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Title: Chelsea - In the Olden & Present Times
Author: Bryan, George
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Transcribed from the 1869 edition by David Price, email ccx074@pglaf.org



                                 CHELSEA,
                      IN THE OLDEN & PRESENT TIMES.


                                * * * * *

                             BY GEORGE BRYAN.

                                * * * * *

    “It is not given to all to have genius—it is given to all to have
    honesty of purpose; an ordinary writer may have this in common with
    the greatest—that he may compose his works with a sincere view of
    administering to knowledge.”—BULWER LYTTON.

                                * * * * *

                       Entered at Stationers’ Hall.

                                * * * * *

                                 CHELSEA:
                         PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR,
             4, ALFRED COTTAGES, CAMERA SQUARE, KING’S ROAD.
                      MAY BE HAD OF ALL BOOKSELLERS.

                                * * * * *

                                  1869.



PREFACE.


THERE are circumstances in connection with the publication of this volume
which I deem it necessary to mention.  Some persons probably have thought
that such an undertaking should have devolved on an individual possessing
greater literary attainments, and occupying a higher position in the
parish than I do in it.  To this impression I willingly give my assent.
But this has not been the case; and the length of time (upwards of forty
years) since the late Mr. Faulkner published his “History of Chelsea,”
and the consequent difficulty of procuring a copy—independently of the
fact that much contained in that work is now altogether devoid of
interest, and also that, from the great improvements and alterations in
the parish, there required many additions to be made to it—induced me, in
the decline of life, to undertake the present task.

As an additional justification for the course I have pursued, it must not
be forgotten that Chelsea is my native parish, and that I have possessed
peculiar facilities for acquiring the necessary information; and,
moreover, that in early life I composed in type a great portion of Mr.
Faulkner’s first edition, and at a subsequent period was employed as the
printing-office reader of his edition in two volumes.  This gave me
frequent opportunities of seeing him, and witnessing his laborious
exertions to produce a work as complete “as the utmost diligence, care,
and patience enabled him to collect.”  I cannot but think that these
considerations—combined with the fact of my having been, for many years
since that period, connected with the press in London—will remove all
impressions of assumption, on my part, for submitting the present volume
to the impartial judgment of the parishioners and the public.

I have purposely avoided all dry details of parochial management, &c., as
being foreign to the nature of the work and rendered now unnecessary in
consequence of the voluminous Annual Vestry Reports, which may easily be
obtained.  My object has rather been to make the volume interesting, as
far as possible, without being guilty of “book-making.”

The work embodies all the essential and interesting information that
could be obtained, with a great amount of original matter, and should the
volume not appear so bulky as some might have expected, it is simply
owing to the rejection of extraneous subjects.

That the intelligent working-man, and persons of limited means, might
possess the work, I published a certain number of copies at a very great
sacrifice, trusting that the motive would be rather an inducement than
otherwise for others to purchase the volume.  Local histories, unlike
other works, can only have a small circulation, and the price charged for
them must be necessarily regulated by the probable number that will be
sold.

In conclusion, I beg to offer my grateful acknowledgments for the
kindness and assistance which I have received from several gentlemen, and
now submit the result of my labours to the favourable criticism, and I
trust remunerative patronage of the inhabitants and others interested in
a parish which, in many points of view is unusually interesting and
instructive.

AUGUST, 1869.



INDEX.


    (The figures at the end of each line denote the page.  Notices of
     Distinguished Residents are interspersed throughout the volume.)

Alston House, 92

Aston, the Misses, 152

Ashburnham House, 55

Atterbury, Dr., 78

Arbuthnot, Dr. John, 80

Astell, Mrs. Mary, 183

Atkyns, Sir Robert, 219

                                * * * * *

Boundaries of Chelsea, 8

Bray, Lord, 5

Bell, The Ashburnham, 10

Bowes, Thomas, 15

Buckingham House, 35

Buckingham, First Duke of, 35

Buckingham, Second Duke of, 36

Bristol, Earl of, 36

Beaufort House, 37

Beaufort, Second Duke of, 37

Beaufort Street, 39

Battersea Bridge, 39

Belle Vue House, 44

Bælar, Pætrus, 47

Brunel, Sir Mark Isombard, 51

Boscawen, Mr. 61

Balloon Ascent in 1784, 62

   Chelsea Steam Captive, 169

   Centenarian Trip in ditto, 224

Boyle, Robert, Esq. 64

Balchen, Admiral Sir John, 65

Bowack, Mr. 82

Burney, Dr. 104

Baths, Dr. Dominiceti’s, 117

Butler, Rev. Weeden, sen., 117, 152

Blunt, the late Rev. Henry, 139

Blunt, Rev. G. A. 140

Bentley, Mr. 168

Bedford, Mr. Paul, 168

Blackwell, Dr. Alexander, 183

Bunhouse, the Original Chelsea, 200

Burial Ground, St. Luke’s, 141

   King’s Road, 151

   Moravian’s, 46

   Jew’s, 74

   Royal Hospital, 195

Burial of a Female Dragoon, 196

Burgess, Rev. R. 210

Botanic Gardens, Queen’s Road, 177

Borough of Chelsea, 1st Election, 222

                                * * * * *

Church, The Old Parish, 3

   St. Luke’s, 125

   Christchurch, 180

   St. Jude’s, 207

   Trinity, Sloane Street, 209

   St. Saviour’s, 214

Cugnac, The Marquis de, 5

Cheyne, Lady Jane, 9

Cheyne, Charles, Esq. 9

Chamberlayne, Dr. 14, 81

Cadogan, the Hon. and Rev., 20

Clock House, 49

Cremorne House, 54

Cope, Sir John, 64

Carlyle, Thomas, Esq. 91

Clarendon, 3rd Earl of, 66

China Manufactory, 86

Cheyne Walk, 93

Clare, Rev. Thomas, 106

Chalmer, Francis, Esq. 113

Cook’s Ground, 92, 165, 170

Cadogan, Lieut.-Col. 135

Clark, Rev. George, 137

Cipriani, John Baptist, 151

Coffee House, Don Saltero’s, 108

Church Street, 75

Chelsea Common, 215

Cadogan Place, 214

Chelsea Chapel, 208

Cancer Hospital, 219

Consumption Hospital, 221

                                * * * * *

Dacre, Lord and Lady, 11

Davies, Rev. R. H. 22

Sir John Danvers, 42

Duke Street, 44

Duel, Fatal, 66

Denyer, John, Esq. 91

Dodd, Dr. 118

Doggett’s Coat and Badge, 121

Dispensary, Chelsea, 160

Durham House, 186

Dudmaston House, 55

Dilke, Sir C. Wentworth, Bart. 211

                                * * * * *

Etymology of Chelsea, 2

Ellesmere, Rev. Dr. Sloane, 152

Eggleton, The Misses, 113

                                * * * * *

Flood, Luke Thomas, Esq. 44, 137

Fraine, Mr. J. 114, 115

Flowers and Fashion, 161

Flood Street, 164

Faulkner, Mr. Thomas, 185

Farrier, Mr. Robert, 186

                                * * * * *

Gervoise, Richard, Esq. 6

Guildford, Richard, Esq. 9

Gorges, Sir Arthur, 12, 34

Gregory, Lord Dacre, 33

Gough House, 181

Gibson, Patrick, the Centenarian, 52

                                * * * * *

Hamey, Dr. Baldwin, 7, 66

Heber, Rev. Reginald, 20

Hatchett, Charles, Esq. 44

Harding, Bishop, 69

Hargrave, Francis, Esq. 75

Haworth, A. H. 77

Hoadly, Bishop, 100

Hunt, Leigh, Esq. 113

Hutchins, Mrs. (Daring Robbery and Murder at her house) 156

Hoblyn, Thomas, Esq. 211

Hans Place, 213

                                * * * * *

Indian Esquimaux, 48

                                * * * * *

Jennings, Henry C. Esq. 49

Justice Walk, 86

Jubilee Place, 164

                                * * * * *

Kingsley, Rev. Charles, 137, 140

King’s Road, 153, 155, 169

King, Rev. Dr. 19

Kent, Duke of, 182

                                * * * * *

Littleton, Rev. Dr. Adam, 6, 19

Lawrence, Sir John, 8

Lindsey House, 45

Lindsey Row, 49

Lordship’s Place, 91

Lawrence Street, 88

Lowry, Wilson, 167

                                * * * * *

Monuments in Old Church, 4

More, Sir Thomas, 5, 30

Milman, Sir W. 13

Manor House, Description of the, 105

Martin, John, R.A., 51

Moravians, the, 45

Mazarin, Duchess of, 182

Markham Sq. Con. Church, 174

Marlborough Chapel, 216

Mead, Dr. Richard, 183

Mellon, Mr. Alfred, 167

Monsey, Dr. 195

                                * * * * *

Northumberland, Duchess of, 12

North, the Hon. Brownlow, 102

Neild, James, Esq. 120

                                * * * * *

Ormond, Duchess of, 185

Orrery, 4th Earl of, 65

Owen, Rev. J. B. 207

                                * * * * *

Park Chapel, 67

Parish Registers, 144

Petyt, William, Esq. 85

Pavilion, the, 212

Presentation of Colours to the Old Volunteers, 198

                                * * * * *

Queen’s Elm, 73

Queen’s Road West, 177

Queen’s Road East, 202

                                * * * * *

Royal Hospital, 187

Royal Military Asylum, 203

Ranelagh, Old, the Rotunda, 197

Roman Catholic Chapel, 215

                                * * * * *

Stanley House, 56

St. Mark’s College, 58

Stanley, Sir Robert, 13

Sloane, Sir Hans, 14, 37, 173

Swift, Dean, 79

Shadwell, Thomas, Esq. 80

Smollett, Dr. 89

Sailing Matches, 41

Sloane Terrace Chapel, 210

School of Discipline, 185

                                * * * * *

Turner, J. M. Wm., R.A., 53

Trelawney, Bishop, 99

Trimnell, Bishop, 100

                                * * * * *

Winchester Palace, 97

Walpole, Sir Robert, 185

Wellesley, Hon. and Rev. Dr., 138

Woodfall, Henry, Esq. 15

Whitelocke, Gen., Trial of, 193

Whitelands Training Institution, 176

Whitlock, Rev. G. S., 181

West Brompton Con. Church, 60

Warren, Henry, Esq. 217

                                * * * * *

Vestry Hall, The, 171

Varley, Mr. John, 167

Victoria Hospital, 181



BOOK I.


The Etymology and Boundaries of the Parish—The Old Church: its Monumental
Inscriptions; Remarkable Spring Tides, taken to Church in a Boat,
Penance, &c.—Ancient Manor Houses, and Distinguished Residents—Moravian
Chapel and Burial Ground—Park Chapel—St. Mark’s College—The New West
Brompton Congregational Church—Loss of Sir John Balchen and 1100 Seamen
in the “Victory”—Ascent in a Balloon in 1784—Fatal Duel—The Knight and
the Poor Carpenter—Jews’ Burial Ground, to which is added an Amusing
Anecdote—The Queen’s Elm—Singular Tavern Signs, &c.—The old Embankment of
the Thames.  Interspersed with Notices of many of the most Eminent
Residents in the Parish in the “Olden Times,” and other Interesting
Particulars.

LORD BROUGHAM, in the course of some remarks on modern English
literature, incidentally observed that “local histories were not only
interesting to the residents in the districts to which they referred, but
such minor works would be found of immense value to future national
historians.”  This was also the avowed opinion of Mr. Faulkner, when he
published his invaluable “HISTORY OF CHELSEA,” upwards of 40 years since,
and my motive in undertaking the present work is to carry forward the
great object which that laborious local historian contemplated.  The
defects, and no doubt there will be many discovered in it, are submitted
to the kind and impartial consideration of the reader.  My humble
position in life will not in the slightest degree, I feel confident, tend
to depreciate my long-cherished desire—especially as the shades of
evening are fast closing the day-light of my earthly life—to add to the
information which has already been given respecting a parish to which I
am much attached, both by birth and early associations.

                                * * * * *

The earliest mention of Chelsea is to be found in the Saxon Chronicle, in
the year 785; from which record it appears that a Synod was then held in
it, and at which period it was the residence of Offa, king of the
Mercians.  As regards the etymology of its name both ancient and modern
writers have expressed different opinions.  Mr. Lysons says, he has seen
it written Cealc-hylle, in an old charter of Edward the Confessor, and
hence objected to the obvious etymology, as there is neither chalk nor
hill in the parish.  Mr. Faulkner considers, however, that “hylle” is an
evident mistake for “hythe;” and Cealc-hythe signifies not a place
abounding in chalk, but a wharf or landing-place for chalk brought from
other quarters.  This amended definition seems at once to remove the
previous objection, particularly as large quantities of chalk and lime
were formerly, and even now at times, landed at a wharf by the river-side
at Chelsea.  In the ancient record of Domesday, it is written Cherchede
and Chelched.  The parish was called Chelchethe in the taxation of Pope
Nicholas, in 1291; and this was the common way of spelling it for several
centuries.  Among the manorial records of the time of Edward II. it is
spelled Chelcheya and Chelchuthe.  Mr. Norden says, “It is so called from
the nature of the place, whose strand is like the Chesel, (ceosel, or
cesel,) which the sea casteth up of sand and pebble stones, thereof
called Cheselsey, briefly Chelsey.”  How altered is the state of the
strand or shore at the present time!  Would that there were now only the
sand and pebble stones!  But there is a probability that this complaint
will be remedied.  The long expected embankment from Battersea Bridge to
Chelsea College, it is said, really _is_ to be commenced and completed,
and those old and dilapidated houses in that narrow and dangerous
thoroughfare, known as Duke Street and Lombard Street, are to be pulled
down.  If this should be the case, the parishioners will then possess one
of the finest promenades, with Battersea Park opposite to it, which may
be found along the entire banks of the river Thames.

Having made this slight digression, to infuse a little of what is
popularly called “new life” into our subject, we will here mention that
the county of Middlesex received its name from having been inhabited by a
party of Saxons, who, being located in the midst of the three kingdoms of
the East, West, and South Saxons, were called by their neighbours
Middlesaxons, which, in common conversation, was soon abbreviated to
Middlesex.

The parish of Chelsea is bounded on the north by the Fulham Road, which
separates it from Kensington.  On the east at the entrance into Sloane
Square, at which place there was an open rivulet, which divided it from
St. George’s, Hanover Square, and was said to rise at or near to
Hampstead; and, after crossing Hyde Park, where it formed the Serpentine
River, and Knightsbridge, flowed behind Cadogan Place (along a portion of
Lowndes’ Square) into the Thames, at Ranelagh, which adjoined Chelsea
College.  In January, 1809, this rivulet overflowed its banks, and caused
great devastation for several days.  The waters formed a complete lake,
and were of considerable depth.  Boats were employed in carrying
passengers from Chelsea Hospital to the old Bunhouse, on their way to
London.  On the west, the parish is divided from Fulham a little beyond
St. Mark’s College; and on the south it is bounded by the Thames.

That portion of the parish at Kensal New Town, which is near to Wilsden,
will be briefly noticed again in reference to the “Ancient Manor Houses.”
This land, as held by the parish, is about 173¾ acres.



The Old Parish Church.


IT will soon be seventy years since I was first taken to this venerable
Church.  The most trifling incidents in childhood often bring to
remembrance, when arrived at mature age, events of an important and
interesting character.  Such was the case with regard to my earliest
conscious attendance at Chelsea Old Church.  At the period to which I
allude, residing at the other part of the parish, we had to go across
what was then called the “Common,” situated to the east of the present
new St. Luke’s Church, a portion of which was at that particular time
covered with new-mown grass to dry previously to being carried away.
Most young persons love to toss and tumble about the hay when such an
opportunity is afforded them, and certainly I felt as delighted with the
sport as others of my own age.  Often afterwards, when there was a
disposition not to take me, I earnestly pleaded to go with the rest to
the Church, but my youthful thoughts were more fixed on some anticipated
enjoyment on the road to it.  As I advanced in years, however, my native
Old Parish Church became gradually endeared to me, and nothing connected
with it scarcely ever escaped my notice.

The exact period when the Church was erected is a question of great
uncertainty.  In the Domesday Survey of the Parish no mention is made of
any endowment for a priest, which is considered by some writers a proof
that there was no Church existing.  This conclusion is doubtful.  There
is no record relative to the Rectory previous to the reign of Edward II.,
therefore it is conjectured that the Church was first founded about that
period.

Mr. Bowack says, “In the year 1667, the old Church, which was much
decayed, being too small to contain the congregation, grown large by the
vast increase of buildings about that time in the town,” (what would he
now think, in 1869, of the immense number of houses, and 70,000
inhabitants!) “it was agreed by the parishioners that part of it should
be demolished, and that such alterations and additions should be made as
were necessary for decent accommodation.  Accordingly the shattered tower
and west end of the Church were pulled down, and the north and south
aisles carried several yards towards the west, by two brick walls, being
in all about 80 ft. from the ground.  The walls of the Church were
raised, the windows enlarged, the old parts beautified, the inside new
paved, the churchyard considerably raised, and enclosed with a high wall
of brick; and most of this done at the voluntary charge of the
inhabitants, and the whole roof, lead, timber, &c., at the sole cost of
the Lady Jane Cheyne.  The Church was furnished with all the necessary
ornaments, and the steeple with a good ring of six bells, by the bounty
of the inhabitants.”

From this statement it would appear that the Church was originally of
small dimensions.



MONUMENTS, &c.


It will not be asserting too much if we say that the Old Parish Church
contains more magnificent monuments, to the memories of distinguished
individuals, than are to be found in any other church in the metropolis.

LORD BRAY.—In the chancel, the most ancient monument is that of Lord
Bray, and of his son Lord John Bray.  It is an altar-tomb, now much
defaced, but was originally ornamented with the effigies in brass of
these two noble lords, and with escutcheons of their arms.  According to
Weever, there was the following inscription in his time:—“Of your
charitie pray for the soul of Edmund Bray, knight, Lord Bray, cosin and
heire to Sir Reginald Bray, Knight of the Garter.”  There is a very long
and curious account of the funeral of Lord John Bray in the Herald’s
College, 1557.

                                * * * * *

SIR THOMAS MORE.—Against the south wall of the chancel is the monument of
Sir Thomas More, erected according to his own desire, in the year 1532.
The tablet on which the inscription is engraved is under a Tudor arch,
the cornice of which is ornamented with foliage, and in the centre of it
is his crest, viz., a Moor’s head.  The spandrils of the arch are
ornamented with branches of the vine, and in the midst are his arms and
those of his first wife, and on each side are the arms of himself and his
two wives.  The eventful history of More, and the termination of his
earthly career, must be familiar to the reader.  After he was beheaded,
his body is said by some to have been interred in the church, but others
have contended that it was buried in St. Peter’s, in the Tower.  There
are many legends respecting the head, but Mr. Brayley asserts positively
that it was finally deposited in St. Dunstan’s, near Canterbury, and that
he saw the head there many years ago.  The inscription on the tablet is
of considerable length.

                                * * * * *

THE MARQUISE DE CUGNAC.—Near the Communion Table, against the south wall,
on a square ornamental slab, is an inscription to the memory of
Elizabeth, the wife of the Marquis de Cugnac.  As a proof of his unshaken
love he erected this monument.  She died in 1653, aged 20 years.  The
marquis was of a Protestant family, famous in the reigns of Henry IV.,
Lewis XIII. and XIV.

                                * * * * *

THE SEDILE.—In the south wall of the chancel, near the altar, was usually
placed the “_Sedile_” a seat for the use of the priest at certain
intervals during the celebration of the Mass, but when the church was
almost rebuilt, in 1667, this ancient architectural ornament, and many
others were removed, and not a vestige of them now remains.

                                * * * * *

THOMAS HUNGERFORD, Esq.—In the upper chancel is the monument of the
above-named gentleman, having the effigies of himself and his two sons in
armour kneeling on one side of an altar, and his wife and daughter on the
other.  The entablature is supported by three Corinthian pillars, resting
on pedestals.

                                * * * * *

REV. JOHN RUSH.—On the right of the one above are tablets to the memory
of the Rev. John Rush and family.  He was Curate of the Parish for a
great many years, and when the new Parish Church was completed, Mr. Rush
became Minister of the Old Church, and resigned the curacy.  He was one
of the Directors of the Waterloo Bridge Company, and took a great
interest in everything connected with the construction of that bridge.
He died in 1855, aged 85, and was buried in the Brompton Cemetery.

                                * * * * *

TWO DAUGHTERS OF WILTON, THE SCULPTOR.—Against the east wall is a
monument, composed of two urns of white marble, to the memory of Lucy
Smith and Anne Wilton, two sisters, 1781.  Wilton, their father, was the
sculptor.

                                * * * * *

The Original Altar Piece was very plain, formed by an obtuse arch
ornamented slightly with foliage, &c.  In the centre was painted the
Decalogue; while the north side displayed the Camp of Israel, and the
south side Moses on the Mount, receiving the two tables of the Law.

                                * * * * *

Rev. ADAM LITTLETON, D.D.—On a square marble tablet, against the north
wall of the lower chancel, is an inscription to the memory of this
eminent divine, who was rector of this parish for 24 years.  He died in
1694, aged 66.

On the east wall, on plain marble slabs, are inscriptions to the memory
of Martha Denyer, who died in 1795, John Denyer, in 1806, and Elizabeth
Denyer, in 1824.  This family was very benevolent.  Amongst a few other
inscriptions is one to the memory of Edward Holl, Esq., who was a regular
attendant at the church, and much respected.  He died in 1823.

                                * * * * *

RICHARD GERVOISE, Esq.—Between the north aisle and lower chancel is a
large monument raised in the form of an arch open at both sides, about 10
ft. in height, ornamented with roses, branches, and fluted carving,
erected to the memory of Richard Gervoise, Sheriff of London, who died in
1557, and also in memory of his son.

                                * * * * *

BALDWIN HAMEY, M.D.—On a pillar, near the preceding, are inscriptions to
the memory of Dr. Baldwin Hamey, Ralph Palmer, Esq., and Alice, his wife.
Mr. Palmer was a kind benefactor to the church.  He died in 1715.

On the west side of the same pillar is an inscription to the memory of
Henry Powell, Esq., who was a great friend to the widow and fatherless.

                                * * * * *

COLOURS OF THE OLD VOLUNTEERS.—Over the nave are suspended the colours of
the two battalions of Queen Charlotte’s Royal Volunteers, which were
placed there on the disbandment of the regiment.  These banners were
presented by her Majesty in 1804, at a time when the country was
threatened with invasion. {7}  One or two of them are almost in ribbons,
but it is to be hoped they will remain untouched in their present
position as long as possible.  There are still living some few old people
in the parish who remember, when boys, marching by the side of these
colours with all the heroic consequence of supposed military triumph.

The PULPIT is composed of oak, divided into panels, and ornamented with
carved foliage and fruit.  There was formerly a massive sounding board to
correspond with it, but which was necessarily taken away when the pulpit
was judiciously placed in its present central position in the middle
aisle.

                                * * * * *

Having noticed the chancel and nave, we will proceed to that part which
is called the LAWRENCE CHAPEL, at the north side.  This chapel is
considered by many to be coeval with the first endowment of the church.
It was built by the then Lord of the Manor, whose mansion stood near it,
the site of which is now occupied by Lawrence Street, so called after the
Lawrence family.  The old manor house was pulled down by Henry VIII., who
built another in Cheyne Walk, to which allusion will have to be
frequently made.  The Lawrence chapel was many years ago in the
possession of Mr. Offley, who bequeathed it to Colonel Needham, of whom
it was bought in the year 1789, with part of the east side of Lawrence
Street, to which it is an appendage, by Mr. Lewer.  It is still private
property.

                                * * * * *

THOMAS LAWRENCE, Esq.—Against the north wall of this chapel is the
monument of the father of Sir John Lawrence, on which are represented
himself, his three sons, Elizabeth his wife, and six daughters, all
kneeling.  On the cushion on which Mrs. Lawrence kneels are two babes,
wrapped up close to the chin, with their faces only visible.  The cornice
is supported by three fluted Corinthian columns.  Underneath are the
following lines:—

    “The yeares wherein I lived were fifty-fower,
       October twenty-eight did end my life;
    Children five of eleven God left in store,
       Sole comfort of they’re mother and my wife.
    The world can say what I have been before,
       What I am now examples still are rife;
    Thus Thomas Lawrence spekes to tymes ensving
    That Death is sure, and Tyme is past reneving.”

SIR JOHN LAWRENCE, Bart.—On a large ornamented tablet of black marble,
against the east wall, is an inscription to the memory of Sir John
Lawrence, Bart., who died in 1638, aged 50.  Attached to it are these
quaint lines:—

    “When bad men dye and turn to their last sleep,
    What stir the poets and engravers keep,
    By a feigned skill to pile them up a name,
    With terms of Good, and Just, out-lasting fame:
    Alas! poor men, such most have need of stone
    And epitaphs; the good, indeed, lack none,
    Their own true works enough do give of glory
    Unto their names, which will survive all story:
    Such was the man lies here, who doth partake
    Of verse and stone—but ’tis for fashions sake.”

On the same wall is the monument of Sarah Colvile, daughter of Thomas
Lawrence, Esq., and wife of Richard Colvile, of Newton, in the Isle of
Ely.  From small trusses, ornamented with human heads, rise two Doric
pillars, with a curved entablature which supports a pediment.  The soffit
of the cornice is decorated with clouds, stars, and a dove; and on the
edge of the cornice is a passage of Scripture (1 Cor. xv. 52).  Between
the pillars is a half-length figure of a female, wrapped in a winding
sheet, with her hands in a supplicating posture, and as rising from the
tomb.  The inscription states she was the happy mother of eight sons and
two daughters.  She died in 1631, in the 40th year of her age.

                                * * * * *

There is also an inscription on the floor of this chapel to the memory of
Henry, youngest son of Sir John Lawrence, who died in 1661, aged 30.

                                * * * * *

LADY JANE CHEYNE.—This stately monument is placed against the wall of the
north aisle, but before we proceed to give a description of it, we will
notice the inscription that was placed at the entrance to the vault of
the Cheyne family, at the bottom of the chancel:—

    “Charles Cheyne, Esq., Lord of this Manor of Chelsea, which was
    purchased by the rich dowry of his wife, erected this burial-place
    for his most excellent wife, the Lady Jane Cheyne, eldest daughter of
    William Duke of Newcastle, not long deceased, and for his own use,
    when he shall die.  It was consecrated the 3rd day of November, 1669.
    I beseech thee, Almighty God, that she may quiety rest here till the
    resurrection of the flesh.  Amen.”

The monument consists of a semi-circular temple, the façade supported by
two Corinthian columns of Scagliola marble, rising from a plinth and
pedestals, with a proper entablature, surmounted by an elliptical
pediment, the tympanum of which is ornamented with scroll work and
foliage, and the soffit of the upper cornice consists of panels, with
rosettes and foliage, and dentals, with pendant guttæ placed alternately.
To give the latter a resemblance of their original intention, the base of
the pediment was justly decreased in width in the centre.  From acrotini
at the shoulders rise flaming urns, and in the centre is a richly
ornamented cross.  In the interior of this temple is a large black
sarcophagus, resting on pedestals of Scagliola marble.  On this
sarcophagus is represented Lady Cheyne, in white marble, lying upon her
left side, and reclining upon a tesselated cushion, holding a book; at
her feet lies a coronet.  This monument was executed by the celebrated
Bernini, and cost £500.  It is generally considered to be a _chef
d’œuvre_ of art.  Lady Cheyne died in 1669, aged 48.

                                * * * * *

On the sarcophagus, under the figure of Lady Jane Cheyne, is an
inscription to the memory of Charles Cheyne, Viscount Newhaven, and Lord
of the Manor of Chelsea, who was buried in the same vault.  He departed
this life in 1698, aged 74, being 29 years after Lady Jane Cheyne, his
first wife’s death.

                                * * * * *

RICHARD GUILDFORD, Esq.—On a marble tablet, near the preceding, is this
inscription:—“Richard Guildford, who died 16th Nov. 1680, and also his
two wives, Abigail and Elizabeth.  He gave to this parish for ever a
yearly sum of £10, to be distributed on the 5th of December, the day of
his wedding with his wife Elizabeth.”

                                * * * * *

HENRY RAPER, Esq.—Near this spot are deposited the remains of this
gentleman, who died in 1789, and of his wife Katherine Raper, who died in
1823.  This family was greatly respected.

                                * * * * *

At the west end of the north aisle formerly stood the old font, and in a
book case close to it a large folio Bible, Fox’s Book of Martyrs, a folio
Common Prayer Book, and the Homilies of the Church of England, each
secured with a chain.  The books are now placed at the south side of the
church, and the present marble font stands at the entrance to the middle
aisle.

                                * * * * *

On the left of the great western entrance is an inscription on a marble
tablet to the memory of Mrs. Bayley, who died in 1828, aged 45.  This
tablet was placed by her uncle, Wilton, the sculptor.

                                * * * * *

THE ASHBURNHAM BELL.—This bell originally in the steeple that was taken
down for security in 1815, is now placed in the porch, as a relic of
former days.  On a board near the bell are recorded the following
particulars:—

    “This bell was given to the Old Parish Church of Chelsea by the Hon.
    Wm. Ashburnham in the year 1679.  It was a grateful offering on his
    part to commemorate his escape from drowning in the Thames, into
    which he had wandered during a dark night of the above year, and from
    which he was saved by hearing the clock of this church strike the
    hour of nine.  Many changes in the church having taken place since
    then, and this bell having long remained unused and nearly forgotten,
    it is here preserved as an interesting Chelsea antiquity, having been
    removed from the Clock Tower and placed in its present position by
    order of the Church Trustees, and under the direction of

    A. GERALD W. BLUNT, M.A., Rector.

    R. HENRY DAVIES, B.A., Incumbent of the Church.

    T. B. DIPLOCK, M.D., G. W. RICHARDS, } Churchwardens.

    _March_ 1862.”

There was another account given of this bell many years ago.  It was that
the Hon. W Ashburnham was returning home from Lambeth in a boat at night,
when almost suddenly there came a dense fog over the river, which
prevented him seeing any object whatever.  He became alarmed, and allowed
the boat to drift for some distance, expecting every moment it would run
foul of some barge or craft, and that he would be plunged into the river,
when to his great joy he heard Chelsea Church clock strike nine, and,
judging from the sound that he was nearly opposite the church, he seized
the oars and pulled away as direct as he could towards it, and at length
landed safely on shore.  It afterwards appeared that had the boat drifted
much further it would have been upset, and in all probability Mr.
Ashburnham would have met with a watery grave.  The family, considering
the striking of the clock to have been a most providential means of
saving his life, gave the bell, and made certain conditions that it
should be rung every evening during the winter months, in case of any
future similar event.  The sexton paid 5s. to the bell-ringer for
attending at nine o’clock, as stated, for the season.

                                * * * * *

On the right of the western entrance, in the south aisle, is an
inscription to the memory of Teak S. Edwards, Esq., F.L.S., who died in
1819, aged 50.  “As a faithful delineator of nature few equalled, and
none excelled.”

                                * * * * *

Near to where now the Homilies are placed was originally fixed the
monument of Lt.-Col. the Hon. H. Cadogan, executed by Chantrey, a fine
specimen of that celebrated sculptor’s chisel.  It was removed to the New
Parish Church, some years since, and consequently it must be noticed in
the account of that beautiful architectural edifice.

                                * * * * *

LORD AND LADY DACRE.—This is one of the most magnificent monuments that
can be found in any parish church in London, and my only surprise is that
so few of the inhabitants of the parish, comparatively, have inspected
it.  It stands against the wall of the south aisle, and was erected to
the memory of Gregory, Lord Dacre, and Anne, his wife.  They are
represented in white marble, lying on a sarcophagus, under an arch
supported by marble pillars of the Corinthian order.  Lord Dacre is in
armour, with a long beard and short hair; her ladyship is habited in a
gown and long cloak with a ruff.  A dog is at the feet of each.  On
either side is a lofty obelisk.  Over the arch are the arms of the
family; the whole is richly ornamented with flowers and several pieces of
elaborate Mosaic work.

The parish of Chelsea, by Lady Dacre’s will, have some presentations to
her Almshouses in Westminster, on condition of keeping the monument in
repair.  It has been lately painted and beautified.  Lord Dacre died in
1594, and Lady Dacre in 1595.  This monument was originally placed in Sir
T. More’s chapel, it is so described in Lady Dacre’s will.  When the
church was almost rebuilt in 1667, it was placed in its present
situation.

                                * * * * *

On a marble tablet, against the same wall, is an inscription to the
memory of Catherine, wife of the Rev. T. Mahon, Rector of Newport, Co. of
Mayo, Ireland, who died in 1822, aged 20.

                                * * * * *

SIR ARTHUR GORGES.—Bowack, in his “Antiquities of Middlesex,” mentions a
monument raised about 4 ft. from the ground, with the effigies of Sir
Arthur Gorges, his lady, three sons, and five daughters, in brass plates
fixed thereon, no trace of it can now be discovered.  There is, however,
on a black slab, fixed against the north wall of Sir Thomas More’s
chapel, an inscription to the memory of Arthur Gorges, Esq. (eldest son
of Sir Arthur Gorges), who died in 1668.  He married Mary, daughter of
Lord Bayning.  This was her third marriage.  She is here buried with her
husband.

                                * * * * *

SIR THOMAS MORE’S CHAPEL, which was built by him, belonged to the
proprietor of his house until it was sold by Arthur Gorges, Esq., to
Lionel, Earl of Middlesex, when he reserved the chapel to himself, as he
continued to reside at Chelsea in another house.  In 1664, when he sold
the last-mentioned house, he only renewed a right of burial for his
family.  The chapel passed therefore with the house, through various
owners, to Sir William Milman, and ultimately it became the freehold
property, for many years, of the late Mr. Mann, of Paradise Row, now
called Queen’s Road West.  It is still private property.  A large Gothic
arch opens into the chancel, and is supported by pillars, the capitals of
which are ornamented with human heads, rudely but curiously carved,
together with bundles of rods resembling the fasces or badges of the
ancient Roman magistrates; on the entablature of the easternmost is the
date 1527.

                                * * * * *

DUCHESS OF NORTHUMBERLAND.—The venerable monument of Lady Jane Guildford,
Duchess of Northumberland, is placed against the north wall of this
chapel.  This interesting memorial consists of an altar-tomb under an
arched recess, crowned by four canopies and supported by five reticulated
pillars, the bases of which rest on the altar-tomb as on a plinth.  The
faces of the tomb are divided into panels, containing quatrefoils
enclosing shields, and one coat of arms remains.  The back of the recess
is divided into three compartments by small graduated buttresses; that on
the west contained the arms, and sons, while that on the east displays
the effigies of the Duchess and her daughters.  The soffit of this recess
is richly groined, the canopies are divided by graduated buttresses with
pinnacles at their apices; they consist of a trefoiled arch with angular
pediments crocketed, and terminating in rich finials, and the spandrils
are panelled.  The frieze, formed by two cavittoes, is ornamented, the
lower with rosettes, and the upper with portcullis and rosettes arranged
alternately.  The whole is surmounted by a cornice of foliage.  The
Duchess appears in the front, kneeling, habited in a surcoat, with her
arms richly emblazoned, originally in enamel.  Behind her are her
daughters, with their Christian names engraved over their heads in Gothic
letters.  On the left side were represented, on a brass plate, (now long
torn off) the effigies of her sons.  The inscription states that the
Duchess had issue thirteen children, eight sons and five daughters.  She
died “at her maner of Chelsey, ye 22 daye of January, in ye second yere
of ye reigne of our Sovereyne Lady Queene Mary the first, and in A.D
MDLV., on whose soul Jesus have mercy.”

                                * * * * *

SIR W. MILMAN.—On the same wall as the preceding is the monument of this
gentleman, who died in 1713.  There is also another to the memory of
several of the same family.

                                * * * * *

SIR ROBERT STANLEY.—The monument of this distinguished resident is at the
east end of the chapel.  Two figures, representing Justice and Fortitude,
support the arms of Stanley, and three large urns; on the centre one, on
a medallion, is the bust of Sir Robert in alto relievo, who is
represented with whiskers but no beard.  On the urns, on each side, are
medallions of two of his children, whose deaths are noticed on the
monument.  He died in 1632, and was the second son of the “Earle of
Darbie.”

                                * * * * *

Near the principal window here is a small brass plate fixed into a marble
tablet to the memory of Humphrey Peshall, Esq., who died in 1650.

                                * * * * *

There are a few other inscriptions in different parts of the church, but
the principal and most ancient ones have been all noticed.  We will now
proceed, therefore, to describe some of the monuments in the old
churchyard.

DR. CHAMBERLAYNE.—On the south side, fronting the river, there are
several monuments to the memory of this family, for the erection of which
and for making a vault Dr. Chamberlayne obtained a grant from the parish,
in consideration of a benefaction which will probably be mentioned
hereafter.  He was buried here in 1703.  On the left side of the western
window, on a large mural slab, is an inscription to his memory.  The
latter part of it is remarkable:—“He was so studious of doing good to all
men, and especially to posterity, that he ordered some of his books,
covered with wax, to be buried with him, which may be of use in times to
come.  God preserve thee, O traveller! go, and imitate him.  This
monument, not to be rashly violated, his friend, Walter Harris, Doctor of
Physic, caused to be erected as a testimony both of his respect and
grief.”

“Dr. Harris evinced some singularity of opinion,” says Mr. Faulkner, “in
supposing that posterity would gain any information from works thus
entombed with the body of their author; but whatever might have been the
intention, his views in depositing the books in the tomb of his friend
have been frustrated, as, some years since, Dr. Chamberlayne’s tomb
yielded to the injuries of time, and, on examination, it was discovered
that the damp and moisture admitted by the general decay, had totally
obliterated almost every appearance of them; his seal, with his arms, was
however still perfect.”

