NZ 10, Norway 7, Poland 12, Russia 148, South
  Africa 10, Ukraine 12, UK 37, US 288, Uruguay 9 (2005); research
  stations operated within the Antarctic Treaty area (south of 60
  degrees south latitude) by members of the Council of Managers of
  National Antarctic Programs (COMNAP): year-round stations - 37
  total; Argentina 6, Australia 3, Brazil 1, Chile 3, China 2, France
  1, Germany 1, India 1, Japan 1, South Korea 1, NZ 1, Norway 1,
  Poland 1, Russia 5, South Africa 1, Ukraine 1, UK 2, US 3, Uruguay
  1, Italy and France jointly 1 (2005); seasonal-only (summer)
  stations - 15 total; Australia 1, Bulgaria 1, Chile 1, Ecuador 1,
  Finland 1, Germany 1, Italy 1, Japan 1, Norway 1, Peru 1, Russia 1,
  Spain 2, Sweden 1, UK 1 (2005-2006); in addition, during the austral
  summer some nations have numerous occupied locations such as tent
  camps, summer-long temporary facilities, and mobile traverses in
  support of research

Government Antarctica


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Antarctica

Government type:
  Antarctic Treaty Summary - the Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1
  December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961, establishes
  the legal framework for the management of Antarctica; the 28th
  Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was held in Stockholm, Sweden
  in June 2005; at these periodic meetings, decisions are made by
  consensus (not by vote) of all consultative member nations; at the
  end of 2005, there were 45 treaty member nations: 28 consultative
  and 17 non-consultative; consultative (decision-making) members
  include the seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica as
  national territory (some claims overlap) and 21 non-claimant
  nations; the US and Russia have reserved the right to make claims;
  the US does not recognize the claims of others; Antarctica is
  administered through meetings of the consultative member nations;
  decisions from these meetings are carried out by these member
  nations (with respect to their own nationals and operations) in
  accordance with their own national laws; the years in parentheses
  indicate when a consultative member-nation acceded to the Treaty and
  when it was accepted as a consultative member, while no date
  indicates the country was an original 1959 treaty signatory;
  claimant nations are - Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, NZ,
  Norway, and the UK. Nonclaimant consultative nations are - Belgium,
  Brazil (1975/1983), Bulgaria (1978/1998) China (1983/1985), Ecuador
  (1987/1990), Finland (1984/1989), Germany (1979/1981), India
  (1983/1983), Italy (1981/1987), Japan, South Korea (1986/1989),
  Netherlands (1967/1990), Peru (1981/1989), Poland (1961/1977),
  Russia, South Africa, Spain (1982/1988), Sweden (1984/1988), Ukraine
  (1992/2004), Uruguay (1980/1985), and the US; non-consultative
  members, with year of accession in parentheses, are - Austria
  (1987), Canada (1988), Colombia (1989), Cuba (1984), Czech Republic
  (1962/1993), Denmark (1965), Estonia (2001), Greece (1987),
  Guatemala (1991), Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987), Papua New
  Guinea (1981), Romania (1971), Slovakia (1962/1993), Switzerland
  (1990), Turkey (1996), and Venezuela (1999); note - Czechoslovakia
  acceded to the Treaty in 1962 and separated into the Czech Republic
  and Slovakia in 1993; Article 1 - area to be used for peaceful
  purposes only; military activity, such as weapons testing, is
  prohibited, but military personnel and equipment may be used for
  scientific research or any other peaceful purpose; Article 2 -
  freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue;
  Article 3 - free exchange of information and personnel, cooperation
  with the UN and other international agencies; Article 4 - does not
  recognize, dispute, or establish territorial claims and no new
  claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force; Article 5 -
  prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes;
  Article 6 - includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south
  of 60 degrees 00 minutes south and reserves high seas rights;
  Article 7 - treaty-state observers have free access, including
  aerial observation, to any area and may inspect all stations,
  installations, and equipment; advance notice of all expeditions and
  of the introduction of military personnel must be given; Article 8 -
  allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own
  states; Article 9 - frequent consultative meetings take place among
  member nations; Article 10 - treaty states will discourage
  activities by any country in Antarctica that are contrary to the
  treaty; Article 11 - disputes to be settled peacefully by the
  parties concerned or, ultimately, by the ICJ; Articles 12, 13, 14 -
  deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among
  involved nations; other agreements - some 200 recommendations
  adopted at treaty consultative meetings and ratified by governments
  include - Agreed Measures for Fauna and Flora (1964) which were
  later incorporated into the Environmental Protocol; Convention for
  the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention on the
  Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980); a mineral
  resources agreement was signed in 1988 but remains unratified; the
  Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was
  signed 4 October 1991 and entered into force 14 January 1998; this
  agreement provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment
  through six specific annexes: 1) environmental impact assessment, 2)
  conservation of Antarctic fauna and flora, 3) waste disposal and
  waste management, 4) prevention of marine pollution, 5) area
  protection and management and 6) liability arising from
  environmental emergencies; it prohibits all activities relating to
  mineral resources except scientific research; a permanent Antarctic
  Treaty Secretariat was established in 2004 in Buenos Aires, Argentina

Legal system:
  Antarctica is administered through meetings of the consultative
  member nations; decisions from these meetings are carried out by
  these member nations (with respect to their own nationals and
  operations) in accordance with their own national laws; US law,
  including certain criminal offenses by or against US nationals, such
  as murder, may apply extraterritorially; some US laws directly apply
  to Antarctica; for example, the Antarctic Conservation Act, 16
  U.S.C. section 2401 et seq., provides civil and criminal penalties
  for the following activities, unless authorized by regulation of
  statute: the taking of native mammals or birds; the introduction of
  nonindigenous plants and animals; entry into specially protected
  areas; the discharge or disposal of pollutants; and the importation
  into the US of certain items from Antarctica; violation of the
  Antarctic Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000 in
  fines and one year in prison; the National Science Foundation and
  Department of Justice share enforcement responsibilities; Public Law
  95-541, the US Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, as amended in
  1996, requires expeditions from the US to Antarctica to notify, in
  advance, the Office of Oceans, Room 5805, Department of State,
  Washington, DC 20520, which reports such plans to other nations as
  required by the Antarctic Treaty; for more information, contact
  Permit Office, Office of Polar Programs, National Science
  Foundation, Arlington, Virginia 22230; telephone: (703) 292-8030, or
  visit their website at www.nsf.gov; more generally, access to the
  Antarctic Treaty area, that is to all areas between 60 and 90
  degrees south latitude, is subject to a number of relevant legal
  instruments and authorization procedures adopted by the states party
  to the Antarctic Treaty

Economy Antarctica


Economy - overview:
  Fishing off the coast and tourism, both based abroad, account for
  Antarctica's limited economic activity. Antarctic fisheries in
  2003-04 (1 July-30 June) reported landing 136,262 metric tons
  (estimated fishing from the area covered by the Convention on the
  Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), which
  extends slightly beyond the Antarctic Treaty area). Unregulated
  fishing, particularly of Patagonian toothfish, is a serious problem.
  The CCAMLR determines the recommended catch limits for marine
  species. A total of 23,175 tourists visited in the 2004-05 Antarctic
  summer, up from the 19,486 visitors the previous year. Nearly all of
  them were passengers on commercial (nongovernmental) ships and
  several yachts that make trips during the summer. Most tourist trips
  last approximately two weeks.

Communications Antarctica


Telephones - main lines in use:
  0; note - information for US bases only (2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  NA

Telephone system:
  general assessment: local systems at some research stations
  domestic: commercial cellular networks operating in a small number
  of locations
  international: country code - 672; via satellite (including mobile
  Inmarsat and Iridium systems) from all research stations, ships,
  aircraft, and most field parties

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM NA, FM 2, shortwave 1, note - information for US bases only
  (2002)

Radios:
  NA

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (cable system with six channels; American Forces Antarctic
  Network-McMurdo)
  note: information for US bases only (2002)

Televisions:
  several hundred at McMurdo Station (US)
  note: information for US bases only (2001)

Internet country code:
  .aq

Internet hosts:
  7,757 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  NA

Transportation Antarctica


Airports:
  20
  note: there are no developed public access airports or landing
  facilities; 28 stations or remote field locations, operated by 11
  National Antarctic Programs from nations party to the Antarctic
  Treaty, have restricted aircraft landing facilities comprising a
  total of 11 runways and 22 skiways for fixed-wing aircraft; some
  stations have both runways and skiways; commercial enterprises
  operate two aircraft landing facilities at one station; helicopter
  pads are available at all 37 year-round and 15 seasonal stations
  operated by National Antarctic Programs; the 11 runways are suitable
  for wheeled, fixed-wing aircraft: three are gravel, four blue-ice,
  two sea-ice and two compacted snow; of these, five are 3 km in
  length, two are between 2 km and 3 km in length, three are between 1
  km and 2 km in length and one is less than 1 km in length; the 22
  snow surface skiways are limited to use by ski-equipped, fixed-wing
  aircraft; of these, three are equal to or greater than 3 km in
  length, one is between 2 km and 3 km in length, nine are between 1
  km and 2 km in length, five are less than 1 km in length, and four
  are of unknown or variable length; snow surface skiways are
  generally prepared and maintained during specific periods only and
  during summer; all aircraft landing facilities subject to severe
  restrictions and limitations resulting from extreme seasonal and
  geographic conditions; aircraft landing facilities do not meet ICAO
  standards; advance approval from the respective governmental or
  nongovernmental operating organization required for using their
  facilities; landed aircraft are subject to inspection in accordance
  with Article 7, Antarctic Treaty; guidelines for the operation of
  aircraft near concentrations of birds in Antarctica were adopted in
  2004; relevant legal instruments and authorization procedures
  adopted by states party to the Antarctic Treaty regulating access to
  the Antarctic Treaty area, that is to all areas between 60 and 90
  degrees of latitude South, have to be complied with (see information
  under "Legal System"); an Antarctic Flight Information Manual (AFIM)
  providing up-to-date details of Antarctic air facilities and
  procedures is maintained and published by the Council of Managers of
  National Antarctic Programs (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 28
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 10
  under 914 m: 4
  length unknown or variable: 4 (2006)

Heliports:
  37
  note: all 37 year-round and 15 seasonal stations operated by
  National Antarctic Programs stations have restricted helicopter
  landing facilities (helipads) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  there are no developed ports and harbors in Antarctica; most
  coastal stations have offshore anchorages, and supplies are
  transferred from ship to shore by small boats, barges, and
  helicopters; a few stations have a basic wharf facility; US coastal
  stations include McMurdo (77 51 S, 166 40 E), and Palmer (64 43 S,
  64 03 W); government use only except by permit (see Permit Office
  under "Legal System"); all ships at port are subject to inspection
  in accordance with Article 7, Antarctic Treaty; offshore anchorage
  is sparse and intermittent; relevant legal instruments and
  authorization procedures adopted by the states parties to the
  Antarctic Treaty regulating access to the Antarctic Treaty area, to
  all areas between 60 and 90 degrees of latitude south, have to be
  complied with (see "Legal System"); The Hydrographic Committee on
  Antarctica (HCA), a special hydrographic commission of International
  Hydrographic Organization (IHO), is responsible for hydrographic
  surveying and nautical charting matters in Antarctic Treaty area; it
  coordinates and facilitates provision of accurate and appropriate
  charts and other aids to navigation in support of safety of
  navigation in region; membership of HCA is open to any IHO Member
  State whose government has acceded to the Antarctic Treaty and which
  contributes resources and/or data to IHO Chart coverage of the area;
  members of HCA are Argentina, Australia, Chile, China, France,
  Germany, Greece, India, Italy, NZ, Norway, Russia, South Africa,
  Spain, and the UK (2005)

Military Antarctica


Military - note:
  the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a military nature,
  such as the establishment of military bases and fortifications, the
  carrying out of military maneuvers, or the testing of any type of
  weapon; it permits the use of military personnel or equipment for
  scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes

Transnational Issues Antarctica


Disputes - international:
  Antarctic Treaty freezes claims (see Antarctic Treaty Summary in
  government type entry); Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, NZ,
  Norway, and UK claim land and maritime sectors (some overlapping)
  for a large portion of the continent; the US and many other states
  do not recognize these territorial claims and have made no claims
  themselves (the US and Russia reserve the right to do so); no claims
  have been made in the sector between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees
  west; several states with territorial claims in Antarctica have
  expressed their intention to submit data to the UN Commission on the
  Limits of the Continental Shelf to extend their continental shelf
  claims to adjoining undersea ridges


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Antigua and Barbuda

Introduction Antigua and Barbuda


Background:
  The Siboney were the first to inhabit the islands of Antigua and
  Barbuda in 2400 B.C., but Arawak Indians populated the islands when
  Columbus landed on his second voyage in 1493. Early settlements by
  the Spanish and French were succeeded by the English who formed a
  colony in 1667. Slavery, established to run the sugar plantations on
  Antigua, was abolished in 1834. The islands became an independent
  state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981.

Geography Antigua and Barbuda


Location:
  Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic
  Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates:
  17 03 N, 61 48 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 442.6 sq km (Antigua 280 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km)
  land: 442.6 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  note: includes Redonda, 1.6 sq km

Area - comparative:
  2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  153 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate:
  tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain:
  mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher
  volcanic areas

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m

Natural resources:
  NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism

Land use:
  arable land: 18.18%
  permanent crops: 4.55%
  other: 77.27% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  NA

Natural hazards:
  hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts

Environment - current issues:
  water management - a major concern because of limited natural fresh
  water resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to
  increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
  Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  Antigua has a deeply indented shoreline with many natural harbors
  and beaches; Barbuda has a very large western harbor

People Antigua and Barbuda


Population:
  69,108 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 27.6% (male 9,716/female 9,375)
  15-64 years: 68.5% (male 23,801/female 23,524)
  65 years and over: 3.9% (male 1,020/female 1,672) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 30 years
  male: 29.5 years
  female: 30.5 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.55% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  16.93 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  5.37 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -6.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
  total population: 1 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 18.86 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 22.71 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 14.82 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 72.16 years
  male: 69.78 years
  female: 74.66 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.24 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
  adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan

Ethnic groups:
  black, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrian

Religions:
  Christian (predominantly Anglican with other Protestant, and some
  Roman Catholic)

Languages:
  English (official), local dialects

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of
  schooling
  total population: 85.8%
  male: NA%
  female: NA% (2003 est.)

Government Antigua and Barbuda


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda

Government type:
  constitutional parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  name: Saint John's
  geographic coordinates: 17 06 N, 61 51 W
  time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George,
  Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip

Independence:
  1 November 1981 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day (National Day), 1 November (1981)

Constitution:
  1 November 1981

Legal system:
  based on English common law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General Sir James B. CARLISLE (since 10 June
  1993)
  head of government: Prime Minister Winston Baldwin SPENCER (since 24
  March 2004)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on
  the advice of the prime minister
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general chosen
  by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following
  legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the
  leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister
  by the governor general

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17-member body
  appointed by the governor general) and the House of Representatives
  (17 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to
  serve five-year terms)
  elections: House of Representatives - last held 23 March 2004 (next
  to be held in 2009)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
  ALP 4, UPP 13

Judicial branch:
  Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia; one judge of
  the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the
  Court of Summary Jurisdiction); member Caribbean Court of Justice

Political parties and leaders:
  Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester Bryant BIRD]; Barbudans for a
  Better Barbuda [Ordrick SAMUEL]; Barbuda People's Movement or BPM
  [Thomas H. FRANK]; Barbuda People's Movement for Change [Arthur
  NIBBS]; National Democratic Congress [Tillman THOMAS]; United
  Progressive Party or UPP [Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of three
  parties - Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM, Progressive
  Labor Movement or PLM, United National Democratic Party or UNDP)

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; People's
  Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]

International organization participation:
  ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IFAD, IFC,
  IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, ITUC,
  MIGA, NAM, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Deborah Mae LOVELL
  chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
  telephone: [1] (202) 362-5122
  FAX: [1] (202) 362-5225
  consulate(s) general: Miami

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda; the US
  Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda

Flag description:
  red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of
  the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black
  (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising sun in the black
  band

Economy Antigua and Barbuda


Economy - overview:
  Tourism continues to dominate the economy, accounting for more than
  half of GDP. Weak tourist arrival numbers since early 2000 have
  slowed the economy and pressed the government into a tight fiscal
  corner. The dual-island nation's agricultural production is focused
  on the domestic market and constrained by a limited water supply and
  a labor shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages in tourism
  and construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for
  export with major products being bedding, handicrafts, and
  electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the medium
  term will continue to depend on income growth in the industrialized
  world, especially in the US, which accounts for slightly more than
  one-third of tourist arrivals.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $750 million (2002 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $905 million (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3.8% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $10,900 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 3.8%
  industry: 22%
  services: 74.3% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  30,000

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 7%
  industry: 11%
  services: 82% (1983)

Unemployment rate:
  11% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  0.9% (2005 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $123.7 million
  expenditures: $145.9 million; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2000 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes,
  sugarcane; livestock

Industries:
  tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol,
  household appliances)

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA

Electricity - production:
  105 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  97.65 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - consumption:
  3,800 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Current account balance:
  $-83.4 million (2004)

Exports:
  $46.81 million (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, machinery and transport
  equipment 17%, food and live animals 4%, other 8%

Exports - partners:
  Spain 34%, Germany 20.7%, Italy 7.7%, Singapore 5.8%, UK 4.9% (2005)

Imports:
  $378 million (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment,
  manufactures, chemicals, oil

Imports - partners:
  US 21.1%, China 16.4%, Germany 13.3%, Singapore 12.7%, Spain 6.5%
  (2005)

Debt - external:
  $427.3 million; note - data are for public external debt, not total
  external debt (2000)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $1.65 million (2004)

Currency (code):
  East Caribbean dollar (XCD)

Currency code:
  XCD

Exchange rates:
  East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7 (2005), 2.7 (2004), 2.7
  (2003), 2.7 (2002), note, fixed rate since 1976

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Antigua and Barbuda


Telephones - main lines in use:
  38,000 (2004)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  54,000 (2004)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: good automatic telephone system
  international: country code - 1-268; 1 coaxial submarine cable;
  satellite earth station - 2; tropospheric scatter to Saba
  (Netherlands Antilles) and Guadeloupe

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  36,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  2 (1997)

Televisions:
  31,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ag

Internet hosts:
  2,231 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  16 (2000)

Internet users:
  20,000 (2005)

Transportation Antigua and Barbuda


Airports:
  3 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2006)

Roadways:
  total: 1,165 km
  paved: 384 km
  unpaved: 781 km (2002)

Merchant marine:
  total: 1,011 ships (1000 GRT or over) 7,452,503 GRT/9,783,309 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 40, cargo 596, chemical tanker 7, container
  321, liquefied gas 11, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1,
  refrigerated cargo 12, roll on/roll off 21
  foreign-owned: 984 (Australia 1, Bangladesh 4, Belgium 4, Colombia
  2, Denmark 14, Estonia 12, France 1, Germany 858, Iceland 8, Isle of
  Man 2, Latvia 5, Lebanon 1, Lithuania 3, Netherlands 14, Norway 11,
  NZ 1, Poland 3, Russia 6, Singapore 1, Slovenia 6, Switzerland 4,
  Turkey 8, UK 7, US 7, Vietnam 1) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Saint John's

Military Antigua and Barbuda


Military branches:
  Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force (2006)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age (est.); no conscript military service (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 18,952
  females age 18-49: 18,360 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 14,859
  females age 18-49: 14,947 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 507
  females age 18-49: 494 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  NA

Transnational Issues Antigua and Barbuda


Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  considered a minor transshipment point for narcotics bound for the
  US and Europe; more significant as an offshore financial center


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Arctic Ocean



Background:
  The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the world's five oceans (after
  the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and the recently
  delimited Southern Ocean). The Northwest Passage (US and Canada) and
  Northern Sea Route (Norway and Russia) are two important seasonal
  waterways. A sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes
  circumscribes the Arctic Ocean.

Geography Arctic Ocean


Location:
  body of water between Europe, Asia, and North America, mostly north
  of the Arctic Circle

Geographic coordinates:
  90 00 N, 0 00 E

Map references:
  Arctic Region

Area:
  total: 14.056 million sq km
  note: includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea,
  East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara
  Sea, Laptev Sea, Northwest Passage, and other tributary water bodies

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US

Coastline:
  45,389 km

Climate:
  polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively
  narrow annual temperature ranges; winters characterized by
  continuous darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear
  skies; summers characterized by continuous daylight, damp and foggy
  weather, and weak cyclones with rain or snow

Terrain:
  central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar icepack that,
  on average, is about 3 meters thick, although pressure ridges may be
  three times that thickness; clockwise drift pattern in the Beaufort
  Gyral Stream, but nearly straight-line movement from the New
  Siberian Islands (Russia) to Denmark Strait (between Greenland and
  Iceland); the icepack is surrounded by open seas during the summer,
  but more than doubles in size during the winter and extends to the
  encircling landmasses; the ocean floor is about 50% continental
  shelf (highest percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a central
  basin interrupted by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera,
  Nansen Cordillera, and Lomonosov Ridge)

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Fram Basin -4,665 m
  highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources:
  sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules,
  oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales)

Natural hazards:
  ice islands occasionally break away from northern Ellesmere Island;
  icebergs calved from glaciers in western Greenland and extreme
  northeastern Canada; permafrost in islands; virtually ice locked
  from October to June; ships subject to superstructure icing from
  October to May

Environment - current issues:
  endangered marine species include walruses and whales; fragile
  ecosystem slow to change and slow to recover from disruptions or
  damage; thinning polar icepack

Geography - note:
  major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea (northern access to
  the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait); strategic location between
  North America and Russia; shortest marine link between the extremes
  of eastern and western Russia; floating research stations operated
  by the US and Russia; maximum snow cover in March or April about 20
  to 50 centimeters over the frozen ocean; snow cover lasts about 10
  months



Economy Arctic Ocean


Economy - overview:
  Economic activity is limited to the exploitation of natural
  resources, including petroleum, natural gas, fish, and seals.


Transportation Arctic Ocean


Ports and terminals:
  Churchill (Canada), Murmansk (Russia), Prudhoe Bay (US)

Transportation - note:
  sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes; the Northwest
  Passage (North America) and Northern Sea Route (Eurasia) are
  important seasonal waterways


Transnational Issues Arctic Ocean


Disputes - international:
  some maritime disputes (see littoral states)


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Argentina

Introduction Argentina


Background:
  In 1816, the United Provinces of the Rio Plata declared their
  independence from Spain. Eventually, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay
  went their own way, but the area that remained became Argentina. The
  country's population and culture were subsequently heavily shaped by
  immigrants from throughout Europe, but most particularly Italy and
  Spain, which provided the largest percentage of newcomers from 1860
  to 1930. Up until about the mid-20th century, much of Argentina's
  history was dominated by periods of internal political conflict
  between Federalists and Unitarians and between civilian and military
  factions. After World War II, an era of Peronist authoritarian rule
  and interference in subsequent governments was followed by a
  military junta that took power in 1976. Democracy returned in 1983,
  and has persisted despite numerous challenges, the most formidable
  of which was a severe economic crisis in 2001-02 that led to violent
  public protests and the resignation of several interim presidents.
  The economy has since recovered strongly since bottoming out in
  2002. The government renegotiated its public debt in 2005 and paid
  off its remaining obligations to the IMF in early 2006.

Geography Argentina


Location:
  Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between
  Chile and Uruguay

Geographic coordinates:
  34 00 S, 64 00 W

Map references:
  South America

Area:
  total: 2,766,890 sq km
  land: 2,736,690 sq km
  water: 30,200 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US

Land boundaries:
  total: 9,861 km
  border countries: Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,261 km, Chile 5,308 km,
  Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 580 km

Coastline:
  4,989 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate:
  mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest

Terrain:
  rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau
  of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Laguna del Carbon -105 m (located between Puerto San
  Julian and Comandante Luis Piedra Buena in the province of Santa
  Cruz)
  highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,960 m (located in the northwestern
  corner of the province of Mendoza)

Natural resources:
  fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore,
  manganese, petroleum, uranium

Land use:
  arable land: 10.03%
  permanent crops: 0.36%
  other: 89.61% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  15,500 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to
  earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the
  pampas and northeast; heavy flooding

Environment - current issues:
  environmental problems (urban and rural) typical of an
  industrializing economy such as deforestation, soil degradation,
  desertification, air pollution, and water pollution
  note: Argentina is a world leader in setting voluntary greenhouse
  gas targets

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living
  Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate
  Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:
  second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic
  location relative to sea lanes between the South Atlantic and the
  South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake
  Passage); diverse geophysical landscapes range from tropical
  climates in the north to tundra in the far south; Cerro Aconcagua is
  the Western Hemisphere's tallest mountain, while Laguna del Carbon
  is the lowest point in the Western Hemisphere

People Argentina


Population:
  39,921,833 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 25.2% (male 5,153,164/female 4,921,625)
  15-64 years: 64.1% (male 12,804,376/female 12,798,731)
  65 years and over: 10.6% (male 1,740,118/female 2,503,819) (2006
  est.)

Median age:
  total: 29.7 years
  male: 28.8 years
  female: 30.7 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.96% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  16.73 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  7.55 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 14.73 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 16.58 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 12.78 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 76.12 years
  male: 72.38 years
  female: 80.05 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.16 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.7% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  130,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  1,500 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Argentine(s)
  adjective: Argentine

Ethnic groups:
  white (mostly Spanish and Italian) 97%, mestizo (mixed white and
  Amerindian ancestry), Amerindian, or other non-white groups 3%

Religions:
  nominally Roman Catholic 92% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant
  2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%

Languages:
  Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 97.1%
  male: 97.1%
  female: 97.1% (2003 est.)

Government Argentina


Country name:
  conventional long form: Argentine Republic
  conventional short form: Argentina
  local long form: Republica Argentina
  local short form: Argentina

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  name: Buenos Aires
  geographic coordinates: 34 36 S, 58 27 W
  time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 autonomous
  city* (distrito federal); Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires Capital
  Federal*, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios,
  Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquen, Rio
  Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del
  Estero, Tierra del Fuego - Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur,
  Tucuman
  note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica

Independence:
  9 July 1816 (from Spain)

National holiday:
  Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)

Constitution:
  1 May 1853; revised August 1994

Legal system:
  mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Nestor KIRCHNER (since 25 May 2003); Vice
  President Daniel SCIOLI (since 25 May 2003); note - the president is
  both the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President Nestor KIRCHNER (since 25 May 2003);
  Vice President Daniel SCIOLI (since 25 May 2003); note - the
  president is both the chief of state and head of government
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term);
  election last held 27 April 2003 (next election to be held in 2007)
  election results: results of the presidential election of 27 April
  2003: Carlos Saul MENEM 24.3%, Nestor KIRCHNER 22%, Ricardo Lopez
  MURPHY 16.4%, Adolfo Rodriguez SAA 14.4%, Elisa CARRIO 14.2%, other
  8.7%; the subsequent runoff election slated for 25 May 2003 was
  awarded to KIRCHNER by default after MENEM withdrew his candidacy on
  the eve of the election

Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the
  Senate (72 seats; members are elected by direct vote; presently
  one-third of the members elected every two years to a six-year term)
  and the Chamber of Deputies (257 seats; members are elected by
  direct vote; one-half of the members elected every two years to a
  four-year term)
  elections: Senate - last held 23 October 2005 (next to be held in
  2007); Chamber of Deputies - last held last held 23 October 2005
  (next to be held in 2007)
  election results: Senate - percent of vote by bloc or party - FV
  45.1%, FJ 17.2%, UCR 7.5%, other 30.2%; seats by bloc or party - FV
  14, FJ 3, UCR 2, other 5; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by
  bloc or party - FV 29.9%, UCR 8.9%, ARI 7.2%, PJ 6.7%, PRO 6.2%, FJ
  3.9%, other 37.2%; seats by bloc or party - FV 50, UCR 10, ARI 8, PJ
  9, PRO 9, FJ 7, other 34

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (the nine Supreme Court judges are
  appointed by the president with approval by the Senate)
  note: the Supreme Court currently has two unfilled vacancies, and
  the Argentine Congress is considering a bill to reduce the number of
  Supreme Court judges to five

Political parties and leaders:
  Affirmation for an Egalitarian Republic or ARI [Elisa CARRIO];
  Front for Victory or FV [Nestor KIRCHNER]; Interbloque Federal or IF
  (a broad coalition of approximately 12 parties including PRO);
  Justicialist Front or FJ [leader NA]; Justicialist Party or PJ
  (Peronist umbrella political organization); Radical Civic Union or
  UCR [Gerardo MORALES]; Republican Proposal or PRO (including Federal
  Recreate Movement or RECREAR [Ricardo LOPEZ MURPHY] and Commitment
  for Change or CPC [Mauricio MACRI]); Socialist Party or PS [Ruben
  GIUSTINIANI]; Union For All [Patricia BULLRICH]; several provincial
  parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs (CILFA); Argentine
  Industrial Union (manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural
  Confederation or CRA (small to medium landowners' association);
  Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association); business
  organizations; Central of Argentine Workers or CTA (a radical union
  for employed and unemployed workers); General Confederation of Labor
  or CGT (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization);
  Peronist-dominated labor movement; Piquetero groups (popular protest
  organizations that can be either pro or anti-government); Roman
  Catholic Church; students

International organization participation:
  ABEDA, AfDB, Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (associate), CSN, FAO,
  G-6, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA,
  IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO,
  ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NSG, OAS,
  OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMOVIC, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Jose Octavio BORDON
  chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
  telephone: [1] (202) 238-6400
  FAX: [1] (202) 332-3171
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
  New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Earl Anthony WAYNE
  embassy: Avenida Colombia 4300, C1425GMN Buenos Aires
  mailing address: international mail: use street address; APO
  address: Unit 4334, APO AA 34034
  telephone: [54] (11) 5777-4533
  FAX: [54] (11) 5777-4240

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and light
  blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a
  human face known as the Sun of May

Economy Argentina


Economy - overview:
  Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate
  population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a
  diversified industrial base. Although one of the world's wealthiest
  countries 100 years ago, Argentina suffered during most of the
  twentieth century from recurring economic crises, persistent fiscal
  and current account deficits, high inflation, mounting external
  debt, and capital flight. Beginning in 1998, with external debt
  equivalent to more than 400 percent of annual exports, economic
  growth slowed and ultimately fell into a full-blown depression, as
  investors' fears grew in the wake of Russia's debt default,
  political discord caused by then-President Carlos MENEM's unpopular
  efforts to run for a constitutionally prohibited third term, and
  Brazil's devaluation. The government of Fernando DE LA RUA, elected
  President in late 1999, tried several measures to cut the fiscal
  deficit and instill confidence and received large IMF credit
  facilities, but nothing worked to revive the economy. Depositors
  began withdrawing money from the banks in late 2001, and the
  government responded with strict limits on withdrawals. When street
  protests turned deadly, DE LA RUA was forced to resign in December
  2001. Interim President Adolfo Rodriguez SAA declared a default, the
  largest in history, on Argentina's foreign debt, but he stepped down
  only a few days later when he failed to garner political support
  from the country's governors. Eduardo DUHALDE became President in
  January 2002 and announced an end to the peso's decade-long 1-to-1
  peg to the US dollar. When the peso depreciated and inflation rose,
  DUHALDE's government froze utility tariffs indefinitely, curtailed
  creditors' rights, and imposed high taxes on exports. The economy
  rebounded strongly from the crisis, inflation started falling, and
  DUHALDE called for special elections. Nestor KIRCHNER was elected
  President, taking office in May 2003, and continued the restrictions
  imposed by DUHALDE. With the reemergence of double-digit inflation
  in 2005, the KIRCHNER administration pressured businesses into a
  series of agreements to hold down prices. The government also
  restructured its defaulted debt in 2005, convincing most bondholders
  to accept a large cut on the value of their holdings, and paid off
  its IMF obligations from reserves in full in early 2006, both of
  which have reduced Argentina's external debt burden. Real GDP has
  continued growing strongly, averaging 9 percent during the period
  2003-2006, bolstering government revenues and keeping the fiscal
  accounts-a key vulnerability in the past-in surplus.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $599.1 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $210 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  8.5% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $15,000 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 9.5%
  industry: 35.8%
  services: 54.7% (2005 est.)

Labor force:
  15.35 million (2006 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Unemployment rate:
  10.2% (3rd quarter)

Population below poverty line:
  31.4% (June 2006)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 1%
  highest 10%: 35%

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  48.3 (June 2006)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  10% (November 2006 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  22.6% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $52.1 billion
  expenditures: $47.6 billion; including capital expenditures of $5.4
  billion (2006 est.)

Public debt:
  62.2% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  sunflower seeds, lemons, soybeans, grapes, corn, tobacco, peanuts,
  tea, wheat; livestock

Industries:
  food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles,
  chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel

Industrial production growth rate:
  8.2% (2006 est.)

Electricity - production:
  93.94 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 52.2%
  hydro: 40.8%
  nuclear: 6.7%
  other: 0.2% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  90.93 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  4.143 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  7.7 billion kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  745,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  470,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  470,000 bbl/day (2003)

Oil - imports:
  39,000 bbl/day (2003)

Oil - proved reserves:
  2.116 billion bbl (2006 est.)

Natural gas - production:
  44.88 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  37.85 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  7.83 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  800 million cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  612.5 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Current account balance:
  $5.81 billion (2006 est.)

Exports:
  $46 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  edible oils, fuels and energy, cereals, feed, motor vehicles

Exports - partners:
  Brazil 15.8%, US 11.4%, Chile 11.2%, China 7.9% (2005)

Imports:
  $31.69 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal
  manufactures, plastics

Imports - partners:
  Brazil 35.9%, US 14.1%, China 7.8%, Germany 4.5% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $30.24 billion (November 2006 est.)

Debt - external:
  $106.8 billion (30 June 2006 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $0 (2002)

Currency (code):
  Argentine peso (ARS)

Currency code:
  ARS

Exchange rates:
  Argentine pesos per US dollar - 3.05999 (2006), 2.9037 (2005),
  2.9233 (2004), 2.9006 (2003), 3.0633 (2002)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Argentina


Telephones - main lines in use:
  8.8 million (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  22.1 million (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: by opening the telecommunications market to
  competition and foreign investment with the "Telecommunications
  Liberalization Plan of 1998," Argentina encouraged the growth of
  modern telecommunications technology; fiber-optic cable trunk lines
  are being installed between all major cities; the major networks are
  entirely digital and the availability of telephone service is
  improving; however, telephone density is presently minimal, and
  making telephone service universally available will take time
  domestic: microwave radio relay, fiber-optic cable, and a domestic
  satellite system with 40 earth stations serve the trunk network;
  more than 110,000 pay telephones are installed and mobile telephone
  use is rapidly expanding
  international: country code - 54; satellite earth stations - 112;
  Atlantis II and Unisur submarine cables; two international gateways
  near Buenos Aires (2005)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 260 (including 10 inactive stations), FM NA (probably more than
  1,000, mostly unlicensed), shortwave 6 (1998)

Radios:
  24.3 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  42 (plus 444 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:
  7.95 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ar

Internet hosts:
  1,612,423 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  33 (2000)

Internet users:
  10 million (2005)

Transportation Argentina


Airports:
  1,381 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 154
  over 3,047 m: 4
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 26
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 65
  914 to 1,523 m: 50
  under 914 m: 9 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1,227
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 49
  914 to 1,523 m: 587
  under 914 m: 587 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 29,804 km; liquid petroleum gas 41 km; oil 10,373 km; refined
  products 8,540 km; unknown (oil/water) 13 km (2006)

Railways:
  total: 31,902 km
  broad gauge: 20,858 km 1.676-m gauge (141 km electrified)
  standard gauge: 2,885 km 1.435-m gauge (26 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 7,922 km 1.000-m gauge; 237 km 0.750-m gauge (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 229,144 km
  paved: 68,809 km (including 734 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 160,335 km (2004)

Waterways:
  11,000 km (2005)

Merchant marine:
  total: 41 ships (1000 GRT or over) 435,969 GRT/707,767 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 2, cargo 10, chemical tanker 1, passenger 1,
  passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 21, refrigerated cargo 2, roll
  on/roll off 1
  foreign-owned: 11 (Chile 6, UK 4, Uruguay 1)
  registered in other countries: 24 (Bolivia 1, Chile 1, Liberia 7,
  Panama 9, Paraguay 3, Uruguay 3) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Concepcion del Uruguay, La Plata, Punta
  Colorada, Rosario, San Lorenzo-San Martin, San Nicolas

Military Argentina


Military branches:
  Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic (includes naval
  aviation and naval infantry), Argentine Air Force (Fuerza Aerea
  Argentina, FAA) (2005)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription
  (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 8,981,886
  females age 18-49: 8,883,756 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 7,316,038
  females age 18-49: 7,442,589 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 344,575
  females age 18-49: 334,649 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $4.3 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.3% (FY00)

Military - note:
  the Argentine military is a well-organized force constrained by the
  country's prolonged economic hardship; the country has recently
  experienced a strong recovery, and the military is now implementing
  "Plan 2000," aimed at making the ground forces lighter and more
  responsive (2005)

Transnational Issues Argentina


Disputes - international:
  Argentina continues to assert its claims to the UK-administered
  Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South
  Sandwich Islands in its constitution, forcibly occupying the
  Falklands in 1982, but in 1995 agreed no longer to seek settlement
  by force; territorial claim in Antarctica partially overlaps UK and
  Chilean claims (see Antarctic disputes); unruly region at
  convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay borders is locus of money
  laundering, smuggling, arms and illegal narcotics trafficking, and
  fundraising for extremist organizations; uncontested dispute between
  Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim
  River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; action by the
  joint boundary commission, established by Chile and Argentina in
  2001, for mapping and demarcating the disputed boundary in the
  Andean Southern Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Sur) remains pending

Trafficking in persons:
  current situation: Argentina is primarily a destination country for
  women and children trafficked for sexual and labor exploitation with
  most victims trafficked internally, from rural to urban areas, for
  exploitation in prostitution; foreign women and children trafficked
  for commercial sexual exploitation come primarily from Paraguay, but
  also from Bolivia, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Colombia, and
  Chile; Bolivians are trafficked for forced labor; Argentine women
  and girls are also trafficked to neighboring countries for sexual
  exploitation
  tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Argentina failed to show evidence
  of increasing efforts to combat trafficking particularly in the key
  area of prosecutions; government efforts to improve interagency
  anti-trafficking coordination did not achieve significant progress
  in moving cases against traffickers through the judicial system; the
  government made progress in other areas, by submitting
  anti-trafficking legislation to Congress in August 2005 and
  sensitizing provincial and municipal government officials to the
  trafficking problem

Illicit drugs:
  used as a transshipment country for cocaine headed for Europe; some
  money-laundering activity, especially in the Tri-Border Area;
  domestic consumption of drugs in urban centers is increasing


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Armenia

Introduction Armenia


Background:
  Armenia prides itself on being the first nation to formally adopt
  Christianity (early 4th century). Despite periods of autonomy, over
  the centuries Armenia came under the sway of various empires
  including the Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Persian, and Ottoman. During
  World War I in the western portion of Armenia, Ottoman Turkey
  instituted a policy of forced resettlement coupled with other harsh
  practices that resulted in an estimated 1 million Armenian deaths.
  The eastern area of Armenia was ceded by the Ottomans to Russia in
  1828; this portion declared its independence in 1918, but was
  conquered by the Soviet Red Army in 1920. Armenian leaders remain
  preoccupied by the long conflict with Muslim Azerbaijan over
  Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated region, assigned to
  Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s by Moscow. Armenia and Azerbaijan
  began fighting over the area in 1988; the struggle escalated after
  both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.
  By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, Armenian forces held not
  only Nagorno-Karabakh but also a significant portion of Azerbaijan
  proper. The economies of both sides have been hurt by their
  inability to make substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution.
  Turkey imposed an economic blockade on Armenia and closed the common
  border because of the Armenian occupation of Nagorno-Karabakh and
  surrounding areas.

Geography Armenia


Location:
  Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey

Geographic coordinates:
  40 00 N, 45 00 E

Map references:
  Asia

Area:
  total: 29,800 sq km
  land: 28,400 sq km
  water: 1,400 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,254 km
  border countries: Azerbaijan-proper 566 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan
  exclave 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  highland continental, hot summers, cold winters

Terrain:
  Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing
  rivers; good soil in Aras River valley

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Debed River 400 m
  highest point: Aragats Lerrnagagat' 4,090 m

Natural resources:
  small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, alumina

Land use:
  arable land: 16.78%
  permanent crops: 2.01%
  other: 81.21% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  2,860 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts

Environment - current issues:
  soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; the energy crisis
  of the 1990s led to deforestation when citizens scavenged for
  firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the
  draining of Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan), a result of its use as a
  source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of
  Metsamor nuclear power plant in spite of its location in a
  seismically active zone

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate
  Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Geography - note:
  landlocked in the Lesser Caucasus Mountains; Sevana Lich (Lake
  Sevan) is the largest lake in this mountain range

People Armenia


Population:
  2,976,372 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 20.5% (male 322,189/female 286,944)
  15-64 years: 68.4% (male 949,975/female 1,085,484)
  65 years and over: 11.1% (male 133,411/female 198,369) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 30.4 years
  male: 27.8 years
  female: 33.2 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  -0.19% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  12.07 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  8.23 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -5.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.17 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.12 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.9 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 22.47 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 27.59 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 16.51 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 71.84 years
  male: 68.25 years
  female: 76.02 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.33 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.1% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  2,600 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 200 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Armenian(s)
  adjective: Armenian

Ethnic groups:
  Armenian 97.9%, Yezidi (Kurd) 1.3%, Russian 0.5%, other 0.3% (2001
  census)

Religions:
  Armenian Apostolic 94.7%, other Christian 4%, Yezidi (monotheist
  with elements of nature worship) 1.3%

Languages:
  Armenian 97.7%, Yezidi 1%, Russian 0.9%, other 0.4% (2001 census)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98.6%
  male: 99.4%
  female: 98% (2003 est.)

Government Armenia


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Armenia
  conventional short form: Armenia
  local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
  local short form: Hayastan
  former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  name: Yerevan
  geographic coordinates: 40 11 N, 44 30 E
  time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last
  Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
  11 provinces (marzer, singular - marz); Aragatsotn, Ararat,
  Armavir, Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak, Syunik', Tavush,
  Vayots' Dzor, Yerevan

Independence:
  21 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 21 September (1991)

Constitution:
  adopted by nationwide referendum 5 July 1995; amendments adopted
  through a nationwide referendum 27 November 2005

Legal system:
  based on civil law system

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Robert KOCHARIAN (since 30 March 1998)
  head of government: Prime Minister Andranik MARGARYAN (since 12 May
  2000)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term
  (eligible for a second term); election last held 19 February and 5
  March 2003 (next to be held in 2008); prime minister appointed by
  the president and confirmed with the majority support of the
  National Assembly; the prime minister and Council of Ministers must
  resign if the National Assembly refuses to accept their program
  election results: Robert KOCHARIAN reelected president; percent of
  vote - Robert KOCHARIAN 67.5%, Stepan DEMIRCHYAN 32.5%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or Azgayin Zhoghov (131
  seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms; 90
  members elected by party list, 41 by direct vote)
  elections: last held 25 May 2003 (next to be held in the spring of
  2007)
  election results: percent of vote by party - Republican Party 23.5%,
  Justice Bloc 13.6%, Rule of Law 12.3%, ARF (Dashnak) 11.4%, National
  Unity Party 8.8%, United Labor Party 5.7%; seats by faction -
  Republican Party 39, Rule of Law 20, Justice Bloc 14, ARF (Dashnak)
  11, National Unity 7, United Labor 6, People's Deputy Group 16,
  independent (not in faction or group) 18; note - as of 10 March
  2006; voting blocs in the legislature are more properly termed
  factions and can be composed of members of several parties; seats by
  faction change frequently as deputies switch parties or announce
  themselves independent

Judicial branch:
  Constitutional Court; Court of Cassation (Appeals Court)

Political parties and leaders:
  Agro-Industrial Party [Vladimir BADALYAN]; Armenia Party (Hayastan)
  [Myasnik MALKHASYAN]; Armenian National Movement or ANM [Artashes
  ZURABYAN]; Armenian Ramkavar Liberal Party or HRAK [Harutyun
  MIRZAKHANYAN, chairman]; Armenian Revolutionary Federation
  ("Dashnak" Party) or ARF [Hrant MARKARYAN]; Democratic Party [Aram
  SARKISYAN]; Justice Bloc (comprised of the Democratic Party,
  National Democratic Party, National Democratic Union, the People's
  Party, and the Republic Party) [Stepan DEMIRCHYAN]; National
  Democratic Party [Shavarsh KOCHARIAN]; National Democratic Union or
  NDU [Vazgen MANUKIAN]; National Revival Party [Albert BAZEYAN];
  National Unity Party [Artashes GEGHAMYAN, chairman]; People's Party
  of Armenia [Stepan DEMIRCHYAN]; Republic Party [Aram SARKISYAN,
  chairman]; Republican Party or RPA [Andranik MARGARYAN]; Rule of Law
  Party [Artur BAGHDASARYAN]; Union of Constitutional Rights [Hrant
  KHACHATURYAN]; United Labor Party [Gurgen ARSENYAN]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Yerkrapah Union [Manvel GRIGORIAN]

International organization participation:
  ACCT (observer), AsDB, BSEC, CE, CIS, EAEC (observer), EAPC, EBRD,
  FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
  IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM
  (observer), OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Tatoul MARKARIAN
  chancery: 2225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 319-1976
  FAX: [1] (202) 319-2982
  consulate(s) general: Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Anthony F.
  GODFREY
  embassy: 1 American Ave., Yerevan 375082
  mailing address: American Embassy Yerevan, US Department of State,
  7020 Yerevan Place, Washington, DC 20521-7020
  telephone: [374](10) 464-700
  FAX: [374](10) 464-742

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and orange

Economy Armenia


Economy - overview:
  Under the old Soviet central planning system, Armenia had developed
  a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and
  other manufactured goods to sister republics in exchange for raw
  materials and energy. Since the implosion of the USSR in December
  1991, Armenia has switched to small-scale agriculture away from the
  large agroindustrial complexes of the Soviet era. The agricultural
  sector has long-term needs for more investment and updated
  technology. The privatization of industry has been at a slower pace,
  but has been given renewed emphasis by the current administration.
  Armenia is a food importer, and its mineral deposits (copper, gold,
  bauxite) are small. The ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan over the
  ethnic Armenian-dominated region of Nagorno-Karabakh and the breakup
  of the centrally directed economic system of the former Soviet Union
  contributed to a severe economic decline in the early 1990s. By
  1994, however, the Armenian Government had launched an ambitious
  IMF-sponsored economic liberalization program that resulted in
  positive growth rates in 1995-2006. Armenia joined the WTO in
  January 2003. Armenia also has managed to slash inflation, stabilize
  its currency, and privatize most small- and medium-sized
  enterprises. Armenia's unemployment rate, however, remains high,
  despite strong economic growth. The chronic energy shortages Armenia
  suffered in the early and mid-1990s have been offset by the energy
  supplied by one of its nuclear power plants at Metsamor. Armenia is
  now a net energy exporter, although it does not have sufficient
  generating capacity to replace Metsamor, which is under
  international pressure to close. The electricity distribution system
  was privatized in 2002 and bought by Russia's RAO-UES in 2005.
  Armenia's severe trade imbalance has been offset somewhat by
  international aid, remittances from Armenians working abroad, and
  foreign direct investment. Economic ties with Russia remain close,
  especially in the energy sector. The government made some
  improvements in tax and customs administration in 2005, but
  anti-corruption measures will be more difficult to implement.
  Construction of a natural gas pipeline between Iran and Armenia has
  been completed and it is scheduled to be commissioned by April 2007.
  Investment in the construction and industrial sectors is expected to
  continue in 2007 and will help to ensure annual average real GDP
  growth of more than 10%.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $15.99 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $6.6 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  10.5% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $5,400 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 23.9%
  industry: 32.8%
  services: 43.3% (2006 est.)

Labor force:
  1.2 million (2005)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 45%
  industry: 25%
  services: 30% (2002 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  7.6% (2004 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  43% (2003 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 1.6%
  highest 10%: 41.3% (2004)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  41.3 (2004)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1.1% (2006 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  20.9% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $1.004 billion
  expenditures: $1.6 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  fruit (especially grapes), vegetables; livestock

Industries:
  diamond-processing, metal-cutting machine tools, forging-pressing
  machines, electric motors, tires, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk
  fabric, chemicals, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, jewelry
  manufacturing, software development, food processing, brandy

Industrial production growth rate:
  7.5% (2005 est.)

Electricity - production:
  6.317 billion kWh (2005)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 42.3%
  hydro: 27%
  nuclear: 30.7%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  4.374 billion kWh (2005)

Electricity - exports:
  1.012 billion kWh; note - exports an unknown quantity to Georgia;
  includes exports to Nagorno-Karabakh region in Azerbaijan (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  260 million kWh; note - imports an unknown quantity from Iran (2004)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2005)

Oil - consumption:
  41,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  1.33 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  1.33 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Current account balance:
  $-229.5 million (2006 est.)

Exports:
  $1.056 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  diamonds, mineral products, foodstuffs, energy

Exports - partners:
  Germany 15.6%, Netherlands 13.7%, Belgium 12.8%, Russia 12.2%,
  Israel 11.5%, US 11.2%, Georgia 4.8% (2005)

Imports:
  $1.684 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  natural gas, petroleum, tobacco products, foodstuffs, diamonds

Imports - partners:
  Russia 13.5%, Belgium 8%, Germany 7.9%, Ukraine 7%, Turkmenistan
  6.3%, US 6.2%, Israel 5.8%, Iran 5%, Romania 4.2% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $761 million (2006 est.)

Debt - external:
  $1.936 billion (30 June 2006)

Economic aid - recipient:
  ODA, $254 million (2004)

Currency (code):
  dram (AMD)

Currency code:
  AMD

Exchange rates:
  drams per US dollar - 436.8 (2006), 457.69 (2005), 533.45 (2004),
  578.76 (2003), 573.35 (2002)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Armenia


Telephones - main lines in use:
  582,500 (2004)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  320,000 (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: system inadequate; now 90% privately owned and
  undergoing modernization and expansion
  domestic: the majority of subscribers and the most modern equipment
  are in Yerevan (this includes paging and mobile cellular service)
  international: country code - 374; Yerevan is connected to the
  Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic cable through Iran; additional
  international service is available by microwave radio relay and
  landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of
  Independent States and through the Moscow international switch and
  by satellite to the rest of the world; satellite earth stations - 3
  (2005)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 9, FM 16, shortwave 1 (2006)

Radios:
  850,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  40 (private television stations alongside two public networks;
  major Russian channels widely available) (2006)

Televisions:
  825,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .am

Internet hosts:
  8,163 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  9 (2001)

Internet users:
  150,000 (2005)

Transportation Armenia


Airports:
  13 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 11
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
  914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 2,002 km (2006)

Railways:
  total: 845 km
  broad gauge: 845 km 1.520-m gauge (828 km electrified)
  note: some lines are out of service (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 7,633 km
  paved: 7,633 km (includes 1,561 km of expressways) (2003)

Military Armenia


Military branches:
  Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Nagorno-Karabakh Self Defense Force
  (NKSDF), Air Force, Air Defense Force (2006)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 to 27 years of age for compulsory military service, conscript
  service obligation - 12 months; 18 years of age for voluntary
  military service (2004)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 722,836
  females age 18-49: 795,084 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 551,938
  females age 18-49: 656,493 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 31,774
  females age 18-49: 31,182 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $135 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  6.5% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Armenia


Disputes - international:
  Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh
  and since the early 1990s, has militarily occupied 16% of Azerbaijan
  - Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)
  continues to mediate dispute; over 800,000 mostly ethnic
  Azerbaijanis were driven from the occupied lands and Armenia; about
  230,000 ethnic Armenians were driven from their homes in Azerbaijan
  into Armenia; Azerbaijan seeks transit route through Armenia to
  connect to Naxcivan exclave; border with Turkey remains closed over
  Nagorno-Karabakh dispute; ethnic Armenian groups in Javakheti region
  of Georgia seek greater autonomy; tens of thousands of Armenians
  emigrate, primarily to Russia, to seek employment

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  refugees (country of origin): 219,324 (Azerbaijan)
  IDPs: 8,400 (conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh,
  majority have returned home since 1994 ceasefire) (2006)

Trafficking in persons:
  current situation: Armenia is a major source and, to a lesser
  extent, a transit and destination country for women and girls
  trafficked for sexual exploitation largely to the UAE and Turkey;
  traffickers, many of them women, route victims directly into Dubai
  or through Moscow; profits derived from the trafficking of Armenian
  victims reportedly increased dramatically from 2005
  tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Armenia has failed to show evidence
  of increasing efforts, particularly in the areas of enforcement,
  trafficking-related corruption, and victim protection; the
  government increased implementation of its anti-trafficking law, but
  failed to impose significant penalties for convicted traffickers and
  failed to vigorously investigate and prosecute ongoing and
  widespread allegations of public officials' complicity in
  trafficking; victim protection efforts remain in early, formative
  stages and a lack of sensitivity for victims remains a problem,
  particularly in the judiciary

Illicit drugs:
  illicit cultivation of small amount of cannabis for domestic
  consumption; minor transit point for illicit drugs - mostly opium
  and hashish - moving from Southwest Asia to Russia and to a lesser
  extent the rest of Europe


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Aruba

Introduction Aruba


Background:
  Discovered and claimed for Spain in 1499, Aruba was acquired by the
  Dutch in 1636. The island's economy has been dominated by three main
  industries. A 19th century gold rush was followed by prosperity
  brought on by the opening in 1924 of an oil refinery. The last
  decades of the 20th century saw a boom in the tourism industry.
  Aruba seceded from the Netherlands Antilles in 1986 and became a
  separate, autonomous member of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
  Movement toward full independence was halted at Aruba's request in
  1990.

Geography Aruba



Location:
  Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Venezuela

Geographic coordinates:
  12 30 N, 69 58 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 193 sq km
  land: 193 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  68.5 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate:
  tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain:
  flat with a few hills; scant vegetation

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Mount Jamanota 188 m

Natural resources:
  NEGL; white sandy beaches

Land use:
  arable land: 10.53%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 89.47% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  0.01 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Geography - note:
  a flat, riverless island renowned for its white sand beaches; its
  tropical climate is moderated by constant trade winds from the
  Atlantic Ocean; the temperature is almost constant at about 27
  degrees Celsius (81 degrees Fahrenheit)

People Aruba


Population:
  71,891 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 19.5% (male 7,175/female 6,849)
  15-64 years: 68.2% (male 23,894/female 25,140)
  65 years and over: 12.3% (male 3,616/female 5,217) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 38.5 years
  male: 36.4 years
  female: 40.3 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.44% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  11.03 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  6.68 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 5.79 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 6.6 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 4.95 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 79.28 years
  male: 75.95 years
  female: 82.78 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.79 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Aruban(s)
  adjective: Aruban; Dutch

Ethnic groups:
  mixed white/Caribbean Amerindian 80%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant 8%, Hindu, Muslim, Confucian, Jewish

Languages:
  Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, English
  dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish

Literacy:
  definition: NA
  total population: 97%
  male: NA%
  female: NA%

Government Aruba


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Aruba

Dependency status:
  member country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; full autonomy in
  internal affairs obtained in 1986 upon separation from the
  Netherlands Antilles; Dutch Government responsible for defense and
  foreign affairs

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  name: Oranjestad
  geographic coordinates: 12 33 N, 70 06 W
  time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

Independence:
  none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

National holiday:
  Flag Day, 18 March

Constitution:
  1 January 1986

Legal system:
  based on Dutch civil law system, with some English common law
  influence

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen BEATRIX of the Netherlands (since 30 April
  1980), represented by Governor General Fredis REFUNJOL (since 11 May
  2004)
  head of government: Prime Minister Nelson O. ODUBER (since 30
  October 2001)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the Staten
  elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed for
  a six-year term by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime
  minister elected by the Staten for four-year terms; election last
  held 2005 (next to be held by 2009)
  election results: Nelson O. ODUBER elected prime minister; percent
  of legislative vote - NA

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Legislature or Staten (21 seats; members elected by
  direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 23 September 2005 (next to be held by in 2009)
  election results: percent of vote by party - MEP 43%, AVP 32%, MPA
  7%, RED 7%, PDR 6%, OLA 4%, PPA 2%; seats by party - MEP 11, AVP 8,
  MPA 1, RED 1

Judicial branch:
  Common Court of Justice of Aruba (judges are appointed by the
  monarch)

Political parties and leaders:
  Aliansa/Aruban Social Movement or MSA [Robert WEVER]; Aruban
  Liberal Organization or OLA [Glenbert CROES]; Aruban Patriotic
  Movement or MPA [Monica ARENDS-KOCK]; Aruban Patriotic Party or PPA
  [Benny NISBET]; Aruban People's Party or AVP [Mike EMAN]; People's
  Electoral Movement Party or MEP [Nelson O. ODUBER]; Real Democracy
  or PDR [Andin BIKKER]; RED [Rudy LAMPE]; Workers Political Platform
  or PTT [Gregorio WOLFF]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ITUC, UNESCO (associate), UNWTO
  (associate), UPU, WCL, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (represented by the Kingdom of the Netherlands); note - Mr.
  Henry BAARH, Minister Plenipotentiary for Aruba at the Embassy of
  the Kingdom of the Netherlands

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  the US does not have an embassy in Aruba; the Consul General to
  Netherlands Antilles is accredited to Aruba

Flag description:
  blue, with two narrow, horizontal, yellow stripes across the lower
  portion and a red, four-pointed star outlined in white in the upper
  hoist-side corner

Economy Aruba


Economy - overview:
  Tourism is the mainstay of the small, open Aruban economy, with
  offshore banking and oil refining and storage also important. The
  rapid growth of the tourism sector over the last decade has resulted
  in a substantial expansion of other activities. Over 1.5 million
  tourists per year visit Aruba, with 75% of those from the US.
  Construction continues to boom, with hotel capacity five times the
  1985 level. In addition, the reopening of the country's oil refinery
  in 1993, a major source of employment and foreign exchange earnings,
  has further spurred growth. Tourist arrivals have rebounded strongly
  following a dip after the 11 September 2001 attacks. The island
  experiences only a brief low season, and hotel occupancy in 2004
  averaged 80%, compared to 68% throughout the rest of the Caribbean.
  The government has made cutting the budget and trade deficits a high
  priority.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $2.258 billion (2005 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $2.258 billion (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  2.4% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $21,800 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 0.4%
  industry: 33.3%
  services: 66.3%

Labor force:
  41,500 (2004 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%
  note: most employment is in wholesale and retail trade and repair,
  followed by hotels and restaurants; oil refining

Unemployment rate:
  6.9% (2005 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.4% (2005)

Budget:
  revenues: $507.9 million
  expenditures: $577.9 million; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2005 est.)

Public debt:
  46.3% of GDP (2005)

Agriculture - products:
  aloes; livestock; fish

Industries:
  tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  770 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  716.1 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  2,363 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - consumption:
  7,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $80 million f.o.b.; note - includes oil reexports (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  live animals and animal products, art and collectibles, machinery
  and electrical equipment, transport equipment

Exports - partners:
  Netherlands 33.5%, Panama 16.7%, Colombia 11.9%, US 11.3%,
  Venezuela 10.1%, Netherlands Antilles 9% (2005)

Imports:
  $875 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and electrical equipment, crude oil for refining and
  reexport, chemicals; foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  US 55.9%, Netherlands 12.9%, UK 3.8% (2005)

Debt - external:
  $478.6 million (2005 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $-11.3 million (2004)

Currency (code):
  Aruban guilder/florin (AWG)

Currency code:
  AWG

Exchange rates:
  Aruban guilders/florins per US dollar - 1.79 (2005), 1.79 (2004),
  1.79 (2003), 1.79 (2002)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Aruba


Telephones - main lines in use:
  37,100 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  98,400 (2004)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: modern fully automatic telecommunications system
  domestic: increased competition through privatization; 3 wireless
  service providers are now licensed
  international: country code - 297; 1 submarine cable to Sint Maarten
  (Netherlands Antilles); extensive interisland microwave radio relay
  links

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 16, shortwave 0 (2004)

Radios:
  50,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (1997)

Televisions:
  20,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .aw

Internet hosts:
  11,548 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  NA

Internet users:
  24,000 (2002)

Transportation Aruba


Airports:
  1 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2006)

Roadways:
  total: 800 km
  paved: 513 km
  unpaved: 287 km

Ports and terminals:
  Barcadera, Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas

Military Aruba


Military branches:
  no regular indigenous military forces; Royal Netherlands Navy and
  Marines, Coast Guard

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 16,278 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 13,219 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 520 (2005 est.)