                                * * * * *

A FEMALE HEROINE.—One of the inscriptions to the memory of the
Chamberlayne family is as follows:—In a vault hard by lieth Anne, sole
daughter of Edward Chamberlayne, LL.D., who long declining wedlock, and
aspiring above her sex and age, fought under her brother, with arms and
manly attire, in a fire-ship, against the French, for six hours, on the
30th June, 1690.  After returning home she married Sir John Spragg, with
whom she lived very affectionately for eighteen months, but, giving birth
to a child, she died a few days after in 1691!

                                * * * * *

On the north side of the churchyard, on a mural monument, is an
inscription to the memory of John Pennant, Esq., who died in 1709.

                                * * * * *

SIR HANS SLOANE, Bart.—In the south-east corner is a large and handsome
monument to the memory of this distinguished resident in the parish, and
of his lady.  As frequent notices are taken of Sir Robert Stanley in this
work, it is only necessary here to give a brief description of the tomb.
It is composed of Portland stone, on the top of which, under a portico,
supported by four pillars, is placed a vase of white marble, with four
serpents entwined around it, executed out of one piece; on each side is
an entablature, the arms on one, and the crest on the other.  It was
executed by Wilton, the statuary, and was caused to be erected there by
his two daughters, Elizabeth Cadogan and Sarah Stanley.  Sir Hans Sloane
died in 1753, in his 92nd year.  Lady Sloane died in 1724.

                                * * * * *

HENRY S. WOODFALL, Esq.—Near the north-east corner of the churchyard, on
a flat stone, was some years since an inscription to the memory of Henry
S. Woodfall, the celebrated printer of the Letters of Junius, who spent
the latter part of his life in calm retirement amongst his Chelsea
friends.  He was an associate of many distinguished literary characters,
and died in 1805.

                                * * * * *

PHILIP MILLER, Esq.—Close to the preceding spot is an obelisk to the
memory of Philip Miller, Curator of the Botanic Gardens, Chelsea, and
Author of the Gardeners’ Dictionary, &c.  He died in 1771, aged 80.  This
monument was erected by the Fellows of the Linnæan and Horticultural
Societies in 1815.

                                * * * * *

Against the wall of the old Vestry Room (now School Room) are tablets to
the memory of Thomas Bowes, M.D., F.R.S., William Moncrieff, Professor of
Humanity at St. Andrew’s, and Mrs. Methuen.  The dates of these are 1723
and 1732.

                                * * * * *

These are the principal raised cenataphs and mural tablets in this
ancient churchyard.



ERECTION OF AN ORGAN.


On the 22nd of January, 1818, the following resolution was unanimously
carried at a meeting in Vestry assembled:—“Resolved that this meeting
sensibly feels the propriety as well as the necessity of an organ being
placed in the parochial Church, and that the best means to effect this
desirable object will be by voluntary subscription, and that it be
immediately entered into.”  A committee was appointed to carry this
resolution into effect, and Luke Thomas Flood, Esq., was requested to
become the treasurer, but, although a great many contributions were
received, the aggregate sum was insufficient for the purpose, and the
money was tendered back to the subscribers.  This failure, and the offer
made, occasioned considerable amusement amongst some of the parishioners,
and many laughable squibs were printed and circulated.  The most
ludicrous of these was a poetic effusion, written by a gentleman of
education and who was not altogether a stranger in literary circles.  It
was entitled “_The Organ in the Suds_,” and embodied much of that wit and
humour which is so frequently displayed in “PUNCH.”  Sometime afterwards,
however, the effort was successfully renewed, and an organ was purchased.
The two principal candidates for organist were Mr. Goss, then
comparatively unknown in the musical world, but who has since risen to
eminence as a composer, and is now organist at St. Paul’s Cathedral, and
Mr. Ling, who had become a great favourite with many of the subscribers.
The feeling amongst the friends of these gentlemen was very strongly
manifested, and the proceedings on the day of election were characterized
by much excitement.  Mr. Ling obtained the greatest number of votes from
the subscribers, and consequently was elected.  Mr. Goss, however, was
appointed organist of the New Church, when it was completed, by the
Church Trustees, agreeably to the decision of Dr. Crotch, Mr. Attwood,
and some others, who were requested to decide on the relative
qualifications of the candidates.  There were a great many parishioners
present on this occasion.

From the Report of the Old Church Organ Committee, dated Feb. 16, 1819, a
copy of which is now before me, it appears that the entire amount
received was £325 4_s._ 6_d._; that the organ cost £200, and that the
expenses altogether were no less than 125 4_s._ 6_d._, including £24
4_s._ for a Faculty, and £25 to Mr. H. Bevington, for removing the organ
and keeping it in repair for twelve months, as per agreement.  The
remaining expenditure was for necessary alterations in the gallery, and
for fittings, &c.  The organ had been previously erected in a private
mansion, which will explain the charge for removal, and the sum paid for
the organ was considered at that time to be a great bargain.

The singing, prior to the erection of the organ, was indeed very bad,
being almost entirely confined to the school children, who were placed in
galleries specially erected for them, at the extreme western part of the
church, and so close to the ceiling that a grown person could scarcely
stand upright in them.



SPRING TIDES.—TAKEN TO CHURCH IN A BOAT.


A circumstance occurred at the church, about the year 1809, of a singular
character.  There had been some very high tides during the week, and on
the following Sunday morning the waters rose several feet against the
southern boundary wall, which rendered the employment of a boat necessary
to convey those of the congregation who resided in the neighbourhood near
to Battersea Bridge to the western entrance of the church.  Although
there have been some very high spring tides since that time, I am happy
to say, the congregation have always been enabled to walk to the Old
Church without the least fear of being drowned on their way to it!  The
raising of the road, and other alterations, have no doubt checked such
overflowings at this particular spot.



DOING PENANCE.


The next event is one of unusual interest.  The statement may be relied
upon as authentic, and the circumstance of its not having gained
publicity has been owing to the few persons who witnessed it and the
secrecy enjoined, but after nearly sixty years have elapsed, and the
individuals concerned being long since deceased, the particulars may now
be fairly disclosed without any breach of confidence.

A short time after the conclusion of Divine Service, on a Sunday morning,
a gentleman alighted from a carriage and proceeded to the Vestry Room,
where two others were waiting his arrival.  As soon as the congregation
had dispersed, the parties, with two or three parochial officers, &c.,
went to the entrance of the middle aisle, and the inner door being
closed, the person especially referred to hurriedly knelt down.  A paper
was then placed in his hand, which was a recantation of certain
opprobrious epithets that he had applied to a lady in one of the streets
in the parish, stigmatizing her publicly by a term which the reader can
easily supply.  When he recited the offensive words he laid particular
emphasis on them, evidently in a spirit of bravado and not of contrition.
Penance and penitence were not in any way, apparently, considered by him
as synonymous terms.  There is scarcely an individual who would suppose
that such an event occurred, at so comparatively recent a period as sixty
years ago, in the old Parish Church of St. Luke, Chelsea.



SACRILEGE.


On Wednesday night, the 27th of December, 1827, this church was
sacrilegiously broken into, and the following articles stolen, viz., two
plated flagons, two plated chalices, two plated salvers, a blue cloth
covering the Communion Table, and a table cloth and napkin for the same;
a crimson cushion and hanging for the pulpit, the brass branches from the
pulpit and those from the chandeliers in the middle aisle.  On Thursday
night, the 1st of February following, the church was again entered and
robbed of the chandeliers, the brass curtain rods, and the cushions from
the churchwardens’ and overseers’ pews.

A reward of £100 was offered by the Secretary of State, and £70 by the
parish, for the discovery of the robbers, who were soon after taken,
tried at Newgate, and condemned to be transported for life.



RECTORS AT THE OLD CHURCH.


The following is a list of the names of most of the rectors, commencing
with the earliest one recorded, and terminating with the Hon. and Rev. G.
V. Wellesley, D.D., who continued of course rector when the new St.
Luke’s Church was completed.  The list of subsequent rectors will be
found placed in the notice of that church:—

          Patrons.                     Name.            Institution.
Edward II.                     Roger de Berners        1316
              „                Nicholas Hosbound       1339
Edward III.                    Martyn de Moulish       1348
              „                William Palmer          1368
Abbot & Conv. West.            Thomas de Preston       1368
 There were altogether 29 Rectors instituted by the Abbot and Convent
                           of Westminster.
Sir Thomas More                John Larke {19a}        1530
              „                John Richardson {19b}   1543
Duchess of Somerset            Richard Ward {19c}      1585
C. Cheyne, Esq.                Adam Littleton, D.D.    1669
Viscount Cheyne                John King, D.D.         1694
Sir Hans Sloane                Sloane Elsmere, D.D.    1732
              „                Reginald Heber, M.A.    1766
Earl Cadogan and Henry         Thomas Drake, D.D.      1770
Stanley
Lord Cadogan                   W. B. Cadogan, M.A.     1775
Lady Mendip and Mrs. D’Oyley   Charles Sturgess,       1797
                               M.A.
Earl Cadogan                   Hon. and Rev. Dr.       1805
                               Wellesley

The Rev. Dr. Littleton was educated at Westminster School, under the
celebrated Dr. Busby, and afterwards became Prebendary of Westminster.
He was well skilled in the Oriental languages and in rabinnical learning.
He died at Chelsea in 1694, in the 67th year of his age.

                                * * * * *

The Rev. Dr. John King was a divine of considerable literary eminence.
Amongst a variety of works he published a sermon, entitled, “The Divine
Favour the best Alliance; or, Repentance the Safest Sanctuary in Times of
Danger; preached at the Parish Church of Chelsey,” in 1701.  There is in
the British Museum a small quarto volume, in manuscript, by Dr. King,
containing “Remarks on the Life of Sir Thomas More,” and a letter,
designed for Mr. Hearne, respecting Sir T. More’s house at Chelsea.  He
died in this parish in 1732, aged 80, much respected, and was buried at
Pertenhall.  The family of Dr. King bear the same arms with Robert King,
the first Bishop of Oxford.

                                * * * * *

The Rev. Dr. Sloane Elsmere died in 1776, and left behind him a volume of
sermons to be published for the benefit of the “Girls’ Charity School,”
of which he was the original founder.  He was a relation of Sir Hans
Sloane.

                                * * * * *

The Rev. Reginald Heber received his school education at the Free School,
Manchester, from whence he removed to Brasenose College, Oxford.  Mr.
Heber, in 1766, succeeded to a considerable estate (his elder brother
dying unmarried) at Hodnet, in Shropshire; and in the same year he was
inducted to the rectory of Chelsea, the presentation to which had several
years before been purchased for him by his brother.  He found the
rectoral house in bad condition, and partly rebuilt and greatly improved
the whole of it.  In 1770 he exchanged the rectory of Chelsea with Dr.
Drake, rector of Amersham, Bucks, for Malpas, in Cheshire.  Mr. Heber
married, in 1773, the daughter of the Rev. Martin Bayly, which lady died
the following year, leaving an infant son, Richard Heber, who became
Member for the University of Oxford.  Eight years after he married,
secondly, the daughter of Dr. Cuthbert Allanson, by whom he had two sons,
Reginald, the late lamented Bishop of Calcutta—a prelate whose memory is
revered by Christians of all denominations—the other son was Thomas
Cuthbert Heber, and he had also one daughter.  Mr. Heber died at Malpas
in 1804, in his 76th year.

                                * * * * *

The Hon. and Rev. William Bromley Cadogan, second son of Lord Cadogan,
was born in 1751, and had his education at Westminster School, from
whence he was removed to Christ Church College, Oxford.  He obtained
several prizes at the University for classical knowledge.  On the death
of Dr. Drake he was presented to the rectory of Chelsea.  He also became
vicar of St. Giles’s, Reading.  Mr. Faulkner gives a singular anecdote
relating to the unsolicited offer of this vicarage to Mr. Cadogan.  Lord
Bathurst, who was then Chancellor, called at Lord Cadogan’s house, and
desired to see him.  His lordship was not at home; and the servants,
seeing Lord Bathurst very plainly dressed, admitted him into the hall
only, having no suspicion of his high rank.  The Chancellor therefore
wrote a note at the hall table, requesting Lord Cadogan to accept the
vicarage of St. Giles’s, Reading, for his son.  The offer of so valuable
a preferment, and so near to the family seat at Caversham, was peculiarly
acceptable to Lord Cadogan.  It appeared, however, that the parishioners
were deeply affected by the death of the Rev. Mr. Talbot, their late
vicar, and equally grieved at the appointment of his successor; but they
flattered themselves that the new vicar, being a young gentleman of noble
family, would feel no disposition to do the duties himself, and that the
Rev. Mr. Halward, who had been recently appointed, and towards whom they
already were much attached, might be continued in the curacy.  A petition
for this purpose was presented to Mr. Cadogan, but it was rejected with
strong marks of disapprobation.  The old congregation therefore became
dispersed.  Some of them, under the patronage of the Countess of
Huntingdon, opened a place for Divine worship for themselves, while
others, who were unwilling to leave the church altogether, thought that
they perceived marks of sincerity in his conduct and preaching,
attempted, by frequent admonitory letters, to convince Mr. Cadogan of
what they considered to be his “errors,” and to set him “right.”  On this
occasion several letters passed between him and Mrs. Talbot, the widow of
the previous vicar, whose house was opened for religious exercises, and
where prayer was occasionally offered up for his conversion.  Mr. Cadogan
is said to have been highly offended, but at length, humbled and subdued,
he fell at the feet of accumulated kindness, and confessed to the last
moment of his life, that “Mrs. Talbot’s letters and example were the
principal means of leading him to the saving knowledge of Christ.”  It
produced, it appears, a great change in his manner of preaching, and led
the way to his intimacy with the Rev. Mr. Hill, Mr. Romaine, and others,
who were distinguished by the title of popular preachers.  He likewise
offered the curacy to Mr. Halward, who previously he had but “lightly
esteemed,” but that gentleman had then accepted some preferment which
prevented him from acceding to the offer.  Mr. Cadogan divided his time
between Chelsea and Reading; but finding his labours in both places too
arduous, he let the rectory-house, and left Chelsea in charge of the Rev.
Mr. Middleton, his curate, except at the season of Lent, and of the
Sacrament, on which occasions the church was crowded.  Mr. Cadogan was
seized at Reading on a Thursday evening, after his lecture, with an
inflammation of the bowels, and departed this life on the following
Tuesday, expressing with his lips that which was his “glorious theme, the
unbounded love of Christ.”  He died in 1797, aged 46.

A monument, designed by Bacon, is erected in the church at Reading.
Beneath the inscription are the crosier or pastoral staff; the rod of
Aaron, which budded and yielded almonds; and the book mentioned in the
Revelations, as sealed with seven seals.

                                * * * * *

The Rev. Charles Sturges was presented to this rectory in 1797.
Respectful mention is made of him in Mrs. Trimmer’s publication on the
Sunday Schools of Old Brentford.  He has a copy of Latin verses in the
Musæ Etonenses, and another in the Academiæ Cantabrigiensis Luctus, on
the death of George II.  The sudden death of Mr. Sturges was another
verification of that passage in our Burial Service, “In the midst of life
we are in death,” &c., which he had read many times at the graves of the
parishioners.  He expired on the 22nd of April, 1805, after only half an
hour’s illness, from an apoplectic seizure, immediately before the hour
of dinner, at the rectory of Loddington, Northamptonshire, and his
remains were interred in the chancel of that church.

                                * * * * *

The Hon. and Rev. Gerald Valerian Wellesley, D.D., succeeded Mr.
Sturgess.  A notice of him will be found in the account of the New Parish
Church.

                                * * * * *

The Rev. R. H. Davies, M.A., who had been previously senior curate of the
new Parish Church, succeeded the Rev. John Rush when he died in 1855, as
Incumbent of the Old Church.  Through his exertions and instrumentality,
a small vestry, or robing room, has been attached to the church.  The
great inconvenience and injury to the Minister’s health, arising from his
having to walk across the churchyard in his robes, and also to change
them, especially in the winter months, had been sadly experienced and
justly complained of by almost every officiating clergyman in my
recollection.  Very considerable alterations and great improvements have
likewise been made in the interior of the church, during the fourteen
years that Mr. Davies has been the Incumbent, without interfering greatly
with its ancient architecture.  Perhaps the best way to convey an
adequate idea of what has been accomplished will be to give an account of
the expenses, taken from a Report recently published.

The New Gallery           £395     11     0
Re-pewing                  420     13     6
New Stoves, &c.             44     15     0
Iron Railing                65      0     0
Ventilators                 32     18     9
East Window                 83     18     7
Reading Desk                 5      3     6
New Vestry, &c              94     14     3
Corona in Chancel           12      0     0
Alterations to Organ        60      0     0

A great part of the cost of these extensive and essential alterations was
contributed by the Trustees for building the new St. Luke’s Church; a
very large portion by the liberal contributions of the congregation, and
a part also by the Rev. Mr. Davies’s own friends not connected with the
church, and others to whom he applied.  The schools, as will be seen,
have been greatly benefitted, and various charitable societies
established, by which means vast blessings have been conferred on the
poor in the neighbourhood.



PETYT’S SCHOOL ROOM AND VESTRY.


In the year 1706, a Vestry Room and School Room, with apartments for a
master, were erected at the expense of W. Petyt, Esq. {23}  There is a
descriptive inscription upon the west front of the school room, which
records the donation, at the conclusion of which it is added, “To all
which may God give a blessing.  Soli Deo Gloria.”  The original deed of
gift is entered in the Vestry minutes.  Mr. Petyt resided in Church
(lane) Street, and died there in 1707, aged 71, but was buried in the
Temple Church.  He was a member of the Inner Temple, and Keeper of the
Records in the Tower of London.

In 1819 there were 100 boys and girls educated and clothed free of any
expense to their parents.  The girls at that period were instructed in a
house rented in Lordship’s Place, near Cheyne Row.  These schools, with
the master and mistress, were transferred to the new School Rooms, at the
back of the present Parish Church.

The Rev. Mr. Davies recently appealed to the Vestry for a grant of £100
to make considerable repairs in this old building, it being in a most
dilapidated condition (the ground floor, which was the Vestry Room, was
for some time previously used as a fire-engine station), and the one
school room altogether inadequate for the proper accommodation of the
children of the district, promising himself to be answerable for the
deficiency in the amount of the expenditure.  The Vestry, in
consideration of its having been bequeathed to the parish, complied with
the request.  Mr. Davies likewise obtained for the same laudable object a
grant of £20 from the Ragged School Union, the congregation generously
contributing the remaining sum required to put the building in thorough
repair.  The entire cost was rather more than £279.  There are now three
good school-rooms instead of one, as was formerly the case, and
consequently the number of children attending the schools has been
greatly augmented.

                                * * * * *

It may here be mentioned that the “watchhouse,” and the “stocks” for
vagrants, formerly stood close to the river, opposite the church.



History of the Manor.
ROYAL AND DISTINGUISHED RESIDENTS.


BLACKSTONE, in his “Commentaries,” says that manors are, in substance, as
ancient as the Saxon Constitution.  The manor of Chilchell, or Chelcheya
(Chelsea), was given it appears, in the reign of Edward the Confessor to
the Abbot and Convent of Westminster, by Thurstan, the governor of the
king’s palace, who held it of him.  This gift was confirmed by a charter,
which transfers the manor, with all its rights and appurtenances, as
fully as it was held by Thurstan: “besides, together with this manor, as
a free gift, every third tree, and every third horse load of fruits grown
in the neighbouring wood at Kyngesbyrig” (now called Knightsbridge).
This charter, which is in the Saxon language, is still preserved in the
British Museum.  It is sealed with a waxen seal, suspended by a silken
string, after the Norman fashion, in the front of which are the effigies
of the king, holding in his right hand a cross, and in his left a globe;
on the reverse is the same image, holding in his right hand a spear
surmounted by a dove, and bearing in his left a sword, with this
inscription on both sides, “The seal of Edward King of England.”

King William, by a charter dated at Westminster, confirmed the land to
the Monastery of Westminster.

The Record of Domesday Book, to which we are so greatly indebted, was
begun in 1080, and completed in 1086.  In it is mentioned the lands in
Chelsea, then in possession of the Church of Westminster.

The general description given of menial persons, including those in the
manor of Chelsea, at the period when the survey of the land belonging to
the lords, or great landowners, was taken, shows the lamentable state of
thousands of our fellow-creatures.  Slaves were allowed nothing but
subsistence and clothes, and were distinguished from freemen by a
peculiar dress.  Long hair was a mark of dignity and freedom; for that
reason, slaves, (menial persons,) were obliged to shave their heads, by
which they were reminded of their inferiority of condition.  At length
Henry VIII. granted manumission to two of his slaves and their families,
for which he assigned this just reason: “God at first created all men
equally free by nature, but many had been reduced to slavery by the laws
of men.  We believe it, therefore, to be a pious act, and meritorious in
the sight of God, to set certain of our slaves at liberty from their
bondage.”  The granting of leases, which afterwards followed, almost
completely emancipated the “villain-slave,” so that at the time of
Elizabeth, scarcely any person existed to whom the former laws applied.

Gervace, abbot of Westminster, aliened the manor of Chelchithe, to his
mother Dameta and her heirs.  Afterwards it was held by the heirs of
Bartholomew de Fontibus.

Several court rolls of this manor, during the reigns of King Edward III.
and Richard II. are among the records of the Dean and Chapter of
Westminster.

A brewer, of the name of North, was presented at one of these courts for
not putting up a sign as was customary; and at another the wife of Philip
Rose was fined 6_d._ for being a common babbler.

Simon Bayle appears to have been lessee of the manor house, 33 Hen. VI.,
and from that period there is a total deficiency of records till the
reign of Henry VII.

                                * * * * *

Sir Reginald Bray was now in possession of the manor.  He was Receiver
General to Sir Henry Stafford, a younger son of the Duke of Buckingham,
who married the widow of the Earl of Richmond, and mother of Henry VII.
There are many interesting historical particulars respecting Sir Reginald
Bray.  He was buried in the chapel of St. George, Windsor.

                                * * * * *

From Sir Reginald Bray the manor descended to Margaret, only child of his
next brother, John, who married Sir William Sandys, created afterwards
Lord Sands.  He was one of those peers who subscribed the articles
exhibited to Henry VIII. against Cardinal Wolsey; and the next year was
also one who signed the declaration to the Pope, intimating the danger of
losing his supremacy, in case he did not comply with the king’s wishes in
regard to his divorce from Queen Catherine.  He died in 1542.

There have been various surmises as to the correct definition of “Sands
End,” in Fulham parish, which immediately adjoins Chelsea, and is called
such for a short distance.  I venture to suggest the following
explanation.  Lord Sands, being Lord of the Manor of Chelsea, his rights
terminated at the spot just mentioned, and to record this fact the people
of Fulham called it Sands End, signifying thereby that Lord Sands’s
jurisdiction and property ended there.  Perhaps this idea is not
original, but I have never heard it thus explained, and therefore I have
given it.

This Lord Sands, a few years previous to his death, conveyed to Henry
VIII. the manor of Chelsea, with certain closes or land situated at
Kensal Green, near Wilsden, containing about 137¾ acres. {26}  In 1861
there were in that part of Kensal which belongs to this parish 591 houses
and 3223 inhabitants.  The number of houses has since increased, and the
present population may be estimated at 3500 persons.  There are a great
many highly respectable residents, and a large number of superior new
houses are continually being erected in the adjoining wealthy parishes,
which will ultimately increase the trade and value of property in the
entire district.  There are also several new Churches and Chapels built
within the last few years in the neighbourhood.  The Paddington Canal,
which passes through the detached parts of Chelsea and Kensington, was
opened with an aquatic procession on the 10th of July, 1801, in the
presence of a vast concourse of spectators.

                                * * * * *

“Henry VIII. was probably induced to possess this manor,” says Mr.
Faulkner, “from having observed, in his frequent visits to Sir Thomas
More, the pleasantness of the situation on the banks of the Thames; and
from the salubrity of the air, deeming it a fit residence for his infant
daughter, the Princess Elizabeth, then between three and four years of
age.  But, on his obtaining it, finding that the manor house was ancient,
and at that time in possession of the Lawrence family, {27} he erected a
new manor house on the eastern side of Winchester House,” which stood on
the site of the river-side entrance to Oakley Street, Cheyne Walk.  It
was “here the young Princess was nurtured, and it most probably was her
chief residence during her father’s reign.  In 1540, Sir Francis Bryan
was made ‘Keeper of Chelsey’ for life, by patent, 31 Hen. VIII.”

                                * * * * *

On the marriage of Henry with Catharine Parr, this manor was assigned to
that Queen as part of her jointure.  Most unfortunately for her future
welfare, Catharine, after the decease of the king, placed her affections
upon the brother of Jane Seymour, Thomas Lord Seymour, to whom she was
subsequently married.  Whatever she might have dreaded from the temper of
her previous royal husband, was realized in the accumulated injuries she
received from Seymour, whose turbulent passions and uncontrolled ambition
led him to aspire to the hand of the Princess Elizabeth, who then resided
at Chelsea under the Queen’s care.  She died at Sudeley Castle in 1548,
not without suspicion of poison.

                                * * * * *

After the death of Catharine Parr, the manor was bestowed on the Duke of
Northumberland by Edward VI.  On the accession of Mary, the duke was
impeached, attainted of high treason, and beheaded in 1553.

Jane, Duchess of Northumberland, was a most singular instance of the
vicissitudes of fortune, having been the wife of one of the greatest men
of that age, she lived to see her husband lose his head on a scaffold; to
see one son share his father’s fate, another die in a prison, and the
rest of her children live only by permission.  Amidst this accumulated
distress, which was heightened by the confiscation of her property, she
displayed great firmness of mind, though left destitute of fortune and
friends, till the arrival of some of the Spanish nobility, who interested
themselves so warmly in her favour, that they prevailed on the Queen to
reinstate her in some of her former possessions.  She made a will,
written with her own hand, unassisted by the advice of any learned in the
laws.  Amongst a variety of other bequests, she left to Sir Henry Sidney
the gold and green hangings in the manor house, “water side, at Chelsey.”
“My will,” she says, “is earnestly and effectually, that little
solemnities be made for me, for I had even have a thousand foldes my
debts to be paide, and the poore to be given unto, than anye pompe to be
shewed upon my wretched carkes; therefore to the wormes will I goe, as I
have afore wrytten in all poyntes, as you will answer yt afore God; and
you breke any one jot of it, your wills hereafter may chaunce be as well
broken.”  Notwithstanding the strict injunctions contained in her will,
she was buried with great funeral pomp, in February, 1535; two heralds
attending, with many mourners, six dozen of torches, and two white
branches, and “a canopy borne over her effigies in wax, in a goodly
hearse to the church of Chelsey.”

                                * * * * *

Ann of Cleves, after her divorce from Henry VIII., appears to have
resided in this manor house, where, it is said, she died in 1557, and was
buried in Westminster.

                                * * * * *

Queen Elizabeth, in 1559, leased this manor to Ann, Duchess of Somerset,
widow of the late Protector, for life.  Her Majesty afterwards granted
the manor to John Stanhope, Esq., vice-chamberlain of her household.  On
the accession of James I. he was created Lord Stanhope, of Harrington.

After several families had held the manor, we find it in possession of
the Cheyne family.

                                * * * * *

Charles Cheyne, afterwards Viscount Newhaven, married Lady Jane, eldest
daughter and co-heir of William Duke of Newcastle, with whom he obtained
an immense fortune.  This lady is celebrated for her excellent
endowments, which she exhibited in a distinguished manner during the
civil wars in the reign of Charles I., in her keeping the garrisoned
house of her father, where she was left with one of her sisters, against
the enemy, till, overpowered by their force, she was made prisoner, but,
by the success of the royal arms, it was retaken.  Her duty and piety to
her exiled father, in making repeated remittances, which she effected by
the sale of some rich jewels left her by her grandmother, the Lady Ogle,
after the vain efforts she had made for his pardon, deserve to be
remembered.  Lord Cheyne, as we learn from the inscription on Lady Jane’s
monument, purchased the manor of Chelsea with a part of the large dower
she brought him on his marriage.  His lordship very highly embellished
the house and gardens, and they excited some curiosity at the time.  Mr.
Evelyn, in his Diary, thus notices them: “I made my Lord Cheyney a visit
at Chelsea, and saw those ingenious water-works invented by Mr.
Winstanley, in which were some things very surprising and extraordinary.”
This Mr. Winstanley was the ingenious architect who built the Eddystone
Lighthouse, and perished in it when blown down by the great storm in
1703.  When Lord Cheyne died in 1698, he was succeeded by William, his
son and successor.

                                * * * * *

Sir Hans Sloane, Bart., purchased the manor of William Lord Cheyne, the
second and last Viscount Newhaven, in the year 1712.  Sir Hans was
descended from a family originally of Scotland, but settled in the north
of Ireland, where he received his first education.  At that early age he
evinced a very strong inclination to study the works of Nature, which he
pursued with uncommon application through the rest of his life.  Being
desirous of improving himself in the several branches of physic, to the
profession of which he was ardently devoted, he came to London, and
resided in a house adjoining to the laboratory of Apothecaries’ Hall.
Here Mr. Sloane acquired a perfect knowledge of the preparations and uses
of most chemical medicines; and at the same time prosecuted his favourite
science of botany in the Apothecaries’ Gardens at Chelsea.  He ultimately
became President of the Royal College of Physicians, London, and
associated and corresponded with most of the eminent men of his day.  He
had been previously Secretary to the Royal Society, which he held for 20
years without any salary, and was the intimate friend of Sir Isaac
Newton.  In the last sickness of Queen Anne he was called in to her
assistance, as one of her physicians, as he had been on some former
occasions.  He was created a baronet by George I., an honour which had
never before been conferred upon any physician in England.  Upon
purchasing the manor of Chelsea, he gave a portion of the ground of his
garden to the Apothecaries’ Company, in order to perpetuate it for the
improvement of botanical knowledge, and to communicate to others that
instruction which he had himself received there.  Besides the donation of
so large and valuable a piece of ground, in a delightful situation on the
banks of the Thames, and near the metropolis, he contributed largely
towards building the stairs at the water-side gate, and an additional sum
towards the expenses of the garden.  When Sir Isaac Newton died, Sir Hans
Sloane was chosen as President of the Royal Society, and continued in
that high office for fourteen successive years.  His decay was very
gradual, and foretold that he would one day “drop like a fruit fully
ripe.”  He died in 1753, and was interred in the churchyard of Chelsea,
in the same vault with his lady.  His funeral was attended by many
persons of distinction, and several Fellows of the Royal Society.  He has
been styled “the father of natural history in these realms.”

Sir Hans Sloane’s invaluable Museum, sold to the nation at his decease
for £20,000, being about a fourth of its value, was the nucleus, and so
far the first foundation, of the British Museum.  He bequeathed one
moiety of the manor of Chelsea to his daughter Sarah, the wife of George
Stanley, Esq., of Paultons, in Hampshire, and the remainder to his second
daughter, the lady of Charles Lord Cadogan, in which family the property
still remains.  Hence the names of Cheyne Walk, Hans Place, Sloane
Street, Cadogan Place, Oakley Street, and Paultons Square.  The eldest
son of Earl Cadogan takes his father’s second title, Viscount Chelsea.

Mrs. Stanley, daughter of Sir Hans Sloane, left one son and two
daughters; Hans Stanley, Esq., the son, who died in 1780, and bequeathed
to his sisters, Anne, the wife of W. Ellis, Esq., afterwards Lord Mendip,
and Sarah, the wife of Christopher D’Oyley, Esq., his moiety of this
manor, with the reversion to Lord Cadogan and his heirs.



Sir Thomas More’s House.


SIR THOMAS MORE purchased an estate at Chelsea, about the year 1520, and
built himself a house, as Erasmus describes it, “neither mean nor subject
to envy, yet magnificent and commodious enough.”  The site of this house
has been long disputed.  The Rev. Dr. King, (who is noticed amongst the
rectors of the Old Church), in his “Letter designed for Mr. Hearne,”
relative to Sir Thomas More’s house, and which is in the British Museum,
says, “As seven cities in Greece contended for the birthplace of Homer,
so there are no fewer than four houses in this parish which lay claim to
Sir Thomas More’s residence, viz.: that which is now the Duke of
Beaufort’s; that which was lately Sir Joseph Alstone’s; that which was
once Sir Reginald Bray’s, and afterwards William Powell’s, which is now
built into several tenements; and that which was lately Sir John
Danvers’s, which is also now pulled down; and on part of the ground a
small street is built, called Danvers Street, and some other houses.  Now
of all these, in my opinion, Beaufort House bids fairest to be the place
where Sir Thomas More’s stood.”  He then proceeds to give his reasons for
arriving at this conclusion, which, when considered in connection with
the statements of other writers on the subject, clearly establishes the
correctness of Dr. King’s opinion.  Sir Thomas More’s house, therefore,
we will conclude stood almost on the site of what is now called Beaufort
Street, facing Battersea Bridge.  After his death, however, very
considerable alterations and additions were made by succeeding occupants,
both in regard to the house and grounds attached to it.  The house, in
its altered state, was pulled down about 140 years ago.

                                * * * * *

Erasmus gives a pleasing description of the manner of More’s living with
his wife and family at Chelsea.  “There he conversed with his wife,” says
he, “his son, his daughter-in-law, his three daughters and their
husbands, with eleven grand-children.  There is not a man living so
affectionate to his children as he; he loveth his old wife as well as if
she was a young maid.”  Fox, in his Martyrology, however, throws a sad
blast over the character of More.  He states that More used to bind
heretics to a tree in his garden, called “The Tree of Troth,” but this
was denied by More himself.  Henry VIII., to whom he owed his rise and
fall, frequently came to Chelsea to visit him.  Sometimes the king would
ascend to the house-top with him to observe the stars and converse on
astronomy.  Amongst the illustrious foreigners entertained and patronised
by Sir Thomas More, may be mentioned Hans Holbein, a celebrated painter,
who lived with him for nearly three years painting portraits of him, his
relations, and friends.  It is generally admitted that he had a house in
Chelsea for aged people, whom he daily relieved.

                                * * * * *

More delighted in telling the following “merrie story,” as he termed
it:—A friar while preaching “spyed a poore wyfe of the paryshe whysperyng
to her pew-fellow, and he fallyng angry thereto, cryde out unto her
aloude, ‘Hold thy babble, I byd thee, thou wyfe in the red hood!’”  He
regularly attended Chelsea Church, and very often assisted at the
celebration of Mass, and at times he would put on a surplice and join the
quire.

                                * * * * *

The pathetic story of More’s wit was never so touchingly illustrated as
on the day after he resigned the Great Seal.  He went to Chelsea Church
as usual with his wife and family, none of whom he had yet informed of
his resignation.  During the service, as was his custom, he sat in the
choir, in a surplice.  After service it was the custom for one of his
attendants to go to her ladyship’s pew, and say, “My Lord is gone
before.”  But this day the Ex-Chancellor came himself, and making a low
bow, said, “Madam, my Lord is gone.”  Then, on their way home, to her
great mortification, he unriddled his mournful pleasantry by telling her
his lordship was gone, in the loss of his official dignities.

                                * * * * *

Sir Thomas had four children, three daughters and one son; the latter was
the youngest.  His first wife wished very much for a boy; at last she
brought this son, who proved to be of slender capacity; upon which he
said to her, “You have prayed so long for a boy, that now you have got
one that will be a boy as long as he lives.”  The good lady walked away
from him.

                                * * * * *

By indefatigable application, More cleared the Court of Chancery of all
its causes.  One day, having ended a cause, he called for the next, and
was told there was “no other depending in the Court.”  He was delighted
to hear it, and ordered it to be inserted on the records of the Court.
It gave rise to the following epigram, not the worst in the English
language:—

    “When More some time had Chancellor been
       No More suits did remain;
    The same shall never More be seen
       Till More be there again.”

The pitiful story of More’s daughter, Margaret, parting with her beloved
father, on the morning of his cruel execution, is truly affecting.  She
followed him to the scaffold—embraced him, implored his blessing, wept
upon his cheek, bidding him in anguish adieu.  A second time she went
forward to him, clung round his neck and kissed him, when at last,
notwithstanding his apparent gravity, tears fell from his eyes * * * and
soon afterwards she was severed from him for ever!  It appears that his
original intention to be interred in the Old Church, was unhappily not
fulfilled.  Dr. King states that “his body was buried in the chapel of
St. Peter, in the Tower, and his head, after some months, was bought by
his daughter, Margaret, and taken down from London Bridge, where it was
fixed upon a pole, and was buried,” probably as stated, in St. Dunstan’s,
near Canterbury.  Aubery, however, asserts that “after he was beheaded,
his trunke was interred in Chelsey Church, near the middle of the south
wall, where was some slight monument erected, which being worne by time,
Sir John Lawrence, of Chelsey, at his own proper costs and chardges,
built to his memorie a handsome one, with inscription, of marble.”  This
statement, as regards the interment of Sir Thomas More’s body, does not
accord with the opinion of most other writers on the subject.

                                * * * * *

After the death of More, his mansion was granted in the 28th of Henry
VIII. to Sir William Paulet, afterwards Marquis of Winchester, to whom
Edward VI. granted in fee both that and all other premises in Chelsea and
Kensington, forfeited by his attainder.

                                * * * * *

The Marquis of Winchester, who was so much of a courtier as to
accommodate himself to princes as well as to subjects of very different
characters, was, from his natural and acquired abilities, perfectly
qualified to act with propriety in the highest offices of the state.  In
the reign of Edward VI. he was made Lord High Treasurer of England.  It
is said that by his councils, in a great measure, the Duke of
Northumberland’s design of setting the Lady Jane Grey on the throne was
prevented; for which good office of loyalty to them, the Queens, Mary and
Elizabeth, continued him in the Treasurer’s Office, which he enjoyed for
thirty years; and on being asked how he preserved himself in that place
through so many changes of government, he answered, “By being a willow,
and not an oak.”  He died in 1572, aged 97 years.  The marquis greatly
enlarged and improved the house, and, according to Norden, “adorned
Chelsea with stately buildings.”  His eldest son, John, second Marquis of
Winchester, died at Chelsea in 1576.  The widow of the first marquis died
in 1586.

                                * * * * *

Gregory, Lord Dacre, soon afterwards had possession of Sir Thomas More’s
house.  He was the son of Thomas Fynes Lord Dacre, who succeeded his
grandfather in the 26th of Henry VIII.; and who, in 1541, was engaged
with some other persons in chasing the deer in Sir Nicholas Pelham’s
park, when a fray arising between them and the keepers, in which one of
the latter was killed, he was found guilty of being accessary to the
murder, and suffered death accordingly; but his children were restored to
their honours in the reign of Queen Elizabeth.  Gregory, Lord Dacre, died
at Chelsea in 1594, without issue; and his sister Margaret, the wife of
Samuel Lennard, Esq., claimed the barony, and was allowed it in the
second of James I.

                                * * * * *

Lady Dacre survived her husband but a few months, and bequeathed her
house at Chelsea, with all its appurtenances, to the great Lord Burleigh,
with remainder to his son Robert, afterwards Earl of Salisbury, and Lord
High Treasurer.  “I have seen,” says Lysons, “among the records at the
Rolls Chapel, a pardon of alienation to Sir Robert Cecil, dated June 21,
39th Elizabeth, for acquiring these premises of Thomas Lord Buckhurst.”
This distinguished nobleman, afterwards Earl of Dorset, was brother to
Lady Dacre, and resided frequently with his sister at Chelsea, but it is
not known whether he had any interest in the estate.

                                * * * * *

The Earl of Salisbury is supposed to have rebuilt Sir Thomas More’s
house, as the initials of his name were to be seen on the pipes and in
several of the rooms.

                                * * * * *

Henry Clinton, Earl of Lincoln, bought the house of the Earl of
Salisbury, and probably came immediately to reside in it, as there are
some entries respecting his family in the Parish Register in the
beginning of the year 1609.  By his first wife, Lady C. Hastings,
daughter of Francis, Earl of Huntingdon, he had two sons, Thomas, his
successor in the title, and Edward; and by his second wife, widow of W.
Norris, Esq., he had a daughter, Elizabeth, who married Sir Arthur
Gorges, and also two sons, Henry and Robert.  The latter died in 1609,
and was buried at Chelsea.

                                * * * * *

Sir Arthur Gorges, on the death of Henry, Earl of Lincoln, became the
possessor of the house, and he and Lady Elizabeth, his wife, in
consideration of £4300, sold it to Sir Lionel Cranfield, afterwards
created Earl of Middlesex.  It was described as the “greatest house at
Chelsea, with two fore great courts adjoining, environed with brick
walls, also a wharf (landing-place for a pleasure boat, &c.) lying in
front, having a high brick tower on the east and west ends, and a high
water tower, standing upon the west corner of the wharf, and the
watercourse belonging thereto.  An orchard, a garden, having a peryment
standing up in the middle, and a terrace on the north end thereof, with a
banquetting house at the east end of the terrace, having a marble table
in it.  A great garden, dovecote close, containing five acres, the
kitchen garden, brick-barne close, containing ten acres.”  Lord Middlesex
held the mansion till 1625, when he sold it to Charles I., who, in 1627,
granted the said house, &c., to the Duke of Buckingham.

                                * * * * *

George Villiers, first Duke of Buckingham, the son of Sir George
Villiers, was born in 1592.  By the elegance of his person, and the
courtliness of his address, he gained as great an ascendance over King
James as the favourite of any other prince is known to have done by a
long course of assiduity and insinuation.  The Earl of Clarendon says,
that the duke “was of a most flowing courtesy and affability to all men
who made any address to him, and so desirous to oblige them, that he did
not enough consider the value of the obligation, or the merit of the
person he chose to oblige; from which much of his misfortune resulted.”
He married Lady Catherine Manners, the daughter of Francis, Earl of
Rutland, by whom he had three sons and a daughter; he was assassinated at
Portsmouth in 1628, by one Felton.  The eldest son, George, who succeeded
him in his title and estates, being very young at the time of his
father’s murder, was sent to travel during the civil wars; and returning
to England whilst Charles I. was under restraint, he and his brother,
Lord Francis Villiers, thought themselves obliged to venture their lives
and fortunes for the king at the first opportunity.  Soon after, the
Parliament voted that he should be proceeded against as a traitor, and
that his estates should be sequestered.

                                * * * * *

Sir Thomas More’s house, for such it ought still to be considered,
notwithstanding the great alterations made in it, was now known as
Buckingham House, in consequence of its having been granted to the first
Duke of Buckingham.  It appears by the following extract from a
periodical paper after that duke’s death, to have been in possession of
his daughter Mary, who married James, Duke of Richmond and Lenox: “The
Duchess of Lenox, daughter of the Duke of Buckingham, being then at
Oxford, petitioned the Lords for leave to come to London, or to her house
at Chelsey, to be under Dr. Mayerne’s hands for her health; a pass was
ordered for her, and the concurrence of the Commons desired.”

                                * * * * *

Buckingham House, in 1649, having been seized by the Parliament, was
committed to the custody of John Lisle, one of the Commissioners of the
Great Seal.  This gentleman’s own estates were afterwards confiscated,
and he then retired to the continent.  He was shot by some unknown person
as he was going to church at Lausanne.  A short time after the house was
granted to Sir Bulstrode Whitlock, who resided with his family at Chelsea
for some years.

                                * * * * *

Sir Bulstrode Whitlock was the son of a Judge of the Court of King’s
Bench; he wrote a memorial of English affairs from the latter part of the
reign of Charles I. to the Restoration.

                                * * * * *

George, the second Duke of Buckingham, soon after the Restoration,
recovered his father’s estates, and was the possessor of this house for a
few years, but was soon obliged to dispose of it for the benefit of his
creditors.

                                * * * * *

Dryden, in his poem of Absalom and Achitophel, has drawn the following
portrait of this nobleman in the character of Zimri:—

    “A man so various, that he seemed to be
    Not one, but all mankind’s epitome:
    Stiff in opinions, always in the wrong,
    He’s every thing by starts, and nothing long;
    But in the course of one revolving moon,
    Was Chymist, Fidler, Statesman, and Buffoon.
    In squandering wealth, was his peculiar art,
    Nothing went unrewarded but desert.
    Beggar’d by fools, when still he found, too late
    He had his jest, and they had his estate.”

James Plummer, one of the Duke of Buckingham’s principal creditors, was
the person in whose name this house was aliened in 1674, in trust, for
George, Earl of Bristol, who is said to have died at Chelsea, and to have
been buried in the church, but there is no memorial of him, or entry of
his interment in the Parish Register.

                                * * * * *

George Digby, Earl of Bristol, was born in 1612, and was educated at
Oxford; he soon became distinguished by his remarkable advancement in all
kinds of elegant literature.  In the beginning of the Long Parliament he
was disaffected to the Court; shortly afterwards he appeared a declared
enemy to the Parliament; and having testified his dislike of their
proceedings against Lord Strafford, he was expelled the House of Commons
in 1641.  Upon the death of the king his lordship was exempted from
pardon by the Parliament, and obliged to live in exile till the
restoration of Charles II., when he recovered all he had lost; he grew
very active in public affairs, spoke frequently in Parliament, and made
himself conspicuous for his enmity to Lord Clarendon.  Lord Bristol died
in 1677, “neither loved nor regretted by any party.”  The house at
Chelsea he bequeathed to his Countess, Lady Ann Russell, daughter of
Francis, Earl of Bedford, who sold it in 1682, to the Marquis of
Worcester, created Duke of Beaufort, and who died in 1699.

                                * * * * *

The name of the house was now changed to Beaufort House.  Mr. Evelyn, in
his Diary, makes frequent mention of it:—“I went with my Lady Sunderland
to Chelsey (1679), and dined with the Countess of Bristol (her mother) in
the great house, formerly the Duke of Buckingham’s, a spacious and
excellent place for the extent of ground and situation, in a good air.
The house is large, but ill-contrived, though my Lord of Bristol expended
much money upon it.  There were divers pictures of Titian and Vandyke,
and some of Bassans, very excellent, especially an Adonis and Venus, a
Duke of Venice, a Butcher in his shambles selling meat to a Swiss, and of
Van Dyck, my Lord of Bristol’s picture, with the Earl of Bedford’s at
length.  There was in the garden a rare collection of orange trees, of
which she was pleased to bestow some upon me.”  Again, in 1683, Mr.
Evelyn says, “I went to see what had been done by the Duke of Beaufort on
his house at Chelsey; he had made great alterations, but might have made
a better house with the materials and the cost he had been at.”

                                * * * * *

Henry, second Duke of Beaufort, by his will, dated in 1712, left all his
estates, in trust, to be sold, and the produce appropriated according to
a settlement made at his marriage.  The house, however, continued to be
the residence of that noble family till about the year 1720.  Mary,
relict of the first duke, died here in 1714, at the good old age of 85
years.

                                * * * * *

It may here be observed that Chelsea, not only in former times, but at
the present period, 1869, is admitted to be generally a very healthy
parish.  This assertion is proved by the weekly reports given to the
Vestry by Dr. Barclay, the medical officer of health, and which is
confirmed by other gentlemen of the medical profession.  The reports read
at the meetings of the Chelsea Board of Guardians, also, shew that a
great many of the inmates of the workhouse live to a very advanced age;
and from peculiar facilities I possessed, many years ago, I can
positively assert that the number of aged persons, who had for a long
period been residents, was greater than in most of the other suburban
parishes.

                                * * * * *

Sir Hans Sloane, after the mansion had stood empty for several years,
purchased it in 1736, for the sum of £2,500 at a public sale, and had it
pulled down in 1740.  The gate, which was built by Inigo Jones for the
Lord Treasurer Middlesex, he gave to the Earl of Burlington, who removed
it to his gardens at Chiswick, which occasioned the following lines by
POPE:—

                                  PASSENGER.

    O Gate, how com’st thou here?

                                    GATE.

    I was brought from Chelsea last year,
       Batter’d with wind and weather;
       Inigo Jones put me together;
          Sir Hans Sloane,
          Let me alone,
       Burlington brought me hither.

This gate was placed in an avenue near the house at Chiswick, and
consisted of a portico, supported by two columns of the Doric order on
one side, and pilasters on the other.  On two stone tablets were
inscribed: “Builded by Inigo Jones, at Chelsea, MDCXXI.”  “Given by Sir
Hans Sloane, baronet, to the Earl of Burlington, MDCCXXXVII.”

                                * * * * *

Bowack thus describes Beaufort House in 1705: “This house is between two
and three hundred feet in length, has a stately ancient front towards the
Thames, also two spacious court yards, and behind it are very fine
gardens.  It is so pleasantly situated, that the late Queen Mary had a
great desire to purchase it before King William built Kensington, but was
prevented by some secret obstacles.”

                                * * * * *

Attached to the house was a chapel, which appears to have been attended
by a few of the inhabitants.  In various marriage licenses, granted in
1722, and in other years, persons were to be married in the Parish
Church, in the chapel of Chelsea College, or the chapel of Beaufort
House.

                                * * * * *

The above account of this celebrated mansion cannot fail to be highly
interesting to the generality of readers.  Mr. Faulkner has truly
observed, “that few houses can boast of having been the residence of such
a succession of noble and distinguished characters.”

                                * * * * *

Beaufort (row) Street, which was begun to be built about 1766, takes its
name from the Duke of Beaufort.  A portion of his vast estate was the
property of Mr. Long, a very old and respected parishioner, partly
leasehold, under Earl Cadogan, and some of it, if not all, is still held
by that family.



Battersea Bridge, Sailing Matches, &c.


To meet the tastes of all classes of readers, I shall occasionally
deviate from the prescribed order which it was my original intention to
have pursued; by doing so it will remove the weariness that frequently
arises, especially in works of this description, from dwelling too long
on one particular subject.  This motive, I trust, will be accepted as an
apology for apparent digressions.

                                * * * * *

There was formerly a Ferry a little eastward of the spot where now stands
Battersea Bridge, and consequently not far distant from the distinguished
mansion just described.  It belonged to Thomas, Earl of Lincoln, who sold
it in 1618 to William Blake.  After some time it became the property of
Sir Walter St. John, and passed with the Bolingbroke estate to Earl
Spencer, under whom it was held in 1766, when an Act of Parliament was
obtained for building a bridge over the Thames, from Chelsea to
Battersea, and empowering Lord Spencer to build the same.  Fifteen
proprietors having subscribed a sum of money each, it was accordingly
begun in 1771, was opened for foot-passengers in the same year, and in
the following year was ready for carriages.  From 1772, when the bridge
was finally erected, to the present time, 1869, is exactly 97 years, and
this is the precise age of it.  It is a most unsightly structure of wood,
about one furlong in length, 28 ft. wide, and its cost rather more than
£20,000.  The proprietors have a vote for the counties of Middlesex and
Surrey.

                                * * * * *

Lamps were first placed on the bridge in 1799, and in 1821 and 1822 an
iron railing 4-ft. high, on the western side, was substituted for the
original wooden railing, and in 1824, the eastern side was completed.  So
far apart were the original wooden railings, which were placed crossways,
that the body of a child might have passed through them, and, if not
observed, no person cognizant of the fatal accident.  There were also, at
the above period, eight projecting recesses, four on each side,
constructed for the safety of foot-passengers, and a slightly raised
pathway made.

                                * * * * *

The number of lives that have been sacrificed at this bridge, together
with the barges sunken at it, even within the last few years, is really
painful to contemplate.  It is a sad contrast, in every respect, to the
elegant structures that now span the river, and it is to be hoped there
will soon be erected another one in its place—one that will be an
ornament to Chelsea, Battersea, and the metropolis.



HYDE PARK ON THE THAMES.


That part of the river, known as Chelsea Reach, was so fashionable a
rendezvous of pleasure boats and barges in the reign of Charles II. that
some persons have described the scene as being a sort of Pall Mall
Afloat, and it was called “Hyde Park on the Thames,” in that king’s
reign.  The reach is the widest of any part westward of London Bridge,
which rendered it peculiarly suitable for such grand aquatic displays.
There were dukes and duchesses, marquises, earls, and barons, with a
similar fashionable throng to that which may still be witnessed in Hyde
Park.  The watermen were arrayed in dresses of all colours, and the whole
presented a scene of grandeur which cannot be adequately described.

                                * * * * *

Fishing, at the above period, was carried on to a very considerable
extent at Chelsea; but, owing to the fishermen using unlawful nets, and
other causes, it fell into decay, and, finally, proved an unprofitable
speculation.  In my earlier days two or three fishermen earned a scanty
living by selling the fish they caught, and a few lovers of angling also
occasionally “pulled up” some very fine roach and dace, in the prime
season, at Battersea Bridge.



SAILING MATCHES.


The river at Chelsea, some years since, presented in the summer season a
very animating and pleasing scene.  The sailing matches attracted numbers
from London, and excited great interest amongst the inhabitants.  As aged
men, however, are said to see nothing now equal to “the days when they
were young,”—and lest it should be thought I was magnifying the scene,
making the sailing matches of former days something like, for excitement
and enthusiasm, the present renowned Oxford and Cambridge Boat Races—I
will endeavour to avoid the possibility of being charged with giving an
exaggerated description of them.  But, seriously speaking, it may be
said, with truth, that Cheyne Walk and Battersea Bridge, on such
occasions, were crowded with many of the nobility, and a vast number of
ladies and gentlemen, either in carriages or on horseback.  The fleet of
sailing boats, with the little _Spitfire_ generally ahead, and “Tom
Bettsworth,” {41} the owner, on board, when seen at a short distance
approaching Chelsea, with the sun shining on the white canvas sails, and
other pleasure boats decorated with flags, in many of which were
musicians playing various lively popular tunes, presented a sort of
miniature resemblance to those delightful spectacles which are now only
to be seen off Erith, &c.  The steamboats have rendered such displays
impracticable for some years past at Chelsea, and pleasures of this kind
must give way to the transactions of business and public convenience.
Commodore Capt. Harrison, a distinguished member of one of the first
Yacht Clubs, took a great interest in the Chelsea Sailing Matches.  He
resided in the parish, and was highly esteemed for his conviviality and
gentlemanly deportment.  His remains were interred in the Brompton
Cemetery.

                                * * * * *

I will now renew the notices of distinguished residents in this part of
the parish, occasionally giving a short description of new public
erections, and other interesting particulars.

Henry Sampson Woodfall, Esq., was born in Little Britain, in 1739, and
when he retired from the active affairs of life, he took a house in
Lombard Street, near the Old Church.  At a very early age he had the
honour of receiving from Mr. Pope half-a-crown for reading to him, with
much fluency, a page of Homer.  When twelve years old he was sent to St.
Paul’s School, on leaving which he was apprenticed to his father, a
printer in Paternoster Row; and at the age of nineteen he had committed
to his charge the whole business of editing and printing the “Public
Advertiser.”  From this period till the beginning of 1793, he continued
constantly in the exercise of this laborious function.  During so long a
time, when parties ran extremely high in politics, it is not surprising
that a printer should have gotten into some difficulties.  He used
jocularly to say to his Chelsea friends that he had been fined and
confined by the Court of King’s Bench; fined by the House of Lords and
Commons, and indicted at the Old Bailey.  He laid particular emphasis on
the words “fined” and “confined.”  His conduct respecting those
celebrated letters, signed JUNIUS, displayed great integrity and
disinterestedness of character.  He associated much with Garrick,
Coleman, Bonnel, Thornton, Smollett, Goldsmith, and other wits of his
day, and his own conversation overflowed with interesting anecdotes.

                                * * * * *

In this street resided for many years Mr. W. Lewis, bookbinder, the
intimate friend of Dr. Smollett, and his fellow companion, on their
journey from Edinburgh to London.  It was by the advice of Smollett that
he settled at Chelsea; he is pourtrayed in the novel of “Roderick
Random,” under the character of Strap the Barber, and many facetious
anecdotes are there related of his simplicity, vanity, and ignorance of
the world.  Mr. Lewis died about 1785.

                                * * * * *

Danvers Street was begun to be built in the latter end of the 17th
century, on the site of Danvers Gardens, and from thence takes its name.
Danvers House adjoined Sir Thomas More’s estate, if it was not actually a
part of his property, or that of his son in-law, Roper; there existed
anciently a thoroughfare or private way between the houses in Lombard
Street, on the north side, towards the King’s Road, but to what extent
cannot now be ascertained.

                                * * * * *

Sir John Danvers, who possessed this property as early as the reign of
Elizabeth, was the younger brother of Sir H. Danvers, created Earl of
Danby in 1625, and by reason of his noble birth was made Gentleman Usher
to King Charles the First.  In this promotion, having more pride than
wit, he lived above his income, and finding himself plunged deeply in
debt, and discarded by his family and his Sovereign for associating with
the seditious, and propagating their principles about the Court, he, with
hopes of gain, and of protection from his creditors, joined the rebels,
always embraced the religion of the prevailing party, and at last
submitted to that base office, to assist with his presence in the mock
court of justice, and, with his hand and seal to the warrant annexed, to
take away the life of that king whose bread he had eaten; being induced
thereto (as a writer of that period states) chiefly through an
expectation of ousting his brother, and seizing upon his estate for his
own use, by the same authority and power as so unjustly cut off his
Majesty’s head.  He died a natural death in 1659, before the restoration.

                                * * * * *

Sir John married Magdalen, daughter of Sir Richard Newport, and relict of
Sir Richard Herbert, by whom she was mother of the famous Lord Herbert of
Cherbury.

                                * * * * *

After the death of her first husband this lady continued a widow twelve
years, and was highly esteemed for her great and harmless wit, cheerful
gravity, and obliging behaviour, which gained her an acquaintance and
friendship with most people of eminent worth or learning in the
University of Oxford, where she lived four years, to take care of the
education of her eldest son, her children being all young at the death of
their father.  She died in 1627, and was buried at Chelsea.  The Dean of
St. Paul’s, whilst preaching her funeral sermon, could not refrain from
tears, as Walton reports, who was present.

                                * * * * *

Danvers House passed from the Danvers family to the Hon. T. Wharton, who,
by Queen Anne, in 1714, was created Marquis of Wharton.  The house was
pulled down about 1716.  The garden and grounds extended to the King’s
Road; considerable remains of this house were discovered on the site of
Paultons Square in 1822, consisting of the foundations of walls, the
remains of the great bath, and various fragments of stone pillars and
capitals, the whole covering a great space of land, but being considered
by the proprietor, Mr. Shepherd, nurseryman, too extensive to take up,
they were again covered with earth.  It was Sir John Danvers who first
introduced into this country the Italian method of horticulture, of which
his garden was a most beautiful specimen.  Against the wall of the house
at the south end of Danvers Street, is placed a stone thus
inscribed:—“This is Danvers Street, begun in ye year 1696 by Benjamin
Stafford.”  In 1742 this was a public house, the sign of the Bell, which
was suspended across the street.  The house at the south-west corner was
also, it is said, formerly a public house, known by the sign of the
Angel.

                                * * * * *

Duke Street, as already indirectly intimated, was first built at the time
when the Duke of Buckingham resided at the “greatest house in Chelsea,”
and was thus named in compliment to that nobleman.  There is nothing
clearly known as to the origin of Lombard Street.

                                * * * * *

Luke Thomas Flood, Esq., first resided in Cheyne Walk, but afterwards
removed to the spacious house at the western corner of Beaufort Street,
fronting the river.  He was a very great benefactor to the parish, an
active and intelligent magistrate, and interested himself in promoting at
all times whatever was conducive to the welfare and improvement of
Chelsea.  He was treasurer of the Parish Schools for many years, and, in
1818, through his indefatigable exertions, he succeeded in nearly
doubling the number of children that had attended them, and who were
clothed and educated free of expense to their parents.  Towards the close
of his life he went to Brighton, where he remained till his death, which
occurred about 1860.  His munificent annual gifts to the poor of this
parish, as bequeathed in his will, but which he desired to be at once
carried into effect, during his remaining days, will cause his memory to
be revered in this parish by all future generations.  Mr. Flood possessed
some valuable pictures by the most eminent Masters.

                                * * * * *

Charles Hatchett, Esq., resided in the adjoining house, known as Belle
Vue House.  It was built by his father, in 1771.  In it was a small but
choice collection of pictures, amongst which were two landscapes, by
Salvator Rosa; a Madonna and Child, by Andrea del Sarto; a beautiful
small landscape, by Van Goen; another by Ferg, and a large one by George
Barrett, R.A., with cattle, by the elder Mr. Gilpin.  A very excellent
portrait of Mrs. Hatchett, by Gainsborough; and a picture, supposed to be
by Giovanni Bellini, the subject “a Dead Christ and Holy Family.”  The
library was very extensive, containing many valuable editions of the
Greek and Latin Classics, a numerous series of historical works, and the
voluminous Transactions and Memoirs of the Royal Society.  The collection
of manuscript and printed music was also very considerable.  Mr. Hatchett
was the author of several works on chemical science, and was a magistrate
for the county.  He contributed to most of the local charities, and as a
private gentleman was much respected.  He died in 1846, at an advanced
age.



Lindsey House, the Moravians, &c.


This ancient mansion stands also in front of the river, and adjoined Sir
Thomas More’s.  It was erected by the Earl of Lindsey, in the reign of
Charles II., on the site of a house originally built by Sir Theodore
Mayerne, an eminent physician, and the only instance on record of a
physician who was retained in that character by four kings.  He lived
many years in Chelsea, and died here at the age of 82.  At his death,
Robert, Earl of Lindsey, purchased the house, which he pulled down, and
erected the present edifice; it has, however, undergone great alterations
by subsequent proprietors, and is now divided into five houses.  The Earl
of Lindsey died in 1701, but his widow resided here till 1705.  In the
same year Lindsey House was occupied by Ursula, Countess Dowager of
Plymouth, and by her son, Lord Windsor.  It was afterwards in the
possession of Francis, Lord Conway, the second son of Sir E. Seymour, who
was created a peer in 1703.  By his third wife, Charlotte, sister to Lady
Walpole, he had Francis, Marquis of Hertford, who was born at Chelsea in
1718.  The house continued in the Ancaster family till 1750, when it was
purchased for the Moravian Society.

                                * * * * *

Count Zinzendorf, who was the purchaser, formed an intention of
establishing a settlement at Chelsea for the Moravians, and took a plot
of ground to erect a large building for the reception of three hundred
families, to carry on a manufactory; and, besides possessing Lindsey
House, he also purchased a piece of ground, part of the gardens of
Beaufort House, for a burial ground, together with the stables belonging
to that old mansion, and likewise a slip of ground to erect a chapel.
The chapel was fitted up, but the settlement, which was to be called
Sharon, failed.  The house was, however, inhabited by some of the
society.  Count Zinzendorf himself lived there, and presided over the
community as long as he dwelt in England.  In 1754 an English provincial
Synod was held here, at which the minister of the brethren’s church at
London, John Gambold, a divine greatly esteemed for his piety and
learning by several English bishops, who were his cotemporaries at
Oxford, was consecrated a bishop of the church of the brethren; he had
previously published a hymn book for the children belonging to the
brethren’s congregation, printed entirely with his own hands at Lindsey
House.  The inmates of the house consisted chiefly of Germans and
missionaries, for whose use the Count principally intended the
establishment, that they might make it a sort of caravansera or resting
place when they arrived in this country, in passing to or from their
various missionary establishments in the British dominions.  The panels
of the great staircase, being wainscotted, were painted by Haidt, a
celebrated German artist; there were also in the house several admirable
portraits.  The house was sold by the society in 1770.  There has not
been any other settlement for the Moravians since that period.  Their
church is episcopal and has been acknowledged as such by Parliament.
They live, in their settlements, like members of one large family; the
most perfect harmony prevails amongst them, and they seem to have but one
wish at heart, the propagation of the Gospel and the general good of
mankind.

                                * * * * *

The Moravian Burial Ground, the entrance to which is at the north end of
Milman’s Row, occupies about two acres of ground.  The whole is divided
into four distinct compartments.  The brethren are buried in separate
divisions from those of the sisters; for, as in their public assemblies,
they still adhere to the ancient custom of separating the sexes, the men
occupying one, and the women the other side of the chapel, so they retain
it even in their burying ground.  The tomb-stones are all flat, placed on
turf, raised about six inches above the ground, in regular rows.  The
inscriptions in general record only the names and age of the persons
interred.  Amongst them are the following:—

                                * * * * *

William Hammond, 1783, formerly a clergyman of the Church of England; he
was of St. John’s College, Cambridge, and was the author of a book,
entitled, “The Marrow of the Gospel,” being the substance of some sermons
preached before the University.  He was a man of considerable learning,
and an excellent Greek scholar, in which language he wrote his own life.
The late Rev. Mr. La Trobe had the manuscript in his possession some
years ago.

                                * * * * *

James Fraser, aged 63, 1808, who made fifty-six voyages between England
and Labrador, in the service of the Moravian Missions on that coast.

                                * * * * *

James Hutton, 1795, of whom there is an engraved portrait in mezzotinto,
with a trumpet to his ear.  This worthy and well-known character was
accustomed to pay morning visits to some of the first families in
Chelsea; he used likewise to seek out objects that were in distress, and
relieved them according to their necessities.  The character of Albany,
in Miss Burney’s celebrated novel of Cecilia, is said to be meant for his
portrait.  He died in the 80th year of his age.

The Rev. C. J. La Trobe succeeded him as secretary to the brethren.

                                * * * * *

James Gillray, 1799, forty years sexton at this cemetery, father of
Gillray the celebrated caricaturist, whose works are so much admired for
their spirit and effect.

                                * * * * *

Pætrus Bæhler, 1770.  A very active Minister among the Moravians, and one
of their bishops.  He came to England in 1738, was very intimate with
Wesley and Whitfield, whom he visited at Oxford, and who were in the same
ship with him when he went to America as Minister of the Colony of
Georgia.

                                * * * * *

Benjamin La Trobe, 1786, father of the Rev. C. J. La Trobe, a man of
distinguished excellence as a preacher, the editor of several religious
works, and for a long time superintendent of the congregation in England.
He removed many “absurdities which prevailed in their religious
proceedings, and which had subjected the whole community to unmerited
scandal.”

                                * * * * *

Christian Renatus, Count of Zinzendorf, May 28, 1832.  There is against
the south wall of the chapel a tablet to his memory.  He was the only son
of the celebrated Count Zinzendorf.

                                * * * * *

Mary Theresa Stonehouse, daughter of Sir John Crisp, Bart., and wife of
the Rev. George Stonehouse, 1751.  This monument is on the right of the
preceding.

                                * * * * *

In this cemetery also lies buried an Esquimaux Indian, called Nunak.  As
he had not been baptized, he was not permitted to lie in the same
division with the community, but was placed outside the walk under an elm
tree, having an inscription to his memory in the same style as the rest
of the Brethren.

                                * * * * *

The burial service of the church is particularly impressive.  The coffin
being deposited in the middle of the chapel, a hymn is sung by the
congregation, for they value and carefully cultivate music as a science,
and the responses of their liturgies are attended with peculiar effect.
The Minister then delivers a discourse, in which some account is given of
the deceased, with suitable exhortations.  The form of service contained
in their Liturgy is next read, and the congregation then follow the
corpse, the men walking together, and the women the same.  A scriptural
passage is read, commencing as follows.  “Meanwhile none of us liveth to
himself; for whether we live, we live unto the Lord, and whether we die,
we die unto the Lord,” &c.  The following is then sung by the
congregation:—

    “Now to the earth let these remains
       In hope committed be,
    Until the body, chang’d, obtains
       Blest immortality.”

While the above verse is being sung the body is let down into the grave.
A prayer is then offered, and the whole is concluded by singing a verse
of another hymn.

                                * * * * *

The chapel at the north side of the burial ground occupies the site of
the old stables of Beaufort House.  It is a plain building, displaying no
architectural adornments, and it is now upwards of fifty years since
Divine service was performed in it by the brethren.  For a long time it
has been occupied as a schoolroom for the boys belonging to Park Chapel
National and Sunday Schools, and most of the annual meetings of the
numerous societies, which are supported by the congregation of Park
Chapel, are at present held in it.

                                * * * * *

The house adjoining the entrance to the Moravian Chapel and Burial
Ground, some few years since pulled down, was for many years in the
occupation of the Howard family, of the Society of Friends.  The elder
Mr. Howard was gardener to Sir Hans Sloane; his brother having a natural
genius for mechanics, became a clockmaker, and made the clock in the Old
Church, in 1761, for the sum of £50.  In the front of Howard’s house was
placed a large clock, and hence the origin of the appellation, “Clock
House,” as now applied to what was once the Moravian chapel.



LINDSEY ROW.


It was mentioned at the commencement of the description of Lindsey House,
that it had been divided into five houses, called Lindsey Row.  These
houses still remain, and are inhabited at the present time by families of
great respectability.  They command a most delightful prospect of the
Thames, which here forms a sort of bay; the view from the upper stories
is bounded on the south by the Surrey Hills, and Putney Heath on the
north.

                                * * * * *

Henry Constantine Jennings, Esq., a most eccentric and unfortunate
gentleman, resided in the first house on the east.  He was born in 1731,
and was descended from a very ancient and illustrious family, the Nevils.
The celebrated Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, he reckoned among his
progenitors.  At an early age he obtained a commission in the first
regiment of Foot Guards, and afterwards went abroad on his travels.
While in Italy, he formed an acquaintance with the Duke of Marlborough,
then Marquis of Blandford, and it is said he suggested the idea of the
cabinet of antiques, afterwards engraved by Bartolozzi, and so well known
as the Marlborough Gems.  It was at this period, doubtless, that Mr.
Jennings acquired a passion for objects of taste.  On his return to
England, he repaired to his seat at Shiplake, in the county of Oxford,
and unfortunately for him became addicted to the pleasures of the turf,
and the result was that his fortune was soon dissipated.  Mr. Jennings
now withdrew from society and lived in obscurity.  A sudden change of
fortune seems, however, to have released him from pecuniary difficulties,
for we find him collecting, with great ardour, every object of antiquity,
&c., that was presented to his notice, and which he could purchase.  He
also possessed a most valuable library.  But, again, he became reduced in
his circumstances, and had to dispose of his books and collections at a
vast loss.

From this time but few particulars are known of Mr. Jennings, until he
settled at Lindsey Row, about 1792.  Here he continued to reside, fully
occupied as an antiquary, a virtuoso, and an author, until, at length,
his health began to decline, and his fortune daily became deteriorated,
in consequence of his inordinate passion for collecting objects of taste;
at last he closed his eccentric career a prisoner within the rules of the
King’s Bench, where he expired February 7, 1819, aged 88.

This remarkable gentleman, whom I well remember, seemed more properly to
belong to some distant generation rather than the one in which he
lived—his character, dress, and manners, were so different in every
respect.  The fate of such a man, to a certain extent, awakens our
sympathy, for his pursuits were generally throughout his life most
refined; and the disasters which befel him is a warning to many in the
present day.

                                * * * * *

Mr. Jennings’s Museum well deserves to be noticed.  It consisted of a
rare and valuable collection of the most chosen specimens of taste, and
probably the completest collection of shells.  Many fine specimens of
minerals and scarce coloured gems, cameos, and intaglios; crystals, and
other choice productions of nature, such as diamonds of almost every
colour, rubies, emeralds, pearls, sapphires, &c.; not to omit many
excellent specimens of well-preserved birds and quadrupeds.  Old, and
first-rate impressions of prints from Raphael, and others of the Roman
school; some fine specimens of sculpture, both ancient and modern; many
fine and scarce impressions of first editions, classical and of the
entertaining kind, with many original drawings and pictures; in short,
all that could interest one who had been long a real amateur.  Among the
portraits was a fine one of Mary, Queen of Scotland, and another of
Titian and his Mistress, the Mary in her fourteenth year; likewise
several rare enamel miniatures of interesting characters; among which was
one of the Princess Elizabeth, about seventeen years of age, this latter
by Holbein; with some well-preserved medals in gold and silver.

                                * * * * *

This collection was disposed of by auction, by Mr. Phillips, in 1820; the
shells, and most valuable articles, being removed to Bond Street, and the
preserved birds, quadrupeds, and other articles of rarity, together with
the furniture, were sold at Lindsey Row.

                                * * * * *

T. Bonner, Esq., a gentleman much respected in the parish, resided in
Lindsey Row for many years.  Mrs. Bonner was at all times most active in
relieving the necessitous and deserving poor.  She occupied the house
some time after the death of her husband, and died a few years ago.

                                * * * * *

Sir Mark Isombard Brunell, the originator and designer of the Thames
Tunnel, resided for a considerable period in the centre house.  His
public works will immortalize his name to the latest posterity, as being
one of the most eminent engineers of the present century.

                                * * * * *

John Martin, R.A., K.L., so well known for those grandly-conceived and
sublime compositions, “Joshua commanding the Sun to stand Still,” “The
Fall of Nineveh,” “The Last Judgment,” &c., also resided in Lindsey Row
for some years.  The late Prince Consort was a frequent visitor to his
Studio, and it is a pleasing fact to record that Mr. Martin kindly
permitted the neighbouring inhabitants, and others, to have access
occasionally to it, accompanied by an attendant, during his absence from
home.  He died, as will be remembered, not many years since.

                                * * * * *

Timothy Bramah, Esq., a distinguished engineer, likewise occupied a house
in Lindsey Row, for some years.  The family was always greatly respected,
and a member of it still resides in a house near the one where Mr. Bramah
resided.  The “Bramah Lock” at once denotes the celebrity of the firm.

                                * * * * *

The Rev. James Hutchins, M.A., who succeeded his father, the Rev. John
Hutchins, as Evening Lecturer at the Old Church, resided for some years
at a house at the western corner of Milman’s Row, fronting the river.
Mr. Hutchins, the son, was also Evening Lecturer at the new St. Luke’s
Church for several years.  The Lecturer was remunerated by voluntary
contributions, chiefly, collected from the inhabitants throughout the
parish, the average amount altogether being about £60 per annum.

                                * * * * *

Milman’s Row, which nearly adjoins Lindsey Row, and which might now with
great propriety be called Milman Street, leads to the King’s Road.  It
derives its name from Sir William Milman, who died in 1713, the estate
having been for some years in his possession.  The ancient
parsonage-house and grounds, which were exchanged by the Rector in 1566,
with the Marquis of Winchester, for the present Rectory, stood upon this
spot.  Strewan House, which is on the western side of Milman’s Row, has
been occupied at different periods by many highly-respectable families.
It is now in the possession of George Berry, Esq.

                                * * * * *

The foundry, which belonged to a person of the name of Janeway, was
situated near World’s End Passage.  It was very extensive, and here the
old bells of the Church were re-cast in 1759.  Riley Street, which stands
on part of the foundry ground, was built principally in 1790.

                                * * * * *

Patrick Gibson, aged 111 years, lived in a house near the old World’s End
Tavern.  For many years this remarkable man was a purser in the navy, in
the reign of George III., and on all occasions he was invariably found in
the thick of the battle, fighting with the most determined bravery.  He
assisted in conveying General Wolfe off the field, and served under Lord
Nelson at the Battle of Trafalgar.  William IV., when Duke of Clarence,
visited him at Chelsea, and took great interest in his affairs.  He
resided in the parish 20 years, and died in 1832, at the remarkable age
of 111 years, which was proved to be correct from official dates and by
particular events.  An exceedingly striking portrait of Patrick Gibson,
by McNaughten, adorns the walls of Greenwich Hospital.