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the Kingdom of the Netherlands

Transnational Issues Aruba


Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  transit point for US- and Europe-bound narcotics with some
  accompanying money-laundering activity


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Introduction Ashmore and Cartier Islands


Background:
  These uninhabited islands came under Australian authority in 1931;
  formal administration began two years later. Ashmore Reef supports a
  rich and diverse avian and marine habitat; in 1983, it became a
  National Nature Reserve. Cartier Island, a former bombing range, is
  now a marine reserve.

Geography Ashmore and Cartier Islands


Location:
  Southeastern Asia, islands in the Indian Ocean, midway between
  northwestern Australia and Timor island

Geographic coordinates:
  12 14 S, 123 05 E

Map references:
  Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 5 sq km
  land: 5 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  note: includes Ashmore Reef (West, Middle, and East Islets) and
  Cartier Island

Area - comparative:
  about eight times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  74.1 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 12 nm
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate:
  tropical

Terrain:
  low with sand and coral

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: unnamed location 3 m

Natural resources:
  fish

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100% (all grass and sand) (2005)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km

Natural hazards:
  surrounded by shoals and reefs that can pose maritime hazards

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Geography - note:
  Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve established in August 1983

People Ashmore and Cartier Islands


Population:
  no indigenous inhabitants
  note: Indonesian fishermen are allowed access to the lagoon and
  fresh water at Ashmore Reef's West Island (July 2006 est.)

People - note:
  the landing of illegal immigrants from Indonesia's Rote Island has
  become an ongoing problem

Government Ashmore and Cartier Islands


Country name:
  conventional long form: Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands
  conventional short form: Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Dependency status:
  territory of Australia; administered by the Australian Department
  of Transport and Regional Services

Legal system:
  the laws of the Commonwealth of Australia and the laws of the
  Northern Territory of Australia, where applicable, apply

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (territory of Australia)

Flag description:
  the flag of Australia is used

Economy Ashmore and Cartier Islands


Economy - overview:
  no economic activity


Transportation Ashmore and Cartier Islands


Ports and terminals:
  none; offshore anchorage only

Military Ashmore and Cartier Islands


Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of Australia; periodic visits by the
  Royal Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force

Transnational Issues Ashmore and Cartier Islands


Disputes - international:
  Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef;
  Australia has closed the surrounding waters to Indonesian
  traditional fishing and created a national park in the region while
  continuing to prospect for hydrocarbons in the vicinity


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Atlantic Ocean



Background:
  The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's five oceans
  (after the Pacific Ocean, but larger than the Indian Ocean, Southern
  Ocean, and Arctic Ocean). The Kiel Canal (Germany), Oresund
  (Denmark-Sweden), Bosporus (Turkey), Strait of Gibraltar
  (Morocco-Spain), and the Saint Lawrence Seaway (Canada-US) are
  important strategic access waterways. The decision by the
  International Hydrographic Organization in the spring of 2000 to
  delimit a fifth world ocean, the Southern Ocean, removed the portion
  of the Atlantic Ocean south of 60 degrees south latitude.

Geography Atlantic Ocean


Location:
  body of water between Africa, Europe, the Southern Ocean, and the
  Western Hemisphere

Geographic coordinates:
  0 00 N, 25 00 W

Map references:
  Political Map of the World

Area:
  total: 76.762 million sq km
  note: includes Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait,
  Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador
  Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea, almost all of the
  Scotia Sea, and other tributary water bodies

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than 6.5 times the size of the US

Coastline:
  111,866 km

Climate:
  tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of Africa near
  Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea; hurricanes can
  occur from May to December, but are most frequent from August to
  November

Terrain:
  surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea, Denmark
  Strait, and coastal portions of the Baltic Sea from October to June;
  clockwise warm-water gyre (broad, circular system of currents) in
  the northern Atlantic, counterclockwise warm-water gyre in the
  southern Atlantic; the ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic
  Ridge, a rugged north-south centerline for the entire Atlantic basin

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench -8,605 m
  highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources:
  oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales), sand
  and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules,
  precious stones

Natural hazards:
  icebergs common in Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, and the
  northwestern Atlantic Ocean from February to August and have been
  spotted as far south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands; ships
  subject to superstructure icing in extreme northern Atlantic from
  October to May; persistent fog can be a maritime hazard from May to
  September; hurricanes (May to December)

Environment - current issues:
  endangered marine species include the manatee, seals, sea lions,
  turtles, and whales; drift net fishing is hastening the decline of
  fish stocks and contributing to international disputes; municipal
  sludge pollution off eastern US, southern Brazil, and eastern
  Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Lake
  Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North Sea; industrial waste and
  municipal sewage pollution in Baltic Sea, North Sea, and
  Mediterranean Sea

Geography - note:
  major chokepoints include the Dardanelles, Strait of Gibraltar,
  access to the Panama and Suez Canals; strategic straits include the
  Strait of Dover, Straits of Florida, Mona Passage, The Sound
  (Oresund), and Windward Passage; the Equator divides the Atlantic
  Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean



Economy Atlantic Ocean


Economy - overview:
  The Atlantic Ocean provides some of the world's most heavily
  trafficked sea routes, between and within the Eastern and Western
  Hemispheres. Other economic activity includes the exploitation of
  natural resources, e.g., fishing, dredging of aragonite sands (The
  Bahamas), and production of crude oil and natural gas (Caribbean
  Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and North Sea).


Transportation Atlantic Ocean


Ports and terminals:
  Alexandria (Egypt), Algiers (Algeria), Antwerp (Belgium), Barcelona
  (Spain), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Casablanca (Morocco), Colon
  (Panama), Copenhagen (Denmark), Dakar (Senegal), Gdansk (Poland),
  Hamburg (Germany), Helsinki (Finland), Las Palmas (Canary Islands,
  Spain), Le Havre (France), Lisbon (Portugal), London (UK), Marseille
  (France), Montevideo (Uruguay), Montreal (Canada), Naples (Italy),
  New Orleans (US), New York (US), Oran (Algeria), Oslo (Norway),
  Peiraiefs or Piraeus (Greece), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Rotterdam
  (Netherlands), Saint Petersburg (Russia), Stockholm (Sweden)

Transportation - note:
  Kiel Canal and Saint Lawrence Seaway are two important waterways;
  significant domestic commercial and recreational use of Intracoastal
  Waterway on central and south Atlantic seaboard and Gulf of Mexico
  coast of US


Transnational Issues Atlantic Ocean


Disputes - international:
  some maritime disputes (see littoral states)


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Australia

Introduction Australia


Background:
  Aboriginal settlers arrived on the continent from Southeast Asia
  about 40,000 years before the first Europeans began exploration in
  the 17th century. No formal territorial claims were made until 1770,
  when Capt. James COOK took possession in the name of Great Britain.
  Six colonies were created in the late 18th and 19th centuries; they
  federated and became the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901. The new
  country took advantage of its natural resources to rapidly develop
  agricultural and manufacturing industries and to make a major
  contribution to the British effort in World Wars I and II. In recent
  decades, Australia has transformed itself into an internationally
  competitive, advanced market economy. It boasted one of the OECD's
  fastest growing economies during the 1990s, a performance due in
  large part to economic reforms adopted in the 1980s. Long-term
  concerns include pollution, particularly depletion of the ozone
  layer, and management and conservation of coastal areas, especially
  the Great Barrier Reef.

Geography Australia


Location:
  Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific
  Ocean

Geographic coordinates:
  27 00 S, 133 00 E

Map references:
  Oceania

Area:
  total: 7,686,850 sq km
  land: 7,617,930 sq km
  water: 68,920 sq km
  note: includes Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than the US contiguous 48 states

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  25,760 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate:
  generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical
  in north

Terrain:
  mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m
  highest point: Mount Kosciuszko 2,229 m

Natural resources:
  bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, gold, silver, uranium,
  nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas,
  petroleum

Land use:
  arable land: 6.15% (includes about 27 million hectares of
  cultivated grassland)
  permanent crops: 0.04%
  other: 93.81% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  25,450 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  cyclones along the coast; severe droughts; forest fires

Environment - current issues:
  soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development,
  urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due
  to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for
  agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique
  animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast
  coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by
  increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited
  natural fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living
  Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate
  Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
  Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note:
  world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; population
  concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; the
  invigorating sea breeze known as the "Fremantle Doctor" affects the
  city of Perth on the west coast, and is one of the most consistent
  winds in the world

People Australia


Population:
  20,264,082 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 19.6% (male 2,031,313/female 1,936,802)
  15-64 years: 67.3% (male 6,881,863/female 6,764,709)
  65 years and over: 13.1% (male 1,170,589/female 1,478,806) (2006
  est.)

Median age:
  total: 36.9 years
  male: 36 years
  female: 37.7 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.85% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  12.14 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  7.51 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  3.85 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 4.63 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 5.02 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 4.22 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 80.5 years
  male: 77.64 years
  female: 83.52 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.76 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.1% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  14,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 200 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Australian(s)
  adjective: Australian

Ethnic groups:
  Caucasian 92%, Asian 7%, aboriginal and other 1%

Religions:
  Catholic 26.4%, Anglican 20.5%, other Christian 20.5%, Buddhist
  1.9%, Muslim 1.5%, other 1.2%, unspecified 12.7%, none 15.3% (2001
  Census)

Languages:
  English 79.1%, Chinese 2.1%, Italian 1.9%, other 11.1%, unspecified
  5.8% (2001 Census)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 99%
  male: 99%
  female: 99% (2003 est.)

Government Australia


Country name:
  conventional long form: Commonwealth of Australia
  conventional short form: Australia

Government type:
  federal parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  name: Canberra
  geographic coordinates: 35 17 S, 149 08 E
  time difference: UTC+10 (15 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in October; ends last
  Sunday in March
  note: Australia is divided into three time zones

Administrative divisions:
  6 states and 2 territories*; Australian Capital Territory*, New
  South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland, South Australia,
  Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia

Dependent areas:
  Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling)
  Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands,
  Norfolk Island, Macquarie Island

Independence:
  1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)

National holiday:
  Australia Day, 26 January (1788); ANZAC Day (commemorated as the
  anniversary of the 1915 landing of troops of the Australian and New
  Zealand Army Corps during World War I at Gallipoli, Turkey), 25 April

Constitution:
  9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901

Legal system:
  based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
  with reservations

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen of Australia ELIZABETH II (since 6 February
  1952), represented by Governor General Maj. Gen. (Ret.) Michael
  JEFFERY (since 11 August 2003)
  head of government: Prime Minister John Winston HOWARD (since 11
  March 1996); Deputy Prime Minister Mark VAILE (since 6 July 2005)
  cabinet: prime minister nominates, from among members of Parliament,
  candidates who are subsequently sworn in by the governor general to
  serve as government ministers
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
  appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime
  minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the
  majority party or leader of a majority coalition is sworn in as
  prime minister by the governor general
  note: government coalition - Liberal Party and National Party

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Federal Parliament consists of the Senate (76 seats - 12
  from each of the six states and 2 from each of the two mainland
  territories; one-half of state members are elected every three years
  by popular vote to serve six-year terms while all territory members
  are elected every three years) and the House of Representatives (150
  seats; members elected by popular preferential voting to serve terms
  of up to three-years; no state can have fewer than 5 representatives)
  elections: Senate - last held 9 October 2004 (next to be held no
  later than June 2008); House of Representatives - last held 9
  October 2004 (next to be called no later than November 2007)
  election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by
  party - Liberal Party-National Party coalition 39, Australian Labor
  Party 28, Democrats 4, Australian Greens 4, Family First Party 1;
  House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by
  party - Liberal Party-National Party coalition 87, Australian Labor
  Party 60, independents 3

Judicial branch:
  High Court (the chief justice and six other justices are appointed
  by the governor general)

Political parties and leaders:
  Australian Democrats [Lyn ALLISON]; Australian Greens [Bob BROWN];
  Australian Labor Party [Kevin RUDD]; Country Liberal Party [Jodeen
  CARNEY]; Family First Party [Steve FIELDING]; Liberal Party [John
  Winston HOWARD]; The Nationals [Mark VAILE]

International organization participation:
  ANZUS, APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group,
  BIS, C, CP, EAS, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA,
  IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU,
  ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OECD, OPCW, Paris Club,
  PCA, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNMIS, UNRWA,
  UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Dennis J. RICHARDSON
  chancery: 1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
  telephone: [1] (202) 797-3000
  FAX: [1] (202) 797-3168
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New
  York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Robert D. McCALLUM, Jr.
  embassy: Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital
  Territory 2600
  mailing address: APO AP 96549
  telephone: [61] (02) 6214-5600
  FAX: [61] (02) 6214-5970
  consulate(s) general: Melbourne, Perth, Sydney

Flag description:
  blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a
  large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant known as
  the Commonwealth or Federation Star, representing the federation of
  the colonies of Australia in 1901; the star depicts one point for
  each of the six original states and one representing all of
  Australia's internal and external territories; on the fly half is a
  representation of the Southern Cross constellation in white with one
  small five-pointed star and four larger, seven-pointed stars

Economy Australia


Economy - overview:
  Australia has an enviable Western-style capitalist economy with a
  per capita GDP on par with the four dominant West European
  economies. Rising output in the domestic economy, robust business
  and consumer confidence, and high export prices for raw materials
  and agricultural products are fueling the economy. Australia's
  emphasis on reforms, low inflation, and growing ties with China are
  other key factors behind the economy's strength. The impact of
  drought and strong import demand pushed the trade deficit up in
  recent years, although the trade balance improved in 2006. Housing
  prices probably peaked in 2005, diminishing the prospect that
  interest rates would be raised to prevent a speculative bubble.
  Conservative fiscal policies have kept Australia's budget in surplus
  since 2002.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $666.3 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $645.3 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  2.8% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $32,900 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 3.8%
  industry: 26.2%
  services: 70% (2005 est.)

Labor force:
  10.66 million (2006 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 3.6%
  industry: 21.2%
  services: 75.2% (2004 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  4.9% (2006 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2%
  highest 10%: 25.4% (1994)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  35.2 (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.8% (2006 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  26.8% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $267 billion
  expenditures: $258 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2006 est.)

Public debt:
  14.1% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits, cattle, sheep, poultry

Industries:
  mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing,
  chemicals, steel

Industrial production growth rate:
  -3.5% (2006 est.)

Electricity - production:
  225.3 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 90.8%
  hydro: 8.3%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0.9% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  209.5 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  530,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  877,300 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  523,400 bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  530,800 bbl/day (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  3.664 billion bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  37.03 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  26.37 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  10.66 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  821.2 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Current account balance:
  $-41.62 billion (2006 est.)

Exports:
  $117 billion (2006 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, iron ore, wheat, machinery and
  transport equipment

Exports - partners:
  Japan 20.3%, China 11.5%, South Korea 7.9%, US 6.7%, NZ 6.5%, India
  5% (2005)

Imports:
  $127.7 billion (2006 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, computers and office machines,
  telecommunication equipment and parts; crude oil and petroleum
  products

Imports - partners:
  US 13.9%, China 13.7%, Japan 11%, Singapore 5.6%, Germany 5.6%
  (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $48.25 billion (2006 est.)

Debt - external:
  $585.1 billion (30 June 2006 est.)

Economic aid - donor:
  ODA, $894 million (FY99/00)

Currency (code):
  Australian dollar (AUD)

Currency code:
  AUD

Exchange rates:
  Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.3382 (2006), 1.3095 (2005),
  1.3598 (2004), 1.5419 (2003), 1.8406 (2002)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Australia


Telephones - main lines in use:
  11.46 million (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  18.42 million (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: excellent domestic and international service
  domestic: domestic satellite system; much use of radiotelephone in
  areas of low population density; rapid growth of mobile cellular
  telephones
  international: country code - 61; submarine cables to New Zealand,
  Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia; satellite earth stations - 19 (10
  Intelsat - 4 Indian Ocean and 6 Pacific Ocean, 2 Inmarsat - Indian
  and Pacific Ocean regions, 2 Globalstar, 5 other) (2005)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 262, FM 345, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  25.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  104 (1997)

Televisions:
  10.15 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .au

Internet hosts:
  7,772,888 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  571 (2002)

Internet users:
  14,663,622 (2006)

Transportation Australia


Airports:
  455 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 311
  over 3,047 m: 10
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 133
  914 to 1,523 m: 143
  under 914 m: 13 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 144
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
  914 to 1,523 m: 111
  under 914 m: 15 (2006)

Heliports:
  1 (2006)

Pipelines:
  condensate/gas 546 km; gas 31,323 km; liquid petroleum gas 240 km;
  oil 4,808 km; oil/gas/water 110 km (2006)

Railways:
  total: 47,738 km
  broad gauge: 4,015 km 1.600-m gauge
  standard gauge: 28,662 km 1.435-m gauge (1,397 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 14,831 km 1.067-m gauge (2,462 km electrified)
  dual gauge: 230 km dual gauge (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 810,641 km
  paved: 336,962 km
  unpaved: 473,679 km (2004)

Waterways:
  2,000 km (mainly used for recreation on Murray and Murray-Darling
  river systems) (2002)

Merchant marine:
  total: 53 ships (1000 GRT or over) 1,361,000 GRT/1,532,874 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 17, cargo 4, chemical tanker 3, container 1,
  liquefied gas 4, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 6,
  roll on/roll off 5
  foreign-owned: 17 (Canada 1, France 3, Germany 3, Japan 1,
  Netherlands 2, Norway 1, Philippines 1, UK 2, US 3)
  registered in other countries: 34 (Antigua and Barbuda 1, Bahamas 2,
  Bermuda 3, Fiji 1, Hong Kong 1, Liberia 2, Marshall Islands 2,
  Netherlands 1, NZ 2, Panama 3, Portugal 1, Singapore 7, Tonga 1, UK
  3, US 2, Vanuatu 2) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Brisbane, Dampier, Fremantle, Gladstone, Hay Point, Melbourne,
  Newcastle, Port Hedland, Port Kembla, Port Walcott, Sydney

Military Australia


Military branches:
  Australian Defense Force (ADF): Australian Army, Royal Australian
  Navy, Royal Australian Air Force, Special Operations Command (2006)

Military service age and obligation:
  16 years of age for voluntary service; women allowed to serve in
  Army combat units in non-combat support roles (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 4,943,676
  females age 18-49: 4,821,264

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 16-49: 4,092,717
  females age 16-49: 3,983,447 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 142,158
  females age 16-49: 135,675 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $17.84 billion (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.7% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Australia


Disputes - international:
  East Timor and Australia agreed in 2005 to defer the disputed
  portion of the boundary for fifty years and to split hydrocarbon
  revenues evenly outside the Joint Petroleum Development Area covered
  by the 2002 Timor Sea Treaty; East Timor dispute hampers creation of
  a revised maritime boundary with Indonesia (see also Ashmore and
  Cartier Islands dispute); regional states express concern over
  Australia's 2004 declaration of a 1,000-nautical mile-wide maritime
  identification zone; Australia asserts land and maritime claims to
  Antarctica (see Antarctica); in 2004 Australia submitted its claims
  to UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) to
  extend its continental margin from both its mainland and Antarctic
  claims

Illicit drugs:
  Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate
  products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium
  poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Austria

Introduction Austria


Background:
  Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire,
  Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World
  War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent
  occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status
  remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended
  the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade
  unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year
  declared the country's "perpetual neutrality" as a condition for
  Soviet military withdrawal. The Soviet Union's collapse in 1991 and
  Austria's entry into the European Union in 1995 have altered the
  meaning of this neutrality. A prosperous, democratic country,
  Austria entered the EU Economic Monetary Union in 1999.

Geography Austria


Location:
  Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates:
  47 20 N, 13 20 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 83,870 sq km
  land: 82,444 sq km
  water: 1,426 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,562 km
  border countries: Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366
  km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 35 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 330
  km, Switzerland 164 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and
  some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with
  occasional showers

Terrain:
  in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern
  and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m
  highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m

Natural resources:
  oil, coal, lignite, timber, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony,
  magnesite, tungsten, graphite, salt, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 16.59%
  permanent crops: 0.85%
  other: 82.56% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  40 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  landslides; avalanches; earthquakes

Environment - current issues:
  some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil
  pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air
  pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power
  stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria
  between northern and southern Europe

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85,
  Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
  Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
  Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe
  with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river
  is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands
  because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere

People Austria


Population:
  8,192,880 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 15.4% (male 645,337/female 614,602)
  15-64 years: 67.5% (male 2,782,712/female 2,749,620)
  65 years and over: 17.1% (male 567,752/female 832,857) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 40.9 years
  male: 39.8 years
  female: 42 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.09% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  8.74 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  9.76 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  1.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 4.6 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 5.65 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 3.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 79.07 years
  male: 76.17 years
  female: 82.11 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.36 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.3% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  10,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 100 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Austrian(s)
  adjective: Austrian

Ethnic groups:
  Austrians 91.1%, former Yugoslavs 4% (includes Croatians, Slovenes,
  Serbs, and Bosniaks), Turks 1.6%, German 0.9%, other or unspecified
  2.4% (2001 census)

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 73.6%, Protestant 4.7%, Muslim 4.2%, other 3.5%,
  unspecified 2%, none 12% (2001 census)

Languages:
  German (official nationwide), Slovene (official in Carinthia),
  Croatian (official in Burgenland), Hungarian (official in Burgenland)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98%
  male: NA
  female: NA

Government Austria


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Austria
  conventional short form: Austria
  local long form: Republik Oesterreich
  local short form: Oesterreich

Government type:
  federal republic

Capital:
  name: Vienna
  geographic coordinates: 48 12 N, 16 22 E
  time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last
  Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
  9 states (Bundeslaender, singular - Bundesland); Burgenland,
  Kaernten (Carinthia), Niederoesterreich (Lower Austria),
  Oberoesterreich (Upper Austria), Salzburg, Steiermark (Styria),
  Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien (Vienna)

Independence:
  976 (Margravate of Austria established); 17 September 1156 (Duchy
  of Austria founded); 11 August 1804 (Austrian Empire proclaimed); 12
  November 1918 (republic proclaimed)

National holiday:
  National Day, 26 October (1955); note - commemorates the passage of
  the law on permanent neutrality

Constitution:
  1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May 1945)

Legal system:
  civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of
  legislative acts by the Constitutional Court; separate
  administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; accepts compulsory
  ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Heinz FISCHER (since 8 July 2004)
  head of government: Chancellor Alfred GUSENBAUER (SPOe) (since 11
  January 2007); Vice Chancellor Wilhelm MOLTERE (OeVP) (since 11
  January 2007)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice
  of the chancellor
  elections: president elected by direct popular vote for a six-year
  term (eligible for a second term); presidential election last held
  25 April 2004 (next to be held April 2010); chancellor formally
  chosen by the president but determined by the coalition parties
  forming a parliamentary majority; vice chancellor chosen by the
  president on the advice of the chancellor
  election results: Heinz FISCHER elected president; percent of vote -
  Heinz FISCHER (SPOe) 52.4%, Benita FERRERO-WALDNER (OeVP) 47.6%
  note: government coalition - SPOe and OeVP

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of Federal
  Council or Bundesrat (62 members; members chosen by state
  parliaments with each state receiving 3 to 12 members according to
  its population; members serve a five- or six-year term) and the
  National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members elected by
  direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: National Council - last held 1 October 2006 (next
  scheduled for the fall of 2010)
  election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - SPOe
  35.3%, OeVP 34.3%, Greens 11.1%, FPOe 11.0%, BZOe 4.1%; seats by
  party - SPOe 68, OeVP 66, Greens 21, FPOe 21, BZOe 7

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Judicial Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Administrative
  Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Constitutional Court or
  Verfassungsgerichtshof

Political parties and leaders:
  Alliance for the Future of Austria or BZOe [Peter WESENTHALER];
  Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Wilhelm MOLTERE]; Freedom Party of
  Austria or FPOe [Heinz Christian STRACHE]; Social Democratic Party
  of Austria or SPOe [Alfred GUSENBAUER]; The Greens [Alexander VAN
  DER BELLEN]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Austrian Trade Union Federation (nominally independent but
  primarily Social Democratic) or OeGB; Federal Economic Chamber;
  OeVP-oriented Association of Austrian Industrialists or IV; Roman
  Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic
  Action; three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or
  OeVP representing business, labor, and farmers and other
  non-government organizations in the areas of environment and human
  rights

International organization participation:
  ACCT (observer), AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer),
  CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA,
  IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
  IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM
  (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE,
  Paris Club, PCA, PFP, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO,
  UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNOMIG, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO,
  WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Eva NOWOTNY
  chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035
  telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700
  FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750
  consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Susan R. McCAW
  embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1090, Vienna
  mailing address: use embassy street address
  telephone: [43] (1) 31339-0
  FAX: [43] (1) 3100682

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red

Economy Austria


Economy - overview:
  Austria, with its well-developed market economy and high standard
  of living, is closely tied to other EU economies, especially
  Germany's. The Austrian economy also benefits greatly from strong
  commercial relations, especially in the banking and insurance
  sectors, with central, eastern, and southeastern Europe. The economy
  features a large service sector, a sound industrial sector, and a
  small, but highly developed agricultural sector. Membership in the
  EU has drawn an influx of foreign investors attracted by Austria's
  access to the single European market and proximity to the new EU
  economies. The outgoing government has successfully pursued a
  comprehensive economic reform program, aimed at streamlining
  government, creating a more competitive business environment,
  further strengthening Austria's attractiveness as an investment
  location, and implementing effective pension reforms; however, lower
  taxes in 2005-2006 have lead to a small budget deficit in 2006. Weak
  domestic consumption and slow growth in Europe have held the economy
  to growth rates below 3% in 2002-05. Due to higher growth across
  Europe, Austrian grew 3.3 percent in 2006. To meet increased
  competition from both EU and Central European countries,
  particularly the new EU members, Austria will need to continue
  restructuring, emphasizing knowledge-based sectors of the economy,
  and encouraging greater labor flexibility and greater labor
  participation by its aging population.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $279.5 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $309.3 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3.3% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $34,100 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 1.8%
  industry: 30.4%
  services: 67.8% (2005 est.)

Labor force:
  3.52 million (2006 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 3%
  industry: 27%
  services: 70% (2005 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  4.9% (2006 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  5.9% (2004)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 3.3%
  highest 10%: 22.5% (2004)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  31 (2002)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1.6% (2006 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  21% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $155.9 billion
  expenditures: $161.6 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2006 est.)

Public debt:
  63% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  grains, potatoes, sugar beets, wine, fruit; dairy products, cattle,
  pigs, poultry; lumber

Industries:
  construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, metals,
  chemicals, lumber and wood processing, paper and paperboard,
  communications equipment, tourism

Industrial production growth rate:
  5.7% (2006 est.)

Electricity - production:
  65.56 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 29.3%
  hydro: 67.2%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 3.5% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  64.07 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  13.5 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  16.6 billion kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  25,360 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - consumption:
  282,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  30,140 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - imports:
  152,600 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - proved reserves:
  84.3 million bbl (2004)

Natural gas - production:
  1.963 billion cu m (2004)

Natural gas - consumption:
  8.981 billion cu m (2004)

Natural gas - exports:
  1.324 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  8.407 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  15.01 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Current account balance:
  $5.913 billion (2006 est.)

Exports:
  $144.4 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, paper and
  paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles,
  foodstuffs

Exports - partners:
  Germany 31.2%, Italy 8.7%, US 5.8%, Switzerland 5.2%, France 4.2%
  (2005)

Imports:
  $138.6 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal goods,
  oil and oil products; foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  Germany 45.9%, Italy 6.6%, Switzerland 4.5% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $8.413 billion (August 2006 est.)

Debt - external:
  $593.9 billion (30 June 2006 est.)

Economic aid - donor:
  ODA, $681 million (2004)

Currency (code):
  euro (EUR)
  note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the
  euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of
  member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole
  currency for everyday transactions within the member countries

Currency code:
  EUR

Exchange rates:
  euros per US dollar - 0.79669 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004),
  0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Austria


Telephones - main lines in use:
  3.705 million (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  8.16 million (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: highly developed and efficient
  domestic: there are 45 main lines for every 100 persons; the fiber
  optic net is very extensive; all telephone applications and Internet
  services are available
  international: country code - 43; satellite earth stations - 15; in
  addition, there are about 600 VSAT (very small aperture terminals)
  (2005)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 65 (plus several hundred repeaters), shortwave 1 (2001)

Radios:
  6.08 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  10 (plus more than 1,000 repeaters) (2001)

Televisions:
  4.25 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .at

Internet hosts:
  2,062,035 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  37 (2000)

Internet users:
  4.65 million (2005)

Transportation Austria


Airports:
  55 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 25
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 3
  under 914 m: 15 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 30
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 3
  under 914 m: 26 (2006)

Heliports:
  1 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 2,722 km; oil 663 km; refined products 149 km (2006)

Railways:
  total: 6,011 km
  standard gauge: 5,568 km 1.435-m gauge (3,427 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 21 km 1.000-m gauge; 422 km 0.760-m gauge (109 km
  electrified) (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 133,718 km
  paved: 133,718 km (including 1,677 km of expressways) (2003)

Waterways:
  358 km (2003)

Merchant marine:
  total: 8 ships (1000 GRT or over) 34,072 GRT/44,437 DWT
  by type: cargo 6, container 2
  foreign-owned: 2 (Netherlands 2)
  registered in other countries: 14 (Liberia 13, Malta 1) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Enns, Krems, Linz, Vienna

Military Austria


Military branches:
  Land Forces (KdoLdSK), Air Forces (KdoLuSK)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for compulsory military service; 16 years of age
  for voluntary service; from 2007, at the earliest, compulsory
  military service obligation will be reduced from eight months to six
  (2005)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,914,800
  females age 18-49: 1,870,134 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,550,441
  females age 18-49: 1,515,365 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 48,967
  females age 18-49: 46,633 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $1.497 billion (FY01/02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  0.9% (2004)

Transnational Issues Austria


Disputes - international:
  Austrian anti-nuclear activists have revived blockades of the
  Czech-Austrian border to protest operation of the Temelin nuclear
  power plant in the Czech Republic

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South American
  cocaine destined for Western Europe


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Azerbaijan

Introduction Azerbaijan


Background:
  Azerbaijan - a nation with a Turkic and majority-Muslim population
  - was briefly independent from 1918 to 1920; it regained its
  independence after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Despite
  a 1994 cease-fire, Azerbaijan has yet to resolve its conflict with
  Armenia over the Azerbaijani Nagorno-Karabakh enclave (largely
  Armenian populated). Azerbaijan has lost 16% of its territory and
  must support some 528,000 internally displaced persons as a result
  of the conflict. Corruption is ubiquitous, and the promise of
  widespread wealth from Azerbaijan's undeveloped petroleum resources
  remains largely unfulfilled.

Geography Azerbaijan


Location:
  Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and
  Russia, with a small European portion north of the Caucasus range

Geographic coordinates:
  40 30 N, 47 30 E

Map references:
  Asia

Area:
  total: 86,600 sq km
  land: 86,100 sq km
  water: 500 sq km
  note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the
  Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by
  Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,013 km
  border countries: Armenia (with Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia
  (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran
  (with Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan
  exclave) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (800
  km est.)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  dry, semiarid steppe

Terrain:
  large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland) (much of it below
  sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag
  Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) in west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi
  (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
  highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, alumina

Land use:
  arable land: 20.62%
  permanent crops: 2.61%
  other: 76.77% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  14,550 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  droughts

Environment - current issues:
  local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron
  Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be
  the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe
  air, soil, and water pollution; soil pollution results from oil
  spills, from the use of DDT as a pesticide, and from toxic
  defoliants used in the production of cotton

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate
  Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species,
  Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are
  landlocked

People Azerbaijan


Population:
  7,961,619 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 25.8% (male 1,046,501/female 1,011,492)
  15-64 years: 66.3% (male 2,573,134/female 2,706,275)
  65 years and over: 7.8% (male 246,556/female 377,661) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 27.7 years
  male: 26.3 years
  female: 29.2 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.66% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  20.74 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  9.75 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -4.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 79 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 81.08 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 76.81 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 63.85 years
  male: 59.78 years
  female: 68.13 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.46 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  1,400 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 100 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Azerbaijani(s), Azeri(s)
  adjective: Azerbaijani, Azeri

Ethnic groups:
  Azeri 90.6%, Dagestani 2.2%, Russian 1.8%, Armenian 1.5%, other
  3.9% (1999 census)
  note: almost all Armenians live in the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh
  region

Religions:
  Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox 2.3%, other
  1.8% (1995 est.)
  note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan;
  percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower

Languages:
  Azerbaijani (Azeri) 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995
  est.)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98.8%
  male: 99.5%
  female: 98.2% (2003 est.)

Government Azerbaijan


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Azerbaijan
  conventional short form: Azerbaijan
  local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi
  local short form: Azarbaycan
  former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  name: Baku (Baki, Baky)
  geographic coordinates: 40 23 N, 49 51 E
  time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last
  Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
  59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities (saharlar; sahar
  - singular), 1 autonomous republic (muxtar respublika)
  rayons: Abseron Rayonu, Agcabadi Rayonu, Agdam Rayonu, Agdas Rayonu,
  Agstafa Rayonu, Agsu Rayonu, Astara Rayonu, Balakan Rayonu, Barda
  Rayonu, Beylaqan Rayonu, Bilasuvar Rayonu, Cabrayil Rayonu,
  Calilabad Rayonu, Daskasan Rayonu, Davaci Rayonu, Fuzuli Rayonu,
  Gadabay Rayonu, Goranboy Rayonu, Goycay Rayonu, Haciqabul Rayonu,
  Imisli Rayonu, Ismayilli Rayonu, Kalbacar Rayonu, Kurdamir Rayonu,
  Lacin Rayonu, Lankaran Rayonu, Lerik Rayonu, Masalli Rayonu,
  Neftcala Rayonu, Oguz Rayonu, Qabala Rayonu, Qax Rayonu, Qazax
  Rayonu, Qobustan Rayonu, Quba Rayonu, Qubadli Rayonu, Qusar Rayonu,
  Saatli Rayonu, Sabirabad Rayonu, Saki Rayonu, Salyan Rayonu, Samaxi
  Rayonu, Samkir Rayonu, Samux Rayonu, Siyazan Rayonu, Susa Rayonu,
  Tartar Rayonu, Tovuz Rayonu, Ucar Rayonu, Xacmaz Rayonu, Xanlar
  Rayonu, Xizi Rayonu, Xocali Rayonu, Xocavand Rayonu, Yardimli
  Rayonu, Yevlax Rayonu, Zangilan Rayonu, Zaqatala Rayonu, Zardab
  Rayonu
  cities: Ali Bayramli Sahari, Baki Sahari, Ganca Sahari, Lankaran
  Sahari, Mingacevir Sahari, Naftalan Sahari, Saki Sahari, Sumqayit
  Sahari, Susa Sahari, Xankandi Sahari, Yevlax Sahari
  autonomous republic: Naxcivan Muxtar Respublikasi

Independence:
  30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday:
  Founding of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan, 28 May (1918)

Constitution:
  adopted 12 November 1995

Legal system:
  based on civil law system

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Ilham ALIYEV (since 31 October 2003)
  head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 4 November
  2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Abbas ABBASOV (since 10 November
  2003)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and
  confirmed by the National Assembly
  elections: president elected by popular vote to a five-year term
  (eligible for a second term); election last held 15 October 2003
  (next to be held October 2008); prime minister and first deputy
  prime ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the
  National Assembly
  election results: Ilham ALIYEV elected president; percent of vote -
  Ilham ALIYEV 76.8%, Isa GAMBAR 14%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats; members
  elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
  elections: last held 6 November 2005 (next to be held in November
  2010)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  Yeni 58, Azadliq coalition 8, CSP 2, YES 2, Motherland 2, other
  parties with single seats 7, independents 42, undetermined 4

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders:
  Azerbaijan Popular Front or APF [Ali KARIMLI, leader of "Reform"
  faction; Mirmahmud MIRALI-OGLU, leader of "Classic" faction]; Civic
  Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLY]; Civic Union Party
  [Ayaz MUTALIBOV]; Communist Party of Azerbaijan or CPA [Ramiz
  AHMADOV]; Compatriot Party [Mais SAFARLI]; Democratic Party for
  Azerbaijan or DPA [Rasul QULIYEV, chairman]; Justice Party [Ilyas
  ISMAILOV]; Liberal Party of Azerbaijan [Lala Shovkat HACIYEVA];
  Motherland Party; Musavat [Isa GAMBAR, chairman]; Yeni Azerbaijan
  Party; Party for National Independence of Azerbaijan or PNIA [Etibar
  MAMMADLI, chairman]; Social Democratic Party of Azerbaijan or SDP
  [Araz ALIZADE]
  note: opposition parties regularly factionalize and form new parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Sadval, Lezgin movement; self-proclaimed Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh
  Republic; Talysh independence movement; Union of Pro-Azerbaijani
  Forces (UPAF); Karabakh Liberation Organization

International organization participation:
  AsDB, BSEC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
  IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS (observer),
  OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
  UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Hafiv Mir Jalal PASHAYEV
  chancery: 2741 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 337-3500
  FAX: [1] (202) 337-5911
  Consulate(s) general: Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Anne E. DERSE
  embassy: 83 Azadliyg Prospecti, Baku AZ1007
  mailing address: American Embassy Baku, US Department of State, 7050
  Baku Place, Washington, DC 20521-7050
  telephone: [994] (12) 4980-335 through 337
  FAX: [994] (12) 4656-671

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green; a
  crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band

Economy Azerbaijan


Economy - overview:
  Azerbaijan's number one export is oil. Azerbaijan's oil production
  declined through 1997, but has registered an increase every year
  since. Negotiation of production-sharing arrangements (PSAs) with
  foreign firms, which have thus far committed $60 billion to
  long-term oilfield development, should generate the funds needed to
  spur future industrial development. Oil production under the first
  of these PSAs, with the Azerbaijan International Operating Company,
  began in November 1997. A consortium of Western oil companies began
  pumping 1 million barrels a day from a large offshore field in early
  2006, through a $4 billion pipeline it built from Baku to Turkey's
  Mediterranean port of Ceyhan. Economists estimate that by 2010
  revenues from this project will double the country's current GDP.
  Azerbaijan shares all the formidable problems of the former Soviet
  republics in making the transition from a command to a market
  economy, but its considerable energy resources brighten its
  long-term prospects. Baku has only recently begun making progress on
  economic reform, and old economic ties and structures are slowly
  being replaced. Several other obstacles impede Azerbaijan's economic
  progress: the need for stepped up foreign investment in the
  non-energy sector, the continuing conflict with Armenia over the
  Nagorno-Karabakh region, and the pervasive corruption. Trade with
  Russia and the other former Soviet republics is declining in
  importance while trade is building with Turkey and the nations of
  Europe. Long-term prospects will depend on world oil prices, the
  location of new pipelines in the region, and Azerbaijan's ability to
  manage its oil wealth.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $58.1 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $14.05 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  32.5% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $7,300 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 14.1%
  industry: 45.7%
  services: 40.2% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  5.191 million (2006 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 41%
  industry: 7%
  services: 52% (2001)

Unemployment rate:
  1.2% official rate (2006 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  49% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2.8%
  highest 10%: 27.8% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  36.5 (2001)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  8% (2006 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  44.9% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $6.008 billion
  expenditures: $5.804 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2006 est.)

Public debt:
  10.4% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea, tobacco;
  cattle, pigs, sheep, goats

Industries:
  petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment;
  steel, iron ore; cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles

Industrial production growth rate:
  50% (2006 est.)

Electricity - production:
  20.35 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 89.7%
  hydro: 10.3%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  20.57 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  510 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  2.15 billion kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  477,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  120,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  589 million bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  5.01 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  9.94 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  4.93 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  849.5 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Current account balance:
  $2.737 billion (2006 est.)

Exports:
  $12.51 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  oil and gas 90%, machinery, cotton, foodstuffs

Exports - partners:
  Italy 30.3%, France 9.4%, Russia 6.6%, Turkey 6.3%, Turkmenistan
  6.3%, Georgia 4.8%, Israel 4.5%, Croatia 4.1% (2005)

Imports:
  $5.176 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, oil products, foodstuffs, metals, chemicals

Imports - partners:
  Russia 17%, UK 9.1%, Singapore 9.1%, Turkey 7.4%, Germany 6.1%,
  Turkmenistan 5.8%, Ukraine 5.4%, China 4.1% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $1.8 billion (2006 est.)

Debt - external:
  $2.483 billion (2006 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  ODA, $140 million (2000 est.)

Currency (code):
  Azerbaijani manat (AZM)

Currency code:
  AZM

Exchange rates:
  Azerbaijani manats per US dollar - 0.89131 (2006), 4,727.1 (2005),
  4,913.48 (2004), 4,910.73 (2003), 4,860.82 (2002)
  note: on 1 January 2006 Azerbaijan revalued its currency, with 5,000
  old manats equal to 1 new manat

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Azerbaijan


Telephones - main lines in use:
  1,091,400 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  2.242 million (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: inadequate; requires considerable expansion and
  modernization; teledensity of 14 main lines per 100 persons is low
  (2002)
  domestic: the majority of telephones are in Baku and other
  industrial centers - about 700 villages still without public
  telephone service; satellite service connects Baku to a modern
  switch in its exclave of Naxcivan
  international: country code - 994; the old Soviet system of cable
  and microwave is still serviceable; satellite earth stations - 2
  (2005)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 10, FM 17, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  175,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  2 (1997)

Televisions:
  170,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .az

Internet hosts:
  880 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  678,800 (2005)

Transportation Azerbaijan


Airports:
  36 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 27
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
  914 to 1,523 m: 4
  under 914 m: 2 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 9
  914 to 1,523 m: 2
  under 914 m: 7 (2006)

Heliports:
  1 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 3,190 km; oil 2,436 km (2006)

Railways:
  total: 2,957 km
  broad gauge: 2,957 km 1.520-m gauge (1,278 km electrified) (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 59,141 km
  paved: 29,210 km
  unpaved: 29,931 km (2004)

Merchant marine:
  total: 84 ships (1000 GRT or over) 405,395 GRT/436,666 DWT
  by type: cargo 26, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 8, petroleum tanker
  43, roll on/roll off 2, specialized tanker 3
  registered in other countries: 4 (Georgia 2, Malta 2) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Baku (Baki)

Military Azerbaijan


Military branches:
  Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces

Military service age and obligation:
  men between 18 and 35 are liable for military service; 18 years of
  age for voluntary military service; length of military service is 18
  months and 12 months for university graduates (2006)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,961,973
  females age 18-49: 2,033,186 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,314,955
  females age 18-49: 1,676,408 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 82,358
  females age 18-49: 78,067 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $121 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.6% (FY99)

Transnational Issues Azerbaijan


Disputes - international:
  Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh
  and since the early 1990s has militarily occupied 16% of Azerbaijan;
  over 800,000 mostly ethnic Azerbaijanis were driven from the
  occupied lands and Armenia; about 230,000 ethnic Armenians were
  driven from their homes in Azerbaijan into Armenia; Azerbaijan seeks
  transit route through Armenia to connect to Naxcivan exclave;
  Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues
  to mediate dispute; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratify
  Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while
  Iran continues to insist on an even one-fifth allocation and
  challenges Azerbaijan's hydrocarbon exploration in disputed waters;
  bilateral talks continue with Turkmenistan on dividing the seabed
  and contested oilfields in the middle of the Caspian; Azerbaijan and
  Georgia continue to discuss the alignment of their boundary at
  certain crossing areas

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  refugees (country of origin): 2,800 (Russia)
  IDPs: 580,000-690,000 (conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh)
  (2006)

Illicit drugs:
  limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for
  CIS consumption; small government eradication program; transit point
  for Southwest Asian opiates bound for Russia and to a lesser extent
  the rest of Europe


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Bahamas, The

Introduction Bahamas, The


Background:
  Lucayan Indians inhabited the islands when Christopher Columbus
  first set foot in the New World on San Salvador in 1492. British
  settlement of the islands began in 1647; the islands became a colony
  in 1783. Since attaining independence from the UK in 1973, The
  Bahamas have prospered through tourism and international banking and
  investment management. Because of its geography, the country is a
  major transshipment point for illegal drugs, particularly shipments
  to the US, and its territory is used for smuggling illegal migrants
  into the US.

Geography Bahamas, The


Location:
  Caribbean, chain of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, southeast
  of Florida, northeast of Cuba

Geographic coordinates:
  24 15 N, 76 00 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 13,940 sq km
  land: 10,070 sq km
  water: 3,870 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  3,542 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream

Terrain:
  long, flat coral formations with some low rounded hills

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mount Alvernia, on Cat Island 63 m

Natural resources:
  salt, aragonite, timber, arable land

Land use:
  arable land: 0.58%
  permanent crops: 0.29%
  other: 99.13% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  10 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  hurricanes and other tropical storms cause extensive flood and wind
  damage

Environment - current issues:
  coral reef decay; solid waste disposal

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law
  of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  strategic location adjacent to US and Cuba; extensive island chain
  of which 30 are inhabited

People Bahamas, The


Population:
  303,770
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 27.5% (male 41,799/female 41,733)
  15-64 years: 66.1% (male 98,847/female 102,074)
  65 years and over: 6.4% (male 7,891/female 11,426) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 27.8 years
  male: 27.1 years
  female: 28.6 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.64% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  17.57 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  9.05 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -2.17 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 24.68 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 30.29 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 18.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 65.6 years
  male: 62.24 years
  female: 69.03 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.18 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  3% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  5,600 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 200 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bahamian(s)
  adjective: Bahamian

Ethnic groups:
  black 85%, white 12%, Asian and Hispanic 3%

Religions:
  Baptist 35.4%, Anglican 15.1%, Roman Catholic 13.5%, Pentecostal
  8.1%, Church of God 4.8%, Methodist 4.2%, other Christian 15.2%,
  none or unspecified 2.9%, other 0.8% (2000 census)

Languages:
  English (official), Creole (among Haitian immigrants)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 95.6%
  male: 94.7%
  female: 96.5% (2003 est.)

Government Bahamas, The


Country name:
  conventional long form: Commonwealth of The Bahamas
  conventional short form: The Bahamas

Government type:
  constitutional parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  name: Nassau
  geographic coordinates: 25 05 N, 77 21 W
  time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard
  Time)
  daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in April; ends last
  Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
  21 districts; Acklins and Crooked Islands, Bimini, Cat Island,
  Exuma, Freeport, Fresh Creek, Governor's Harbour, Green Turtle Cay,
  Harbour Island, High Rock, Inagua, Kemps Bay, Long Island, Marsh
  Harbour, Mayaguana, New Providence, Nichollstown and Berry Islands,
  Ragged Island, Rock Sound, Sandy Point, San Salvador and Rum Cay

Independence:
  10 July 1973 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 10 July (1973)

Constitution:
  10 July 1973

Legal system:
  based on English common law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General Arthur D. HANNA (since 1 February
  2006)
  head of government: Prime Minister Perry CHRISTIE (since 3 May 2002)
  and Deputy Prime Minister Cynthia PRATT (since 7 May 2002)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the prime
  minister's recommendation
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
  appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the
  leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition
  is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; the
  prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (16-member body
  appointed by the governor general upon the advice of the prime
  minister and the opposition leader for five-year terms) and the
  House of Assembly (40 seats; members elected by direct popular vote
  to serve five-year terms); the government may dissolve the
  Parliament and call elections at any time
  elections: last held 1 May 2002 (next to be held by May 2007)
  election results: percent of vote by party - PLP 50.8%, FNM 41.1%,
  independents 5.2%; seats by party - PLP 29, FNM 7, independents 4

Judicial branch:
  Privy Council (London); Courts of Appeal; Supreme (lower) Court;
  magistrates courts

Political parties and leaders:
  Free National Movement or FNM [Hubert INGRAHAM]; Progressive
  Liberal Party or PLP [Perry CHRISTIE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt
  (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOM,
  IOC, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: vacant
  chancery: 2220 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 319-2660
  FAX: [1] (202) 319-2668
  consulate(s) general: Miami, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador John D. ROOD
  embassy: 42 Queen Street, Nassau
  mailing address: local or express mail address: P. O. Box N-8197,
  Nassau; US Department of State, 3370 Nassau Place, Washington, DC
  20521-3370
  telephone: [1] (242) 322-1181, 328-2206 (after hours)
  FAX: [1] (242) 356-0222

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of aquamarine (top), gold, and
  aquamarine, with a black equilateral triangle based on the hoist side

Economy Bahamas, The


Economy - overview:
  The Bahamas is a stable, developing nation with an economy heavily
  dependent on tourism and offshore banking. Tourism together with
  tourism-driven construction and manufacturing accounts for
  approximately 60% of GDP and directly or indirectly employs half of
  the archipelago's labor force. Steady growth in tourism receipts and
  a boom in construction of new hotels, resorts, and residences had
  led to solid GDP growth in recent years, but the slowdown in the US
  economy and the attacks of 11 September 2001 held back growth in
  these sectors in 2001-03. The current government has presided over a
  period of economic recovery and an upturn in large-scale private
  sector investments in tourism. Financial services constitute the
  second-most important sector of the Bahamian economy, accounting for
  about 15% of GDP. However, since December 2000, when the government
  enacted new regulations on the financial sector, many international
  businesses have left The Bahamas. Manufacturing and agriculture
  together contribute approximately a tenth of GDP and show little
  growth, despite government incentives aimed at those sectors.
  Overall growth prospects in the short run rest heavily on the
  fortunes of the tourism sector, which depends on growth in the US,
  the source of more than 80% of the visitors.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $6.476 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $6.159 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  4% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $21,300 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 3%
  industry: 7%
  services: 90% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
  176,300 (2004)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 5%, industry 5%, tourism 50%, other services 5% (2005
  est.)

Unemployment rate:
  10.2% (2005 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  9.3% (2004)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: 27%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1.2% (2004)

Budget:
  revenues: $1.03 billion
  expenditures: $1.03 billion; including capital expenditures of $130
  million (FY04/05)

Agriculture - products:
  citrus, vegetables; poultry

Industries:
  tourism, banking, cement, oil transshipment, salt, rum, aragonite,
  pharmaceuticals, spiral-welded steel pipe

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  1.795 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  1.669 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - consumption:
  27,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  transhipments of 29,000 bbl/day (2003)

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $469.3 million (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  mineral products and salt, animal products, rum, chemicals, fruit
  and vegetables

Exports - partners:
  Spain 31.8%, US 30%, Poland 9%, Germany 5.4% (2005)

Imports:
  $1.82 billion (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, mineral
  fuels; food and live animals

Imports - partners:
  US 20.1%, South Korea 18%, Brazil 16.9%, Spain 7%, Italy 5.8%,
  Germany 4.8% (2005)

Debt - external:
  $342.6 million (2004 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $5 million (2004)

Currency (code):
  Bahamian dollar (BSD)

Currency code:
  BSD

Exchange rates:
  Bahamian dollars per US dollar - 1 (2005), 1 (2004), 1 (2003), 1
  (2002)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Bahamas, The


Telephones - main lines in use:
  139,900 (2004)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  186,000 (2004)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: modern facilities
  domestic: totally automatic system; highly developed
  international: country code - 1-242; tropospheric scatter and
  submarine cable to Florida; 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite
  earth station - 2 (2005)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 3, FM 5, shortwave 0 (2006)

Radios:
  215,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  2 (2006)

Televisions:
  67,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bs

Internet hosts:
  591 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  19 (2000)

Internet users:
  93,000 (2005)

Transportation Bahamas, The


Airports:
  64 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 29
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
  914 to 1,523 m: 9
  under 914 m: 1 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 35
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
  914 to 1,523 m: 10
  under 914 m: 22 (2006)

Heliports:
  1 (2006)

Roadways:
  total: 2,693 km
  paved: 1,546 km
  unpaved: 1,147 km (1999)

Merchant marine:
  total: 1,177 ships (1000 GRT or over) 37,743,270 GRT/50,918,747 DWT
  by type: barge carrier 1, bulk carrier 253, cargo 250, chemical
  tanker 64, container 79, liquefied gas 35, livestock carrier 2,
  passenger 115, passenger/cargo 34, petroleum tanker 175,
  refrigerated cargo 114, roll on/roll off 20, specialized tanker 5,
  vehicle carrier 30
  foreign-owned: 1,093 (Angola 5, Australia 2, Belgium 13, Canada 18,
  China 3, Cuba 1, Cyprus 13, Denmark 59, Estonia 1, Finland 8, France
  37, Germany 22, Greece 232, Hong Kong 8, Iceland 1, India 1,
  Indonesia 4, Ireland 2, Israel 1, Italy 5, Japan 51, Jordan 2, Kenya
  1, Latvia 1, Malaysia 12, Monaco 17, Montenegro 2, Netherlands 24,
  Nigeria 2, Norway 259, Philippines 1, Poland 15, Reunion 1, Russia
  6, Saudi Arabia 12, Singapore 12, Slovenia 1, Spain 12, Sweden 6,
  Switzerland 2, Thailand 1, Turkey 8, UAE 16, UK 69, Uruguay 2, US
  121, Venezuela 1)
  registered in other countries: 4 (Barbados 1, Liberia 1, Panama 2)
  (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Freeport, Nassau, South Riding Point

Military Bahamas, The


Military branches:
  Royal Bahamian Defense Force: Marines, Air Wing (2006)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age (est.); no conscription (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 73,121 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 44,309 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 2,804 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  NA

Transnational Issues Bahamas, The


Disputes - international:
  disagrees with the US on the alignment of the maritime boundary;
  continues to monitor and interdict Haitian refugees fleeing economic
  privation and political instability

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for US and
  Europe; offshore financial center


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Bahrain

Introduction Bahrain


Background:
  In 1782, the Al Khalifa family captured Bahrain from the Persians.
  In order to secure these holdings, it entered into a series of
  treaties with the UK during the 19th century that made Bahrain a
  British protectorate. The archipelago attained its independence in
  1971. Bahrain's small size and central location among Persian Gulf
  countries require it to play a delicate balancing act in foreign
  affairs among its larger neighbors. Facing declining oil reserves,
  Bahrain has turned to petroleum processing and refining and has
  transformed itself into an international banking center. King HAMAD
  bin Isa Al Khalifa, after coming to power in 1999, pushed economic
  and political reforms to improve relations with the Shia community
  and Shia political societies participated in 2006 parliamentary and
  municipal elections. Al Wifaq, the largest Shia political society,
  won the largest number of seats in the elected chamber of the
  legislature. However, Shia discontent has resurfaced in recent years
  with street demonstrations and occasional low-level violence.

Geography Bahrain


Location:
  Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates:
  26 00 N, 50 33 E

Map references:
  Middle East

Area:
  total: 665 sq km
  land: 665 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  161 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined

Climate:
  arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Terrain:
  mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
  highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 122 m

Natural resources:
  oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish, pearls

Land use:
  arable land: 2.82%
  permanent crops: 5.63%
  other: 91.55% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  40 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  periodic droughts; dust storms

Environment - current issues:
  desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable
  land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation
  (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting
  from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil
  refineries, and distribution stations; lack of freshwater resources,
  groundwater and seawater are the only sources for all water needs

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous
  Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic
  location in Persian Gulf, through which much of the Western world's
  petroleum must transit to reach open ocean

People Bahrain


Population:
  698,585
  note: includes 235,108 non-nationals (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 27.4% (male 96,567/female 94,650)
  15-64 years: 69.1% (male 280,272/female 202,451)
  65 years and over: 3.5% (male 12,753/female 11,892) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 29.4 years
  male: 32.4 years
  female: 25.8 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.45% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  17.8 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  4.14 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.38 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.07 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.26 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 16.8 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 19.65 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 13.87 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 74.45 years
  male: 71.97 years
  female: 77 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.6 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.2% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  less than 600 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 200 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bahraini(s)
  adjective: Bahraini

Ethnic groups:
  Bahraini 62.4%, non-Bahraini 37.6% (2001 census)

Religions:
  Muslim (Shi'a and Sunni) 81.2%, Christian 9%, other 9.8% (2001
  census)

Languages:
  Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 89.1%
  male: 91.9%
  female: 85% (2003 est.)

Government Bahrain


Country name:
  conventional long form: Kingdom of Bahrain
  conventional short form: Bahrain
  local long form: Mamlakat al Bahrayn
  local short form: Al Bahrayn
  former: Dilmun

Government type:
  constitutional hereditary monarchy

Capital:
  name: Manama
  geographic coordinates: 26 13 N, 50 35 E
  time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  5 governorates; Asamah, Janubiyah, Muharraq, Shamaliyah, Wasat
  note: each governorate administered by an appointed governor

Independence:
  15 August 1971 (from UK)

National holiday:
  National Day, 16 December (1971); note - 15 August 1971 is the date
  of independence from the UK, 16 December 1971 is the date of
  independence from British protection

Constitution:
  new constitution 14 February 2002

Legal system:
  based on Islamic law and English common law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: King HAMAD bin Isa al-Khalifa (since 6 March 1999);
  Heir Apparent Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad (son of the monarch,
  born 21 October 1969)
  head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman al-Khalifa
  (since 1971); Deputy Prime Ministers ALI bin Khalifa bin Salman
  al-Khalifa, MUHAMMAD bin Mubarak al-Khalifa, Jawad al-ARAIDH
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch
  elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister
  appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch:
  bicameral legislature consists of Shura Council (40 members
  appointed by the King) and House of Deputies (40 members directly
  elected to serve four-year terms)
  elections: House of Deputies - last held November-December 2006
  (next election to be held NA)
  election results: House of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA;
  seats by party - Sunni Islamists 18, Al Wifaq (Shia) 17, other
  groupings and independents 5
  note: first elections since 7 December 1973; unicameral National
  Assembly dissolved 26 August 1975; National Action Charter created
  bicameral legislature on 23 December 2000; approved by referendum 14
  February 2001; first legislative term held from December 2002 to
  December 2006

Judicial branch:
  High Civil Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders:
  political parties prohibited but political societies were legalized
  per a July 2005 law

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Shi'a activists fomented unrest sporadically in 1994-97 and have
  recently engaged in protests and sporadic violence, demanding more
  power for the elected Council of Deputies to decrease unemployment;
  Sunni Islamist legislators support a greater role for shari'a in
  daily life; several small leftist and Islamic fundamentalist groups
  are active

International organization participation:
  ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt
  (signatory), ICRM, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
  IOC, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Nasir bin Muhammad al-BALUSHI
  chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 342-1111
  FAX: [1] (202) 362-2192
  consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador William T. MONROE
  embassy: Building #979, Road 3119 (next to Al-Ahli Sports Club),
  Block 331, Zinj District, Manama
  mailing address: American Embassy Manama, PSC 451, FPO AE
  09834-5100; international mail: American Embassy, Box 26431, Manama
  telephone: [973] 1724-2700
  FAX: [973] 1727-0547

Flag description:
  red, the traditional color for flags of Persian Gulf states, with a
  white serrated band (five white points) on the hoist side; the five
  points represent the five pillars of Islam

Economy Bahrain


Economy - overview:
  With its highly developed communication and transport facilities,
  Bahrain is home to numerous multinational firms with business in the
  Gulf. Petroleum production and refining account for about 60% of
  Bahrain's export receipts, 70% of government revenues, and 20% of
  GDP, underpinning Bahrain's strong economic growth in recent years.
  The financial and construction sectors have also bolstered GDP
  growth. Bahrain is actively pursuing the diversification and
  privatization of its economy to reduce the country's dependence on
  oil. As part of this effort, Bahrain and the US in August 2006
  implemented a Free Trade Agreement (FTA), the first FTA between the
  US and a Gulf state. Unemployment, especially among the young, and
  the depletion of oil and underground water resources are major
  long-term economic problems.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $17.7 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $12.12 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  7.6% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $25,300 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 0.5%
  industry: 38.7%
  services: 60.8% (2005 est.)