                                * * * * *

The World’s-End Tavern was a noted house of entertainment in the reign of
Charles II.; the tea-gardens and grounds were extensive, and elegantly
fitted up for the reception of company.  The origin of the sign of the
house is uncertain.  It was probably so named on account of its then
considered distance from London, and the bad and dangerous state of the
roads or pathways to it.  Most of the visitors came in pleasure boats
along the Thames.  This ancient tavern is particularly mentioned in
Congreve’s comedy of “Love for Love,” in a dialogue between Mrs.
Foresight and Mrs. Frail, in which the former accuses the latter of
having been seen at the “World’s End.”

    _Mrs. Foresight_.—I suppose you would not go alone to the World’s
    End?

    _Mrs. Frail_.—The World’s End! what, do you mean to banter me?

    _Mrs. Foresight_.—Poor innocent! you don’t know that there is a place
    called the World’s End.  I declare you can keep your
    countenance—surely you’ll make an admirable player.

    _Mrs. Frail_.—I declare you have a great deal of impudence, and, in
    my mind, too much for the stage..

    _Mrs. Foresight_.—Very well, that will appear who has most.  You
    never were at the Word’s End?

    _Mrs. Frail_.—No.

    _Mrs. Foresight_.—You deny it positively to my face?

    _Mrs. Frail_.—Your face, what’s your face?

    _Mrs. Foresight_.—No matter for that, it is as good a face as yours.

    _Mrs. Frail_.—Not by a dozen years wearing.  But I do deny it,
    positively, to your face, then.

    _Mrs. Foresight_.—I’ll allow you now to find fault with my face; for
    I declare your impudence has put me out of countenance.  But look you
    here now; where did you lose this gold bodkin?  Oh, sister! oh,
    sister!

    _Mrs. Frail_.—My bodkin!

    _Mrs. Foresight_.—Nay, it is yours—look at it.

    _Mrs. Frail_.—Well, if you go to that, where did you find this
    bodkin?  Oh, sister! sister! sister every way!

    _Mrs. Foresight_.—Oh! bother on’t that I could not discover her
    without betraying myself. (_Aside_.)

Joseph Mallard W. Turner, Esq., R.A., resided for some time in a small
house directly facing the Thames, in the road leading to Cremorne, where
he died in 1851.  No doubt he selected this spot on account of the
attractive scenery on the river, and the fine view of some parts of
Surrey, as also to enjoy for a time the benefits arising from a more
secluded life.  At the age of thirty years, Mr. Turner was recognised as
the first landscape painter of the day.  For a period of sixty years he
contributed to every exhibition of the Royal Academy, sending in all 259
pictures.  For many years he refused to part with some of the choicest
specimens of his art, and after his death it was found that he had left
those to the English nation, together with a great number of drawings and
engravings.  Mr. Turner, while residing here, lived in almost entire
seclusion.  He would not see any person, excepting a few very intimate
friends, and, in fact, was extremely anxious not to be recognized.  This
inclination, at the close of his life, was very natural.  The world is
indebted to him for his productions, and Chelsea is proud to add his name
to its list of distinguished residents.

                                * * * * *

The roadway in front of the house occupied by Mr. Turner, and along the
front of that part of the river, has been considerably widened, and now
presents a well-formed embankment.  A handsome terrace has been erected,
besides a number of houses on the adjoining ground.



CREMORNE HOUSE.


This villa was first formed by Theophilus, Earl of Huntingdon, who died
in 1746.  It afterwards belonged, successively, to Richard, Viscount
Powerscourt; to the Countess Dowager of Exeter, relict of Brownlow, the
eighth Earl; and to Sir Richard Lyttleton, who married the Dowager
Duchess of Bridgewater, and died in 1770.

                                * * * * *

After the death of the Duchess, in 1777, Thomas Dawson, Viscount
Cremorne, at that time Baron Dartrey, purchased the villa in 1778.  He
considerably enlarged and embellished the premises, under the skill of
the eminent Mr. James Wyatt.  His lordship died in Stanhope Street,
Mayfair, in 1813, in his 89th year, greatly respected, and bequeathed the
estate to his relict, the late Viscountess.  It is stated, in an account
published shortly after Lord Cremorne’s death, that “his generosity was
unbounded, and his heart, in the most comprehensive sense, charitable.
But his most excellent character is, that he was a Christian in mind and
practice.”

                                * * * * *

The Dowager Viscountess Cremorne, born in Philadelphia in 1740, died at
her house in Stanhope Street in 1825, in the 86th year of her age.  Her
ladyship resided at Chelsea a great portion of the year, and kept a large
establishment.  She was one of the most kind-hearted residents in the
parish.  For years it was her custom to entertain annually the children
of the parochial and other schools, and she patronized the tradesmen of
Chelsea as far as it was practicable, giving special orders to that
effect to her household.  Queen Charlotte occasionally visited her in the
summer months, when the children again attended, and received tokens of
her benevolent regard for them.  She was buried by the side of her
husband in the family vault at Stoke.  The carriages of the Royal Family
followed in the funeral procession for some distance, and most of the
tradesmen closed their shops.  She bequeathed the villa to her first
cousin and executor, Granville Penn, Esq., second surviving son of Thomas
Penn, and brother of John Penn, Esqrs., of Stoke Park, Bucks, Hereditary
Governors and Proprietaries of the Province of Pennsylvania.  Granville
Penn, Esq., resided in it for a few years.  It would occupy too much
space to give a sketch even of the history of this distinguished family.

Lord and Lady Cremorne possessed a very fine and extensive collection of
paintings, which were sold by auction, on the premises, in 1827.  Amongst
them was a copy of Correggio’s picture of the Madonna and Child, and St.
Jerome at Parma, by Copley, full size, and accounted the best copy of
that celebrated picture.  The late Lord Lyndhurst purchased it.  The
grounds, &c., are now known as Cremorne Gardens, but this once pretty
villa can scarcely now be recognised as the favourite residence of Lord
and Lady Cremorne.

                                * * * * *

Ashburnham House is situated to the west of the late Lord Cremorne’s
premises.  Dr. Benjamin Hoadley built the house, in 1747, for his own
residence, but it has since been greatly altered by different occupiers.
He was the eldest son of the Bishop of Winchester, and was a Fellow of
the Royal Society when very young.  In the learned world he was known as
a philosopher.  Dr. Hoadley was also an eminent physician.  At his death
Hoadley House was purchased by Sir Richard Glynn, who sold it to the Earl
of Ashburnham, and thence it obtained the name of Ashburnham House.  It
was next in possession of that learned physician, Dr. Cadogan, who
resided in it for a few years, and planted in the garden a large quantity
of medicinal herbs.  Lady Mary Coke resided here for about ten years, and
sold it to Mr. Brown, who occupied a house near to it, called Ashburnham
Cottage.  Mr. Stevens at length possessed the house, and resided in it
for many years.  Afterwards it was the residence of the Hon. Leicester
Stanhope, subsequently Earl of Harrington.

                                * * * * *

On the banks of the river, in front of Ashburnham House, was a piece of
land, called the Lots.  The Lammas rights of the parishioners, with
respect to this land, are now extinct.  Those who wish to know the
particulars, will find them fully recorded in the Annual Vestry Reports,
which may be obtained at the Vestry Hall, and which will render many
parochial details in this work quite unnecessary.

                                * * * * *

On the south side of the King’s Road, and near to the boundary line which
divides the parishes of Chelsea and Fulham, is Dudmarton House, which was
for a considerable period the residence of Samuel Gower Poole, Esq., who
erected a chapel on the premises, where he occasionally preached, and
amongst others the Rev. Dr. Jay, of Bath, the Rev. John and Charles
Hyatt, the Rev. Dr. Collyer, &c.  The Rev. Dr. Raffles, it is stated,
preached his first sermon there when he was quite a youth.  Mr. Poole
also established a school for the education of poor boys, many of whom
were clothed through his exertions.



Stanley House, St. Mark’s College.


Near to what is now the Chelsea Railway Station, on the north of the
King’s Road, is Stanley House.  In the reign of Queen Elizabeth this was
part of the estate of Sir Arthur Gorges, who was knighted in 1597, and
died in 1625, and who built a house on this site for his own residence.
Rowland White, writing to Sir Robert Sidney, Nov. 15, 1599, says, “As the
Queen passed by the faire new building, Sir Arthur Gorges presented her
with a faire jewell.”  The family of Gorges at this period possessed very
considerable property in Chelsea, which they afterwards gradually
disposed of to the Cheyne family and others.

                                * * * * *

Sir Arthur Gorges was the intimate friend of Spenser, who lamented the
death of the first Lady Gorges, daughter of Viscount Bindon, and who died
in 1590, in a beautiful elegy, entitled Daphnaida; he has recorded
likewise the conjugal affection and the talents of her husband, under the
name of Alcyon, in the following elegant lines:—

    “And there is sad Alcyon, bent to mourne
    Though fit to frame an everlasting dittie;
    Whose gentle spright for Daphne’s death doth tourne
    Sweet lays of love to endlesse plaints of pittie.
    Ah! pensive boy, pursue that brave conceipt
    In thy sweet eglantine merriflure;
    Lift up thy notes unto their wonted height,
    That may my muse and mates to mirth allure.”

Sir Arthur married, secondly, Lady Elizabeth, daughter of Henry, Earl of
Lincoln, by which marriage he became possessed of Sir Thomas More’s
house, which, in 1619, he conveyed to Lionel, Lord Cranfield.  He died in
1625, leaving by his second wife six children.  Lady Elizabeth Gorges,
his widow, in 1637, sold this estate to her daughter, Lady Elizabeth
Stanley, widow of Sir Robert Stanley, and confirmed the same by her will
in 1643, in which year she died.  The family of Stanley appear to have
held possession of this estate, and resided here till the latter end of
the seventeenth century, when this branch of it became extinct, in the
male line, by the death of William Stanley, Esq. in 1691.  The house was
rebuilt about this period; and, being left in an unfinished state, was
for several years unoccupied.  It belonged, in 1724, to Henry Arundel,
Esq.  Admiral Sir Charles Wager died here in 1743.  It is said that this
gallant officer was educated a Quaker, and that though he left that
society, he was always particularly kind to its members.

                                * * * * *

After passing through several hands, Stanley House became the property of
Miss Southwell, afterwards the lady of Sir James Eyre, Lord Chief Justice
of the Common Pleas, who sold it in 1777 to the Countess of Strathmore,
one of the most intelligent female botanists of the age.  Her ladyship
had begun to build extensive hothouses and conservatories, brought
exotics from the Cape, and was continually raising an increase to her
collections, when, by an unfortunate marriage, the cruel spoiler came,
and threw them like loathsome weeds away.  The Countess married A. R.
Bowes, Esq., whose barbarities to her exceeded every thing recorded in
the annals of crime, and drew upon him the execrations of the whole
country. {57}  After suffering innumerable indignities from her husband,
the Countess exhibited articles of the peace against him in the Court of
King’s Bench, and obtained a separation, under heavy securities.  She
passed the remainder of her days in much affliction, both in body and
mind, and departed this life on the 20th April, 1800.  Bowes died
miserably in a jail.

                                * * * * *

Stanley House was purchased of the Countess of Strathmore, by Mr. Lochee,
who kept the Military Academy at Little Chelsea, and was for some time in
the occupation of Richard Warren, M.D.  This eminent physician was the
son of the Rev. Richard Warren, Archdeacon of Suffolk.  He died in 1797,
and was buried in the chancel of Kensington Church, where a monument,
with a Latin inscription, was erected to his memory.

About the year 1815, Stanley House was purchased by William Hamilton,
Esq., who resided in it for some time, and made great additions to the
original structure, by building a picture gallery on the east side.  He
had a good collection of paintings, a capital portrait of his father, the
Rev. Dr. Hamilton, Vicar of St. Martin’s in the Fields, and many fine
casts of the Elgin marbles.  In 1822, Mr. Hamilton was appointed Envoy to
the Court of Naples, and during his absence from Chelsea, he let the
house to some distinguished families, amongst them may be mentioned the
Marquis of Queensbury.  Mr. Hamilton afterwards sold the estate to the
National Society.



ST. MARK’S COLLEGE.


Stanley House, as it was formerly called, became the residence of the
Principal of St. Mark’s College, which was established by the National
Society, in the year 1841, as a Training Institution for Schoolmasters,
in connexion with the Church of England.  To the Rev. Derwent Coleridge,
M.A., the first Principal of the College, must be attributed the eminent
position it has attained among the educational institutions of the
country.  He was the Principal of the College for a period of
twenty-three years, and greatly beloved by the Students, popular among
his Colleagues and Assistants, and enjoyed the respect and confidence of
the Council, who had the pleasant task of co-operating with him.  In
January, 1864, he was presented by the late Bishop of London to the
Rectory of Hanwell, which occasioned his resignation.

                                * * * * *

Many candidates of great eminence were desirous to become the Rev. Mr.
Coleridge’s successor, and from among them the Rev. John G. Cromwell,
M.A., Hon. Canon of Durham, and formerly Scholar of Brasenose College,
Oxford, was selected, his testimonials being of the very highest order,
and his successful administration of the Training College at Durham,
during 12 years, appeared to the Council a sufficient guarantee for his
success at St. Mark’s.  This expectation has now been happily fully
realized.

The Vice-Principal is the Rev. C. F. Eastburn, M.A., Fellow of St. John’s
College, Cambridge, and the Rev. C. S. Dawe, B.A., is the Normal Master
in the College, and Head Master of the School, and, from the testimony of
those who are well-qualified to form an impartial opinion, they most
efficiently discharge their respective arduous duties, and this just
acknowledgment equally applies to the Tutors, Mr. W. Lawson, F.R.G.S.,
and Mr. O. Breden.

                                * * * * *

On the west side of the house the National Society added a quadrangle,
built in the Italian style, and in the grounds, near the chapel, an
octagon building as a Practising School, for teaching children who reside
in the locality.  The grounds of the College consist of eleven acres of
garden and grass land.

                                * * * * *

The Upper School gives a superior education to 160 boys, who are
instructed in all the usual branches of an English education, and also in
Latin and French.

                                * * * * *

The Middle School gives a similar education, with the exception of Latin
and French, to 180 boys.

                                * * * * *

The Lower School is intended for the sons of the humbler classes, and
gives sound instruction in elementary subjects to 200 boys.

                                * * * * *

There is accommodation in the College for 100 Students, who are being
trained here for Schoolmasters.

                                * * * * *

The Chapel stands close to the Fulham Road, and is open to the public
twice every day, at 9 a.m. and 9 p.m.  On Sundays the Services begin at
11 a.m. and 4 p.m.  The seats are free, and the expenses are defrayed by
voluntary contributions.  There is no endowment of any kind.  The
exterior of the building is unpretending.  The interior has a distinctive
character given to it by the windows of stained glass, which produce an
impression of warmth and beauty.  There is an excellent organ and a full
choir, composed of the Students and a certain number of boys from the
schools.  The Services are all choral, and on Sundays are usually well
attended.  On the anniversary of the College foundation, St. Mark’s Day,
April 25, a sermon is preached and a collection made on behalf of the
Chapel Funds, and the surrounding gentry and clergy, together with the
former Students, are invited to a banquet.  At the last Anniversary
Festival the sermon was preached by the Dean of St. Paul’s, the text
being selected from Luke iv. 16.  In the evening, in the Lecture Hall of
the College, selections from an Oratorio and other pieces were admirably
rendered by the Students, under the direction of the Rev. T. Helmore,
precentor, and John Hullah, Esq., to a crowded and most fashionable
audience, and many of the old Students of the College.  We must also
mention E. C. May, Esq., to whom much of the proficiency of the choir may
be justly attributed.

                                * * * * *

We will pass by Mr. Veitch’s Royal Exotic Nursery, and the extensive Show
Establishment belonging to Messrs. Weeks & Co., both of which will
probably be noticed in a subsequent part of this work, when a more
general notice will be taken of the entire King’s Road, and merely
observe that a great number of villas, and many superior dwelling houses,
have been erected within the last few years in this immediate locality.
As examples of such instances it is only necessary to mention the
splendid house built by John Weeks, Esq., in Edith Grove, and those in
Gunter Grove, Maude Grove, &c., in addition to which many more well-built
houses are now being erected in the neighbourhood.



WEST BROMPTON CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH.


This structure is worthy of special notice.  It stands on a valuable
freehold site, and was erected in 1866, at a cost of between £5000 and
£6000, exclusive of the site.  It has sittings for 1100, and owes its
existence to the exertions of the present pastor, the Rev. C. Winter, who
had previously preached for some time in a small chapel in Gunter Grove.
The style adopted is Gothic, of the geometric decorative period.  The
building is faced with Kentish ragstone, and all the dressings are of
Boxhill buttstone.  The design consists of three central door-ways, with
a large five-light traceried window over, and traceried side light;
separate entrances to the staircases with panelled parapets and side
roofs over; the sides and chancel end of the building are of brick; the
windows in two tiers with stone dressings; the upper tier consists of
circular traceried windows, and the whole design is such as to produce a
very pleasing effect, which will be much increased when the tower and
spire are carried up as intended.  The building is entered in front by
the doors before mentioned, and a spacious vestibule leads through inner
lobbies to the body of the church, which occupies an area of 70 ft. by 50
ft., but including chancel and entrance lobbies its length is 106 ft.
The building is surrounded on three sides with spacious galleries,
supported by iron columns, handsomely decorated, running up to and
supporting the roof.  The ceiling is divided into bays by wood spandril
arches springing from column to column, and from the columns to the
walls.  The chancel arch is a very effective piece of coloured brickwork,
and the chancel recess is arranged with its windows and angular plan so
as to add much to the general effect, which is considerably increased by
a very handsome memorial window, the gift of the family of Mr. Pitts, one
of the deacons of the church.  The building is lighted by star-lights of
an improved design suspended from the roof.  The pulpit, which is
spacious and handsome, is of Caen stone and stands on a platform, around
which the seats are arranged concentrically, a great improvement on the
ordinary rectangular pewing.  The larger room under the chancel is
devoted to a variety of useful purposes, such as Infant School, Sunday
Schools, Day School, &c.  The chapel in Gunter Grove has been converted
into a Public Hall, and ultimately no doubt will prove of general use to
the neighbourhood.  The Sunday Schools, one of which is held at the Hall,
number about 300 children.



LITTLE CHELSEA, OR WEST BROMPTON.


Proceeding a little to the north-west, we arrive at what was formerly
called Little Chelsea, but which is now designated West Brompton.
Without wishing to remove our neighbour’s land-mark, or to trespass
beyond the precise boundaries of Chelsea, the parish of Kensington being
on the north side of West Brompton, we will notice the residence of
William Boscawen, Esq., who resided near to those spacious mansions now
being erected on the grounds formerly known as Walnut-Tree Walk, now
called Redcliffe Gardens.  Mr. Boscawen was the younger son of General
George Boscawen, and was born in 1752.  At an early age he was sent to
Eton, where he obtained the particular notice and favour of the
celebrated Dr. Barnard.  From Eton he removed to Exeter College, Oxford,
and afterwards studied the law, became a member of the Middle Temple, and
was called to the bar.  His legal studies were not unfruitful, as he
published an excellent book under the title of “A Treatise of Conviction
on Penal Statutes,” &c., 1792, 8vo.  In 1785 he was appointed a
Commissioner of the Victualling Office, in consequence of which he soon
after quitted the bar, and in the following year married a daughter of
Dr. Ibbetson, Archdeacon of St. Albans.  Being an excellent classical
scholar, and warmly attached to literary pursuits, Mr. Boscawen
published, in 1793, “A Translation of the Odes of Horace,” which, being
much approved of, was soon followed by a Translation of the Satires,
Epistles, and Art of Poetry.  In 1801 he published a small volume of
Poems, which displayed an elegant taste, a poetical mind, and a correct
versification, and he was for several years an able coadjutor to the
British Critic.  He died, after a short illness, in 1811.  That excellent
institution, the Literary Fund, he considered almost as his child, and
his affection to it was testified not only by contribution, but by annual
verses in its praise, and assiduous attendance at its meetings.

                                * * * * *

Mr. Lochee’s Military Academy was established at this place about the
year 1770, and enjoyed a high degree of reputation; many of our most
eminent military characters received their education under him.  The
premises, which were laid out as a regular fortification, and were opened
to view, excited much attention at the time.  Mr. Lochee afterwards,
unfortunately, engaged in the revolutionary troubles which agitated
Flanders in the year 1790, and being taken prisoner by the Austrians, was
condemned to be hanged; he, however, obtained permission to come to
England, to settle his affairs, upon condition of leaving his only son as
a hostage; and upon his return to the Continent he suffered the
punishment of death.  His son, afterwards, married a daughter of the late
Mr. King, an eminent book auctioneer, of King Street, Covent Garden, and,
lamentable to relate, fell by his own hands.

                                * * * * *

BALLOON ASCENT IN 1784.—On the 16th of October, in the above year, an
immense concourse of people assembled at Mr. Lochee’s Military Academy,
to witness Mr. Blanchard’s ascent in his balloon.  The fields, for a
considerable distance round the spot, were crowded with horse and foot,
in consequence of which, a general devastation took place in the gardens,
the crops being either trampled down or torn up; the turnip grounds were
totally despoiled by the multitude; all the windows and houses were
filled with company, and every roof and tree was crowded with spectators.
At twelve o’clock Mr. Blanchard, and Mr. Sheldon, a surgeon, stepped into
the car, and the cords being loosened, the balloon slowly ascended, when
it was discovered that it would be requisite to throw out some ballast;
but before this could be accomplished, it struck some trees and descended
to the ground.  Being lightened, it again ascended, and moved
horizontally about a quarter of a mile, when it made a rapid direction
towards Sunbury, where they alighted, and Mr. Sheldon reluctantly quitted
the car.  Mr. Blanchard re-ascended, and pursued his aerial excursion to
Rumsey, Hants, where he descended, at half-past four in the afternoon, in
a meadow, and still standing in his car.  The balloon was first seen over
Abbotswood Common, and appeared about the size of a small hogshead.  Upon
his alighting he was jovially entertained.  The day being rather dark,
and the atmosphere low, the balloon was out of sight in about thirty
minutes.

                                * * * * *

About the year 1699, the Earl of Shaftesbury purchased an estate at
Little Chelsea, which had formerly been the property of Sir James Smith,
whose widow resided there in 1695.  The Earl rebuilt the house, and
generally resided in it during the sitting of Parliament.  He was first
charged to the parish rates in 1700.  Locke here wrote part of his
“Essay,” and Addison several of the Spectators.

                                * * * * *

Anthony Astley Cooper, third Earl of Shaftesbury, the learned author of
“The Characteristics,” was born in 1671, in the house of his grandfather,
who took such care of his education, that, at the age of eleven, he is
said to have read with ease both Latin and Greek.  In 1683, he was placed
at Winchester School, where he continued till 1686, when he made the tour
of Italy and France.  About five years after his return from Italy, he
visited Holland, where he passed much of his time in the society of
Bayle, Le Clerc, and other ingenious men.  Soon after his arrival in
England, he became Earl of Shaftesbury, by the demise of his father, but
did not attend the House of Lords during the first session after he had
succeeded to the peerage; nor did he appear there till his friend, Lord
Somers, sent a messenger to acquaint him with the pending partition
treaty in February, 1701.  On the accession of Queen Anne he retired to
Chelsea, to continue his favourite course of study; here he resided till
1711, when he set out for Italy, and died at Naples in 1719.  His
lordship’s philosophical writings are generally known.  Of his letters
there are several extant, dated from Chelsea in 1708.

                                * * * * *

The house was afterwards the residence of Sergeant Wynne, and of his son,
Edward Wynne, author of several Tracts, whose knowledge and proficiency
in polite literature could only be exceeded by his charity and
benevolence.  Dying a bachelor in 1785, his estates, together with his
house at Little Chelsea, and his very valuable library, collected chiefly
by his father, devolved to his brother, the Rev. Luttrell Wynne.  This
house was alienated by him to William Virtue.

                                * * * * *

The parish of St. George, Hanover Square, purchased it in the year 1787,
as an additional workhouse for the poor.  An Act of Parliament passed
that year, declares it to be in St. George’s Parish, so long as it shall
continue to be appropriated to its present use.  The same act exempts it
from all dues and rates demandable by the Rector and the parish of
Chelsea, on condition of paying to the former £3 3_s._ per annum, and to
the latter £6 13_s._ 4_d._

                                * * * * *

Sir John Cope, Bart., about the year 1700, resided in a large house at
Little Chelsea, according to Bowack, which was subsequently occupied as a
private mad house.  The house has been pulled down, and its site is now
called Odell’s Place.  Sir John sat for Oxfordshire and Banbury in
several Parliaments.  He married Anne, daughter of Mr. William Booth, by
whom he had seven sons, and one daughter.  There are some entries of
their baptisms in the Parish Register.  Sir John died January 11th, 1721.
His fourth son, Galen, born at Chelsea, resided there about the time of
his father’s death.  The worthy baronet was a magistrate for this county,
and his name regularly appears for a series of years affixed, in
confirmation of the parochial rates.

                                * * * * *

Robert Boyle, Esq., a most distinguished philosopher and chemist, the
seventh son of Richard, Earl of Cork, resided, in 1661, at Little
Chelsea, and there he was visited by the learned and eminent of his time.
Monsieur de Monconys, in his Travels, thus mentions a visit which he made
to Mr. Boyle at this place:—“I went after dinner with Mr. Oldenburg and
my son, two miles from London, in a stage coach, for five shillings, to a
village called Little Chelsea, to visit Mr. Boyle.”  After giving an
account of several experiments which Mr. Boyle made in his presence, he
thus proceeds:—“He has a very fine laboratory, where he makes all his
extracts, and other operations, one of which he shewed me with salt,
which being put in quite dry with gold leaves sixteen times thicker than
that used by gilders into a crucible on a slow fire, even over a lighted
candle, the salt calcined the gold so perfectly that water afterwards
dissolved them both, and became impregnated with them in the same manner
as with common salt.  He possesses a very fine telescope, and two
excellent microscopes, which are larger than mine.”  Mr. Evelyn, in his
Diary, has also recorded a visit to the same place.  “I went with that
excellent person and philosopher, Sir Robert Murray, to visit Mr. Boyle
at Chelsea, and saw divers effects of the Eolipile for weighing air.”
Bishop Burnet, in Mr. Boyle’s funeral sermon, has given an eloquent
account of this great philosopher and scholar.

                                * * * * *

Charles, fourth Earl of Orrery, grand-nephew to Mr. Boyle, was born at
Little Chelsea in 1676.  He was author of a comedy, entitled, “As you
Find it,” and of some verses which discover his wit and poetical genius.
Queen Anne created him a peer of Great Britain in 1711, by the title of
Lord Boyle, of Marston, in the county of Somerset.  His lordship died in
1737.  He was the improver of that noble instrument the Orrery, which, in
honour of him, was called after his name.

                                * * * * *

Sir James Wishart resided in Little Chelsea, and died in May, 1723.  He
was a native of Scotland, and was made an Admiral by Queen Anne; in 1710
he became a Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty, in which year he was
returned Member of Parliament for Portsmouth.  The Queen also conferred
the honour of knighthood upon him; but, in the following reign, he lost
all his places, and was dismissed from the service, for favouring the
interest of the Pretender.

                                * * * * *

Admiral Sir John Balchen, another distinguished naval officer, resided in
Little Chelsea about 1723.  He was lost in the “Victory” in the year
1744.  Sir John sailed, in July, from Spithead with a strong squadron, in
quest of an opportunity to attack the French fleet at Brest, under the
command of M. de Rochambault.  In the Bay of Biscay he was overtaken by a
violent storm that dispersed the ships, and drove them up the English
Channel.  Admiral Stewart, with the greater part of them, arrived at
Plymouth; but Sir John Balchen’s own ship, the Victory, which was at that
time considered to be the most beautiful first rate in the world,
foundered at sea; and this brave officer perished, with all his officers,
volunteers, and crew, amounting to eleven hundred choice seamen.

                                * * * * *

The Right Hon. Edward Hyde, third Earl of Clarendon, died at his house at
Little Chelsea in 1723.  He married Catherine, daughter to Henry Lord
O’Brien, eldest son and heir to the Earl of Thomond, of Ireland, by whom
he had a son and two daughters.  The title descended to the Earl of
Rochester, and soon after became extinct.

                                * * * * *

FATAL DUEL.—In January, 1784, a duel was fought in a field near Little
Chelsea, between Captain Charles Mostyn, of the navy, and Captain Clarke,
of the African Corps, which terminated in the death of the former, who
was shot through the heart.  The quarrel originated in defence of a Jew,
who went about diverting company, by taking off Mr. Fox.  Some words
arising, Captain Clarke demanded an apology, which Captain Mostyn
declined to make to him.  Mr. Mostyn was a gallant officer, only 25 years
of age, who, for his intrepid behaviour, had been made post-captain in
the Solitaire, a French ship of the line, taken by the Ruby.  Happily for
the humanity of England, such dark blots on its history are now for ever
erased, by the adoption of more stringent laws and the advancement of
religious and moral principles.

                                * * * * *

Dr. Baldwin Hamey was born in 1600.  He retired to Little Chelsea from
the hurry of his profession the year before the Fire of London, saving
thereby his library; he also escaped from the direful effects of the
plague in London.  At Chelsea he contributed largely towards the erection
of the church steeple, and gave the great bell which had his name on it.
I may here state that the first large bells are mentioned by Bede, in the
year 680.  Before that period the early British Christians made use of
wooden rattles (sacra ligna) to call the congregation of the faithful
together.  Dr. Adam Littleton, in gratitude to Dr. Hamey for the above
benefactions, printed at the end of the first edition of his Latin
Dictionary, a copy of Latin verses which he dedicated to him.  Dr. Hamey
was a great scholar, a philosopher, and an eminent physician.  At his
death he bequeathed to the College of Physicians the estate of Ashlins,
in Essex, besides money and books.  There is a manuscript life of him,
written about 143 years ago, by his relation, Mr. Palmer.  “Chemistry,”
says the biographer, “now began to come into vogue, which Dr. Hamey could
not well be reconciled to, from his Galenical principles, and at his age.
It seemed to him to be a stroke of quackery.”  He declined a knighthood,
and the offer of being first physician to Charles II. after his
restoration.  The same modesty made him waive the offer of being
President of his beloved College of Physicians, although he had held all
other subordinate offices in it.  He died in 1676, and was buried in the
Old Church.

                                * * * * *

The Goat and Boots Tavern still stands at the eastern corner of Park
Walk, West Brompton, or Little Chelsea, although from its age it seems
probable that in a few years a new house will be substituted for it.  The
sign was originally painted by Morland, to pay his tavern bill.  In old
deeds it is called the Goat.  Perhaps poor Morland added the “Boots” to
the sign to make it more attractive, and to get a better price from the
proprietor, but this is mere conjecture.

                                * * * * *

Park Walk, in a very old map of Chelsea, is called Lovers’ Walk, and it
appears to have been planted with trees, but from some unknown
cause—surely all the loving lads and lasses had not left the parish—it
degenerated into Twopenny Walk.  After dark, from its retirement and
seclusion, it was dangerous for persons passing that way.  It has been
now for many years a good thoroughfare from the King’s Road to West
Brompton, having Park Chapel in a central position, and houses on both
sides of the road.  When the improvement at the bottom of Milman’s Row is
entirely completed, there will then be an excellent and continuous
roadway to the river-side.



Park Chapel, &c.


This Chapel was so called from being situated within the precincts of
Chelsea Park, which originally formed the northern part of Sir Thomas
More’s grounds.  It was built in 1718, by Sir Richard Manningham, who, in
1730, granted a lease of it to the Rev. William Lacey, of Battersea.  At
that period there was only the Old Church, and an additional episcopal
place for Divine worship was needed for the convenience of the residents
in Little Chelsea.

                                * * * * *

The following is a complete list to the present period of the Clergymen
who have been Ministers at Park Chapel:—

1730          Rev. William Lacey, Battersea.
1736          — Dr. Sloane Ellesmere, Rector of Chelsea.
1766          — Mr. Gower, Chelsea.
     —        — Mr. Jacobs, Rector of St. Dunstan’s in the West.
1785          — Dr. Kelly, Vicar of East Mere, Hants.
1792          — Jas. Ward, Fellow of Queen’s Col., Cambridge.
1797          — Thomas Ellis.
1800          — J. Manning.
1802          — J. Gee Smyth, Rector of Chellesworth, Suffolk.
1812          — John Owen, Rector of Paglesham, Essex.
1822          — Henry John Owen, son of the preceding.
1834          — John Harding.
1836          — Henry Vaughan.
1836          — Thomas Vores.
1841          — John C. Miller.
1846          — W. Cadman.
1852          — C. J. Goodhart.
Dec. 1868     — J. G. Gregory.

The Rev. J. Gee Smyth, M.A., who it will be seen possessed Park Chapel in
1802, made very considerable alterations in it about 1810.  It may be
said to have been almost rebuilt by him.  The late Mr. Richard Mann, of
Chelsea, took a very correct sketch of the chapel, as altered by Mr.
Smyth.  Since 1810, at different times, it has undergone great repairs
and some material improvements.

                                * * * * *

The Rev. John Owen, M.A., was born in London in 1765.  He received his
education at St. Paul’s School, and removed from thence to Corpus Christi
College, Cambridge, where he prosecuted his studies with such success as
to obtain several prizes, and to be elected a Fellow of his College.
After taking holy orders, he soon distinguished himself as a preacher,
and attracted the notice of Bishop Porteus, who bestowed on him the
living of Paglesham, in Essex, having previously recommended him to the
Curacy of Fulham, which he held until the decease of that venerable
prelate; and, on his resigning the Lectureship, in 1813, the inhabitants
of that parish presented Mr. Owen with a handsome testimonial of their
attachment, as an acknowledgment of the faithful manner he had discharged
his duties.  He was one of the distinguished founders of the British and
Foreign Bible Society, and acted as honorary secretary for eighteen
years.  During the whole of this period he most zealously advocated, in
every possible way, the circulation of the Holy Scriptures, in
conjunction with the Rev. Dr. Steinkoff, and the Rev. Joseph Hughes,
M.A., of Battersea.  Mr. Owen possessed great mental talents, both as an
extempore preacher and a writer.  He was remarkably quick and correct in
his conceptions, extremely thoughtful in forming his conclusions, and
kind and considerate whenever a sense of duty compelled him to differ
from others in opinion.  He wrote the History of the British and Foreign
Bible Society, and other works; and continued to discharge his sacred
duties as Minister of Park Chapel as long as his health permitted.  He
died at Ramsgate, the 26th of September, 1822, in the 57th year of his
age.  He resided at Fulham during nearly the entire period of his active
life.

                                * * * * *

The Rev. Henry John Owen, M.A., succeeded his father in 1822.  While at
Park Chapel he was much esteemed by the congregation, and when he left
many deplored the loss of him.

                                * * * * *

The Rev. John Harding, M.A., was appointed Minister of Park Chapel in
1834.  Some time after he became the Rector of St. Ann’s, Blackfriars.
In both parishes he was much beloved by his congregations, and greatly
esteemed by the parishioners.  At length he was consecrated Bishop of
Bombay, and, having remained in India for many years, he returned to
England, and a short time since preached on a Sunday evening at Park
Chapel.  An affecting scene took place on that occasion, as his lordship
left the chapel.  A great number of persons had assembled outside to shew
the respect they entertained towards him, notwithstanding his long
absence from Chelsea.  When Bishop Harding approached, he seemed almost
overpowered with the kind recollection manifested by so many of the
congregation and other inhabitants, and, after a slight pause, he said,
with considerable emotion, “My dear friends, I thank you from my heart
for your kind remembrance of me.  May God bless every one of you!”  It
should here be mentioned that Bishop Harding, previously to his ministry
at Park Chapel, had been at St. Luke’s New Parish Church, with the late
revered Rev. H. Blunt, M.A., father of the present respected Rector, at
which Church he was also greatly esteemed.

The Rev. Henry Vaughan, M.A., did not long remain at Park Chapel, as the
state of his health rendered it impossible for him to continue.  Some
short time afterwards he was called to his eternal rest.  I heard it once
stated that Christian love was engraved on his forehead.

The Rev. Thomas Vores, M.A., who was next in succession, was, like his
predecessors, much beloved.  About five years after his appointment he
vacated it, and went to Hastings.

The Rev. Dr. Miller, the Rev. W. Cadman, M.A., and the Rev. C. J.
Goodhart, M.A., were equally respected as being zealous and faithful
ministers.  The two former are, at the present time, in the full vigour
of life, and actively engaged in discharging their sacred duties in large
parishes.  With respect to Mr. Goodhart, who has only recently left the
chapel, and whose ministry there extended over so many years, it would be
a difficult task to notice him adequately in a given space; the best
summary will be to state that on his retirement he was presented with a
silver salver and a purse containing about £540, as a testimony of the
high respect entertained by the congregation for his long and faithful
ministrations.

The Rev. J. G. Gregory, M.A., succeeded Mr. Goodhart at the close of the
year 1868.  The body of the chapel, since his appointment, has been
entirely re-pewed, the old high pews having been all removed, and the
seats made more commodious by additional width being given to them.
Several other alterations have been made, and a few more are said to be
in contemplation.  The whole interior of the chapel is therefore now
greatly improved, both as regards comfort and appearance.  The exterior
of the structure, however, requires to be altogether rebuilt, as soon as
practicable, so as to accord with the ecclesiastical architecture of the
present day, especially in such a locality as West Brompton and South
Kensington.  In the Vestry Room are portraits of the different Ministers
of Park Chapel, commencing with the Rev. John Owen, and terminating with
the Rev. Mr. Goodhart, with only one exception, the portrait of Mr.
Vaughan, the absence of which may be attributed to the short period of
his ministry, in consequence of his illness and death, and the difficulty
afterwards of procuring a correct likeness of him.  It would be well if
this memorial portrait could be added to the others.

Their Royal Highnesses the Dukes of Kent and Sussex attended this chapel
in 1812, when a collection was made for the benefit of the schools, on
which occasion a guard of honour, selected from Queen Charlotte’s Royal
Volunteers, was stationed at the doors on their arrival and departure.

                                * * * * *

Adjoining the chapel a building was erected, in 1828, by subscription,
and the profits of a sale of fancy work, for the reception of the
children of Park Chapel Schools, &c.  The whole charge originally was
£900.  Several alterations, however, have since been made in the
arrangement of this building.  The Girls’ Day and Sunday Schools, and the
Infant School, are now only held in it, besides a few occasional meetings
in connection with the numerous benevolent societies supported by the
liberal contributions of the congregation.  The boys’ school was
transferred to the Clock House some years since.  This latter school owes
its origin to Samuel Gower Poole, Esq., who once resided in Dudmaston
House, King’s Road, and to whom reference has already been made.  The
annual meetings. &c., are also held in the Clock House schoolroom.



CHELSEA PARK.


This was part of the property of Sir Thomas More, and is called, in old
deeds, the “Sand Hills;” was originally open fields, with a footpath
across to Little Chelsea.  The whole was enclosed with a brick wall, in
1625, by the Lord Treasurer, Cranfield, and converted into a park, which
name it has retained ever since, but the walls have gradually given way
to the erection of buildings.  The park originally consisted of 32 acres,
situated north of the King’s Road, between Park and Upper Church Street.
{71}

                                * * * * *

In 1721 a patent was obtained for a manufactory of raw silk, and this
park was taken for the purpose, and planted with mulberry trees.  It
attracted a considerable share of public attention at the time, but
proved unsuccessful.  The premises of the Raw Silk Company were rated in
the parish books at £200.

                                * * * * *

In Walpole’s Catalogue of Engravers, it is stated that James Christopher
le Blon, in 1734, set up a project for copying the cartoons in tapestry,
and made some fine drawings for the purpose.  Houses were built, and
looms erected, on the above mulberry ground, but either the expense was
too great, or the contributions did not arrive fast enough.  The bubble
burst, several suffered, and Le Blon was heard of no more.

                                * * * * *

INTERESTING PARTICULARS OF SIR HENRY AND LADY WILSON.  On the northern
border of the old park, just described, is a capital mansion in which Sir
Henry Wright Wilson resided for many years, the entrance to it being in
the Fulham Road, and which is still designated as Chelsea Park.  The
pleasure grounds attached to it were some years since much more extensive
than they are at present.  Sir Henry married a daughter of the Earl of
Aylesbury, who was left a valuable estate in Hampshire, said to be worth
about £3000 a year, under the most singular circumstances.  Lady Frances
Wilson was informed in the year 1824, while at breakfast, that an
eccentric person named Wright, who had died a few days previously at an
obscure lodging in Pimlico, had appointed her and Mr. C. Abbot his
executors, and after some legacies had bequeathed to Lady Frances the
residue of his property by a will dated as far back as 1800.  As Lady
Frances declared herself unacquainted with the name of the testator, she
at first concluded that there was some mistake.  After further
explanation, the person of Mr. Wright was described to her, and Lady
Frances recollected that the description answered that of a gentleman she
had remembered as a constant frequenter at the Opera many years
previously.  To satisfy herself of the identity she went to Mr. Wright’s
late lodgings, and saw him in his coffin, when she recognised the
features as those of the person whose eyes had so often persecuted her
when she was Lady Frances Bruce, but who had never spoken to her, and of
whom she had no knowledge whatever. {72}  Lady Francis was never
considered by her friends to be beautiful, and the general opinion at the
time was that the legacy was intended for a lady who occupied a box next
to that in which Lady Frances sat when at the Opera.  Sir Henry was in
Parliament when the above estate came into his wife’s possession, but he
afterwards had to contest his seat, and lost it.

                                * * * * *

SIR HENRY WRIGHT WILSON AND THE POOR CARPENTER.—The following anecdote
will no doubt amuse many readers.  Sir Henry’s establishment was large,
and he had been accustomed to employ at times a jobbing carpenter, who
had at one period been in better circumstances.  This person had received
specific instructions to do certain work, which required a little
trifling assistance, such as to help him to remove something which stood
in the way, and which the carpenter could not possibly do without
temporary aid.  He asked several of the grooms and others to assist, but
they all made frivolous excuses, and consequently the work was not done
by the appointed time.  When Sir Henry returned home he noticed that his
orders had been neglected, and, on ascertaining the particulars, without
making any remarks, he quietly entered the house.  The next morning,
however, he gave instructions for his carriage with four horses to be
immediately got ready.  He then sent for the carpenter, and after a short
time the carriage was at the entrance door, when, to the great surprise
of the servants, he desired him to take a seat in it.  Sir Henry then
mounted his horse, and, notwithstanding the dirty state of the roads,
took them through Fulham, over Putney Bridge, round by Wandsworth and
Battersea, back to Chelsea.  On their return he insisted that the horses
and carriage should be immediately cleaned, or else to be dismissed from
his service.  Sir Henry being esteemed a good master they preferred
obedience, and it was said that although the carpenter was afterwards
subject to an occasional jeer, he never had again to complain of their
conduct towards him.

                                * * * * *

QUEEN’S ELM.—This is situated at the top of Upper Church Street, but the
spot for some time past seems to be merged into the Fulham Road, and is
either so called, or else it is described as being near to it.  The
original name, Queen’s Elm, which it is to be hoped will still be
retained, is said traditionally to have derived its origin from the
following circumstance.  Queen Elizabeth was walking out with the great
Lord Burleigh, and being overtaken with a heavy shower of rain, took
shelter under an elm tree growing on this spot.  After the shower was
over, she said, “Let this henceforth be called the Queen’s Tree.”  This
tradition is remarkably confirmed, as will be seen by the following
extract:—“It appears by the Church Book, beginning 1586, and in the 28th
Elizabeth, that the tree at the end of the Duke’s Walk is in Chelsea
parish called the Queen’s Tree; and that there was an arbour built round
it by one Bostocke, at the charge of the parish.”



The Jews’ Burial Ground, &c.


The Jews’ Burial Ground is at Queen’s Elm, and was erected in 1816 by the
individuals whose names are inscribed on the wall of the entrance
building, and to their descendants.  There is also inscribed the 16th
Psalm in Hebrew.  The lower part of the building is called the hall, the
upper part is intended for the keeper.  Unlike the arrangement in the
Moravians’ Burial Ground, the graves are in rows, without any distinction
as to sex.  At burials the mourners do not approach the grave, but stand
at a distance, so that they may hear sufficiently to join in the prayers.

                                * * * * *

The Rev. J. B. Owen, M.A., Vicar of St. Jude’s Church, Chelsea, in an
admirable lecture delivered by him in 1862, in the Vestry Hall, King’s
Road, related the following anecdote:—“An Hebrew friend amused and
puzzled me with a sentiment he had once given at a festival of one of the
London Guilds.  Being pressed for a toast, he gave ‘The Queen of the
Jews, and of no other nation.’  Many conjectures were hazarded, as wide
of the mark as Jezebel and the Queen of Sheba.  The company confessed
themselves beaten, and at last my friend gave the answer—‘Queen
Victoria.’  But this only darkened the enigma more than ever.  After some
time, he said, J. (or I.) E. W. S. makes Ireland, England, Wales, and
Scotland, and J. E. W. S. spells Jews, and makes Victoria ‘Queen of the
Jews, and of no other nation.’”

                                * * * * *

“England,” said Mr. Owen, “owes a great national debt of amends to their
Hebrew brethren.  For several centuries they were bought and sold as
chattels, plundered and exiled, as if they were outlaws.  In the
sixteenth year of Edward I. all the Jews in England were imprisoned, and
though they redeemed themselves for a vast sum, three years after, the
fraudulent tyrant banished them all; and they remained in banishment 364
years, till the rough justice of old Oliver Cromwell restored them to
their trade and worship.  The proverb ‘worth a Jew’s eye’ alludes to the
barbarities practiced on the Jews, whose money was commonly extorted from
them by drawing their teeth, or putting out their eyes.  There are no
judgments in Scripture more terrible than those denounced against the
oppressors of Judah.  We may be thankful that we have lived to witness
the last vestige of injustice to our Hebrew fellow-citizens erased from
our statutes.  Have we also honestly received the social and religious
interests of the Jews into the unreserved sympathy of Christian hearts?”

                                * * * * *

Francis Hargrave, Esq., a barrister, resided in York Place, (the houses
of which are now nearly all converted into shops, and which is situated
near to the Jews’ Burial Ground), for a considerable period.  He
particularly distinguished himself in the _Habeas Corpus_ case of James
Somerset, a negro, for whom he was counsel, and his argument was the
occasion of a precedent being established for the freedom of slaves the
moment they set foot on English land.  He possessed a very extensive and
most valuable library, which Parliament purchased for £8000, in order
that it might be placed in the British Museum.  He died here in 1821,
aged 80.

                                * * * * *

Sydenham Edwards, Esq., F.L.S., an eminent botanical draughtsman, lived
in Charles Street, Queen’s Elm, and afterwards removed to Barrossa Place,
where he died in 1819.  The Flora Londinensis, Rees’ Encyclopædia, &c.,
were greatly indebted to his masterly pencil.



CHURCH STREET.


Alexander Stephens, Esq., built and resided in Park House, Upper Church
Street, for a great many years.  He was the author of several popular
works, was born at Elgin, about 1757, and completed his education at the
University of Aberdeen, which he left at the early age of 18 years, for
the purpose of proceeding to the West India Islands, principally with a
view to add to his stock of useful information and knowledge of the
world.  Mr. Stephens purchased a Commission in the 84th regiment, but
never joined in consequence of the sudden reduction of that corps.  At
the age of 21, he entered himself a member of the Middle Temple, where he
continued his vigorous pursuit of legal studies for several years.  His
earliest production was “Jamaica,” a descriptive poem; and his next,
published within a few years afterwards, “The Temple,” a kind of law
journal.  But of his printed works, undoubtedly, the most approved are
the volumes of the “Public Characters;” also a “Life of John Horne Took,”
and the “History of the Wars, which arose out of the French Revolution.”

                                * * * * *

The industry of Mr. Stephens in the collection of the materials for his
biographical works has not often been surpassed.  He was accustomed to
commit to paper the most trifling memoranda illustrative of the history
of any eminent individual the moment they were communicated to him.

                                * * * * *

Mr. Stephens enjoyed the confidential friendship of the late Duke of
Kent, and was in habits of unreserved intimacy with many other
distinguished characters of the age.  He was related to the Duke of
Roxburgh, whose claim to that title he pleaded with memorable success in
the House of Lords.

                                * * * * *

Although generally of retired habits, Mr. Stephens often felt interested
in the parochial concerns of Chelsea, and distinguished himself by the
manliness and zeal with which he supported measures which to him appeared
likely to prove beneficial.

                                * * * * *

Mr. Stephens wrote much and well for the periodical press.  The pages of
the Analytical Review abound in important articles from his pen.  To the
Monthly Magazine, also, he was a frequent contributor.  Besides the
composition of papers on the Belles Lettres, he was in the habit of
furnishing biographical notices for that journal.  In extent of
information touching the lives and actions of the cotemporary generation,
he was equalled by few writers of his age.  Mr. Stephens’s sound
constitution was gradually impaired by intense study, added to the
immoderate use of coldiam, on the efficacy of which he placed implicit
reliance.  For the last two years of his life he suffered severely from
the gout, and at last died somewhat suddenly at his house in Upper Church
Street, in 1821, aged 64, and was interred in the burial ground attached
to St. Luke’s Church.

                                * * * * *

A. H. Haworth, Esq., occupied a house in Upper Church Street in 1825, and
for some time previous to that year.  He possessed an unrivalled Museum
of Entomology and Natural History, the collection of 40 years laborious
research.  It would be impossible here to give any thing like an adequate
notice of what it contained.  There were about 40,000 insects, arranged
in systematic order, and about 20,000 dried plants, arranged in natural
order, and glued.  His contributions to the Linnæan Society and
Horticultural Society, Philosophical Magazine, &c., were greatly
esteemed.

                                * * * * *

I. N. Sartorius, Esq., so long celebrated for his faithful delineations
of animal life, resided in this street in 1830, and for some years.

                                * * * * *

Philip Reinagle, Esq., R.A., celebrated for his beautiful specimens of
landscape paintings, and whose family were eminent for their proficiency
in the fine arts, resided also here about the same period.

                                * * * * *

W. H. Davis, Esq., at a much later period, resided also for many years in
Upper Church Street, near the King’s Road; he was considered to be one of
the best animal portrait painters, and was constantly employed every
Smithfield Cattle Show, his works being very highly prized.

                                * * * * *

Crossing the King’s Road, we enter into that portion of Church Street
which leads direct to the Old Church.  This ancient thoroughfare was
built upon at a very early period, and many eminent persons have resided
here at various times; but principally since the Rectory was removed
hither, in 1569, from Milman’s Row.

                                * * * * *

William Tebbs, Esq., Proctor, resided nearly opposite the Rectory House,
in Church Street, for many years; he was highly respected professionally,
and much esteemed for his kindness and liberality to the poor.  Mr.
Tebbs, sen., dwelt here in 1819, and his name appears subsequently and
previously for a long time as a contributor to most of the local
charities.

                                * * * * *

Henry Virtue Tebbs, Esq., son of the preceding, and who was in
partnership with his father, resided in a commodious detached house, with
large enclosed garden, in Cooks’ Ground, for a long time.  Like the rest
of his family he was greatly respected by the inhabitants, and ever ready
to promote every good work in the parish.  Of him it may truly be said
that he was the constant friend of the needy and helpless.  He was a
zealous supporter of the Chelsea Auxiliary Bible Society, and he devoted
most of his leisure hours in promoting the various societies connected
with Park Chapel, especially the Day and Sunday Schools.  Some few years
since he removed from the parish to the deep regret of a numerous circle
of friends, whose sincere hope is that his benevolent heart may still
beat for many a year to come.

                                * * * * *

One of the most ancient mansions (pulled down some few years ago) was
called Church Place.  It was said to have been the residence of various
eminent persons; and some have confidently asserted that it was the
palace of the Earl of Essex.  It was also said to have been used by Queen
Anne as a laundry.  In the back front there was a date, cut in brick,
“1641.”  This old house is first mentioned in the parish books in 1696;
it is also mentioned repeatedly in the Inquests of Court Leet, and Court
Baron, before and after that period.

                                * * * * *

Dr. Atterbury resided facing the river, near the Old Church, in 1695, as
appears by the parish books, and afterwards in Church Street, for several
years; one of his letters is dated from hence in 1698.  There he became
acquainted with Swift, in 1711, to whom he was before unknown.

                                * * * * *

Francis Atterbury, Bishop of Rochester, was born in 1662, and was
educated in Westminster School, and afterwards was elected a Student of
Christ Church, Oxford, where he soon distinguished himself by his wit and
learning, and gave early proofs of his poetical talents.  In 1687, he
made his first essay in controversial writing, and shewed himself an able
and strenuous advocate for the Protestant religion.  In 1691 he took holy
orders, and was elected in the same year Lecturer of St. Bride’s, London,
and Preacher of Bridewell Chapel.

                                * * * * *

Upon the accession of Queen Anne, in 1702, Dr. Atterbury was appointed
one of her Majesty’s Chaplains in Ordinary; and in 1704 was advanced to
the Deanery of Carlisle.  In 1713, at the recommendation of Lord
Chancellor Harcourt, the Queen promoted him to the Bishopric of
Rochester.

                                * * * * *

In 1722, Dr. Atterbury, on suspicion of being concerned in a plot in
favour of the Pretender, was apprehended and committed to the Tower.
Shortly afterwards he was condemned to perpetual exile.  Just before
this, a large fine dropped to him as Dean of Westminster, but he could
have no right to receive it without the seal being set to it in full
chapter.  Sir Robert Walpole earnestly enquired whether a Chapter could
not be held in the Tower, that he might receive the benefit of the fine.
A chapter was accordingly there held, and the Bishop received a £1000 for
his share.  This anecdote, which is well authenticated, does great credit
to the liberality of Walpole.

                                * * * * *

Dr. Atterbury, in his private character, was most amiable and exemplary;
as a preacher he was eloquent, and as a writer, his sermons, letters and
other tracts, proved most decidedly that he possessed piety, genius, and
erudition.  On the 18th of June, 1723, having the day before taken leave
of his friends, this eminent prelate embarked on board the Aldborough
man-of-war, and landed on the Friday following at Calais.

    A prelate for wit, and for eloquence fam’d,
    Apollo soon miss’d, and he need not be nam’d;
    Since amidst a whole bench, of which some are so bright,
    No one of them shines so learn’d and polite.—_Sheffield_, 1719.

The celebrated Dean Swift came to Chelsea in the year 1711, and took up
his residence facing Dr. Atterbury’s house in Church Street.

                                * * * * *

Dr. Jonathan Swift, Dean of St. Patrick, in Dublin, an illustrious poet,
and political and satirical writer, was born in Dublin in 1667, and died
in 1745.  Of a life so various and so full of business as Swift’s, we
know not what part we could select consistent with the limits of this
work that would not excite rather than gratify curiosity.

The company of Swift was courted by persons of the first rank in life and
literature; the following peculiarities may be related:—He made to
himself a rule never to speak more than a minute at a time, and to wait
for others to take up the conversation.  He was singularly happy in
punning; and used to say, that none despised that talent but those who
were without it.  He also greatly excelled in telling a story; but, in
the latter part of his life, used to tell the same rather to often.
Though to strangers he appeared churlish, and austere to his servants, it
is said he was a kind and generous master; he was also very charitable to
the poor.

Swift has been very minute and circumstantial in describing the
particulars relative to his residence here, and his acquaintance with Dr.
Atterbury.  I will select one instance of it:—“I got here,” says he,
“with Patrick and my portmanteau for sixpence, and pay six shillings a
week for one silly room, with confounded coarse sheets.  I lodge just
over against Dr. Atterbury’s house; and yet, perhaps, I shall not like
the place the better for that.”

                                * * * * *

Thomas Shadwell, Esq., Poet Laureat, another resident of Church Street,
was born at Stanton Hall, Norfolk, and received his education at Bury
School, and Caius College, Cambridge.  His father, who held a place of
profit and distinction in the law in Ireland, bestowed the learning and
exercises of a gentleman upon him.  Notwithstanding that, Lord Rochester
has said,

    “None seem to touch true Comedy
    But hasty Shadwell and slow Wycherlye,”

yet that lord had a better opinion of his conversation than his writings
when he said “that if Shadwell had burned all he wrote, and printed all
he spoke, he would have shewn more wit and humour than any other poet.”
In the reign of William III. he succeeded Dryden, as Poet Laureat, under
whose lash he had previously fallen.  His works, consisting of seventeen
plays, were published in three volumes 12mo. in 1720, with a short
account of his life written by his son, Sir John Shadwell, Knight, who
was physician to Queen Anne, and resided in a house at Chelsea, which had
been previously occupied by Dr. Arbuthnot.  Shadwell died at Chelsea in
1692, aged 52, and was buried in the Church, November 24, when a funeral
sermon was preached by his friend Dr. Nicholas Brady, in which he assures
us that “his natural and acquired abilities made him sufficiently
remarkable to all that he conversed with, very few being equal to him in
all the becoming qualities and accomplishments of a gentleman.”  His
widow, who had been an actress, survived him, and resided at Chelsea some
years.

                                * * * * *

Dr. John Arbuthnot, a native of Scotland, had his education in the
University of Aberdeen, where he took the degree of Doctor of Physic.  He
came to London about the year 1695, and at first taught the mathematics
for his support.  His facetious and agreeable conversation introduced him
by degrees into practice; and he became eminent in his profession.  Being
at Epsom when Prince George of Denmark was suddenly taken ill, he was
called in to his assistance; his advice was successful, and his Highness
recovering, employed him ever afterwards as his physician.

                                * * * * *

The Queen’s death, and the disasters which fell upon his friends on that
occasion, deeply affected his health and spirits; and, to divert his
melancholy, he paid a visit to his brother, a banker, at Paris.  He
returned to London, and continued his medical profession with great
reputation, employing his leisure hours in writing papers of wit and
humour.

                                * * * * *

About this time Dr. Arbuthnot took a house in Church Street, where he at
times entertained a select number of his friends.  He died in 1735 in
Cork Street, Burlington Gardens.  In his writings he has shewn himself
equal to any of his cotemporaries in humour, wit, and learning.  Sir John
Shadwell, son of the Laureat, afterwards occupied the house.

                                * * * * *

Dr. Edward Chamberlayne, it appears from the land tax book of this
parish, anno 1704, resided next door to Dr. King, the rector, in a house
that is still standing, and which is a few doors north of the White Horse
public house, in Church Street.  He was descended from an ancient family,
and born at Odington, in Gloucestershire, in 1616.  During the civil war
he made the tour of Europe.  After the Restoration he was chosen F.R.S.;
and, in 1669, attended Charles, Earl of Carlisle, as secretary to the
embassy to Stockholm, with the order of the Garter for the King of
Sweden.  Shortly afterwards the degree of LL.D. was conferred on him at
Cambridge, and also the same at Oxford at a later period.  About the year
1679, he received the appointment of tutor to the Duke of Grafton, one of
the natural sons of Charles II.; and subsequently he instructed Prince
George of Denmark, consort to Queen Anne, in the English language.  He
died at his house in Church Street in 1703, having been an active
magistrate in this parish for many years.

                                * * * * *

John Chamberlayne, (son of Dr. Chamberlayne,) who resided in the house
formerly occupied by his father, was a learned and worthy man.  He was
admitted into Trinity College, Oxford, in 1685, and was gentleman usher
to George Prince of Denmark.  He translated, from the French and Spanish:
1. The Manner of making Tea, Coffee, and Chocolate.  2. From Italian into
English, A Treasure of Health, written by Castor Durant de Gualdo,
physician of Rome.  3. The Arguments of the Books and Chapters of the Old
and New Testaments, with Practical Observations, written originally in
French by the Rev. Mr. Ostervald, Professor of Divinity, and one of the
members of the church at Neufchatel, in Switzerland, and by him presented
to the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, of which society he was
a member.  4. The Lives of the Members of the Royal Academy of Sciences;
translated from the French of M. de Fontenelle; republished since, in
1721, under the title of “Memoirs of the Royal Academy of Sciences of
Paris, Epitomized, with the Lives of the late Members of that Society.”
5. The Religious or Christian Philosopher; or, The right Use of
Contemplating the Work of the Creator; translated from the Dutch of Dr.
Nieuwentyt, with cuts.  6. History of the Reformation in and about the
Low Countries; translated from the Low Dutch of Gerard Brandt.  7. The
Lord’s Prayer, in 100 Languages.  8. Dissertations, Historical,
Theological, and Critical, on the most memorable events of the Old and
New Testaments, wherein the Spirit of the Sacred Writings is shewn, their
authority confirmed, &c.  Mr. Chamberlayne was Fellow of the Royal
Society, to whom he communicated several papers on important subjects.
He augmented and improved his father’s book of “The Present State of
Great Britain,” to the latter editions of which his name is prefixed.  He
was not only learned but pious, earnest at all times in promoting and
disseminating religious principles.  In the old churchyard, facing the
river, are inscriptions to the memory of this distinguished family. {82}

                                * * * * *

Mr. Bowack, to whom we are so much indebted for his valuable information,
resided near Dr. Chamberlayne’s house in Church Street.  In 1705 he began
to publish, in folio numbers, “The Antiquities of Middlesex; being a
Collection of the several Church Monuments in that County; also an
Historical Account of each Church and Parish, with the Seats, Villages,
and names of the most eminent Inhabitants.”  The work extended through
the parishes of Chelsea, Fulham, Kensington, Chiswick, and Acton, and was
then discontinued.  It is much to be regretted that he could not complete
his design.  He has preserved many monumental inscriptions, since
destroyed.  Mr. Bowack was writing master to Westminster School.  “I
have,” says Mr. Faulkner, in reference to his own work, “carefully
embodied the greater part of the information contained in his (Bowack’s)
folio volume, now become extremely scarce.”

                                * * * * *

John Martyn, Esq., who resided in Church Street, next door to Dr.
Chamberlayne, was the son of a merchant of London.  He was born in 1699.
With him it was a subject of frequent exultation, in after-life, that
Providence had thrown him into a country, and produced him at a period so
fertile in genius and literary accomplishments.  “It was truly the golden
age of learning,” says Mr. Faulkner, “and to converse with those heroes
who adorn it was deemed no mean privilege, or glory, by one who well knew
how to value mental wealth.”  He was sent by his father to a private
school (his mother died when he was scarcely a twelvemonth old), and here
by his own industry rather than by any advantage of instruction, he made
a tolerable proficiency in school learning, but was taken away from his
beloved books to engage in the business of a counting house.  Most youths
of his age, in such an occupation, would have found their minds
sufficiently employed, but he, insatiate of knowledge, after the labours
of the day, dedicated most of those hours which are usually given to
bodily rest to the improvement of his understanding.

                                * * * * *

Mr. Martyn’s propensity to the science of botany was first excited by an
acquaintance with Mr. Wilmer, an apothecary, who afterwards became the
reader in the Botanic Garden at Chelsea, and by an intimacy contracted
with Dr. Blair and Dr. Sherard.  In the year 1732, he published a
translation of “Tournefort’s History of Plants about Paris,” and in the
same year a “Catalogue of the Plants about London,” but he did not
complete it.  From a strong conviction that observations made upon plants
in their natural places of growth were the least liable to error, he
about the same time began his botanical excursions, which were mostly
performed on foot, and were continued for a long period with unwearied
diligence.  His “Hortus Siccus,” containing 1,400 specimens, is a
sufficient testimony of his industry.  Nor did he confine himself wholly
to the contemplation of vegetables, and their hidden virtues; the
numerous insect tribe began to attract no small share of his attention.
In 1721, he principally instituted the Botanical Society, in London.  Dr.
Dillenius was president, and Mr. Martyn was secretary.  This society kept
together till 1726.  About this time he became a member of the Royal
Society, and now began to apply himself most seduously to the practice of
physic.  For this purpose he was admitted of Emmanuel College, Cambridge,
and kept five terms, with an intention to have proceeded regularly with
his degrees, but from peculiar circumstances he was prevented from
finishing his design.  He had now lived and practised physic in Great St.
Helen’s, Bishopsgate Street, during three years; but, finding the air of
London disagree with his constitution, he embraced a favourable
opportunity which offered of removing to Chelsea, where he practised
physic with success and great reputation for above twenty years.

In 1733, he was chosen Professor of Botany in the University of
Cambridge, where he had given several courses of lectures, and had
greatly restored the study of that science.

Mr. Martyn, in 1723 (as is stated in a preceding page), married Eulalia,
youngest daughter of the Rev. Dr. John King, Rector of Chelsea, by whom
he had three sons and five daughters, all of whom were born in Church
Street, Chelsea, in the same house wherein their mother was born and
died, and in which her father, Dr. King, lived and died.  Mrs. Martyn
died in 1749, from a cancer in her breast, occasioned by a violent blow
given her as she was walking in London.

                                * * * * *

In 1750, Mr. Martyn married, secondly, a daughter of Claude Fonnereau,
Esq., merchant of London, who bore him one son and survived him.  Soon
after this he retired to Streatham, Surrey.  In 1761 he resigned his
professorship of botany; and some time after presented to the University
his library of botanical books, amounting to above 200 volumes.

                                * * * * *

Chelsea, notwithstanding the happiness he enjoyed at Streatham, seems
after all to have been his favourite place of abode, as he removed back
again to his former residence in Church Street, and at last, by the most
gradual and gentle decay, died there in 1768.

                                * * * * *

Mr. Martyn’s benevolence was that of a Christian, diffusive and
unconfined; he was considered as the father of the poor in the parish,
and gave constant attention to the sick, both in and out of the
workhouse.  He was the author of many works, two of which we shall
notice:—

  “An Account of an Aurora Australis, seen at Chelsea, March 18, 1738–9.”
  This was the first account which had ever been given of that
  phenomenon.

  “An Account of an Earthquake felt in London, February 8, 1749–50.”

The following extract from the latter account will no doubt interest the
reader: “At 40 minutes after noon, all the houses were violently shaken,
especially those nearest the river.  A maid servant, passing from one
under office to another, felt the ground, which was six feet below the
surface, shake.  Of those who were in the street, or on the river, some
felt, others not.  It was felt at Fulham, but not at Hounslow, Brentford,
nor Richmond, nor farther westward than Kensington Turnpike; it seemed to
terminate in the west, about two miles beyond Chelsea.”

                                * * * * *

Mr. Martyn was also engaged in a weekly paper, called “The Grub Street
Journal,” which had a large sale, about the year 1736.  It was one of the
most curious of the periodical papers of that period.  In a fine vein of
irony it attacked the heroes of the Dunciad, and tells some secrets of
their obscure quarrels. {85}  The papers he contributed are distinguished
by the signature “B.”

                                * * * * *

William Petyt, Esq., to whom we have already slightly referred, in the
account of his gift to the parish of the School Room at the Old Church,
resided in Church Street, and died there in 1707, aged 71 years.  Of his
progress through life there is no information, except that he enjoyed
considerable reputation as a writer on the laws and constitution of
England, which are preserved in the Inner Temple Library.  There is a
long Latin epitaph to his memory in the Temple Church.  It was the year
before his death that he built the schoolrooms and vestry.

                                * * * * *

The White Horse Inn in Church Street, which was burnt down some years
since, and a new one substituted for it, was a very ancient house, built
in the style which prevailed in the reigns of Henry VIII. and Queen
Elizabeth.  The disposition of the rooms, the ancient panelling, and the
various grotesque ornaments and carving, especially of human figures in
the form of brackets, were well worthy of inspection, and excited the
attention of most strangers who visited the house.

                                * * * * *

The old Parochial Guardian Society mostly held their meetings at the old
White Horse Inn.  The principal room was large and consequently
well-adapted for such purposes; and when the parishioners met in open
vestry, the house being opposite to the Vestry Room where they assembled,
it was particularly convenient on such occasions for the accommodation of
the ratepayers generally.  The above society comprised a great many
members, and acted in conjunction with a large number of the resident
gentry of the parish.

                                * * * * *

Justice Walk, which extends from Church Street to Lawrence Street, took
its name from a magistrate who lived in it.  An avenue of lime trees
formerly adorned it, and, being kept in good order, it was a very
agreeable footway for passengers.  There is now in it a commodious
Wesleyan Chapel, built in 1841.  The exterior is plain and unpretending.
The interior is neat, comfortable, and well ventilated.  Beneath the
chapel is a spacious school room, in which the Sunday School is held.
This school is very well attended.  Through the exertions of the members,
and other friends, the interior of the chapel has recently been painted,
and rendered more comfortable in many respects.

                                * * * * *

The Chelsea China Manufactory was situate at the corner of Justice Walk,
and occupied the houses to the upper end of Lawrence Street.  Several of
the large old houses were used as shew-rooms.  It has been discontinued
for nearly 90 years.

                                * * * * *

The manufactory of Chelsea porcelain was set on foot and carried on by a
Mr. Spremont, a foreigner.  The establishment employed a great number of
hands; but the original proprietor having acquired a large fortune
retired from the concern, and his successors, wanting his enterprise and
spirit, did not so well succeed, and in a few years finally abandoned it.
Previous to the dissolution, the proprietors presented a memorial
respecting it to the Government, requesting protection and assistance, in
which they stated that “the manufacture in England has been carried on by
great labour and a large expense; it is in many respects to the full as
good as the Dresden; and the late Duke of Orleans told Colonel York that
the metal or earth had been tried in his furnace, and was found to be the
best made in Europe.  It is now daily improving, and already employs, at
least, 100 hands, of which is a nursery of thirty lads taken from the
parishes and charity schools, and bred to designing and painting: arts
very much wanted here, and which are of the greatest use in our silk and
printed linen manufactories.”

Specimens of this porcelain have always been much esteemed, and still
retain a great value.  At the sale of the effects of Queen Charlotte, the
articles in Chelsea china, of which her Majesty had a large collection,
brought very high prices.  Mr. Watkins, in his Life of Queen Charlotte,
says, “I beheld with admiration a complete service of Chelsea china,
porcelain, rich and beautiful in fancy beyond expression.  I really never
saw any Dresden porcelain near so fine.”

                                * * * * *

Mr. A. Stephens, whom we have already noticed, was told by the foreman of
the Chelsea China Manufactory (then in the workhouse of St. Luke’s,
Middlesex), that Dr. Johnson had conceived a notion that he was capable
of improving on the manufacture of china.  He even applied to the
directors of the Chelsea China Works, and was allowed to _bake_ his
compositions in their ovens in Lawrence Street, Chelsea.  He was
accordingly accustomed to go down with his housekeeper, about twice a
week, and stop the whole day, she carrying a basket of provisions with
her.  The Doctor, who was not allowed to enter the _mixing_ room, had
access to every other part of the premises, and formed his composition in
a particular apartment, without being overlooked by any one.  He had also
free access to the oven, and superintended the whole of the process; but
completely failed, both as to composition and baking, for his materials
always yielded to the intensity of the heat, while those of the Company
came out of the furnace perfect and complete.  Dr. Johnson retired in
disgust, but not in despair, for he afterwards gave a dissertation on
this very subject in his works; but the overseer assured Mr. Stephens, in
1814, that he was still ignorant of the nature of the operation.  He
seemed to think that the Doctor imagined one single substance was
sufficient, while he, on the other hand, asserted that he always used
sixteen, and he must have had some practice, as he had nearly lost his
eye-sight by firing batches of china, both at Chelsea and Derby, to which
the manufacture was afterwards carried.

                                * * * * *

Chelsea china, originally patronised by the Duke of Cumberland, and
afterwards by Sir R. Faulkner, was a long time in such repute as to be
sold by auction, and as a set was purchased as soon as baked, dealers
were surrounding the doors for that purpose. {87}



LAWRENCE STREET, &c.


Lawrence Street derives its name, as previously intimated, from its
having been the site of the residence of the Lawrence family for many
years.  On this spot stood the first old Manor House, until Lord Sandys
alienated the manor to Henry VIII., when that king sold it to Sir Thomas
Lawrence, and erected another in Cheyne Walk.

                                * * * * *

The ancient family of Lawrence first came into England with William the
Conqueror, and settled at Ashton Hall, in the county of Lancaster, where
they resided for 300 years, and possessed an immense property, which, in
the year 1591, included 34 manors, the rental of which amounted to £6000
per annum.  It is uncertain when this family first came to Chelsea, but
as the Lawrence chapel in the Old Church is built in the style of
architecture which prevailed at the beginning of the fourteenth century,
they were probably settled here about that period, and some time before
they purchased the manor house.  Some of the family who were buried in
the chapel have already been mentioned.

                                * * * * *

The chief branches of this eminent family resided in Chelsea, in London,
and at Iver, Bucks.  Sir John Lawrence, knight, was Lord Mayor of London
in 1665.

                                * * * * *

Some “Pious Contemplations,” on the arms of the Lawrence family, are
written in the margin of their pedigree.  They are supposed to have been
affixed to it in 1664, but the author is not known.  The following are
the concluding lines:—

    “The way to Heaven is not with roses spread,
    But throng’d with thorns, as was Thy sacred head;
    Our peace is hack’d and hew’d, our life’s a war,
    We, for our Cross, must many crosses bear—
    Or, a red sea our passage doth withstand,
    Or, fiery serpents, or, a barren sand,
    Ere we can reach the truly Holy Land.”

    “Christ’s Cross the ladder is that leads to bliss,
    Blest Jacob’s vision was a type of this;
    Who climbs by other steps is at a loss—
    To Heaven the only ladder is the Cross.”

Ann, Duchess of Monmouth and Buccleugh, relict of James, Duke of
Monmouth, resided in the “great house” in Lawrence Street about 1714, and
from that time it was called Monmouth House.  The following item appears
in the Churchwardens’ accounts for the year 1716: “Paid the ringers, when
the Princess (afterwards Queen Caroline) visited the Duchess of Monmouth,
six shillings.”  The Duchess was, it is said, for her agreeable person,
good sense, and irreproachable character, one of the most amiable ladies
about the Court.  During the first years of her marriage she seems to
have been as happy, and as much envied as any woman in the kingdom; but
this happiness was of short duration; she was unfortunately supplanted in
the Duke’s affections by Lady Harriet Wentworth, daughter of the Earl of
Cleveland, whose personal charms were superior to her own.  Her Grace
died in 1732, aged 90 years.

                                * * * * *

Mr. Gay was for some time secretary to the Duchess, as stated in
Johnson’s Life of Gay.

                                * * * * *

Dr. Smollett afterwards resided in the same house in Lawrence Street.  He
came to Chelsea on account of the bad state of health of his beloved
daughter, who was at that time in a consumption, under which she finally
sank in the year 1763.  The house and premises were extensive, and well
suited for the residence of a person of rank.  There are few men of real
genius who have written more voluminously than Dr. Smollett.  His
entertaining novels are so well known that it seems almost unnecessary to
mention Roderick Random, the Adventures of Peregrine Pickle, Ferdinand
Count Fathom, and Sir Launcelot Greaves, the Expedition of Humphry
Clinker, &c.

                                * * * * *

He was bred to the medical profession, and in the early part of his life
served as a surgeon in the navy.  It is said that before he took a house
at Chelsea he attempted to settle as a practitioner, at Bath, but was
unsuccessful, chiefly because he could not render himself agreeable to
the ladies.  This, however, was a little extraordinary, for Smollett was
as graceful and handsome a man as any of the age; besides, there was a
certain dignity in his manner which could not fail to inspire respect
whenever he appeared.  Abandoning physic altogether as a profession, he
fixed his residence at Chelsea, and turned his thoughts entirely to
writing.