Labor force:
  352,000
  note: 44% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national
  (2006 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 1%
  industry: 79%
  services: 20% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  15% (2005 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.5% (2006 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  21.1% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $5.582 billion
  expenditures: $4.197 billion; including capital expenditures of $700
  million (2006 est.)

Public debt:
  34.2% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products; shrimp, fish

Industries:
  petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, iron
  pelletization, fertilizers, offshore banking, ship repairing, tourism

Industrial production growth rate:
  2% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production:
  7.794 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  7.248 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  188,300 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  27,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  121 million bbl (2006 est.)

Natural gas - production:
  9.75 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  9.75 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  92.03 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Current account balance:
  $1.999 billion (2006 est.)

Exports:
  $12.62 billion (2006 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  petroleum and petroleum products, aluminum, textiles

Exports - partners:
  Saudi Arabia 3.3%, US 2.6%, UAE 2.3% (2005)

Imports:
  $9.036 billion (2006 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  crude oil, machinery, chemicals

Imports - partners:
  Saudi Arabia 36.5%, Japan 6.6%, Germany 6.4%, US 5.4%, UK 5%, UAE
  4.1% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $2.918 billion (2006 est.)

Debt - external:
  $7.267 billion (2006 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $150 million; note - $50 million annually since 1992 from the UAE
  and Kuwait (2002)

Currency (code):
  Bahraini dinar (BHD)

Currency code:
  BHD

Exchange rates:
  Bahraini dinars per US dollar - 0.376 (2006), 0.376 (2005), 0.376
  (2004), 0.376 (2003), 0.376 (2002)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Bahrain


Telephones - main lines in use:
  196,500 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  748,700 (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: modern system
  domestic: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network
  with rapidly growing use of mobile cellular telephones
  international: country code - 973; tropospheric scatter to Qatar and
  UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to
  Qatar, UAE, and Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 1 (1997)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  338,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  4 (1997)

Televisions:
  275,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bh

Internet hosts:
  2,165 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  152,700 (2005)

Transportation Bahrain


Airports:
  3 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 3
  over 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2006)

Heliports:
  1 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 20 km; oil 52 km (2006)

Roadways:
  total: 3,498 km
  paved: 2,768 km
  unpaved: 730 km (2003)

Merchant marine:
  total: 8 ships (1000 GRT or over) 235,449 GRT/339,728 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 1, container 2, petroleum tanker 1
  foreign-owned: 3 (Kuwait 3) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Mina' Salman, Sitrah

Military Bahrain


Military branches:
  Bahrain Defense Forces (BDF): Ground Force (includes Air Defense),
  Navy, Air Force, National Guard

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for voluntary military service (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 202,126
  females age 18-49: 151,734 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 161,372
  females age 18-49: 125,488 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 6,013
  females age 18-49: 5,852 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $627.7 million (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  4.9% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Bahrain


Disputes - international:
  none

Trafficking in persons:
  current situation: Bahrain is a destination country for men and
  women from South and Southeast Asia who migrate willingly to work as
  laborers or domestic servants, but may be subjected to conditions of
  involuntary servitude when faced with exorbitant recruitment and
  transportation fees, withholding of their passports, restrictions on
  their movement, non-payment of wages, and physical or sexual abuse;
  Eastern European women are also believed to be trafficked to Bahrain
  for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation or forced labor
  tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Bahrain's efforts to address
  trafficking in persons are based largely on pledges of future
  efforts; the government did not enact a comprehensive
  anti-trafficking law extending labor protection to domestic workers


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Bangladesh

Introduction Bangladesh


Background:
  Europeans began to set up trading posts in the area of Bangladesh
  in the 16th century; eventually the British came to dominate the
  region and it became part of British India. In 1947, West Pakistan
  and East Bengal (both primarily Muslim) separated from India
  (largely Hindu) and jointly became the new country of Pakistan. East
  Bengal became East Pakistan in 1955, but the awkward arrangement of
  a two-part country with its territorial units separated by 1,600 km
  left the Bengalis marginalized and dissatisfied. East Pakistan
  seceded from its union with West Pakistan in 1971 and was renamed
  Bangladesh. About a third of this extremely poor country floods
  annually during the monsoon rainy season, hampering economic
  development.

Geography Bangladesh


Location:
  Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India

Geographic coordinates:
  24 00 N, 90 00 E

Map references:
  Asia

Area:
  total: 144,000 sq km
  land: 133,910 sq km
  water: 10,090 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Iowa

Land boundaries:
  total: 4,246 km
  border countries: Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km

Coastline:
  580 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 18 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  continental shelf: up to the outer limits of the continental margin

Climate:
  tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March
  to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)

Terrain:
  mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Keokradong 1,230 m

Natural resources:
  natural gas, arable land, timber, coal

Land use:
  arable land: 55.39%
  permanent crops: 3.08%
  other: 41.53% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  47,250 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  droughts, cyclones; much of the country routinely inundated during
  the summer monsoon season

Environment - current issues:
  many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate
  flood-prone land; water-borne diseases prevalent in surface water;
  water pollution, especially of fishing areas, results from the use
  of commercial pesticides; ground water contaminated by naturally
  occurring arsenic; intermittent water shortages because of falling
  water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil
  degradation and erosion; deforestation; severe overpopulation

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  most of the country is situated on deltas of large rivers flowing
  from the Himalayas: the Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel
  of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna to eventually empty
  into the Bay of Bengal

People Bangladesh


Population:
  147,365,352 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 32.9% (male 24,957,997/female 23,533,894)
  15-64 years: 63.6% (male 47,862,774/female 45,917,674)
  65 years and over: 3.5% (male 2,731,578/female 2,361,435) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 22.2 years
  male: 22.2 years
  female: 22.2 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.09% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  29.8 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  8.27 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.68 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.16 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 60.83 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 61.87 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 59.74 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 62.46 years
  male: 62.47 years
  female: 62.45 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.11 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  13,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  650 (2001 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: high
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E,
  and typhoid fever
  vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria are high risks in
  some locations
  water contact disease: leptospirosis
  animal contact disease: rabies
  note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified
  among birds in this country or surrounding region; it poses a
  negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens
  who have close contact with birds (2007)

Nationality:
  noun: Bangladeshi(s)
  adjective: Bangladeshi

Ethnic groups:
  Bengali 98%, tribal groups, non-Bengali Muslims (1998)

Religions:
  Muslim 83%, Hindu 16%, other 1% (1998)

Languages:
  Bangla (official, also known as Bengali), English

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 43.1%
  male: 53.9%
  female: 31.8% (2003 est.)

Government Bangladesh


Country name:
  conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh
  conventional short form: Bangladesh
  local long form: Gana Prajatantri Banladesh
  local short form: Banladesh
  former: East Bengal, East Pakistan

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  name: Dhaka
  geographic coordinates: 23 43 N, 90 25 E
  time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  6 divisions; Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi, Sylhet

Independence:
  16 December 1971 (from West Pakistan); note - 26 March 1971 is the
  date of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is known
  as Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state
  of Bangladesh

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 26 March (1971); note - 26 March 1971 is the date
  of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is Victory Day
  and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh

Constitution:
  4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972; suspended following
  coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986; amended many times

Legal system:
  based on English common law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Iajuddin AHMED (since 6 September 2002);
  note - the president's duties are normally ceremonial, but with the
  13th amendment to the constitution ("Caretaker Government
  Amendment"), the president's role becomes significant at times when
  Parliament is dissolved and a caretaker government is installed - at
  presidential direction - to supervise the elections
  head of government: Prime Minister Khaleda ZIA (since 10 October
  2001)
  cabinet: Cabinet selected by the prime minister and appointed by the
  president
  elections: president elected by National Parliament for a five-year
  term (eligible for a second term); election scheduled for 16
  September 2002 was not held since Iajuddin AHMED was the only
  presidential candidate; he was sworn in on 6 September 2002 (next
  election to be held by 2007); following legislative elections, the
  leader of the party that wins the most seats is usually appointed
  prime minister by the president
  election results: Iajuddin AHMED declared by the Election Commission
  elected unopposed as president; percent of National Parliament vote
  - NA

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Parliament or Jatiya Sangsad; 300 seats elected
  by popular vote from single territorial constituencies (the
  constitutional amendment reserving 30 seats for women over and above
  the 300 regular parliament seats expired in May 2001); members serve
  five-year terms
  elections: last held 1 October 2001 (next to be held no later than
  January 2007)
  election results: percent of vote by party - BNP and alliance
  partners 41%, AL 40%; seats by party - BNP 193, AL 58, JI 17, JP
  (Ershad faction) 14, IOJ 2, JP (Manzur) 4, other 12; note - the
  election of October 2001 brought a majority BNP government aligned
  with three other smaller parties - JI, IOJ, and Jatiya Party (Manzur)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (the chief justices and other judges are appointed by
  the president)

Political parties and leaders:
  Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA]; Bangladesh Communist Party or
  BCP [Saifuddin Ahmed MANIK]; Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP
  [Khaleda ZIA]; Islami Oikya Jote or IOJ [Mufti Fazlul Haq AMINI];
  Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh or JIB [Motiur Rahman NIZAMI]; Jatiya
  Party or JP (Ershad faction) [Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD]; Jatiya Party
  (Manzur faction) [Naziur Rahman MANZUR]; Liberal Democratic Party or
  LDP [Badrudozza CHOWDHURY and Oli AHMED]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ARF, AsDB, BIMSTEC, C, CP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt
  (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM,
  OIC, OPCW, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE,
  UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
  WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Shamsher Mobin CHOWDHURY
  chancery: 3510 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 244-0183
  FAX: [1] (202) 244-5366
  consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Patricia A. BUTENIS
  embassy: Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212
  mailing address: G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1000
  telephone: [880] (2) 885-5500
  FAX: [880] (2) 882-3744

Flag description:
  green field with a large red disk shifted slightly to the hoist
  side of center; the red disk represents the rising sun and the
  sacrifice to achieve independence; the green field symbolizes the
  lush vegetation of Bangladesh

Economy Bangladesh


Economy - overview:
  Despite sustained domestic and international efforts to improve
  economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh remains a poor,
  overpopulated, and inefficiently-governed nation. Although more than
  half of GDP is generated through the service sector, nearly
  two-thirds of Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector,
  with rice as the single-most-important product. Major impediments to
  growth include frequent cyclones and floods, inefficient state-owned
  enterprises, inadequate port facilities, a rapidly growing labor
  force that cannot be absorbed by agriculture, delays in exploiting
  energy resources (natural gas), insufficient power supplies, and
  slow implementation of economic reforms. Reform is stalled in many
  instances by political infighting and corruption at all levels of
  government. Progress also has been blocked by opposition from the
  bureaucracy, public sector unions, and other vested interest groups.
  The BNP government, led by Prime Minister Khaleda ZIA, has the
  parliamentary strength to push through needed reforms, but the
  party's political will to do so has been lacking in key areas. On an
  encouraging note, growth has been a steady 5-6% for the past several
  years.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $330.8 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $69.02 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  6.1% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $2,200 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 19.9%
  industry: 20.6%
  services: 59.5% (2006 est.)

Labor force:
  68 million
  note: extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman,
  Qatar, and Malaysia; workers' remittances estimated at $1.71 billion
  in 1998-99 (2006 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 63%
  industry: 11%
  services: 26% (FY95/96)

Unemployment rate:
  2.5% (includes underemployment) (2006 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  45% (2004 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 3.9%
  highest 10%: 28.6% (1995-96 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  31.8 (2000)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  7.2% (2006 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  24.9% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $6.389 billion
  expenditures: $8.694 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2006 est.)

Public debt:
  46.7% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes, tobacco, pulses,
  oilseeds, spices, fruit; beef, milk, poultry

Industries:
  cotton textiles, jute, garments, tea processing, paper newsprint,
  cement, chemical fertilizer, light engineering, sugar

Industrial production growth rate:
  7.2% (2006 est.)

Electricity - production:
  18.09 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 93.7%
  hydro: 6.3%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  16.82 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  6,813 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - consumption:
  85,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  28.45 million bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  13.1 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  13.1 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  300.2 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Current account balance:
  $339 million (2006 est.)

Exports:
  $11.17 billion (2006 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  garments, jute and jute goods, leather, frozen fish and seafood
  (2001)

Exports - partners:
  US 23.6%, Germany 13.5%, UK 9.4%, France 6.4% (2005)

Imports:
  $13.77 billion (2006 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles,
  foodstuffs, petroleum products, cement (2000)

Imports - partners:
  India 14.1%, China 13.5%, Kuwait 8.5%, Singapore 6.2%, Japan 4.1%,
  Hong Kong 4.1% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $3.278 billion (2006 est.)

Debt - external:
  $22.55 billion (2006 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $1.575 billion (2000 est.)

Currency (code):
  taka (BDT)

Currency code:
  BDT

Exchange rates:
  taka per US dollar - 70.235 (2006), 64.328 (2005), 59.513 (2004),
  58.15 (2003), 57.888 (2002)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Bangladesh


Telephones - main lines in use:
  1.07 million (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  9 million (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: totally inadequate for a modern country
  domestic: modernizing; introducing digital systems; trunk systems
  include VHF and UHF microwave radio relay links, and some
  fiber-optic cable in cities
  international: country code - 880; satellite earth stations - 6;
  international radiotelephone communications and landline service to
  neighboring countries (2005)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 15, FM 13, shortwave 2 (2006)

Radios:
  6.15 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  15 (1999)

Televisions:
  770,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bd

Internet hosts:
  469 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  10 (2000)

Internet users:
  300,000 (2005)

Transportation Bangladesh


Airports:
  16 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 15
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 5 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 2,604 km (2006)

Railways:
  total: 2,768 km
  broad gauge: 946 km 1.676-m gauge
  narrow gauge: 1,822 km 1.000-m gauge (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 239,226 km
  paved: 22,726 km
  unpaved: 216,500 km (2003)

Waterways:
  8,372 km
  note: includes 5,635 km main cargo routes; network reduced to 5,200
  km in dry season (2005)

Merchant marine:
  total: 42 ships (1000 GRT or over) 341,733 GRT/485,840 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 29, container 6, passenger/cargo 1,
  petroleum tanker 3
  foreign-owned: 1 (China 1)
  registered in other countries: 10 (Antigua and Barbuda 4, Comoros 1,
  Malta 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Singapore 1) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Chittagong, Mongla Port

Military Bangladesh


Military branches:
  Bangladesh Defense Force: Bangladesh Army, Bangladesh Navy,
  Bangladesh Air Force (Bangladesh Biman Bahini, BAF) (2006)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription
  (2005)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 35,170,019 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 26,841,255 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $1.01 billion (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.8% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Bangladesh


Disputes - international:
  discussions with India remain stalled to delimit a small section of
  river boundary, exchange 162 miniscule enclaves in both countries,
  allocate divided villages, and stop illegal cross-border trade,
  migration, violence, and transit of terrorists through the porous
  border; Bangladesh resists India's attempts to fence or wall off
  high-traffic sections of the porous boundary; a joint
  Bangladesh-India boundary inspection in 2005 revealed 92 pillars are
  missing; dispute with India over New Moore/South Talpatty/Purbasha
  Island in the Bay of Bengal deters maritime boundary delimitation;
  Burmese Muslim refugees strain Bangladesh's meager resources

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  refugees (country of origin): 21,053 (Burma)
  IDPs: 65,000 (land conflicts, religious persecution) (2006)

Illicit drugs:
  transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring countries


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Barbados

Introduction Barbados


Background:
  The island was uninhabited when first settled by the British in
  1627. Slaves worked the sugar plantations established on the island
  until 1834 when slavery was abolished. The economy remained heavily
  dependent on sugar, rum, and molasses production through most of the
  20th century. The gradual introduction of social and political
  reforms in the 1940s and 1950s led to complete independence from the
  UK in 1966. In the 1990s, tourism and manufacturing surpassed the
  sugar industry in economic importance.

Geography Barbados


Location:
  Caribbean, island in the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of
  Venezuela

Geographic coordinates:
  13 10 N, 59 32 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 431 sq km
  land: 431 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  97 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical; rainy season (June to October)

Terrain:
  relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mount Hillaby 336 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, fish, natural gas

Land use:
  arable land: 37.21%
  permanent crops: 2.33%
  other: 60.46% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  50 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  infrequent hurricanes; periodic landslides

Environment - current issues:
  pollution of coastal waters from waste disposal by ships; soil
  erosion; illegal solid waste disposal threatens contamination of
  aquifers

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law
  of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  easternmost Caribbean island

People Barbados


Population:
  279,912 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 20.1% (male 28,160/female 28,039)
  15-64 years: 71.1% (male 97,755/female 101,223)
  65 years and over: 8.8% (male 9,508/female 15,227) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 34.6 years
  male: 33.4 years
  female: 35.6 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.37% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  12.71 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  8.67 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.01 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 11.77 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 13.38 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 10.15 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 72.79 years
  male: 70.79 years
  female: 74.82 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.65 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  1.5% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  2,500 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 200 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Barbadian(s) or Bajan (colloquial)
  adjective: Barbadian or Bajan (colloquial)

Ethnic groups:
  black 90%, white 4%, Asian and mixed 6%

Religions:
  Protestant 67% (Anglican 40%, Pentecostal 8%, Methodist 7%, other
  12%), Roman Catholic 4%, none 17%, other 12%

Languages:
  English

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
  total population: 99.7%
  male: 99.7%
  female: 99.7% (2002 est.)

Government Barbados


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Barbados

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  name: Bridgetown
  geographic coordinates: 13 06 N, 59 37 W
  time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  11 parishes and 1 city*; Bridgetown*, Christ Church, Saint Andrew,
  Saint George, Saint James, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Lucy,
  Saint Michael, Saint Peter, Saint Philip, Saint Thomas

Independence:
  30 November 1966 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 30 November (1966)

Constitution:
  30 November 1966

Legal system:
  English common law; no judicial review of legislative acts; accepts
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General Sir Clifford Straughn HUSBANDS
  (since 1 June 1996)
  head of government: Prime Minister Owen Seymour ARTHUR (since 7
  September 1994); Deputy Prime Minister Mia MOTTLEY (since 26 May
  2003)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of
  the prime minister
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
  appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the
  leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition
  is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; the
  prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (21-member body
  appointed by the governor general) and the House of Assembly (30
  seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year
  terms)
  elections: House of Assembly - last held 21 May 2003 (next to be
  held by May 2008)
  election results: House of Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA;
  seats by party - BLP 23, DLP 7

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court of Judicature (judges are appointed by the Service
  Commissions for the Judicial and Legal Services); Caribbean Court of
  Justice is the highest court of appeal

Political parties and leaders:
  Barbados Labor Party or BLP [Owen ARTHUR]; Democratic Labor Party
  or DLP [David THOMPSON]; People's Empowerment Party or PEP [David
  COMISSIONG]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Barbados Secondary Teachers' Union or BSTU [Patrick FROST];
  Barbados Union of Teachers or BUT [Herbert GITTENS]; Congress of
  Trade Unions and Staff Associations of Barbados or CTUSAB, which
  includes the BWU, NUPW, BUT, and BSTU [Leroy TROTMAN]; Barbados
  Workers Union or BWU [Leroy TROTMAN]; Clement Payne Labor Union
  [David COMISSIONG]; National Union of Public Workers [Joseph GODDARD]

International organization participation:
  ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA,
  IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, ITUC,
  LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Michael Ian KING
  chancery: 2144 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 939-9200
  FAX: [1] (202) 332-7467
  consulate(s) general: Miami, New York
  consulate(s): Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Mary M. OURISMAN
  embassy: Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce Building, Broad Street,
  Bridgetown; (courier) ALICO Building-Cheapside, Bridgetown
  mailing address: P. O. Box 302, Bridgetown; CMR 1014, APO AA 34055
  telephone: [1] (246) 436-4950
  FAX: [1] (246) 429-5246, 429-3379

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold, and blue
  with the head of a black trident centered on the gold band; the
  trident head represents independence and a break with the past (the
  colonial coat of arms contained a complete trident)

Economy Barbados


Economy - overview:
  Historically, the Barbadian economy had been dependent on sugarcane
  cultivation and related activities, but production in recent years
  has diversified into light industry and tourism. Offshore finance
  and information services are important foreign exchange earners. The
  government continues its efforts to reduce unemployment, to
  encourage direct foreign investment, and to privatize remaining
  state-owned enterprises. The economy contracted in 2002-03 mainly
  due to a decline in tourism. Growth was positive in 2005-06, as
  economic conditions in the US and Europe moderately improved.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $5.108 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $3.157 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  4% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $18,200 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 6%
  industry: 16%
  services: 78% (2000 est.)

Labor force:
  128,500 (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 10%
  industry: 15%
  services: 75% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  10.7% (2003 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  -0.5% (2003 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $847 million (including grants)
  expenditures: $886 million; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2000 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  sugarcane, vegetables, cotton

Industries:
  tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component assembly for export

Industrial production growth rate:
  -3.2% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production:
  896 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  833.3 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  1,000 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - consumption:
  11,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  1.254 million bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  29.17 million cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  29.17 million cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  141.6 million cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Exports:
  $209 million (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  sugar and molasses, rum, other foods and beverages, chemicals,
  electrical components

Exports - partners:
  US 18.6%, Trinidad and Tobago 15%, UK 12.1%, Saint Lucia 8.4%,
  Jamaica 7.9%, Grenada 4.6%, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 4.6%
  (2005)

Imports:
  $1.476 billion (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  consumer goods, machinery, foodstuffs, construction materials,
  chemicals, fuel, electrical components

Imports - partners:
  US 37.2%, Trinidad and Tobago 22.1%, UK 5.5%, Japan 5.2% (2005)

Debt - external:
  $668 million (2003)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $9.1 million (1995)

Currency (code):
  Barbadian dollar (BBD)

Currency code:
  BBD

Exchange rates:
  Barbadian dollars per US dollar - 2 (2005), 2 (2004), 2 (2003), 2
  (2002)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Barbados


Telephones - main lines in use:
  134,900 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  206,200 (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: island-wide automatic telephone system
  international: country code - 1-246; satellite earth stations - 1
  (Intelsat -Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Trinidad and
  Saint Lucia

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 6, shortwave 0 (2004)

Radios:
  237,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (plus two cable channels) (2004)

Televisions:
  76,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bb

Internet hosts:
  282 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  19 (2000)

Internet users:
  160,000 (2005)

Transportation Barbados


Airports:
  1 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  over 3,047 m: 1 (2006)

Roadways:
  total: 1,600 km
  paved: 1,600 km (2004)

Merchant marine:
  total: 58 ships (1000 GRT or over) 433,390 GRT/664,998 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 11, cargo 32, chemical tanker 7, passenger 1,
  passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 2,
  specialized tanker 1
  foreign-owned: 57 (Bahamas, The 1, Canada 8, Greece 11, Lebanon 1,
  Monaco 1, Norway 29, UAE 1, UK 5)
  registered in other countries: 1 (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  1) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Bridgetown

Military Barbados


Military branches:
  Royal Barbados Defense Force: Troops Command, Coast Guard (2005)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for voluntary military service; volunteers at
  earlier age with parental consent; no conscription (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 71,524
  females age 18-49: 72,302 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 54,510
  females age 18-49: 54,889 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  NA

Military - note:
  the Royal Barbados Defense Force includes a land-based Troop
  Command and a small Coast Guard; the primary role of the land
  element is to defend the island against external aggression; the
  Command consists of a single, part-time battalion with a small
  regular cadre that is deployed throughout the island; it
  increasingly supports the police in patrolling the coastline to
  prevent smuggling and other illicit activities (2005)

Transnational Issues Barbados


Disputes - international:
  in 2005, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago agreed to compulsory
  international arbitration that will result in a binding award
  challenging whether the northern limit of Trinidad and Tobago's and
  Venezuela's maritime boundary extends into Barbadian waters and the
  southern limit of Barbadian traditional fishing; joins other
  Caribbean states to counter Venezuela's claim that Aves Island
  sustains human habitation, a criterion under the UN Convention on
  the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which permits Venezuela to extend its
  EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the Caribbean Sea

Illicit drugs:
  one of many Caribbean transshipment points for narcotics bound for
  Europe and the US; offshore financial center


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Belarus

Introduction Belarus


Background:
  After seven decades as a constituent republic of the USSR, Belarus
  attained its independence in 1991. It has retained closer political
  and economic ties to Russia than any of the other former Soviet
  republics. Belarus and Russia signed a treaty on a two-state union
  on 8 December 1999 envisioning greater political and economic
  integration. Although Belarus agreed to a framework to carry out the
  accord, serious implementation has yet to take place. Since his
  election in July 1994 as the country's first president, Alexandr
  LUKASHENKO has steadily consolidated his power through authoritarian
  means. Government restrictions on freedom of speech and the press,
  peaceful assembly, and religion continue.

Geography Belarus


Location:
  Eastern Europe, east of Poland

Geographic coordinates:
  53 00 N, 28 00 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 207,600 sq km
  land: 207,600 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Kansas

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,900 km
  border countries: Latvia 141 km, Lithuania 502 km, Poland 407 km,
  Russia 959 km, Ukraine 891 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between
  continental and maritime

Terrain:
  generally flat and contains much marshland

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Nyoman River 90 m
  highest point: Dzyarzhynskaya Hara 346 m

Natural resources:
  forests, peat deposits, small quantities of oil and natural gas,
  granite, dolomitic limestone, marl, chalk, sand, gravel, clay

Land use:
  arable land: 26.77%
  permanent crops: 0.6%
  other: 72.63% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  1,310 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  NA

Environment - current issues:
  soil pollution from pesticide use; southern part of the country
  contaminated with fallout from 1986 nuclear reactor accident at
  Chornobyl' in northern Ukraine

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Sulfur 85, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification,
  Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
  Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:
  landlocked; glacial scouring accounts for the flatness of
  Belarusian terrain and for its 11,000 lakes

People Belarus


Population:
  10,293,011 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 15.7% (male 825,823/female 791,741)
  15-64 years: 69.7% (male 3,490,442/female 3,682,950)
  65 years and over: 14.6% (male 498,976/female 1,003,079) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 37.2 years
  male: 34.5 years
  female: 39.9 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  -0.06% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  11.16 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  14.02 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  2.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.5 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.88 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 13 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 13.92 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 12.03 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 69.08 years
  male: 63.47 years
  female: 74.98 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.43 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.3% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  15,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  1,000 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Belarusian(s)
  adjective: Belarusian

Ethnic groups:
  Belarusian 81.2%, Russian 11.4%, Polish 3.9%, Ukrainian 2.4%, other
  1.1% (1999 census)

Religions:
  Eastern Orthodox 80%, other (including Roman Catholic, Protestant,
  Jewish, and Muslim) 20% (1997 est.)

Languages:
  Belarusian, Russian, other

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 99.6%
  male: 99.8%
  female: 99.5% (2003 est.)

Government Belarus


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Belarus
  conventional short form: Belarus
  local long form: Respublika Byelarus'
  local short form: Byelarus'
  former: Belorussian (Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type:
  republic in name, although in fact a dictatorship

Capital:
  name: Minsk
  geographic coordinates: 53 54 N, 27 34 E
  time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last
  Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
  6 provinces (voblastsi, singular - voblasts') and 1 municipality*
  (horad); Brest, Homyel', Horad Minsk*, Hrodna, Mahilyow, Minsk,
  Vitsyebsk
  note: administrative divisions have the same names as their
  administrative centers

Independence:
  25 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 3 July (1944); note - 3 July 1944 was the date
  Minsk was liberated from German troops, 25 August 1991 was the date
  of independence from the Soviet Union

Constitution:
  15 March 1994; revised by national referendum of 24 November 1996
  giving the presidency greatly expanded powers and became effective
  27 November 1996; revised again 17 October 2004 removing
  presidential term limits

Legal system:
  based on civil law system

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (since 20 July 1994)
  head of government: Prime Minister Sergei SIDORSKIY (since 19
  December 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir SEMASHKO (since
  December 2003)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  first election took place 23 June and 10 July 1994; according to the
  1994 constitution, the next election should have been held in 1999,
  however, Aleksandr LUKASHENKO extended his term to 2001 via a
  November 1996 referendum; subsequent election held 9 September 2001;
  an October 2004 referendum ended presidential term limits and
  allowed the president to run in a third election, which was held on
  19 March 2006; prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed
  by the president
  election results: Aleksandr LUKASHENKO reelected president; percent
  of vote - Aleksandr LUKASHENKO 82.6%, Aleksandr MILINKEVICH 6%,
  Aleksandr KOZULIN 2.3%; note - election marred by electoral fraud

Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Assembly or Natsionalnoye Sobranie consists of
  the Council of the Republic or Soviet Respubliki (64 seats; 56
  members elected by regional councils and 8 members appointed by the
  president, all for four-year terms) and the Chamber of
  Representatives or Palata Predstaviteley (110 seats; members elected
  by universal adult suffrage to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 17 and 31 October 2004; international observers
  widely denounced the elections as flawed and undemocratic, based on
  massive government falsification; pro-LUKASHENKO candidates won
  every seat, after many opposition candidates were disqualified for
  technical reasons
  election results: Soviet Respubliki - percent of vote by party - NA;
  seats by party - NA; Palata Predstaviteley - percent of vote by
  party - NA; seats by party - NA

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president);
  Constitutional Court (half of the judges appointed by the president
  and half appointed by the Chamber of Representatives)

Political parties and leaders:
  pro-government parties: Agrarian Party or AP [Mikhail SHIMANSKY];
  Belarusian Communist Party or KPB; Belarusian Patriotic Movement
  (Belarusian Patriotic Party) or BPR [Nikolai ULAKHOVICH, chairman];
  Liberal Democratic Party of Belarus [Sergei GAYDUKEVICH]; Party of
  Labor and Justice [Viktor SOKOLOV]; Social-Sports Party [Vladimir
  ALEXANDROVICH]
  opposition parties: 10 Plus Coalition [Alyaksandr MILINKEVICH],
  includes: Belarusian Party of Communists or PKB [Syarhey KALYAKIN];
  Belarusian Party of Labor (unregistered) [Aleksandr BUKHVOSTOV,
  Leonid LEMESHONAK]; Belarusian Popular Front or BPF [Vintsyuk
  VYACHORKA]; Belarusian Social-Democratic Gramada [Stanislav
  SHUSHKEVICH]; Green Party [Oleg GROMYKO]; Party of Freedom and
  Progress (unregistered) [Vladimir NOVOSYAD]; United Civic Party or
  UCP [Anatol LYABEDKA]; Women's Party "Nadezhda" [Valentina
  MATUSEVICH, chairperson]
  other opposition includes: Belarusian Social-Democratic Party
  Nardonaya Hromada or BSDP NH [Alyaksandr KOZULIN, chairman];
  Christian Conservative BPF [Zyanon PAZNIAK]; Ecological Party of
  Greens [Mikhail KARTASH]; Party of Popular Accord [Sergei YERMAKK];
  Republican Party [Vladimir BELAZOR]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Assembly of Pro-Democratic NGOs [Sergey MATSKEVICH]; Belarusian
  Congress of Democratic Trade Unions [Alyaksandr YAROSHUK];
  Belarusian Helsinki Committee [Tatiana PROTKO]; Belarusian
  Organization of Working Women [Irina ZHIKHAR]; Charter 97 [Andrey
  SANNIKOV]; Lenin Communist Union of Youth (youth wing of the
  Belarusian Party of Communists or PKB); National Strike Committee of
  Entrepreneurs [Aleksandr VASILYEV, Valery LEVONEVSKY]; Partnership
  NGO [Nikolay ASTREYKA]; Perspektiva kiosk watchdog NGO [Anatol
  SHUMCHENKO]; Vyasna [Ales BYALATSKY]; Women's Independent Democratic
  Movement [Ludmila PETINA]; Youth Front (Malady Front) [Dzmitryy
  DASHKEVICH, Syarhey BAKHUN]; Zubr youth group [Vladimir KOBETS]

International organization participation:
  BSEC (observer), CEI, CIS, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU,
  ITUC, MIGA, NAM, NSG, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Mikhail KHVOSTOV
  chancery: 1619 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
  telephone: [1] (202) 986-1604
  FAX: [1] (202) 986-1805
  consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Karen B. STEWART
  embassy: 46 Starovilenskaya St., Minsk 220002
  mailing address: PSC 78, Box B Minsk, APO 09723
  telephone: [375] (17) 210-12-83, 217-7347, 217-7348
  FAX: [375] (17) 234-7853

Flag description:
  red horizontal band (top) and green horizontal band one-half the
  width of the red band; a white vertical stripe on the hoist side
  bears Belarusian national ornamentation in red

Economy Belarus


Economy - overview:
  Belarus's economy in 2006 posted more than 8% growth. The
  government has succeeded in lowering inflation over the past several
  years. Trade with Russia - by far its largest single trade partner -
  decreased in 2006, largely as a result of a change in the way the
  Value Added Tax (VAT) on trade was collected. Trade with European
  countries increased. Belarus has seen little structural reform since
  1995, when President LUKASHENKO launched the country on the path of
  "market socialism." In keeping with this policy, LUKASHENKO
  reimposed administrative controls over prices and currency exchange
  rates and expanded the state's right to intervene in the management
  of private enterprises. Since 2005, the government has
  re-nationalized a number of private companies. In addition,
  businesses have been subject to pressure by central and local
  governments, e.g., arbitrary changes in regulations, numerous
  rigorous inspections, retroactive application of new business
  regulations, and arrests of "disruptive" businessmen and factory
  owners. A wide range of redistributive policies has helped those at
  the bottom of the ladder; the Gini coefficient is among the lowest
  in the world. Because of these restrictive economic policies,
  Belarus has had trouble attracting foreign investment, which remains
  low. Growth has been strong in recent years, despite the roadblocks
  in a tough, centrally directed economy with a high, but decreasing,
  rate of inflation. Belarus receives heavily discounted oil and
  natural gas from Russia and much of Belarus' growth can be
  attributed to the re-export of Russian oil at market prices. This
  growth will be threatened in 2007, however, when Russia raises
  energy prices closer to world market prices for Belarus. Russia is
  planning to increase Belarusian gas prices from $47 per thousand
  cubic meters (tcm) to $200 per tcm and introduce a first-time export
  duty of $180 per ton on oil shipped to Belarus.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $80.74 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $28.56 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  8.3% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $7,800 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 9.3%
  industry: 31.6%
  services: 59.1% (2005 est.)

Labor force:
  4.3 million (31 December 2005)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 14%
  industry: 34.7%
  services: 51.3% (2003 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  1.6% officially registered unemployed; large number of
  underemployed workers (2005)

Population below poverty line:
  27.1% (2003 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 5.1%
  highest 10%: 20% (1998)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  30.4 (2000)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  9.5% (2006 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  25.9% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $6.578 billion
  expenditures: $7.164 billion; including capital expenditures of $180
  million (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  grain, potatoes, vegetables, sugar beets, flax; beef, milk

Industries:
  metal-cutting machine tools, tractors, trucks, earthmovers,
  motorcycles, televisions, chemical fibers, fertilizer, textiles,
  radios, refrigerators

Industrial production growth rate:
  15.6% (2005 est.)

Electricity - production:
  29.33 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 99.5%
  hydro: 0.1%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0.4% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  31.05 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  4.723 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  8.5 billion kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  34,260 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  165,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  14,500 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - imports:
  360,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Natural gas - production:
  180 million cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  20.5 billion cu m (2005 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  16.22 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Current account balance:
  $-511.8 million (2006 est.)

Exports:
  $19.61 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, mineral products, chemicals, metals,
  textiles, foodstuffs

Exports - partners:
  Russia 35.8%, Netherlands 15.1%, UK 7%, Ukraine 5.7%, Poland 5.3%,
  Germany 4.4% (2005)

Imports:
  $21.12 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  mineral products, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs,
  metals

Imports - partners:
  Russia 60.6%, Germany 6.7%, Ukraine 5.4% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $1.329 billion (2006 est.)

Debt - external:
  $5.498 billion (30 June 2006 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $194.3 million (1995)

Currency (code):
  Belarusian ruble (BYB/BYR)

Currency code:
  BYB/BYR

Exchange rates:
  Belarusian rubles per US dollar - 2,220 (2006), 2,150 (2005),
  2,160.26 (2004), 2,051.27 (2003), 1,790.92 (2002)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Belarus


Telephones - main lines in use:
  3,284,300 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  4.098 million (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: Belarus lags behind its neighbors in upgrading
  telecommunications infrastructure; state-owned Beltelcom, is the
  sole provider of fixed line local and long distance service;
  modernization of the network to digital switching progressing slowly
  domestic: fixed line penetration is improving although rural areas
  continue to be underserved; four GSM wireless networks are
  experiencing rapid growth; strict government controls on
  telecommunications technologies
  international: country code - 375; Belarus is a member of the
  Trans-European Line (TEL), Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line,
  and has access to the Trans-Siberia Line (TSL); three fiber-optic
  segments provide connectivity to Latvia, Poland, Russia, and
  Ukraine; worldwide service is available to Belarus through this
  infrastructure; additional analog lines to Russia; Intelsat,
  Eutelsat, and Intersputnik earth stations

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 28, FM 37, shortwave 11 (1998)

Radios:
  3.02 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  47 (plus 27 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions:
  2.52 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .by

Internet hosts:
  33,641 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  23 (2002)

Internet users:
  3,394,400 (2005)

Transportation Belarus


Airports:
  86 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 41
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 22
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 12 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 45
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 6
  under 914 m: 35 (2006)

Heliports:
  1 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 5,223 km; oil 2,321 km; refined products 1,686 km (2006)

Railways:
  total: 5,512 km
  broad gauge: 5,497 km 1.520-m gauge (874 km electrified)
  standard gauge: 15 km 1.435 m (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 93,310 km
  paved: 81,180 km
  unpaved: 12,130 km (2004)

Waterways:
  2,500 km (use limited by location on perimeter of country and by
  shallowness) (2003)

Ports and terminals:
  Mazyr

Military Belarus


Military branches:
  Belarus Armed Forces: Land Force, Air and Air Defense Force (2006)

Military service age and obligation:
  18-27 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript
  service obligation - 18 months (2005)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 2,520,644
  females age 18-49: 2,564,696 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,657,984
  females age 18-49: 2,102,793 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 85,202
  females age 18-49: 82,037 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $420.5 million (2006)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.4% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Belarus


Disputes - international:
  1997 boundary treaty with Ukraine remains unratified over
  unresolved financial claims, preventing demarcation and diminishing
  border security; the whole boundary with Latvia and more than half
  the boundary with Lithuania remains undemarcated; discussions toward
  economic and political union with Russia proceed slowly

Illicit drugs:
  limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for the
  domestic market; transshipment point for illicit drugs to and via
  Russia, and to the Baltics and Western Europe; a small and lightly
  regulated financial center; new anti-money-laundering legislation
  does not meet international standards; few investigations or
  prosecutions of money-laundering activities


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Belgium

Introduction Belgium


Background:
  Belgium became independent from the Netherlands in 1830; it was
  occupied by Germany during World Wars I and II. The country
  prospered in the past half century as a modern, technologically
  advanced European state and member of NATO and the EU. Tensions
  between the Dutch-speaking Flemings of the north and the
  French-speaking Walloons of the south have led in recent years to
  constitutional amendments granting these regions formal recognition
  and autonomy.

Geography Belgium


Location:
  Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between France and the
  Netherlands

Geographic coordinates:
  50 50 N, 4 00 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 30,528 sq km
  land: 30,278 sq km
  water: 250 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about the size of Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,385 km
  border countries: France 620 km, Germany 167 km, Luxembourg 148 km,
  Netherlands 450 km

Coastline:
  66.5 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: geographic coordinates define outer limit
  continental shelf: median line with neighbors

Climate:
  temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy

Terrain:
  flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills, rugged
  mountains of Ardennes Forest in southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: North Sea 0 m
  highest point: Signal de Botrange 694 m

Natural resources:
  construction materials, silica sand, carbonates

Land use:
  arable land: 27.42%
  permanent crops: 0.69%
  other: 71.89%
  note: includes Luxembourg (2005)

Irrigated land:
  400 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  flooding is a threat along rivers and in areas of reclaimed coastal
  land, protected from the sea by concrete dikes

Environment - current issues:
  the environment is exposed to intense pressures from human
  activities: urbanization, dense transportation network, industry,
  extensive animal breeding and crop cultivation; air and water
  pollution also have repercussions for neighboring countries;
  uncertainties regarding federal and regional responsibilities (now
  resolved) have slowed progress in tackling environmental challenges

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
  Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
  Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic
  Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
  Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
  Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
  Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
  Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Geography - note:
  crossroads of Western Europe; majority of West European capitals
  within 1,000 km of Brussels, the seat of both the European Union and
  NATO

People Belgium


Population:
  10,379,067 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 16.7% (male 883,254/female 846,099)
  15-64 years: 65.9% (male 3,450,879/female 3,389,565)
  65 years and over: 17.4% (male 746,569/female 1,062,701) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 40.9 years
  male: 39.6 years
  female: 42.1 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.13% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  10.38 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  10.27 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  1.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 4.62 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 5.2 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 4.01 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 78.77 years
  male: 75.59 years
  female: 82.09 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.64 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.2% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  10,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 100 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Belgian(s)
  adjective: Belgian

Ethnic groups:
  Fleming 58%, Walloon 31%, mixed or other 11%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 75%, Protestant or other 25%

Languages:
  Dutch (official) 60%, French (official) 40%, German (official) less
  than 1%, legally bilingual (Dutch and French)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 99%
  male: 99%
  female: 99% (2003 est.)

Government Belgium


Country name:
  conventional long form: Kingdom of Belgium
  conventional short form: Belgium
  local long form: Royaume de Belgique/Koninkrijk Belgie
  local short form: Belgique/Belgie

Government type:
  federal parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy

Capital:
  name: Brussels
  geographic coordinates: 50 50 N, 4 20 E
  time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last
  Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
  10 provinces (French: provinces, singular - province; Dutch:
  provincies, singular - provincie) and 3 regions* (French: regions;
  Dutch: gewesten); Brussels* (Bruxelles) capital region; Flanders*
  region (five provinces): Antwerpen (Antwerp), Limburg,
  Oost-Vlaanderen (East Flanders), Vlaams-Brabant (Flemish Brabant),
  West-Vlaanderen (West Flanders); Wallonia* region (five provinces):
  Brabant Wallon (Walloon Brabant), Hainaut, Liege, Luxembourg, Namur
  note: as a result of the 1993 constitutional revision that furthered
  devolution into a federal state, there are now three levels of
  government (federal, regional, and linguistic community) with a
  complex division of responsibilities

Independence:
  4 October 1830 (a provisional government declares independence from
  the Netherlands); 21 July 1831 (King Leopold I ascends to the throne)

National holiday:
  21 July (1831) ascension to the Throne of King Leopold I

Constitution:
  7 February 1831; amended many times; revised 14 July 1993 to create
  a federal state

Legal system:
  civil law system influenced by English constitutional theory;
  judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: King ALBERT II (since 9 August 1993); Heir Apparent
  Prince PHILIPPE, son of the monarch
  head of government: Prime Minister Guy VERHOFSTADT (since 13 July
  1999)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers formally appointed by the monarch
  elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary and constitutional;
  following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or
  the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime
  minister by the monarch and then approved by parliament
  note: government coalition - VLD, MR, PS, SP.A-Spirit

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of a Senate or Senaat in Dutch, Senat
  in French (71 seats; 40 members are directly elected by popular
  vote, 31 are indirectly elected; members serve four-year terms) and
  a Chamber of Deputies or Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordigers in Dutch,
  Chambre des Representants in French (150 seats; members are directly
  elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation
  to serve four-year terms)
  elections: Senate and Chamber of Deputies - last held 18 May 2003
  (next to be held 10 June 2007)
  election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - SP.A-Spirit
  15.5%, VLD 15.4%, CD & V 12.7%, PS 12.8%, MR 12.1%, VB 9.4%, CDH
  5.6%; seats by party - SP.A-Spirit 7, VLD 7, CD & V 6, PS 6, MR 5,
  VB 5, CDH 2, other 2 (note - there are also 31 indirectly elected
  senators); Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - VLD
  15.4%, SP.A-Spirit 14.9%, CD & V 13.3%, PS 13.0%, VB 11.6%, MR
  11.4%, CDH 5.5%, Ecolo 3.1%; seats by party - VLD 25, SP.A-Spirit
  23, CD & V 21, PS 25, VB 18, MR 24, CDH 8, Ecolo 4, other 2
  note: as a result of the 1993 constitutional revision that furthered
  devolution into a federal state, there are now three levels of
  government (federal, regional, and linguistic community) with a
  complex division of responsibilities; this reality leaves six
  governments each with its own legislative assembly

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court of Justice or Hof van Cassatie (in Dutch) or Cour de
  Cassation (in French) (judges are appointed for life by the
  government; candidacies have to be submitted by the High Justice
  Council)

Political parties and leaders:
  Flemish parties: Christian Democrats and Flemish or CD & V [Jo
  VANDEURZEN]; Flemish Liberal and Democrats or VLD [Bart SOMERS];
  GROEN! (formerly AGALEV, Flemish Greens) [Vera DUA]; New Flemish
  Alliance or NVA [Bart DE WEVER]; Social Progressive Alternative or
  SP.A [Johan Vande LANOTTE]; Spirit [Geert LAMBERT] (new party now
  associated with SP.A); Vlaams Belang (Flemish Interest) or VB [Frank
  VANHECKE]
  Francophone parties: Ecolo (Francophone Greens) [Jean-Michel JAVAUX,
  Isabelle DURANT, Claude BROUIR]; Humanist and Democratic Center of
  CDH [Joelle MILQUET]; National Front or FN [Daniel FERET]; Reform
  Movement or MR [Didier REYNDERS]; Socialist Party or PS [Elio DI
  RUPO]; other minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Christian, Socialist, and Liberal Trade Unions; Federation of
  Belgian Industries; numerous other associations representing
  bankers, manufacturers, middle-class artisans, and the legal and
  medical professions; various organizations represent the cultural
  interests of Flanders and Wallonia; various peace groups such as Pax
  Christi and groups representing immigrants

International organization participation:
  ACCT, AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CE, CERN, EAPC,
  EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
  ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUC, NATO, NEA,
  NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, ONUB, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA,
  SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNITAR,
  UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WADB (nonregional), WCL, WCO, WEU, WHO, WIPO,
  WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Dominique STRUYE DE SWIELANDE
  chancery: 3330 Garfield Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 333-6900
  FAX: [1] (202) 333-3079
  consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
  consulate(s): Atlanta

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Tom C. KOROLOGOS; note -
  Ambassador-designate Sam FOX may take his place in early 2007; must
  face Senate confirmation hearing
  embassy: Regentlaan 27 Boulevard du Regent, B-1000 Brussels
  mailing address: PSC 82, Box 002, APO AE 09710
  telephone: [32] (2) 508-2111
  FAX: [32] (2) 511-2725

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), yellow, and red;
  the design was based on the flag of France

Economy Belgium


Economy - overview:
  This modern, private-enterprise economy has capitalized on its
  central geographic location, highly developed transport network, and
  diversified industrial and commercial base. Industry is concentrated
  mainly in the populous Flemish area in the north. With few natural
  resources, Belgium must import substantial quantities of raw
  materials and export a large volume of manufactures, making its
  economy unusually dependent on the state of world markets. Roughly
  three-quarters of its trade is with other EU countries. Public debt
  is more than 90% of GDP. On the positive side, the government has
  succeeded in balancing its budget, and income distribution is
  relatively equal. Belgium began circulating the euro currency in
  January 2002. Economic growth in 2001-03 dropped sharply because of
  the global economic slowdown, with moderate recovery in 2004-06.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $330.4 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $367.8 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  2.5% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $31,800 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 1%
  industry: 24%
  services: 74.9% (2005 est.)

Labor force:
  4.89 million (2006 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 1.3%
  industry: 24.5%
  services: 74.2% (2003 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  8.1% (2006 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  4% (1989 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 3.2%
  highest 10%: 23% (1996)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  25 (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.1% (2006 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  19.4% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $195.7 billion
  expenditures: $195.5 billion; including capital expenditures of
  $1.56 billion (2006 est.)

Public debt:
  90.3% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  sugar beets, fresh vegetables, fruits, grain, tobacco; beef, veal,
  pork, milk

Industries:
  engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly,
  transportation equipment, scientific instruments, processed food and
  beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles, glass, petroleum

Industrial production growth rate:
  3% (2006 est.)

Electricity - production:
  80.22 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 38.4%
  hydro: 0.6%
  nuclear: 59.3%
  other: 1.8% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  82.41 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  6.8 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  14.6 billion kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  10,690 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - consumption:
  641,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  450,000 bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  1.042 million bbl/day (2001)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  17.06 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  16.88 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Current account balance:
  $6.925 billion (2006 est.)

Exports:
  $335.3 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, chemicals, diamonds, metals and metal
  products, foodstuffs

Exports - partners:
  Germany 19.4%, France 17.3%, Netherlands 11.7%, UK 8.2%, US 6.4%,
  Italy 5.3% (2005)

Imports:
  $333.5 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, chemicals, diamonds, pharmaceuticals,
  foodstuffs, transportation equipment, oil products

Imports - partners:
  Netherlands 17.8%, Germany 17.2%, France 11.4%, UK 6.8%, Ireland
  6.5%, US 5.4% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $9.626 billion (August 2006 est.)

Debt - external:
  $1.053 trillion (30 June 2006 est.)

Economic aid - donor:
  ODA, $1.072 billion (2002)

Currency (code):
  euro (EUR)
  note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the
  euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of
  member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole
  currency for everyday transactions within the member countries

Currency code:
  EUR

Exchange rates:
  euros per US dollar - 0.79669 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004),
  0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Belgium


Telephones - main lines in use:
  4.801 million (2004)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  9.46 million (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: highly developed, technologically advanced, and
  completely automated domestic and international telephone and
  telegraph facilities
  domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; extensive cable
  network; limited microwave radio relay network
  international: country code - 32; submarine cables - 5; satellite
  earth stations - 7 (Intelsat - 3) (2005)

Radio broadcast stations:
  FM 79, AM 7, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  8.075 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  25 (plus 10 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:
  4.72 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .be

Internet hosts:
  2,870,770 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  61 (2000)

Internet users:
  5.1 million (2005)

Transportation Belgium


Airports:
  43 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 25
  over 3,047 m: 6
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
  914 to 1,523 m: 2
  under 914 m: 7 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 18
  914 to 1,523 m: 2
  under 914 m: 16 (2006)

Heliports:
  1 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 1,561 km; oil 158 km; refined products 535 km (2006)

Railways:
  total: 3,521 km
  standard gauge: 3,521 km 1.435-m gauge (2,927 km electrified) (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 150,567 km
  paved: 117,442 km (including 1,747 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 33,125 km (2004)

Waterways:
  2,043 km (1,528 km in regular commercial use) (2003)

Merchant marine:
  total: 66 ships (1000 GRT or over) 3,952,159 GRT/6,521,645 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 19, cargo 4, chemical tanker 2, container 10,
  liquefied gas 15, petroleum tanker 12, roll on/roll off 4
  foreign-owned: 10 (Denmark 4, Greece 4, UK 2)
  registered in other countries: 113 (Antigua and Barbuda 4, Bahamas
  13, Bermuda 4, Cyprus 1, French Southern and Antarctic Lands 6,
  Georgia 1, Gibraltar 2, Greece 12, Hong Kong 3, Luxembourg 9, Malta
  10, Mozambique 2, Netherlands 2, Netherlands Antilles 4, Panama 11,
  Portugal 8, Russia 4, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, Singapore
  12, Sweden 2) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Antwerp, Brussels, Gent, Liege, Oostende, Zeebrugge

Military Belgium


Military branches:
  Belgian Armed Forces: Land, Naval, and Air Operations Commands
  (2005)

Military service age and obligation:
  16 years of age for voluntary military service; women comprise
  approx. 7% of the Belgian armed forces (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 16-49: 2,436,736
  females age 16-49: 2,369,463 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 16-49: 1,998,003
  females age 16-49: 1,940,918 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 64,263
  females age 16-49: 61,402 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $3.999 billion (2003)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.3% (2003)

Transnational Issues Belgium


Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  growing producer of synthetic drugs; transit point for US-bound
  ecstasy; source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine
  processors; transshipment point for cocaine, heroin, hashish, and
  marijuana entering Western Europe; despite a strengthening of
  legislation, the country remains vulnerable to money laundering
  related to narcotics, automobiles, alcohol, and tobacco


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Belize

Introduction Belize


Background:
  Belize was the site of several Mayan city states until their
  decline at the end of the first millennium A.D. The British and
  Spanish disputed the region in the 17th and 18th centuries; it
  formally became the colony of British Honduras in 1854. Territorial
  disputes between the UK and Guatemala delayed the independence of
  Belize until 1981. Guatemala refused to recognize the new nation
  until 1992. Tourism has become the mainstay of the economy. Current
  concerns include high unemployment, growing involvement in the South
  American drug trade, and increasing urban crime.

Geography Belize


Location:
  Central America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala and
  Mexico

Geographic coordinates:
  17 15 N, 88 45 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 22,966 sq km
  land: 22,806 sq km
  water: 160 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries:
  total: 516 km
  border countries: Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 250 km

Coastline:
  386 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm in the north, 3 nm in the south; note - from
  the mouth of the Sarstoon River to Ranguana Cay, Belize's
  territorial sea is 3 nm; according to Belize's Maritime Areas Act,
  1992, the purpose of this limitation is to provide a framework for
  negotiating a definitive agreement on territorial differences with
  Guatemala
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to November); dry
  season (February to May)

Terrain:
  flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Victoria Peak 1,160 m

Natural resources:
  arable land potential, timber, fish, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 3.05%
  permanent crops: 1.39%
  other: 95.56% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  30 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  frequent, devastating hurricanes (June to November) and coastal
  flooding (especially in south)

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation; water pollution from sewage, industrial effluents,
  agricultural runoff; solid and sewage waste disposal

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law
  of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  only country in Central America without a coastline on the North
  Pacific Ocean

People Belize


Population:
  287,730 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 39.5% (male 57,923/female 55,678)
  15-64 years: 57% (male 82,960/female 81,046)
  65 years and over: 3.5% (male 4,888/female 5,235) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 19.6 years
  male: 19.5 years
  female: 19.8 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.31% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  28.84 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  5.72 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 24.89 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 28.07 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 21.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 68.3 years
  male: 66.43 years
  female: 70.26 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.6 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  2.4% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  3,600 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 200 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Belizean(s)
  adjective: Belizean

Ethnic groups:
  mestizo 48.7%, Creole 24.9%, Maya 10.6%, Garifuna 6.1%, other 9.7%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 49.6%, Protestant 27% (Pentecostal 7.4%, Anglican
  5.3%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5.2%, Mennonite 4.1%, Methodist 3.5%,
  Jehovah's Witnesses 1.5%), other 14%, none 9.4% (2000)

Languages:
  English (official), Spanish, Mayan, Garifuna (Carib), Creole

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 94.1%
  male: 94.1%
  female: 94.1% (2003 est.)

Government Belize


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Belize
  former: British Honduras

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  name: Belmopan
  geographic coordinates: 17 15 N, 88 46 W
  time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC during Standard
  Time)

Administrative divisions:
  6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal, Orange Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo

Independence:
  21 September 1981 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 21 September (1981)

Constitution:
  21 September 1981

Legal system:
  English law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General Sir Colville YOUNG, Sr. (since 17
  November 1993)
  head of government: Prime Minister Said Wilbert MUSA (since 28
  August 1998); Deputy Prime Minister John BRICENO (since 1 September
  1998)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of
  the prime minister
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
  appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the
  leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition
  is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; prime
  minister recommends the deputy prime minister

Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (12 members
  appointed by the governor general - 6 on the advice of the prime
  minister, 3 on the advice of the leader of the opposition, and 1
  each on the advice of the Belize Council of Churches and Evangelical
  Association of Churches, the Belize Chamber of Commerce and Industry
  and the Belize Better Business Bureau, and the National Trade Union
  Congress and the Civil Society Steering Committee; members are
  appointed for five-year terms) and the House of Representatives (29
  seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year
  terms)
  elections: House of Representatives - last held 5 March 2003 (next
  to be held March 2008)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  PUP 21, UDP 8

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (the chief justice is appointed by the governor
  general on the advice of the prime minister)

Political parties and leaders:
  People's United Party or PUP [Said MUSA]; United Democratic Party
  or UDP [Dean BARROW, party leader; Douglas SINGH, party chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Society for the Promotion of Education and Research or SPEAR [Adele
  CATZIM]

International organization participation:
  ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt,
  ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU,
  ITUC, LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Lisa M. SHOMAN
  chancery: 2535 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 332-9636
  FAX: [1] (202) 332-6888
  consulate(s) general: Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Robert J. DIETER
  embassy: Floral Park Road, Belmopan City, Cayo District
  mailing address: 3050 Belize Place, Washington DC 20521-3050
  telephone: [501] 227-7161 through 7163
  FAX: [501] 223-0802

Flag description:
  blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the bottom edges;
  centered is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms; the coat of
  arms features a shield flanked by two workers in front of a mahogany
  tree with the related motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I Flourish in the
  Shade) on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a green garland

Economy Belize


Economy - overview:
  In this small, essentially private-enterprise economy the tourism
  industry is the number one foreign exchange earner followed by
  marine products, citrus, cane sugar, bananas, and garments. The
  government's expansionary monetary and fiscal policies, initiated in
  September 1998, led to sturdy GDP growth averaging nearly 4% in
  1999-2006. Major concerns continue to be the sizable trade deficit
  and unsustainable foreign debt. The government in 2006 announced it
  would seek a restructuring of its sovereign debt and has been
  negotiating with international creditors to find an acceptable
  formula for doing so. A key short-term objective remains the
  reduction of poverty with the help of international donors.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $2.307 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $1.141 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3.5% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $8,400 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 22.5%
  industry: 14.8%
  services: 62.6% (2006 est.)

Labor force:
  90,000
  note: shortage of skilled labor and all types of technical personnel
  (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 27%
  industry: 18%
  services: 55% (2001 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  12.9% (2003)

Population below poverty line:
  33.5% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3% (2006 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  18.2% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $302.5 million
  expenditures: $357.5 million; including capital expenditures of $70
  million (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  bananas, coca, citrus, sugar; fish, cultured shrimp; lumber;
  garments

Industries:
  garment production, food processing, tourism, construction

Industrial production growth rate:
  4.6% (1999)

Electricity - production:
  175 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 59.9%
  hydro: 40.1%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  162.8 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - consumption:
  6,400 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Current account balance:
  $-173.4 million (2006 est.)

Exports:
  $359.5 million f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  sugar, bananas, citrus, clothing, fish products, molasses, wood

Exports - partners:
  US 30.6%, UK 25%, France 4.8% (2005)

Imports:
  $543 million f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods; fuels,
  chemicals, pharmaceuticals; food, beverages, tobacco

Imports - partners:
  US 31%, Mexico 11.6%, Russia 8.8%, Cuba 6%, Guatemala 5.6%, China
  4.6%, Spain 4.5% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $78.96 million (2006 est.)