                                * * * * *

Dr. Smollett’s History of England has had a most extensive sale.  He is
said to have received £2000 for writing it and the continuation.  During
the last years of his life he was employed in abridging the Modern
Universal History, great part of which he had originally written himself.
In the year 1755 he set on foot the Critical Review, and continued the
principal manager of it till he went abroad for the first time, in the
year 1763.  He had made some very severe remarks on a pamphlet published
by Admiral Knowles, who commenced a prosecution against the printer; and,
just as sentence was going to be pronounced, he came into Court, and
avowed himself the author; upon which he was fined £100, and condemned to
three months’ imprisonment in the King’s Bench.  It is there he is said
to have written the Adventures of Sir Launcelot Greaves, in which he has
described some remarkable characters, then his fellow-prisoners.  When
Lord Bute was called to the chief administration of affairs, he was
prevailed upon to write in defence of that nobleman’s measures, in a
weekly paper called the Briton.  This gave rise to the well-known North
Briton, wherein he was rather baffled.

                                * * * * *

Smollett’s constitution being at last greatly impaired by a sedentary
life, and assiduous application to study, he went abroad for his health
in 1769.  He wrote accounts of his travels, in a series of letters to his
friends, which were afterwards published.

                                * * * * *

During that time he appears to have been occasionally in a distressed
state of mind.  In his first letter he writes:—“In gratifying your
curiosity, I shall find some amusement to beguile the tedious hours;
which, without some such employment, would be rendered insupportable by
distemper and disquiet.  You knew and pitied my situation: traduced by
malice, persecuted by faction, abandoned by false patrons, and
overwhelmed by domestic affliction.”  He here alludes to the loss of his
only daughter.  In another letter, addressed to Mr. Reid, of this parish,
he desires to be remembered to his Chelsea friends, wishing them that
health and happiness to which he himself was a stranger, and adds, “I am
very glad to know your concert was so brilliant, and I hope all your
Chelsea societies will continue to flourish.”

                                * * * * *

Dr. Smollett returned to England, but afterwards went back to Italy,
where he died in 1771.

                                * * * * *

The old Chelsea Stage Coaches started from Lawrence Street and Church
Street, between which places there were extensive stabling, and a
residence for the proprietor in the centre of the yard.  The fare for
inside passengers was 1_s._ 6_d._, outside 1_s._, and no intermediate
fare at a lower sum was taken.  Thanks to the General Omnibus Company, to
the Steamboat, and the Railway Companies, we can now go to almost the
extremity of London for 6_d._ and a shorter distance for 3_d._

                                * * * * *

Lordship Place takes its name from having been the site of the barns,
&c., of the Lord of the Manor.  It is a short street, near the river,
connecting Lawrence Street with Cheyne Row.  In the early Parish
Registers occur many lamentable details of poor people being found dead
in these barns, where they had taken refuge from the inclemency of the
weather.

                                * * * * *

Cheyne Row was built in 1708, and was named after the Lord of the Manor.

                                * * * * *

John Denver, Esq., resided in Cheyne Row for the last twenty years of his
life.  He devoted his time to study, and the forming of a collection of
early printed Bibles, manuscripts, and missals, which was at last one of
the most valuable in England.  His daughter, Miss Denyer, was very clever
in painting and illuminating on vellum, &c.  Her drawings and miniatures
were equal to the finest specimens of the middle ages.  Mr. Denyer died
at the age of 71, and was buried in the Old Church, and his affectionate
daughter was also interred near her father and mother.  This family was
distinguished for their benevolence to the poor.

In Cheyne Row, within my recollection, many old and influential families
have resided there, who were greatly respected.  Amongst them may be
mentioned Edmund Chalmers, Esq., Thomas Chalmers, Esq., John Hulme, Esq.,
Edward Holl, Esq., the benevolent Mrs. Hebert, Richard Draper, Esq.,
George Blyth, Esq., and Isaac Wrentmore, Esq.

Thomas Carlyle, Esq., who is so well-known in literary and other
distinguished circles, and who is certainly one of the most profound
writers of the present age, has resided in Cheyne Row for a great many
years.  The University of Edinburgh, last year, conferred on him the
highest honour it could bestow.  His habits of life at Chelsea are
naturally secluded, but he is nevertheless greatly respected by those who
have an opportunity of acquiring a knowledge of his social worth.  Mr.
Carlyle begins now to bend with age, although apparently in tolerable
health, and, notwithstanding his recent severe bereavement, not a cloud
seems to dim the vigour of his intellectual faculties.

In Upper Cheyne Row there was formerly a manufactory for melting gold and
silver in crucibles, which was said to produce the best articles of the
kind in England.

                                * * * * *

Cook’s Grounds was formerly a back way to Alston House, Cheyne Walk.

                                * * * * *

Cook’s Ground Chapel was originally built for the use of the French
Protestants, who had taken refuge in this country after the revocation of
the edict of Nantes, in the year 1685.  Several French gardeners settled
upon this spot, and the Rev. Dr. King, the rector, mentions them in terms
of great kindness, and strongly recommends them to the protection of his
successors.  The chapel was for many years in the Independent Connexion.
The Rev. Benjamin Fielder, in 1773, succeeded the Rev. Mr. Trail, and
died in 1803.  His death was very affecting; he had seated himself in the
pulpit, and, after a hymn had been sung, he was observed with his head
reclining, and without any signs of life.  He was immediately removed,
but never spoke afterwards.  The Rev. John Bunce, who was well known and
respected in Chelsea, was minister at this chapel for many years, and
subsequently Dr. Tracey, Mr. Webb, and at the present time Mr. Hayward.



Alston House, Cheyne Walk.


Shrewsbury, or Alston House, a capital mansion, built about the latter
end of the reign of Henry VIII., was situated in Cheyne Walk, to the west
of the present “Pier Hotel.”  This house was considered for a long time
to have been the residence of Sir Thomas More; but Dr. King has proved,
from the most authentic documents, that it never had any just pretensions
to that honour.

                                * * * * *

It was an irregular brick building, forming three sides of a quadrangle.
The principal room was one hundred and twenty feet in length, and was
originally wainscotted with carved oak.  One of the rooms was painted in
imitation of marble, and appeared to have been originally an oratory.
Certain curious portraits on panel, which had ornamented the large rooms,
were destroyed some few years since; this is to be regretted, as, in all
probability, they represented its former owners, or, at least, some
persons of note.

                                * * * * *

Leading from the premises, towards the King’s Road, there is a
subterranean passage, which has been explored for a short distance.  It
is said, traditionally, to have communicated with a cave or dungeon,
situated at a considerable distance from the house; but for what purpose
made, no one now in its vicinity confidently presumes to guess.

                                * * * * *

The following information concerning this subterranean passage, is
obtained from a letter of Miss Gulston to Miss Tate, who was the
proprietor of the estate:—

    “I have found an old man, now living at Chelsea, who worked at the
    paper manufactory when a lad, and who has established the facts.  I
    have always been laughed at when I have mentioned the story.  I have
    gotten two drawings of the room and passage.

    “The entrance to this passage was from the room used by the paper
    stainers as a drying place.  It had no fire-place in it; the
    dimensions were nearly as follows: 25 feet high, 50 long, 36 wide;
    the ceiling was strong with beams, to sustain the upper floors, but
    without any plastered ceiling.  You descended into it by a wide
    winding staircase, through a circular-top door, strongly fortified
    with rivets and four large hinges: this door was so contrived, that
    it opened far enough back to hide the approach to the hole, and could
    there be fastened so as to have the appearance of belonging to the
    large room, and the circular steps leading to it caused the more
    deception.

    “The side walls are all brick.  This man never could proceed with his
    light more than a distance of thirty yards, when the light invariably
    went out.  The passage is free from any incumbrance of earth, or from
    any part of the side walls having given way; as far as could be
    ascertained, its direction was towards the river.

    “It is regularly paved with two flag stones, leaving a border of six
    inches of earth; width 3 feet, length 5½ feet.

    “This passage was discovered, owing to the proprietor having been
    robbed of a quantity of paper for years.  The man now alive
    volunteered to detect the thief; the paper was found on the staircase
    descending to the passage.

                                                             “E. GULSTON.”

Alston House was for many years the residence of the Shrewsbury family.

                                * * * * *

George, Earl of Shrewsbury, succeeded his father in the title, June 28th,
the 13th Edward IV., while a minor.  In the reign of Henry VIII. he was
in high favour with that monarch, was steward of the household, and a
privy counsellor, and accompanied the King at his interview with Francis
I. at Guisnes.

                                * * * * *

In 28 Henry VIII., on the rebellion in the North, called “the pilgrimage
of grace,” occasioned by the dissolution of the lesser monasteries, he
was constituted the King’s Lieutenant, to march thither with a powerful
army, he himself having raised a number of men at his own expense, when
the Earl, and the Duke of Norfolk, succeeded in bringing the rebels to
submission, and obtained for them the King’s pardon.  This nobleman
resided occasionally at Chelsea; and here his sixth son, by his first
wife, was born.  The Earl died 1538; he is characterised by Polydore
Virgil, “as a person noble, prudent, and moderate through the whole
course of his life.”

                                * * * * *

Francis, his son and heir, is mentioned among the freeholders in the
court rolls of the Manor of Chelsea, 35 Henry VIII.  This nobleman also
enjoyed the favour of his sovereign during three succeeding reigns.  In
1545 he was appointed the King’s Lieutenant in the North; and in the
following year was installed one of the Knights Companions of the most
noble order of the Garter.  In 2 Edward VI. he had the command of a large
army that was sent into Scotland, and in 1st of Queen Mary was made
President of the Council of the North.  He died September 21, 1560.

                                * * * * *

George, Earl of Shrewsbury, son of the preceding, was installed a Knight
of the Garter, May 17, 1562.  In 1568 the custody of the Queen of Scots
was committed to his charge.  In 1573, he presided as Lord High Steward
at the trial of the Duke of Norfolk; and on the death of his Grace, which
happened soon after, he was constituted Earl Marshal of England.  He died
1590, and was buried at Sheffield, in the county of York.  “An
inquisition, taken at Derby, 3rd April, 33 Elizabeth, on the death of
George, Earl of Shrewsbury; after reciting lands, &c., in many counties,
adds Middlesex, one capital messuage, &c., in Chelsea.  The value is
lumped in many manors, into a gross sum of £800 a year.”  The inscription
on his monument, among other things, sets forth, “That, as he excelled in
mind, so was he skilled in the affairs of war.”  On the arrival of Mary,
Queen of Scots, in England, she was again put under his care, and so
continued till 1584.  His behaviour to her was ever generous and
honourable, sparing no cost for her entertainment.  Words cannot fully
express the care and concern he had for her, nor can envy itself say
otherwise than he was a faithful and prudent person; in a word, his
integrity in his high office was not to be suspected, although evil
disposed persons secretly and vaguely gave out that he had used too much
familiarity with his royal prisoner.  Thus, noble by descent, he was more
noble and illustrious in his actions; famous at home and abroad; loyal to
his prince and true to his country; and he resigned his soul in “a good
old age.”  The Earl married to his second wife, Elizabeth, widow of Sir
William St. Loo, Captain of the Guards to Queen Elizabeth, who survived
him, and to whom he probably bequeathed his house at Chelsea, as it
appears to have descended to her son William, first Earl of Devonshire.
In “Lodge’s Illustrations of English History,” is a letter of this
nobleman, dated from Chelsea, in 1585.

                                * * * * *

Elizabeth, Countess of Shrewsbury.  This lady, who was much celebrated
for her beauty and accomplishments, and still more for her extraordinary
fortune in the world, was daughter of John Hardwick, Esq., of the county
of Derby.  At the age of fourteen she was married to Robert Barley, Esq.,
who, in about two years, left her a very rich widow.  The next husband
was Sir William Cavendish, ancestor of the Duke of Devonshire.  Her third
was Sir William St. Loo.  In this third widowhood she had not survived
her charms of wit and beauty, by which she captivated the then greatest
subject of the land, George, Earl of Shrewsbury, whom she brought to
terms of considerable honour and advantage to herself and children; for
he not only yielded to a very large jointure, but to a union of families,
by marrying Mary, her youngest daughter, to Gilbert, his son and
afterwards his heir, and giving the Lady Grace, his youngest daughter, to
Henry, her eldest son.  In 1590 she was a fourth time left, and continued
a widow till her death.  Her’s was a change of conditions that, perhaps,
never fell to any one woman before or since: to be four times a
creditable and happy wife, and to rise by every husband to greater wealth
and higher honours; and, after all, to live seventeen years a widow in
absolute power and plenty.  She built three of the most elegant seats
that were ever raised by one person in the same county—Chatsworth,
Hardwick, and Oldcoates; all transmitted entire to the first Duke of
Devonshire.  The Countess died in 1607, aged 87.  She bequeathed all her
estates to her son William, Earl of Devonshire; and we find this nobleman
to have been in possession of this mansion at Chelsea soon after her
death.

                                * * * * *

William, Earl of Devonshire, received his education with the sons of the
Earl of Shrewsbury, his father in-law; and, being distinguished for
eminent abilities, was advanced to the dignity of Baron Cavendish, by
James I. in the third year of his reign; at which time of his creation
his Majesty stood under a cloth of state in the hall at Greenwich,
accompanied by the princes and the greatest part of the nobility, both of
England and Scotland.  In 1618 he was created Earl of Devonshire.  He
died at Hardwick in 1625.  The Earl married, to his second wife,
Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Boughton, Esq., of the county of Warwick,
and widow of Sir Richard Wortley.  This lady survived him, and continued
to reside at Chelsea till her death, which happened in 1643, as appears
by the parish book, in which are also entries of the burials of some of
her domestics.

                                * * * * *

After the death of the Countess of Devonshire, this ancient house became
the property of Sir Joseph Alston, who was created a baronet by Charles
II. in 1682.  Mrs. Mary Alston, the wife of this gentleman, died here in
1671, and her funeral sermon was preached by Dr. Littleton, who published
it shortly after, in quarto.  Sir Joseph was in possession of this house
in 1664; it afterwards came into the possession of Mr. Tate, and was
occupied as a stained paper manufactory.

                                * * * * *

In 1813 it was pulled down, and the materials sold by a builder, who had
obtained possession; and now not a stone remains to show where it once
stood.

                                * * * * *

The family of Tate were originally of Chelsea, and had at one time large
property here, which they parted with by degrees.  They attained property
also in Leicestershire, through a marriage with the daughter of Lord
Zouch.



Bishop of Winchester’s Palace.


The Bishop of Winchester’s Palace, which was pulled down some years
since, adjoined the gardens of Alston House, on the east, and on the site
of which is now Oakley Street, and a terrace of well-built houses,
fronting the river.  The houses erected in Oakley Street are throughout
of a superior class, and as the road is of considerable width, with a
good pavement, it now forms the most respectable and important direct
thoroughfare from the King’s Road to the centre of Cheyne Walk.  The
contemplated embankment and Albert Bridge will be noticed at the
conclusion of this work, so as to get correct information.

                                * * * * *

The ancient palace of the Bishops of Winchester, in Southwark, having
been dilapidated and laid waste, an Act of Parliament was passed in the
year 1663 empowering George Morley, Bishop of Winchester, to lease out
the houses in Southwark, and for other purposes.  In the ensuing year the
Bishop, in pursuance of this Act of Parliament, purchased a new brick
house at Chelsea, then lately built by James Duke of Hamilton, and
adjoining to the Manor House, Cheyne Walk, on the east, and Alston House,
on the west, for £4250, to be the future residence of the bishops of this
see, and to be called Winchester House.  By the Act it was held to be
within the diocese of Winchester.

                                * * * * *

The Bishopric of Winchester is of good antiquity, and has never changed
the see since its foundation.  The Bishops are Chancellors of the see of
Canterbury, and Prelates of the most noble Order of St. George, called
the Garter, which office was vested in them by King Edward III. at the
establishment of that noble Order, and has continued with them ever
since.  Anciently, they were reputed Earls of Southampton, and are so
styled in the Statutes of the Garter, made by Henry VIII.



BISHOPS SINCE THE RESTORATION OF KING CHARLES II.

1662.     George Morley, Bishop of Worcester.
1684.     Peter Mews, Bishop of Bath and Wells.
1707.     Sir Jonathan Trelawney, Bart., Bishop of Exeter.
1721.     Charles Trimnell, Bishop of Norwich.
1723.     Richard Willis, Bishop of Salisbury.
1734.     Benjamin Hoadly, Bishop of Salisbury.
1761.     John Thomas, Bishop of Salisbury.
1781.     Hon. Brownlow North, Bishop of Worcester.
1820.     George Tomline, Bishop of Lincoln.

Dr. Tomline was the last Bishop of Winchester who had possession of this
ancient house, but he never resided in it.

                                * * * * *

George Morley, chaplain to Charles I., was a great scholar and an eminent
divine.  After the death of the king he retired to the Hague, where he
attended on Charles II.  At the Restoration he was made Dean of Christ
Church, and in the same year Bishop of Worcester, whence he was
translated to Winchester.  His constant practice was to rise at five
o’clock in the morning, to go to bed at eleven, and to eat but once a
day.  By these rules he preserved his health with very little
interruption through the course of a long life.  He died in 1684.

                                * * * * *

Peter Mews was born at Parscandle, in Dorsetshire, in 1618, and was
educated at Merchant Tailors’ School, under the care of Dr. Winiffe, then
Dean of St. Paul’s, and afterwards Bishop of Lincoln.  From school he was
elected scholar to St. John’s College, Oxford, and became Fellow of the
same College at the commencement of the civil war.  Soon afterwards he
left Oxford, entered the royal army, and was promoted to the rank of
captain; he served for some time, and then went to Holland.

                                * * * * *

During the Interregnum he took holy orders, and at the Restoration
returned to his college, where he took the degree of D.D.  On the death
of Dr. Bailey he was made President of St. John’s College.  In 1669 he
was chosen Vice-Chancellor of Oxford, and in 1673 he was promoted to the
see of Bath and Wells, which he held for about twelve years, till he was
translated to Winchester.  He died 1706, aged 88.

                                * * * * *

SINGULAR PREDICTIONS.—In 1706, John Needs, a Winchester scholar, foretold
the deaths of Mr. Carman, chaplain to the College, of Dr. Mews, Bishop of
Winchester, and of himself, within that year, to several of his
school-fellows, among others, to George Lavington.  This declaration
exposed him naturally to much raillery in the school, and he was
ludicrously styled “Prophet Needs.”  Mr. Carman died about the time he
mentioned.  For this event, however, he had little credit, it being said,
that the death of such an old man might reasonably be expected.  Within
the time prefixed Bishop Mews also died by a strange accident.  He was
subject to fainting fits, from which he soon recovered by smelling
spirits of hartshorn.  Being seized with a fit whilst a gentleman was
with him, and perceiving its approach, he pointed eagerly to a phial in
the window; the visitor took it, and in haste poured the contents down
the Bishop’s throat, which instantly suffocated him.  As the time
approached which Needs had prefixed for his own dissolution, of which he
named even the day and the hour, he sickened, apparently declined, and
kept to his chamber, where he was frequently visited and prayed with by
Mr. Fletcher, second master of the school, and father of the Bishop of
Kildare.  This gentleman reasoned and argued with the youth, but in vain;
for with great calmness and composure the patient resolutely persisted in
affirming that the event would verify his prediction.  On the day he had
fixed, the house-clock being kindly put forward, struck the hour before
the real time; he saw through the deception, and told those who were with
him, that when the church clock struck he should expire—he did so!

                                * * * * *

Mr. Fletcher left a memorandum in writing to the above purpose; and
Bishop Trimnell, about the year 1722, having heard this story at
Winchester, wrote to New College, of which Mr. Lavington was then Fellow,
for further information.  His answer was, that “John Needs had indeed
foretold that the Bishop of Winchester (Mews) and old Mr. Carman should
die that year; but then they being very aged men, he had foretold, for
two or three years before, that they should die in that number of years.
As to foretelling the time of his own death, I believe he was punctually
right.”  Dr. Lavington gave the same account to his friends after he was
Bishop of Exeter.

                                * * * * *

Jonathan Trelawney was a younger son of Sir J. Trelawney, of Petynt,
Cornwall; but his elder brother dying in 1680, he inherited the title.
He was educated at Christ Church, Oxford, where there is a portrait of
him.  He was in succession Bishop of Bristol, Exeter, and Winchester; a
man of polite manners, competent learning, and uncommon knowledge of the
world.

                                * * * * *

Bishop Trelawney was one of the seven prelates committed to the Tower by
James II. for their efforts to maintain the Protestant cause.  When the
news of his probable peril of life reached Cornwall, the miners proposed
coming up to London in a vast body to demand the bishop’s release.  The
song in every mouth was—

    “And shall Trelawney die?
    And shall Trelawney die?
    Then twice five hundred Cornish men
    Will know the reason why.”

It is said that the bishop was open, generous, and charitable, a good
companion, and a good man.  He died in 1721. {100}

                                * * * * *

Charles Trimnell, son of the Rev. Charles Trimnell, Rector of Repton
Abbotts, Huntingdonshire, was educated at Oxford.  He was consecrated
Bishop of Norwich in 1707; was made Clerk of the Closet to George I., and
translated to the see of Winchester in 1721.  This bishop, naturally of a
weak constitution, did not long survive his last promotion.  He died at
Farnham in 1723, aged 40.  This prelate was a steady partizan of the
revolution, which he defended by his pen; warm, yet temperate; zealous,
yet moderate; and his piety did not prevent him from gaining a perfect
knowledge of mankind.

                                * * * * *

Richard Willis, Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, was promoted to the
deanery of Lincoln, by King William; and in 1714 was consecrated Bishop
of Gloucester, translated in 1721 to Salisbury, and thence to Winchester
in 1723, where he resided till his death, which happened suddenly at
Winchester House, Cheyne Walk, in 1734, aged 71; his wife was buried in
Chelsea Church, in 1727, but he himself was buried in his own Cathedral.

                                * * * * *

Bishop Hoadly, a prelate of great merit, was the son of the Rev. Samuel
Hoadly, Master of the Public Grammar School at Norwich; he was educated
at his father’s school till he went to Catherine Hall, Cambridge, where
he afterwards became College Tutor, and appears to have been held in high
esteem throughout the whole course of his academical studies.  Although
he applied to study with an intensity of application that made him
eminent, he acquired at the same time considerable proficiency in music.
In 1698 he was ordained, and about three years afterwards he married Miss
Curtis, a great proficient in the art of painting, many of her portraits
exciting public attention, particularly one of Bishop Burnet.

                                * * * * *

In 1704 Mr. Hoadly obtained the rectory of St. Peter le Poor; he began
writing as soon as he came to London; and in 1709 the following vote was
passed in the House of Commons:—“Resolved, That the Rev. Benjamin Hoadly,
having often justified the principles on which his Majesty and the nation
proceeded in the late happy revolution, hath justly merited the favour
and recommendation of this House.  That an humble address be presented to
her Majesty, that she would be graciously pleased to bestow some dignity
in the church on Mr. Hoadly, for his eminent services, both to the Church
and State.”  A change of Ministry prevented any benefit arising to him
from this address; but he afterwards had bestowed on him, by the
grandmother of the Duke of Bedford, the rectory of Streatham, Surrey.
Soon after the accession of George I. he was made Bishop of Bangor.  From
thence he was successively translated to those of Hereford, Salisbury,
and Winchester, which last he enjoyed nearly twenty-seven years.

                                * * * * *

It is somewhat a singular circumstance, that when Bishop Hoadly went to
Court to kiss the King’s hand on his promotion, he did not know the way
up stairs, the attendants being all busily engaged at the moment, and by
mistake he sat down in an outer room unobserved, and some affirm that he
lost the honour of being presented on that occasion to his Majesty.

                                * * * * *

The doctrines contained in his publications gave such offence to the
clergy, that they produced the famous Bangorian Controversy.  On the 16th
of December, 1761, having supped, he retired to bed in perfect health,
but in the middle of the night he was seized with a fit of vomiting, of
which the violence abated in about an hour.  Medical assistance was
immediately sent for, and the bishop seemed better, but about two o’clock
the following even, his lady found him dead, without knowing the precise
moment of his departure.  As a writer, he possessed powerful talents; his
greatest defect, perhaps, was in extending his periods to a disagreeable
length; for which Pope has thus recorded him:—

    “But, sir, of writers?  Swift for closer style,
    But Hoadly for a period of a mile.”

Amongst the most celebrated writers of modern times, who have possessed
great argumentative powers, this “defect” is generally a natural
consequence.  Lord Brougham, for instance, was remarkable for the length
of his periods, or final sentences, but with him it evidenced deep
thought, and enabled him to impart into his writings and speeches that
eloquence and force of language for which he was so highly extolled.
Bishop Hoadly might have been one of those “powerful” writers.

                                * * * * *

Dr. John Thomas was born in 1696, and in 1733, being then Fellow of All
Souls College, Oxford, he was presented by the Dean and Chapter of St.
Paul’s, to the united parishes of St. Benedict’s and St. Peter’s, Paul’s
Wharf, London.  In 1742 he became Canon Residentiary of St. Paul’s, and
was sworn in one of his Majesty’s Chaplains in Ordinary.  He was
consecrated Bishop of Peterborough in 1747, and four years after was
appointed Preceptor to the Prince of Wales.  On the death of Bishop
Hoadly he was presented to the see of Winchester.  Dr. Thomas died at his
episcopal palace, Cheyne Walk, in 1781, aged 85, having sustained
throughout life the character of an exemplary prelate. {102}

                                * * * * *

The Hon. Brownlow North was born in 1741, was the younger son of the
first Earl of Guildford, and brother to that Lord North who became twice
Prime Minister of this country, once during the American war, and,
secondly, in conjunction with Mr. Fox.  Mr. North was first educated at
Eton, and afterwards at Trinity College, Cambridge.  In 1770 he was
promoted from a canonry at Christchurch, to the deanery of Canterbury.
His elder brother being now Prime Minister he obtained the mitre of
Lichfield and Coventry in 1771, at the early age of 30.  In 1744 he was
promoted to the see of Worcester, soon after which he was promoted to the
rich see of Winchester.  By his wife, formerly Miss Bannister, a lady
previously well known in the fashionable world, he had a very numerous
family, of whom both sons and sons-in-law were amply provided with
valuable livings in the church.  The bishop with his family went to
Italy, and shortly after their return his lady died; his lordship died at
his palace at Chelsea, after a long illness, accompanied with blindness,
at the age of 79, July 12, 1820.

                                * * * * *

Bishop North was kind and charitable.  The present writer gladly embraces
this opportunity to testify to the truth of this statement.  The bishop
was walking in front of his palace, as was his frequent custom, when the
writer, then quite a youth, fell accidentally with considerable force on
the shore of the river, it being at the time “low water.”  The bishop
observing the accident, and perceiving the injury sustained, gave
immediate instructions for his being carried home, compensating the men,
and offering to pay any additional expenses.  This may appear no more
than an act of duty on the part of the bishop, but the writer cannot
refrain from remembering it as a deed worthy of a “good Samaritan.”

                                * * * * *

Winchester Palace was of humble exterior, and displayed little of
grandeur or of magnificence.  It was two stories in height, and built
with red bricks, without pilasters or any other architectural ornament;
but, however plain in its exterior, it comprised every convenience and
comfort that could be required for a large establishment.  The building
formed a quadrangle, and its principal entrance was in the south front,
the ground floor of which comprised the great hall, kitchen, and chapel,
the latter being of moderate dimensions, plainly but neatly fitted up.
The great staircase at the eastern end of the hall led to three grand
drawing rooms, which extended the whole length of the south front, and
which, during the residence of Bishop North, were splendidly furnished.
The walls were covered with beautiful paper, having gold borders, the
ceilings were richly ornamented in stucco work, and the chimney-pieces
composed of various coloured marbles, put up at considerable expense by
the bishop after his return from Italy.  The sleeping rooms, and other
domestic chambers, occupied the whole north front, commanding fine views
over the gardens adjoining.  On the ground floor of this front were two
libraries, and other apartments, bounded on the east by a great gallery,
leading to the gardens.

                                * * * * *

Having been obliged in the year 1791, by the bad health of part of his
family, to seek the climate of Italy, Bishop North collected there many
curious articles of undoubted antiquity, of modern art, and of natural
history, of which the principal were, Greek sepulchral vases, specimens
of ancient marbles used in the Roman villas, mural paintings from
Herculaneum, beautiful works in Mosaic, fine bronzes, splendid gems,
curious china, &c.  These were disposed with much taste in various
apartments of the house, and some of them we will notice.

                                * * * * *

The great entrance hall was 40 ft. long, and 20 ft. wide; on a table
stood an antique juvenile bust of Bacchus, which was much admired.

                                * * * * *

The grand staircase was of noble proportions, and was ornamented with a
variety of objects of taste, disposed in glass cases, consisting of
specimens of all the articles of domestic use among the ancient Romans.
Here likewise stood a sepulchral Roman vase of white marble, ornamented
with rams’ heads and elegant festoons of white flowers, with the
following inscription:—

                                  Semproniæ
                            Elegantiorib. choreis
                            Psallendoq; Præstantis
                         Suæ viridis in medio juventæ
                                   E. Vivis
                          Per crudelia fata direptæ
                      Sodaliu.  Sibi.  Choors.  Dilecta
                                    D.O.M.
                                 Moer.  M.P.

                                * * * * *

    In bloom of youth, midst sweet companions dwelling,
    With elegant and tuneful arts excelling,
       Fate did Sempronia suddenly remove:
    Submissive to the wise behests of Heaven,
    Those lov’d companions (full of hope) have given
       To her this token of their loss and love.

                                                                     W. B.

Near the preceding was a plaster cast of Dr. Burney, author of the
History of Music, taken from the original bust by Nollekens.  The three
drawing-rooms were of the same dimensions as the hall; the first was
ornamented with several mosaic and fresco paintings from Herculaneum, and
other works of ancient arts.  In the next apartments were portraits of
Bishop North, and his lady.  Along the gallery which led to the garden
were disposed, in glass cases, a rich variety of beautiful shells, with
spars and ores, and a large collection of Italian marbles.  The house was
also adorned with many specimens of modern art, in modelling and
painting, executed by Miss North, the Hon. Mr. Brownlow North, and by
others of his lordship’s family.

                                * * * * *

Winchester House was well and expensively supplied with water, conveyed
by pipes from a conduit, built by Henry VIII., situated in the King’s
forcing grounds at Kensington.

                                * * * * *

Upon pulling down the palace a singular discovery was made.  In a small
room, to the north front, and at the north-west corner, were found on the
plaster of the walls, nine figures of the size of life, viz., three men
and six women, drawn in outline with black chalk in a bold and animated
style.  Various opinions have been given respecting these spirited
sketches.  They displayed much of the _manner_ of Hogarth, who lived on
intimate terms with Bishop Hoadly, and it was supposed that these figures
applied to some domestic incident in the bishop’s family, or to some
scene in a play.  His lordship’s partiality for the drama was great.  A
near relative, who resided in Chelsea, wrote the comedy of “The
Suspicious Husband.”

                                * * * * *

The palace remained unoccupied after the death of Bishop North; for Lady
Tomline, the wife of Bishop Tomline, conceived a dislike to the place
altogether.  His lordship, in consequence, applied to Parliament and
obtained an Act to enable him to sell the premises.  The Lord of the
Manor became the purchaser; and subsequently the whole fabric was sold by
auction.



Description of the Manor House.


As full particulars have already been given of the distinguished
occupiers of the ancient Manor House, Cheyne Walk, it is here only
necessary to describe the structure of this once celebrated residence.
{105}

                                * * * * *

Immediately adjoining Winchester Palace, on the east, was situated the
ancient Manor House and lands.  It was a spacious house, built by Henry
VIII., the original consisting of a rather plain brick structure, one
storey above the ground floor, with irregularly-shaped windows, and
divided by four buttresses of great width, carried up considerably higher
than the roof, either as ornaments or concealed flues.  The parapet of
this part was castellated.  Two additions, on the east, seems to have
been subsequently added to the original; one of them being three stories
in height, the other of two, without either buttress or embrasures.  The
number of windows in the entire front was thirty-four, and the entrance
door accorded with the period of Henry VIII.  The whole presented an idea
of monastic antiquity.

Sir Hans Sloane, it is said, was buried from the eastern end of the Manor
House.  A man, named Howard, who was employed in the removal of his
books, stated that they amounted to nearly 40,000 volumes.

                                * * * * *

On part of the site of the old Manor House, and adjoining Winchester
Palace, in the first house eastward in Cheyne Walk, resided for a long
time the Rev. Thomas Clare.  When the destruction of the episcopal domain
took place, Mr. Clare, with some difficulty, obtained a portion of the
land upon which the gardens of the above venerable edifice stood, in the
arrangement and disposition of which he omitted nothing which might do
justice to the memory of its former illustrious owners and occupiers, or
excite the approbation of visitors of judgment and taste.

                                * * * * *

Sir Richard Steele appears, from the parish books, to have rented a house
by the water-side, rated at £14 per annum.  In a letter from Sir Richard
to Lady Steele, dated Chelsea, 14th of February, 1716, he says, “Mr.
Fuller and I came hither to dine in the air, but the maid has been so
slow that we are benighted, and chuse to lie here rather than go this
road in the dark.  I lie at our own house, and my friend at a relation’s
in the town.”

                                * * * * *

Sir Richard was born about the year 1676, in Ireland, but of English
parents.  At a very early age he was sent from Dublin to London, and was
educated with Addison at the Charter House; from hence he removed to
Merton College, Oxford; he left the University without taking a degree,
and entered the army, a step highly displeasing to his friends.  However,
as he had a constant flow of good nature, a generous frankness of spirit,
and a sparkling vivacity of wit, these qualities rendered him the delight
of the soldiery, and having made choice of a profession which set him
free from all the ordinary restraints in youth, he indulged his
inclinations in the wildest excesses.  He became Secretary to Lord Cutts,
who obtained for him the rank of captain in Lord Lucas’s regiment of
Fusileers; and, in the beginning of Queen Anne’s reign, he was appointed
to the profitable place of Gazetteer, to which he had been recommended by
Mr. Addison.  Steele had already exhibited his talents as a dramatic
writer with success, and in 1709 he began to publish “The Tatler,” which
was undertaken by him in concert with Dr. Swift, and others; and by this
work his reputation was perfectly established.  This was followed by “The
Spectator,” which was carried on chiefly by the assistance of his friend
Addison, and the success of this paper being still superior to that of
the former, encouraged him to proceed in the same design in the character
of “The Guardian.”

                                * * * * *

In 1710 Sir Richard was made a Commissioner of the Stamp Duties, which
office he resigned in 1713; and from a placeman he became a violent
oppositionist.  He took his seat in the House of Commons as Member for
Stockbridge, in Hampshire, but was expelled thence in a few days after
for writing several seditious libels.  From this time till the death of
Queen Anne his attention was wholly engrossed in writing and publishing
political tracts. {107}

                                * * * * *

On the accession of George I. he was again taken into favour; was
appointed Surveyor to the Royal Stables at Hampton Court, had the honour
of knighthood conferred upon him, and during the whole of this reign
continued to receive many marks of the royal bounty.

                                * * * * *

It might now naturally be imagined that, taught by ample experience, Sir
Richard would pay some attention to economy: such, however, was the power
of habit, and such was his thoughtless profusion, that scarcely a
twelvemonth had passed before he was obliged to sell his share in a
theatre to relieve the oppressive exigencies of want.  In 1725 he
surrendered the whole of his property to his creditors, and retired to
Wales, where, in the following year, he was seized with a paralytic
stroke, which rendered him incapable of any further literary effort.

                                * * * * *

By the indulgence of the mortgagee he resided on his estate, near
Carmarthen, which he had formerly acquired on his marriage with his
second wife.  After lingering nearly two years in this secluded
situation, he died September 21, 1729.  Such was the chequered life of
Steele, at one time exulting on the wing of prosperity; at another
depressed by all the evils of the most embittered poverty.  His frailties
were not the offspring of vice, but the effects of habitual carelessness
and the want of prudence.  Compassionate in his heart; unbounded in his
benevolence; no object of distress that he could relieve ever left him
with a murmur; and in the hour of prosperity he was ever ready, both with
his influence and property, to promote the views of literature and
science, and to assist the efforts of unprotected genius.  Mental wealth,
however poor and humble the possessor, was esteemed by him to be of
invaluable worth. {108}



Don Saltero’s Coffee House.


This well known coffee-house was first opened in the year 1695, by one
Salter, who had been a servant to Sir Hans Sloane, and had accompanied
him on his travels.  The collection of curiosities, which were
principally the gift of his master, being the duplicates of his various
curious collections, drew from London a multitude of spectators.  It
existed for more than a century, and was at length sold by public auction
in the year 1799.