Debt - external:
  $1.362 billion (June 2004 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $NA

Currency (code):
  Belizean dollar (BZD)

Currency code:
  BZD

Exchange rates:
  Belizean dollars per US dollar - 2 (2006), 2 (2005), 2 (2004), 2
  (2003), 2 (2002)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Belize


Telephones - main lines in use:
  33,300 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  93,100 (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: above-average system
  domestic: trunk network depends primarily on microwave radio relay
  international: country code - 501; satellite earth station - 8
  (Intelsat - 2, unknown - 6) (2005)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 12, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  133,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  2 (1997)

Televisions:
  41,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bz

Internet hosts:
  3,905 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  35,000 (2005)

Transportation Belize


Airports:
  43 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 5
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 2
  under 914 m: 2 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 38
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 11
  under 914 m: 26 (2006)

Roadways:
  total: 2,872 km
  paved: 488 km
  unpaved: 2,384 km (1999)

Waterways:
  825 km (navigable only by small craft) (2005)

Merchant marine:
  total: 285 ships (1000 GRT or over) 985,464 GRT/1,322,629 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 36, cargo 203, chemical tanker 7, container 4,
  passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 13, refrigerated cargo 12, roll
  on/roll off 6, specialized tanker 1
  foreign-owned: 225 (China 103, Croatia 1, Cyprus 2, Estonia 3,
  Germany 3, Greece 2, Hong Kong 8, Iceland 2, Indonesia 2, Italy 4,
  Japan 2, North Korea 2, South Korea 4, Latvia 6, Lithuania 1,
  Malaysia 1, Mexico 1, Norway 2, Poland 2, Russia 36, Singapore 6,
  Spain 3, Switzerland 1, Turkey 11, UAE 5, Ukraine 7, US 5) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Belize City

Military Belize


Military branches:
  Belize Defense Force (BDF): Army, Maritime Wing, Air Wing, and
  Volunteer Guard

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for voluntary military service; laws allow for
  conscription only if volunteers are insufficient; conscription has
  never been implemented; volunteers typically outnumber available
  positions by 3:1 (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 61,201
  females age 18-49: 60,048 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 44,238
  females age 18-49: 43,633 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 3,213
  females age 18-49: 3,100 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $19 million (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.7% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Belize


Disputes - international:
  Guatemalan squatters continue to settle in the largely uninhabited
  rain forests of Belize's border region; OAS seeks to revive the 2002
  failed Belize-Guatemala Differendum that created a small adjustment
  to land boundary, a Guatemalan maritime corridor in Caribbean, joint
  ecological park for disputed Sapodilla Cays, and substantial US-UK
  financial package

Trafficking in persons:
  current situation: Belize is a source, transit, and destination
  country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of
  labor and sexual exploitation; women and girls are trafficked mainly
  from Central America, and exploited in prostitution; children are
  trafficked to Belize for labor exploitation; Belize's largely
  unmonitored borders with Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico facilitate
  the movement of illegal migrants who are vulnerable to traffickers;
  girls are trafficked within the country for sexual exploitation,
  sometimes with the consent and complicity of their close relatives;
  there are unconfirmed reports that Indian and Chinese migrants are
  trafficked for involuntary servitude in homes and shops
  tier rating: Tier 3 - Belize has failed to show evidence of
  significant law enforcement or victim protection efforts

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for cocaine; small-scale illicit producer of
  cannabis for the international drug trade; money-laundering activity
  related to narcotics trafficking and offshore sector


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Benin

Introduction Benin


Background:
  Present day Benin was the site of Dahomey, a prominent West African
  kingdom that rose in the 15th century. The territory became a French
  Colony in 1872 and achieved independence on 1 August 1960, as the
  Republic of Benin. A succession of military governments ended in
  1972 with the rise to power of Mathieu KEREKOU and the establishment
  of a government based on Marxist-Leninist principles. A move to
  representative government began in 1989. Two years later, free
  elections ushered in former Prime Minister Nicephore SOGLO as
  president, marking the first successful transfer of power in Africa
  from a dictatorship to a democracy. KEREKOU was returned to power by
  elections held in 1996 and 2001, though some irregularities were
  alleged. KEREKOU stepped down at the end of his second term in 2006
  and was succeeded by Thomas YAYI BONI, a political outsider and
  independent.

Geography Benin


Location:
  Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Nigeria and
  Togo

Geographic coordinates:
  9 30 N, 2 15 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 112,620 sq km
  land: 110,620 sq km
  water: 2,000 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,989 km
  border countries: Burkina Faso 306 km, Niger 266 km, Nigeria 773 km,
  Togo 644 km

Coastline:
  121 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

Terrain:
  mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low mountains

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mont Sokbaro 658 m

Natural resources:
  small offshore oil deposits, limestone, marble, timber

Land use:
  arable land: 23.53%
  permanent crops: 2.37%
  other: 74.1% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  120 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north from December to
  March

Environment - current issues:
  inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching threatens wildlife
  populations; deforestation; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  sandbanks create difficult access to a coast with no natural
  harbors, river mouths, or islands

People Benin


Population:
  7,862,944
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 44.1% (male 1,751,709/female 1,719,138)
  15-64 years: 53.5% (male 2,067,248/female 2,138,957)
  65 years and over: 2.4% (male 75,694/female 110,198) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 17.6 years
  male: 17.2 years
  female: 18 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.73% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  38.85 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  12.22 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 79.56 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 84.09 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 74.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 53.04 years
  male: 51.9 years
  female: 54.22 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  5.2 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  1.9% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  68,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  5,800 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: very high
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea,
  hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
  vectorborne diseases: malaria, yellow fever, and others are high
  risks in some locations
  respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2007)

Nationality:
  noun: Beninese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Beninese

Ethnic groups:
  African 99% (42 ethnic groups, most important being Fon, Adja,
  Yoruba, Bariba), Europeans 5,500

Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 30%, Muslim 20%

Languages:
  French (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common vernaculars in
  south), tribal languages (at least six major ones in north)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 33.6%
  male: 46.4%
  female: 22.6% (2002 est.)

Government Benin


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Benin
  conventional short form: Benin
  local long form: Republique du Benin
  local short form: Benin
  former: Dahomey

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  name: Porto-Novo (official capital)
  geographic coordinates: 6 29 N, 2 37 E
  time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  note: Cotonou (seat of government)

Administrative divisions:
  12 departments; Alibori, Atakora, Atlantique, Borgou, Collines,
  Kouffo, Donga, Littoral, Mono, Oueme, Plateau, Zou

Independence:
  1 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday:
  National Day, 1 August (1960)

Constitution:
  adopted by referendum 2 December 1990

Legal system:
  based on French civil law and customary law; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Thomas YAYI Boni (since 6 April 2006);
  note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government
  head of government: President Thomas YAYI Boni (since 6 April 2006)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term
  (eligible for a second term); runoff election held 19 March 2006
  (next to be held March 2011)
  election results: Thomas YAYI Boni elected president; percent of
  vote - Thomas YAYI Boni 74.5%, Adrien HOUNGBEDJI 25.5%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (83 seats;
  members are elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 30 March 2003 (next to be held 25 March 2007)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  Presidential Movement (UBF, MADEP, FC, Alliance MDC-PC-CPP, IPD,
  AFP, MDS, RDP) 52, opposition (PRB, PRD, E'toile, and 5 other small
  parties) 31

Judicial branch:
  Constitutional Court or Cour Constitutionnelle; Supreme Court or
  Cour Supreme; High Court of Justice

Political parties and leaders:
  Alliance of Progress Forces or AFP; African Movement for Democracy
  and Progress or MADEP [Sefou FAGBOHOUN]; Democratic Renewal Party or
  PRD [Adrien HOUNGBEDJI]; Impulse for Progress and Democracy or IPD;
  Key Force or FC; Movement for Development and Solidarity or MDS;
  Movement for Development by the Culture-Salute Party-Congress of
  People for Progress Alliance or Alliance MDC-PS-CPP; New Alliance or
  NA; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP; Renaissance Party du
  Benin or RB [Nicephore SOGLO]; The Star Alliance (Alliance E'toile)
  [Sacca LAFIA]; Union of Tomorrow's Benin or UBF [Bruno AMOUSSOU]
  note: approximately 20 additional minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, MIGA,
  MONUC, NAM, OIC, OIF, ONUB, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL,
  UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WCO, WFTU,
  WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Cyrille Segbe OGUIN
  chancery: 2124 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 232-6656
  FAX: [1] (202) 265-1996

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Gayleatha B. BROWN
  embassy: Rue Caporal Bernard Anani, Cotonou
  mailing address: 01 B. P. 2012, Cotonou
  telephone: [229] 30-06-50
  FAX: [229] 30-06-70

Flag description:
  two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red (bottom) with a
  vertical green band on the hoist side

Economy Benin


Economy - overview:
  The economy of Benin remains underdeveloped and dependent on
  subsistence agriculture, cotton production, and regional trade.
  Growth in real output has averaged around 5% in the past six years,
  but rapid population growth has offset much of this increase.
  Inflation has subsided over the past several years. In order to
  raise growth still further, Benin plans to attract more foreign
  investment, place more emphasis on tourism, facilitate the
  development of new food processing systems and agricultural
  products, and encourage new information and communication
  technology. Many of these proposals were included in Benin's $307
  million Millennium Challenge Account grant signed in February 2006.
  The 2001 privatization policy continues in telecommunications,
  water, electricity, and agriculture in spite of government
  reluctance. The Paris Club and bilateral creditors have eased the
  external debt situation, with Benin benefiting from a G8 debt
  reduction announced in July 2005, while pressing for more rapid
  structural reforms. Benin continues to be hurt by Nigerian trade
  protection that bans imports of a growing list of products from
  Benin and elsewhere, which has resulted in increased smuggling and
  criminality in the border region.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $8.931 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $4.622 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  4% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $1,100 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 32.8%
  industry: 13.7%
  services: 53.5% (2006 est.)

Labor force:
  3.211 million (1996)

Unemployment rate:
  NA%

Population below poverty line:
  33% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3% (2006 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  19.1% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $836.8 million
  expenditures: $1.064 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  cotton, corn, cassava (tapioca), yams, beans, palm oil, peanuts;
  livestock

Industries:
  textiles, food processing, construction materials, cement

Industrial production growth rate:
  8.3% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:
  82 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 14.2%
  hydro: 85.8%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  576.3 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  500 million kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - consumption:
  14,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  4.105 million bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  1.133 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Current account balance:
  $-342.7 million (2006 est.)

Exports:
  $563.1 million f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  cotton, crude oil, palm products, cocoa

Exports - partners:
  China 31.3%, Indonesia 8.1%, India 7.4%, Niger 6%, Togo 4.8%,
  Thailand 4.8%, Nigeria 4.6% (2005)

Imports:
  $927.3 million f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  foodstuffs, capital goods, petroleum products

Imports - partners:
  France 21.8%, Ghana 7.1%, Cote d'Ivoire 7%, China 6.7%, UK 5.2%,
  Belgium 4.9%, Togo 4.5%, Thailand 4.2%, Nigeria 4% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $607.3 million (2006 est.)

Debt - external:
  $1.6 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $342.6 million (2000)

Currency (code):
  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible
  authority is the Central Bank of the West African States

Currency code:
  XOF

Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
  513.168 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003), 696.99
  (2002)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Benin


Telephones - main lines in use:
  76,300 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  386,700 (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: fair system of open-wire, microwave radio relay, and
  cellular connections
  international: country code - 229; satellite earth station - 7
  (Intelsat-Atlantic Ocean); fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC)
  provides connectivity to Europe and Asia

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 4 (2000)

Radios:
  660,000 (2000)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2001)

Televisions:
  66,000 (2000)

Internet country code:
  .bj

Internet hosts:
  867 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  4 (2002)

Internet users:
  425,000 (2005)

Transportation Benin


Airports:
  5 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 4
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2006)

Railways:
  total: 578 km
  narrow gauge: 578 km 1.000-m gauge (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 16,000 km
  paved: 1,400 km
  unpaved: 14,600 km (2005)

Waterways:
  150 km (on River Niger along northern border) (2005)

Ports and terminals:
  Cotonou

Military Benin


Military branches:
  Army, Navy, Air Force

Military service age and obligation:
  21 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; in
  practice, volunteers may be taken at the age of 18; both sexes are
  eligible for military service; conscript tour of duty - 18 months
  (2004)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 21-49: 1,295,230
  females age 21-49: 1,301,936 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 21-49: 749,774
  females age 21-49: 751,329 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 76,661
  females: 75,068 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $100.9 million (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.3% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Benin


Disputes - international:
  Benin and Burkina Faso military clash in 2006 over sections of
  riverine boundary involving disputed villages and squatters; much of
  Benin-Niger boundary, including tripoint with Nigeria, remains
  undemarcated; in 2005, Nigeria ceded thirteen villages to Benin as a
  consequence of a 2004 joint task force to resolve maritime and land
  boundary disputes, but clashes among rival gangs along the border
  persist; a joint boundary commission continues to resurvey the
  boundary with Togo to verify Benin's claim that Togo moved boundary
  stones

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  refugees (country of origin): 26,632 (Togo) (2006)

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for narcotics associated with Nigerian
  trafficking organizations and most commonly destined for Western
  Europe and the US; vulnerable to money laundering due to a poorly
  regulated financial infrastructure


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Bermuda

Introduction Bermuda


Background:
  Bermuda was first settled in 1609 by shipwrecked English colonists
  headed for Virginia. Tourism to the island to escape North American
  winters first developed in Victorian times. Tourism continues to be
  important to the island's economy, although international business
  has overtaken it in recent years. Bermuda has developed into a
  highly successful offshore financial center. Although a referendum
  on independence from the UK was soundly defeated in 1995, the
  present government has reopened debate on the issue.

Geography Bermuda


Location:
  North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, east
  of South Carolina (US)

Geographic coordinates:
  32 20 N, 64 45 W

Map references:
  North America

Area:
  total: 53.3 sq km
  land: 53.3 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about one-third the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  103 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter

Terrain:
  low hills separated by fertile depressions

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Town Hill 76 m

Natural resources:
  limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism

Land use:
  arable land: 20%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 80% (55% developed, 45% rural/open space) (2005)

Irrigated land:
  NA

Natural hazards:
  hurricanes (June to November)

Environment - current issues:
  sustainable development

Geography - note:
  consists of about 138 coral islands and islets with ample rainfall,
  but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land was leased by US
  Government from 1941 to 1995

People Bermuda


Population:
  65,773 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 18.6% (male 6,146/female 6,098)
  15-64 years: 69.2% (male 22,562/female 22,954)
  65 years and over: 12.2% (male 3,479/female 4,534) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 40.2 years
  male: 39.3 years
  female: 41 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.61% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  11.4 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  7.74 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  2.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 8.3 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 9.85 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 6.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 77.96 years
  male: 75.85 years
  female: 80.1 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.89 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.297% (2005)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  163 (2005)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  392 (2005)

Nationality:
  noun: Bermudian(s)
  adjective: Bermudian

Ethnic groups:
  black 54.8%, white 34.1%, mixed 6.4%, other races 4.3%, unspecified
  0.4% (2000 census)

Religions:
  Anglican 23%, Roman Catholic 15%, African Methodist Episcopal 11%,
  other Protestant 18%, other 12%, unaffiliated 6%, unspecified 1%,
  none 14% (2000 census)

Languages:
  English (official), Portuguese

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98%
  male: 98%
  female: 99% (2005 est.)

Government Bermuda


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Bermuda
  former: Somers Islands

Dependency status:
  overseas territory of the UK

Government type:
  parliamentary; self-governing territory

Capital:
  name: Hamilton
  geographic coordinates: 32 17 N, 64 46 W
  time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in April; ends last
  Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
  9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*,
  Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint George's, Sandys, Smith's,
  Southampton, Warwick

Independence:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday:
  Bermuda Day, 24 May

Constitution:
  8 June 1968; amended 1989 and 2003

Legal system:
  English law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor Sir John VEREKER (since 11 April 2002)
  head of government: Premier Ewart BROWN (since 30 October 2006);
  Deputy Premier Paula COX
  cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by
  the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the
  majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually
  appointed premier by the governor

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (an 11-member body
  appointed by the governor, the premier, and the opposition) and the
  House of Assembly (36 seats; members are elected by popular vote to
  serve up to five-year terms)
  elections: last general election held 24 July 2003 (next to be held
  not later than July 2008)
  election results: percent of vote by party - PLP 51.7%, UBP 48%;
  seats by party - PLP 22, UBP 14

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrate Courts

Political parties and leaders:
  Progressive Labor Party or PLP [Ewart BROWN]; United Bermuda Party
  or UBP [Wayne FURBERT]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Bermuda Employer's Union [Eddie SAINTS]; Bermuda Industrial Union
  or BIU [Derrick BURGESS]; Bermuda Public Services Union or BPSU [Ed
  BALL]; Bermuda Union of Teachers [Michael CHARLES]

International organization participation:
  Caricom (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, ITUC, UPU, WCO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Consul General Gregory W. SLAYTON
  consulate(s) general: Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire DVO3
  mailing address: P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; American Consulate
  General Hamilton, US Department of State, 5300 Hamilton Place,
  Washington, DC 20520-5300
  telephone: [1] (441) 295-1342
  FAX: [1] (441) 295-1592, [1] (441) 296-9233

Flag description:
  red, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
  the Bermudian coat of arms (white and green shield with a red lion
  holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea
  Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag

Economy Bermuda


Economy - overview:
  Bermuda enjoys the highest per capita income in the world, more
  than 50% higher than that of the US. Its economy is primarily based
  on providing financial services for international business and
  luxury facilities for tourists. A number of reinsurance companies
  relocated to the island following 11 September 2001 and again after
  Hurricane Katrina, contributing to the expansion of an already
  robust international business sector. Bermuda's tourism industry -
  which derives over 80% of its visitors from the US - continues to
  struggle but remains the island's number two industry. Most capital
  equipment and food must be imported. Bermuda's industrial sector is
  small, although construction continues to be important; the average
  cost of a house in June 2003 had risen to $976,000. Agriculture is
  limited with only 20% of the land being arable.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $4.5 billion (2004 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  NA

GDP - real growth rate:
  4.6% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $69,900 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 1%
  industry: 10%
  services: 89% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  38,360 (2004)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture and fishing 3%, laborers 3%, clerical 19%, professional
  and technical 17%, administrative and managerial 15%, sales 19%,
  services 19% (2004 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  2.1% (2004 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  19% (2000)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.8% (November 2005)

Budget:
  revenues: $738 million
  expenditures: $665 million (FY04/05)

Agriculture - products:
  bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy products, honey

Industries:
  international business, tourism, light manufacturing

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  682.5 million kWh (2005)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  616.7 million kWh (2005)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2005)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - consumption:
  4,658 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - exports:
  0 bbl/day (2005)

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $1.469 billion (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  reexports of pharmaceuticals

Exports - partners:
  France 65.9%, Spain 11.8%, US 4.5% (2005)

Imports:
  $982 million (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  clothing, fuels, machinery and transport equipment, construction
  materials, chemicals, food and live animals

Imports - partners:
  France 38.9%, South Korea 20.9%, US 15.5% (2005)

Debt - external:
  $160 million (FY99/00)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $NA

Currency (code):
  Bermudian dollar (BMD)

Currency code:
  BMD

Exchange rates:
  Bermudian dollar per US dollar - 1.0000 (fixed rate pegged to the
  US dollar)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Bermuda


Telephones - main lines in use:
  56,000 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  49,000 (2004)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: good
  domestic: fully automatic digital telephone system; fiber optic
  trunk lines
  international: country code - 1-441; submarine cables - 3 (fiber
  optic); satellite earth stations - 3 (2005)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 5, FM 3, shortwave 0 (2005)

Radios:
  82,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  3 (2005)

Televisions:
  66,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bm

Internet hosts:
  8,114 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  20 (2000)

Internet users:
  39,000 (2005)

Transportation Bermuda


Airports:
  1 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2006)

Roadways:
  total: 447 km
  paved: 447 km
  note: public roads - 225 km; private roads - 222 km (2002)

Merchant marine:
  total: 132 ships (1000 GRT or over) 7,873,728 GRT/8,688,692 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 25, cargo 1, container 24, liquefied gas 23,
  passenger 19, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 16, refrigerated
  cargo 13, roll on/roll off 5
  foreign-owned: 116 (Australia 3, Belgium 4, France 1, Germany 21,
  Greece 2, Hong Kong 10, Indonesia 1, Ireland 1, Israel 3, Monaco 2,
  Nigeria 11, Norway 5, Sweden 14, Switzerland 2, UK 9, US 27)
  registered in other countries: 6 (Liberia 1, Marshall Islands 4,
  Panama 1) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Hamilton, Saint George

Military Bermuda


Military branches:
  no regular military forces

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 15,151 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 12,165 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 408 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $4.03 million (2001)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  0.11% (FY00/01)

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues Bermuda


Disputes - international:
  none


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Bhutan

Introduction Bhutan


Background:
  In 1865, Britain and Bhutan signed the Treaty of Sinchulu, under
  which Bhutan would receive an annual subsidy in exchange for ceding
  some border land to British India. Under British influence, a
  monarchy was set up in 1907; three years later, a treaty was signed
  whereby the British agreed not to interfere in Bhutanese internal
  affairs and Bhutan allowed Britain to direct its foreign affairs.
  This role was assumed by independent India after 1947. Two years
  later, a formal Indo-Bhutanese accord returned the areas of Bhutan
  annexed by the British, formalized the annual subsidies the country
  received, and defined India's responsibilities in defense and
  foreign relations. A refugee issue of some 100,000 Bhutanese in
  Nepal remains unresolved; 90% of the refugees are housed in seven
  United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
  camps. In March 2005, King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK unveiled the
  government's draft constitution - which would introduce major
  democratic reforms - and pledged to hold a national referendum for
  its approval. A referendum date has yet to be named.

Geography Bhutan


Location:
  Southern Asia, between China and India

Geographic coordinates:
  27 30 N, 90 30 E

Map references:
  Asia

Area:
  total: 47,000 sq km
  land: 47,000 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about half the size of Indiana

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,075 km
  border countries: China 470 km, India 605 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers
  in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas

Terrain:
  mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Drangme Chhu 97 m
  highest point: Kula Kangri 7,553 m

Natural resources:
  timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbonate

Land use:
  arable land: 2.3%
  permanent crops: 0.43%
  other: 97.27% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  400 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  violent storms from the Himalayas are the source of the country's
  name, which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon; frequent
  landslides during the rainy season

Environment - current issues:
  soil erosion; limited access to potable water

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:
  landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls
  several key Himalayan mountain passes

People Bhutan


Population:
  2,279,723
  note: other estimates range as low as 810,000 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 38.9% (male 458,801/female 426,947)
  15-64 years: 57.1% (male 671,057/female 631,078)
  65 years and over: 4% (male 46,217/female 45,623) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 20.4 years
  male: 20.2 years
  female: 20.6 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.1% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  33.65 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  12.7 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 98.41 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 96.14 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 100.79 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 54.78 years
  male: 55.02 years
  female: 54.53 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  4.74 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  less than 100 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Bhutanese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Bhutanese

Ethnic groups:
  Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35% (includes Lhotsampas - one of
  several Nepalese ethnic groups), indigenous or migrant tribes 15%

Religions:
  Lamaistic Buddhist 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced Hinduism 25%

Languages:
  Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects,
  Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 47%
  male: 60%
  female: 34% (2003 est.)

Government Bhutan


Country name:
  conventional long form: Kingdom of Bhutan
  conventional short form: Bhutan
  local long form: Druk Gyalkhap
  local short form: Druk Yul

Government type:
  monarchy; special treaty relationship with India

Capital:
  name: Thimphu
  geographic coordinates: 27 28 N, 89 39 E
  time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and plural); Bumthang, Chhukha,
  Chirang, Dagana, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi, Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel,
  Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang, Tashigang, Thimphu,
  Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang
  note: there may be two new districts named Gasa and Yangtse

Independence:
  8 August 1949 (from India)

National holiday:
  National Day (Ugyen WANGCHUCK became first hereditary king), 17
  December (1907)

Constitution:
  no written constitution or bill of rights; note - in 2001, the king
  commissioned the drafting of a constitution, and in March 2005
  publicly unveiled it; is awaiting national referendum

Legal system:
  based on Indian law and English common law; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  each family has one vote in village-level elections; note - in late
  2003 Bhutan's legislature passed a new election law

Executive branch:
  chief of state: King Jigme Khesar Namgyel WANGCHUCK (since 14
  December 2006); note - King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK abdicated the
  throne on 14 December 2006 and his son immediately succeeded him
  head of government: Prime Minister Khandu WANGCHUK (since 7
  September 2006)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog) nominated by the
  monarch, approved by the National Assembly; members serve fixed,
  five-year terms; note - there is also a Royal Advisory Council
  (Lodoi Tsokde), members nominated by the monarch
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary, but democratic reforms
  in July 1998 grant the National Assembly authority to remove the
  monarch with two-thirds vote

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Tshogdu (150 seats; 105 elected
  from village constituencies, 10 represent religious bodies, and 35
  are designated by the monarch to represent government and other
  secular interests; members serve three-year terms)
  elections: local elections last held August 2005 (next to be held in
  2008)
  election results: NA

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court of Appeal (the monarch); High Court (judges appointed
  by the monarch)

Political parties and leaders:
  no legal parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Buddhist clergy; ethnic Nepalese organizations leading militant
  antigovernment campaign; Indian merchant community; United Front for
  Democracy (exiled)

International organization participation:
  AsDB, BIMSTEC, CP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IMF,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OPCW,
  SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO,
  WMO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none; note - Bhutan has a Permanent Mission to the UN; address: 2
  United Nations Plaza, 27th Floor, New York, NY 10017; telephone [1]
  (212) 826-1919; FAX [1] (212) 826-2998; the Bhutanese mission to the
  UN has consular jurisdiction in the US
  consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  the US and Bhutan have no formal diplomatic relations, although
  informal contact is maintained between the Bhutanese and US Embassy
  in New Delhi (India)

Flag description:
  divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper
  triangle is yellow and the lower triangle is orange; centered along
  the dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing away from
  the hoist side

Economy Bhutan


Economy - overview:
  The economy, one of the world's smallest and least developed, is
  based on agriculture and forestry, which provide the main livelihood
  for more than 80% of the population. Agriculture consists largely of
  subsistence farming and animal husbandry. Rugged mountains dominate
  the terrain and make the building of roads and other infrastructure
  difficult and expensive. The economy is closely aligned with India's
  through strong trade and monetary links and dependence on India's
  financial assistance. The industrial sector is technologically
  backward, with most production of the cottage industry type. Most
  development projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian
  migrant labor. Bhutan's hydropower potential and its attraction for
  tourists are key resources. Model education, social, and environment
  programs are underway with support from multilateral development
  organizations. Each economic program takes into account the
  government's desire to protect the country's environment and
  cultural traditions. For example, the government, in its cautious
  expansion of the tourist sector, encourages visits by upscale,
  environmentally conscientious tourists. Detailed controls and
  uncertain policies in areas like industrial licensing, trade, labor,
  and finance continue to hamper foreign investment.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $2.9 billion (2003 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $840.5 million (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5.9% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $1,400 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 25.8%
  industry: 37.9%
  services: 36.3% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  NA
  note: major shortage of skilled labor

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 93%
  industry: 2%
  services: 5%

Unemployment rate:


Population below poverty line:
  31.7% (2003)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  7% (2005 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $346.6 million
  expenditures: including capital expenditures of $NA
  note: the government of India finances nearly three-fifths of
  Bhutan's budget expenditures (2004)

Public debt:
  81.4% of GDP (2004)

Agriculture - products:
  rice, corn, root crops, citrus, foodgrains; dairy products, eggs

Industries:
  cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages,
  calcium carbide, tourism

Industrial production growth rate:
  9.3% (1996 est.)

Electricity - production:
  2.05 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 0.1%
  hydro: 99.9%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  526.5 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  1.4 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  20 million kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - consumption:
  1,160 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $154 million f.o.b. (2000 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  electricity (to India), cardamom, gypsum, timber, handicrafts,
  cement, fruit, precious stones, spices

Exports - partners:
  Japan 32.3%, Germany 13.2%, France 13.1%, South Korea 7.6%, US
  7.5%, Thailand 5.6%, Italy 5% (2005)

Imports:
  $196 million c.i.f. (2000 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  fuel and lubricants, grain, aircraft, machinery and parts,
  vehicles, fabrics, rice

Imports - partners:
  Hong Kong 66.6%, Mexico 20.2%, France 3.8% (2005)

Debt - external:
  $593 million (2004)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $78 million substantial aid from India and other nations (2004)

Currency (code):
  ngultrum (BTN); Indian rupee (INR)

Currency code:
  BTN; INR

Exchange rates:
  ngultrum per US dollar - 44.101 (2006), 44.101 (2005), 45.317
  (2004), 46.583 (2003), 48.61 (2002)
  note: the ngultrum is pegged to the Indian rupee

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Bhutan


Telephones - main lines in use:
  32,700 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  37,800 (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: telecommunications facilities are poor
  domestic: very low teledensity; domestic service is very poor
  especially in rural areas; wireless service available since 2003
  international: country code - 975; international telephone and
  telegraph service via landline and microwave relay through India;
  satellite earth station - 1 (2005)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 0, FM 9, shortwave 1 (2006)

Radios:
  37,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2006)

Televisions:
  11,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bt

Internet hosts:
  7,567 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  NA

Internet users:
  25,000 (2005)

Transportation Bhutan


Airports:
  2 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2006)

Roadways:
  total: 8,050 km
  paved: 4,991 km
  unpaved: 3,059 km (2003)

Military Bhutan


Military branches:
  Royal Bhutan Army: Royal Bodyguard, Royal Bhutan Police (2005)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription
  (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 483,860
  females age 18-49: 453,683 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 314,975
  females age 18-49: 296,833 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 23,939
  females age 18-49: 21,979 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $8.29 million (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Bhutan


Disputes - international:
  approximately 105,000 Bhutanese have lived decades as refugees in
  Nepal, 90% of whom reside in seven UN Office of the High
  Commissioner for Refugees camps; Bhutan cooperates with India to
  expel Indian separatists


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Bolivia

Introduction Bolivia


Background:
  Bolivia, named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR, broke away
  from Spanish rule in 1825; much of its subsequent history has
  consisted of a series of nearly 200 coups and countercoups.
  Democratic civilian rule was established in 1982, but leaders have
  faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty, social unrest, and
  illegal drug production. In December 2005, Bolivians elected
  Movement Toward Socialism leader Evo MORALES president - by the
  widest margin of any leader since the restoration of civilian rule
  in 1982 - after he ran on a promise to change the country's
  traditional political class and empower the nation's poor majority.
  However, since taking office, his controversial strategies have
  exacerbated racial and economic tensions between the Amerindian
  populations of the Andean west and the non-indigenous communities of
  the eastern lowlands.

Geography Bolivia


Location:
  Central South America, southwest of Brazil

Geographic coordinates:
  17 00 S, 65 00 W

Map references:
  South America

Area:
  total: 1,098,580 sq km
  land: 1,084,390 sq km
  water: 14,190 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries:
  total: 6,940 km
  border countries: Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,423 km, Chile 860 km,
  Paraguay 750 km, Peru 1,075 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid

Terrain:
  rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills,
  lowland plains of the Amazon Basin

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Rio Paraguay 90 m
  highest point: Nevado Sajama 6,542 m

Natural resources:
  tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver,
  iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 2.78%
  permanent crops: 0.19%
  other: 97.03% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  1,320 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  flooding in the northeast (March-April)

Environment - current issues:
  the clearing of land for agricultural purposes and the
  international demand for tropical timber are contributing to
  deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation
  methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification;
  loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used
  for drinking and irrigation

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law
  of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Life
  Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection

Geography - note:
  landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest
  navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru

People Bolivia


Population:
  8,989,046 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 35% (male 1,603,982/female 1,542,319)
  15-64 years: 60.4% (male 2,660,806/female 2,771,807)
  65 years and over: 4.6% (male 182,412/female 227,720) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 21.8 years
  male: 21.2 years
  female: 22.5 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.45% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  23.3 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  7.53 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -1.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 51.77 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 55.31 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 48.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 65.84 years
  male: 63.21 years
  female: 68.61 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.85 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.1% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  4,900 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 500 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bolivian(s)
  adjective: Bolivian

Ethnic groups:
  Quechua 30%, mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) 30%,
  Aymara 25%, white 15%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist) 5%

Languages:
  Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 87.2%
  male: 93.1%
  female: 81.6% (2003 est.)

Government Bolivia


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Bolivia
  conventional short form: Bolivia
  local long form: Republica de Bolivia
  local short form: Bolivia

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  name: La Paz (administrative capital)
  geographic coordinates: 16 30 S, 68 09 W
  time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  note: Sucre (constitutional capital)

Administrative divisions:
  9 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Beni,
  Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz,
  Tarija

Independence:
  6 August 1825 (from Spain)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 6 August (1825)

Constitution:
  2 February 1967; revised in August 1994

Legal system:
  based on Spanish law and Napoleonic Code; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age, universal and compulsory (married); 21 years of
  age, universal and compulsory (single)

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22 January
  2006); Vice President Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 January 2006);
  note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22
  January 2006); Vice President Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 January
  2006); note - the president is both chief of state and head of
  government
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for a single five-year term; election last held 18
  December 2005 (next to be held in 2010)
  election results: Juan Evo MORALES Ayma elected president; percent
  of vote - Juan Evo MORALES Ayma 53.7%; Jorge Fernando QUIROGA
  Ramirez 28.6%; Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana 7.8%; Michiaki NAGATANI
  Morishit 6.5%; Felipe QUISPE Huanca 2.2%; Guildo ANGULA Cabrera 0.7%

Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of
  Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (27 seats; members are
  elected by proportional representation from party lists to serve
  five-year terms) and Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130
  seats; 70 are directly elected from their districts and 60 are
  elected by proportional representation from party lists to serve
  five-year terms)
  elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies - last held
  18 December 2005 (next to be held in 2010)
  election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party -
  NA%; seats by party - PODEMOS 13, MAS 12, UN 1, MNR 1; Chamber of
  Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MAS 73,
  PODEMOS 43, UN 8, MNR 6

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges appointed for 10-year terms
  by National Congress); District Courts (one in each department);
  provincial and local courts (to try minor cases)

Political parties and leaders:
  Bolivian Socialist Falange or FSB [Romel PANTOJA]; Civic Solidarity
  Union or UCS [Johnny FERNANDEZ]; Free Bolivia Movement or MBL [Franz
  BARRIOS]; Marshal of Ayacucho Institutional Vanguard or VIMA [Freddy
  ZABALA]; Movement of the Revolutionary Left or MIR [Jaime PAZ
  Zamora]; Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Juan Evo MORALES Ayma];
  Movement Without Fear or MSM [Juan DEL GRANADO]; National
  Revolutionary Movement or MNR [Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA]; New
  Republican Force or NFR [Manfred REYES-VILLA]; Pachakuti Indigenous
  Movement or MIP [Felipe QUISPE Huanca]; Poder Democratico Nacional
  or PODEMOS [Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez]; Socialist Party or PS
  [Jeres JUSTINIANO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Cocalero groups; indigenous organizations; labor unions; Sole
  Confederation of Campesino Workers of Bolivia or CSUTCB [Roman
  LOAYZA]

International organization participation:
  CAN, CSN, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD,
  IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO
  (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA,
  MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMISET, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Gustavo GUZMAN Saldana
  chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 483-4410
  FAX: [1] (202) 328-3712
  consulate(s) general: Houston, Miami, New York, Oklahoma City, San
  Francisco, Seattle, Washington, DC

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Philip S. GOLDBERG
  embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, La Paz
  mailing address: P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34032
  telephone: [591] (2) 216-8000
  FAX: [591] (2) 216-8111

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with
  the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to the flag of
  Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the
  yellow band

Economy Bolivia


Economy - overview:
  Bolivia, long one of the poorest and least developed Latin American
  countries, reformed its economy after suffering a disastrous
  economic crisis in the early 1980s. The reforms spurred real GDP
  growth, which averaged 4% in the 1990s, and poverty rates fell.
  Economic growth, however, lagged again beginning in 1999 because of
  a global slowdown and homegrown factors such as political turmoil,
  civil unrest, and soaring fiscal deficits, all of which hurt
  investor confidence. In 2003, violent protests against the
  pro-foreign investment economic policies of President SANCHEZ DE
  LOZADA led to his resignation and the cancellation of plans to
  export Bolivia's newly discovered natural gas reserves to large
  northern hemisphere markets. In 2005, the government passed a
  controversial natural gas law that imposes on the oil and gas firms
  significantly higher taxes as well as new contracts that give the
  state control of their operations. Bolivian officials are in the
  process of implementing the law; meanwhile, foreign investors have
  stopped investing and have taken the first legal steps to secure
  their investments. Real GDP growth in 2003-06 - helped by increased
  demand for natural gas in neighboring Brazil - was positive, but
  still below the levels seen during the 1990s. Bolivia's fiscal
  position has improved in recent years, but the country remains
  dependent on foreign aid from multilateral lenders and foreign
  governments to meet budget shortfalls. In 2005, the G8 announced a
  $2 billion debt-forgiveness plan over the next few decades that
  should help reduce some fiscal pressures on the government in the
  near term.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $27.21 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $10.22 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3.3% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $3,000 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 12.8%
  industry: 36.1%
  services: 51.2% (2006 est.)

Labor force:
  4.3 million (2006 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Unemployment rate:
  7.8% in urban areas; widespread underemployment (2006 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  64% (2004 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 1.3%
  highest 10%: 32% (1999)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  60.6 (2002)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  4.3% (2006 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  12.4% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $4.153 billion
  expenditures: $3.619 billion; including capital expenditures of $741
  million (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  soybeans, coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice, potatoes;
  timber

Industries:
  mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco,
  handicrafts, clothing

Industrial production growth rate:
  5.7% (2004 est.)

Electricity - production:
  4.472 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 44.4%
  hydro: 54%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 1.5% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  4.168 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  9 million kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  42,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  47,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  458.8 million bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  10.05 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  2.14 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  7.91 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  679.6 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Current account balance:
  $688 million (2006 est.)

Exports:
  $3.668 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  natural gas, soybeans and soy products, crude petroleum, zinc ore,
  tin

Exports - partners:
  Brazil 44.2%, US 12.5%, Argentina 10.9%, Colombia 7.8%, Peru 4.8%
  (2005)

Imports:
  $2.934 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  petroleum products, plastics, paper, aircraft and aircraft parts,
  prepared foods, automobiles, insecticides, soybeans

Imports - partners:
  Brazil 21.9%, Argentina 16.7%, US 13.8%, Chile 6.9%, Peru 6.5%,
  Japan 6.1%, China 5.8% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $3.303 billion (2006 est.)

Debt - external:
  $5.916 billion (2006 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $221 million (2005 est.)

Currency (code):
  boliviano (BOB)

Currency code:
  BOB

Exchange rates:
  bolivianos per US dollar - 8.01039 (2006), 8.0661 (2005), 7.9363
  (2004), 7.6592 (2003), 7.17 (2002)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Bolivia


Telephones - main lines in use:
  646,300 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  2.421 million (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: new subscribers face bureaucratic difficulties;
  most telephones are concentrated in La Paz and other cities; mobile
  cellular telephone use expanding rapidly
  domestic: primary trunk system, which is being expanded, employs
  digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic
  cable; mobile cellular systems are being expanded
  international: country code - 591; satellite earth station - 1
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 171, FM 73, shortwave 77 (1999)

Radios:
  5.25 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  48 (1997)

Televisions:
  900,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bo

Internet hosts:
  20,085 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  9 (2000)

Internet users:
  480,000 (2005)

Transportation Bolivia


Airports:
  1,084 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 16
  over 3,047 m: 4
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
  914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1,068
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 60
  914 to 1,523 m: 207
  under 914 m: 797 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 4,860 km; liquid petroleum gas 47 km; oil 2,475 km; refined
  products 1,589 km; unknown (oil/water) 247 km (2006)

Railways:
  total: 3,519 km
  narrow gauge: 3,519 km 1.000-m gauge (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 62,479 km
  paved: 3,749 km
  unpaved: 56,730 km (2004)

Waterways:
  10,000 km (commercially navigable) (2005)

Merchant marine:
  total: 24 ships (1000 GRT or over) 127,297 GRT/198,525 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 2, cargo 8, chemical tanker 1, passenger/cargo
  3, petroleum tanker 10
  foreign-owned: 10 (Argentina 1, China 1, Egypt 2, Iran 1, Singapore
  3, Taiwan 1, Yemen 1) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Puerto Aguirre (on the Paraguay/Parana waterway, at the
  Bolivia/Brazil border); also, Bolivia has free port privileges in
  maritime ports in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay

Military Bolivia


Military branches:
  Bolivian Armed Forces: Bolivian Army (Ejercito Boliviano), Bolivian
  Navy (Armada Boliviana; includes marines), Bolivian Air Force
  (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana, FAB) (2006)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for voluntary military service; when annual number
  of volunteers falls short of goal, compulsory recruitment is
  effected, including conscription of boys as young as 14; one
  estimate holds that 40% of the armed forces are under the age of 18,
  with 50% of those under the age of 16; conscript tour of duty - 12
  months (2002)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,923,234
  females age 18-49: 2,007,315 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,311,414
  females age 18-49: 1,502,177 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 101,101
  females age 18-49: 98,671 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $130 million (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.4% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Bolivia


Disputes - international:
  Chile rebuffs Bolivia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama
  corridor, ceded to Chile in 1884, offering instead unrestricted but
  not sovereign maritime access through Chile for Bolivian natural gas
  and other commodities

Trafficking in persons:
  current situation: Bolivia is a source and transit country for men,
  women, and children trafficked for the purposes of labor and sexual
  exploitation to Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, as well as to Spain;
  children are trafficked internally for sexual exploitation, forced
  mining, and agricultural labor; illegal migrants from Asia
  transiting Bolivia are vulnerable as trafficking victims
  tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Bolivia has failed to show evidence
  of increasing efforts to combat trafficking in the areas of
  prosecutions and victim protection

Illicit drugs:
  world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Colombia and Peru)
  with an estimated 26,500 hectares under cultivation in August 2005,
  an 8% increase from 2004; intermediate coca products and cocaine
  exported mostly to or through Brazil, Argentina, and Chile to
  European drug markets; cultivation steadily increasing despite
  eradication and alternative crop programs; money-laundering activity
  related to narcotics trade, especially along the borders with Brazil
  and Paraguay


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Bosnia and Herzegovina

Introduction Bosnia and Herzegovina


Background:
  Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in October 1991
  was followed by a declaration of independence from the former
  Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic
  Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and
  Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning
  the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form
  a "Greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the
  number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement
  creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed
  a peace agreement that brought to a halt three years of interethnic
  civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December
  1995). The Dayton Peace Accords retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's
  international boundaries and created a joint multi-ethnic and
  democratic government charged with conducting foreign, diplomatic,
  and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government
  comprised of two entities roughly equal in size: the Bosniak/Croat
  Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led
  Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments were
  charged with overseeing most government functions. The Office of the
  High Representative (OHR) was established to oversee the
  implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. In 1995-96,
  a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops
  served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of
  the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led
  Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission was to deter renewed
  hostilities. European Union peacekeeping troops (EUFOR) replaced
  SFOR in December 2004; their mission is to maintain peace and
  stability throughout the country. EUFOR plans to phase out its
  mission beginning in 2007.

Geography Bosnia and Herzegovina


Location:
  Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia

Geographic coordinates:
  44 00 N, 18 00 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 51,129 sq km
  land: 51,129 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,459 km
  border countries: Croatia 932 km, Montenegro 225 km, Serbia 302 km

Coastline:
  20 km

Maritime claims:
  no data available

Climate:
  hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short,
  cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along
  coast

Terrain:
  mountains and valleys

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
  highest point: Maglic 2,386 m

Natural resources:
  coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, cobalt,
  manganese, nickel, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, forests, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 19.61%
  permanent crops: 1.89%
  other: 78.5% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  30 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues:
  air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of
  urban waste are limited; water shortages and destruction of
  infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous
  Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders, the country is
  divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the
  territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about
  49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous
  to Croatia and Serbia and Montenegro (Montenegro), and traditionally
  has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority in the west and an
  ethnic Serb majority in the east

People Bosnia and Herzegovina


Population:
  4,498,976 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 15.5% (male 359,739/female 336,978)
  15-64 years: 70.1% (male 1,590,923/female 1,564,665)
  65 years and over: 14.4% (male 265,637/female 381,034) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 38.4 years
  male: 37.2 years
  female: 39.5 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.35% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  8.77 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  8.27 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  13.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 9.82 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 11.26 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 8.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 78 years
  male: 74.39 years
  female: 81.88 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.22 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  900 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  100 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)
  adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian

Ethnic groups:
  Bosniak 48%, Serb 37.1%, Croat 14.3%, other 0.6% (2000)
  note: Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid
  confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam

Religions:
  Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 14%

Languages:
  Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 94.6%
  male: 98.4%
  female: 91.1% (2000 est.)

Government Bosnia and Herzegovina


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina
  local long form: none
  local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina
  former: People's Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Socialist
  Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Government type:
  emerging federal democratic republic

Capital:
  name: Sarajevo
  geographic coordinates: 43 52 N, 18 25 E
  time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last
  Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
  2 first-order administrative divisions and 1 internationally
  supervised district* - Brcko district (Brcko Distrikt)*, the
  Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija Bosna
  i Hercegovina) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska; note -
  Brcko district is in northeastern Bosnia and is an administrative
  unit under the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina; the district
  remains under international supervision

Independence:
  1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia; referendum for independence was
  completed 1 March 1992; independence was declared 3 March 1992)

National holiday:
  National Day, 25 November (1943)

Constitution:
  the Dayton Agreement, signed 14 December 1995, included a new
  constitution now in force; note - each of the entities also has its
  own constitution

Legal system:
  based on civil law system

Suffrage:
  18 years of age, universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Nebojsa RADMANOVIC
  (chairman since 6 November 2006; presidency member since 1 October
  2006 - Serb); other members of the three-member presidency rotating
  (every eight months): Zeljko KOMSIC (since 1 October 2006 - Croat)
  and Haris SILAJDZIC (since 1 October 2006 - Bosniak)
  head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Nikola
  SPIRIC (since 4 January 2007)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman;
  approved by the National House of Representatives
  elections: the three members of the presidency (one Bosniak, one
  Croat, one Serb) are elected by popular vote for a four-year term
  (eligible for a second term, but then ineligible for four years);
  the member with the most votes becomes the chairman unless he or she
  was the incumbent chairman at the time of the election, but the
  chairmanship rotates every eight months; election last held 1
  October 2006 (next to be held in 2010); the chairman of the Council
  of Ministers is appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the
  National House of Representatives
  election results: percent of vote - Nebojsa RADMANOVIC with 53.3% of
  the votes for the Serb seat; Zeljko KOMSIC received 39.6% of the
  votes for the Croat seat; Haris SILAJDZIC received 62.8% of the
  votes for the Bosniak seat
  note: current government is caretaker in the Federation of Bosnia
  and Herzegovina; President of the Federation of Bosnia and
  Herzegovina: Niko LOZANCIC (since 27 January 2003); Vice Presidents
  Sahbaz DZIHANOVIC (since in 2003) and Desnica RADIVOJEVIC (since in
  2003); new government will be appointed in coming months; President
  of the Republika Srpska: Milan JELIC (since 9 November 2006)

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina consists of the
  national House of Representatives or Predstavnicki Dom (42 seats -
  elected by proportional representation, 28 seats allocated from the
  Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 14 seats from the Republika
  Srpska; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms);
  and the House of Peoples or Dom Naroda (15 seats - 5 Bosniak, 5
  Croat, 5 Serb; members elected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's
  House of Representatives and the Republika Srpska's National
  Assembly to serve four-year terms); note - Bosnia's election law
  specifies four-year terms for the state and first-order
  administrative division entity legislatures
  elections: national House of Representatives - elections last held 1
  October 2006 (next to be held in 2010); House of Peoples - last
  constituted in January 2003 (next to be constituted in 2007)
  election results: national House of Representatives - percent of
  vote by party/coalition - NA%; seats by party/coalition - SDA 9,
  SBiH 8, SNSD 7, SDP 5, SDS 3, HDZ-BH 3, HDZ 1990 2, other 5; House
  of Peoples - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by
  party/coalition - NA
  note: the Bosniak/Croat Federation has a bicameral legislature that
  consists of a House of Representatives (98 seats; members elected by
  popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held 1
  October 2006 (next to be held in October 2010); percent of vote by
  party - NA; seats by party/coalition - SDA 28, SBiH 24, SDP 17,
  HDZ-BH 8, HDZ100 7, other 14; and a House of Peoples (58 seats - 17
  Bosniak, 17 Croat, 1i7 Serb, 7 other); last constituted December
  2002; the Republika Srpska has a National Assembly (83 seats;
  members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections
  last held 1 October 2006 (next to be held in the fall of 2010);
  percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party/coalition - SNSD 41,
  SDS 17, PDP 8, DNS 4, SBH 4, SPRS 3, SDA 3, other 3; as a result of
  the 2002 constitutional reform process, a 28-member Republika Srpska
  Council of Peoples (COP) was established in the Republika Srpska
  National Assembly including eight Croats, eight Bosniaks, eight
  Serbs, and four members of the smaller communities

Judicial branch:
  BH Constitutional Court (consists of nine members: four members are
  selected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives,
  two members by the Republika Srpska's National Assembly, and three
  non-Bosnian members by the president of the European Court of Human
  Rights); BH State Court (consists of nine judges and three divisions
  - Administrative, Appellate and Criminal - having jurisdiction over
  cases related to state-level law and appellate jurisdiction over
  cases initiated in the entities); note - a War Crimes Chamber opened
  in March 2005
  note: the entities each have a Supreme Court; each entity also has a
  number of lower courts; there are 10 cantonal courts in the
  Federation, plus a number of municipal courts; the Republika Srpska
  has five municipal courts

Political parties and leaders:
  Alliance of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK];
  Bosnian Party or BOSS [Mirnes AJANOVIC]; Civic Democratic Party or
  GDS [Ibrahim SPAHIC]; Croat Christian Democratic Union of Bosnia and
  Herzegovina or HKDU [Marin TOPIC]; Croat Party of Rights or HSP
  [Zvonko JURISIC]; Croat Peasants Party or HSS [Marko TADIC];
  Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HDZ-BH
  [Dragan COVIC]; Croatian Democratic Union 1990 or HDZ1990 [Bozo
  LJUBIC]; Croatian Peoples Union [Milenko BRKIC]; Democratic National
  Union or DNZ [Rifet DOLIC]; Democratic Peoples Alliance or DNS
  [Marko PAVIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDS [Rasim KADIC]; New
  Croat Initiative or NHI [Kresimir ZUBAK]; Party for Bosnia and
  Herzegovina or SBiH [Haris SILAJDZIC]; Party for Democratic Action
  or SDA [Sulejman TIHIC]; Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Mladen
  IVANIC]; Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Mladen BOSIC]; Serb Radical
  Party of the Republika Srpska or SRS-RS [Milanko MIHAJLICA]; Serb
  Radical Party-Dr. Vojislav Seselj or SRS-VS [Radislav KANJERIC];
  Social Democratic Party of BIH or SDP [Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA]; Social
  Democratic Union or SDU [Sejfudin TOKIC]; Socialist Party of
  Republika Srpska or SPRS [Petar DJOKIC]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  BIS, CE, CEI, EBRD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA,
  IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU,
  ITUC, MIGA, MONUC, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIC (observer),
  OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNWTO, UPU,
  WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Bisera TURKOVIC
  chancery: 2109 E Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
  telephone: [1] (202) 337-1500
  FAX: [1] (202) 337-1502
  consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Douglas L. McELHANEY
  embassy: Alipasina 43, 71000 Sarajevo
  mailing address: use street address
  telephone: [387] (33) 445-700
  FAX: [387] (33) 659-722
  branch office(s): Banja Luka, Mostar

Flag description:
  a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow
  isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the
  remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full five-pointed
  white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse
  of the triangle

Economy Bosnia and Herzegovina


Economy - overview:
  Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to Macedonia as the poorest
  republic in the old Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture is
  almost all in private hands, farms are small and inefficient, and
  the republic traditionally is a net importer of food. Industry
  remains greatly overstaffed, a holdover from the socialist economic
  structure of Yugoslavia. TITO had pushed the development of military
  industries in the republic with the result that Bosnia was saddled
  with a host of industrial firms with little commercial potential.
  The interethnic warfare in Bosnia caused production to plummet by
  80% from 1992 to 1995 and unemployment to soar. With an uneasy peace
  in place, output recovered in 1996-99 at high percentage rates from
  a low base; but output growth slowed in 2000-02. Part of the lag in
  output was made up in 2003-06. National-level statistics are limited
  and do not capture the large share of black market activity. The
  konvertibilna marka (convertible mark or BAM)- the national currency
  introduced in 1998 - is pegged to the euro, and confidence in the
  currency and the banking sector has increased. Implementation of
  privatization, however, has been slow, and local entities only
  reluctantly support national-level institutions. Banking reform
  accelerated in 2001 as all the Communist-era payments bureaus were
  shut down; foreign banks, primarily from Western Europe, now control
  most of the banking sector. A sizeable current account deficit and
  high unemployment rate remain the two most serious economic
  problems. The country receives substantial amounts of reconstruction
  assistance and humanitarian aid from the international community but
  will have to prepare for an era of declining assistance.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $24.8 billion
  note: Bosnia has a large informal sector that could also be as much
  as 50% of official GDP (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $9.158 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5.3% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $5,500 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 14.2%
  industry: 30.8%
  services: 55% (2002)

Labor force:
  1.026 million (2001)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Unemployment rate:
  45.5% official rate; grey economy may reduce actual unemployment to
  25-30% (31 December 2004 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  25% (2004 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  26.2 (2001)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  8.2% (2006 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $5.643 billion
  expenditures: $5.677 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2006 est.)

Public debt:
  24.5% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock

Industries:
  steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, vehicle
  assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank and
  aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining

Industrial production growth rate:
  5.5% (2003 est.)

Electricity - production:
  12.98 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 53.5%
  hydro: 46.5%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  11.03 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  3.05 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  2 billion kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - consumption:
  23,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  300 million cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  300 million cu m (2004 est.)

Current account balance:
  $-1.73 billion (2006 est.)

Exports:
  $3.5 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  metals, clothing, wood products

Exports - partners:
  Croatia 18.4%, Italy 17.1%, Slovenia 14.7%, Germany 12.8%, Austria
  6.5%, Hungary 5.2%, China 4.2% (2005)

Imports:
  $8.25 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  Croatia 24.7%, Germany 13.6%, Slovenia 13%, Italy 11%, Austria
  6.9%, Hungary 5.5% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $2.7 billion (2006 est.)

Debt - external:
  $3.927 billion (2006 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $650 million (2001 est.)

Currency (code):
  marka (BAM)

Currency code:
  BAM

Exchange rates:
  marka per US dollar - 1.55818 (2006), 1.5727 (2005), 1.5752 (2004),
  1.7329 (2003), 2.0782 (2002)
  note: the marka is pegged to the euro

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Bosnia and Herzegovina


Telephones - main lines in use:
  968,900 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1.594 million (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: telephone and telegraph network needs
  modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below average as
  contrasted with services in other former Yugoslav republics
  domestic: NA
  international: country code - 387; no satellite earth stations

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 8, FM 16, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  940,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  33 (plus 277 repeaters) (September 1995)

Televisions:
  NA

Internet country code:
  .ba

Internet hosts:
  31,490 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  3 (2000)

Internet users:
  806,400 (2005)

Transportation Bosnia and Herzegovina


Airports:
  28 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 8
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  under 914 m: 3 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 20
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 7
  under 914 m: 12 (2006)

Heliports:
  5 (2006)

Railways:
  total: 608 km (777 km electrified)
  standard gauge: 608 km 1.435-m gauge (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 21,846 km
  paved: 11,425 km (4,686 km of interurban roads)
  unpaved: 10,421 km (2005)

Waterways:
  Sava River (northern border) open to shipping but use limited (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac, and Brcko (all
  inland waterway ports on the Sava), Orasje

Military Bosnia and Herzegovina


Military branches:
  VF Army (the air and air defense forces are subordinate commands
  within the Army), VRS Army (the air and air defense forces are
  subordinate commands within the Army)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for compulsory military service in the Federation
  of Bosnia and Herzegovina; 16 years of age in times of war; 18 years
  of age for Republika Srpska; 17 years of age for voluntary military
  service in the Federation and in the Republika Srpska; by law,
  military obligations cover all healthy men between the ages of 18
  and 60, and all women between the ages of 18 and 55; service
  obligation is four months (July 2004)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,119,508
  females age 18-49: 1,079,435 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 910,539
  females age 18-49: 881,446 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 32,942
  females age 18-49: 31,466 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $234.3 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  4.5% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Bosnia and Herzegovina


Disputes - international:
  Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia and Montenegro have delimited
  most of their boundary, but sections along the Drina River remain in
  dispute; discussions continue with Croatia on several small disputed
  sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinder
  ratification of the 1999 border agreement

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  refugees (country of origin): 7,458 (Croatia)
  IDPs: 180,251 (Bosnian Croats, Serbs, and Muslims displaced in
  1992-95 war) (2006)

Illicit drugs:
  minor transit point for marijuana and opiate trafficking routes to
  Western Europe; remains highly vulnerable to money-laundering
  activity given a primarily cash-based and unregulated economy, weak
  law enforcement, and instances of corruption


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Botswana

Introduction Botswana


Background:
  Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted
  its new name upon independence in 1966. Four decades of
  uninterrupted civilian leadership, progressive social policies, and
  significant capital investment have created one of the most dynamic
  economies in Africa. Mineral extraction, principally diamond mining,
  dominates economic activity, though tourism is a growing sector due
  to the country's conservation practices and extensive nature
  preserves. Botswana has one of the world's highest known rates of
  HIV/AIDS infection, but also one of Africa's most progressive and
  comprehensive programs for dealing with the disease.

Geography Botswana


Location:
  Southern Africa, north of South Africa

Geographic coordinates:
  22 00 S, 24 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 600,370 sq km
  land: 585,370 sq km
  water: 15,000 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 4,013 km
  border countries: Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe
  813 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

Terrain:
  predominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in
  southwest

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m
  highest point: Tsodilo Hills 1,489 m

Natural resources:
  diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore,
  silver

Land use:
  arable land: 0.65%
  permanent crops: 0.01%
  other: 99.34% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  10 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west,
  carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure
  visibility

Environment - current issues:
  overgrazing; desertification; limited fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law
  of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country

People Botswana


Population:
  1,639,833
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 38.3% (male 319,531/female 309,074)
  15-64 years: 57.9% (male 460,692/female 488,577)
  65 years and over: 3.8% (male 23,374/female 38,585) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 19.4 years
  male: 18.8 years
  female: 20 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  -0.04% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  23.08 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  29.5 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  6.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population
  note: there is an increasing flow of Zimbabweans into South Africa
  and Botswana in search of better economic opportunities (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 53.7 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 54.92 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 52.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 33.74 years
  male: 33.9 years
  female: 33.56 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.79 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  37.3% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  350,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  33,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: high
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and
  typhoid fever
  vectorborne disease: malaria (2007)

Nationality:
  noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
  adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

Ethnic groups:
  Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, other, including
  Kgalagadi and white 7%

Religions:
  Christian 71.6%, Badimo 6%, other 1.4%, unspecified 0.4%, none
  20.6% (2001 census)

Languages:
  Setswana 78.2%, Kalanga 7.9%, Sekgalagadi 2.8%, English 2.1%
  (official), other 8.6%, unspecified 0.4% (2001 census)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 79.8%
  male: 76.9%
  female: 82.4% (2003 est.)

Government Botswana


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Botswana
  conventional short form: Botswana
  local long form: Republic of Botswana
  local short form: Botswana
  former: Bechuanaland

Government type:
  parliamentary republic

Capital:
  name: Gaborone
  geographic coordinates: 24 45 S, 25 55 E
  time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  9 districts and 5 town councils*; Central, Francistown*, Gaborone*,
  Ghanzi, Jwaneng*, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Lobatse*, Northeast,
  Northwest, Selebi-Pikwe*, Southeast, Southern

Independence:
  30 September 1966 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day (Botswana Day), 30 September (1966)

Constitution:
  March 1965, effective 30 September 1966

Legal system:
  based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; judicial review
  limited to matters of interpretation; accepts compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Festus G. MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) and
  Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 July 1998); note - the
  president is both the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President Festus G. MOGAE (since 1 April 1998)
  and Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 July 1998); note -
  the president is both the chief of state and head of government
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  elections: president indirectly elected for a five-year term
  (eligible for a second term); election last held 20 October 2004
  (next to be held in 2009); vice president appointed by the president
  election results: Festus G. MOGAE elected president; percent of
  National Assembly vote - 52%

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Chiefs (a largely
  advisory 15-member body with 8 permanent members consisting of the
  chiefs of the principal tribes, and 7 non-permanent members serving
  5-year terms, consisting of 4 elected subchiefs and 3 members
  selected by the other 12 members) and the National Assembly (63
  seats, 57 members are directly elected by popular vote, 4 are
  appointed by the majority party, and 2, the President and
  Attorney-General, serve as ex-officio members; members serve
  five-year terms)
  elections: National Assembly elections last held 30 October 2004
  (next to be held October 2009)
  election results: percent of vote by party - BDP 51.7%, BNF 26.1%,
  BCP 16.6%, other 5%; seats by party - BDP 44, BNF 12, BCP 1

Judicial branch:
  High Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrates' Courts (one in each
  district)

Political parties and leaders:
  Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO];
  Botswana Congress Party or BCP [Otlaadisa KOOSALETSE]; Botswana
  Democratic Party or BDP [Festus G. MOGAE]; Botswana National Front
  or BNF [Otswoletse MOUPO]; Botswana Peoples Party or BPP; MELS
  Movement of Botswana or MELS; New Democratic Front or NDF
  note: a number of minor parties joined forces in 1999 to form the
  BAM but did not capture any parliamentary seats - includes the
  United Action Party [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]; the Independence
  Freedom Party or IFP [Motsamai MPHO]; the Botswana Progressive Union
  [D. K. KWELE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACP, AfDB, AU, C, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA,
  IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM,
  OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Lapologang Caesar LEKOA
  chancery: 1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
  telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990
  FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Katherine H. CANAVAN
  embassy: address NA, Gaborone
  mailing address: Embassy Enclave, P. O. Box 90, Gaborone
  telephone: [267] 353982
  FAX: [267] 312782

Flag description:
  light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center

Economy Botswana


Economy - overview:
  Botswana has maintained one of the world's highest economic growth
  rates since independence in 1966. Through fiscal discipline and
  sound management, Botswana has transformed itself from one of the
  poorest countries in the world to a middle-income country with a per
  capita GDP of $11,200 in 2006. Two major investment services rank
  Botswana as the best credit risk in Africa. Diamond mining has
  fueled much of the expansion and currently accounts for more than
  one-third of GDP and for 70-80% of export earnings. Tourism,
  financial services, subsistence farming, and cattle raising are
  other key sectors. On the downside, the government must deal with
  high rates of unemployment and poverty. Unemployment officially was
  23.8% in 2004, but unofficial estimates place it closer to 40%.
  HIV/AIDS infection rates are the second highest in the world and
  threaten Botswana's impressive economic gains. An expected leveling
  off in diamond mining production overshadows long-term prospects.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $18.72 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $9.697 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  4.7% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $11,400 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 2.4%
  industry: 46.9% (including 36% mining)
  services: 50.7% (2003 est.)

Labor force:
  288,400 formal sector employees (2004)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Unemployment rate:
  23.8% (2004)

Population below poverty line:
  30.3% (2003)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  63 (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  11.4% (2006 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  21.8% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $4.256 billion
  expenditures: $3.968 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2006 est.)

Public debt:
  7.1% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  livestock, sorghum, maize, millet, beans, sunflowers, groundnuts

Industries:
  diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash; livestock
  processing; textiles

Industrial production growth rate:
  6.3% (2006 est.)

Electricity - production:
  823 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  2.464 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  1.699 billion kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - consumption:
  11,500 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  16,000 bbl/day (2001)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Current account balance:
  $1.698 billion (2006 est.)

Exports:
  $4.836 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  diamonds, copper, nickel, soda ash, meat, textiles

Exports - partners:
  European Free Trade Association (EFTA) 87%, Southern African
  Customs Union (SACU) 7%, Zimbabwe 4% (2004)

Imports:
  $3.034 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  foodstuffs, machinery, electrical goods, transport equipment,
  textiles, fuel and petroleum products, wood and paper products,
  metal and metal products

Imports - partners:
  Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 74%, EFTA 17%, Zimbabwe 4%
  (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $7.445 billion (2006 est.)

Debt - external:
  $520 million (2006 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $73 million (1995)

Currency (code):
  pula (BWP)

Currency code:
  BWP

Exchange rates:
  pulas per US dollar - 5.90646 (2006), 5.1104 (2005), 4.6929 (2004),
  4.9499 (2003), 6.3278 (2002)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Botswana


Telephones - main lines in use:
  132,000 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  823,100 (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: the system is expanding with the growth of
  mobile cellular service and participation in regional development
  domestic: small system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay
  links, and a few radiotelephone communication stations; mobile
  cellular service is growing fast
  international: country code - 267; two international exchanges;
  digital microwave radio relay links to Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe,
  and South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 8, FM 13, shortwave 4 (2001)

Radios:
  252,720 (2000)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2001)

Televisions:
  31,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bw

Internet hosts:
  5,499 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  11 (2001)

Internet users:
  60,000 (2002)

Transportation Botswana


Airports:
  85 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 10
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 75
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
  914 to 1,523 m: 55
  under 914 m: 17 (2006)

Railways:
  total: 888 km
  narrow gauge: 888 km 1.067-m gauge (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 24,455 km
  paved: 8,914 km
  unpaved: 15,441 km (2004)

Military Botswana


Military branches:
  Botswana Defense Force (includes an air wing) (2006)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 is the apparent age of voluntary military service; the official
  qualifications for determining minimum age are unknown (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 350,649
  females age 18-49: 361,642 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 136,322
  females age 18-49: 136,315 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 21,103
  females age 18-49: 21,379 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $325.5 million (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  3.4% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Botswana


Disputes - international:
  commission established with Namibia has yet to resolve small
  residual disputes along the Caprivi Strip, including the Situngu
  marshlands along the Linyanti River; downstream Botswana residents
  protest Namibia's planned construction of the Okavango hydroelectric
  dam at Popavalle (Popa Falls); Botswana has built electric fences to
  stem the thousands of Zimbabweans who flee to find work and escape
  political persecution; Namibia has long supported and in 2004
  Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to
  build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing
  their short, but not clearly delimited Botswana-Zambia boundary


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Bouvet Island

Introduction Bouvet Island


Background:
  This uninhabited volcanic island is almost entirely covered by
  glaciers and is difficult to approach. It was discovered in 1739 by
  a French naval officer after whom the island was named. No claim was
  made until 1825, when the British flag was raised. In 1928, the UK
  waived its claim in favor of Norway, which had occupied the island
  the previous year. In 1971, Bouvet Island and the adjacent
  territorial waters were designated a nature reserve. Since 1977,
  Norway has run an automated meteorological station on the island.

Geography Bouvet Island


Location:
  island in the South Atlantic Ocean, southwest of the Cape of Good
  Hope (South Africa)

Geographic coordinates:
  54 26 S, 3 24 E

Map references:
  Antarctic Region

Area:
  total: 49 sq km
  land: 49 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  29.6 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 4 nm

Climate:
  antarctic

Terrain:
  volcanic; coast is mostly inaccessible

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: South Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Olav Peak 935 m

Natural resources:
  none

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100% (93% ice) (2005)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km

Natural hazards:
  NA

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Geography - note:
  covered by glacial ice; declared a nature reserve

People Bouvet Island


Population:
  uninhabited (July 2006 est.)

Government Bouvet Island


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Bouvet Island

Dependency status:
  territory of Norway; administered by the Polar Department of the
  Ministry of Justice and Police from Oslo

Legal system:
  the laws of Norway, where applicable, apply

Flag description:
  the flag of Norway is used

Economy Bouvet Island


Economy - overview:
  no economic activity; declared a nature reserve

Communications Bouvet Island


Internet country code:
  .bv

Internet hosts:
  6 (2006)

Communications - note:
  automatic meteorological station

Transportation Bouvet Island


Ports and terminals:
  none; offshore anchorage only

Military Bouvet Island


Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of Norway

Transnational Issues Bouvet Island


Disputes - international:
  none


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Brazil

Introduction Brazil


Background:
  Following three centuries under the rule of Portugal, Brazil became
  an independent nation in 1822 and a republic in 1889. By far the
  largest and most populous country in South America, Brazil overcame
  more than half a century of military intervention in the governance
  of the country when in 1985 the military regime peacefully ceded
  power to civilian rulers. Brazil continues to pursue industrial and
  agricultural growth and development of its interior. Exploiting vast
  natural resources and a large labor pool, it is today South
  America's leading economic power and a regional leader. Highly
  unequal income distribution remains a pressing problem.

Geography Brazil


Location:
  Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean

Geographic coordinates:
  10 00 S, 55 00 W

Map references:
  South America

Area:
  total: 8,511,965 sq km
  land: 8,456,510 sq km
  water: 55,455 sq km
  note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas,
  Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao
  Paulo

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries:
  total: 16,885 km
  border countries: Argentina 1,261 km, Bolivia 3,423 km, Colombia
  1,644 km, French Guiana 730.4 km, Guyana 1,606 km, Paraguay 1,365
  km, Peru 2,995 km, Suriname 593 km, Uruguay 1,068 km, Venezuela
  2,200 km

Coastline:
  7,491 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin

Climate:
  mostly tropical, but temperate in south

Terrain:
  mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills,
  mountains, and narrow coastal belt

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Pico da Neblina 3,014 m

Natural resources:
  bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum,
  tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber

Land use:
  arable land: 6.93%
  permanent crops: 0.89%
  other: 92.18% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  29,200 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in
  south

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a
  multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; there
  is a lucrative illegal wildlife trade; air and water pollution in
  Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land
  degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining
  activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spills

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living
  Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate
  Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with
  every South American country except Chile and Ecuador

People Brazil


Population:
  188,078,227
  note: Brazil conducted a census in August 2000, which reported a
  population of 169,799,170; that figure was about 3.3% lower than
  projections by the US Census Bureau, and is close to the implied
  underenumeration of 4.6% for the 1991 census; estimates for this
  country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality
  due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant
  mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and
  changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would
  otherwise be expected (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 25.8% (male 24,687,656/female 23,742,998)
  15-64 years: 68.1% (male 63,548,331/female 64,617,539)
  65 years and over: 6.1% (male 4,712,675/female 6,769,028) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 28.2 years
  male: 27.5 years
  female: 29 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.04% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  16.56 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  6.17 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 28.6 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 32.3 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 24.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 71.97 years
  male: 68.02 years
  female: 76.12 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.91 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.7% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  660,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  15,000 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Brazilian(s)
  adjective: Brazilian

Ethnic groups:
  white 53.7%, mulatto (mixed white and black) 38.5%, black 6.2%,
  other (includes Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 0.9%, unspecified 0.7%
  (2000 census)

Religions:
  Roman Catholic (nominal) 73.6%, Protestant 15.4%, Spiritualist
  1.3%, Bantu/voodoo 0.3%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.2%, none 7.4%
  (2000 census)

Languages:
  Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 86.4%
  male: 86.1%
  female: 86.6% (2003 est.)

Government Brazil


Country name:
  conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
  conventional short form: Brazil
  local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil
  local short form: Brasil

Government type:
  federative republic

Capital:
  name: Brasilia
  geographic coordinates: 15 47 S, 47 55 W
  time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  daylight saving time: +1hr, begins third Sunday in October; ends
  third Sunday in February
  note: Brazil is divided into four time zones, including one for the
  Fernando de Noronha islands

Administrative divisions:
  26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district*
  (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara,
  Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso,
  Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco,
  Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul,
  Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins

Independence:
  7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 7 September (1822)

Constitution:
  5 October 1988

Legal system:
  based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory
  over 18 and under 70 years of age; note - military conscripts do not
  vote

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (since 1
  January 2003); Vice President Jose ALENCAR (since 1 January 2003);
  note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government
  head of government: President Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (since 1
  January 2003); Vice President Jose ALENCAR (since 1 January 2003)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for a single four-year term; election last held 1
  October 2006 with runoff 29 October 2006 (next to be held 3 October
  2010 and, if necessary, 31 October 2010)
  election results: Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (PT) reelected president
  - 60.83%, Geraldo ALCKMIN (PSDB) 39.17%

Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of the
  Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; 3 members from each
  state and federal district elected according to the principle of
  majority to serve eight-year terms; one-third elected after a
  four-year period, two-thirds elected after the next four-year
  period) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513
  seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve
  four-year terms)
  elections: Federal Senate - last held 1 October 2006 for one-third
  of the Senate (next to be held October 2010 for two-thirds of the
  Senate); Chamber of Deputies - last held 1 October 2006 (next to be
  held October 2010)
  election results: Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%;
  seats by party - PFL 6, PSDB 5, PMDB 4, PTB 3, PT 2, PDT 1, PSB 1,
  PL 1, PPS 1, PRTB 1, PP 1, PCdoB 1; total seats following election -
  PFL 18, PMDB 15, PSDB 15, PT 10, PDT 5, PTB 4, PSB 3, PL 3, PCdoB 2,
  PRB 2, PPS 1, PRTB 1, PP 1, PSOL 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of
  vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PMDB 89, PT 83, PFL 65, PSDB
  65, PP 42, PSB 27, PDT 24, PL 23, PTB 22, PPS 21, PCdoB 13, PV 13,
  PSC 9, other 17

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Federal Tribunal (11 ministers are appointed for life by
  the president and confirmed by the Senate); Higher Tribunal of
  Justice; Regional Federal Tribunals (judges are appointed for life);
  note - though appointed "for life," judges, like all federal
  employees, have a mandatory retirement age of 70

Political parties and leaders:
  Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Federal Deputy Michel
  TEMER]; Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Flavio de CASTRO MARTINEZ];
  Brazilian Renewal Labor Party or PRTB [Jose Levy Fidelix DA CRUZ];
  Brazilian Republican Party or PRB [Vitor Paulo Araujo DOS SANTOS];
  Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Senator Tasso JEREISSATI];
  Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Federal Deputy Eduardo Henrique
  Accioly CAMPOS]; Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Jose Renato
  RABELO]; Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Carlos Roberto LUPI];
  Democratic Socialist Party or PSD [Luis Marques MENDES]; Green Party
  or PV [Jose Luiz de Franca PENNA]; Humanist Party of Solidarity or
  PHS [leader NA]; Liberal Party or PL [Federal Deputy Valdemar COSTA
  Neto]; National Order Reconstruction Party or PRONA [Federal Deputy
  Dr. Eneas Ferreira CARNEIRO]; Partido Municipalista Renovador or PMR
  [Natal Wellington Rodrigues FURUCHO]; Popular Socialist Party or PPS
  [Federal Deputy Roberto FREIRE]; Progressive Party or PP [Federal
  Deputy Pedro CORREA]; Social Christian Party or PSC [Vitor Jorge
  ABDALA NOSSEIS]; Workers' Party or PT [Ricardo Jose Ribeiro BERZOINI]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Landless Worker's Movement; labor unions and federations; large
  farmers' associations; religious groups including evangelical
  Christian churches and the Catholic Church

International organization participation:
  AfDB, BIS, CAN (associate), CSN, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA,
  IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF,
  IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur,
  MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN,
  UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
  UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMOVIC, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU,
  WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Antonio de Aguiar PATRIOTA
  chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700
  FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827
  consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
  New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Clifford M. SOBEL
  embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Distrito Federal
  Cep 70403-900, Brasilia
  mailing address: Unit 3500, APO AA 34030
  telephone: [55] (61) 3312-7000
  FAX: [55] (61) 3225-9136
  consulate(s) general: Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
  consulate(s): Recife

Flag description:
  green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue
  celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one for each state
  and the Federal District) arranged in the same pattern as the night
  sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band with the
  motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)

Economy Brazil


Economy - overview:
  Characterized by large and well-developed agricultural, mining,
  manufacturing, and service sectors, Brazil's economy outweighs that
  of all other South American countries and is expanding its presence
  in world markets. From 2001-03 real wages fell and Brazil's economy
  grew, on average only 2.2% per year, as the country absorbed a
  series of domestic and international economic shocks. That Brazil
  absorbed these shocks without financial collapse is a tribute to the
  resiliency of the Brazilian economy and the economic program put in
  place by former President CARDOSO and strengthened by President LULA
  DA SILVA. Since 2004, Brazil has enjoyed more robust growth that
  yielded increases in employment and real wages. The three pillars of
  the economic program are a floating exchange rate, an
  inflation-targeting regime, and tight fiscal policy, all reinforced
  by a series of IMF programs. The currency depreciated sharply in
  2001 and 2002, which contributed to a dramatic current account
  adjustment; from 2003 to 2006, Brazil ran record trade surpluses and
  recorded its first current account surpluses since 1992.
  Productivity gains - particularly in agriculture - also contributed
  to the surge in exports. While economic management has been good,
  there remain important economic vulnerabilities. The most
  significant are debt-related: the government's largely domestic debt
  increased steadily from 1994 to 2003 - straining government finances
  - before falling as a percentage of GDP in 2005. Brazil has improved
  its debt profile over the past year by shifting its debt burden
  toward real denominated and domestically held instruments. LULA DA
  SILVA restated his commitment to fiscal austerity by maintaining the
  country's primary surplus during the 2006 election and plans to pass
  a package of further economic reforms upon entering office for his
  second term. Another challenge is maintaining economic growth over a
  period of time to generate employment and make the government debt
  burden more manageable.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $1.616 trillion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $620.7 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3.1% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $8,600 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 8%
  industry: 38%
  services: 54% (2006 est.)

Labor force:
  96.34 million (2006 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 20%
  industry: 14%
  services: 66% (2003 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  9.6% (2006 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  31% (2005)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 0.7%
  highest 10%: 31.27% (2002)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  56.7 (2005)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  4.2% (2006 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  20.2% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $140.6 billion
  expenditures: $172.4 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2004)

Public debt:
  50.7% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef

Industries:
  textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel,
  aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment

Industrial production growth rate:
  3.4% (2006 est.)

Electricity - production:
  380.9 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 8.3%
  hydro: 82.7%
  nuclear: 4.4%
  other: 4.6% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  391.7 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  7 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  39 billion kWh; note - supplied by Paraguay (2005)

Oil - production:
  2.09 million bbl/day (2006 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  2.194 million bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - exports:
  241,700 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - imports:
  572,600 bbl/day (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  12.22 billion bbl (2006 est.)

Natural gas - production:
  9.66 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  17.28 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  7.62 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  250 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Current account balance:
  $5.81 billion (2006 est.)

Exports:
  $138 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  transport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, autos

Exports - partners:
  US 19.2%, Argentina 8.4%, China 5.8%, Netherlands 4.5%, Germany
  4.2% (2005)

Imports:
  $95.83 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery, electrical and transport equipment, chemical products,
  oil

Imports - partners:
  US 17.5%, Argentina 8.5%, Germany 8.4%, China 7.3%, Japan 4.6%
  (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $77.27 billion (2006 est.)

Debt - external:
  $177.7 billion (30 June 2006 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $30 billion (2002)

Currency (code):
  real (BRL)

Currency code:
  BRL

Exchange rates:
  reals per US dollar - 2.19132 (2006), 2.4344 (2005), 2.9251 (2004),
  3.0771 (2003), 2.9208 (2002)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Brazil


Telephones - main lines in use:
  42.382 million (2004)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  86.21 million (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: good working system
  domestic: extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic
  satellite system with 64 earth stations
  international: country code - 55; 3 coaxial submarine cables;
  satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat
  (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to
  Mercosur Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1,365, FM 296, shortwave 161 (of which 91 are collocated with AM
  stations) (1999)

Radios:
  71 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  138 (1997)

Televisions:
  36.5 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .br

Internet hosts:
  6,508,431 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  50 (2000)

Internet users:
  25.9 million (2005)

Transportation Brazil


Airports:
  4,276 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 714
  over 3,047 m: 8
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 24
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 164
  914 to 1,523 m: 464
  under 914 m: 54 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 3,562
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 81
  914 to 1,523 m: 1,634
  under 914 m: 1,847 (2006)

Heliports:
  417 (2006)

Pipelines:
  condensate/gas 244 km; gas 11,669 km; liquid petroleum gas 341 km;
  oil 5,212 km; refined products 4,755 km (2006)

Railways:
  total: 29,252 km
  broad gauge: 4,877 km 1.600-m gauge (939 km electrified)
  standard gauge: 194 km 1.440-m gauge
  narrow gauge: 23,785 km 1.000-m gauge (581 km electrified)
  dual gauge: 396 km 1.000 m and 1.600-m gauges (three rails) (78 km
  electrified) (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 1,751,868 km
  paved: 96,353 km
  unpaved: 1,655,515 km (2004)

Waterways:
  50,000 km (most in areas remote from industry and population) (2005)

Merchant marine:
  total: 137 ships (1000 GRT or over) 2,038,923 GRT/3,057,820 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 21, cargo 21, chemical tanker 8, container 8,
  liquefied gas 12, passenger/cargo 12, petroleum tanker 47, roll
  on/roll off 8
  foreign-owned: 15 (Chile 1, Germany 7, Norway 2, Spain 4, UK 1)
  registered in other countries: 5 (Ghana 1, Liberia 3, Marshall
  Islands 1) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Gebig, Itaqui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande, San Sebasttiao, Santos,
  Sepetiba Terminal, Tubarao, Vitoria

Military Brazil


Military branches:
  Brazilian Army, Brazilian Navy (Marinha do Brasil (MB), includes
  Naval Air and Marine Corps (Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais)), Brazilian
  Air Force (Forca Aerea Brasileira, FAB) (2006)

Military service age and obligation:
  21-45 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript
  service obligation - nine to 12 months; 17-45 years of age for
  voluntary service; an increasing percentage of the ranks are
  "long-service" volunteer professionals; women were allowed to serve
  in the armed forces beginning in early 1980s when the Brazilian Army
  became the first army in South America to accept women into career
  ranks; women serve in Navy and Air Force only in Women's Reserve
  Corps (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 19-49: 45,586,036
  females age 19-49: 45,728,704 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 19-49: 33,119,098
  females age 19-49: 38,079,722 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 1,785,930
  females age 19-49: 1,731,648 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $9.94 billion (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.3% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Brazil


Disputes - international:
  unruly region at convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay borders
  is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and illegal narcotics
  trafficking, and fundraising for extremist organizations;
  uncontested dispute with Uruguay over certain islands in the
  Quarai/Cuareim and Invernada boundary streams and the resulting
  tripoint with Argentina; in 2004 Brazil submitted its claims to the
  United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) to extend
  its maritime continental margin

Trafficking in persons:
  current situation: Brazil is a source and destination country for
  women and girls trafficked for sexual exploitation within Brazil and
  to destinations in South America, the Caribbean, Western Europe,
  Japan, the US, and the Middle East, and for men trafficked within
  the country for forced agricultural labor; child sex tourism is a
  problem within the country, particularly in the resort areas and
  coastal cities of Brazil's northeast; foreign victims from Bolivia,
  Peru, China, and Korea are trafficked to Brazil for labor
  exploitation in factories
  tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Brazil has failed to show evidence
  of increasing efforts to fight trafficking, specifically for its
  failure to apply effective criminal penalties against traffickers
  who exploit forced labor

Illicit drugs:
  illicit producer of cannabis; trace amounts of coca cultivation in
  the Amazon region, used for domestic consumption; government has a
  large-scale eradication program to control cannabis; important
  transshipment country for Bolivian, Colombian, and Peruvian cocaine
  headed for Europe; also used by traffickers as a way station for
  narcotics air transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in
  drug-related violence and weapons smuggling; important market for
  Colombian, Bolivian, and Peruvian cocaine; illicit narcotics
  proceeds earned in Brazil are often laundered through the financial
  system; significant illicit financial activity in the Tri-Border Area


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@British Indian Ocean Territory

Introduction British Indian Ocean Territory


Background:
  Established as a territory of the UK in 1965, a number of the
  British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT) islands were transferred to
  the Seychelles when it attained independence in 1976. Subsequently,
  BIOT has consisted only of the six main island groups comprising the
  Chagos Archipelago. The largest and most southerly of the islands,
  Diego Garcia, contains a joint UK-US naval support facility. All of
  the remaining islands are uninhabited. Former agricultural workers,
  earlier residents in the islands, were relocated primarily to
  Mauritius but also to the Seychelles, between 1967 and 1973. In
  2000, a British High Court ruling invalidated the local immigration
  order that had excluded them from the archipelago, but upheld the
  special military status of Diego Garcia.

Geography British Indian Ocean Territory


Location:
  archipelago in the Indian Ocean, south of India, about one-half the
  way from Africa to Indonesia

Geographic coordinates:
  6 00 S, 71 30 E; note - Diego Garcia 7 20 S, 72 25 E

Map references:
  Political Map of the World

Area:
  total: 54,400 sq km
  land: 60 sq km; Diego Garcia 44 sq km
  water: 54,340 sq km
  note: includes the entire Chagos Archipelago of 55 islands

Area - comparative:
  land area is about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  698 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 3 nm
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds

Terrain:
  flat and low (most areas do not exceed two meters in elevation)

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: unnamed location on Diego Garcia 15 m

Natural resources:
  coconuts, fish, sugarcane

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km

Natural hazards:
  NA

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Geography - note:
  archipelago of 55 islands; Diego Garcia, largest and southernmost
  island, occupies strategic location in central Indian Ocean; island
  is site of joint US-UK military facility

People British Indian Ocean Territory


Population:
  no indigenous inhabitants
  note: approximately 1,200 former agricultural workers resident in
  the Chagos Archipelago, often referred to as Chagossians or Ilois,
  were relocated to Mauritius and the Seychelles in the 1960s and
  1970s; in November 2000 they were granted the right of return by a
  British High Court ruling, though no timetable has been set; in
  November 2004, there were approximately 4,000 UK and US military
  personnel and civilian contractors living on the island of Diego
  Garcia (July 2006 est.)

Government British Indian Ocean Territory


Country name:
  conventional long form: British Indian Ocean Territory
  conventional short form: none
  abbreviation: BIOT

Dependency status:
  overseas territory of the UK; administered by a commissioner,
  resident in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in London

Legal system:
  the laws of the UK, where applicable, apply

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
  head of government: Commissioner Tony CROMBIE (since January 2004);
  Administrator Tony HUMPHRIES (since February 2005); note - both
  reside in the UK
  cabinet: NA
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; commissioner and
  administrator appointed by the monarch

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description:
  white with six blue wavy horizontal stripes; the flag of the UK is
  in the upper hoist-side quadrant; the striped section bears a palm
  tree and yellow crown centered on the outer half of the flag

Economy British Indian Ocean Territory


Economy - overview:
  All economic activity is concentrated on the largest island of
  Diego Garcia, where joint UK-US defense facilities are located.
  Construction projects and various services needed to support the
  military installations are done by military and contract employees
  from the UK, Mauritius, the Philippines, and the US. There are no
  industrial or agricultural activities on the islands. When the Ilois
  return, they plan to reestablish sugarcane production and fishing.
  The country makes money by selling fishing licenses and postage
  stamps.

Electricity - production:
  NA kWh; note - electricity supplied by the US military

Electricity - consumption:
  NA kWh

Currency (code):
  both the British Pound (GBP) and the US Dollar (USD) are accepted

Communications British Indian Ocean Territory


Telephones - main lines in use:
  NA

Telephone system:
  general assessment: separate facilities for military and public
  needs are available
  domestic: all commercial telephone services are available, including
  connection to the Internet
  international: international telephone service is carried by
  satellite (2000)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  NA

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (1997)

Televisions:
  NA

Internet country code:
  .io

Internet hosts:
  65 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Transportation British Indian Ocean Territory


Airports:
  1 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  over 3,047 m: 1 (2006)

Roadways:
  total: NA
  paved: short section of paved road between port and airfield on
  Diego Garcia

Ports and terminals:
  Diego Garcia

Military British Indian Ocean Territory


Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the UK; the US lease on Diego
  Garcia expires in 2016

Transnational Issues British Indian Ocean Territory


Disputes - international:
  Mauritius and Seychelles claim the Chagos Archipelago including
  Diego Garcia; in 2001 the former inhabitants of the Chagos
  Archipelago, evicted in 1965 and now residing chiefly in Mauritius,
  were granted UK citizenship and the right to repatriation; the UK
  resists the Chagossians' demand for an immediate return to the
  islands; repatriation is complicated by the exclusive US military
  lease of Diego Garcia that restricts access to the largest island in
  the chain;


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@British Virgin Islands

Introduction British Virgin Islands


Background:
  First inhabited by Arawak and later by Carib Indians, the Virgin
  Islands were settled by the Dutch in 1648 and then annexed by the
  English in 1672. The islands were part of the British colony of the
  Leeward Islands from 1872-1960; they were granted autonomy in 1967.
  The economy is closely tied to the larger and more populous US
  Virgin Islands to the west; the US dollar is the legal currency.

Geography British Virgin Islands


Location:
  Caribbean, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean,
  east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates:
  18 30 N, 64 30 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 153 sq km
  land: 153 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  note: comprised of 16 inhabited and more than 20 uninhabited
  islands; includes the islands of Tortola, Anegada, Virgin Gorda,
  Jost van Dyke

Area - comparative:
  about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  80 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 3 nm
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds

Terrain:
  coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep, hilly

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Mount Sage 521 m

Natural resources:
  NEGL

Land use:
  arable land: 20%
  permanent crops: 6.67%
  other: 73.33% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  NA

Natural hazards:
  hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October)

Environment - current issues:
  limited natural fresh water resources (except for a few seasonal
  streams and springs on Tortola, most of the islands' water supply
  comes from wells and rainwater catchments)

Geography - note:
  strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico

People British Virgin Islands


Population:
  23,098 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 20.5% (male 2,403/female 2,331)
  15-64 years: 74.3% (male 8,811/female 8,340)
  65 years and over: 5.3% (male 636/female 577) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 31.4 years
  male: 31.6 years
  female: 31.2 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.97% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  14.89 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  4.42 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  9.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.1 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 16.72 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 19.5 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 13.79 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 76.68 years
  male: 75.56 years
  female: 77.84 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.72 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: British Virgin Islander(s)
  adjective: British Virgin Islander

Ethnic groups:
  black 83%, white, Indian, Asian and mixed

Religions:
  Protestant 86% (Methodist 33%, Anglican 17%, Church of God 9%,
  Seventh-Day Adventist 6%, Baptist 4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 2%, other
  15%), Roman Catholic 10%, none 2%, other 2% (1991)

Languages:
  English (official)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 97.8% (1991 est.)
  male: NA%
  female: NA%

Government British Virgin Islands


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: British Virgin Islands
  abbreviation: BVI

Dependency status:
  overseas territory of the UK; internal self-governing

Government type:
  NA

Capital:
  name: Road Town
  geographic coordinates: 18 27 N, 64 37 W
  time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday:
  Territory Day, 1 July

Constitution:
  1 June 1977, amended in 2000

Legal system:
  English law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor David PEAREY (since 18 April 2006)
  head of government: Chief Minister Dr. Orlando D. SMITH (since 17
  June 2003)
  cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from members of
  the Legislative Council
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by
  the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the
  majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually
  appointed chief minister by the governor

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Legislative Council (13 seats; members are elected by
  direct popular vote, 1 member from each of nine electoral districts,
  4 at-large members; members serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 16 May 2003 (next to be held in 2007)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  NDP 8, VIP 5

Judicial branch:
  Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, consisting of the High Court of
  Justice and the Court of Appeal (one judge of the Supreme Court is a
  resident of the islands and presides over the High Court);
  Magistrate's Court; Juvenile Court; Court of Summary Jurisdiction

Political parties and leaders:
  Concerned Citizens Movement or CCM [Ethlyn SMITH]; National
  Democratic Party or NDP [Orlando SMITH]; United Party or UP [Gregory
  MADURO]; Virgin Islands Party or VIP [Ralph T. O'NEAL]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), IOC, OECS
  (associate), UNESCO (associate), UPU

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description:
  blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
  the Virgin Islander coat of arms centered in the outer half of the
  flag; the coat of arms depicts a woman flanked on either side by a
  vertical column of six oil lamps above a scroll bearing the Latin
  word VIGILATE (Be Watchful)

Economy British Virgin Islands


Economy - overview:
  The economy, one of the most stable and prosperous in the
  Caribbean, is highly dependent on tourism, generating an estimated
  45% of the national income. An estimated 350,000 tourists, mainly
  from the US, visited the islands in 1998. Tourism suffered in 2002
  because of the lackluster US economy. In the mid-1980s, the
  government began offering offshore registration to companies wishing
  to incorporate in the islands, and incorporation fees now generate
  substantial revenues. Roughly 400,000 companies were on the offshore
  registry by yearend 2000. The adoption of a comprehensive insurance
  law in late 1994, which provides a blanket of confidentiality with
  regulated statutory gateways for investigation of criminal offenses,
  made the British Virgin Islands even more attractive to
  international business. Livestock raising is the most important
  agricultural activity; poor soils limit the islands' ability to meet
  domestic food requirements. Because of traditionally close links
  with the US Virgin Islands, the British Virgin Islands has used the
  US dollar as its currency since 1959.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $853.4 million (2004 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $839.7 million (2003)

GDP - real growth rate:
  1% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $38,500 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 1.8%
  industry: 6.2%
  services: 92% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
  12,770 (2004)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 0.6%
  industry: 40%
  services: 59.4%

Unemployment rate:
  3.6% (1997)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2% (2005)

Budget:
  revenues: $204.7 million
  expenditures: $180.4 million; including capital expenditures of
  $33.8 million (2004)

Agriculture - products:
  fruits, vegetables; livestock, poultry; fish

Industries:
  tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete block,
  offshore financial center

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  42 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  39.06 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - consumption:
  480 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Current account balance:
  $134.3 million (1999)

Exports:
  $25.3 million (2002)

Exports - commodities:
  rum, fresh fish, fruits, animals; gravel, sand

Exports - partners:
  Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US (2004)

Imports:
  $187 million (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  building materials, automobiles, foodstuffs, machinery

Imports - partners:
  Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US (2004)

Debt - external:
  $36.1 million (1997)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $NA

Currency (code):
  US dollar (USD)

Currency code:
  USD

Exchange rates:
  the US dollar is used

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications British Virgin Islands


Telephones - main lines in use:
  11,700 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  8,000 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: worldwide telephone service
  domestic: NA
  international: country code - 1-284; submarine cable to Bermuda

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 0 (2004)

Radios:
  9,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (plus one cable company) (1997)

Televisions:
  4,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .vg

Internet hosts:
  525 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  16 (2000)

Internet users:
  4,000 (2002)

Transportation British Virgin Islands


Airports:
  3 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2006)

Roadways:
  total: 177 km
  paved: 177 km (2002)

Merchant marine:
  registered in other countries: 1 (North Korea 1) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Road Town

Military British Virgin Islands


Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 6,410 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 5,295 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 201 (2005 est.)

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues British Virgin Islands


Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the
  US and Europe; large offshore financial center makes it vulnerable
  to money laundering


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Brunei

Introduction Brunei


Background:
  The Sultanate of Brunei's influence peaked between the 15th and
  17th centuries when its control extended over coastal areas of
  northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Brunei subsequently
  entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal
  succession, colonial expansion of European powers, and piracy. In
  1888, Brunei became a British protectorate; independence was
  achieved in 1984. The same family has ruled Brunei for over six
  centuries. Brunei benefits from extensive petroleum and natural gas
  fields, the source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in the
  developing world.

Geography Brunei


Location:
  Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia

Geographic coordinates:
  4 30 N, 114 40 E

Map references:
  Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 5,770 sq km
  land: 5,270 sq km
  water: 500 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries:
  total: 381 km
  border countries: Malaysia 381 km

Coastline:
  161 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line

Climate:
  tropical; hot, humid, rainy

Terrain:
  flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
  highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, natural gas, timber

Land use:
  arable land: 2.08%
  permanent crops: 0.87%
  other: 97.05% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  10 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare

Environment - current issues:
  seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and
  Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost
  an enclave within Malaysia

People Brunei


Population:
  379,444 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 28.1% (male 54,411/female 52,134)
  15-64 years: 68.8% (male 138,129/female 123,017)
  65 years and over: 3.1% (male 5,584/female 6,169) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 27.4 years
  male: 28 years
  female: 26.7 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.87% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  18.79 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  3.45 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  3.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.12 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.09 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 12.25 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 15.46 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 8.86 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 75.01 years
  male: 72.57 years
  female: 77.59 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.28 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  less than 200 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 200 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bruneian(s)
  adjective: Bruneian

Ethnic groups:
  Malay 67%, Chinese 15%, indigenous 6%, other 12%

Religions:
  Muslim (official) 67%, Buddhist 13%, Christian 10%, indigenous
  beliefs and other 10%

Languages:
  Malay (official), English, Chinese

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 93.9%
  male: 96.3%
  female: 91.4% (2002)

Government Brunei


Country name:
  conventional long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
  conventional short form: Brunei
  local long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
  local short form: Brunei

Government type:
  constitutional sultanate

Capital:
  name: Bandar Seri Begawan
  geographic coordinates: 4 52 S, 114 55 E
  time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei and
  Muara, Temburong, Tutong

Independence:
  1 January 1984 (from UK)

National holiday:
  National Day, 23 February (1984); note - 1 January 1984 was the
  date of independence from the UK, 23 February 1984 was the date of
  independence from British protection

Constitution:
  29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of
  Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1
  January 1984)

Legal system:
  based on English common law; for Muslims, Islamic Shari'a law
  supersedes civil law in a number of areas

Suffrage:
  none

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah
  (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of
  state and head of government
  head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah
  (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of
  state and head of government
  cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by
  the monarch; deals with executive matters; note - there is also a
  Religious Council (members appointed by the monarch) that advises on
  religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the
  monarch) that deals with constitutional matters, and the Council of
  Succession (members appointed by the monarch) that determines the
  succession to the throne if the need arises
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary

Legislative branch:
  Legislative Council met on 25 September 2004 for first time in 20
  years with 21 members appointed by the Sultan; passed constitutional
  amendments calling for a 45-seat council with 15 elected members;
  Sultan dissolved council on 1 September 2005 and appointed a new
  council with 29 members as of 2 September 2005
  elections: last held in March 1962 (date of next election NA)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court - chief justice and judges are sworn in by monarch
  for three-year terms; Judicial Committee of Privy Council in London
  is final court of appeal for civil cases; Shariah courts deal with
  Islamic laws (2006)

Political parties and leaders:
  Brunei Solidarity National Party (PPKB) [Haji Mohd HATTA bin Haji
  Zainal Abidin]; National Development Party (NDP) [YASSIN Affendi];
  People's Awareness Party (PAKAR) [Awang Haji MAIDIN bin Haji Ahmad]
  note: parties are small and have limited activity (2005)

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  APEC, APT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, C, EAS, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB,
  IFRCS, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC,
  OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Pengiran Anak Dato PUTEH
  chancery: 3520 International Court NW #300, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 237-1838
  FAX: [1] (202) 885-0560

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Emil SKODON
  embassy: Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri
  Begawan, BS8811
  mailing address: PSC 470 (BSB), FPO AP 96507; P.O. Box 2991, Bandar
  Seri Begawan BS8675, Negara Brunei Darussalam
  telephone: [673] 222-0384
  FAX: [673] 222-5293

Flag description:
  yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width)
  and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in
  red is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a
  swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an upturned
  crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands

Economy Brunei


Economy - overview:
  This small, well-to-do economy encompasses a mixture of foreign and
  domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation, welfare measures,
  and village tradition. Crude oil and natural gas production account
  for nearly half of GDP and more than 90% of government revenues. Per
  capita GDP is far above most other Third World countries, and
  substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from
  domestic production. The government provides for all medical
  services and free education through the university level and
  subsidizes rice and housing. Brunei's leaders are concerned that
  steadily increased integration in the world economy will undermine
  internal social cohesion. Plans for the future include upgrading the
  labor force, reducing unemployment, strengthening the banking and
  tourist sectors, and, in general, further widening the economic base
  beyond oil and gas.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $6.842 billion (2003 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $5.486 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  1.7% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $23,600 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 3.6%
  industry: 56.1%
  services: 40.3% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  146,300
  note: includes foreign workers and military personnel; temporary
  residents make up about 40% of labor force (2003 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 2.9%
  industry: 61.1%
  services: 36% (2003 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  4.8% (2004)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  0.9% (2004)

Budget:
  revenues: $3.765 billion
  expenditures: $4.815 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  rice, vegetables, fruits; chickens, water buffalo, eggs

Industries:
  petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction

Industrial production growth rate:
  7.3% (2003 est.)

Electricity - production:
  2.806 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  2.609 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  200,800 bbl/day (2005)

Oil - consumption:
  10,770 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - exports:
  192,700 bbl/day (2005)

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - proved reserves:
  1.255 billion bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  11.5 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  2 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  9.5 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  390.8 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Exports:
  $4.514 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  crude oil, natural gas, refined products

Exports - partners:
  Japan 36.8%, Indonesia 19.3%, South Korea 12.7%, US 9.5%, Australia
  9.3% (2005)

Imports:
  $1.641 billion c.i.f. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food,
  chemicals

Imports - partners:
  Singapore 32.7%, Malaysia 23.3%, Japan 6.9%, UK 5.3%, Thailand
  4.5%, South Korea 4% (2005)

Debt - external:
  $0

Economic aid - recipient:
  $770,000 (2004)

Currency (code):
  Bruneian dollar (BND)

Currency code:
  BND

Exchange rates:
  Bruneian dollars per US dollar - 1.6644 (2005), 1.6902 (2004),
  1.7422 (2003), 1.7906 (2002)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Brunei


Telephones - main lines in use:
  90,000 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  205,900 (2004)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: service throughout the country is excellent;
  international service is good to Southeast Asia, Middle East,
  Western Europe, and the US
  domestic: every service available
  international: country code - 673; satellite earth stations - 2
  Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean); digital submarine
  cable links to Malaysia, the Philippines, and Singapore (2006)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 2 (transmitting on 18 different frequencies), shortwave 0
  note: British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) station transmits
  two FM signals with English and Nepali service (2006)

Radios:
  329,000 (1998)

Television broadcast stations:
  4; note - including two UHF stations broadcasting a subscription
  service (2006)

Televisions:
  201,900 (1998)

Internet country code:
  .bn

Internet hosts:
  27 (2005)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  56,000 (2005)

Transportation Brunei


Airports:
  2 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  over 3,047 m: 1 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2006)

Heliports:
  3 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 672 km; oil 463 km (2006)

Roadways:
  total: 2,525 km
  paved: 2,338 km
  unpaved: 187 km (2000)

Waterways:
  209 km (navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m) (2005)

Merchant marine:
  total: 8 ships (1000 GRT or over) 465,937 GRT/413,393 DWT
  by type: liquefied gas 8
  foreign-owned: 8 (UK 8) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Lumut, Muara, Seria

Military Brunei


Military branches:
  Royal Brunei Armed Forces: Royal Brunei Land Forces, Royal Brunei
  Navy, Royal Brunei Air Force (Tentera Udara Diraja Brunei) (2005)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age (est.) (2004)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 103,885
  females age 18-49: 93,024 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 85,045
  females age 18-49: 77,436 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 3,478
  females age 18-49: 3,342 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $290.7 million (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  5.1% (2003 est.)

Transnational Issues Brunei


Disputes - international:
  in 2003 Brunei and Malaysia ceased gas and oil exploration in their
  disputed offshore and deepwater seabeds and negotiations have
  stalemated prompting consideration of international legal
  adjudication; Malaysia's land boundary with Brunei around Limbang is
  in dispute; Brunei established an exclusive economic fishing zone
  encompassing Louisa Reef in southern Spratly Islands in 1984 but
  makes no public territorial claim to the offshore reefs; the 2002
  "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has
  eased tensions in the Spratly Islands but falls short of a legally
  binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants

Illicit drugs:
  drug trafficking and illegally importing controlled substances are
  serious offenses in Brunei and carry a mandatory death penalty


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Bulgaria

Introduction Bulgaria


Background:
  The Bulgars, a Central Asian Turkic tribe, merged with the local
  Slavic inhabitants in the late 7th century to form the first
  Bulgarian state. In succeeding centuries, Bulgaria struggled with
  the Byzantine Empire to assert its place in the Balkans, but by the
  end of the 14th century the country was overrun by the Ottoman
  Turks. Northern Bulgaria attained autonomy in 1878 and all of
  Bulgaria became independent from the Ottoman Empire in 1908. Having
  fought on the losing side in both World Wars, Bulgaria fell within
  the Soviet sphere of influence and became a People's Republic in
  1946. Communist domination ended in 1990, when Bulgaria held its
  first multiparty election since World War II and began the
  contentious process of moving toward political democracy and a
  market economy while combating inflation, unemployment, corruption,
  and crime. The country joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.

Geography Bulgaria


Location:
  Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania and
  Turkey

Geographic coordinates:
  43 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 110,910 sq km
  land: 110,550 sq km
  water: 360 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,808 km
  border countries: Greece 494 km, Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km,
  Serbia 318 km, Turkey 240 km

Coastline:
  354 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

Terrain:
  mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
  highest point: Musala 2,925 m

Natural resources:
  bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land

Land use:
  arable land: 29.94%
  permanent crops: 1.9%
  other: 68.16% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  5,880 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  earthquakes, landslides

Environment - current issues:
  air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw
  sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from
  air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy
  metals from metallurgical plants and industrial wastes

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85,
  Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
  Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty,
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
  Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
  Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulfur 94

Geography - note:
  strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes
  from Europe to Middle East and Asia

People Bulgaria


Population:
  7,385,367 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 13.9% (male 527,881/female 502,334)
  15-64 years: 68.7% (male 2,496,054/female 2,579,680)
  65 years and over: 17.3% (male 527,027/female 752,391) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 40.8 years
  male: 38.7 years
  female: 42.9 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  -0.86% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  9.65 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  14.27 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -4.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 19.85 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 23.52 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 15.95 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 72.3 years
  male: 68.68 years
  female: 76.13 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.38 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  346 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  100 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bulgarian(s)
  adjective: Bulgarian

Ethnic groups:
  Bulgarian 83.9%, Turk 9.4%, Roma 4.7%, other 2% (including
  Macedonian, Armenian, Tatar, Circassian) (2001 census)

Religions:
  Bulgarian Orthodox 82.6%, Muslim 12.2%, other Christian 1.2%, other
  4% (2001 census)

Languages:
  Bulgarian 84.5%, Turkish 9.6%, Roma 4.1%, other and unspecified
  1.8% (2001 census)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98.6%
  male: 99.1%
  female: 98.2% (2003 est.)

Government Bulgaria


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Bulgaria
  conventional short form: Bulgaria
  local long form: Republika Balgariya
  local short form: Balgariya

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  name: Sofia
  geographic coordinates: 42 41 N, 23 19 E
  time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last
  Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
  28 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast); Blagoevgrad, Burgas,
  Dobrich, Gabrovo, Khaskovo, Kurdzhali, Kyustendil, Lovech, Montana,
  Pazardzhik, Pernik, Pleven, Plovdiv, Razgrad, Ruse, Shumen,
  Silistra, Sliven, Smolyan, Sofiya, Sofiya-Grad, Stara Zagora,
  Turgovishte, Varna, Veliko Turnovo, Vidin, Vratsa, Yambol

Independence:
  3 March 1878 (as an autonomous principality within the Ottoman
  Empire); 22 September 1908 (complete independence from the Ottoman
  Empire)

National holiday:
  Liberation Day, 3 March (1878)

Constitution:
  adopted 12 July 1991

Legal system:
  civil law and criminal law based on Roman law; accepts compulsory
  ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Georgi PURVANOV (since 22 January 2002);
  Vice President Angel MARIN (since 22 January 2002)
  head of government: Prime Minister Sergei STANISHEV (since 16 August
  2005); Deputy Prime Ministers Ivaylo KALFIN, Daniel VULCHEV, and
  Emel ETEM (since 16 August 2005)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and
  elected by the National Assembly
  elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term);
  election last held 22 and 29 October 2006 (next to be held in 2011);
  chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister) nominated by
  the president and elected by the National Assembly; deputy prime
  ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the
  National Assembly
  election results: Georgi PURVANOV reelected president; percent of
  vote - Georgi PURVANOV 77.3%, Volen SIDEROV 22.7%; Sergei STANISHEV
  elected prime minister, result of legislative vote - 168 to 67

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sobranie (240 seats;
  members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 25 June 2005 (next to be held June 2009)
  election results: percent of vote by party - CfB 31.1%, NMS2 19.9%,
  MRF 12.7%, ATAKA 8.2%, UDF 7.7%, DSB 6.5%, BPU 5.2%; seats by party
  - CfB 83, NMS2 53, MRF 33, UDF 20, ATAKA 17, DSB 17, BPU 13,
  independents 4

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Administrative Court; Supreme Court of Cassation;
  Constitutional Court (12 justices appointed or elected for nine-year
  terms); Supreme Judicial Council (consists of the chairmen of the
  two Supreme Courts, the Chief Prosecutor, and 22 other members;
  responsible for appointing the justices, prosecutors, and
  investigating magistrates in the justice system; members of the
  Supreme Judicial Council elected for five-year terms, 11 elected by
  the National Assembly and 11 by bodies of the judiciary)

Political parties and leaders:
  ATAKA (Attack Coalition) (coalition of parties headed by the Attack
  National Union); Attack National Union [Volen SIDEROV]; Bulgarian
  Agrarian National Union-People's Union or BANU [Anastasia MOZER];
  Bulgarian People's Union or BPU (coalition of UFD, IMRO, and BANU);
  Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Sergei STANISHEV]; Coalition for
  Bulgaria or CfB (coalition of parties dominated by BSP) [Sergei
  STANISHEV]; Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria or DSB [Ivan KOSTOV];
  Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization or IMRO [Krasimir
  KARAKACHANOV]; Movement for Rights and Freedoms or MRF [Ahmed
  DOGAN]; National Movement for Simeon II or NMS2 [Simeon
  SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA]; New Time [Emil KOSHLUKOV]; Union of Democratic
  Forces or UDF [Petar STOYANOV]; Union of Free Democrats or UFD
  [Stefan SOFIYANSKI]; United Democratic Forces or UtDF (a coalition
  of center-right parties dominated by UDF)

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or CITUB;
  Podkrepa Labor Confederation; numerous regional, ethnic, and
  national interest groups with various agendas

International organization participation:
  ACCT, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EU
  (new member), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS,
  ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM
  (guest), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO,
  WEU (associate affiliate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Elena B. POPTODOROVA
  chancery: 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 387-0174
  FAX: [1] (202) 234-7973
  consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador John Ross BEYRLE
  embassy: 16 Kozyak Street, Sofia 1407
  mailing address: American Embassy Sofia, US Department of State,
  5740 Sofia Place, Washington, DC 20521-5740
  telephone: [359] (2) 937-5100
  FAX: [359] (2) 937-5320

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; note -
  the national emblem, formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe,
  has been removed

Economy Bulgaria


Economy - overview:
  Bulgaria, a former communist country that entered the European
  Union on 1 January 2007, has experienced macroeconomic stability and
  strong growth since a major economic downturn in 1996 led to the
  fall of the then socialist government. As a result, the government
  became committed to economic reform and responsible fiscal planning.
  Minerals, including coal, copper, and zinc, play an important role
  in industry. In 1997, macroeconomic stability was reinforced by the
  imposition of a fixed exchange rate of the lev against the German
  D-mark - the currency is now fixed against the euro - and the
  negotiation of an IMF standby agreement. Low inflation and steady
  progress on structural reforms improved the business environment;
  Bulgaria has averaged 5.1% growth since 2000 and has begun to
  attract significant amounts of foreign direct investment. Corruption
  in the public administration, a weak judiciary, and the presence of
  organized crime remain the largest challenges for Bulgaria.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $77.13 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $27.85 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5.5% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $10,400 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 8.9%
  industry: 30.1%
  services: 61% (2006 est.)

Labor force:
  3.45 million (2006 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 11%
  industry: 32.7%
  services: 56.3% (3rd qtr. 2004 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  9.6% (2006 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  4% (2003 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 3.4%
  highest 10%: 23.9% (2003)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  29.2 (2003)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  7.2% (2006 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  24.8% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $13.28 billion
  expenditures: $12.16 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2006 est.)

Public debt:
  23.8% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  vegetables, fruits, tobacco, wine, wheat, barley, sunflowers, sugar
  beets; livestock

Industries:
  electricity, gas, water; food, beverages, tobacco; machinery and
  equipment, base metals, chemical products, coke, refined petroleum,
  nuclear fuel

Industrial production growth rate:
  5% (2006 est.)

Electricity - production:
  41.96 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 47.8%
  hydro: 8.1%
  nuclear: 44.1%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  35.23 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  5 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  1.2 billion kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  3,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  109,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - exports:
  51,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - imports:
  157,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - proved reserves:
  15 million bbl (1 January 2006)

Natural gas - production:
  1 million cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  5.301 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  5.3 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  5.947 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Current account balance:
  $-4.13 billion (2006 est.)

Exports:
  $14.6 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  clothing, footwear, iron and steel, machinery and equipment, fuels

Exports - partners:
  Italy 12%, Turkey 10.5%, Germany 9.8%, Greece 9.5%, Belgium 5.9%,
  France 4.6% (2005)

Imports:
  $20.69 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment; metals and ores; chemicals and plastics;
  fuels, minerals, and raw materials

Imports - partners:
  Russia 15.6%, Germany 13.6%, Italy 9%, Turkey 6.1%, Greece 5%,
  France 4.7% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $10.58 billion (2006 est.)

Debt - external:
  $21.1 billion (30 June 2006 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $475 million (2004-06 est.)

Currency (code):
  lev (BGL)

Currency code:
  BGN

Exchange rates:
  leva per US dollar - 1.56441 (2006), 1.5741 (2005), 1.5751 (2004),
  1.7327 (2003), 2.077 (2002)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Bulgaria


Telephones - main lines in use:
  2,483,500 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  6.245 million (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: extensive but antiquated
  domestic: more than two-thirds of the lines are residential;
  telephone service is available in most villages; a fairly modern
  digital cable trunk line now connects switching centers in most of
  the regions, the others are connected by digital microwave radio
  relay
  international: country code - 359; direct dialing to 58 countries;
  satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); 2
  Intelsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 31, FM 63, shortwave 2 (2001)

Radios:
  4.51 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  39 (plus 1,242 repeaters) (2001)

Televisions:
  3.31 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bg

Internet hosts:
  184,975 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  200 (2001)

Internet users:
  2.2 million (2005)

Transportation Bulgaria


Airports:
  217 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 132
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 19
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 96 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 85
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 11
  under 914 m: 72 (2006)

Heliports:
  4 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 2,505 km; oil 339 km; refined products 156 km (2006)

Railways:
  total: 4,294 km
  standard gauge: 4,049 km 1.435-m gauge (2,710 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 245 km 0.760-m gauge (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 44,033 km
  paved: 43,593 km (including 333 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 440 km (2004)

Waterways:
  470 km (2006)

Merchant marine:
  total: 75 ships (1000 GRT or over) 872,653 GRT/1,294,877 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 40, cargo 17, chemical tanker 4, container 6,
  passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 4
  foreign-owned: 2 (Germany 1, Russia 1)
  registered in other countries: 41 (Cambodia 1, Comoros 1, Malta 13,
  Panama 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 17, Slovakia 7, unknown
  1) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Burgas, Varna

Military Bulgaria


Military branches:
  Bulgarian Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Bulgarian Air
  Forces (Bulgarski Voennovazdyshni Sily, BVVS) (2006)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service;
  conscript service obligation - 9 months; as of May 2006, 67% of the
  Bulgarian Army comprised of professional soldiers; conscription into
  the Army to end as of 1 January 2008; Air and Air Defense Forces and
  Naval Forces will become fully professional by end of 2006 (2006)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,661,211
  females age 18-49: 1,660,982 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,302,037
  females age 18-49: 1,365,126 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 51,023
  females age 18-49: 48,651 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $356 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.6% (2003)

Transnational Issues Bulgaria


Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  major European transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and,
  to a lesser degree, South American cocaine for the European market;
  limited producer of precursor chemicals; some money laundering of
  drug-related proceeds through financial institutions


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Burkina Faso

Introduction Burkina Faso


Background:
  Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) achieved independence from
  France in 1960. Repeated military coups during the 1970s and 1980s
  were followed by multiparty elections in the early 1990s. Current
  President Blaise COMPAORE came to power in a 1987 military coup and
  has won every election since then. Burkina Faso's high population
  density and limited natural resources result in poor economic
  prospects for the majority of its citizens. Recent unrest in Cote
  d'Ivoire and northern Ghana has hindered the ability of several
  hundred thousand seasonal Burkinabe farm workers to find employment
  in neighboring countries.

Geography Burkina Faso


Location:
  Western Africa, north of Ghana

Geographic coordinates:
  13 00 N, 2 00 W

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 274,200 sq km
  land: 273,800 sq km
  water: 400 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than Colorado

Land boundaries:
  total: 3,193 km
  border countries: Benin 306 km, Cote d'Ivoire 584 km, Ghana 549 km,
  Mali 1,000 km, Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers

Terrain:
  mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west and
  southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Mouhoun (Black Volta) River 200 m
  highest point: Tena Kourou 749 m

Natural resources:
  manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of gold, phosphates,
  pumice, salt

Land use:
  arable land: 17.66%
  permanent crops: 0.22%
  other: 82.12% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  250 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  recurring droughts

Environment - current issues:
  recent droughts and desertification severely affecting agricultural
  activities, population distribution, and the economy; overgrazing;
  soil degradation; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation,
  Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  landlocked savanna cut by the three principal rivers of the Black,
  Red, and White Voltas

People Burkina Faso


Population:
  13,902,972
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 46.8% (male 3,267,202/female 3,235,190)
  15-64 years: 50.7% (male 3,513,559/female 3,538,623)
  65 years and over: 2.5% (male 140,083/female 208,315) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 16.5 years
  male: 16.3 years
  female: 16.7 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  3% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  45.62 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  15.6 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 91.35 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 99.17 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 83.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 48.85 years
  male: 47.33 years
  female: 50.42 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  6.47 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  4.2% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  300,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  29,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: very high
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea,
  hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
  vectorborne disease: malaria is a high risk in some locations
  water contact disease: schistosomiasis
  respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
  note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified
  among birds in this country or surrounding region; it poses a
  negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens
  who have close contact with birds (2007)

Nationality:
  noun: Burkinabe (singular and plural)
  adjective: Burkinabe

Ethnic groups:
  Mossi over 40%, Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande, Fulani

Religions:
  Muslim 50%, indigenous beliefs 40%, Christian (mainly Roman
  Catholic) 10%

Languages:
  French (official), native African languages belonging to Sudanic
  family spoken by 90% of the population

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 26.6%
  male: 36.9%
  female: 16.6% (2003 est.)