                                * * * * *

In “The Tatler,” No. 34, Sir Richard Steele has given the following
humorous description of this once far-famed collection of rarities, and
of its eccentric proprietor:—

    “Being of a very spare and hective constitution, I am forced to make
    frequent journies of a mile or two for fresh air; and indeed by this
    last, which was no further than the village of Chelsea, I am farther
    convinced of the necessity of travelling to know the world; for, as
    it is usual with young voyagers, as soon as they land upon a shore,
    to begin their accounts of the nature of the people, their soil,
    their government, their inclinations, and their passions, so really I
    fancied I could give you an immediate description of this village
    from the Five Fields, where the robbers lie in wait, to the
    coffee-house, where the _literati_ sit in council.  A great ancestor
    of ours, by the mother’s side, Mr. Justice Overdo, (whose history is
    written by Ben Johnson,) met with more enormities by walking
    _incognito_ than he was capable of correcting; and found great
    mortifications in observing, also, persons of eminence, whom he
    before knew nothing of: thus it fared with me, even in a place so
    near the town as this.  When I came into the coffee-house, I had not
    time to salute the company, before my eye was diverted by 10,000
    gimcracks round the room, and on the ceiling.  When my first
    astonishment was over, comes to me a sage, of thin and meagre
    countenance, which aspect made me doubt whether reading or fretting
    had made it so philosophic; but I very soon perceived him to be of
    that sect which the ancients call Gingivistæ, in our language,
    tooth-drawers.  I immediately had a respect for the man; for these
    practical philosophers go upon a very rational hypothesis, not to
    cure, but to take away the part affected.  My love of mankind made me
    very benevolent to Mr. Salter; for such is the name of this eminent
    barber and antiquary.  Men are usually, but unjustly, distinguished
    rather by their fortunes than their talents, otherwise their
    patronage would make a great figure in that class of men which I
    distinguish under the title of Odd Fellows; but it is the misfortune
    of persons of great genius to have their faculties dissipated by
    attention to too many things at once.  Mr. Salter is an instance of
    this; if he would wholly give himself up to the string, instead of
    playing twenty beginnings to tunes, he might, before he dies play
    _Roger de Caubly_ quite out.  I heard him go through his whole round;
    and, indeed, I think he does play the Merry Christ Church Bells
    pretty justly; but he confessed to me, he did that rather to show he
    was orthodox than that he valued himself upon the music itself.  Or
    if he did proceed in his anatomy, why might he not hope in time to
    cut off legs, as well as draw teeth?

    “The particularity of this man put me into a deep thought, whence it
    should proceed that, of all the lower order, barbers should go
    further in hitting the ridiculous than any other set of men: watermen
    brawl, cobblers sing; but why must a barber be for ever a politician,
    a musician, an anatomist, a poet, and a physician.  The learned
    Vossius says, his barber used to comb his hair in iambics; and indeed
    in all ages, one of this useful profession, this order of cosmetic
    philosophers, has been celebrated by the most eminent hands.  You see
    the barber, in Don Quixote, is one of the principal characters in the
    history, which gave me satisfaction in the doubt, why Don Saltero
    writ his name with a Spanish termination; for he is descended in a
    right line, not from John Tradescant, as he himself asserts, but from
    that memorable companion of the Knight of Mancha; and I hereby
    certify, to all the worthy citizens who travel to see his rarities,
    that his double-barrelled pistols, targets, coats of mails, his
    sclopeta, and sword of Toledo, were left to his ancestor, by the said
    ancestor to all his progeny down to Don Saltero.  Though I go thus
    far in favour of Don Saltero’s merit, I cannot allow a liberty he
    takes of imposing several names (without my licence) on the
    collections he has made, to the abuse of the good people of England,
    one of which is particularly calculated to deceive religious persons,
    to the great scandal of the well-disposed, and may introduce
    heterodox opinions: he shows you a straw hat, which I know to be made
    by Madge Peskad, within three miles of Bedford, and tells you it is
    Pontius Pilate’s wife’s chambermaid’s sister’s hat.  To my knowledge
    of this very hat, it may be added, that the covering of straw was
    never used among the Jews, since it was demanded of them to make
    bricks without it.

    “Therefore this is really nothing, but, under the specious pretence
    of learning and antiquity, to impose upon the world.  There are other
    things which I cannot tolerate among his rarities, as the china
    figure of a lady in the glass case, the Italian engine for the
    imprisonment of those who go abroad with it; both of which I hereby
    order to be taken down, or else he may expect to have his
    letters-patent for making punch superseded, be debarred wearing his
    muff next winter, or ever coming to London without his wife.

    “It may be thought, perhaps, I have dwelt too long upon the affairs
    of this operator; but I desire the reader to remember that it is my
    way to consider men as they stand in merit, and not according to
    their fortune or figure; and if he is in a coffee-house at the
    reading hereof, let him look round, and he will find there may be
    more characters drawn in this account than that of Don Saltero; for
    half the politicians about him, he may observe, are, by their place
    in nature, of the class of tooth-drawers.”

The curiosities of this collection were deposited in glass-cases, and
consisted of a great variety of petrifactions, corals, chrystals, ores,
shells, animals preserved in spirits, stuffed animals from various parts
of the world, idols, curious Chinese manuscripts, missals, birds, snakes,
butterflies, medals, models, fire-arms, fishes, portraits, prints, &c.

A catalogue of the whole was printed, with the names of the donors
affixed; and under the management of skilful hands this collection could
not have failed to produce ample remuneration and profit.

                                * * * * *

Such collections, aided by those of Tradescant, Ashmole, and Thoresby,
cherished the infancy of science, and should not be depreciated now, as
the playthings of a boy are scorned after he has arrived at manhood.  Mr.
Pennant’s ancestor, who lived at Chelsea, often took his great nephew,
Mr. Pennant’s father, to the coffee-house, where he used to see poor
Richard Cromwell, a little and very neat old man, with a most placid
countenance, the effect of his innocent and unambitious life.  He
imagines this was Don Saltero’s coffee-house, to which he was a
benefactor, and has the honour of having his name mentioned in the
collection. {111}

                                * * * * *

Mr. Pennant, when a boy, saw “his uncle’s gift to the great Saltero,”
which was “a lignified hog.”  What Mr. Pennant thus facetiously
denominates, is called, in the edition of Saltero’s catalogue that we
have seen, “a piece of a root of a tree that grew in the shape of an
hog.”  He feared this matchless curiosity was lost; at least, it is
omitted in the last, or forty-seventh edition of the catalogue.

                                * * * * *

What author, except Mr. Pennant, can flatter himself with delivering his
works down to posterity in impressions so numerous as the labours of Don
Saltero?

The name of Don Saltero made its first appearance in the newspaper, June
22nd, 1723; whence the following account of himself and his rarities is
extracted.

    “Sir, fifty years since to Chelsea great,
       From Rodman, on the Irish main,
    I stroll’d, and maggots in my pate,
       Where, much impro’d, they still remain.
    Through various employes I’ve past,
       A scraper, virtuos’, projector,
    Tooth drawer, trimmer, and at last
       I’m now a gimcrack-whim collector.
    Monsters of all sorts here are seen,
       Strange things in nature as they grow so,
    Some relics of the Sheha queen,
       And fragments of the fam’d Bob Crusoe.
    Knick-knacks, too, dangle round the wall,
       Some in glass cases, some on shelf,
    But what’s the rarest right of all,
       Your humble servant shows himself.
    On this my chiefest hope depends,
       Now if you will the cause espouse,
    In journals pray direct your friends
       To my Museum Coffee-House:
    And, in requital for the timely favour,
    I’ll gratis bleed, draw teeth, and be your shaver.
    Nay, that your pate may with my noddle tarry,
    And you shine bright as I do—marry, shall ye
    Freely consult your Revelation Molly.
    Nor shall one jealous thought create a huff,
    For she has taught me manners long enough.”

    CHELSEA KNACKATORY.

                                                              DON SALTERO.

Dr. Franklin, in his Life, mentions coming to Chelsea to see Don
Saltero’s collection:—“We one day (says he) made a party to go by water
to Chelsea, in order to see the College, and Don Saltero’s curiosities.
On our return, at the request of the company, I undressed myself, and
leaped into the river.  I swam from near Chelsea the whole way to
Blackfriars Bridge, exhibiting, during my course, a variety of feats of
activity and address, both upon the surface of the water as well as under
it.  The sight occasioned much astonishment and pleasure to those to whom
it was new.  In my youth I took great delight in this exercise.”

                                * * * * *

This noted coffee-house was for many years, in the present century,
conducted in a most respectable manner.  There was a subscription room,
where gentlemen met and conversed, and which was frequently visited by
men of literature and science, many of whom are still living, but of late
years it had lost the celebrity of former days.  It was rebuilt in 1867,
is now a capital private residence.

                                * * * * *

Henry Redhead Yorke, Esq.—This accomplished scholar died at his
residence, at No. 19, Cheyne Walk, in 1813, in the 41st year of his age.
He was a great classical scholar.  In his youth as he himself expressed
it, he was “madly in love with ideal liberty.”  He became an officer in
the French army, and a member of the National Convention, and personally
acquainted with all the leading characters of the French Revolution.  He
was denounced by Robespierre; and but for a friendly hint from the
celebrated Condorcet, must have been guillotined, had he been one hour
longer in making his escape.

                                * * * * *

In the month of March, 1798, he was liberated from Dorchester Castle,
after an imprisonment of four years, for a seditious libel.  He had paid
a fine of £200, and entered into securities for £2,000.

                                * * * * *

Some years previous to his death his political ideas became moderated,
and he manifested a strong sense of the value of the British
constitution.  He had been called to the bar; a profession for which he
was highly qualified, and in which there was every reason to hope he
would have risen to high eminence, had his life been prolonged.  Indeed,
the zeal with which he devoted himself to his various professional
pursuits, hastened, if it did not bring on, the disorder which put a
period to his existence at the comparative early age of forty-one years.
As a classical scholar, and nervous elegant writer, he has left few
equals.  His letters, under the signature of “Galgacus,” have scarcely
been surpassed since the days of Junius.  In private life, Mr. Yorke was
distinguished for benevolence and liberality of sentiment, openness of
character, and his company was courted by men of all parties.

                                * * * * *

Francis Chalmer, Esq., (son of Edmund Chalmer, Esq.,) resided in Cheyne
Row for a great many years.  He was a magistrate for the county, and
highly esteemed in the parish.  As a gentleman he was affable and
courteous, and kind to the poor.  He died at his house in Cheyne Row, in
July, 1859, and was interred in the Brompton Cemetery.

                                * * * * *

Leigh Hunt, Esq., the well-known author of many interesting works, and
who was the associate of the most distinguished political as well as
literary men of the earlier part of the present century, occupied a house
in Upper Cheyne Row for a considerable time.

                                * * * * *

Miss Frances Elizabeth Eggleton, and Miss Christian Mary Eggleton, lived
in Cheyne Walk.  They were the daughters of Mr. David Eggleton, of Church
Street, a very old Chelsea family.  The former lady died in 1861, and the
latter in 1867.  Miss Frances Eggleton bequeathed a sum of money, to be
given at her sister’s death to the Rector and Churchwardens, in trust,
for them to give, on Christmas Eve, “a shoulder of mutton of not less
than seven pounds in weight, and not exceeding eight pounds in weight,
and four pounds of bread, to each of twenty poor persons of Chelsea,
being married persons and having a family.”  An extract from her will,
respecting this gift, will be inserted amongst the other parochial
legacies.

                                * * * * *

Charles Rawlings, Esq., who resided in Cheyne Walk for many years, was
much respected in the parish, and was of a most benevolent disposition.
His deed of gift in 1862, and the legacies in 1864, will be found in the
list of Chelsea Charities.

                                * * * * *

Dr. Bayford, a distinguished proctor, and father of the present Dr.
Bayford, resided with his family in a spacious house, within a few doors
of Manor Street.  His sons, in their younger days, were particularly
attached to aquatic exercises.

                                * * * * *

Nathaniel Handford, Esq., an old and respected parishioner, resided also
in Cheyne Walk, where he died.  Mrs. Sarah Handford, his relict, who did
not very long survive him, left several small legacies, in 1865, to
various charitable societies in the parish.

                                * * * * *

W. Carpenter, Esq., well-known in literary circles, and who has long been
connected with the press, resided likewise within the last few years in
Cheyne Walk.

                                * * * * *

R. E. N. Lee, Esq., occupied the house at the corner of Manor Street,
(now in possession of Dr. Sannemann,) for a considerable period.  He was
Steward of the Manor for eighteen years.  He died in 1833, and in St.
Luke’s Church there is a tablet to his memory.  No family was more
respected in Chelsea.

                                * * * * *

Mr. J. Fraine, a solicitor, resided at No. 13, in Cheyne Walk, and died
in 1785, aged 70.  The history of this gentleman and his family was
marked by some very uncommon circumstances.  He was himself afflicted
with a continual gnawing pain in his left arm, which he carried on a
board in a sling; and by pinching his jaws and throat, and beating his
right cheek through the violence of the pain, he had marked them very
much.  He compared the sensation to a worm in the marrow of the upper
bone of his arm, and used to keep a boy to beat it with a stick whenever
the pain returned, and to tap on the back of his head with a piece of
wood covered with cloth.  Mr. Fraine’s death was occasioned by the fall
on his right thigh of a leaden weight, with which he was exercising as a
remedy for his complaint; the injury brought on a speedy mortification.
This extraordinary case was fully described in a letter, subsequently
written by Dr. Monsey.  The calamities of this unhappy gentleman extended
also to his son and daughter, both of whom fell by their own hands.

                                * * * * *

Mr. Fraine’s only son.  King Samuel, an amiable, accomplished young man,
who received his education at Christ Church, Cambridge, put an end to his
existence at his chambers in the Temple, in 1799, aged 22 years, for
which no reason can be assigned but disappointment in love.

                                * * * * *

Miss Fraine, whose duteous attention to her tortured and frequently
impatient father was most exemplary, after the dreadful catastrophe of
her brother’s suicide, not wholly unaccountable from hereditary
irregularities of system, seemed to have a dread (not aversion) of
marriage.  The tendency of her social feelings, strictly regulated and
controlled by the reserve of modesty and the dignity of virtue, almost
irresistibly inclined her best affections towards wedlock; whilst her
extremely sensitive forethought shunned the general result of engagements
ennobling to mankind in general, but appalling in many lights to herself.

                                * * * * *

During this state of mind, repeatedly avowing her contempt for birds,
cats, and dogs, she expressed great attachment for infant children.  Miss
Fraine, in 1780, frequently expressed to a very near neighbour her ardent
wish that a particular child were placed under her own sole and immediate
management.  “I cannot safely marry,” she would often observe, “but I
shall undertake the charge of an infant’s education with delight.”

                                * * * * *

After making many serious colloquial attempts to reason against such an
intention, the Rev. Weeden Butler sent some sportive lines to the highly
gifted and unfortunate lady.  It succeeded so far as to repress any
further application by the lady, but her feelings remained the same.  The
following elegant jeu-d’esprit was written with similar effect.  She
appears to have possessed great sensibility of feeling without adequate
reflection.



SALE OF A DAUGHTER,


    In fairy guise and playful mood,
    Euphrania, young and fair, and good,
    Vows, if her friends a price would set
    Upon their daughter Harriet,
    Herself the gift of Heaven would buy,
    And cherish it beneath her eye.
    Does, then, Euphrania mean to say,
    (If we would cast our young away,
    Like ostriches) she’d prove a mother,
    And rear the nestling of another?

       Ye powers, it is a strange temptation!
    Let us not treat it with flirtation.
    Come, think upon it well, dear wife;
    We love our offspring as our life.
    Euphrania’s offer is adoption:
    Take it, or leave it, is our option.

       Heigho!  I read your tearful eye,
    “For the babe’s good we must comply.”
    ’Tis said, ’tis done.  Now, in a trice,
    Let us determine well the price;
    And, shunning all superfluous joke,
    Settle the worth of infant folk.
    The bargain is as clear as water;
    Full many a one has sold a daughter.

The consent of the parents having thus been obtained, the price to be
given for the infant daughter is the next consideration.  The following
is a summary of the supposed value of the child:—

   Imprimis.  For a hazel eye,                        £52     10     0
And tongue that never told a lie, &c.
   Item, for pranks and wanton wiles,                  80      0     0
Nods and becks, and wreathed smiles, &c.
   Item, for filial obedience,                        100      0     0
One of our daughter’s chief ingredients, &c.
   Then, item, for her race and name,                 200      0     0
Nearly in value both the same, &c.
   Item, for every hope and fear                       67     10     0
That hitherto hath chequer’d care, &c.
                                                     £500      0     0

    For such a sale, to us are due
    A Bond, and final Judgment too;
    From you the former may be given,
    The latter must be left to . . .  Heaven.

Advised, pressed, solicited, nay, perhaps, commanded by an anxious
father, this lady at last married.  Soon afterwards she grew melancholy
and desponding, and fell by her own hand, at her residence at Richmond,
in the year 1785.  She married Captain Fortescue.

                                * * * * *

DR. DOMINICETI’S BATHS.—The dwelling house afterwards occupied by the
Rev. Weeden Butler, a few doors from Flood Street, Cheyne Walk, was once
inhabited by one Dominiceti, an Italian physician, of very considerable
notoriety and talents.  At this house he established medicinal baths for
the cure of all diseases; and it was fitted up with pipes, &c., for the
accommodation of numerous patients, who might choose to reside with him
while they were under his care.  In 1765 it is described as a large,
pleasant, and convenient house, which contains four spacious and lofty
parlours, two dining rooms, and thirteen bed chambers.  On the east side
of the garden, and directly communicating with the house, was erected an
elegant brick and wooden building, 100-ft. long, and 16-ft. wide, in
which were the baths and fumigatory stoves, etc.  It appears, from his
own account, that he expended about £37,000 altogether in erecting,
contriving, and completing his house, and baths in Cheyne Walk.

                                * * * * *

Among his visitors and patients, at Chelsea, was his Royal Highness
Edward Duke of York, who entrusted the preservation of his life to
Dominiceti’s sole direction for above a month; and that in direct
opposition to the advice of the Physicians and Surgeons of the Royal
household.  Sir John Fielding, having experienced the good effects, as he
considered, of these baths, wrote a “Vindication of Dr. Dominiceti’s
Practice of removing various afflicting diseases by medicated baths,
stoves, fumigations, and frictions, founded on facts.”

                                * * * * *

Dominiceti resided for several years in Chelsea.  He became bankrupt in
the parish in 1782, and at length disappeared, overwhelmed with debt.

                                * * * * *

We will now notice one of the most distinguished scholars and clergymen
of the early part of the present century, the Rev. Weeden Butler, who
resided in the above-mentioned house for a great many years, and also one
of his sons, etc., until a comparatively recent period, and which cannot
fail to be highly interesting to a large number of readers.

                                * * * * *

The Rev. Weeden Butler was born at Margate, in 1742.  When aged fourteen,
he lost both his parents; and with his own free will was articled as
clerk to Mr. Rosewell, a respectable solicitor, in Angel Court,
Throgmorton Street, London.  At the expiration of his term, he was
offered by his considerate late master and constant friend till death, a
share in the business; but he had determined to renounce for ever the
profession of the law, and resolved, by intense study and application, to
improve his superior intellectual powers, and ardently to prepare himself
for holy orders.  About this time, he frequented all the churches and
chapels within and around the vast metropolis, as an enquirer after
truth.  The result of his search fixed his choice, and he devoted his
time thenceforth, as a firm member of the Establishment, upon the fullest
conviction of its excellence.  The course of his classical and
theological reading was directed by that splendidly and variously gifted,
but most unhappy character, Dr. William Dodd, to whom, for a salary of
small extent, he acted as an assiduous amanuensis, till his patron’s
ignominious death, in 1777.

                                * * * * *

Dr. Dodd’s “Commentary on the Holy Bible,” was partly compiled, and
wholly written out for the press, by the then unknown Rev. Weeden Butler,
who also greatly assisted in editing the four last volumes of “The
Christian’s Magazine,” and corrected the proof sheets of the poem, in
blank vase, “Thoughts in Prison,” of which Dr. Dodd’s own MS. was in the
possession of Mr. Butler’s eldest son in 1829–30.  In this last
singularly affecting composition occur lines indicative of the worth of
the person eulogized, and of the author’s gratitude:—

       “But I am lost! a criminal adjudg’d!
    A guilty miscreant! can’st thou think, my friend!
    Oh! BUTLER ’midst a million faithful found;
    Oh! can’st thou think, who know’st, who long hast known,
    My inmost soul; oh! can’st thou think, that life,” &c.

Dr. Dodd resigned his office of Morning Preacher, in Charlotte Street
Chapel, Pimlico, in February, 1776, and at his strong recommendation, Dr.
Courtney nominated the deserving Reader, Mr. Butler, who was licensed
Morning Preacher accordingly; and afterwards by purchase he became
proprietor of the chapel, officiating therein up to the year 1814.  When
the subject of the present article retired from Chelsea, to Gayton; where
he piously discharged the duties of curate to his second son, till his
increasing infirmities compelled him to resign this his last charge, and
he finally withdrew to Greenhill, in the neighbourhood of Harrow, where
he died.

                                * * * * *

He was master of the school in Cheyne Walk for forty years; where many
persons of considerable rank had been so thoroughly grounded in morality
and general learning as to become bright ornaments to their country.
Amongst other scholars, the Rev. Weeden Butler had the gratification of
seeing his two sons treading assiduously in his own paths.  The Rev. G.
Butler, D.D., in 1805, was chosen Head Master of Harrow School, and
continued as such, with great reputation, for many years.

                                * * * * *

The elder Mr. Butler was one of the earliest institutors of the “Society
for the Discharge and Relief of Persons imprisoned for small debts,” and
most materially assisted James Neild, Esq., his next door neighbour, in
firmly establishing that excellent Institution.  The friendship, indeed,
which existed between these two benevolent characters, cannot be better
exemplified and attested than by the following few extracts from a letter
written by Mr. Neild, dated Chelsea, January 1, 1808.

                                * * * * *

“When I look back to the distant period of our lives, and observe, that,
of the first Committee of the Society, you, Rev. Sir, and myself, remain
the only survivors, I cannot but feel the most powerful, and, at the same
time, the most humble gratitude to the Great Disposer of all human
events, for having suffered me to live and witness the happy result of
our early and well-meant endeavours. * * * * With growing and
well-merited esteem, Sir, I witnessed your successful exertions in behalf
of the Society, at its earliest institution.  Often have I felt the
influence acknowledged by all who have heard the eloquent and impressive
discourses which you have delivered from the pulpit, in recommendation of
the objects embraced by this Charity, and never can the gratifying
recollection be effaced which beamed from every countenance around you,
when you mentioned the receipt of £100 from an eminent advocate for
suffering humanity.”  Mr. Neild concludes by referring to the promotion
of Mr. Butler’s son (Dr. Butler), which he considers to be the reward of
his virtues; of those early advances which his father’s tuition enabled
him to make in literature, and to the purity of his Christian principles.

                                * * * * *

In 1787 he instituted the Chelsea Sunday Schools, with the sanction of
the Rev. W. B. Cadogan.  His Royal Highness the Duke of Kent had a great
regard for Mr. Butler, and appointed him one of his domestic chaplains.
Hardly one charitable Society in London existed, to which his popular
oratory did not essentially contribute credit and profit.  He died in a
good old age, and his remains were placed in the family vault at Chelsea.
The Rev. Weeden Butler, his eldest son, occupied the same house for many
years afterwards, as also the son of the latter, Thomas Butler, Esq., who
was much esteemed by a numerous circle of friends while he resided in
Cheyne Walk.  The whole of this family were remarkable for their
classical attainments and love of literature.  The Rev. T. Helmore,
Precentor, St. Mark’s College, has since resided in Mr. Butler’s house.

                                * * * * *

A very fine portrait of Dr. Dodd, painted by Gainsborough, and a large
quarto volume of the doctor’s unedited poems, in MS., bound, including a
tragedy, called “The Syracusans,” and a comedy, called “Sir Roger de
Coverly,” were left by Mr. Butler, to his legatees.  The portrait is the
only likeness extant The Rev. Philip Dodd, and the Rev. Weeden Butler
(eldest son of Mr. Butler), possessed all the Doctor’s unprinted sermons.

                                * * * * *

James Neild, Esq., who resided at No. 4, Cheyne Walk, was born in 1744,
at Knutsford, in Cheshire, in the neighbourhood of which his family had
some good estates.  He came to London, and was placed with Mr. Hemming,
the King’s goldsmith, but after a short time, he removed to a jeweller’s.
In 1770 he settled in St. James’s Street, and continued there till the
year 1792, when finding his health declining, and having recently lost
his wife, he retired from business to Chelsea, with an ample fortune.

                                * * * * *

The attention of Mr. Neild, very early in life, was drawn to the
distressed state of persons imprisoned for debt; the endeavour to
alleviate which soon became his favorite pursuit, and one which he
followed with intense application.

                                * * * * *

In 1773, having previously visited most of the prisons in England, and
many on the continent, he was, together with his benevolent friends, Dr.
John C. Lettson, and the Rev. Weeden Butler, chiefly instrumental in
instituting the Society for the Relief and Discharge of Persons
imprisoned for small debts.  In 1812 he published “The State of the
Prisons,” in a quarto volume, a work teeming with valuable information.
Mr. Neild died in 1814, and was buried in Battersea Church.  He married a
daughter of John Camden, Esq., of that parish.

                                * * * * *

John Camden Neild, Esq., was a magistrate for the county, and the son of
the preceding.  He resided in his late father’s house in Cheyne Walk, and
bequeathed half a million of money to Queen Victoria.  He died in 1852.

                                * * * * *

John Goss, Esq., the present organist of St. Paul’s Cathedral, lived at
No. 3, Cheyne Walk.  He was appointed Organist of St. Luke’s New Church,
when that sacred edifice was completed.  His proficiency, even at that
early period of his musical life, excited general admiration, and large
portions of the congregation frequently waited in the Church, at the
close of Divine Service, to listen to his concluding performances.

                                * * * * *

There are several highly respectable families, who have for many years
resided in Cheyne Walk, of whom it would have been only an act of justice
to notice, but the strict rules of propriety prevent my discharging an
otherwise pleasing duty, which, in some instances especially, is much to
be regretted, as they take a deep interest in the promotion of whatever
tends to enhance the welfare of the parish.



DOGGETT’S COAT AND BADGE.


Mr. Thomas Doggett, a native of Ireland, was an actor, and made his first
appearance in Dublin; but his efforts not meeting with sufficient
encouragement he removed to London, where he performed with great
reputation, and by his talents, industry, and economy, acquired a
competent fortune, and quitted the stage some years before he died.  He
was also a patentee and manager of the theatre with Wilks, Booth, and
Cibber; the latter of whom gives Doggett the following character:—“He was
the most original and the strictest observer of nature of all his
cotemporaries.  He borrowed from none of them; his manner was his own, he
was a pattern to others, whose greatest merit was that they had sometimes
tolerably imitated him.  In dressing a character to the greatest
exactness, he was remarkably skilful; the least article of whatsoever
habit he wore seemed in some measure to speak the different humour he
presented, a necessary care in a comedian, in which many have been too
remiss or ignorant.  His greatest success was in characters of lower
life, which he improved from the delight he took in his observations of
that kind in the real world.  In songs, and particular dances too of
humour, he had no competitor.  Congreve was a great admirer of him, and
found his account in the characters he expressly wrote for him.  In those
of Fondlewife in his Old Bachelor, and Ben in Love for Love, no author
and actor could be more obliged to their mutual masterly performances.
He was very acceptable to several persons of high rank and taste, though
he seldom cared to be the comedian, but among his more intimate
acquaintances.

                                * * * * *

He is highly spoken of in the Spectator.  He wrote one play, called “The
Country Wake,” a comedy, acted with great applause; and out of this play
were made two farces, “Hob, or the Country Wake,” and “Hob’s Wedding.”
The first has been acted often with great success, and likewise several
songs have been added to it in imitation of the Beggar’s Opera, since
which it has been acted under the title of Flora.

                                * * * * *

In his political principles he was, in the words of Sir Richard Steele,
“a Whig up to head and ears;” and he took every occasion of demonstrating
his loyalty to the house of Hanover.  One instance, among others, is well
known; which is, that in the year after King George I. came to the
throne, in 1715, Doggett gave a waterman’s orange-coloured coat and
silver badge to be rowed for; on the latter is represented the Hanoverian
horse.

                                * * * * *

This contest takes place on the 1st day of August, being the anniversary
of that King’s accession to the throne, between six young watermen, who
had just completed their apprenticeship; the claimants starting off on a
signal being given at that time of the tide when the current is strongest
against them, and rowing from the Old Swan, near London Bridge, to the
White Swan, at Chelsea.  This tavern adjoined the Apothecaries’ Botanical
Garden, on the east, and enjoyed a great share of public favour for many
years; but in the year 1780, it was converted into a Brewhouse.  Since
this period, the place of landing the victor has been at a house bearing
the same sign, near to Cheyne Walk.  I have been favoured with the
following chorus, said to be written by a waterman:—

    “Let your oars, like lightning flog it,
    Up the Thames as swiftly jog it,
    An’ you’d win the prize of Doggett,
       The glory of the river!
    Bendin’, bowin’, strainin’, rowin’,
    Perhaps the wind in fury blowin’,
    Or the tide agin you flowin’,
       The coat and badge for ever!”

Mr. Doggett, at his death, left a sum of money, the interest of which was
to pay for the same for ever.

                                * * * * *

The “Yorkshire Grey” public house stood at the west corner of Old Manor
Street, opposite the river.  It was a very old tavern, mostly frequented
of late years by the watermen who plied at the stairs opposite to it.  It
has recently been pulled down, and two good private dwelling houses now
occupy the site.

                                * * * * *

In the year 1824, a new road was opened, connecting Old and New Manor
Street, forming a direct communication from Cheyne Walk to the King’s
Road, and St. Luke’s Church.  Prior to that period a large garden crossed
the street, with a wall and iron railing, so that the two streets were
entirely detached.

                                * * * * *

With respect to the embankment of the shores of our parish, this was
certainly the work of ages, much posterior to the Norman Conquest, nor
was it even completed before the latter end of the seventeenth century,
for, from the manorial records, we find them to have been frequently
imperfect, whilst the keeping them in repair and good order, was a
subject of vexatious dispute between the Lord of this Manor and his
tenants; and hence sometimes by the parish and the turnpike trust;
sometimes by those persons who inhabited houses immediately in front of
the River, to the extent of their own frontages; and sometimes by the
Lords of the Manor themselves, to the extent of their frontages.  This
uncertainty respecting the right of repair was attended with many evils,
the walls being often out of order, and in a dangerous state.  In
December, 1822, upon the trial of an indictment on the prosecution of the
Kensington turnpike trust, against the Lords of the Manor, in the Court
of King’s Bench, the Chief Justice ruled at _nisi prius_, that the _onus_
rested on the latter, unless and until they could show on whom by right
of tenure, or otherwise, the burthen lay.

                                * * * * *

Having now arrived at the conclusion of Book I., in which are described
all that is worthy of special notice in a great portion of the western
extremity of the parish, I shall commence Book II., with a description of
that beautiful architectural structure, St. Luke’s Church.



BOOK II.


Consecration and other interesting particulars of St. Luke’s Church and
Burial Ground—Its Monuments, &c.—Rectors, Curates, and
Lecturers—Parochial National Schools, &c.—The Workhouse and the Old
Burial Ground—The Origin and Condition of the King’s Road in the “Olden
Times:”—Its state at the commencement of this Century, together with some
notices of the New Buildings, and its thriving Trade at the present
Time—Markham Square Congregational Church—Savings’ Bank—Chelsea
College—Charles II. and Nell Gwynne—The Royal Military Asylum—Old
Ranelagh—The Original Bunhouse—The whole interspersed with many other
interesting notices of Distinguished Residents, &c.



St. Luke’s Church and the Burial Ground.


IT will be necessary before we give a description of this beautiful
edifice to state some particulars respecting the Burial Ground, or, more
properly speaking, the Cemetery, in the centre of which the Church is
erected.  The Act of Parliament for providing this additional Burial
Ground for the parish was passed in 1810, and certain Trustees therein
named were appointed to carry it into effect.  They accordingly purchased
of Earl Cadogan, the Lord of the Manor, a piece of ground, in the present
central situation, containing rather more than four acres, and enclosed
it with a substantial wall and strong iron railing.

                                * * * * *

As I was present at the consecration of this Burial Ground, and also of
the Church, a brief account of which I published at the time, the
following particulars I can fully authenticate.  With respect to many
circumstances which I shall mention, in connexion with the Church, they
may be relied upon as being accurately stated from my own personal
observation.

In November, 1812, the enclosure of the spacious new Burial Ground having
been in every respect completed, with a small Chapel erected close to the
entrance on the north side, designed exclusively for reading the Funeral
Service, on Saturday, the 21st of the above month, the same were
consecrated by the Bishop of London, accompanied by his Chaplains, the
Chancellor and Registrar of the Diocese, the Hon. and Rev. Dr. Wellesley,
rector, the Churchwardens, Trustees, and a large number of the
inhabitants.

                                * * * * *

The preliminary prayers were offered at the Old Church, and the Bishop
having declared his assent to the petition presented to him for
consecrating the new ground, the procession proceeded from the Church.
On their arrival there was an immense assemblage to witness the
consecration.  The Bishop then perambulated the ground, reading such
portions of the Service as is specially appointed, and afterwards
completed the consecration in the Chapel.

                                * * * * *

In the year 1819, an Act of Parliament, 59 Geo. III., cap. 35, May 19,
was obtained for building a new Church, and the Rector and Churchwardens,
and 59 other inhabitants of the parish, were appointed to carry the same
into effect.  The central portion of the new Burial Ground was
appropriated for this purpose, and on the 12th of October, 1820, the
first stone of the new Church was laid by the Hon. and Rev. Dr.
Wellesley, as proxy for his brother, the Duke of Wellington, who was
prevented from performing the ceremony by receiving “the King’s commands
to attend him on public business that day at his palace in Pall Mall.”
Many of the vast assemblage of spectators having waited a long time for
His Grace’s arrival felt somewhat disappointed, and some of them
attributed his absence to the political excitement which prevailed just
at that period, but this was far from being the general opinion.

                                * * * * *

A procession was at last formed in the following order:—His Royal
Highness the Duke of York’s Band; the Beadles of the Parish; Mr. James
Savage, the architect; the Builder, with a silver trowel on a crimson
velvet cushion; the Treasurer, with a metal box and sundry coins, and a
brass plate, on a velvet cushion.  The Hon. and Rev. Dr. Wellesley,
rector, supported by the Churchwardens; the Curates and Lecturer of the
Parish, and the Trustees appointed under the Act of Parliament for
building the Church.

The service used on similar occasions having been read by the Rector, the
box with the coins, and the brass-plate were deposited by the Rector upon
the stone prepared for the purpose, which was then lowered down and
secured with the customary formalities.  The inscription on the stone was
as follows:—“This stone was laid on the 12th day of October, A.D., 1820,
by Field Marshal His Grace the Duke of Wellington, the Hon. and Rev.
Gerald Valerian Wellesley, Rector; Richard Rattenbury and Richard Mann,
Churchwardens.”  The day was remarkably fine, and the spectacle
altogether produced a very imposing effect, notwithstanding the
disappointment experienced by the absence of the Duke of Wellington.  A
spacious amphitheatre was erected for the accommodation of ladies, and
the ceremony concluded with a beam of satisfaction on the countenances of
nearly all present.

                                * * * * *

The Church is built of Bath stone, in the Gothic style of the 14th
century, and is approached by a sweep carriage way and flagged footpath.
The west front has an arcade, extending the whole breadth of the
frontage.  From the centre of this arcade rises a lofty tower, the upper
part panelled and crowned with an open battlement.  It is strengthened at
the four corners by octagonal buttresses, which are finished by
open-worked pinnacles, of a form which gives the exterior of the edifice
a very picturesque appearance, and when seen at a distance is very
attractive.  The height from the ground to the top of the pinnacle is 142
feet, and the view from the tower on which these pinnacles rise, affords
a very fine view of the parish and its surrounding scenery.  From the
tower, the body of the building is seen to extend, embraced and supported
by its flying buttresses, which stretch their airy fronts from between
the Clerestery windows to the outer wall of the side aisles, when they
are continued solidly down to the ground.  The walls of the side aisles
and Clerestery are both finished with perforated parapets of elegant
forms.

At the eastern end, the principal feature is the altar window, 32 ft.
high and 16 ft. wide, divided by mullions into seven bays in width, and
four stories in height, exclusive of the pointed arched head, which has a
beautiful wheel centre.  This end has also two octagonal turrets, the
upper stories of which are ornamented with open-worked panels and
crocketted domes.  There are also two porches communicating with lobbies
and staircase, to afford the most ample entrance and exit.  In the middle
part, and below the great window, the Vestry Room is projected.

On the flanks the buttresses project about six feet, and their
extremities are connected by a dwarf wall, which defends an open area,
giving light and air to the crypt under the Church.  The unbroken line of
this wall makes a solid base for the whole building, which gets lighter
and lighter as it ascends to the top, where numerous feathery pinnacles
impart softness and richness to the extremity that meets the sky.

                                * * * * *

From the great western arcade you enter by three sets of folding doors to
the vestibule, at the sides of which are placed the principal staircases
to the galleries.  The principal or middle aisle of the Church is entered
from the centre of the entrance lobby by lofty folding doors, glazed with
plate glass, and as there is no western gallery to project before these
doors you have at once the full effect of the interior.  In this Church,
unlike most others, the western gallery is obtained by a recess over the
vestibule, and is principally occupied by a splendid organ by Nicholls,
comprising the great organ, choir organ, and swell organ, containing
thirty-three stops and 1876 pipes.  The organ is considered one of the
finest and most powerful in London.  The bellows, when charged, contains
70 cubic feet of wind. {128}  The King’s Arms, placed in front of the
organ, is executed in a solid piece of mahogany, and is a masterly
production.

                                * * * * *

The inside of the Church is 130 feet long, and 61 feet wide, divided into
a nave and two side aisles, separated by clustered columns and pointed
arches.  The small column in front of the cluster continues up to the
vaulted ceiling, and there branches out into numerous ribs, which spread
their airy lines in the most graceful manner over the ceiling, tied
together at their numerous intersections by carved pendant bosses, the
principal light being from the clerestery windows gives an aerial effect
to the ceiling, which hardly appears to belong to “mid earth,” although
actually built of solid stone, whose power of gravitation appears here to
be suspended by the magic of art, of which this is said to be the only
instance of the kind attempted for the last 300 years.  From the pavement
to the crown of the vault is 60 ft., clear height, a greater height than
is to be found in any edifice in London, excepting St. Paul’s Cathedral
and Westminster Abbey.  The lofty position of the windows diffuses a
clear and calm light throughout.  The church was for some years lighted
by oil-lamps in the three really magnificent chandeliers, but for a long
time gas has been very judiciously substituted.