Government Burkina Faso


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Burkina Faso
  local long form: none
  local short form: Burkina Faso
  former: Upper Volta, Republic of Upper Volta

Government type:
  parliamentary republic

Capital:
  name: Ouagadougou
  geographic coordinates: 12 22 N, 1 31 W
  time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  45 provinces; Bale, Bam, Banwa, Bazega, Bougouriba, Boulgou,
  Boulkiemde, Comoe, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Ioba, Kadiogo,
  Kenedougou, Komondjari, Kompienga, Kossi, Koulpelogo, Kouritenga,
  Kourweogo, Leraba, Loroum, Mouhoun, Nahouri, Namentenga, Nayala,
  Noumbiel, Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Sanguie, Sanmatenga,
  Seno, Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Tuy, Yagha, Yatenga, Ziro,
  Zondoma, Zoundweogo

Independence:
  5 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday:
  Republic Day, 11 December (1958)

Constitution:
  2 June 1991 approved by referendum, 11 June 1991 formally adopted;
  amended April 2000 and January 2002

Legal system:
  based on French civil law system and customary law

Suffrage:
  universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October 1987)
  head of government: Prime Minister Paramanga Ernest YONLI (since 6
  November 2000)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
  recommendation of the prime minister
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term
  (eligible for a second term); election last held 13 November 2005
  (next to be held in 2010); in April 2000, the constitution was
  amended reducing the presidential term from seven to five years,
  enforceable as of 2005; prime minister appointed by the president
  with the consent of the legislature
  election results: Blaise COMPAORE reelected president; percent of
  popular vote - Blaise COMPAORE 80.3%, Benewende Stanislas SANKARA
  4.9%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (111 seats;
  members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
  elections: National Assembly election last held 5 May 2002 (next to
  be held May 2007)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
  CDP 57, RDA-ADF 17, PDP/PS 10, CFD 5, PAI 5, other 17

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court; Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders:
  African Democratic Rally-Alliance for Democracy and Federation or
  ADF-RDA [Gilbert OUEDRAOGO]; Confederation for Federation and
  Democracy or CFD [Amadou Diemdioda DICKO]; Congress for Democracy
  and Progress or CDP [Roch Marc-Christian KABORE]; Movement for
  Tolerance and Progress or MTP [Nayabtigungou Congo KABORE]; Party
  for African Independence or PAI [Philippe OUEDRAOGO]; Party for
  Democracy and Progress/Socialist Party or PDP/PS [Ali LANKOANDE];
  Rally of Ecologists of Burkina Faso or RDEB [Ram OUEDRAGO];
  Republican Party for Integration and Solidarity or PARIS [Cyril
  GOUNGOUNGA]; Union for the Republic or UPR [Toussaint Abel COULIBALY]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Burkinabe General Confederation of Labor or CGTB; Burkinabe
  Movement for Human Rights or MBDHP; Group of 14 February; National
  Confederation of Burkinabe Workers or CNTB; National Organization of
  Free Unions or ONSL; watchdog/political action groups throughout the
  country in both organizations and communities

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, MIGA,
  MONUC, NAM, OIC, OIF, ONUB, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
  UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Tertius ZONGO
  chancery: 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 332-5577
  FAX: [1] (202) 667-1882

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Jeanine E. JACKSON
  embassy: 602 Avenue Raoul Follereau, Koulouba, Secteur 4
  mailing address: 01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou 01; pouch mail - US
  Department of State, 2440 Ouagadougou Place, Washington, DC
  20521-2440
  telephone: [226] 50-30-67-23
  FAX: [226] 50-30-38-90, 50-31-23-68

Flag description:
  two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow
  five-pointed star in the center; uses the popular pan-African colors
  of Ethiopia

Economy Burkina Faso


Economy - overview:
  One of the poorest countries in the world, landlocked Burkina Faso
  has few natural resources and a weak industrial base. About 90% of
  the population is engaged in subsistence agriculture, which is
  vulnerable to periodic drought. Cotton is the main cash crop and the
  government has joined with three other cotton producing countries in
  the region - Mali, Niger, and Chad - to lobby for improved access to
  Western markets. GDP growth has largely been driven by increases in
  world cotton prices. Industry remains dominated by unprofitable
  government-controlled corporations. Following the CFA franc currency
  devaluation in January 1994, the government updated its development
  program in conjunction with international agencies; exports and
  economic growth have increased. The government devolved
  macroeconomic policy and inflation targeting to the West African
  regional central bank (BCEAO), but maintains control over fiscal and
  microeconomic policies, including implementing reforms to encourage
  private investment. The bitter internal crisis in neighboring Cote
  d'Ivoire continues to hurt trade and industrial prospects and
  deepens the need for international assistance. Burkina Faso is
  eligible for a Millenium Challenge Account grant, which would
  increase investment in the country's human capital.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $17.87 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $5.821 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5.2% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $1,300 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 32.6%
  industry: 19.7%
  services: 47.7% (2006 est.)

Labor force:
  5 million
  note: a large part of the male labor force migrates annually to
  neighboring countries for seasonal employment (2003)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 90%
  industry and services: 10% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  NA%

Population below poverty line:
  45% (2003 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2%
  highest 10%: 46.8% (1994)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  48.2 (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  4% (2006 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  20.5% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $1.158 billion
  expenditures: $1.714 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  cotton, peanuts, shea nuts, sesame, sorghum, millet, corn, rice;
  livestock

Industries:
  cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes,
  textiles, gold

Industrial production growth rate:
  14% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:
  400 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 69.9%
  hydro: 30.1%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  372 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - consumption:
  8,200 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Current account balance:
  $-604.6 million (2006 est.)

Exports:
  $543.5 million f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  cotton, livestock, gold

Exports - partners:
  China 39.8%, Singapore 13.1%, Thailand 5.9%, Ghana 5.4%, Taiwan
  4.6%, Niger 4% (2005)

Imports:
  $1.016 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  capital goods, foodstuffs, petroleum

Imports - partners:
  France 23.9%, Cote d'Ivoire 23.3%, Togo 6.7% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $1.328 billion (2006 est.)

Debt - external:
  $1.85 billion (2003)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $468.4 million (2003)

Currency (code):
  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible
  authority is the Central Bank of the West African States

Currency code:
  XOF

Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
  523.721 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003), 696.99
  (2002)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Burkina Faso


Telephones - main lines in use:
  97,400 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  572,200 (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: all services only fair
  domestic: microwave radio relay, open-wire, and radiotelephone
  communication stations
  international: country code - 226; satellite earth station - 1
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 3, FM 17, shortwave 3 (2002)

Radios:
  394,020 (2000)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2002)

Televisions:
  131,340 (2002)

Internet country code:
  .bf

Internet hosts:
  399 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2002)

Internet users:
  64,600 (2005)

Transportation Burkina Faso


Airports:
  34 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 2
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 32
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
  914 to 1,523 m: 11
  under 914 m: 18 (2006)

Railways:
  total: 622 km
  narrow gauge: 622 km 1.000-m gauge
  note:: another 660 km of this railway extends into Cote D'Ivoire
  (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 15,272 km
  paved: 4,766 km
  unpaved: 10,506 km (2004)

Military Burkina Faso


Military branches:
  Army, Air Force of Burkina Faso (Force Aerienne de Burkina Faso),
  National Gendarmerie (2006)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for compulsory military service; 20 years of age
  for voluntary military service (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 2,651,687 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,530,324 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $74.83 million (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.3% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Burkina Faso


Disputes - international:
  two villages are in dispute along the border with Benin; Benin
  accuses Burkina Faso of moving boundary pillars; Burkina Faso border
  regions remain a staging area for Liberia and Cote d'Ivoire rebels
  and an asylum for refugees caught in local fighting; the Ivoirian
  Government accuses Burkina Faso of sheltering Ivoirian rebels


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Burma

Introduction Burma


Background:
  Britain conquered Burma over a period of 62 years (1824-1886) and
  incorporated it into its Indian Empire. Burma was administered as a
  province of India until 1937 when it became a separate,
  self-governing colony; independence from the Commonwealth was
  attained in 1948. Gen. NE WIN dominated the government from 1962 to
  1988, first as military ruler, then as self-appointed president, and
  later as political kingpin. Despite multiparty legislative elections
  in 1990 that resulted in the main opposition party - the National
  League for Democracy (NLD) - winning a landslide victory, the ruling
  junta refused to hand over power. NLD leader and Nobel Peace Prize
  recipient AUNG SAN SUU KYI, who was under house arrest from 1989 to
  1995 and 2000 to 2002, was imprisoned in May 2003 and subsequently
  transferred to house arrest, where she remains virtually
  incommunicado. In February 2006, the junta extended her detention
  for another year. Her supporters, as well as all those who promote
  democracy and improved human rights, are routinely harassed or
  jailed.

Geography Burma


Location:
  Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal,
  between Bangladesh and Thailand

Geographic coordinates:
  22 00 N, 98 00 E

Map references:
  Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 678,500 sq km
  land: 657,740 sq km
  water: 20,760 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,876 km
  border countries: Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km,
  Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km

Coastline:
  1,930 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate:
  tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest
  monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild
  temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon,
  December to April)

Terrain:
  central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Andaman Sea 0 m
  highest point: Hkakabo Razi 5,881 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead,
  coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas,
  hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 14.92%
  permanent crops: 1.31%
  other: 83.77% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  18,700 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides
  common during rainy season (June to September); periodic droughts

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation; industrial pollution of air, soil, and water;
  inadequate sanitation and water treatment contribute to disease

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone
  Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
  Timber 94
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes

People Burma


Population:
  47,382,633
  note: estimates for this country take into account the effects of
  excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life
  expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 26.4% (male 6,335,236/female 6,181,216)
  15-64 years: 68.5% (male 16,011,723/female 16,449,626)
  65 years and over: 5.1% (male 1,035,853/female 1,368,979) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 27 years
  male: 26.4 years
  female: 27.6 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.81% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  17.91 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  9.83 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 61.85 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 72.68 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 50.38 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 60.97 years
  male: 58.07 years
  female: 64.03 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.98 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  1.2% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  330,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  20,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: very high
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea,
  hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
  vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria are high risks in
  some locations
  note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified
  among birds in this country or surrounding region; it poses a
  negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens
  who have close contact with birds (2007)

Nationality:
  noun: Burmese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Burmese

Ethnic groups:
  Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%, Indian 2%,
  Mon 2%, other 5%

Religions:
  Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%), Muslim
  4%, animist 1%, other 2%

Languages:
  Burmese, minority ethnic groups have their own languages

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 85.3%
  male: 89.2%
  female: 81.4% (2002)

Government Burma


Country name:
  conventional long form: Union of Burma
  conventional short form: Burma
  local long form: Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the
  US Government as Union of Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of
  Myanmar)
  local short form: Myanma Naingngandaw
  former: Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma
  note: since 1989 the military authorities in Burma have promoted the
  name Myanmar as a conventional name for their state; this decision
  was not approved by any sitting legislature in Burma, and the US
  Government did not adopt the name, which is a derivative of the
  Burmese short-form name Myanma Naingngandaw

Government type:
  military junta

Capital:
  name: Rangoon (Yangon)
  geographic coordinates: 16 47 N, 96 10 E
  time difference: UTC+6.5 (11.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  note: Nay Pyi Taw is administrative capital

Administrative divisions:
  7 divisions (taing-myar, singular - taing) and 7 states (pyi
  ne-myar, singular - pyi ne)
  divisions: Ayeyarwady, Bago, Magway, Mandalay, Sagaing, Tanintharyi,
  Yangon
  states: Chin State, Kachin State, Kayah State, Kayin State, Mon
  State, Rakhine State, Shan State

Independence:
  4 January 1948 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 4 January (1948); Union Day, 12 February (1947)

Constitution:
  3 January 1974; suspended since 18 September 1988; national
  convention convened in 1993 to draft a new constitution but
  collapsed in 1996; reconvened in 2004 but does not include
  participation of democratic opposition

Legal system:
  has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council
  (SPDC) Sr. Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992)
  head of government: Prime Minister, Gen SOE WIN (since 19 October
  2004)
  cabinet: Cabinet is overseen by SPDC; military junta, so named 15
  November 1997, assumed power 18 September 1988 under name State Law
  and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
  elections: none

Legislative branch:
  unicameral People's Assembly or Pyithu Hluttaw (485 seats; members
  elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 27 May 1990, but Assembly never allowed by
  junta to convene
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
  NLD 392 (opposition), SNLD 23 (opposition), NUP 10 (pro-government),
  other 60

Judicial branch:
  remnants of the British-era legal system are in place, but there is
  no guarantee of a fair public trial; the judiciary is not
  independent of the executive

Political parties and leaders:
  National League for Democracy or NLD [AUNG SHWE, chairman, AUNG SAN
  SUU KYI, general secretary]; National Unity Party or NUP
  (pro-regime) [TUN YE]; Shan Nationalities League for Democracy or
  SNLD [HKUN HTUN OO]; and other smaller parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Ethnic Nationalities Council or ENC (based in Thailand); Federation
  of Trade Unions-Burma or FTUB (exile trade union and labor
  advocates); National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma or
  NCGUB (self-proclaimed government in exile) ["Prime Minister" Dr.
  SEIN WIN] consists of individuals, some legitimately elected to the
  People's Assembly in 1990 (the group fled to a border area and
  joined insurgents in December 1990 to form parallel government in
  exile); Kachin Independence Organization or KIO; Karen National
  Union or KNU; Karenni National People's Party or KNPP; National
  Council-Union of Burma or NCUB (exile coalition of opposition
  groups); several Shan factions; United Wa State Army or UWSA; Union
  Solidarity and Development Association or USDA (pro-regime, a social
  and political mass-member organization) [HTAY OO, general
  secretary]; 88 Generation Students (pro-democracy movement) [MIN KO]

International organization participation:
  APT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, BIMSTEC, CP, EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
  IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires MYINT LWIN
  chancery: 2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 332-3344
  FAX: [1] (202) 332-4351
  consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Shari
  VILLAROSA
  embassy: 581 Merchant Street, Rangoon (GPO 521)
  mailing address: Box B, APO AP 96546
  telephone: [95] (1) 379-880, 379-881
  FAX: [95] (1) 256-018

Flag description:
  red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing,
  14 white five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel containing a stalk
  of rice; the 14 stars represent the seven administrative divisions
  and seven states

Economy Burma


Economy - overview:
  Burma, a resource-rich country, suffers from pervasive government
  controls, inefficient economic policies, and rural poverty. The
  junta took steps in the early 1990s to liberalize the economy after
  decades of failure under the "Burmese Way to Socialism," but those
  efforts stalled, and some of the liberalization measures were
  rescinded. Lacking monetary or fiscal stability, the economy suffers
  from serious macroeconomic imbalances - including inflation,
  multiple official exchange rates that overvalue the Burmese kyat,
  and a distorted interest rate regime. Most overseas development
  assistance ceased after the junta began to suppress the democracy
  movement in 1988 and subsequently refused to honor the results of
  the 1990 legislative elections. In response to the government of
  Burma's attack in May 2003 on AUNG SAN SUU KYI and her convoy, the
  US imposed new economic sanctions against Burma - including a ban on
  imports of Burmese products and a ban on provision of financial
  services by US persons. A poor investment climate further slowed the
  inflow of foreign exchange. The most productive sectors will
  continue to be in extractive industries, especially oil and gas,
  mining, and timber. Other areas, such as manufacturing and services,
  are struggling with inadequate infrastructure, unpredictable
  import/export policies, deteriorating health and education systems,
  and corruption. A major banking crisis in 2003 shuttered the
  country's 20 private banks and disrupted the economy. As of 2006,
  the largest private banks operate under tight restrictions limiting
  the private sector's access to formal credit. Official statistics
  are inaccurate. Published statistics on foreign trade are greatly
  understated because of the size of the black market and unofficial
  border trade - often estimated to be as large as the official
  economy. Burma's trade with Thailand, China, and India is rising.
  Though the Burmese government has good economic relations with its
  neighbors, better investment and business climates and an improved
  political situation are needed to promote foreign investment,
  exports, and tourism.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $83.84 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $7.845 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  2.6% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $1,800 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 54.7%
  industry: 10.6%
  services: 34.7% (2006 est.)

Labor force:
  28.49 million (2006 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 70%
  industry: 7%
  services: 23% (2001 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  10.2% (2006 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  25% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2.8%
  highest 10%: 32.4% (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  21.4% (2006 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  11.8% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $494.1 million
  expenditures: $947.3 million; including capital expenditures of NA
  (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  rice, pulses, beans, sesame, groundnuts, sugarcane; hardwood; fish
  and fish products

Industries:
  agricultural processing; knit and woven apparel; wood and wood
  products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction materials;
  pharmaceuticals; fertilizer; cement; natural gas

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  6.31 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 44.5%
  hydro: 43.4%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 12.1% (2002)

Electricity - consumption:
  5.869 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  18,500 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  37,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  3,356 bbl/day (2003)

Oil - imports:
  49,230 bbl/day (2003)

Oil - proved reserves:
  less than 1 billion bbl (2005)

Natural gas - production:
  10.2 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  2.7 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  7.5 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  283.2 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Current account balance:
  $1.247 billion (2006 est.)

Exports:
  $5.289 billion f.o.b.
  note: official export figures are grossly underestimated due to the
  value of timber, gems, narcotics, rice, and other products smuggled
  to Thailand, China, and Bangladesh (2006 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  clothing, gas, wood products, pulses, beans, fish, rice

Exports - partners:
  Thailand 43.8%, India 12.1%, China 6.7%, Japan 5% (2005)

Imports:
  $2.049 billion f.o.b.
  note: import figures are grossly underestimated due to the value of
  consumer goods, diesel fuel, and other products smuggled in from
  Thailand, China, Malaysia, and India (2006 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  fabric, petroleum products, plastics, machinery, transport
  equipment, construction materials, crude oil; food products

Imports - partners:
  China 28.8%, Thailand 21.8%, Singapore 18.4%, Malaysia 7.6% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $932 million (2006 est.)

Debt - external:
  $7.162 billion (2006 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $127 million (2001 est.)

Currency (code):
  kyat (MMK)

Currency code:
  MMK

Exchange rates:
  kyats per US dollar - 1,310 (2006), 5.761 (2005), 5.7459 (2004),
  6.0764 (2003), 6.5734 (2002), note, these are official exchange
  rates; unofficial exchange rates ranged in 2004 from 815 kyat/US
  dollar to nearly 970 kyat/US dollar, and by year-end 2005, the
  unofficial exchange rate was 1,075 kyat/US dollar

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Burma


Telephones - main lines in use:
  476,200 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  183,400 (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: barely meets minimum requirements for local and
  intercity service for business and government; international service
  is fair
  domestic: NA
  international: country code - 95; satellite earth station - 2,
  Intelsat (Indian Ocean), and ShinSat

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 1 (2004)

Radios:
  4.2 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  2 (2004)

Televisions:
  320,000 (2000)

Internet country code:
  .mm

Internet hosts:
  42 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1
  note: as of September 2000, Internet connections were legal only for
  the government, tourist offices, and a few large businesses (2000)

Internet users:
  78,000 (2005)

Transportation Burma


Airports:
  85 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 21
  over 3,047 m: 8
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 64
  over 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
  914 to 1,523 m: 18
  under 914 m: 32 (2006)

Heliports:
  1 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 2,224 km; oil 558 km (2006)

Railways:
  total: 3,955 km
  narrow gauge: 3,955 km 1.000-m gauge (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 27,000 km
  paved: 3,200 km
  unpaved: 23,800 km (2005)

Waterways:
  12,800 km (2005)

Merchant marine:
  total: 34 ships (1000 GRT or over) 402,699 GRT/620,642 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 8, cargo 20, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 3,
  specialized tanker 1
  foreign-owned: 9 (Germany 5, Japan 4) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Moulmein, Rangoon, Sittwe

Military Burma


Military branches:
  Myanmar Armed Forces (Tatmadaw): Army, Navy, Air Force (2005)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for voluntary military service for both sexes (2004)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 12,268,850
  females age 18-49: 12,469,771 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 7,946,701
  females age 18-49: 8,543,705 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 469,841
  females: 455,689 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $39 million (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.1% (FY97)

Transnational Issues Burma


Disputes - international:
  over half of Burma's population consists of diverse ethnic groups
  with substantial numbers of kin beyond its borders; despite
  continuing border committee talks, significant differences remain
  with Thailand over boundary alignment and the handling of ethnic
  rebels, refugees, and illegal cross-border activities; ethnic Karens
  flee into Thailand to escape fighting between Karen rebels and
  Burmese troops; in 2005 Thailand sheltered about 121,000 Burmese
  refugees; Karens also protest Thai support for a Burmese
  hydroelectric dam on the Salween River near the border;
  environmentalists in Burma and Thailand continue to voice concern
  over China's construction of hydroelectric dams upstream on the
  Nujiang/Salween River in Yunnan Province; India seeks cooperation
  from Burma to keep Indian Nagaland separatists from hiding in remote
  Burmese uplands

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  IDPs: 540,000 (government offensives against ethnic insurgent
  groups near the eastern borders; most IDPs are ethnic Karen,
  Karenni, Shan, Tavoyan, and Mon) (2006)

Trafficking in persons:
  current situation: Burma is a source country for men, women, and
  children trafficked to East and Southeast Asia for sexual
  exploitation, domestic service, and forced commercial labor; a
  significant number of victims are economic migrants who wind up in
  forced or bonded labor and forced prostitution; to a lesser extent,
  Burma is a country of transit and destination for women trafficked
  from China for sexual exploitation; internal trafficking of persons
  occurs primarily for labor in industrial zones and agricultural
  estates; internal trafficking of women and girls for sexual
  exploitation occurs from villages to urban centers and other areas;
  the military junta's economic mismanagement, human rights abuses,
  and policy of using forced labor are driving factors behind Burma's
  large trafficking problem
  tier rating: Tier 3 - Burma does not fully comply with the minimum
  standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making
  significant efforts to do so

Illicit drugs:
  remains world's second largest producer of illicit opium (estimated
  production in 2004 - 292 metric tons, down 40% from 2003 due to
  eradication efforts and drought; cultivation in 2004 - 30,900
  hectares, a 34% decline from 2003); lack of government will to take
  on major narcotrafficking groups and lack of serious commitment
  against money laundering continues to hinder the overall antidrug
  effort; major source of methamphetamine and heroin for regional
  consumption; currently under Financial Action Task Force
  countermeasures due to continued failure to address its inadequate
  money-laundering controls (2005)


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Burundi

Introduction Burundi


Background:
  Burundi's first democratically elected president was assassinated
  in October 1993 after only 100 days in office, triggering widespread
  ethnic violence between Hutu and Tutsi factions. Over 200,000
  Burundians perished during the conflict that spanned almost a dozen
  years. Hundreds of thousands of Burundians were internally displaced
  or became refugees in neighboring countries. An internationally
  brokered power-sharing agreement between the Tutsi-dominated
  government and the Hutu rebels in 2003 paved the way for a
  transition process that led to an integrated defense force,
  established a new constitution in 2005, and elected a majority Hutu
  government in 2005. The new government, led by President Pierre
  NKURUNZIZA, signed a South African brokered ceasefire with the
  country's last rebel group in September of 2006 but still faces many
  challenges.

Geography Burundi


Location:
  Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates:
  3 30 S, 30 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 27,830 sq km
  land: 25,650 sq km
  water: 2,180 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 974 km
  border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 233 km, Rwanda
  290 km, Tanzania 451 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772
  m to 2,670 m above sea level); average annual temperature varies
  with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally
  moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual
  rainfall is about 150 cm; two wet seasons (February to May and
  September to November), and two dry seasons (June to August and
  December to January)

Terrain:
  hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some plains

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Lake Tanganyika 772 m
  highest point: Heha 2,670 m

Natural resources:
  nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum,
  vanadium, arable land, hydropower, niobium, tantalum, gold, tin,
  tungsten, kaolin, limestone

Land use:
  arable land: 35.57%
  permanent crops: 13.12%
  other: 51.31% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  210 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  flooding, landslides, drought

Environment - current issues:
  soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of
  agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land
  remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat
  loss threatens wildlife populations

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes,
  Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:
  landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed; the
  Kagera, which drains into Lake Victoria, is the most remote
  headstream of the White Nile

People Burundi


Population:
  8,090,068
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 46.3% (male 1,884,825/female 1,863,200)
  15-64 years: 51.1% (male 2,051,451/female 2,082,017)
  65 years and over: 2.6% (male 83,432/female 125,143) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 16.6 years
  male: 16.4 years
  female: 16.9 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  3.7% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  42.22 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  13.46 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  8.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 63.13 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 70.26 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 55.79 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 50.81 years
  male: 50.07 years
  female: 51.58 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  6.55 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  6% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  250,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  25,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: very high
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and
  typhoid fever
  vectorborne disease: malaria (2007)

Nationality:
  noun: Burundian(s)
  adjective: Burundian

Ethnic groups:
  Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%, Europeans
  3,000, South Asians 2,000

Religions:
  Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%), indigenous
  beliefs 23%, Muslim 10%

Languages:
  Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake
  Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 51.6%
  male: 58.5%
  female: 45.2% (2003 est.)

Government Burundi


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Burundi
  conventional short form: Burundi
  local long form: Republique du Burundi/Republika y'u Burundi
  local short form: Burundi
  former: Urundi

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  name: Bujumbura
  geographic coordinates: 3 23 S, 29 22 E
  time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  17 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura Mairie, Bujumbura Rurale, Bururi,
  Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba,
  Muramvya, Muyinga, Mwaro, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi

Independence:
  1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

Constitution:
  28 February 2005; ratified by popular referendum

Legal system:
  based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary law; has not
  accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Pierre NKURUNZIZA (since 26 August 2005);
  First Vice President Martin NDUWIMANA - Tutsi (since 29 August
  2005); Second Vice President Marina BARAMPAMA - Hutu (since 8
  September 2006)
  head of government: President Pierre NKURUNZIZA (since 26 August
  2005); First Vice President Martin NDUWIMANA - Tutsi (since 29
  August 2005); Second Vice President Marina BARAMPAMA - Hutu (since 8
  September 2006)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president
  elections: the president is elected by popular vote to a five-year
  term (eligible for a second term); note - the constitution adopted
  in February 2005 permits the post-transition president to be elected
  by a two-thirds majority of the parliament; vice presidents
  nominated by the president, endorsed by parliament
  election results: Pierre NKURUNZIZA was elected president by the
  parliament by a vote of 151 to 9; note - the constitution adopted in
  February 2005 permits the post-transition president to be elected by
  a two-thirds majority of the legislature

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament or Parlement, consists of a National Assembly
  or Assemblee Nationale (minimum 100 seats - 60% Hutu and 40% Tutsi
  with at least 30% being women; additional seats appointed by a
  National Independent Electoral Commission to ensure ethnic
  representation; members are elected by popular vote to serve
  five-year terms) and a Senate (54 seats; 34 by indirect vote to
  serve five year terms, with remaining seats assigned to ethnic
  groups and former chiefs of state)
  elections: National Assembly - last held 4 July 2005 (next to be
  held in 2010); Senate - last held 29 July 2005 (next to be held in
  2010)
  election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party -
  CNDD-FDD 58.6%, FRODEBU 21.7%, UPRONA 7.2%, CNDD 4.1%,
  MRC-Rurenzangemero 2.1%, others 6.2%; seats by party - CNDD-FDD 59,
  FRODEBU 25, UPRONA 10, CNDD 4, MRC-Rurenzangemero 2; Senate -
  percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CNDD-FDD 30,
  FRODEBU 3, CNDD 1

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Constitutional Court; Courts of
  Appeal (there are three in separate locations); Tribunals of First
  Instance (17 at the province level and 123 small local tribunals)

Political parties and leaders:
  the three national, mainstream, governing parties are: Burundi
  Democratic Front or FRODEBU [Leonce NGENDAKUMANA, president];
  National Council for the Defense of Democracy, Front for the Defense
  of Democracy or CNDD-FDD [Hussein RADJABU, president]; Unity for
  National Progress or UPRONA [Aloys RUBUKA, president]
  note: a multiparty system was introduced after 1998, included are:
  National Council for the Defense of Democracy or CNDD; National
  Resistance Movement for the Rehabilitation of the Citizen or
  MRC-Rurenzangemero [Epitace BANYAGANAKANDI]; Party for National
  Redress or PARENA [Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  none

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, CEPGL, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt,
  ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM
  (observer), IPU, ISO (subscriber), ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW,
  UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Celestin NIYONGABO
  chancery: Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
  telephone: [1] (202) 342-2574
  FAX: [1] (202) 342-2578

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Patricia Newton MOLLER
  embassy: Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura
  mailing address: B. P. 1720, Bujumbura
  telephone: [257] 223454
  FAX: [257] 222926

Flag description:
  divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom)
  and green panels (hoist side and fly side) with a white disk
  superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars
  outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above,
  two stars below)

Economy Burundi


Economy - overview:
  Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country with an
  underdeveloped manufacturing sector. The economy is predominantly
  agricultural with more than 90% of the population dependent on
  subsistence agriculture. Economic growth depends on coffee and tea
  exports, which account for 90% of foreign exchange earnings. The
  ability to pay for imports, therefore, rests primarily on weather
  conditions and international coffee and tea prices. The Tutsi
  minority, 14% of the population, dominates the government and the
  coffee trade at the expense of the Hutu majority, 85% of the
  population. An ethnic-based war that lasted for over a decade
  resulted in more than 200,000 deaths, forced more than 48,000
  refugees into Tanzania, and displaced 140,000 others internally.
  Only one in two children go to school, and approximately one in 10
  adults has HIV/AIDS. Food, medicine, and electricity remain in short
  supply. Political stability and the end of the civil war have
  improved aid flows and economic activity has increased, but
  underlying weaknesses - a high poverty rate, poor education rates, a
  weak legal system, and low administrative capacity - risk
  undermining planned economic reforms. Burundi grew about 5 percent
  in 2006. Delayed disbursements of funds from the World Bank may add
  to budget pressures in 2007. Burundi will continue to remain heavily
  dependent on aid from bilateral and multilateral donors.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $5.744 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $778.9 million (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $700 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 44.9%
  industry: 20.9%
  services: 34.1% (2006 est.)

Labor force:
  2.99 million (2002)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 93.6%
  industry: 2.3%
  services: 4.1% (2002 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  NA%

Population below poverty line:
  68% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 1.8%
  highest 10%: 32.9% (1998)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  33.3 (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  11% (2006 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  11.9% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $239.9 million
  expenditures: $297 million; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc
  (tapioca); beef, milk, hides

Industries:
  light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap; assembly of
  imported components; public works construction; food processing

Industrial production growth rate:
  18% (2001)

Electricity - production:
  137 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 0.6%
  hydro: 99.4%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  157.4 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  30 million kWh; note - supplied by the Democratic Republic of the
  Congo (2004)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - consumption:
  3,100 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Current account balance:
  $-57.84 million (2006 est.)

Exports:
  $55.68 million f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  coffee, tea, sugar, cotton, hides

Exports - partners:
  Germany 24.6%, Belgium 11.2%, Netherlands 8.1%, Switzerland 5.9%,
  US 4.7% (2005)

Imports:
  $207.3 million f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  capital goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  Kenya 12.9%, Tanzania 10.5%, Belgium 10.4%, Italy 8.1%, France
  5.4%, Uganda 5.3%, China 5%, India 4.1% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $87.69 million (2006 est.)

Debt - external:
  $1.2 billion (2003)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $105.5 million (2003)

Currency (code):
  Burundi franc (BIF)

Currency code:
  BIF

Exchange rates:
  Burundi francs per US dollar - 1,170 (2006), 1,138 (2005), 1,100.91
  (2004), 1,082.62 (2003), 930.75 (2002)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Burundi


Telephones - main lines in use:
  27,700 (2004)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  153,000 (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: primitive system
  domestic: sparse system of open-wire, radiotelephone communications,
  and low-capacity microwave radio relay
  international: country code - 257; satellite earth station - 1
  Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 0, FM 4, shortwave 1 (2001)

Radios:
  440,000 (2001)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2001)

Televisions:
  25,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bi

Internet hosts:
  160 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  25,000 (2005)

Transportation Burundi


Airports:
  8 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  over 3,047 m: 1 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 7
  914 to 1,523 m: 4
  under 914 m: 3 (2006)

Roadways:
  total: 12,322 km
  paved: 1,286 km
  unpaved: 11,036 km (2004)

Waterways:
  mainly on Lake Tanganyika (2003)

Ports and terminals:
  Bujumbura

Military Burundi


Military branches:
  National Defense Force (Forces de Defense Nationales, FDN): Army
  (includes Naval Detachment and Air Wing), National Gendarmerie
  (being disbanded) (2006)

Military service age and obligation:
  16 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 16-49: 1,676,855
  females age 16-49: 1,656,366 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 16-49: 955,616
  females age 16-49: 932,767 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 91,331
  females age 16-49: 90,685 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $43.9 million (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  5.6% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Burundi


Disputes - international:
  Tutsi, Hutu, other conflicting ethnic groups, associated political
  rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces continue fighting
  in the Great Lakes region, transcending the boundaries of Burundi,
  Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda in an effort to
  gain control over populated and natural resource areas; government
  heads pledge to end conflict, but localized violence continues
  despite the presence of about 6,000 peacekeepers from the UN
  Operation in Burundi (ONUB) since 2004; although some 150,000
  Burundian refugees have been repatriated, as of February 2005,
  Burundian refugees still reside in camps in western Tanzania as well
  as the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  refugees (country of origin): 20,359 (Democratic Republic of the
  Congo)
  IDPs: 100,000 (armed conflict between government and rebels; most
  IDPs in northern and western Burundi) (2006)


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Cambodia

Introduction Cambodia


Background:
  Most Cambodians consider themselves to be Khmers, descendants of
  the Angkor Empire that extended over much of Southeast Asia and
  reached its zenith between the 10th and 13th centuries. Attacks by
  the Thai and Cham (from present-day Vietnam) weakened the empire
  ushering in a long period of decline. The king placed the country
  under French protection in 1863. Cambodia became part of French
  Indochina in 1887. Following Japanese occupation in World War II,
  Cambodia gained full independence from France in 1953. In April
  1975, after a five-year struggle, Communist Khmer Rouge forces
  captured Phnom Penh and evacuated all cities and towns. At least 1.5
  million Cambodians died from execution, forced hardships, or
  starvation during the Khmer Rouge regime under POL POT. A December
  1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge into the countryside,
  began a 10-year Vietnamese occupation, and touched off almost 13
  years of civil war. The 1991 Paris Peace Accords mandated democratic
  elections and a ceasefire, which was not fully respected by the
  Khmer Rouge. UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some
  semblance of normalcy under a coalition government. Factional
  fighting in 1997 ended the first coalition government, but a second
  round of national elections in 1998 led to the formation of another
  coalition government and renewed political stability. The remaining
  elements of the Khmer Rouge surrendered in early 1999. Some of the
  remaining Khmer Rouge leaders are awaiting trial by a UN-sponsored
  tribunal for crimes against humanity. Elections in July 2003 were
  relatively peaceful, but it took one year of negotiations between
  contending political parties before a coalition government was
  formed.

Geography Cambodia


Location:
  Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between
  Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos

Geographic coordinates:
  13 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references:
  Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 181,040 sq km
  land: 176,520 sq km
  water: 4,520 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Oklahoma

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,572 km
  border countries: Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km

Coastline:
  443 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season
  (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain:
  mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
  highest point: Phnum Aoral 1,810 m

Natural resources:
  oil and gas, timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese,
  phosphates, hydropower potential

Land use:
  arable land: 20.44%
  permanent crops: 0.59%
  other: 78.97% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  2,700 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts

Environment - current issues:
  illegal logging activities throughout the country and strip mining
  for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand have
  resulted in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular,
  destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); soil
  erosion; in rural areas, most of the population does not have access
  to potable water; declining fish stocks because of illegal fishing
  and overfishing

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes,
  Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:
  a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and
  Tonle Sap

People Cambodia


Population:
  13,881,427
  note: estimates for this country take into account the effects of
  excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life
  expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 35.6% (male 2,497,595/female 2,447,754)
  15-64 years: 61% (male 4,094,946/female 4,370,159)
  65 years and over: 3.4% (male 180,432/female 290,541) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 20.6 years
  male: 19.9 years
  female: 21.4 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.78% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  26.9 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  9.06 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 68.78 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 77.35 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 59.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 59.29 years
  male: 57.35 years
  female: 61.32 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.37 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  2.6% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  170,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  15,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: very high
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea,
  hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
  vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Japanese
  encephalitis are high risks in some locations
  note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified
  among birds in this country or surrounding region; it poses a
  negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens
  who have close contact with birds (2007)

Nationality:
  noun: Cambodian(s)
  adjective: Cambodian

Ethnic groups:
  Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%

Religions:
  Theravada Buddhist 95%, other 5%

Languages:
  Khmer (official) 95%, French, English

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 73.6%
  male: 84.7%
  female: 64.1% (2004 est.)

Government Cambodia


Country name:
  conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia
  conventional short form: Cambodia
  local long form: Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea (phonetic
  pronunciation)
  local short form: Kampuchea
  former: Kingdom of Cambodia, Khmer Republic, Democratic Kampuchea,
  People's Republic of Kampuchea, State of Cambodia

Government type:
  multiparty democracy under a constitutional monarchy

Capital:
  name: Phnom Penh
  geographic coordinates: 11 33 N, 104 55 E
  time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  20 provinces (khaitt, singular and plural) and 4 municipalities*
  (krong, singular and plural)
  provinces: Banteay Mean Cheay, Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong
  Chhnang, Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum, Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong,
  Krachen, Mondol Kiri, Otdar Mean Cheay, Pouthisat, Preah Vihear,
  Prey Veng, Rotanah Kiri, Siem Reab, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takev
  municipalities: Keb, Pailin, Phnum Penh (Phnom Penh), Preah Seihanu
  (Sihanoukville)

Independence:
  9 November 1953 (from France)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 9 November (1953)

Constitution:
  promulgated 21 September 1993

Legal system:
  primarily a civil law mixture of French-influenced codes from the
  United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) period,
  royal decrees, and acts of the legislature, with influences of
  customary law and remnants of communist legal theory; increasing
  influence of common law in recent years; accepts compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: King Norodom SIHAMONI (since 29 October 2004)
  head of government: Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 14 January 1985)
  and Deputy Prime Ministers SAR KHENG (since 3 February 1992); SOK
  AN, LU LAY SRENG, TEA BANH, HOR NAMHONG, NHEK BUNCHHAY (since 16
  July 2004); KEV PUT REAKSMEI (since 24 October 2006)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers in theory appointed by the monarch; in
  practice named by the prime minister
  elections: none; the monarch is chosen by a Royal Throne Council;
  following legislative elections, a member of the majority party or
  majority coalition is named prime minister by the Chairman of the
  National Assembly and appointed by the king

Legislative branch:
  bicameral, consists of the National Assembly (123 seats; members
  elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Senate (61
  seats; 2 members appointed by the monarch, 2 elected by the National
  Assembly, and 57 elected by parliamentarians and commune councils;
  members serve five-year terms)
  elections: National Assembly - last held 27 July 2003 (next to be
  held in July 2008); Senate - last held 22 January 2006 (next to be
  held in January 2011)
  election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CPP
  47%, SRP 22%, FUNCINPEC 21%, other 10%; seats by party - CPP 73,
  FUNCINPEC 26, SRP 24; Senate - percent of vote by party - CPP 69%,
  FUNCINPEC 21%, SRP 10%; seats by party - CPP 45, FUNCINPEC 10, SRP 2
  (January 2006)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Council of the Magistracy (provided for in the constitution
  and formed in December 1997); Supreme Court (and lower courts)
  exercises judicial authority

Political parties and leaders:
  Cambodian People's Party or CPP [CHEA SIM]; National United Front
  for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia or
  FUNCINPEC [KEV PUT REAKSMEI]; Norodom Ranariddh Party or NRP
  [Norodom RANARIDDH]; Sam Rangsi Party or SRP [SAM RANGSI]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACCT, APT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, EAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt,
  ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU,
  ISO (subscriber), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador EK SEREYWATH
  chancery: 4530 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
  telephone: [1] (202) 726-7742
  FAX: [1] (202) 726-8381

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph A. MUSSOMELI
  embassy: #1, Street 96, Sangkat Wat Phnom, Khan Daun Penh, Phnom Penh
  mailing address: Box P, APO AP 96546
  telephone: [855] (23) 728-000
  FAX: [855] (23) 728-600

Flag description:
  three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double width), and blue
  with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat outlined
  in black in the center of the red band; only national flag to
  incorporate an actual building in its design

Economy Cambodia


Economy - overview:
  In 1999, the first full year of peace in 30 years, the government
  made progress on economic reforms. The US and Cambodia signed a
  Bilateral Textile Agreement, which gave Cambodia a guaranteed quota
  of US textile imports and established a bonus for improving working
  conditions and enforcing Cambodian labor laws and international
  labor standards in the industry. From 2001 to 2004, the economy grew
  at an average rate of 6.4%, driven largely by an expansion in the
  garment sector and tourism. With the January 2005 expiration of a
  WTO Agreement on Textiles and Clothing, Cambodia-based textile
  producers were forced to compete directly with lower-priced
  producing countries such as China and India. Better-than-expected
  garment sector performance led to about 6% growth per year in
  2005-06. Faced with the possibility that its vibrant garment
  industry, with more than 200,000 jobs, could be in serious danger,
  the Cambodian government has committed itself to a policy of
  continued support for high labor standards in an attempt to maintain
  favor with buyers. The tourism industry continues to grow rapidly,
  with foreign visitors surpassing 1 million for per year beginning in
  2005. In 2005, exploitable oil and natural gas deposits were found
  beneath Cambodia's territorial waters, representing a new revenue
  stream for the government once commercial extraction begins in the
  coming years. Mining also is attracting significant investor
  interest, particularly in the northeastern parts of the country. The
  long-term development of the economy remains a daunting challenge.
  The Cambodian government is working with bilateral and multilateral
  donors, including the World Bank and IMF, to address the country's
  many pressing needs. The major economic challenge for Cambodia over
  the next decade will be fashioning an economic environment in which
  the private sector can create enough jobs to handle Cambodia's
  demographic imbalance. More than 50% of the population is less than
  21 years old. The population lacks education and productive skills,
  particularly in the poverty-ridden countryside, which suffers from
  an almost total lack of basic infrastructure.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $36.78 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $5.122 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5.8% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $2,600 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 35%
  industry: 30%
  services: 35% (2004)

Labor force:
  7 million (2003 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 75%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA% (2004 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  2.5% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  40% (2004 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2.9%
  highest 10%: 33.8% (1997)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  40 (2004 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  5% (2006 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  18.7% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $731 million
  expenditures: $931.8 million; including capital expenditures of $291
  million (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  rice, rubber, corn, vegetables, cashews, tapioca

Industries:
  tourism, garments, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products,
  rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles

Industrial production growth rate:
  22% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  131 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 65%
  hydro: 35%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  121.8 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - consumption:
  3,750 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Current account balance:
  $-412 million (2006 est.)

Exports:
  $3.331 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  clothing, timber, rubber, rice, fish, tobacco, footwear

Exports - partners:
  US 48.6%, Hong Kong 24.4%, Germany 5.6%, Canada 4.6% (2005)

Imports:
  $4.477 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  petroleum products, cigarettes, gold, construction materials,
  machinery, motor vehicles, pharmaceutical products

Imports - partners:
  Hong Kong 16.1%, China 13.6%, France 12.1%, Thailand 11.2%, Taiwan
  10.2%, South Korea 7.5%, Vietnam 7.1%, Singapore 4.9%, Japan 4.1%
  (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $1.385 billion (2006 est.)

Debt - external:
  $3.664 billion (2006 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $504 million pledged in grants and concessional loans for 2005 by
  international donors

Currency (code):
  riel (KHR)

Currency code:
  KHR

Exchange rates:
  riels per US dollar - 4,119 (2006), 4,092.5 (2005), 4,016.25
  (2004), 3,973.33 (2003), 3,912.08 (2002)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Cambodia


Telephones - main lines in use:
  36,400 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1.062 million (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: adequate landline and/or cellular service in
  Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; mobile phone coverage is
  rapidly expanding in rural areas
  domestic: NA
  international: country code - 855; adequate but expensive landline
  and cellular service available to all countries from Phnom Penh and
  major provincial cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik
  (Indian Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 17 (2003)

Radios:
  1.34 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  11 (including two TV relay stations with French and Vietnamese
  broadcasts); 12 regional low power TV stations (2006)

Televisions:
  94,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .kh

Internet hosts:
  1,378 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  41,000 (2005)

Transportation Cambodia


Airports:
  20 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 6
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 14
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 11
  under 914 m: 1 (2006)

Heliports:
  2 (2006)

Railways:
  total: 602 km
  narrow gauge: 602 km 1.000-m gauge (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 38,257 km
  paved: 2,406 km
  unpaved: 35,851 km (2004)

Waterways:
  2,400 km (mainly on Mekong River) (2005)

Merchant marine:
  total: 544 ships (1000 GRT or over) 1,777,907 GRT/2,529,708 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 41, cargo 443, chemical tanker 11, container
  10, livestock carrier 3, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 9,
  refrigerated cargo 19, roll on/roll off 2, specialized tanker 1,
  vehicle carrier 1
  foreign-owned: 407 (Bulgaria 1, Canada 6, China 128, Cyprus 12,
  Egypt 8, Gabon 1, Greece 8, Hong Kong 15, Indonesia 1, Japan 4,
  South Korea 23, Latvia 2, Lebanon 6, Nigeria 2, Norway 1,
  Philippines 1, Russia 105, Singapore 4, Spain 1, Syria 20, Taiwan 2,
  Turkey 26, UAE 1, Ukraine 17, US 8, Yemen 3, unknown 1) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Phnom Penh, Preah Seihanu (Sihanoukville)

Military Cambodia


Military branches:
  Royal Cambodian Armed Forces: Royal Cambodian Army, Royal Khmer
  Navy, Royal Cambodian Air Force (2005)

Military service age and obligation:
  conscription law made effective in October 2006 requires all males
  between 18-30 to register for military service; service obligation
  is 18 months (2006)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 3,002,718
  females age 18-49: 3,108,254 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,955,141
  females age 18-49: 2,048,611 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 175,497
  females age 18-49: 172,788 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $112 million (FY01 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  3% (FY01 est.)

Transnational Issues Cambodia


Disputes - international:
  Southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check
  the spread of avian flu; Cambodia and Thailand dispute sections of
  boundary with missing boundary markers and Thai encroachments into
  Cambodian territory; maritime boundary with Vietnam is hampered by
  unresolved dispute over offshore islands; Cambodia accuses Thailand
  of obstructing access to Preah Vihear temple ruins awarded to
  Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962; in 2004, Cambodian-Laotian and
  Laotian-Vietnamese boundary commissions re-erected missing markers
  completing most of their demarcations

Trafficking in persons:
  current situation: Cambodia is a source, destination, and transit
  country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of
  sexual exploitation and forced labor; a significant number of women
  and children are trafficked to Thailand and Malaysia for commercial
  sexual exploitation and forced labor; men are trafficked primarily
  to Thailand for forced labor in the construction and agricultural
  sectors, particularly the fishing industry, while women and girls
  are trafficked for factory and domestic work; children are
  trafficked to Vietnam and Thailand for the purpose of forced
  begging; Cambodia is a transit and destination point for women from
  Vietnam trafficked for sexual exploitation; trafficking for sexual
  exploitation also occurs within Cambodia's borders, from rural areas
  to the cities
  tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Cambodia does not fully comply with
  the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however,
  it is committed to making significant efforts to sustain progress
  over the coming year

Illicit drugs:
  narcotics-related corruption reportedly involving some in the
  government, military, and police; possible small-scale heroin and
  methamphetamine production; vulnerable to money laundering due to
  its cash-based economy and porous borders


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Cameroon

Introduction Cameroon


Background:
  The former French Cameroon and part of British Cameroon merged in
  1961 to form the present country. Cameroon has generally enjoyed
  stability, which has permitted the development of agriculture,
  roads, and railways, as well as a petroleum industry. Despite a slow
  movement toward democratic reform, political power remains firmly in
  the hands of an ethnic oligarchy headed by President Paul BIYA.

Geography Cameroon


Location:
  Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between Equatorial
  Guinea and Nigeria

Geographic coordinates:
  6 00 N, 12 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 475,440 sq km
  land: 469,440 sq km
  water: 6,000 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
  total: 4,591 km
  border countries: Central African Republic 797 km, Chad 1,094 km,
  Republic of the Congo 523 km, Equatorial Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298
  km, Nigeria 1,690 km

Coastline:
  402 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm

Climate:
  varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot
  in north

Terrain:
  diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau in
  center, mountains in west, plains in north

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Fako 4,095 m (on Mt. Cameroon)

Natural resources:
  petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 12.54%
  permanent crops: 2.52%
  other: 84.94% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  260 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  volcanic activity with periodic releases of poisonous gases from
  Lake Nyos and Lake Monoun volcanoes

Environment - current issues:
  waterborne diseases are prevalent; deforestation; overgrazing;
  desertification; poaching; overfishing

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law
  of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
  Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa; throughout the
  country there are areas of thermal springs and indications of
  current or prior volcanic activity; Mount Cameroon, the highest
  mountain in Sub-Saharan west Africa, is an active volcano

People Cameroon


Population:
  17,340,702
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 41.2% (male 3,614,430/female 3,531,047)
  15-64 years: 55.5% (male 4,835,453/female 4,796,276)
  65 years and over: 3.2% (male 260,342/female 303,154) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 18.9 years
  male: 18.7 years
  female: 19 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.04% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  33.89 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  13.47 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 63.52 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 67.38 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 59.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 51.16 years
  male: 50.98 years
  female: 51.34 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  4.39 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  6.9% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  560,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  49,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: very high
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and
  typhoid fever
  vectorborne diseases: malaria and yellow fever are high risks in
  some locations
  water contact disease: schistosomiasis
  respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
  note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified
  among birds in this country or surrounding region; it poses a
  negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens
  who have close contact with birds (2007)

Nationality:
  noun: Cameroonian(s)
  adjective: Cameroonian

Ethnic groups:
  Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%, Fulani
  10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other African 13%,
  non-African less than 1%

Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 40%, Christian 40%, Muslim 20%

Languages:
  24 major African language groups, English (official), French
  (official)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 79%
  male: 84.7%
  female: 73.4% (2003 est.)

Government Cameroon


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Cameroon
  conventional short form: Cameroon
  local long form: Republique du Cameroun/Republic of Cameroon
  local short form: Cameroun/Cameroon
  former: French Cameroon, British Cameroon, Federal Republic of
  Cameroon, United Republic of Cameroon

Government type:
  republic; multiparty presidential regime

Capital:
  name: Yaounde
  geographic coordinates: 3 52 N, 11 31 E
  time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est, Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord,
  Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest

Independence:
  1 January 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday:
  Republic Day (National Day), 20 May (1972)

Constitution:
  20 May 1972 approved by referendum, 2 June 1972 formally adopted;
  revised January 1996

Legal system:
  based on French civil law system, with common law influence;
  accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  20 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982)
  head of government: Prime Minister Ephraim INONI (since 8 December
  2004)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from proposals submitted
  by the prime minister
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term
  (eligible for a second term); election last held 11 October 2004
  (next to be held by October 2011); prime minister appointed by the
  president
  election results: President Paul BIYA reelected; percent of vote -
  Paul BIYA 70.9%, John FRU NDI 17.4%, Adamou Ndam NJOYA 4.5%, Garga
  Haman ADJI 3.7%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (180 seats;
  members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year
  terms); note - the president can either lengthen or shorten the term
  of the legislature
  elections: last held 23 June 2002 (next to be held in June 2007)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
  RDCP 133, SDF 21, UDC 5, other 21
  note: the constitution calls for an upper chamber for the
  legislature, to be called a Senate, but it has yet to be established

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); High Court
  of Justice (consists of nine judges and six substitute judges,
  elected by the National Assembly)

Political parties and leaders:
  Cameroonian Democratic Union or UDC [Adamou Ndam NJOYA]; Cameroon
  People's Democratic Movement or CPDM [Paul BIYA]; Movement for the
  Defense of the Republic or MDR [Dakole DAISSALA]; Movement for the
  Liberation and Development of Cameroon or MLDC [Marcel YONDO];
  Movement for the Youth of Cameroon or MYC [Dieudonne TINA]; National
  Union for Democracy and Progress or UNDP [Maigari BELLO BOUBA];
  Social Democratic Front or SDF [John FRU NDI]; Union of Peoples of
  Cameroon or UPC [Augustin Frederic KODOCK]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Southern Cameroon National Council [Ayamba Ette OTUN]; Human Rights
  Defense Group [Albert MUKONG, president]

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, C, CEMAC, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
  IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OIC,
  OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Jerome MENDOUGA
  chancery: 2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 265-8790
  FAX: [1] (202) 387-3826

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Niels MARQUARDT
  embassy: Rue Nachtigal, Yaounde
  mailing address: P. O. Box 817, Yaounde; pouch: American Embassy, US
  Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2520
  telephone: [237] 220 15 00; Consular: [237] 220 16 03
  FAX: [237] 220 16 20; Consular FAX: [237] 220 17 52
  branch office(s): Douala

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), red, and yellow
  with a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band; uses the
  popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Economy Cameroon


Economy - overview:
  Because of its modest oil resources and favorable agricultural
  conditions, Cameroon has one of the best-endowed primary commodity
  economies in sub-Saharan Africa. Still, it faces many of the serious
  problems facing other underdeveloped countries, such as a top-heavy
  civil service and a generally unfavorable climate for business
  enterprise. Since 1990, the government has embarked on various IMF
  and World Bank programs designed to spur business investment,
  increase efficiency in agriculture, improve trade, and recapitalize
  the nation's banks. In June 2000, the government completed an
  IMF-sponsored, three-year structural adjustment program; however,
  the IMF is pressing for more reforms, including increased budget
  transparency, privatization, and poverty reduction programs.
  International oil and cocoa prices have a significant impact on the
  economy.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $42.2 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $16.37 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  4.1% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $2,400 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 45.2%
  industry: 16.1%
  services: 38.7% (2006 est.)

Labor force:
  6.394 million (2006 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 70%
  industry: 13%
  services: 17%

Unemployment rate:
  30% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  48% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 1.9%
  highest 10%: 36.6% (1996)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  44.6 (2001)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.4% (2006 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  16.8% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $3.339 billion
  expenditures: $3.157 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2006 est.)

Public debt:
  28.4% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  coffee, cocoa, cotton, rubber, bananas, oilseed, grains, root
  starches; livestock; timber

Industries:
  petroleum production and refining, aluminum production, food
  processing, light consumer goods, textiles, lumber, ship repair

Industrial production growth rate:
  4.2% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production:
  3.924 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 2.7%
  hydro: 97.3%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  3.649 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  82,300 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  24,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - proved reserves:
  90 million bbl (2006 est.)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  110.4 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Current account balance:
  $419 million (2006 est.)

Exports:
  $4.318 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  crude oil and petroleum products, lumber, cocoa beans, aluminum,
  coffee, cotton

Exports - partners:
  Spain 17.4%, Italy 13.8%, France 9.5%, South Korea 8.1%, UK 8.1%,
  Netherlands 7.9%, Belgium 4.9%, US 4.3% (2005)

Imports:
  $3.083 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery, electrical equipment, transport equipment, fuel, food

Imports - partners:
  France 24%, Nigeria 12%, Belgium 6.3%, China 5.6%, US 5.1%,
  Thailand 4.5%, Germany 4.2% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $1.336 billion (2006 est.)

Debt - external:
  $3.657 billion (2006 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  in January 2001, the Paris Club agreed to reduce Cameroon's debt of
  $1.3 billion by $900 million; debt relief now totals $1.26 billion

Currency (code):
  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible
  authority is the Bank of the Central African States

Currency code:
  XAF

Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar -
  522.592 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003), 696.99
  (2002)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Cameroon


Telephones - main lines in use:
  99,400 (2004)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  2.259 million (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: available only to business and government
  domestic: cable, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter
  international: country code - 237; satellite earth stations - 2
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC)
  provides connectivity to Europe and Asia

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 3 (2002)

Radios:
  2.27 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2002)

Televisions:
  450,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .cm

Internet hosts:
  39 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2002)

Internet users:
  167,000 (2005)

Transportation Cameroon


Airports:
  47 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 11
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 36
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
  914 to 1,523 m: 20
  under 914 m: 9 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 70 km; liquid petroleum gas 9 km; oil 1,107 km (2006)

Railways:
  total: 987 km
  narrow gauge: 987 km 1.000-m gauge (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 50,000 km
  paved: 5,000 km
  unpaved: 45,000 km (2004)

Waterways:
  navigation mainly on Benue River; limited during rainy season (2005)

Merchant marine:
  total: 1 ship (1000 GRT or over) 38,613 GRT/68,820 DWT
  by type: petroleum tanker 1
  foreign-owned: 1 (France 1) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Douala, Limboh Terminal

Military Cameroon


Military branches:
  Cameroon Armed Forces: Army, Navy (includes naval infantry), Air
  Force (Armee de l'Air du Cameroun, AAC) (2006)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription
  (1999)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 3,525,307
  females age 18-49: 3,461,406 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,946,767
  females age 18-49: 1,834,600 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 191,619
  females age 18-49: 187,082 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $230.2 million (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.5% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Cameroon


Disputes - international:
  ICJ ruled in 2002 on the entire Cameroon-Nigeria land and maritime
  boundary but the parties formed a Joint Border Commission, which
  continues to meet regularly to resolve differences bilaterally and
  have commenced with demarcation in less-contested sections of the
  boundary, starting in Lake Chad in the north; implementation of the
  ICJ ruling on the Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime
  boundary in the Gulf of Guinea is impeded by imprecisely defined
  coordinates and a sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and
  Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River; Nigeria
  initially rejected cession of the Bakassi Peninsula, then agreed,
  but much of the indigenous population opposes cession; only Nigeria
  and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to
  ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes the Chad-Niger
  and Niger-Nigeria boundaries

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  refugees (country of origin): 39,303 (Chad) 9,711 (Nigeria) 13,000
  (Central African Republic); note - there are an additional 10,000
  Central African refugees unregistered with UNHCR as of December 2006
  (2006)


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Canada

Introduction Canada


Background:
  A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became
  a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the
  British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has
  developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across
  an unfortified border. Canada faces the political challenges of
  meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care and
  education services, as well as responding to separatist concerns in
  predominantly francophone Quebec. Canada also aims to develop its
  diverse energy resources while maintaining its commitment to the
  environment.

Geography Canada


Location:
  Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the
  east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the
  north, north of the conterminous US

Geographic coordinates:
  60 00 N, 95 00 W

Map references:
  North America

Area:
  total: 9,984,670 sq km
  land: 9,093,507 sq km
  water: 891,163 sq km

Area - comparative:
  somewhat larger than the US

Land boundaries:
  total: 8,893 km
  border countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)

Coastline:
  202,080 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate:
  varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north

Terrain:
  mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m

Natural resources:
  iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash,
  diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural
  gas, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 4.57%
  permanent crops: 0.65%
  other: 94.78% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  7,850 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to
  development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a
  result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and
  North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and
  snow east of the mountains

Environment - current issues:
  air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and
  damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and
  vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity;
  ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial,
  mining, and forestry activities

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85,
  Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
  Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic
  Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
  Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
  Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
  Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
  Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:
  second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location
  between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 90% of
  the population is concentrated within 160 km of the US border

People Canada


Population:
  33,098,932 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 17.6% (male 2,992,811/female 2,848,388)
  15-64 years: 69% (male 11,482,452/female 11,368,286)
  65 years and over: 13.3% (male 1,883,008/female 2,523,987) (2006
  est.)

Median age:
  total: 38.9 years
  male: 37.8 years
  female: 39.9 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.88% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  10.78 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  7.8 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  5.85 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 4.69 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 5.15 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 4.22 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 80.22 years
  male: 76.86 years
  female: 83.74 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.61 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.3% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  56,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  1,500 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Canadian(s)
  adjective: Canadian

Ethnic groups:
  British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other European 15%,
  Amerindian 2%, other, mostly Asian, African, Arab 6%, mixed
  background 26%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 42.6%, Protestant 23.3% (including United Church
  9.5%, Anglican 6.8%, Baptist 2.4%, Lutheran 2%), other Christian
  4.4%, Muslim 1.9%, other and unspecified 11.8%, none 16% (2001
  census)

Languages:
  English (official) 59.3%, French (official) 23.2%, other 17.5%

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 99%
  male: 99%
  female: 99% (2003 est.)

Government Canada


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Canada

Government type:
  constitutional monarchy that is also a parliamentary democracy and
  a federation

Capital:
  name: Ottawa
  geographic coordinates: 45 25 N, 75 40 W
  time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard
  Time)
  daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends
  first Sunday in November
  note: Canada is divided into six time zones

Administrative divisions:
  10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia,
  Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest
  Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island,
  Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*

Independence:
  1 July 1867 (union of British North American colonies); 11 December
  1931 (independence recognized)

National holiday:
  Canada Day, 1 July (1867)

Constitution:
  made up of unwritten and written acts, customs, judicial decisions,
  and traditions; the written part of the constitution consists of the
  Constitution Act of 29 March 1867, which created a federation of
  four provinces, and the Constitution Act of 17 April 1982, which
  transferred formal control over the constitution from Britain to
  Canada, and added a Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms as well
  as procedures for constitutional amendments

Legal system:
  based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law
  system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General Michaelle JEAN (since 27 September
  2005)
  head of government: Prime Minister Stephen HARPER (since 6 February
  2006)
  cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister usually from
  among the members of his own party sitting in Parliament
  elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; governor general
  appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a
  five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the
  majority party or the leader of the majority coalition in the House
  of Commons is automatically designated prime minister by the
  governor general

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat
  (members appointed by the governor general with the advice of the
  prime minister and serve until reaching 75 years of age; its normal
  limit is 105 senators) and the House of Commons or Chambre des
  Communes (308 seats; members elected by direct, popular vote to
  serve for up to five-year terms)
  elections: House of Commons - last held 23 January 2006 (next to be
  held in 2011)
  election results: House of Commons - percent of vote by party -
  Conservative Party 36.3%, Liberal Party 30.2%, New Democratic Party
  17.5%, Bloc Quebecois 10.5%, Greens 4.5%, other 1%; seats by party -
  Conservative Party 124, Liberal Party 102, New Democratic Party 29,
  Bloc Quebecois 51, other 2; seats by party as of February 2007 -
  Conservative Party 125, Liberal Party 100, New Democratic Party 29,
  Bloc Quebecois 51, other 2

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court of Canada (judges are appointed by the prime minister
  through the governor general); Federal Court of Canada; Federal
  Court of Appeal; Provincial Courts (these are named variously Court
  of Appeal, Court of Queens Bench, Superior Court, Supreme Court, and
  Court of Justice)

Political parties and leaders:
  Bloc Quebecois [Gilles DUCEPPE]; Conservative Party of Canada (a
  merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative
  Party) [Stephen HARPER]; Green Party [Elizabeth MAY]; Liberal Party
  [Stephane DION]; New Democratic Party [Jack LAYTON]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACCT, AfDB, APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue
  partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CDB, CE (observer), EAPC, EBRD,
  ESA (cooperating state), FAO, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF,
  IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUC,
  NAFTA, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE,
  Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), SECI (observer), UN, UNAMSIL,
  UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNMOVIC, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU,
  WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Michael WILSON
  chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001
  telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740
  FAX: [1] (202) 682-7701
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas,
  Denver, Detroit, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, Phoenix,
  San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle, Tucson
  consulate(s): Anchorage, Houston, Philadelphia, Princeton (New
  Jersey), Raleigh, San Jose (California)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador David H. WILKINS
  embassy: 490 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 1G8
  mailing address: P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburgh, NY 13669-0430
  telephone: [1] (613) 238-5335, 4470
  FAX: [1] (613) 688-3082
  consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto,
  Vancouver, Winnipeg

Flag description:
  two vertical bands of red (hoist and fly side, half width), with
  white square between them; an 11-pointed red maple leaf is centered
  in the white square; the official colors of Canada are red and white

Economy Canada


Economy - overview:
  As an affluent, high-tech industrial society in the trillion dollar
  class, Canada resembles the US in its market-oriented economic
  system, pattern of production, and affluent living standards. Since
  World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining,
  and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural
  economy into one primarily industrial and urban. The 1989 US-Canada
  Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and the 1994 North American Free Trade
  Agreement (NAFTA) (which includes Mexico) touched off a dramatic
  increase in trade and economic integration with the US. Given its
  great natural resources, skilled labor force, and modern capital
  plant, Canada enjoys solid economic prospects. Top-notch fiscal
  management has produced consecutive balanced budgets since 1997,
  although public debate continues over how to manage the rising cost
  of the publicly funded healthcare system. Exports account for
  roughly a third of GDP. Canada enjoys a substantial trade surplus
  with its principal trading partner, the US, which absorbs about 85%
  of Canadian exports. Canada is the US' largest foreign supplier of
  energy, including oil, gas, uranium, and electric power.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $1.165 trillion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $1.089 trillion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  2.8% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $35,200 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 2.3%
  industry: 29.2%
  services: 68.5% (2006 est.)

Labor force:
  17.59 million (2006 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 2%, manufacturing 14%, construction 5%, services 75%,
  other 3% (2004)

Unemployment rate:
  6.4% (2006 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  15.9%; note - this figure is the Low Income Cut-Off (LICO), a
  calculation that results in higher figures than found in many
  comparable economies; Canada does not have an official poverty line
  (2003)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2.8%
  highest 10%: 23.8% (1994)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  33.1 (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2% (2006 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  21.3% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $183.5 billion
  expenditures: $181.8 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2005 est.)

Public debt:
  65.4% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy
  products; forest products; fish

Industries:
  transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed
  minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products,
  petroleum and natural gas

Industrial production growth rate:
  0.7% (2006 est.)

Electricity - production:
  573 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 28%
  hydro: 57.9%
  nuclear: 12.9%
  other: 1.3% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  522.4 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  33.01 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  22.48 billion kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  3.135 million bbl/day (2004)

Oil - consumption:
  2.294 million bbl/day (2004)

Oil - exports:
  1.6 million bbl/day (2004)

Oil - imports:
  963,000 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - proved reserves:
  178.9 billion bbl
  note: includes oil sands (2004 est.)

Natural gas - production:
  183.6 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  95.85 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  104 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  10.86 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  1.603 trillion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Current account balance:
  $20.56 billion (2006 est.)

Exports:
  $405 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft,
  telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood
  pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum

Exports - partners:
  US 84.2%, Japan 2.1%, UK 1.8% (2005)

Imports:
  $353.2 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil,
  chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods

Imports - partners:
  US 56.7%, China 7.8%, Mexico 3.8% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $35.79 billion (August 2006 est.)

Debt - external:
  $684.7 billion (30 June 2006)

Economic aid - donor:
  ODA, $2.6 billion (2004)

Currency (code):
  Canadian dollar (CAD)

Currency code:
  CAD

Exchange rates:
  Canadian dollars per US dollar - 1.13186 (2006), 1.2118 (2005),
  1.301 (2004), 1.4011 (2003), 1.5693 (2002)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Canada


Telephones - main lines in use:
  18.276 million (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  16.6 million (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: excellent service provided by modern technology
  domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations
  international: country code - 1-xxx; 5 coaxial submarine cables;
  satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1
  Pacific Ocean) and 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 245, FM 582, shortwave 6 (2004)

Radios:
  32.3 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  80 (plus many repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:
  21.5 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ca

Internet hosts:
  3,934,223 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  760 (2000 est.)

Internet users:
  21.9 million (2005)

Transportation Canada


Airports:
  1,337 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 509
  over 3,047 m: 18
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 15
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 151
  914 to 1,523 m: 248
  under 914 m: 77 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 828
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 66
  914 to 1,523 m: 355
  under 914 m: 407 (2006)

Heliports:
  12 (2006)

Pipelines:
  crude and refined oil 23,564 km; liquid petroleum gas 74,980 km
  (2005)

Railways:
  total: 48,467 km
  standard gauge: 48,467 km 1.435-m gauge (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 1,042,300 km
  paved: 415,600 km (including 17,000 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 626,700 km (2005)

Waterways:
  631 km
  note: Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint
  Lawrence River of 3,058 km, shared with United States (2003)

Merchant marine:
  total: 173 ships (1000 GRT or over) 2,129,243 GRT/2,716,340 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 62, cargo 10, chemical tanker 9, container 2,
  passenger 6, passenger/cargo 63, petroleum tanker 13, roll on/roll
  off 8
  foreign-owned: 7 (Germany 3, Netherlands 1, Norway 1, US 2)
  registered in other countries: 111 (Australia 1, Bahamas 18,
  Barbados 8, Cambodia 6, Cyprus 2, Denmark 1, Honduras 1, Hong Kong
  28, Liberia 2, Malta 18, Marshall Islands 6, Panama 4, Russia 1,
  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 6, US 4, Vanuatu 5) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Fraser River Port, Halifax, Montreal, Port Cartier, Quebec, Saint
  John's (Newfoundland), Sept Isles, Vancouver

Military Canada


Military branches:
  Canadian Forces: Land Forces Command, Maritime Command, Air
  Command, Canada Command (homeland security) (2006)

Military service age and obligation:
  16 years of age for voluntary military service; women comprise
  approximately 11% of Canada's armed forces (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 16-49: 8,216,510
  females age 16-49: 8,034,939 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 16-49: 6,740,490
  females age 16-49: 6,580,868 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 223,821
  females age 16-49: 212,900 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $9,801.7 million (2003)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.1% (2003)

Transnational Issues Canada


Disputes - international:
  managed maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance,
  Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and around the disputed
  Machias Seal Island and North Rock; working toward greater
  cooperation with US in monitoring people and commodities crossing
  the border; uncontested sovereignty dispute with Denmark over Hans
  Island in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland

Illicit drugs:
  illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market and
  export to US; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant
  large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; transit point
  for ecstasy entering the US market; vulnerable to narcotics money
  laundering because of its mature financial services sector


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Cape Verde

Introduction Cape Verde


Background:
  The uninhabited islands were discovered and colonized by the
  Portuguese in the 15th century; Cape Verde subsequently became a
  trading center for African slaves and later an important coaling and
  resupply stop for whaling and transatlantic shipping. Following
  independence in 1975, and a tentative interest in unification with
  Guinea-Bissau, a one-party system was established and maintained
  until multi-party elections were held in 1990. Cape Verde continues
  to exhibit one of Africa's most stable democratic governments.
  Repeated droughts during the second half of the 20th century caused
  significant hardship and prompted heavy emigration. As a result,
  Cape Verde's expatriate population is greater than its domestic one.
  Most Cape Verdeans have both African and Portuguese antecedents.

Geography Cape Verde


Location:
  Western Africa, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, west
  of Senegal

Geographic coordinates:
  16 00 N, 24 00 W

Map references:
  Political Map of the World

Area:
  total: 4,033 sq km
  land: 4,033 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than Rhode Island

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  965 km

Maritime claims:
  measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  temperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and very erratic

Terrain:
  steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mt. Fogo 2,829 m (a volcano on Fogo Island)

Natural resources:
  salt, basalt rock, limestone, kaolin, fish, clay, gypsum

Land use:
  arable land: 11.41%
  permanent crops: 0.74%
  other: 87.85% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  30 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  prolonged droughts; seasonal harmattan wind produces obscuring
  dust; volcanically and seismically active

Environment - current issues:
  soil erosion; deforestation due to demand for wood used as fuel;
  desertification; environmental damage has threatened several species
  of birds and reptiles; illegal beach sand extraction; overfishing

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa near major
  north-south sea routes; important communications station; important
  sea and air refueling site

People Cape Verde


Population:
  420,979 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 37.9% (male 80,594/female 79,126)
  15-64 years: 55.3% (male 113,450/female 119,423)
  65 years and over: 6.7% (male 10,542/female 17,844) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 19.8 years
  male: 19 years
  female: 20.7 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.64% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  24.87 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  6.55 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -11.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 46.52 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 51.63 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 41.26 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 70.73 years
  male: 67.41 years
  female: 74.15 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.38 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.035% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  775 (2001)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  225 (as of 2001)

Nationality:
  noun: Cape Verdean(s)
  adjective: Cape Verdean

Ethnic groups:
  Creole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic (infused with indigenous beliefs); Protestant
  (mostly Church of the Nazarene)

Languages:
  Portuguese, Crioulo (a blend of Portuguese and West African words)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 76.6%
  male: 85.8%
  female: 69.2% (2003 est.)

Government Cape Verde


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Cape Verde
  conventional short form: Cape Verde
  local long form: Republica de Cabo Verde
  local short form: Cabo Verde

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  name: Praia
  geographic coordinates: 14 55 N, 23 31 W
  time difference: UTC-1 (4 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  17 municipalities (concelhos, singular - concelho); Boa Vista,
  Brava, Maio, Mosteiros, Paul, Praia, Porto Novo, Ribeira Grande,
  Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Sao Domingos, Sao Filipe, Sao
  Miguel, Sao Nicolau, Sao Vicente, Tarrafal

Independence:
  5 July 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 5 July (1975)

Constitution:
  new constitution came into force 25 September 1992; underwent a
  major revision on 23 November 1995, substantially increasing the
  powers of the president; a 1999 revision created the position of
  national ombudsman (Provedor de Justica)

Legal system:
  derived from the legal system of Portugal

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Pedro Verona PIRES (since 22 March 2001)
  head of government: Prime Minister Jose Maria Pereira NEVES (since 1
  February 2001)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
  recommendation of the prime minister
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term
  (eligible for a second term); election last held 12 February 2006
  (next to be held February 2011); prime minister nominated by the
  National Assembly and appointed by the president
  election results: Pedro PIRES reelected president; percent of vote -
  Pedro PIRES (PAICV) 51.2%, Carlos VIEGA (MPD) 48.8%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (72 seats;
  members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
  elections: last held 22 January 2006 (next to be held in January
  2011)
  election results: percent of vote by party - PAICV 52.3%, MPD 44%,
  UCID 2.7%; seats by party - PAICV 41, MPD 29, ADM 2

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Supremo Tribunal de Justia

Political parties and leaders:
  African Party for Independence of Cape Verde or PAICV [Jose Maria
  Pereira NEVES, chairman]; Democratic Alliance for Change or ADM [Dr.
  Eurico MONTEIRO] (a coalition of PCD, PTS, and UCID); Democratic
  Christian Party or PDC [Manuel RODRIGUES, chairman]; Democratic
  Renovation Party or PRD [Victor FIDALGO, president]; Democratic and
  Independent Cape Verdean Union or UCID [Antonio MONTEIRO]; Movement
  for Democracy or MPD [Agostinho LOPES, president]; Party for
  Democratic Convergence or PCD [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO, president];
  Party of Work and Solidarity or PTS [Isaias RODRIGUES, president];
  Social Democratic Party or PSD [Joao ALEM, president]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt
  (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
  IOC, IOM, IPU, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Jose BRITO
  chancery: 3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
  telephone: [1] (202) 965-6820
  FAX: [1] (202) 965-1207
  consulate(s) general: Boston

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Roger D. PIERCE
  embassy: Rua Abilio Macedo n6, Praia
  mailing address: C. P. 201, Praia
  telephone: [238] 2-60-89-00
  FAX: [238] 2-61-13-55

Flag description:
  three horizontal bands of light blue (top, double width), white
  (with a horizontal red stripe in the middle third), and light blue;
  a circle of 10 yellow five-pointed stars is centered on the hoist
  end of the red stripe and extends into the upper and lower blue bands

Economy Cape Verde


Economy - overview:
  This island economy suffers from a poor natural resource base,
  including serious water shortages exacerbated by cycles of long-term
  drought. The economy is service-oriented, with commerce, transport,
  tourism, and public services accounting for 66% of GDP. Although
  nearly 70% of the population lives in rural areas, the share of food
  production in GDP in 2004 was only 12%, of which fishing accounted
  for 1.5%. About 82% of food must be imported. The fishing potential,
  mostly lobster and tuna, is not fully exploited. Cape Verde annually
  runs a high trade deficit, financed by foreign aid and remittances
  from emigrants; remittances supplement GDP by more than 20%.
  Economic reforms are aimed at developing the private sector and
  attracting foreign investment to diversify the economy. Future
  prospects depend heavily on the maintenance of aid flows, the
  encouragement of tourism, remittances, and the momentum of the
  government's development program. Cape Verde has been exploring
  European Union membership in recent years.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $3.129 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $1.128 billion (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5.5% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $6,000 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 12.1%
  industry: 21.9%
  services: 66% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  120,600 (1990)

Unemployment rate:
  21% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  30% (2000)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  4.7% (2006 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  25.5% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $324.6 million
  expenditures: $370.4 million; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  bananas, corn, beans, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, coffee, peanuts;
  fish

Industries:
  food and beverages, fish processing, shoes and garments, salt
  mining, ship repair

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  44 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  40.92 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - consumption:
  1,150 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Current account balance:
  $-44.43 million (2006 est.)

Exports:
  $96.71 million f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  fuel, shoes, garments, fish, hides

Exports - partners:
  Spain 38.2%, Portugal 33.3%, US 9.2%, Morocco 5.4% (2005)

Imports:
  $495.1 million f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  foodstuffs, industrial products, transport equipment, fuels

Imports - partners:
  Portugal 40.9%, Italy 7.8%, Netherlands 7.2%, Spain 5.5%, Brazil
  5.3%, France 4.7%, Belgium 4.6% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $166.4 million (2006 est.)

Debt - external:
  $325 million (2002)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $136 million (1999)

Currency (code):
  Cape Verdean escudo (CVE)

Currency code:
  CVE

Exchange rates:
  Cape Verdean escudos (CVE) per US dollar - 86.2664 (2006), 88.67
  (2005), 88.808 (2004), 97.703 (2003), 117.168 (2002)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Cape Verde


Telephones - main lines in use:
  71,400 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  81,700 (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: effective system, extensive modernization from
  1996-2000 following partial privatization in 1995
  domestic: major service provider is Cabo Verde Telecom (CVT); fiber
  optic ring, completed in 2001, links all islands providing Internet
  access and ISDN services; cellular service introduced in 1998
  international: country code - 238; 2 coaxial submarine cables; HF
  radiotelephone to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station
  - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 0, FM 22 (and 12 low power repeaters), shortwave 0 (2002)

Radios:
  100,000 (2002 est.)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (and 7 repeaters) (2002)

Televisions:
  15,000 (2002 est.)

Internet country code:
  .cv

Internet hosts:
  234 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2002)

Internet users:
  25,000 (2005)

Transportation Cape Verde


Airports:
  7 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 7
  over 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 4
  under 914 m: 1 (2006)

Roadways:
  total: 1,350 km
  paved: 932 km
  unpaved: 418 km (2000)

Merchant marine:
  total: 7 ships (1000 GRT or over) 12,300 GRT/7,726 DWT
  by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 1, passenger/cargo 4
  foreign-owned: 2 (Spain 1, UK 1) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Mindelo, Praia, Tarrafal

Military Cape Verde


Military branches:
  People's Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARP): Army, Coast Guard
  (includes maritime air wing)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 84,641
  females age 18-49: 87,310 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 65,614
  females age 18-49: 73,662 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $7.18 million (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  0.7% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Cape Verde


Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  used as a transshipment point for illicit drugs moving from Latin
  America and Asia destined for Western Europe; the lack of a
  well-developed financial system limits the country's utility as a
  money-laundering center


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Cayman Islands

Introduction Cayman Islands


Background:
  The Cayman Islands were colonized from Jamaica by the British
  during the 18th and 19th centuries, and were administered by Jamaica
  after 1863. In 1959, the islands became a territory within the
  Federation of the West Indies, but when the Federation dissolved in
  1962, the Cayman Islands chose to remain a British dependency.

Geography Cayman Islands


Location:
  Caribbean, three island (Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac, Little Cayman)
  group in Caribbean Sea, 240 km south of Cuba and 268 km northwest of
  Jamaica

Geographic coordinates:
  19 30 N, 80 30 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 262 sq km
  land: 262 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  160 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and cool,
  relatively dry winters (November to April)

Terrain:
  low-lying limestone base surrounded by coral reefs

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: The Bluff (Cayman Brac) 43 m

Natural resources:
  fish, climate and beaches that foster tourism

Land use:
  arable land: 3.85%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 96.15% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  NA

Natural hazards:
  hurricanes (July to November)

Environment - current issues:
  no natural fresh water resources; drinking water supplies must be
  met by rainwater catchments

Geography - note:
  important location between Cuba and Central America

People Cayman Islands


Population:
  45,436
  note: most of the population lives on Grand Cayman (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 20.7% (male 4,708/female 4,700)
  15-64 years: 70.9% (male 15,707/female 16,504)
  65 years and over: 8.4% (male 1,793/female 2,024) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 37.2 years
  male: 36.8 years
  female: 37.5 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.56% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  12.74 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  4.89 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  17.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population
  note: major destination for Cubans trying to migrate to the US (2006
  est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 8 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 9.16 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 6.81 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 80.07 years
  male: 77.45 years
  female: 82.74 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.9 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Caymanian(s)
  adjective: Caymanian

Ethnic groups:
  mixed 40%, white 20%, black 20%, expatriates of various ethnic
  groups 20%

Religions:
  United Church (Presbyterian and Congregational), Anglican, Baptist,
  Church of God, other Protestant, Roman Catholic

Languages:
  English

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
  total population: 98%
  male: 98%
  female: 98% (1970 est.)

Government Cayman Islands


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Cayman Islands

Dependency status:
  overseas territory of the UK

Government type:
  British crown colony

Capital:
  name: George Town (on Grand Cayman)
  geographic coordinates: 19 20 N, 81 23 W
  time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard
  Time)

Administrative divisions:
  8 districts; Creek, Eastern, Midland, South Town, Spot Bay, Stake
  Bay, West End, Western

Independence:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday:
  Constitution Day, first Monday in July

Constitution:
  1959; revised 1962, 1972, and 1994

Legal system:
  British common law and local statutes

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);
  Governor Stuart JACK (since 23 November 2005)
  head of government: Leader of Government Business Kurt TIBBETTS
  (since 18 May 2005)
  cabinet: Executive Council (three members appointed by the governor,
  four members elected by the Legislative Assembly)
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the governor is
  appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the
  leader of the majority party or coalition is appointed by the
  governor Leader of Government Business

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Legislative Assembly (18 seats, 3 appointed members from
  the Executive Council and 15 elected by popular vote; members serve
  four-year terms)
  elections: last held 11 May 2005 (next to be held in 2009)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
  PPM 9, UDP 5, independent 1

Judicial branch:
  Summary Court; Grand Court; Cayman Islands Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders:
  no national teams (loose groupings of political organizations) were
  formed for the 2000 elections; United Democratic Party or UDP
  [leader McKeeva BUSH]; People's Progressive Movement or PPM [leader
  Kurt TIBBETTS]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), IOC, UNESCO
  (associate), UPU

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description:
  blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
  the Caymanian coat of arms centered on the outer half of the flag;
  the coat of arms includes a pineapple and turtle above a shield with
  three stars (representing the three islands) and a scroll at the
  bottom bearing the motto HE HATH FOUNDED IT UPON THE SEAS

Economy Cayman Islands


Economy - overview:
  With no direct taxation, the islands are a thriving offshore
  financial center. More than 68,000 companies were registered in the
  Cayman Islands as of 2003, including almost 500 banks, 800 insurers,
  and 5000 mutual funds. A stock exchange was opened in 1997. Tourism
  is also a mainstay, accounting for about 70% of GDP and 75% of
  foreign currency earnings. The tourist industry is aimed at the
  luxury market and caters mainly to visitors from North America.
  Total tourist arrivals exceeded 2.1 million in 2003, with about half
  from the US. About 90% of the islands' food and consumer goods must
  be imported. The Caymanians enjoy one of the highest outputs per
  capita and one of the highest standards of living in the world.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $1.939 billion (2004 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  NA

GDP - real growth rate:
  0.9% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $43,800 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 1.4%
  industry: 3.2%
  services: 95.4% (1994 est.)

Labor force:
  23,450 (2004)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 1.4%
  industry: 12.6%
  services: 86% (1995)

Unemployment rate:
  4.4% (2004)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  4.4% (2004)

Budget:
  revenues: $423.8 million
  expenditures: $392.6 million; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2004)

Agriculture - products:
  vegetables, fruit; livestock; turtle farming

Industries:
  tourism, banking, insurance and finance, construction, construction
  materials, furniture

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  400 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  372 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - consumption:
  2,600 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day (2001)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $2.52 million (2004)

Exports - commodities:
  turtle products, manufactured consumer goods

Exports - partners:
  mostly US (2004)

Imports:
  $866.9 million (2004)

Imports - commodities:
  foodstuffs, manufactured goods

Imports - partners:
  US, Netherlands Antilles, Japan (2004)

Debt - external:
  $70 million (1996)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $390,000 (2004)

Currency (code):
  Caymanian dollar (KYD)

Currency code:
  KYD

Exchange rates:
  Caymanian dollars per US dollar - 0.82 (29 October 2001), 0.83 (3
  November 1995), 0.85 (22 November 1993)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Cayman Islands


Telephones - main lines in use:
  38,000 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  17,000 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: reasonably good system
  domestic: liberalization of telecom market in 2003 reflected in
  falling prices and improving services
  international: country code - 1-345; 2 submarine fiber optic cables
  (Maya-1, Cayman-Jamaica); satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat
  (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 4, shortwave 0 (2004)

Radios:
  36,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  4 with cable system (2004)

Televisions:
  7,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ky

Internet hosts:
  8,611 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  16 (2000)

Internet users:
  9,909 (2003)

Transportation Cayman Islands


Airports:
  3 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2006)

Roadways:
  total: 785 km
  paved: 785 km (2002)

Merchant marine:
  total: 132 ships (1000 GRT or over) 2,746,290 GRT/4,366,790 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 32, cargo 14, chemical tanker 42, liquefied
  gas 1, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 14, refrigerated cargo 23, roll
  on/roll off 3, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 1
  foreign-owned: 130 (Denmark 5, Germany 13, Greece 21, Italy 12,
  Japan 1, Malaysia 1, Netherlands 4, Norway 2, Philippines 1,
  Singapore 10, Sweden 9, UK 10, US 41) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Cayman Brac, George Town

Military Cayman Islands


Military branches:
  no regular military forces; Royal Cayman Islands Police Force

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 10,703 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 8,600 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 257 (2005 est.)

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues Cayman Islands


Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  offshore financial center; vulnerable to drug transshipment to the
  US and Europe


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Central African Republic

Introduction Central African Republic


Background:
  The former French colony of Ubangi-Shari became the Central African
  Republic upon independence in 1960. After three tumultuous decades
  of misrule - mostly by military governments - civilian rule was
  established in 1993 and lasted for one decade. President Ange-Felix
  PATASSE's civilian government was plagued by unrest, and in March
  2003 he was deposed in a military coup led by General Francois
  BOZIZE, who established a transitional government. Though the
  government has the tacit support of civil society groups and the
  main parties, a wide field of candidates contested the municipal,
  legislative, and presidential elections held in March and May of
  2005 in which General BOZIZE was affirmed as president. The
  government still does not fully control the countryside, where
  pockets of lawlessness persist.

Geography Central African Republic


Location:
  Central Africa, north of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates:
  7 00 N, 21 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 622,984 sq km
  land: 622,984 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,203 km
  border countries: Cameroon 797 km, Chad 1,197 km, Democratic
  Republic of the Congo 1,577 km, Republic of the Congo 467 km, Sudan
  1,165 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers

Terrain:
  vast, flat to rolling, monotonous plateau; scattered hills in
  northeast and southwest

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Oubangui River 335 m
  highest point: Mont Ngaoui 1,420 m

Natural resources:
  diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, oil, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 3.1%
  permanent crops: 0.15%
  other: 96.75% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  20 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds affect northern areas; floods are
  common

Environment - current issues:
  tap water is not potable; poaching has diminished the country's
  reputation as one of the last great wildlife refuges;
  desertification; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber
  94, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:
  landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa

People Central African Republic


Population:
  4,303,356
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 41.9% (male 907,629/female 897,153)
  15-64 years: 53.9% (male 1,146,346/female 1,173,268)
  65 years and over: 4.2% (male 71,312/female 107,648) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 18.4 years
  male: 18 years
  female: 18.8 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.53% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  33.91 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  18.65 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 85.63 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 92.44 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 78.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 43.54 years
  male: 43.46 years
  female: 43.62 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  4.41 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  13.5% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  260,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  23,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: very high
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and
  typhoid fever
  vectorborne disease: malaria
  respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2007)

Nationality:
  noun: Central African(s)
  adjective: Central African

Ethnic groups:
  Baya 33%, Banda 27%, Mandjia 13%, Sara 10%, Mboum 7%, M'Baka 4%,
  Yakoma 4%, other 2%

Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 35%, Protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, Muslim
  15%
  note: animistic beliefs and practices strongly influence the
  Christian majority

Languages:
  French (official), Sangho (lingua franca and national language),
  tribal languages

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 51%
  male: 63.3%
  female: 39.9% (2003 est.)

Government Central African Republic


Country name:
  conventional long form: Central African Republic
  conventional short form: none
  local long form: Republique Centrafricaine
  local short form: none
  former: Ubangi-Shari, Central African Empire
  abbreviation: CAR

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  name: Bangui
  geographic coordinates: 4 22 N, 18 35 E
  time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture), 2 economic
  prefectures* (prefectures economiques, singular - prefecture
  economique), and 1 commune**; Bamingui-Bangoran, Bangui**,
  Basse-Kotto, Haute-Kotto, Haut-Mbomou, Kemo, Lobaye, Mambere-Kadei,
  Mbomou, Nana-Grebizi*, Nana-Mambere, Ombella-Mpoko, Ouaka, Ouham,
  Ouham-Pende, Sangha-Mbaere*, Vakaga

Independence:
  13 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday:
  Republic Day, 1 December (1958)

Constitution:
  ratified by popular referendum 5 December 2004; effective 27
  December 2004

Legal system:
  based on French law

Suffrage:
  21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Francois BOZIZE (since 15 March 2003 coup)
  head of government: Prime Minister Elie DOTE (since 13 June 2005);
  note - Celestin GAOMBALET resigned 11 June 2005
  cabinet: Council of Ministers
  elections: under the new constitution, the president elected to a
  five-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held 13
  March and 8 May 2005 (next to be held in 2010); prime minister
  appointed by the political party with a parliamentary majority
  election results: Francois BOZIZE elected president; percent of
  second round balloting - Francois BOZIZE (KNK) 64.6%, Martin ZIGUELE
  (MLPC) 35.4%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (109 seats;
  members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
  elections: last held 13 March 2005 and 8 May 2005 (next to be held
  NA 2010)
  election results: percent of vote by party - MLPC 43%, RDC 18%, MDD
  9%, FPP 6%, PSD 5%, ADP 4%, PUN 3%, FODEM 2%, PLD 2%, UPR 1%, FC 1%,
  independents 6%; seats by party - MLPC 47, RDC 20, MDD 8, FPP 7, PSD
  6, ADP 5, PUN 3, FODEM 2, PLD 2, UPR 1, FC 1, independents 7

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Constitutional Court (3 judges
  appointed by the president, 3 by the president of the National
  Assembly, and 3 by fellow judges); Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts;
  Inferior Courts

Political parties and leaders:
  Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP [Jacques MBOLIEDAS];
  Central African Democratic Assembly or RDC [Andre KOLINGBA]; Civic
  Forum or FC [Gen. Timothee MALENDOMA]; Democratic Forum for
  Modernity or FODEM [Charles MASSI]; Liberal Democratic Party or PLD
  [Nestor KOMBO-NAGUEMON]; Movement for Democracy and Development or
  MDD [David DACKO]; Movement for the Liberation of the Central
  African People or MLPC [Ange-Felix PATASSE] (the party of deposed
  president); National Convergence or KNK; Patriotic Front for
  Progress or FPP [Abel GOUMBA]; People's Union for the Republic or
  UPR [Pierre Sammy MAKFOY]; National Unity Party or PUN [Jean-Paul
  NGOUPANDE]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Enoch LAKOUE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
  ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ITU,
  ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIC (observer), OIF, OPCW, OPCW (signatory), UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Emmanuel TOUABOY
  chancery: 1618 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 483-7800
  FAX: [1] (202) 332-9893

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires James PANOS
  embassy: Avenue David Dacko, Bangui
  mailing address: B. P. 924, Bangui
  telephone: [236] 61 02 00
  FAX: [236] 61 44 94
  note: the embassy is currently operating with a minimal staff

Flag description:
  four equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, green, and yellow
  with a vertical red band in center; there is a yellow five-pointed
  star on the hoist side of the blue band

Economy Central African Republic


Economy - overview:
  Subsistence agriculture, together with forestry, remains the
  backbone of the economy of the Central African Republic (CAR), with
  more than 70% of the population living in outlying areas. The
  agricultural sector generates more than half of GDP. Timber has
  accounted for about 16% of export earnings and the diamond industry,
  for 40%. Important constraints to economic development include the
  CAR's landlocked position, a poor transportation system, a largely
  unskilled work force, and a legacy of misdirected macroeconomic
  policies. Factional fighting between the government and its
  opponents remains a drag on economic revitalization. Distribution of
  income is extraordinarily unequal. Grants from France and the
  international community can only partially meet humanitarian needs.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $4.913 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $1.542 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $1,100 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 55%
  industry: 20%
  services: 25% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
  NA

Unemployment rate:
  8% (23% for Bangui) (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 0.7%
  highest 10%: 47.7% (1993)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  61.3 (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.6% (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $NA
  expenditures: $NA

Agriculture - products:
  cotton, coffee, tobacco, manioc (tapioca), yams, millet, corn,
  bananas; timber

Industries:
  gold and diamond mining, logging, brewing, textiles, footwear,
  assembly of bicycles and motorcycles

Industrial production growth rate:
  3% (2002)

Electricity - production:
  109 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 19.8%
  hydro: 80.2%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  101.4 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - consumption:
  2,420 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $131 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  diamonds, timber, cotton, coffee, tobacco

Exports - partners:
  Belgium 34.9%, France 9.6%, Spain 8.7%, Italy 8.1%, China 7.1%,
  Indonesia 6.3%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 4.7%, US 4.5%,
  Turkey 4.5% (2005)

Imports:
  $203 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  food, textiles, petroleum products, machinery, electrical
  equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals

Imports - partners:
  France 16.6%, Netherlands 10.3%, Cameroon 9.7%, US 7.3% (2005)

Debt - external:
  $1.06 billion (2002 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  ODA, $59.8 million; note - traditional budget subsidies from France
  (2002 est.)

Currency (code):
  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible
  authority is the Bank of the Central African States

Currency code:
  XAF

Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 527.47
  (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003), 696.99 (2002)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Central African Republic


Telephones - main lines in use:
  10,000 (2004)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  60,000 (2004)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: fair system
  domestic: network consists principally of microwave radio relay and
  low-capacity, low-powered radiotelephone communication
  international: country code - 236; satellite earth station - 1
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 1 (2002)

Radios:
  283,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2001)

Televisions:
  18,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .cf

Internet hosts:
  10 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2002)

Internet users:
  9,000 (2005)

Transportation Central African Republic


Airports:
  50 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 3
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 47
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
  914 to 1,523 m: 23
  under 914 m: 13 (2006)

Roadways:
  total: 23,810 km (1999)

Waterways:
  2,800 km (primarily on the Oubangui and Sangha rivers) (2005)

Ports and terminals:
  Bangui, Nola, Salo, Nzinga

Military Central African Republic


Military branches:
  Central African Armed Forces (FACA): Ground Forces, Military Air
  Service; General Directorate of Gendarmerie Inspection (DGIG),
  Republican Guard, National Police (2006)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for voluntary and compulsory military service;
  conscript service obligation is two years (2005)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 853,760
  females age 18-49: 835,426 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 416,091
  females age 18-49: 383,056 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $16.37 million (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Central African Republic


Disputes - international:
  about 30,000 refugees fleeing the 2002 civil conflict in the CAR
  still reside in southern Chad; periodic skirmishes over water and
  grazing rights among related pastoral populations along the border
  with southern Sudan persist

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  refugees (country of origin): 19,960 (Sudan) 3,325 (Democratic
  Republic of the Congo); note - UNHCR resumed repatriation of
  Southern Sudanese refugees in 2006
  IDPs: 150,000 (ongoing unrest following coup in 2003) (2006)

Trafficking in persons:
  current situation: Central African Republic is a source and
  destination country for children trafficked for domestic servitude,
  sexual exploitation, and forced labor in shops and commercial labor
  activities; while the majority of child victims are trafficked
  within the country, some are also trafficked to and from Cameroon
  and Nigeria
  tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - the Central African Republic failed
  to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat trafficking in
  persons during 2005, specifically its inadequate law enforcement
  response to trafficking crimes


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Chad

Introduction Chad


Background:
  Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three
  decades of civil warfare as well as invasions by Libya before a
  semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government
  eventually drafted a democratic constitution, and held flawed
  presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke
  out in northern Chad, which sporadically flares up despite several
  peace agreements between the government and the rebels. In 2005 new
  rebel groups emerged in western Sudan and have made probing attacks
  into eastern Chad. Power remains in the hands of an ethnic minority.
  In June 2005, President Idriss DEBY held a referendum successfully
  removing constitutional term limits.

Geography Chad


Location:
  Central Africa, south of Libya

Geographic coordinates:
  15 00 N, 19 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 1.284 million sq km
  land: 1,259,200 sq km
  water: 24,800 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly more than three times the size of California

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,968 km
  border countries: Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197
  km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  tropical in south, desert in north

Terrain:
  broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in
  northwest, lowlands in south

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Djourab Depression 160 m
  highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad), gold,
  limestone, sand and gravel, salt

Land use:
  arable land: 2.8%
  permanent crops: 0.02%
  other: 97.18% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  300 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts;
  locust plagues

Environment - current issues:
  inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in
  rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography - note:
  landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the
  Sahel

People Chad


Population:
  9,944,201 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 47.9% (male 2,396,393/female 2,369,261)
  15-64 years: 49.3% (male 2,355,940/female 2,550,535)
  65 years and over: 2.7% (male 107,665/female 164,407) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 16 years
  male: 15.3 years
  female: 16.6 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.93% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  45.73 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  16.38 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 91.45 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 100.12 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 82.43 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 47.52 years
  male: 45.88 years
  female: 49.21 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  6.25 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  4.8% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  200,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  18,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: very high
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea,
  hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
  vectorborne disease: malaria
  water contact disease: schistosomiasis
  respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2007)

Nationality:
  noun: Chadian(s)
  adjective: Chadian

Ethnic groups:
  200 distinct groups; in the north and center: Arabs, Gorane
  (Toubou, Daza, Kreda), Zaghawa, Kanembou, Ouaddai, Baguirmi,
  Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Hausa, Boulala, and Maba, most of whom are
  Muslim; in the south: Sara (Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye), Moundang,
  Moussei, Massa, most of whom are Christian or animist; about 1,000
  French citizens live in Chad

Religions:
  Muslim 51%, Christian 35%, animist 7%, other 7%

Languages:
  French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than
  120 different languages and dialects

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic
  total population: 47.5%
  male: 56%
  female: 39.3% (2003 est.)

Government Chad


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Chad
  conventional short form: Chad
  local long form: Republique du Tchad/Jumhuriyat Tshad
  local short form: Tchad/Tshad

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  name: N'Djamena
  geographic coordinates: 12 07 N, 15 03 E
  time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture); Batha,
  Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Kanem, Lac,
  Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari,
  Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile
  note: instead of 14 prefectures, there may be a new administrative
  structure of 28 departments (departments, singular - department) and
  1 city*; Assongha, Baguirmi, Bahr El Gazal, Bahr Koh, Batha
  Oriental, Batha Occidental, Biltine, Borkou, Dababa, Ennedi, Guera,
  Hadjer Lamis, Kabia, Kanem, Lac, Lac Iro, Logone Occidental, Logone
  Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Boneye, Mayo-Dallah, Monts de Lam,
  N'Djamena*, Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, Tandjile Oriental, Tandjile
  Occidental, Tibesti

Independence:
  11 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 11 August (1960)

Constitution:
  passed by referendum 31 March 1996; a June 2005 referendum removed
  constitutional term limits

Legal system:
  based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law; has not
  accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno (since 4
  December 1990)
  head of government: Prime Minister Pascal YOADIMNADJI (since 3
  February 2005)
  cabinet: Council of State, members appointed by the president on the
  recommendation of the prime minister
  elections: president elected by popular vote to serve five-year
  term; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the
  two candidates receiving the most votes must stand for a second
  round of voting; last held 3 May 2006 (next to be held by May 2011);
  prime minister appointed by the president
  election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president;
  percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 64.7%, Delwa Kassire
  COUMAKOYE 15.1%, Albert Pahimi PADACKE 7.8%, Mahamat ABDOULAYE 7.1%,
  Brahim KOULAMALLAH 5.3%; note - a June 2005 national referendum
  altered the constitution removing presidential term limits and
  permitting Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno to run for reelection

Legislative branch:
  bicameral according to constitution, consists of a National
  Assembly (155 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve
  four-year terms) and a Senate (not yet created and size unspecified,
  members to serve six-year terms, one-third of membership renewable
  every two years)
  elections: National Assembly - last held 21 April 2002 (next to be
  held by April 2007)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
  MPS 110, RDP 12, FAR 9, RNDP 5, URD 5, UNDR 3, other 11

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts; Magistrate Courts

Political parties and leaders:
  Federation Action for the Republic or FAR [Ngarledjy YORONGAR];
  National Rally for Development and Progress or RNDP [Delwa Kassire
  COUMAKOYE]; National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh
  KEBZABO]; Party for Liberty and Development or PLD [Ibni Oumar
  Mahamat SALEH]; Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Mahamat Saleh
  AHMAT, chairman]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lol
  Mahamat CHOUA]; Union for Democracy and Republic or UDR [Jean
  ALINGUE]; Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Gen. Wadal
  Abdelkader KAMOUGUE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
  ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC,
  ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, ONUB, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Mahamat Adam BECHIR
  chancery: 2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
  telephone: [1] (202) 462-4009
  FAX: [1] (202) 265-1937

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Marc M. WALL
  embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
  mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena
  telephone: [235] 516-211
  FAX: [235] 515-654

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red;
  similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flags of Andorra
  and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of arms centered in
  the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France

Economy Chad


Economy - overview:
  Chad's primarily agricultural economy will continue to be boosted
  by major foreign direct investment projects in the oil sector that
  began in 2000. Over 80% of Chad's population relies on subsistence
  farming and livestock raising for its livelihood. Chad's economy has
  long been handicapped by its landlocked position, high energy costs,
  and a history of instability. Chad relies on foreign assistance and
  foreign capital for most public and private sector investment
  projects. A consortium led by two US companies has been investing
  $3.7 billion to develop oil reserves - estimated at 1 billion
  barrels - in southern Chad. The nation's total oil reserves has been
  estimated to be 2 billion barrels. Oil production came on stream in
  late 2003. Chad began to export oil in 2004. Cotton, cattle, and gum
  arabic provide the bulk of Chad's non-oil export earnings.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $15.26 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $5.255 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  7% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $1,500 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 32.5%
  industry: 26.6%
  services: 40.8% (2006 est.)

Labor force:
  2.719 million (1993)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 80% (subsistence farming, herding, and fishing)
  industry and services: 20%

Unemployment rate:
  NA%

Population below poverty line:
  80% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  4% (2006 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  9.2% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $617.3 million
  expenditures: $877.6 million; including capital expenditures of $146
  million (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca);
  cattle, sheep, goats, camels

Industries:
  oil, cotton textiles, meatpacking, beer brewing, natron (sodium
  carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials

Industrial production growth rate:
  5% (1995)

Electricity - production:
  94 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  87.42 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  225,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  1,460 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - proved reserves:
  2 billion bbl (2005)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Current account balance:
  $-324.1 million (2006 est.)

Exports:
  $4.342 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  cotton, cattle, gum arabic, oil

Exports - partners:
  US 78.1%, China 9.9%, Taiwan 4.1% (2005)

Imports:
  $823.1 million f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods,
  foodstuffs, textiles

Imports - partners:
  France 21.2%, Cameroon 15.5%, US 12.1%, Belgium 6.8%, Portugal
  4.6%, Saudi Arabia 4.3%, Netherlands 4.1% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $352.8 million (2006 est.)

Debt - external:
  $1.5 billion (2003 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $238.3 million received; note - $125 million committed by Taiwan
  (August 1997); $30 million committed by African Development Bank;
  ODA $246.9 million (2003 est.)

Currency (code):
  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible
  authority is the Bank of the Central African States

Currency code:
  XAF

Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar -
  508.494 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003), 696.99
  (2002)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Chad


Telephones - main lines in use:
  13,000 (2004)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  210,000 (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: primitive system
  domestic: fair system of radiotelephone communication stations
  international: country code - 235; satellite earth station - 1
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 4, shortwave 5 (2002)

Radios:
  1.67 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2002)

Televisions:
  10,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .td

Internet hosts:
  9 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2002)

Internet users:
  35,000 (2005)

Transportation Chad


Airports:
  52 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 7
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 45
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
  914 to 1,523 m: 21
  under 914 m: 10 (2006)

Pipelines:
  oil 205 km (2006)

Roadways:
  total: 33,400 km
  paved: 267 km
  unpaved: 33,133 km (1999)

Waterways:
  Chari and Legone rivers are navigable only in wet season (2002)

Military Chad


Military branches:
  Chadian National Army (Armee Nationale Tchadienne, ANT), Air Force,
  Gendarmerie (2004)

Military service age and obligation:
  20 years of age for conscripts, with three-year service obligation;
  18 years of age for volunteers; no minimum age restriction for
  volunteers with consent from a guardian; women are subject to one
  year of compulsory military or civic service at age of 21 (2004)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 20-49: 1,527,580
  females age 20-49: 1,629,510 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 20-49: 794,988
  females age 20-49: 849,500 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 94,536
  females age 20-49: 93,521 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $68.95 million (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Chad


Disputes - international:
  since the expulsions of residents from Darfur in 2003 by Janjawid
  armed militia and Sudanese military, about 200,000 refugees remain
  in eastern Chad; Chad remains an important mediator in the Sudanese
  civil conflict, reducing tensions with Sudan arising from
  cross-border banditry; Chadian Aozou rebels reside in southern
  Libya; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad
  Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which
  also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  refugees (country of origin): 234,000 (Sudan), 41,246 (Central
  African Republic)
  IDPs: 100,000 (2006)


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Chile

Introduction Chile


Background:
  Prior to the coming of the Spanish in the 16th century, northern
  Chile was under Inca rule while Araucanian Indians inhabited central
  and southern Chile; the latter were not completely subjugated by
  Spain until the early 1880s. Although Chile declared its
  independence in 1810, decisive victory over the Spanish was not
  achieved until 1818. In the War of the Pacific (1879-84), Chile
  defeated Peru and Bolivia and won its present northern lands. A
  three-year-old Marxist government of Salvador ALLENDE was overthrown
  in 1973 by a dictatorial military regime led by Augusto PINOCHET,
  who ruled until a freely elected president was installed in 1990.
  Sound economic policies, maintained consistently since the 1980s,
  have contributed to steady growth and have helped secure the
  country's commitment to democratic and representative government.
  Chile has increasingly assumed regional and international leadership
  roles befitting its status as a stable, democratic nation.

Geography Chile


Location:
  Southern South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between
  Argentina and Peru

Geographic coordinates:
  30 00 S, 71 00 W

Map references:
  South America

Area:
  total: 756,950 sq km
  land: 748,800 sq km
  water: 8,150 sq km
  note: includes Easter Island (Isla de Pascua) and Isla Sala y Gomez

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana

Land boundaries:
  total: 6,339 km
  border countries: Argentina 5,308 km, Bolivia 860 km, Peru 171 km

Coastline:
  6,435 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  continental shelf: 200/350 nm

Climate:
  temperate; desert in north; Mediterranean in central region; cool
  and damp in south

Terrain:
  low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes in east

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Nevado Ojos del Salado 6,880 m

Natural resources:
  copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum,
  hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 2.62%
  permanent crops: 0.43%
  other: 96.95% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  19,000 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis

Environment - current issues:
  widespread deforestation and mining threaten natural resources; air
  pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution
  from raw sewage

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living
  Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate
  Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  strategic location relative to sea lanes between Atlantic and
  Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage);
  Atacama Desert is one of world's driest regions

People Chile


Population:
  16,134,219 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 24.7% (male 2,035,278/female 1,944,754)
  15-64 years: 67.1% (male 5,403,525/female 5,420,497)
  65 years and over: 8.2% (male 555,075/female 775,090) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 30.4 years
  male: 29.5 years
  female: 31.4 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.94% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  15.23 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  5.81 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 8.58 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 9.32 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 7.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 76.77 years
  male: 73.49 years
  female: 80.21 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.3% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  26,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  1,400 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Chilean(s)
  adjective: Chilean

Ethnic groups:
  white and white-Amerindian 95%, Amerindian 3%, other 2%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 11%, Jewish NEGL%

Languages:
  Spanish

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 96.2%
  male: 96.4%
  female: 96.1% (2003 est.)

Government Chile


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Chile
  conventional short form: Chile
  local long form: Republica de Chile
  local short form: Chile

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  name: Santiago
  geographic coordinates: 33 27 S, 70 40 W
  time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in October; ends
  second Sunday in March

Administrative divisions:
  13 regions (regiones, singular - region); Aisen del General Carlos
  Ibanez del Campo, Antofagasta, Araucania, Atacama, Bio-Bio,
  Coquimbo, Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los Lagos,
  Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena, Maule, Region Metropolitana
  (Santiago), Tarapaca, Valparaiso
  note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica

Independence:
  18 September 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 18 September (1810)

Constitution:
  11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981; amended 1989, 1991,
  1997, 1999, 2000, 2003, and 2005

Legal system:
  based on Code of 1857 derived from Spanish law and subsequent codes
  influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial review of
  legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory
  ICJ jurisdiction; note - in June 2005, Chile completed overhaul of
  its criminal justice system to a new, US-style adversarial system

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Michelle BACHELET Jeria (since 11 March
  2006); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government
  head of government: President Michelle BACHELET Jeria (since 11
  March 2006)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a single four-year
  term; election last held 11 December 2005, with runoff election held
  15 January 2006 (next to be held December 2009)
  election results: Michelle BACHELET Jeria elected president; percent
  of vote - Michelle BACHELET Jeria 53.5%; Sebastian PINERA Echenique
  46.5%

Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the
  Senate or Senado (38 seats elected by popular vote; members serve
  eight-year terms - one-half elected every four years) and the
  Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (120 seats; members are
  elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: Senate - last held 11 December 2005 (next to be held
  December 2009); Chamber of Deputies - last held 11 December 2005
  (next to be held December 2009)
  election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
  party - CPD 20 (PDC 6, PS 8, PPD 3, PRSD 3), APC 17 (UDI 9, RN 8),
  independent 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA;
  seats by party - CPD 65 (PDC 21, PPD 22, PS 15, PRSD 7), APC 54 (UDI
  34, RN 20), independent 1

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges are appointed by the
  president and ratified by the Senate from lists of candidates
  provided by the court itself; the president of the Supreme Court is
  elected every three years by the 20-member court); Constitutional
  Tribunal

Political parties and leaders:
  Alliance for Chile ("Alianza") or APC (including National Renewal
  or RN [Carlos LARRAIN Pena] and Independent Democratic Union or UDI
  [Hernan LARRAIN Fernandez]); Coalition of Parties for Democracy
  ("Concertacion") or CPD (including Christian Democratic Party or PDC
  [Soledad ALVEAR], Socialist Party or PS [Camilo ESCALONA], Party for
  Democracy or PPD [Sergio BITAR Chacra], Radical Social Democratic
  Party or PRSD [Jose Antonio GOMEZ Urrutia]); Communist Party or PC
  [Guillermo TEILLIER]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  revitalized university student federations at all major
  universities; Roman Catholic Church; United Labor Central or CUT
  includes trade unionists from the country's five largest labor
  confederations

International organization participation:
  APEC, BIS, CAN (associate), CSN, FAO, G-15, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
  IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA,
  Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA,
  RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU,
  WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Mariano FERNANDEZ
  chancery: 1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
  telephone: [1] (202) 530-4104, 530-4106, 530-4107
  FAX: [1] (202) 887-5579
  consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New
  York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Craig A. KELLY
  embassy: Avenida Andres Bello 2800, Las Condes, Santiago
  mailing address: APO AA 34033
  telephone: [56] (2) 232-2600
  FAX: [56] (2) 330-3710

Flag description:
  two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is a blue
  square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of
  the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the
  center representing a guide to progress and honor; blue symbolizes
  the sky, white is for the snow-covered Andes, and red stands for the
  blood spilled to achieve independence; design was influenced by the
  US flag

Economy Chile


Economy - overview:
  Chile has a market-oriented economy characterized by a high level
  of foreign trade. During the early 1990s, Chile's reputation as a
  role model for economic reform was strengthened when the democratic
  government of Patricio AYLWIN - which took over from the military in
  1990 - deepened the economic reform initiated by the military
  government. Growth in real GDP averaged 8% during 1991-97, but fell
  to half that level in 1998 because of tight monetary policies
  implemented to keep the current account deficit in check and because
  of lower export earnings - the latter a product of the global
  financial crisis. A severe drought exacerbated the recession in
  1999, reducing crop yields and causing hydroelectric shortfalls and
  electricity rationing, and Chile experienced negative economic
  growth for the first time in more than 15 years. Despite the effects
  of the recession, Chile maintained its reputation for strong
  financial institutions and sound policy that have given it the
  strongest sovereign bond rating in South America. By the end of
  1999, exports and economic activity had begun to recover, and growth
  rebounded to 4.2% in 2000. Growth fell back to 3.1% in 2001 and 2.1%
  in 2002, largely due to lackluster global growth and the devaluation
  of the Argentine peso. Chile's economy began a slow recovery in
  2003, growing 3.2%, and accelerated to about 5% per year in 2004-06,
  while Chile maintained a low rate of inflation. GDP growth benefited
  from high copper prices, solid export earnings (particularly
  forestry, fishing, and mining), and stepped-up foreign direct
  investment. Unemployment has exhibited a downward trend over the
  past year, but remains fairly high. Chile deepened its longstanding
  commitment to trade liberalization with the signing of a free trade
  agreement with the US, which took effect on 1 January 2004. Chile
  signed a free trade agreement with China in November 2005, and it
  already has several trade deals signed with other nations and blocs,
  including the European Union, Mercosur, South Korea, and Mexico.
  Record-high copper prices helped to strengthen the peso to a 6 1/2-year
  high, as of December 2006, and added investment in the mining sector
  will boost GDP in 2007.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $203 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $100.3 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  4.8% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $12,600 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 5.9%
  industry: 49.3%
  services: 44.7% (2006 est.)

Labor force:
  6.94 million (2006 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 13.6%
  industry: 23.4%
  services: 63% (2003)

Unemployment rate:
  8.3% (2006 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  18.2% (2005)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 1.2%
  highest 10%: 47% (2000)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  57.1 (2000)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.1% (2006 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  21% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $36.71 billion
  expenditures: $26.68 billion; including capital expenditures of
  $3.33 billion (2006 est.)

Public debt:
  3.9% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  grapes, apples, pears, onions, wheat, corn, oats, peaches, garlic,
  asparagus, beans; beef, poultry, wool; fish; timber

Industries:
  copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and
  steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles

Industrial production growth rate:
  5% (2006 est.)

Electricity - production:
  50.91 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 47%
  hydro: 51.5%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 1.4% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  49.09 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  1.744 billion kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  15,100 bbl/day (2006 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  238,000 bbl/day (2006 est.)

Oil - exports:
  0 bbl/day (2006)

Oil - imports:
  222,900 bbl/day (2006 est.)

Oil - proved reserves:
  150 million bbl (1 January 2006)

Natural gas - production:
  1.09 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  8.29 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  7.2 million cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  7.2 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  97.98 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Current account balance:
  $5.063 billion (2006 est.)

Exports:
  $58.21 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  copper, fruit, fish products, paper and pulp, chemicals, wine

Exports - partners:
  US 15.8%, Japan 11.5%, China 11.1%, Netherlands 5.8%, South Korea
  5.5%, Brazil 4.4%, Italy 4.2%, Mexico 4% (2005)

Imports:
  $35.37 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, electrical and
  telecommunications equipment, industrial machinery, vehicles,
  natural gas

Imports - partners:
  Argentina 14.8%, US 14.6%, Brazil 11.7%, China 7.8%, South Korea
  4.8%, Yemen 4.4% (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $17.16 billion (November 2006 est.)

Debt - external:
  $47.6 billion (30 June 2006 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $0 (2002)

Currency (code):
  Chilean peso (CLP)

Currency code:
  CLP

Exchange rates:
  Chilean pesos per US dollar - 532.115 (2006), 560.09 (2005), 609.37
  (2004), 691.43 (2003), 688.94 (2002)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Chile


Telephones - main lines in use:
  3,435,900 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  10.57 million (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: modern system based on extensive microwave
  radio relay facilities
  domestic: extensive microwave radio relay links; domestic satellite
  system with three earth stations
  international: country code - 56; satellite earth stations - 2
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 180 (eight inactive), FM 64, shortwave 17 (one inactive) (1998)

Radios:
  5.18 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  63 (plus 121 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:
  3.15 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .cl

Internet hosts:
  506,055 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  7 (2000)

Internet users:
  6.7 million (2005)

Transportation Chile


Airports:
  363 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 73
  over 3,047 m: 5
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 22
  914 to 1,523 m: 22
  under 914 m: 17 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 290
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
  914 to 1,523 m: 58
  under 914 m: 216 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 2,567 km; gas/lpg 42 km; liquid petroleum gas 539 km; oil 1,003
  km; refined products 757 km; unknown (oil/water) 97 km (2006)

Railways:
  total: 6,585 km
  broad gauge: 2,831 km 1.676-m gauge (1,317 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 3,754 km 1.000-m gauge (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 79,605 km
  paved: 16,080 km (including 407 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 63,525 km (2001)

Merchant marine:
  total: 46 ships (1000 GRT or over) 649,091 GRT/898,110 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 10, cargo 6, chemical tanker 10, container 1,
  liquefied gas 2, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 7,
  roll on/roll off 1, vehicle carrier 3
  foreign-owned: 1 (Argentina 1)
  registered in other countries: 17 (Argentina 6, Brazil 1, Marshall
  Islands 1, Panama 9) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Antofagasta, Arica, Huasco, Iquique, Lirquen, San Antonio, San
  Vicente, Valparaiso

Military Chile


Military branches:
  Army of the Nation, National Navy (Armada de Chile, includes naval
  air, marine corps, and Maritime Territory and Merchant Marine
  Directorate (Directemar)), Chilean Air Force (Fuerza Aerea de Chile,
  FACh), Chilean Carabineros (National Police) (2006)

Military service age and obligation:
  all male citizens 18-45 are obligated to perform military service;
  conscript service obligation - 12 months for Army, 24 months for
  Navy and Air Force (2004)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 3,815,761
  females age 18-49: 3,780,864 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 3,123,281
  females age 18-49: 3,128,277 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 140,084
  females age 18-49: 134,518 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $3.91 billion (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  3.5% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Chile


Disputes - international:
  Chile rebuffs Bolivia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama
  corridor, ceded to Chile in 1884, offering instead unrestricted but
  not sovereign maritime access through Chile to Bolivian gas and
  other commodities; Peru proposes changing its latitudinal maritime
  boundary with Chile to an equidistance line with a southwestern
  axis; territorial claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory)
  partially overlaps Argentine and British claims; action by the joint
  boundary commission, established by Chile and Argentina in 2001, for
  mapping and demarcating the disputed boundary in the Andean Southern
  Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Sur) remains pending

Illicit drugs:
  important transshipment country for cocaine destined for Europe;
  economic prosperity and increasing trade have made Chile more
  attractive to traffickers seeking to launder drug profits,
  especially through the Iquique Free Trade Zone, but a new
  anti-money-laundering law improves controls; imported precursors
  passed on to Bolivia; domestic cocaine consumption is rising


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@China

Introduction China


Background:
  For centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the
  rest of the world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and
  early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major
  famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War
  II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic
  socialist system that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed
  strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of
  millions of people. After 1978, his successor DENG Xiaoping and
  other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by
  2000 output had quadrupled. For much of the population, living
  standards have improved dramatically and the room for personal
  choice has expanded, yet political controls remain tight.

Geography China


Location:
  Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea,
  and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam

Geographic coordinates:
  35 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references:
  Asia

Area:
  total: 9,596,960 sq km
  land: 9,326,410 sq km
  water: 270,550 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries:
  total: 22,117 km
  border countries: Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km,
  India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km,
  Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Mongolia 4,677 km, Nepal 1,236 km,
  Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605 km, Russia (northwest) 40
  km, Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281 km
  regional borders: Hong Kong 30 km, Macau 0.34 km

Coastline:
  14,500 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate:
  extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north

Terrain:
  mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas,
  and hills in east

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m
  highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m

Natural resources:
  coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten,
  antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum,
  lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)

Land use:
  arable land: 14.86%
  permanent crops: 1.27%
  other: 83.87% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  545,960 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern
  coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land
  subsidence

Environment - current issues:
  air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from
  reliance on coal produces acid rain; water shortages, particularly
  in the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation;
  estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil
  erosion and economic development; desertification; trade in
  endangered species

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
  Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  world's fourth largest country (after Russia, Canada, and US);
  Mount Everest on the border with Nepal is the world's tallest peak

People China


Population:
  1,313,973,713 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 20.8% (male 145,461,833/female 128,445,739)
  15-64 years: 71.4% (male 482,439,115/female 455,960,489)
  65 years and over: 7.7% (male 48,562,635/female 53,103,902) (2006
  est.)

Median age:
  total: 32.7 years
  male: 32.3 years
  female: 33.2 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.59% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  13.25 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  6.97 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.12 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 23.12 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 20.6 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 25.94 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 72.58 years
  male: 70.89 years
  female: 74.46 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.73 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.1% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  840,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  44,000 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Chinese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Chinese

Ethnic groups:
  Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu,
  Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%

Religions:
  Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Christian 3%-4%, Muslim 1%-2%
  note: officially atheist (2002 est.)

Languages:
  Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing
  dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan
  (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages
  (see Ethnic groups entry)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 90.9%
  male: 95.1%
  female: 86.5% (2002)

Government China


Country name:
  conventional long form: People's Republic of China
  conventional short form: China
  local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
  local short form: Zhongguo
  abbreviation: PRC

Government type:
  Communist state

Capital:
  name: Beijing
  geographic coordinates: 39 56 N, 116 24 E
  time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)
  note: despite its size, all of China falls within one time zone

Administrative divisions:
  23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions
  (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities (shi, singular
  and plural)
  provinces: Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei,
  Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin,
  Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan,
  Zhejiang; (see note on Taiwan)
  autonomous regions: Guangxi, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Xinjiang, Xizang
  (Tibet)
  municipalities: Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Tianjin
  note: China considers Taiwan its 23rd province; see separate entries
  for the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau

Independence:
  221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty); 1 January 1912
  (Manchu Dynasty replaced by a Republic); 1 October 1949 (People's
  Republic established)

National holiday:
  Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China, 1
  October (1949)

Constitution:
  most recent promulgation 4 December 1982

Legal system:
  based on civil law system; derived from Soviet and continental
  civil code legal principles; legislature retains power to interpret
  statutes; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislation;
  has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President HU Jintao (since 15 March 2003) and Vice
  President ZENG Qinghong (since 15 March 2003)
  head of government: Premier WEN Jiabao (since 16 March 2003);
  Executive Vice Premier HUANG Ju (since 17 March 2003), Vice Premiers
  WU Yi (17 March 2003), ZENG Peiyan (since 17 March 2003), and HUI
  Liangyu (since 17 March 2003)
  cabinet: State Council appointed by the National People's Congress
  (NPC)
  elections: president and vice president elected by the National
  People's Congress for a five-year term (eligible for a second term);
  elections last held 15-17 March 2003 (next to be held mid-March
  2008); premier nominated by the president, confirmed by the National
  People's Congress
  election results: HU Jintao elected president by the 10th National
  People's Congress with a total of 2,937 votes (four delegates voted
  against him, four abstained, and 38 did not vote); ZENG Qinghong
  elected vice president by the 10th National People's Congress with a
  total of 2,578 votes (177 delegates voted against him, 190
  abstained, and 38 did not vote); two seats were vacant

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao
  Dahui (2,985 seats; members elected by municipal, regional, and
  provincial people's congresses to serve five-year terms)
  elections: last held December 2002-February 2003 (next to be held
  late 2007-February 2008)
  election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - NA

Judicial branch:
  Supreme People's Court (judges appointed by the National People's
  Congress); Local People's Courts (comprise higher, intermediate, and
  local courts); Special People's Courts (primarily military,
  maritime, and railway transport courts)

Political parties and leaders:
  Chinese Communist Party or CCP [HU Jintao]; eight registered small
  parties controlled by CCP

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  no substantial political opposition groups exist, although the
  government has identified the Falungong spiritual movement and the
  China Democracy Party as subversive groups

International organization participation:
  AfDB, APEC, APT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BCIE, BIS,
  CDB, EAS, FAO, G-24 (observer), G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM,
  IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM
  (observer), IPU, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUC,
  NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC
  (observer), SCO, UN, UN Security Council, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
  UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMOVIC, UNOCI, UNTSO,
  UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador ZHOU Wenzhong
  chancery: 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 328-2500
  FAX: [1] (202) 328-2582
  consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San
  Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Clark T. RANDT, Jr.
  embassy: Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, 100600 Beijing
  mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002
  telephone: [86] (10) 6532-3831
  FAX: [86] (10) 6532-3178
  consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Hong Kong and Macau,
  Shanghai, Shenyang

Flag description:
  red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow
  five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle of
  the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner

Economy China


Economy - overview:
  China's economy during the last quarter century has changed from a
  centrally planned system that was largely closed to international
  trade to a more market-oriented economy that has a rapidly growing
  private sector and is a major player in the global economy. Reforms
  started in the late 1970s with the phasing out of collectivized
  agriculture, and expanded to include the gradual liberalization of
  prices, fiscal decentralization, increased autonomy for state
  enterprises, the foundation of a diversified banking system, the
  development of stock markets, the rapid growth of the non-state
  sector, and the opening to foreign trade and investment. China has
  generally implemented reforms in a gradualist or piecemeal fashion,
  including the sale of equity in China's largest state banks to
  foreign investors and refinements in foreign exchange and bond
  markets in 2005. The restructuring of the economy and resulting
  efficiency gains have contributed to a more than tenfold increase in
  GDP since 1978. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis,
  China in 2006 stood as the second-largest economy in the world after
  the US, although in per capita terms the country is still lower
  middle-income and 130 million Chinese fall below international
  poverty lines. Economic development has generally been more rapid in
  coastal provinces than in the interior, and there are large
  disparities in per capita income between regions. The government has
  struggled to: (a) sustain adequate job growth for tens of millions
  of workers laid off from state-owned enterprises, migrants, and new
  entrants to the work force; (b) reduce corruption and other economic
  crimes; and (c) contain environmental damage and social strife
  related to the economy's rapid transformation. From 100 to 150
  million surplus rural workers are adrift between the villages and
  the cities, many subsisting through part-time, low-paying jobs. One
  demographic consequence of the "one child" policy is that China is
  now one of the most rapidly aging countries in the world. Another
  long-term threat to growth is the deterioration in the environment -
  notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the
  water table, especially in the north. China continues to lose arable
  land because of erosion and economic development. China has
  benefited from a huge expansion in computer Internet use, with more
  than 100 million users at the end of 2005. Foreign investment
  remains a strong element in China's remarkable expansion in world
  trade and has been an important factor in the growth of urban jobs.
  In July 2005, China revalued its currency by 2.1% against the US
  dollar and moved to an exchange rate system that references a basket
  of currencies. In 2006 China had the largest current account surplus
  - nearly $180 billion - in the world. More power generating capacity
  came on line in 2006 as large scale investments were completed.
  Thirteen years in construction at a cost of $24 billion, the immense
  Three Gorges Dam across the Yangtze River was essentially completed
  in 2006 and will revolutionize electrification and flood control in
  the area. The 11th Five-Year Program (2006-10), approved by the
  National People's Congress in March 2006, calls for a 20% reduction
  in energy consumption per unit of GDP by 2010 and an estimated 45%
  increase in GDP by 2010. The plan states that conserving resources
  and protecting the environment are basic goals, but it lacks details
  on the policies and reforms necessary to achieve these goals.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $10 trillion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $2.512 trillion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  10.5% (official data) (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $7,600 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 11.9%
  industry: 48.1%
  services: 40%
  note: industry includes construction (2006 est.)

Labor force:
  798 million (2006 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 45%
  industry: 24%
  services: 31% (2005 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  4.2% official registered unemployment in urban areas in 2005;
  substantial unemployment and underemployment in rural areas

Population below poverty line:
  10% (2004 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 1.8%
  highest 10%: 33.1% (2001)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  44 (2002)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1.5% (2006 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  44.3% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $446.6 billion
  expenditures: $489.6 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2006 est.)

Public debt:
  22.1% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, apples,
  cotton, oilseed; pork; fish

Industries:
  mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals,
  coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum;
  cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products, including
  footwear, toys, and electronics; food processing; transportation
  equipment, including automobiles, rail cars and locomotives, ships,
  and aircraft; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch
  vehicles, satellites

Industrial production growth rate:
  22.9% (2006 est.)

Electricity - production:
  2.5 trillion kWh (2005)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 80.2%
  hydro: 18.5%
  nuclear: 1.2%
  other: 0.1% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  2.494 trillion kWh (2005)

Electricity - exports:
  11.2 billion kWh (2005)

Electricity - imports:
  5 billion kWh (2005)

Oil - production:
  3.631 million bbl/day (2005)

Oil - consumption:
  6.534 million bbl/day (2005)

Oil - exports:
  443,300 bbl/day (2005)

Oil - imports:
  3.181 million bbl/day (2005)

Oil - proved reserves:
  16.1 billion bbl (2006 est.)

Natural gas - production:
  52.88 billion cu m (2005)

Natural gas - consumption:
  47.91 billion cu m (2005)

Natural gas - exports:
  2.79 billion cu m (2005)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2005)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  2.35 trillion cu m (2005 est.)

Current account balance:
  $179.1 billion (2006 est.)

Exports:
  $974 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, plastics, optical and medical equipment,
  iron and steel

Exports - partners:
  US 21.4%, Hong Kong 16.3%, Japan 11%, South Korea 4.6%, Germany
  4.3% (2005)

Imports:
  $777.9 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, oil and mineral fuels, plastics, optical
  and medical equipment, organic chemicals, iron and steel

Imports - partners:
  Japan 15.2%, South Korea 11.6%, Taiwan 11.2%, US 7.4%, Germany 4.6%
  (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $1.034 trillion (2006 est.)

Debt - external:
  $305.6 billion (2006 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $NA

Currency (code):
  yuan (CNY); note - also referred to as the Renminbi (RMB)

Currency code:
  CNY

Exchange rates:
  yuan per US dollar - 7.97 (2006), 8.1943 (2005), 8.2768 (2004),
  8.277 (2003), 8.277 (2002)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications China


Telephones - main lines in use:
  350.433 million (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  437.48 million (2006)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: domestic and international services are
  increasingly available for private use; unevenly distributed
  domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and
  many towns; China continues to develop its telecommunications
  infrastructure, and is partnering with foreign providers to expand
  its global reach; three of China's six major telecommunications
  operators are part of an international consortium which, in December
  2006, signed an agreement with Verizon Business to build the first
  next-generation optical cable system directly linking the US
  mainland and China
  domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular
  telephone systems have been installed; mobile cellular
  subscribership is increasing rapidly; a domestic satellite system
  with 55 earth stations is in place
  international: country code - 86; satellite earth stations - 5
  Intelsat (4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik
  (Indian Ocean region) and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean
  regions); several international fiber-optic links to Japan, South
  Korea, Hong Kong, Russia, and Germany (2000)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 369, FM 259, shortwave 45 (1998)

Radios:
  417 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  3,240 (of which 209 are operated by China Central Television, 31
  are provincial TV stations, and nearly 3,000 are local city
  stations) (1997)

Televisions:
  400 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .cn

Internet hosts:
  232,780 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  3 (2000)

Internet users:
  123 million (2006)

Transportation China


Airports:
  486 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 403
  over 3,047 m: 56
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 127
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 138
  914 to 1,523 m: 22
  under 914 m: 60 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 83
  over 3,047 m: 4
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
  914 to 1,523 m: 25
  under 914 m: 39 (2006)

Heliports:
  32 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 22,664 km; oil 15,256 km; refined products 6,106 km (2006)

Railways:
  total: 74,408 km
  standard gauge: 74,408 km 1.435-m gauge (19,303 km electrified)
  (2004)

Roadways:
  total: 1,870,661 km
  paved: 1,515,797 km (with at least 34,288 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 354,864 km (2004)

Waterways:
  123,964 km (2003)

Merchant marine:
  total: 1,723 ships (1000 GRT or over) 21,405,633 GRT/32,411,260 DWT
  by type: barge carrier 2, bulk carrier 387, cargo 695, chemical
  tanker 45, combination ore/oil 1, container 152, liquefied gas 31,
  passenger 8, passenger/cargo 83, petroleum tanker 261, refrigerated
  cargo 30, roll on/roll off 8, specialized tanker 6, vehicle carrier
  14
  foreign-owned: 13 (Hong Kong 7, Japan 3, South Korea 2, Norway 1)
  registered in other countries: 1,191 (Bahamas 3, Bangladesh 1,
  Belize 103, Bolivia 1, Cambodia 128, Cyprus 11, Georgia 2, Honduras
  3, Hong Kong 274, India 2, North Korea 1, Liberia 35, Malaysia 1,
  Malta 14, Mongolia 4, Norway 3, Panama 420, Saint Vincent and the
  Grenadines 103, Sierra Leone 2, Singapore 23, Thailand 1, Tuvalu 23,
  unknown 33) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Dalian, Guangzhou, Nanjing, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai

Military China


Military branches:
  People's Liberation Army (PLA): Ground Forces, Navy (includes
  marines and naval aviation), Air Force (includes airborne forces),
  and Second Artillery Corps (strategic missile force); People's Armed
  Police (PAP); Reserve and Militia Forces (2006)

Military service age and obligation:
  18-22 years of age for compulsory military service, with 24-month
  service obligation; no minimum age for voluntary service (all
  officers are volunteers); 18-22 years of age for women who meet
  requirements for specific military jobs (2006)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 342,956,265
  females age 18-49: 324,701,244 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 281,240,272
  females age 18-49: 269,025,517 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 13,186,433
  females age 18-49: 12,298,149 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $81.48 billion (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  4.3% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues China


Disputes - international:
  in 2005, China and India began drafting principles to resolve all
  aspects of their extensive boundary and territorial disputes
  together with a security and foreign policy dialogue to consolidate
  discussions related to the boundary, regional nuclear proliferation,
  and other matters; recent talks and confidence-building measures
  have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, site of the world's
  largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under
  the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and
  Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); India does
  not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in
  1964; about 90,000 ethnic Tibetan exiles reside primarily in India
  as well as Nepal and Bhutan; China asserts sovereignty over the
  Spratly Islands together with Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan,
  Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct
  of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions in the
  Spratlys but is not the legally binding "code of conduct" sought by
  some parties; Vietnam and China continue to expand construction of
  facilities in the Spratlys and in March 2005, the national oil
  companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint
  accord on marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; China
  occupies some of the Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and
  Taiwan; China and Taiwan have become more vocal in rejecting both
  Japan's claims to the uninhabited islands of Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu
  Tai) and Japan's unilaterally declared equidistance line in the East
  China Sea, the site of intensive hydrocarbon prospecting; certain
  islands in the Yalu and Tumen rivers are in an uncontested dispute
  with North Korea and a section of boundary around Mount Paektu is
  considered indefinite; China seeks to stem illegal migration of tens
  of thousands of North Koreans; China and Russia prepare to demarcate
  the boundary agreed to in October 2004 between the long-disputed
  islands at the Amur and Ussuri; demarcation of the China-Vietnam
  boundary proceeds slowly and although the maritime boundary
  delimitation and fisheries agreements were ratified in June 2004,
  implementation has been delayed; environmentalists in Burma and
  Thailand remain concerned about China's construction of
  hydroelectric dams upstream on the Nujiang/Salween River in Yunnan
  Province

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  refugees (country of origin): 300,897 (Vietnam) estimated
  30,000-50,000 (North Korea)
  IDPs: 90,000 (2006)

Trafficking in persons:
  current situation: China is a source, transit, and destination
  country for women, men, and children trafficked for purposes of
  sexual exploitation and forced labor; the majority of trafficking in
  China is internal, but there is also international trafficking of
  Chinese citizens; women are lured through false promises of
  legitimate employment into commercial sexual exploitation in Taiwan,
  Thailand, Malaysia, and Japan; Chinese men and women are smuggled to
  countries throughout the world at enormous personal expense and then
  forced into commercial sexual exploitation or exploitative labor to
  repay debts to traffickers; women and children are trafficked into
  China from Mongolia, Burma, North Korea, Russia, and Vietnam for
  forced labor, marriage, and sexual slavery; most North Koreans enter
  northeastern China voluntarily, but others reportedly are trafficked
  into China from North Korea; domestic trafficking remains the most
  significant problem in China, with an estimated minimum of
  10,000-20,000 victims trafficked each year; the actual number of
  victims could be much greater; some experts believe that the serious
  and prolonged imbalance in the male-female birth ratio may now be
  contributing to Chinese and foreign girls and women being trafficked
  as potential brides
  tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - China failed to show evidence of
  increasing efforts to address transnational trafficking; while the
  government provides reasonable protection to internal victims of
  trafficking, protection for Chinese and foreign victims of
  transnational trafficking remain inadequate

Illicit drugs:
  major transshipment point for heroin produced in the Golden
  Triangle; growing domestic drug abuse problem; source country for
  chemical precursors and methamphetamine


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Christmas Island

Introduction Christmas Island


Background:
  Named in 1643 for the day of its discovery, the island was annexed
  and settlement began by the UK in 1888. Phosphate mining began in
  the 1890s. The UK transferred sovereignty to Australia in 1958.
  Almost two-thirds of the island has been declared a national park.

Geography Christmas Island


Location:
  Southeastern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of Indonesia

Geographic coordinates:
  10 30 S, 105 40 E

Map references:
  Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 135 sq km
  land: 135 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about three-quarters the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  138.9 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 12 nm
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical with a wet and dry season; heat and humidity moderated by
  trade winds; wet season (December to April)

Terrain:
  steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Murray Hill 361 m

Natural resources:
  phosphate, beaches

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100% (mainly tropical rainforest; 63% of the island is a
  national park) (2005)

Irrigated land:
  NA

Natural hazards:
  the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can be a maritime
  hazard

Environment - current issues:
  loss of rainforest; impact of phosphate mining

Geography - note:
  located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean

People Christmas Island


Population:
  1,493 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: NA
  15-64 years: NA
  65 years and over: NA (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  NA

Death rate:
  NA

Net migration rate:
  NA

Sex ratio:
  NA

Infant mortality rate:
  total: NA
  male: NA
  female: NA

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: NA
  male: NA
  female: NA

Total fertility rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Christmas Islander(s)
  adjective: Christmas Island

Ethnic groups:
  Chinese 70%, European 20%, Malay 10%
  note: no indigenous population (2001)

Religions:
  Buddhist 36%, Muslim 25%, Christian 18%, other 21% (1997)

Languages:
  English (official), Chinese, Malay

Literacy:
  NA

Government Christmas Island


Country name:
  conventional long form: Territory of Christmas Island
  conventional short form: Christmas Island

Dependency status:
  non-self governing territory of Australia; administered by the
  Australian Department of Transport and Regional Services

Government type:
  NA

Capital:
  name: The Settlement
  geographic coordinates: 18 44 N, 64 19 W
  time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  none (territory of Australia)

Independence:
  none (territory of Australia)

National holiday:
  Australia Day, 26 January (1788)

Constitution:
  Christmas Island Act of 1958-59 (1 October 1958) as amended by the
  Territories Law Reform Act of 1992

Legal system:
  under the authority of the governor general of Australia and
  Australian law

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by the Australian governor general
  head of government: Administrator Neil LUCAS (since 30 January 2006)
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed
  by the governor general of Australia and represents the monarch and
  Australia

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Christmas Island Shire Council (9 seats; members elected
  by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: held every two years with half the members standing for
  election; last held in May 2005 (next to be held in May 2007)
  election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 9

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court; District Court; Magistrate's Court

Political parties and leaders:
  none

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  none

International organization participation:
  none

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (territory of Australia)

Flag description:
  territorial flag; divided diagonally from upper hoist to lower fly;
  the upper triangle is green with a yellow image of the Golden Bosun
  Bird superimposed, while the lower triangle is blue with the
  Southern Cross constellation, representing Australia, superimposed;
  a centered yellow disk displays a green map of the island; the flag
  of Australia is used for official purposes

Economy Christmas Island


Economy - overview:
  Phosphate mining had been the only significant economic activity,
  but in December 1987 the Australian Government closed the mine. In
  1991, the mine was reopened. With the support of the government, a
  $34 million casino opened in 1993. The casino closed in 1998. The
  Australian Government in 2001 agreed to support the creation of a
  commercial space-launching site on the island, projected to begin
  operations in the near future.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $NA

Labor force:
  NA

Budget:
  revenues: $NA
  expenditures: $NA

Agriculture - products:
  NA

Industries:
  tourism, phosphate extraction (near depletion)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: NA
  hydro: NA
  nuclear: NA
  other: NA

Exports:
  $NA

Exports - commodities:
  phosphate

Exports - partners:
  Australia, NZ (2004)

Imports:
  $NA

Imports - commodities:
  consumer goods

Imports - partners:
  principally Australia (2004)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $NA

Currency (code):
  Australian dollar (AUD)

Currency code:
  AUD

Exchange rates:
  Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.3095 (2005), 1.3598 (2004),
  1.5419 (2003), 1.8406 (2002)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Christmas Island


Telephones - main lines in use:
  NA

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  NA

Telephone system:
  general assessment: service provided by the Australian network
  domestic: GSM mobile telephone service replaced older analog system
  in February 2005
  international: country code - 61-8; satellite earth stations - one
  INTELSAT earth station provides telephone and telex service (2005)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (2006)

Radios:
  1,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  0; note - TV broadcasts received via satellite from mainland
  Australia (2006)

Televisions:
  600 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .cx

Internet hosts:
  2,368 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  464 (2001)

Transportation Christmas Island


Airports:
  1 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2006)

Roadways:
  total: 142 km
  paved: 32 km
  unpaved: 110 km (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Flying Fish Cove

Military Christmas Island


Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of Australia

Transnational Issues Christmas Island


Disputes - international:
  none


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Clipperton Island

Introduction Clipperton Island


Background:
  This isolated island was named for John CLIPPERTON, a pirate who
  made it his hideout early in the 18th century. Annexed by France in
  1855, it was seized by Mexico in 1897. Arbitration eventually
  awarded the island to France, which took possession in 1935.

Geography Clipperton Island


Location:
  Middle America, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, 1,120 km
  southwest of Mexico

Geographic coordinates:
  10 17 N, 109 13 W

Map references:
  Political Map of the World

Area:
  total: 6 sq km
  land: 6 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about 12 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  11.1 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical; humid, average temperature 20-32 degrees C, wet season
  (May to October)

Terrain:
  coral atoll

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Rocher Clipperton 29 m

Natural resources:
  fish

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100% (all coral) (2005)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km

Natural hazards:
  NA

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Geography - note:
  reef 12 km in circumference

People Clipperton Island


Population:
  uninhabited (July 2006 est.)

Government Clipperton Island


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Clipperton Island
  local long form: none
  local short form: Ile Clipperton
  former: sometimes called Ile de la Passion

Dependency status:
  possession of France; administered by France from French Polynesia
  by a high commissioner of the Republic

Legal system:
  the laws of France, where applicable, apply

Flag description:
  the flag of France is used

Economy Clipperton Island


Economy - overview:
  Although 115 species of fish have been identified in the
  territorial waters of Clipperton Island, the only economic activity
  is tuna fishing.


Transportation Clipperton Island


Ports and terminals:
  none; offshore anchorage only

Military Clipperton Island


Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues Clipperton Island


Disputes - international:
  none


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Introduction Cocos (Keeling) Islands


Background:
  There are 27 coral islands in the group. Captain William KEELING
  discovered the islands in 1609, but they remained uninhabited until
  the 19th century. Annexed by the UK in 1857, they were transferred
  to the Australian Government in 1955. The population on the two
  inhabited islands generally is split between the ethnic Europeans on
  West Island and the ethnic Malays on Home Island.

Geography Cocos (Keeling) Islands


Location:
  Southeastern Asia, group of islands in the Indian Ocean, southwest
  of Indonesia, about halfway from Australia to Sri Lanka

Geographic coordinates:
  12 30 S, 96 50 E

Map references:
  Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 14 sq km
  land: 14 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  note: includes the two main islands of West Island and Home Island

Area - comparative:
  about 24 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  26 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical with high humidity, moderated by the southeast trade winds
  for about nine months of the year

Terrain:
  flat, low-lying coral atolls

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: unnamed location 5 m

Natural resources:
  fish

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  NA

Natural hazards:
  cyclone season is October to April

Environment - current issues:
  fresh water resources are limited to rainwater accumulations in
  natural underground reservoirs

Geography - note:
  islands are thickly covered with coconut palms and other vegetation

People Cocos (Keeling) Islands


Population:
  574 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: NA
  15-64 years: NA
  65 years and over: NA (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  NA

Death rate:
  NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate:
  NA

Infant mortality rate:
  total: NA
  male: NA
  female: NA

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: NA
  male: NA
  female: NA

Total fertility rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Cocos Islander(s)
  adjective: Cocos Islander

Ethnic groups:
  Europeans, Cocos Malays

Religions:
  Sunni Muslim 80%, other 20% (2002 est.)

Languages:
  Malay (Cocos dialect), English

Literacy:
  NA

Government Cocos (Keeling) Islands


Country name:
  conventional long form: Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands
  conventional short form: Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Dependency status:
  non-self governing territory of Australia; administered from
  Canberra by the Australian Department of Transport and Regional
  Services

Government type:
  NA

Capital:
  name: West Island
  geographic coordinates: 12 10 S, 96 55 E
  time difference: UTC+6.5 (11.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  none (territory of Australia)

Independence:
  none (territory of Australia)

National holiday:
  Australia Day, 26 January (1788)

Constitution:
  Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act of 1955 (23 November 1955) as amended
  by the Territories Law Reform Act of 1992

Legal system:
  based upon the laws of Australia and local laws

Suffrage:
  NA

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by the Australian governor general
  head of government: Administrator (nonresident) Neil LUCAS (since 30
  January 2006)
  cabinet: NA
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed
  by the governor general of Australia and represents the monarch and
  Australia

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Cocos (Keeling) Islands Shire Council (7 seats)
  elections: held every two years with half the members standing for
  election; last held in May 2005 (next to be held in May 2007)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court; Magistrate's Court

Political parties and leaders:
  none

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  none

International organization participation:
  none

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (territory of Australia)

Flag description:
  the flag of Australia is used

Economy Cocos (Keeling) Islands


Economy - overview:
  Grown throughout the islands, coconuts are the sole cash crop.
  Small local gardens and fishing contribute to the food supply, but
  additional food and most other necessities must be imported from
  Australia. There is a small tourist industry.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $NA

Labor force:
  NA

Labor force - by occupation:
  note: the Cocos Islands Cooperative Society Ltd. employs
  construction workers, stevedores, and lighterage workers; tourism
  employs others

Unemployment rate:
  60% (2000 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $NA
  expenditures: $NA

Agriculture - products:
  vegetables, bananas, pawpaws, coconuts

Industries:
  copra products and tourism

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: NA
  hydro: NA
  nuclear: NA
  other: NA

Exports:
  $NA

Exports - commodities:
  copra

Exports - partners:
  Australia (2004)

Imports:
  $NA

Imports - commodities:
  foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  Australia (2004)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $NA

Currency (code):
  Australian dollar (AUD)

Currency code:
  AUD

Exchange rates:
  Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.3095 (2005), 1.3598 (2004),
  1.5419 (2003), 1.8406 (2002)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Cocos (Keeling) Islands


Telephones - main lines in use:
  287 (1992)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  note - analog cellular service available

Telephone system:
  general assessment: connected within Australia's telecommunication
  system
  domestic: NA
  international: country code - 61; telephone, telex, and facsimile
  communications with Australia and elsewhere via satellite; 1
  INTELSAT satellite earth station

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (2004)

Radios:
  300 (1992)

Television broadcast stations:
  NA

Televisions:
  NA

Internet country code:
  .cc

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  NA

Transportation Cocos (Keeling) Islands


Airports:
  1 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2006)

Roadways:
  total: 22 km
  paved: 10 km
  unpaved: 12 km (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Port Refuge

Military Cocos (Keeling) Islands


Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of Australia; the territory has a
  five-person police force

Transnational Issues Cocos (Keeling) Islands


Disputes - international:
  none


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Colombia

Introduction Colombia


Background:
  Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged from the
  collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others are Ecuador and
  Venezuela). A 40-year conflict between government forces and
  anti-government insurgent groups and illegal paramilitary groups -
  both heavily funded by the drug trade - escalated during the 1990s.
  The insurgents lack the military or popular support necessary to
  overthrow the government, and violence has been decreasing since
  about 2002, but insurgents continue attacks against civilians and
  large swaths of the countryside are under guerrilla influence.
  Paramilitary groups challenge the insurgents for control of
  territory and the drug trade. Most paramilitary members have
  demobilized since 2002 in an ongoing peace process, although their
  commitment to ceasing illicit activity is unclear. The Colombian
  Government has stepped up efforts to reassert government control
  throughout the country, and now has a presence in every one of its
  municipalities. However, neighboring countries worry about the
  violence spilling over their borders.

Geography Colombia


Location:
  Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama
  and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between
  Ecuador and Panama

Geographic coordinates:
  4 00 N, 72 00 W

Map references:
  South America

Area:
  total: 1,138,910 sq km
  land: 1,038,700 sq km
  water: 100,210 sq km
  note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, and Serrana Bank

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 6,309 km
  border countries: Brazil 1,644 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km,
  Peru 1,800 km, Venezuela 2,050 km

Coastline:
  3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate:
  tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands

Terrain:
  flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains,
  eastern lowland plains

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Pico Cristobal Colon 5,775 m
  note: nearby Pico Simon Bolivar also has the same elevation

Natural resources:
  petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper,
  emeralds, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 2.01%
  permanent crops: 1.37%
  other: 96.62% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  9,000 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes;
  periodic droughts

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation; soil and water quality damage from overuse of
  pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle
  emissions

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate
  Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species,
  Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection,
  Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:
  only South American country with coastlines on both the North
  Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea

People Colombia


Population:
  43,593,035 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 30.3% (male 6,683,079/female 6,528,563)
  15-64 years: 64.5% (male 13,689,384/female 14,416,439)
  65 years and over: 5.2% (male 996,022/female 1,279,548) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 26.3 years
  male: 25.4 years
  female: 27.2 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.46% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  20.48 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  5.58 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 20.35 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 24.25 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 16.31 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 71.99 years
  male: 68.15 years
  female: 75.96 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.54 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.7% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  190,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  3,600 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Colombian(s)
  adjective: Colombian

Ethnic groups:
  mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed
  black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 90%, other 10%

Languages:
  Spanish

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 92.5%
  male: 92.4%
  female: 92.6% (2003 est.)

Government Colombia


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Colombia
  conventional short form: Colombia
  local long form: Republica de Colombia
  local short form: Colombia

Government type:
  republic; executive branch dominates government structure

Capital:
  name: Bogota
  geographic coordinates: 4 36 N, 74 05 W
  time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard
  Time)

Administrative divisions:
  32 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1
  capital district* (distrito capital); Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca,
  Atlantico, Bogota*, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare,
  Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia, Guaviare,
  Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander,
  Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y Providencia, Santander,
  Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada

Independence:
  20 July 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 20 July (1810)

Constitution:
  5 July 1991

Legal system:
  based on Spanish law; a new criminal code modeled after US
  procedures was enacted into law in 2004 and is gradually being
  implemented; judicial review of executive and legislative acts

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Alvaro URIBE Velez (since 7 August 2002);
  Vice President Francisco SANTOS (since 7 August 2002); note - the
  president is both the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President Alvaro URIBE Velez (since 7 August
  2002); Vice President Francisco SANTOS (since 7 August 2002)
  cabinet: Cabinet consists of a coalition of the three largest
  parties that supported President URIBE's reelection - the PSUN, PC,
  and CR - and independents
  elections: president and vice president elected by popular vote for
  a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 28
  May 2006 (next to be held in May 2010)
  election results: President Alvaro URIBE Velez reelected president;
  percent of vote - Alvaro URIBE Velez 62%, Carlos GAVIRIA Diaz 22%,
  Horacio SERPA Uribe 12%, other 4%

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the Senate or Senado
  (102 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year
  terms) and the House of Representatives or Camara de Representantes
  (166 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year
  terms)
  elections: Senate - last held 12 March 2006 (next to be held in
  March 2010); House of Representatives - last held 12 March 2006
  (next to be held in March 2010)
  election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
  party - PSUN 20, PC 18, PL 18, CR 15, PDI 10, other parties 21;
  House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
  party - PL 35, PSUN 33, PC 29, CR 20, PDA 8, other parties 41

Judicial branch:
  four roughly coequal, supreme judicial organs; Supreme Court of
  Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (highest court of criminal law;
  judges are selected by their peers from the nominees of the Superior
  Judicial Council for eight-year terms); Council of State (highest
  court of administrative law; judges are selected from the nominees
  of the Superior Judicial Council for eight-year terms);
  Constitutional Court (guards integrity and supremacy of the
  constitution; rules on constitutionality of laws, amendments to the
  constitution, and international treaties); Superior Judicial Council
  (administers and disciplines the civilian judiciary; resolves
  jurisdictional conflicts arising between other courts; members are
  elected by three sister courts and Congress for eight-year terms)

Political parties and leaders:
  Colombian Conservative Party or PC [Julio MANZUR Abdala];
  Alternative Democratic Pole or PDA [Samuel MORENO Rojas]; Liberal
  Party or PL [Cesar GAVIRIA Trujillo]; Social National Unity Party or
  PSUN [Carlos GARCIA]; Radical Change or CR [German VARGAS Lleras]
  note: Colombia has 15 formally recognized political parties, and
  numerous unofficial parties that did not meet the vote threshold in
  the March 2006 legislative elections required for recognition

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  two largest insurgent groups active in Colombia - Revolutionary
  Armed Forces of Colombia or FARC and National Liberation Army or ELN

International organization participation:
  BCIE, CAN, CDB, CSN, FAO, G-3, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur
  (associate), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Carolina BARCO Isakson
  chancery: 2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 387-8338
  FAX: [1] (202) 232-8643
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los
  Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico),
  Washington, DC

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador William B. WOOD
  embassy: Calle 22D-BIS, numbers 47-51, Apartado Aereo 3831
  mailing address: Carrera 45 #22D-45, Bogota, D.C., APO AA 34038
  telephone: [57] (1) 315-0811
  FAX: [57] (1) 315-2197

Flag description:
  three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and
  red; similar to the flag of Ecuador, which is longer and bears the
  Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center

Economy Colombia


Economy - overview:
  Colombia's economy has experienced positive growth over the past
  three years despite a serious armed conflict. The economy continues
  to improve in part because of austere government budgets, focused
  efforts to reduce public debt levels, an export-oriented growth
  strategy, an improved security situation in the country, and high
  commodity prices. Ongoing economic problems facing President URIBE
  range from reforming the pension system to reducing high
  unemployment, and to achieving congressional passage of a fiscal
  transfers reform. New exploration is needed to offset declining oil
  production. International and domestic financial analysts note with
  concern the growing central government deficit, which hovers at 5%
  of GDP. However, the government's economic policy and democratic
  security strategy have engendered a growing sense of confidence in
  the economy, particularly within the business sector.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $366.7 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $105.5 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5.4% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $8,400 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 12%
  industry: 35.2%
  services: 52.7% (2006 est.)

Labor force:
  20.81 million (2006 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 22.7%
  industry: 18.7%
  services: 58.5% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  11.1% (2006 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  49.2% (2005)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 7.9%
  highest 10%: 34.3% (2004)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  53.8 (2005)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  4.3% (2006 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  22.8% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $50.7 billion
  expenditures: $52.29 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA
  (2006 est.)

Public debt:
  45.3% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa
  beans, oilseed, vegetables; forest products; shrimp

Industries:
  textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages,
  chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds

Industrial production growth rate:
  5.8% (2006 est.)

Electricity - production:
  46.93 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 26%
  hydro: 72.7%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 1.3% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  42.01 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  1.682 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  48 million kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  512,400 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  269,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day (2003)

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day (2003)

Oil - proved reserves:
  1.282 billion bbl (2006 est.)

Natural gas - production:
  6.18 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  6.18 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  114.4 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Current account balance:
  $-2.219 billion (2006 est.)

Exports:
  $24.86 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  petroleum, coffee, coal, nickel, emeralds, apparel, bananas, cut
  flowers

Exports - partners:
  US 41.8%, Venezuela 9.9%, Ecuador 6.3% (2005)

Imports:
  $24.33 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer goods,
  chemicals, paper products, fuels, electricity

Imports - partners:
  US 28.5%, Mexico 8.3%, China 7.6%, Brazil 6.5%, Venezuela 5.7%
  (2005)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $16.5 billion (2006 est.)

Debt - external:
  $37.21 billion (30 June 2006 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $NA

Currency (code):
  Colombian peso (COP)

Currency code:
  COP

Exchange rates:
  Colombian pesos per US dollar - 2,382.9 (2006), 2,320.75 (2005),
  2,628.61 (2004), 2,877.65 (2003), 2,504.24 (2002)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Colombia


Telephones - main lines in use:
  7,678,800 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  21.85 million (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: modern system in many respects
  domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system; domestic
  satellite system with 41 earth stations; fiber-optic network linking
  50 cities
  international: country code - 57; satellite earth stations - 6
  Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat; 3 fully digitalized international switching
  centers; 8 submarine cables

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 454, FM 34, shortwave 27 (1999)

Radios:
  21 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  60 (includes seven low-power stations) (1997)

Televisions:
  4.59 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .co

Internet hosts:
  581,877 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  18 (2000)

Internet users:
  4.739 million (2005)

Transportation Colombia


Airports:
  984 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 101
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 38
  914 to 1,523 m: 40
  under 914 m: 12 (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 883
  over 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 35
  914 to 1,523 m: 275
  under 914 m: 572 (2006)

Heliports:
  2 (2006)

Pipelines:
  gas 4,360 km; oil 6,140 km; refined products 3,158 km (2006)

Railways:
  total: 3,304 km
  standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge
  narrow gauge: 3,154 km 0.914-m gauge (2005)

Roadways:
  total: 112,988 km
  paved: 16,270 km
  unpaved: 96,718 km (2004)

Waterways:
  18,000 km (2005)

Merchant marine:
  total: 17 ships (1000 GRT or over) 42,413 GRT/58,737 DWT
  by type: cargo 13, liquefied gas 1, petroleum tanker 3
  registered in other countries: 7 (Antigua and Barbuda 2, Panama 5)
  (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Barranquilla, Buenaventura, Cartagena, Muelles El Bosque, Puerto
  Bolivar, Santa Marta, Turbo

Military Colombia


Military branches:
  Army (Ejercito Nacional), National Navy (Armada Nacional, includes
  naval aviation, marines, and coast guard), Colombian Air Force
  (Fuerza Aerea de Colombia, FAC) (2006)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service;
  conscript service obligation - 24 months (2004)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 10,212,456
  females age 18-49: 10,561,562 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 6,986,228
  females age 18-49: 8,794,465 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males age 18-49: 389,735
  females age 18-49: 383,146 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $3.3 billion (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  3.4% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Colombia


Disputes - international:
  Nicaragua filed a claim against Honduras in 1999 and against
  Colombia in 2001 at the ICJ over disputed maritime boundary
  involving 50,000 sq km in the Caribbean Sea, including the
  Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank;
  dispute with Venezuela over maritime boundary and Los Monjes Islands
  near the Gulf of Venezuela; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics,
  guerrilla, and paramilitary activities penetrate all of its
  neighbors' borders and have created a serious refugee crisis with
  over 300,000 persons having fled the country, mostly into
  neighboring states

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  IDPs: 1.8-3.8 million (conflict between government and illegal
  armed groups and FARC factions; drug wars) (2006)

Illicit drugs:
  illicit producer of coca, opium poppy, and cannabis; world's
  leading coca cultivator (cultivation of coca in 2004 was 114,100
  hectares, virtually unchanged from 2003, but down one-third from its
  peak of 169,800 ha); producing a potential of 430 mt of pure
  cocaine; the world's largest producer of coca derivatives; supplying
  most of the US market and the great majority of cocaine to other
  international drug markets; important supplier of heroin to the US
  market; opium poppy cultivation fell 50% between 2003 and 2004 to
  2,100 hectares yielding a potential 3.8 metric tons of pure heroin,
  mostly for the US market; in 2004, aerial eradication treated over
  130,000 hectares of coca but aggressive replanting on the part of
  growers means Colombia remains a key producer; a significant portion
  of non-US narcotics proceeds are either laundered or invested in
  Colombia through the black market peso exchange


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Comoros

Introduction Comoros


Background:
  Comoros has endured 19 coups or attempted coups since gaining
  independence from France in 1975. In 1997, the islands of Anjouan
  and Moheli declared independence from Comoros. In 1999, military
  chief Col. AZALI seized power. He pledged to resolve the
  secessionist crisis through a confederal arrangement named the 2000
  Fomboni Accord. In December 2001, voters approved a new constitution
  and presidential elections took place in the spring of 2002. Each
  island in the archipelago elected its own president and a new union
  president took office in May 2002.

Geography Comoros


Location:
  Southern Africa, group of islands at the northern mouth of the
  Mozambique Channel, about two-thirds of the way between northern
  Madagascar and northern Mozambique

Geographic coordinates:
  12 10 S, 44 15 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 2,170 sq km
  land: 2,170 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly more than 12 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  340 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)

Terrain:
  volcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains to low hills

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Le Kartala 2,360 m

Natural resources:
  NEGL

Land use:
  arable land: 35.87%
  permanent crops: 23.32%
  other: 40.81% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  NA

Natural hazards:
  cyclones possible during rainy season (December to April); Le
  Kartala on Grand Comore is an active volcano

Environment - current issues:
  soil degradation and erosion results from crop cultivation on
  slopes without proper terracing; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
  Ship Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  important location at northern end of Mozambique Channel

People Comoros


Population:
  690,948 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 42.7% (male 148,009/female 147,038)
  15-64 years: 54.3% (male 185,107/female 190,139)
  65 years and over: 3% (male 9,672/female 10,983) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 18.6 years
  male: 18.4 years
  female: 18.9 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.87% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  36.93 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  8.2 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 72.85 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 81.27 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 64.19 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 62.33 years
  male: 60 years
  female: 64.72 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  5.03 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.12% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Comoran(s)
  adjective: Comoran

Ethnic groups:
  Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava

Religions:
  Sunni Muslim 98%, Roman Catholic 2%

Languages:
  Arabic (official), French (official), Shikomoro (a blend of Swahili
  and Arabic)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 56.5%
  male: 63.6%
  female: 49.3% (2003 est.)

Government Comoros


Country name:
  conventional long form: Union of the Comoros
  conventional short form: Comoros
  local long form: Union des Comores
  local short form: Comores

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  name: Moroni
  geographic coordinates: 11 41 S, 43 16 E
  time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  3 islands and 4 municipalities*; Grande Comore (Njazidja), Anjouan
  (Nzwani), Domoni*, Fomboni*, Moheli (Mwali), Moroni*, Moutsamoudou*

Independence:
  6 July 1975 (from France)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 6 July (1975)

Constitution:
  23 December 2001

Legal system:
  French and Sharia (Islamic) law in a new consolidated code

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Ahmed Abdallah SAMBI (since 26 May 2006);
  head of government: President Ahmed Abdallah SAMBI (since 26 May
  2006);
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
  elections: as defined by the 2001 constitution, the presidency
  rotates every four years among the elected presidents from the three
  main islands in the Union; election last held 14 May 2006 (next to
  be held by May 2010); prime minister appointed by the president;
  note - the post of Prime Minister has been vacant since May 2002
  election results: Ahmed Abdallah SAMBI elected president; percent of
  vote - Ahmed Abdallah SAMBI 58.0%, Ibrahim HALIDI 28.3%, Mohamed
  DJAANFAMI 13.7%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Assembly of the Union (33 seats; 15 deputies are
  selected by the individual islands' local assemblies and the 18 by
  universal suffrage; deputies serve for five years);
  elections: last held 18 and 25 April 2004 (next to be held in 2009)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
  CdIA 12, CRC 6; note - 15 additional seats are filled by deputies
  from local island assemblies

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Cour Supremes (two members appointed by the
  president, two members elected by the Federal Assembly, one elected
  by the Council of each island, and others are former presidents of
  the republic)

Political parties and leaders:
  Convention for the Renewal of the Comoros [AZALI Assowmani]; Camp
  of the Autonomous Islands (a coalition of parties organized by the
  island Presidents in opposition to the Union President); Front
  National pour la Justice or FNJ [Ahmed RACHID] (Islamic party in
  opposition); Mouvement pour la Democratie et le Progress or MDP-NGDC
  [Abbas DJOUSSOUF]; Parti Comorien pour la Democratie et le Progress
  or PCDP [Ali MROUDJAE]; Rassemblement National pour le Development
  or RND [Omar TAMOU, Abdoulhamid AFFRAITANE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AMF, AU, COMESA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt,
  ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Interpol,
  IOC, ITU, LAS, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Representative to the US and Ambassador to the UN
  Mahmoud M. ABOUD
  chancery: Mission to the US, 336 East 45th Street (2nd floor), New
  York, NY 10017
  telephone: [1] (212) 750-1637

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  the US does not have an embassy in Comoros; the ambassador to
  Madagascar is accredited to Comoros

Flag description:
  four equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), white, red, and blue
  with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist; centered within
  the triangle is a white crescent with the convex side facing the
  hoist and four white, five-pointed stars placed vertically in a line
  between the points of the crescent; the horizontal bands and the
  four stars represent the four main islands of the archipelago -
  Mwali, Njazidja, Nzwani, and Mayotte (a territorial collectivity of
  France, but claimed by Comoros); the crescent, stars, and color
  green are traditional symbols of Islam

Economy Comoros


Economy - overview:
  One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros is made up of three
  islands that have inadequate transportation links, a young and
  rapidly increasing population, and few natural resources. The low
  educational level of the labor force contributes to a subsistence
  level of economic activity, high unemployment, and a heavy
  dependence on foreign grants and technical assistance. Agriculture,
  including fishing, hunting, and forestry, contributes 40% to GDP,
  employs 80% of the labor force, and provides most of the exports.
  The country is not self-sufficient in food production; rice, the
  main staple, accounts for the bulk of imports. The government -
  which is hampered by internal political disputes - is struggling to
  upgrade education and technical training, privatize commercial and
  industrial enterprises, improve health services, diversify exports,
  promote tourism, and reduce the high population growth rate.
  Increased foreign support is essential if the goal of 4% annual GDP
  growth is to be met. Remittances from 150,000 Comorans abroad help
  supplement GDP.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $441 million (2002 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
  $402 million (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $600 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 40%
  industry: 4%
  services: 56% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
  144,500 (1996 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 80%
  industry and services: 20%

Unemployment rate:
  20% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  60% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3% (2005 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $27.6 million
  expenditures: $NA (2001 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  vanilla, cloves, perfume essences, copra, coconuts, bananas,
  cassava (tapioca)

Industries:
  fishing, tourism, perfume distillation

Industrial production growth rate:
  -2% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production:
  19 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 90.6%
  hydro: 9.4%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  17.67 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - consumption:
  720 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA bbl/day

Oil - imports:
  NA bbl/day

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Current account balance:
  $-17 million (2005 est.)

Exports:
  $34 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  vanilla, ylang-ylang (perfume essence), cloves, copra

Exports - partners:
  France 26.9%, Singapore 16.3%, Japan 14.6%, Germany 13.2%, US 5.6%,
  Netherlands 5% (2005)

Imports:
  $115 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  rice and other foodstuffs, consumer goods, petroleum products,
  cement, transport equipment

Imports - partners:
  France 19.2%, Kenya 18.2%, UAE 8.5%, South Africa 6.3%, Pakistan
  5.6%, Belgium 4% (2005)

Debt - external:
  $232 million (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $24 million (2003 est.)

Currency (code):
  Comoran franc (KMF)

Currency code:
  KMF

Exchange rates:
  Comoran francs (KMF) per US dollar - 395.6 (2005), 396.21 (2004),
  435.9 (2003), 522.74 (2002), note, the Comoran franc is pegged to
  the euro at a rate of 491.9677 Comoran francs per euro

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Comoros


Telephones - main lines in use:
  16,900 (2005)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  16,100 (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: sparse system of microwave radio relay and HF
  radiotelephone communication stations
  domestic: HF radiotelephone communications and microwave radio relay
  international: country code - 269; HF radiotelephone communications
  to Madagascar and Reunion

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 4, shortwave 1 (2001)

Radios:
  90,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  NA

Televisions:
  1,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .km

Internet hosts:
  5 (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  20,000 (2005)

Transportation Comoros


Airports:
  4 (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 4
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2006)

Roadways:
  total: 880 km
  paved: 673 km
  unpaved: 207 km (1999)

Merchant marine:
  total: 121 ships (1000 GRT or over) 564,882 GRT/801,238 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 10, cargo 85, chemical tanker 1, container 1,
  livestock carrier 1, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum
  tanker 9, refrigerated cargo 5, roll on/roll off 5, specialized
  tanker 1
  foreign-owned: 72 (Bangladesh 1, Bulgaria 1, Greece 10, India 1,
  Kenya 1, Kuwait 1, Lebanon 6, Nigeria 2, Norway 1, Pakistan 2,
  Philippines 1, Russia 4, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Saudi
  Arabia 3, Syria 4, Turkey 11, UAE 6, Ukraine 14, US 2) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
  Mayotte, Moutsamoudou

Military Comoros


Military branches:
  Comoran Defense Force: Comoran Security Force (includes Gendarmerie
  and Army), Comoran Federal Police (2006)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 138,940
  females age 18-49: 139,491 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 98,792
  females age 18-49: 106,415 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $12.87 million (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  3% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Comoros


Disputes - international:
  claims French-administered Mayotte


This page was last updated on 8 February, 2007



======================================================================



@Congo, Democratic Republic of the

Introduction Congo, Democratic Republic of the


Background:
  Established as a Belgian colony in 1908, the Republic of the Congo
  gained its independence in 1960, but its early years were marred by
  political and social instability. Col. Joseph MOBUTU seized power
  and declared himself president in a November 1965 coup. He
  subsequently changed his name - to MOBUTU Sese Seko - as well as
  that of the country - to Zaire. MOBUTU retained his position for 32
  years through several subsequent sham elections, as well as through
  the use of brutal force. Ethnic strife and civil war, touched off by
  a massive inflow of refugees in 1994 from fighting in Rwanda and
  Burundi, led in May 1997 to the toppling of the MOBUTU regime by a
  rebellion led by Laurent KABILA. He renamed the country the
  Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), but in August 1998 his
  regime was itself challenged by an insurrection backed by Rwanda and
  Uganda. Troops from Angola, Chad, Namibia, Sudan, and Zimbabwe
  intervened to support the Kinshasa regime. A cease-fire was signed
  in July 1999 by the DRC, Congolese armed rebel groups, Angola,
  Namibia, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zimbabwe but sporadic fighting
  continued. Laurent KABILA was assassinated in January 2001 and his
  son, Joseph KABILA, was named head of state. In October 2002, the
  new president was successful in negotiating the withdrawal of
  Rwandan forces occupying eastern Congo; two months later, the
  Pretoria Accord was signed by all remaining warring parties to end
  the fighting and establish a government of national unity. A
  transitional government was set up in July 2003; with Joseph KABILA
  as president and joined by four vice presidents representing the
  former government, former rebel groups, and the political
  opposition. The transitional government held a successful
  constitutional referendum in December 2005 and elections for the
  presidency, National Assembly, and provincial legislatures in 2006.
  KABILA was inaugurated president in December 2006.

Geography Congo, Democratic Republic of the


Location:
  Central Africa, northeast of Angola

Geographic coordinates:
  0 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 2,345,410 sq km
  land: 2,267,600 sq km
  water: 77,810 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than one-fourth the size of the US

Land boundaries:
  total: 10,730 km
  border countries: Angola 2,511 km (of which 225 km is the boundary
  of Angola's discontiguous Cabinda Province), Burundi 233 km, Central
  African Republic 1,577 km, Republic of the Congo 2,410 km, Rwanda
  217 km, Sudan 628 km, Tanzania 459 km, Uganda 765 km, Zambia 1,930 km

Coastline:
  37 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive economic zone: boundaries with neighbors

Climate:
  tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and drier
  in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands; north
  of Equator - wet season (April to October), dry season (December to
  February); south of Equator - wet season (November to March), dry
  season (April to October)

Terrain:
  vast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains in east

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Pic Marguerite on Mont Ngaliema (Mount Stanley) 5,110
  m

Natural resources:
  cobalt, copper, niobium, tantalum, petroleum, industrial and gem
  diamonds, gold, silver, zinc, manganese, tin, uranium, coal,
  hydropower, timber

Land use:
  arable land: 2.86%
  permanent crops: 0.47%
  other: 96.67% (2005)

Irrigated land:
  110 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:
  periodic droughts in south; Congo River floods (seasonal); in the
  east, in the Great Rift Valley, there are active volcanoes

Environment - current issues:
  poaching threatens wildlife populations; water pollution;
  deforestation; refugees responsible for significant deforestation,
  soil erosion, and wildlife poaching; mining of minerals (coltan - a
  mineral used in creating capacitors, diamonds, and gold) causing
  environmental damage

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone
  Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Geography - note:
  straddles equator; has very narrow strip of land that controls the
  lower Congo River and is only outlet to South Atlantic Ocean; dense
  tropical rain forest in central river basin and eastern highlands

People Congo, Democratic Republic of the


Population:
  62,660,551
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2006 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 47.4% (male 14,906,488/female 14,798,210)
  15-64 years: 50.1% (male 15,597,353/female 15,793,350)
  65 years and over: 2.5% (male 632,143/female 933,007) (2006 est.)

Median age:
  total: 16.2 years
  male: 16 years
  female: 16.4 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:
  3.07% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:
  43.69 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:
  13.27 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population
  note: fighting between the Congolese Government and Uganda- and
  Rwanda-backed Congolese rebels spawned a regional war in DRC in
  August 1998, which left 2.33 million Congolese internally displaced
  and caused 412,000 Congolese refugees to flee to surrounding
  countries (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 88.62 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 96.9 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 80.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 51.46 years
  male: 50.01 years
  female: 52.94 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  6.45 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  4.2% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  1.1 million (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  100,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: very high
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea,
  hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
  vectorborne diseases: malaria, plague, and African trypanosomiasis
  (sleeping sickness) are high risks in some locations
  water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2007)

Nationality:
  noun: Congolese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Congolese or Congo

Ethnic groups:
  over 200 African ethnic groups of which the majority are Bantu; the
  four largest tribes - Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all Bantu), and the
  Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) make up about 45% of the population

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Kimbanguist 10%, Muslim 10%,
  other syncretic sects and indigenous beliefs 10%

Languages:
  French (official), Lingala (a lingua franca trade language),
  Kingwana (a dialect of Kiswahili or Swahili), Kikongo, Tshiluba

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write French, Lingala,
  Kingwana, or Tshiluba
  total population: 65.5%
  male: 76.2%
  female: 55.1% (2003 est.)

Government Congo, Democratic Republic of the


Country name:
  conventional long form: Democratic Republic of the Congo
  conventional short form: none
  local long form: Republique Democratique du Congo
  local short form: none
  former: Congo Free State, Belgian Congo, Congo/Leopoldville,
  Congo/Kinshasa, Zaire
  abbreviation: DRC

Government type:
  transitional government

Capital:
  name: Kinshasa
  geographic coordinates: 4 18 S, 15 18 E
  time difference: UTC+1 (six hours ahead of Washington, DC during
  Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
  10 provinces (provinces, singular - province) and 1 city* (ville);
  Bandundu, Bas-Congo, Equateur, Kasai-Occidental, Kasai-Oriental,
  Katanga, Kinshasa*, Maniema, Nord-Kivu, Orientale, Sud-Kivu
  note: According to the Constitution adopted in December 2005, the
  current administrative divisions will be subdivided into 26 new
  provinces

Independence:
  30 June 1960 (from Belgium)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 30 June (1960)

Constitution:
  18 February 2006

Legal system:
  a new constitution was adopted by referendum 18 December 2005;
  accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Joseph KABILA (since 26 January 2001);
  note - following the assassination of his father, Laurent Desire
  KABILA, on 16 January 2001, Joseph KABILA succeeded to the
  presidency, his presidency was reconfirmed by the October 2006
  elections; the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government
  head of government: President Joseph KABILA (since 26 January 2001);
  note - following the assassination of his father, Laurent Desire
  KABILA, on 16 January 2001, Joseph KABILA succeeded to the
  presidency, his presidency was reconfirmed by the October 2006
  elections; the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government
  cabinet: National Executive Council appointed by the president
  elections: under the new constitution the president is elected by
  popular vote to a five-year term (eligible for a second term);
  elections last held 30 July 2006 with a second round held on 29
  October 2006 (next to be held in 2011)
  election results: results of 29 October 2006 elections (second
  round); Joseph KABILA 58%, Jean-Pierre BEMBA Gombo 42%
  note: Joseph KABILA succeeded his father, Laurent Desire KABILA,
  following the latter's assassination in January 2001; negotiations
  with rebel leaders led to the establishment of a transitional
  government in July 2003 with free elections held on 30 July 2006 and
  29 October 2006 where the poplar vote confirmed Joseph KABILA as
  president

Legislative branch:
  bicameral legislature consists of a National Assembly (500 seats;
  60 members elected by majority vote in single-member constituencies
  440 members elected by open list proportional-representation in
  multi-member constituencies; members serve 5-year terms) and a
  Senate (108 seats; members elected by provincial assemblies to serve
  5-year terms)
  elections: National Assembly - last held 30 July 2006 (next to be
  held in 2011)
  election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA;
  seats by party - PPRD 111, MLC 64, PALU 34, MSR 27, FR 26, RCD 15,
  Independents 63, others 160 (includes 63 political parties that won
  fewer than 10 seats)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders:
  Congolese Rally for Democracy or RCD [Azaria RUBERWA]; Forces for
  Renovation for Union and Solidarity or FONUS [Joseph OLENGHANKOY];
  Forces of Renewal or FR [Mbusa NYAMWISI]; Movement for the
  Liberation of the Congo or MLC [Jean-Pierre BEMBA]; National
  Congolese Lumumbist Movement or MNC [Francois LUMUMBA]; People's
  Party for Reconstruction and Democracy or PPRD [Joseph Kabila];
  Social Movement for Renewal or MSR; Unified Lumumbast Party or PALU
  [Antoine GIZENGA]; Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS
  [Etienne TSHISEKEDI wa Mulumba]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, CEPGL, COMESA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (suspended), ILO, IMF,
  IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW,
  PCA, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO,
  WFTU