                                * * * * *

A circumstance occurred in reference to these massive and splendid
central chandeliers, at nearly the conclusion of one of the Sunday
Evening Services, which occasioned great excitement amongst the
congregation, and it was feared at the time would be attended with loss
of life, but fortunately only one elderly person was seriously injured.
These chandeliers were obliged to be lowered by means of a windlass, and
men from the contractor for lighting the church, by oil-lamps, had to
attend and lower them both before and after Divine Service, in the first
instance for the purpose of lighting, and secondly to extinguish the
lights.  It was the practice of these men, who came from London, and were
anxious to return home as soon as possible, to lower the weighty
chandeliers on a certain signal being given to them at the belfry door,
as soon as the organist commenced “playing the congregation out,” but on
this occasion it was a sermon in aid of a charity, and the organ was only
played previous to the singing of a hymn while the collection was being
made.  This caused the mistake.  Some of the congregation in the
galleries, perceiving that one of the chandeliers was unsteady and slowly
descending, rushed forward to make their exit, which created great
confusion and alarm, the result being the accident previously mentioned.
The Hon. and Rev. Dr. Wellesley, rector, being present, although not
officiating, immediately explained the circumstances, and soon afterwards
the alarm was allayed and the service concluded.  The lighting of these
oil-lamps was attended with great expense and much labour.  A
considerable saving is now effected by the introduction of gas, labour on
the Sunday is lessened, and the dirt occasioned by the trimming of the
lamps altogether obviated.

                                * * * * *

The galleries, south and north, are well constructed.  There is breadth
of surface and simplicity of outline throughout.  From some positions the
columns of the nave, which impart such a grandeur to the entire interior,
impedes the view of the preacher, even from the northern gallery, but
this is unavoidable in Gothic architecture.

                                * * * * *

At the eastern end, the great window, 32 ft. high, and 16 ft. wide, is a
most conspicuous feature.  The bottom of the window, being 22 ft. from
the pavement, affords ample space for the altar-piece, which is designed
in the manner of a Gothic shrine or screen.

                                * * * * *

The altar, or communion, is ascended by three steps, and is enclosed by a
Gothic railing.  The chairs and stools are designed in character, and are
good specimens of wood carving; they were executed by Mr. Relph, from the
designs of the architect.

                                * * * * *

The altar-piece is “The Entombing of Christ,” by Northcote.  It had been
previously exhibited at the British Institution, Pall Mall.

                                * * * * *

For some years after the church was completed the large eastern window
was glazed simply with plain glass, as will be seen from the following
Vestry Minute, dated April 24, 1823:—“It is the opinion of this Vestry
that it would be expedient to have a stained-glass window at the east
end, &c., and that the money necessary for the same be attempted to be
raised by voluntary subscriptions.”  This effort proved unsuccessful, and
on the 29th of August, in the same year, Thomas Bryan, Esq., of.  Cadogan
Place, transmitted the following letter to a subsequent Vestry meeting:
“Since I had the honour of being appointed treasurer for the purpose of
receiving voluntary contributions for the purchase of a stained-glass
window, I beg to announce that I have not received any money but what has
been duly returned to the parties.”  This great defect has since been
remedied, and a very handsome and appropriate stained-glass window,
representing the apostles, &c., now adds materially to the beautiful
appearance of the interior of the church.

                                * * * * *

The vestry is a large room, 28 ft. square, and is finished in character
with the general style of the building.  For some years the meetings of
the parishioners were held in it.  The proceedings on some occasions were
very noisome, and as they frequently took place on Wednesday mornings, or
on special days for prayer, there was at times such an interruption as
rendered it impossible for the clergyman to proceed.  The Act of
Parliament since passed, and the erection of the Vestry Hall, in the
King’s Road, have happily for ever removed that cause of complaint.  In
this vestry room, at the church, there is an exceedingly good portrait of
Mr. Flood, an oil painting, in a large and handsome frame.  It is an
admirable likeness.

                                * * * * *

The following is another description of the interior of this edifice,
written by a gentleman who has favoured the public with an accurate
detail of most of the modern Churches erected some few years since in the
vicinity of London.  It will be seen that this account, as regards some
of the architectural particulars, supplies several deficiencies in the
preceding description, while at the same time there are inserted in the
former many interesting details which could not possibly be included in a
second notice of the interior of the church.

                                * * * * *

At the west end is a vestibule, extending across the whole building, and
occupying the space beneath the organ gallery and staircase.  This is
separated from the church by a fine stone screen, consisting of a large
pointed arch, flanked by square open buttresses, and ornamented above
with a range of upright divisions, finished with a blank cornice; in the
centre is a bow, or projection in the corbel style, in the front of which
is a dial.  The doorway is formed of carved oak, representing tracery
work and mullions, the upper part of the panelling being pierced and
glazed.  Above this screen is the organ, in a carved oak case, the design
of which is an assemblage of three towers, with pinnacles at the angles,
and united by flying buttresses, the wood work ornamented with upright
arched panels.

                                * * * * *

On each side of the church are seven arches, resting upon six octangular
columns, to each of which four small pillars are attached, an additional
one being placed upon the capitals of those which are situated towards
the body of the church, and carried up towards the vaulting.  At each of
the extreme ends of the arcade a semi column is attached to the walls, to
complete the number necessary for sustaining the arches.  The main
pillars and arches are ornamented with a simple ogee moulding.  The
aisles are occupied by galleries that hide the lower divisions of the
windows, which are only seen externally, no light being admitted below
the galleries through the outer walls.  Between the clerestery windows
and the arcades below is the metzonine story, fronted by four cinque-foil
headed arches, and finished with a cornice of roses in enriched quatre
foils, designed as in imitation of the ancient trifolium.

                                * * * * *

The eastern window does not fill up the entire wall as we find in all
ancient buildings, but a considerable portion of plain masonry is left
round it.  The space below is occupied by a splendid stone altar-screen
of a beautiful antique design.  It consists of five upright divisions,
formed by the buttresses, the central being the width of two of the
others; they are covered by ogee arches, with cinque foil sweeps in each,
the centre one having a canopy of the same sort, but more highly enriched
with a greater number of sweeps.  From the canopies rises a series of
upright divisions, with trefoil heads; and above is an entablature; the
frieze of foliage in alto relievo; the cornice of various mouldings, and
the whole is fronted by seven demi angels, in ancient costume, crowned;
one hand of each is placed on the breast, the other held up in the
attitude of benediction.  The screen is flanked on each side by a
magnificent composition of niche work, ranging above two small doorways
leading to the vestry, the arches of which are obtuse, and the
architraves entirely formed of mouldings.  Above the point of the arch of
each door case is an hexagonal canopy, highly enriched, and supporting
the pedestal of a large and similarly formed niche above it, crowned with
a like canopy, which rises above the rest of the screen, and occupies a
portion of the wall on each side of the window.  The pierced stonework,
elegant buttresses, and minute pinnacles of this elegant composition,
form an assemblage of architectural ornament which would not disgrace any
age in which the pointed style prevailed; the scale of grandeur in which
they are executed, and the general tastefulness that marks the design,
together with the correct style of the elaborate details, would do honour
to a cathedral.

                                * * * * *

The centre division of the church is roofed with stone from east to west.
The style of vaulting is, however, full two centuries earlier than the
building: the nave of Westminster Abbey seems to have been the prototype.
That part of the roof immediately above the altar is groined in a
different manner, the surface of the cove being filled with long panels
separated by arched ribs, springing from corbels, and crossing the church
from side to side; the same is repeated above the organ; the corbels are
all sculptured with figures of angels, which at the altar are represented
in the act of prayer, and over the organ appear to be chanting the hymn
of praise; though these portions are well executed, the conceit of
varying the design is too novel to be admired.

From the groined roof depend three elegant brass chandeliers, suspended
on gilt chains.

The pulpit of wainscot is octangular, and stands on a frame work of
pointed arches; it is not wanting in ornament but it falls short of the
ancient oak carvings.  The reading desk, also of wainscot, which is
situated on the opposite side of the nave, is similar in design.  The
fronts of the galleries are set off with panelling, having cinque-foil
heads; but wanting that boldness of relief which distinguishes the
ancient specimens of carved wood work; to the altar chairs, the same
remark applies.

                                * * * * *

The font is situated in the centre aisle, near to the pulpit and reading
desk; it is of an octangular form, and sustained on a pillar of the same
shape.  The different sides are panelled, each containing a shield in an
enriched quatrefoil, and the pillar is ornamented with upright panels.
It is executed in marble, and the carving appears to be highly deserving
of praise.

                                * * * * *

Within the last few months there has been placed in the church a lectern,
which corresponds with the general character of the edifice.

                                * * * * *

The entire edifice is highly creditable to the parish, and may be
considered as a lasting monument to the memory of Mr. James Savage, the
architect.

                                * * * * *

The crypt or vaults under the church are well worthy of inspection.  They
are conveniently approached, on the north side, by a flight of steps, and
are lofty, light, and thoroughly ventilated.  Here may be seen the
foundation of the tower, which is an inverted dome, and all the columns
of the nave are likewise built on and connected by inverted arches.  No
doubt the construction of these numerous vaults added considerably to the
aggregate cost of the edifice, and when interments were prohibited in the
metropolitan parishes the anticipated return was at once stopped, still
they strengthen the entire fabric, and ensure a freedom from damp, which
is most desirable.  In several of these vaults are deposited the remains
of some of the most respected parishioners.

The fees for burials in the vaults were as follow:—

    Single Coffin.          Parishioner.       Non-Parishioner.
An Adult                    £13      0     0     £19     10     0
Children, 7 to 14 yrs.        8      0     0      12      0     0
„ under 7 yrs.                5     10     0       8      5     0

None but leaden coffins, enclosed in wood, were allowed to be deposited
in the vaults, nor of less thickness than 5 lb. to a foot superficial.

Length from East to West of the body of the         130 ft.
Church, including the recess of the altar and
organ gallery, in the clear of the walls inside
Length of Side Aisles, in the clear inside          108 ft.
Breadth from North to South                         61 ft.
Breadth of the Nave                                 27 ft. 5½ in.
Height of the Nave, inside                          60 ft.
Height of the Side Aisles, inside                   31 ft. 9 in.
Whole length outside from East to West, including   186 ft. 10½ in.
Tower and Vestry
Height from the ground to the top of the pinnacle   142 ft.

There are ten bells, which were cast at Mr. Mears’s Foundry,
Whitechapel:—

The weight of the     first       6 cwt. 1 qr. 8 lb.
        „ „           second      6 cwt. 1 qr. 18 lb.
        „ „           third       6 cwt. 3 qr.
        „ „           fourth      7 cwt. 16 lb.
        „ „           fifth       7 cwt. 2 qr. 9 lb.
        „ „           sixth       8 cwt. 2 qr. 9 lb.
        „ „           seventh     10 cwt. 3 qrs. 19 lb.
        „ „           eighth      12 cwt. 1 qr. 11 lb.
        „ „           ninth       15 cwt. 3 qrs. 14 lb.
        „ „           tenth       23 cwt. 9 lb.

The church was consecrated on the 18th of October, 1824, and as the
foundation stone was laid on the 12th of October, 1820, the building of
the edifice occupied about four years.



MONUMENTAL INSCRIPTIONS IN THE CHURCH.


There are many neat and well-designed marble tablets placed on the walls
in different parts of the church, and one monument in particular which
will be specially noticed.  It would have afforded me great satisfaction
to have transcribed all the tributes of affection there recorded, and
also those in the Burial Ground, but the limited nature of this work
would only admit of noticing a few of them.  By adopting this course it
will enable me to refer to a variety of interesting subjects, which
otherwise in all probability must have been omitted.

The monument, to which allusion has just been made, commemorates a hero
who distinguished himself during the Peninsular war:—

                               To the Memory of
               Lieutenant-Colonel the Honourable Henry Cadogan,
                       of his Majesty’s 71st Regiment,
            who fell in the Battle of Vittoria, on June 1st, 1813,
                         in the 33rd year of his age.
           The Officers of his Regiment have erected this Monument,
                     In token of their esteem and regret.

This beautiful production of the chisel of Chantrey, which is placed in
the north gallery, represents two soldiers lamenting the death of their
heroic commander, whose portrait is on a medallion surrounded with flags,
with the Imperial eagle of France underneath; the letter “N.” is on the
top of the pillar which supports the eagle.  On the pedestal which
supports the sarcophagus is the word “VITTORIA,” encircled with a
laurelled crown; the sarcophagus is ornamented with a guilloche moulding.
Chastity of design and delicacy of execution are the special
characteristics of this admirable specimen of art.  There is another
monument to the memory of this gallant officer, erected at the public
expense, in St. Paul’s Cathedral, and also a third in the Cathedral of
Glasgow.

                                * * * * *

During the battle Colonel Cadogan had been detached to an important
position; and when it was discovered that he had been mortally wounded,
it was proposed to take him off the field.  “No,” said he, “my death is
now certain, and very near; suffer me to conclude my life with the
pleasure of seeing the continuation of our triumph; carry me to an
height, from whence I can observe it.”  He was carried to one, when his
back was placed against a tree, and there he expired, after expressing
his gratitude to those around him.

                                * * * * *

In a vault near this spot lies the remains of the Right Hon. Charles
Henry Cadogan, Earl Cadogan, Viscount Chelsea, in the county of
Middlesex, Baron Cadogan, of Oakley, in the county of Buckingham.  Born
17th Nov. 1749, and died on the 23rd Dec. 1832.

Honoria Louisa Countess Cadogan, died September 12, 1845, aged 58.

Sophia Lucy Cadogan, wife of Lieut.-Col. Hon. Geo. Cadogan, Grenadier
Guards.  Born March 5, 1812; died Jan. 26, 1852.

                           Sacred to the Memory of
              Admiral the Right Honourable George Earl Cadogan,
             Companion of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath,
          Knight of the Imperial Order of Maria Theresa, of Austria.
                    Born May 5, 1783: died Sept. 15, 1864.

                                * * * * *

There are inscriptions on marble tablets to the memory of the following
respected parishioners, amongst some others:—

    General Wilford, who resided for many years at Ranelagh, departed
    this life in 1822, aged 69.

    Mr. William Terwin, died Feb. 24, 1826, in the 74th year of his age.
    Also, his brother, Mr. John Terwin, died Jan. 8, 1827, in his 69th
    year.

    Joseph How, Esq., of Swan Walk, Paradise Row, (Queen’s Road West,)
    died in 1825, aged 72.  He was much respected.

    Mrs. Elizabeth Smith, widow of T. Smith, Esq., of No. 1, Manor
    Terrace (now No. 167, King’s Road), who, by will, in 1828, bequeathed
    £500 three per cent. consols, to be expended annually as specified
    therein.

    Thomas Bryan, Esq., of Cadogan Place, a magistrate for the county,
    died in 1830, aged 66.  He was much respected, and was for some time
    treasurer of the Parochial Schools, and ever ready to promote a
    charitable object.

    G. H. Hopkinson, Esq., died in the year 1829, and Charles Hopkinson,
    Esq., in 1830 (banker), resided in Cadogan Place for many years.

    R. E. N. Lee, Esq., resided for many years in Cheyne Walk, and died
    in 1833.  For 18 years he was Steward of the Manor.

    Richard Harmer, Esq., of Sloane Street, died in 1840, aged 80 years.
    He was benevolent, and his death was much deplored by many of the
    tradesmen in the locality.

    The Rev. G. Clark, M.A., chaplain at the Royal Military Asylum, a
    clergyman universally esteemed, died in 1848.

    Peter Burrard, Esq., of Rayner Place, departed this life in 1842.  He
    was a captain in Queen Charlotte’s Chelsea Volunteers, served the
    office of churchwarden, and was greatly esteemed by a large number of
    the parishioners.

    Luke Thomas Flood, Esq., was a magistrate for the county, and for a
    great number of years treasurer of the Parochial Schools.  There is a
    marble monument to his memory, near to the vestry door, in the
    church, which is a fine specimen of the sculptor’s art.  His
    munificent annual gifts to the deserving and aged poor parishioners,
    however, is a memorial of greater value than the most costly
    monument.  He died at Brighton, in 1860, at a very advanced age.

    The Rev. Charles Kingsley, M.A., the late rector, and father of the
    Rev. C. Kingsley, the popular author, died in 1860, aged 78.  A
    notice of this kind-hearted clergyman is given in the brief record of
    the Rectors of this church.



COST OF BUILDING THE CHURCH, &c.


The original sum for the building of the Church, as agreed to at a Public
Vestry, held on the 20th of August, 1818, was not to exceed in all
£30,000, including every other advance that may be made from the
Commissioners of Churches, and others.  The interest of this sum,
together with the principal, was to be paid out of a church rate, and the
rate for this purpose was not to exceed one shilling in the pound. {137}
From a statement I possess, shewing the various amounts received and paid
by the Trustees for building the church, and including the charges for
constructing a sewer from it to the river Thames, from the 21st of July,
1819, to the 27th of October, 1824, it appears that the total sum
expended to that period was £34,716 14s. 3d.  This amount includes £2,020
paid for the sewer, and £3,595 for interest on annuities, up to the time
of the above statement.  The entire cost of building the church, &c., is
generally estimated as being rather more than £40,000.  It is calculated
that it will very well accommodate 2,000 persons.

                                * * * * *

There was a petition signed against the New Church Bill, in which it was
acknowledged that there was a total inadequacy of church accommodation in
the parish—the population of which the petitioners stated to be 20,000
souls—but they submitted that “it would be better to erect two chapels,
capable of holding 1,500 persons each, one to be situated at each
extremity of the parish, which might be done for one half the church
would cost.”  Dr. Anthony Todd Thomson, of Sloane Street, who was one of
the most able speakers in the parish, most powerfully advocated the
erection of two chapels, but the opposition entirely failed.



RECTORS AT THE NEW ST. LUKE’S CHURCH.


In the account of the Old Church a list of the Rectors connected with
that ancient edifice was given, we will now refer to those since the
completion of the new Parish Church.

The Hon. and Rev. G. V. Wellesley, D.D., who had been for many years
previously Rector, was a brother of the Duke of Wellington, “the great
hero of many a hard-fought battle.”  Making a deduction for some slight
difference in the corporeal appearance of them, there was a great
resemblance of features, and in quickness of conception, correctness of
judgment, and general determination of character, there was an
astonishing similarity.  Dr. Wellesley was quick in forming his
conclusions, and appeared at times to be somewhat hasty, but generally it
would be found that his views were founded on truth and justice.  This
remark applies more especially to the part he took as chairman of many of
the “open vestry” parish meetings, at which there was frequently much
contention.  It was admitted, however, by those who were at times opposed
to his views that his conduct was impartial and conciliatory, and the
natural result was that he gained the respect of all classes of the
ratepayers, and thus allayed much of that asperity of feeling which is
too often manifested by contending parties.

                                * * * * *

Dr. Wellesley’s appointment of the Rev. Henry Blunt, M.A., then a young
clergyman who had gained the esteem of a large portion of the
parishioners, as Morning Preacher and Senior Curate, gave great
satisfaction, and, as presently will be seen, shewed the correct opinion
he had entertained of Mr. Blunt’s piety, zeal, and qualifications to
discharge the sacred duties he had so wisely entrusted to him.  Dr.
Wellesley, after some years had elapsed, resigned, and died at
Bishopwearmouth, at an advanced age.

                                * * * * *

Some few particulars respecting the Rev. H. Blunt may here be very
appropriately mentioned.  The following opinion of him, as a preacher,
given by an avowed infidel, will convey a tolerably good idea of his
impressive manner of delivery.  I will give it as nearly as possible in
the individual’s own words.  “I went,” said he, “to your place yesterday,
(meaning the church,) and if ever I go again anywhere it shall be to hear
Mr. Blunt.  I went in and meant to come out shortly, but I had no sooner
looked at him than his keen eyes seemed fixed on mine, and as he appeared
so sincere in what he said, I remained till he had finished.  He
certainly was most persuasive, and it spoilt my dinner.”  This was
afterwards mentioned to Mr. Blunt, who smiled, and said, “I hope there
were many others who went home to their dinners equally impressed.”

                                * * * * *

When Trinity Church, Sloane Street, was completed, the Rev. Mr. Blunt
became the Incumbent (the parish at that time was not as at present
divided into ecclesiastical divisions).  Here he was again greatly
beloved by his large congregation, including both rich and poor.  Some
years afterwards he accepted the Rectory of Streatham, Surrey, where he
at length died, as much esteemed by the inhabitants there, as he had been
previously at Chelsea.  Mr. Blunt was the chief founder of the first
Benevolent Society established in this parish, in 1829, entitled the
Chelsea Relief Association, and principally through his exertions no less
a sum than £163 was collected within a very short period.  Hence arose
other similar societies, whose benevolent objects are well deserving of
support.  The Infant School, in Markham Street, might be considered as
Mr. Blunt’s cherished offspring, and the National Schools at all times
were regarded by him with feelings of deep regard.

                                * * * * *

The Rev. Mr. Lockwood, M.A., succeeded the Hon. and Rev. Dr. Wellesley,
as rector, and manifested great interest in promoting the welfare of the
parish, but after a comparatively short period he resigned.

                                * * * * *

The Rev. Charles Kingsley, M.A., next became Rector, and continued as
such for many years.  He was but seldom absent from the parish, and
exhibited on all occasions a kind and benevolent disposition.  He died in
the year 1860, aged 78.  Mrs. Kingsley was very active in establishing
the Rectory Girls’ School, and in promoting a variety of charities to aid
the poor.

                                * * * * *

The Rev. G. A. Blunt, M.A., (son of the late Rev. H. Blunt,) succeeded
Mr. Kingsley, and is the present Rector.  He has evinced the greatest
desire to promote the religious, moral, and intellectual advancement of
the working classes, and takes a deep interest in promoting the Parochial
National and Infant Schools, &c.  There is one charitable society, of
such a humane and practical character, that it deserves to be specially
noticed.  It is called “The Sick Kitchen.”  In a printed “Letter
addressed to the Congregation and Parishioners of St. Luke’s, Chelsea,”
1869, Mr. Blunt states that it is “carried on in a building erected for
the purpose in 1861, in the Rectory Garden.  Its object is to provide
nutritious dinners for the poor who are recovering from sickness.  It is
supported by voluntary contributions, the early Communion alms, and half
the contents of the church boxes at St. Luke’s.  An average of thirty
poor people are thus supplied daily for nine months in the year.  There
is no charge made, the orders being given by the Curates and District
Visitors, among the cases they visit.  The dinners consist of roast meat
three times a week, soup, puddings, &c., on the alternate days; beef tea
daily.”

                                * * * * *

The advowson anciently belonged, as already stated, to the Abbot and
Convent of Westminster, till they exchanged it, 17th July, 28 Henry
VIII., together with their manors of Neyte and Hyde, with the king, for
the priory of Hurley.  It continued in the possession of the Crown till
Queen Elizabeth, by letters patent, dated July 3rd, second year of her
reign, demised to Ann, Duchess of Somerset, the advowson of the parish
church and rectory for her life, the reversion to the Queen.  After the
death of the duchess it was granted to the Earl of Nottingham and his
Countess for three lives.  King Charles I. granted the advowson, with the
manor, to James Duke of Hamilton, and in the next reign Charles Cheyne,
Esq., purchased the manor, to which the rectory has ever since been
annexed.

In the year 1327, 1st of Edward III., the rectory was rated at thirteen
marks, and in the king’s books at £13 6s. 8d., and the yearly tenths £1
6s. 8d.

                                * * * * *

Among Dr. King’s original papers is the following account of the rectory:
“The ancient parsonage-house, with 14 acres and 22 perches of land, stood
west of the Duke of Beaufort’s, then the Marquis of Winchester’s.  In
lieu of which, upon an exchange, the present house, and land about it,
was given to the rectory for ever, by the consent of the Queen, the then
patron, Dr. Edmund Grindall, Bishop of London, and Robt. Richardson,
Rector of Chelsea, who conveyed the old house and land to the Marquis by
writing, bearing date May 3, 1566.”

                                * * * * *

In 1650, it was reported to the Commissioners appointed by the
Parliament, that the parsonage-house of Chelsea, with twenty acres of
glebe, belonging to the same, were valued at £60 per annum, and the
tithes worth £60 more.

                                * * * * *

The Rectory House, situated in Church Street, is very plain as regards
its exterior appearance.  The grounds are enclosed by a wall, and there
are carriage entrances to the house.  The interior is commodious, but
scarcely adequate to the requirements of a large establishment in the
present day.



THE BURIAL GROUND, OR CEMETERY.


In the south and north portions of the ground there are a great number of
memorial stones, and a few brick vaults.  That portion, situated at the
north-eastern division, near to Bond Street and Marlborough Square, the
ground of which is raised above the general surface, may be considered
almost as one huge grave, containing a mass of interments.  It was
originally called “The Poor Ground,” on account of its being devoted
exclusively for those who were buried at the expense of the parish.  It
would display much good feeling and sympathy, if some simple but
appropriate record was placed there.  It might be done by subscription,
should there be no funds available for such a purpose.

                                * * * * *

With respect to the numerous inscriptions, it would be impossible, as
already stated, to notice more than a very few of them, and they contain
generally only the name and age of the person interred.  And, after all,
we may say with the poet,

    “The best concerted schemes men lay for fame,
    Die fast away; only themselves die faster.
    The far-famed sculptor and the laurelled bard,
    Those bold insurancers of deathless fame,
    Supply their little feeble aids in vain.”

                                                            BLAIR’S GRAVE.

William Jones, Esq., aged 83, resided in Manor Street, Cheyne Walk.  He
was a good Hebrew and Greek scholar, but it is in the character of a
naturalist that he must be principally regarded, Mr. Jones having painted
from nature about 1,500 species of butterflies in a most masterly manner,
and not only painted but arranged and characterized them in Latin.

Matthew Yatman, Esq., of Lindsey Row, died in 1814; he was a most
accomplished gentleman.

Signor Carlo Rovedino, an Italian, died in this parish Oct. 6, 1822, aged
71; he was well known on the continent and in this country as a bass
singer.

Thomas Raven, a pupil in St. George’s Hospital, died in his sleep in
1826, aged 20.

Dr. John M‘Leod, the companion of Sir Murray Maxwell, and the author of a
voyage in H.M. ship “Alceste,” to the Yellow Sea, and of her shipwreck in
the Straits of Gaspar; he died in the King’s Road in 1820, aged 38.

Thomas Davey, Esq., of the King’s Road, died in 1833; he was a celebrated
florist, and resided opposite Royal Avenue Terrace.  This gentleman
served most of the old parochial offices, and his general good-natured
disposition gained for him the respect of all parties in the parish.

William Tebbs, Esq. died in 1831, aged 59; he was beloved by a large
circle of friends, and esteemed by all who knew him.

                                * * * * *

Most of the old and respected parishioners of Chelsea, who once occupied
a prominent position in it, have passed away from the scenes of this
world, to enjoy, it is hoped, that pure and unalloyed happiness which can
only be realized in that kingdom where there is neither poverty, anxiety,
sorrow, or pain.  Some of them no doubt are interred in this ground, but
it would have displayed partiality to have noticed some and emitted
others.

From an official statement, dated Dec. 22, 1823, shewing the receipts and
disbursements under each head, from the incorporation of the Burial
Ground Trustees, April 10, to September 1823, it appears that the whole
amount of expenditure, during the above period, was £17,243 8s. 6d.  This
amount included £4,713 1s. 0¼d., for enclosing the ground, and £1,135 5s.
7½d., for building the temporary chapel, which was erected at the
northern entrance, for reading the Funeral Service, previously to the
erection of the Church.

                                * * * * *

In concluding the account of St. Luke’s Church, and Burial Ground, I
venture to insert, at the request of some subscribers to this work, the
following lines:—



REMINISCENCES OF ST. LUKE’S CHURCH.


   Whene’er I view that beauteous tower,
   Built with artistic taste and power
      Upon yon sacred sod,
   My heart awakes, with thankful strain,
   For in old age I see again
      That temple of my God.

   Once in that Church I bent the knee,
   And join’d the holy minstrelsy
      That lifts the soul above:—
   The powerful organ swell’d on high,
   And many felt that God was nigh,
      Inspir’d by faith and love.

   I’ve seen there a bride, in rich attire,
   Receive the ring from her loving sire,
      And sign the marriage book:—
   Then when they left the bells were rung,
   And the porch fill’d with old and young,
      To see their happy look.

   I’ve stood beside the baptismal font,
   Where children oft to Christ were brought,
      And th’ cross mark’d o’er their brow:—
   And it was a joyful after-sight
   To see them, in emblematic white,
      Confirm their sponsor’s vow.

   The preacher, by his earnest way,
   Fill’d the Church on the Sabbath day,
      And touch’d their hearts within:—
   He told them of the bleating sheep, {144}
   Of Saul’s deceit, and crime so deep,
      And warn’d them of his sin.

   And there have aged pilgrims stood,
   (Now safely pass’d o’er Jordan’s flood,
      And gain’d blest Canaan’s shore,)
   Each burthen there they seem’d to cast,
   As if each danger they had pass’d,
      And all their toil was o’er.

   And last I’ve seen the funeral train,
   Like mourners on a desert plain,
      Come slowly with their load:—
   I’ve stood beside the silent bier,
   And watch’d the trickling kindred tear
      Fall in death’s drear abode.

   Oh! when I view that sacred tower,
   At morning or at evening hour,
      By pure devotion led,
   I love to meditate awhile—
   I think I see some angels smile
      Above the peaceful dead!

_Chelsea_, 1867.

                                                             GEORGE BRYAN.



PARISH REGISTERS.


We now come to an exceedingly interesting subject, interesting alike,
both to old and young, when we consider the very small population of the
parish three centuries back compared with the present time now numbering
about 70,000.  Many of the early records of Parish Registers, will be
found often written in so quaint a style as to be almost amusing, still
they carry with them solemn thoughts, if rightly regarded, which ought to
produce a salutary effect.  When we read, too, the inscriptions on the
monuments in our cathedrals, old churches, and in our cemeteries, and
find ourselves actually walking over the remains of noblemen, statesmen,
and others—some celebrated for their noble and gallant conduct, or for
hospitality and munificence, and many for their devotion to the study of
theology, literature, the fine arts, &c.—we become, as it were, rivetted
to the sacred spot, and whatever pleasing historical associations may
occur to the mind, they are involuntarily mingled with reflections of a
far more solemn character.

                                * * * * *

The first institution of Parish Registers in England commenced in 1501,
16th of Henry VIII., although the keeping of them was not strictly
enjoined till the injunction of Lord Cromwell, 30th of Henry VIII., but
he being considered as a favourer of innovations in religion, the good
intent of them was much misrepresented, and his order rarely attended to
by the clergy.  A second order of this kind was issued in the second year
of Edward VI., 1547, though perhaps little complied with.  A third order
is found in the statutes of the National Synod, by Cardinal Pole, about
1555, and the last and most successful in the 1st, 7th, and 39th years of
Elizabeth.

                                * * * * *

The first Chelsea Parish Register Book is a small folio, vellum, a great
part of which is beautifully written.  It commences with the year 1559,
and appears to be accurately kept, except that it is imperfect during the
Interregnum; and there are some omissions in the burials between 1564 and
1591, and between 1644 and 1652, the year in which it ends.  In the first
leaf there is this memorandum: “A Booke begun in the House of God for
Regestringe of all Christenings, Marages, and Burialls within the Parishe
of Chelsey, provided for that purpose by J. Tomkins and Thomas Saunders,
Church Wardens, the 19 daye of Feburarie 1559, and new in the time and
yeare of Richard Warde, Parson of Chelsey, 11 March, 1599.”

                                * * * * *

The following are a few selected from the Baptisms, Marriages, and
Burials:—



BAPTISMS.

1559.     William Hitchcock was baptized the 19th day of Februarie.
          (This is the first registered.)
1576.     Gabriel, the son of Thomas Browne, Parson, 3rd April.
1593.     Elizabeth, filia Johis. Stanhope, armi. and Margaritæ
          uxoris ejus, 14th August (afterwards married to Sir Lionel
          Talmash.)
1594.     Margaret Stanley, 17th April.
1595.     Carolus filius Johs. Stanhope, armi. April 27. (afterwards
          second Lord Stanhope.)
1597.     Charles, a boy, by estimacon x or xii yeares old, brought
          by Sir Walter Rawlie from Guiana, Feb. 13.
1599.     William, the sonne of Sir Arthur Gorge, Kt., 31st May.
1600.     Timoleon, sonne of Sir Arthur Gorge, and Lady Elizabeth,
          his wife, baptized primo Octobris.
1612.     Frances, the daughter of Sir Walter Alston, Knight, 26th
          April.
1613.     Fielde, a poor man child, found in the east field of
          Chelsey, 13th October.
1639.     Chelsey, a child born in the west fields, was baptized Feb.
          1.

The remaining baptismal entries, and some of those omitted, include the
sons or daughters of the Earl of Nottingham, Lord Cranfield, Earl of
Lincolne, Sir John Danvers, Sir G. Wentworth, Lord Commissioner
Whitelocke, Charles Cheyne, Esq., Charles Stanley, Esq., Sir Henry
Herbert, Earl of Lindsey, &c.



MARRIAGES.

1559.     W. Harris and Eliz. Buger.  (This is the first marriage
          registered.)
1560.     In this year there were four marriages, and a very few
          afterwards until 1600.
1582.     T. Mansell, esquier, son and heir to Sir Edward Mansell,
          and Mary Mordant, daughter of Lord Mordant, July 30.
1589      Johannes Stanhope, armiger, et Margaritta Mackwilliams,
          alias Cheecke, 6 die Maii.  (He was created a Baron in
          1606.)
1607.     Richard Warde, Parson, and Elizabeth Fisher, Jan. 29.
1648.     Sir John Danvers and Mrs. Grace Hewet, Jan. 6.

            No entry of marriages from 1648 to 1652, when there were
                                     three.
1675.     W. Cheyne, Esq., only son of Charles Cheyne, Lord of this
          Manor, and Mrs. Elizabeth Thomas, both of this parish, Dec.
          16.
1703.     Lord Windsor and Lady Dowager Jeffreys, relict of Judge
          Jeffreys.
1711.     The Hon. Algernon Grevile and the Hon. Mary Somerset,
          grand-daughter to the Duchess Dowager of Beaufort, Dec. 24.
1713.     The Duke of Grafton and Lady Somerset, April 10.

BURIALS.

1565.     None were buried—not a single person died in the parish,
          during this year.
1593.     Thomas Larrance de civitate, London, goldsmith.—John
          Edwards and Thomas Evans, servants, buried both together,
          died of the plague.  Three more died of the plague about
          the same time.
1594.     Alice Griffin, a poore washwoman, buried 2nd Feb.—Ann, a
          poore woman, buried from a stable.
1594.     Gregorie Fynes, Lord Dacre of the South, 25th Sept., whose
          funeralls and burial were kepte the 5th Novemb. at
          Chelsey.—The Lady Anne, wife of Lord Dacre, was buried 15th
          of May, whose funeralls were solemnized at Chelsey, the
          19th June, 1595.
1603.     Catharyne, the Countess of Nottingham, was buried at
          Chelsey the 28th of Feb., and her funeralls were honourably
          kepte at Chelsey, the 28th March.—George, a poore boye, was
          buried 2nd March; he died in the Lordship’s Yarde.
1604.     Thomas Younge, a Yeoman of the Guards, Sept. 29, who hath
          given to the parishes of Chelsey, Willsden, and Kensington,
          xx_s._ apiece yearly for ever to the use of the poore
          there.
1605.     Catherine, wife of Richard Warde, Parson of Chelsey.
1606.     Richard Munden, the Clerk, buried of the plague; also his
          son, Thomas, of the plague. {147}
1608.     Thomas Forrest, a godly preacher, Feb. 7.—Richard Eryth,
          our poore Schoolmaster, March 26.
1609.     William Gulley was buried out of the Erle of Lincolne’s
          stable, 14 Augusti—One William Morgan, a poore man died in
          a straw house, and buried Oct. 1.
1610.     There were six buried of the plague this year.
1613.     Jana, a poore woman, out of the barn, Dec. 25.—A poore
          woman found dead at the Earl of Lincoln’s, and another in
          the Lordship’s barn, buried the same day.
1615.     The Lord of Effingham buried.—Richard Ward, Parson, Sept.
          2.
1620.     Katharin, Countesse of Huntingdon, Aug. 14.  She was
          daughter of John, Duke of Northumberland.
1625.     Sir Arthur Gorges, Oct. 10.—Twenty-two persons died of the
          plague.
1627.     Magdalen Danvers, wife of Sir John Danvers, June 8.
1632.     Sir Robert Stanley, buried Jan. 23.
1636.     Eight died of the plague this year.
1638.     Sir John Lawrence, Knt., Nov. 14.
1643.     Lady Elizabeth Gorges, buried July 29th.—Six died of the
          plague in the parish this year.
1668.     Arthur Gorges, Esq., April 8.
1669.     Lady Jane Cheyne, Nov. 1.
1688.     Sir Joseph Alston, Knight, May 31.
1692.     Thomas Shadwell, Esq., Poet Laureat, Nov. 24.
1694.     Dr. Adam Littleton, rector, July 3.
1698.     Charles, Viscount Cheyne, Lord of the Manor, July 13.
1703.     Dr. Edward Chamberlayne, May 27.
1714.     Sir Thomas Lawrence, Bart., April 25.—Countess Dowager of
          Radnor, sen., July 15.
1731.     Mrs. Mary Astell, May 14; she published an Essay in Defence
          of the Fair Sex, &c., and resided in Chelsea the greatest
          part of her life.
1753.     Sir Hans Sloane, Jan. 18.
1775.     Henry Mossop, January 1st; he made his appearance at Drury
          Lane Theatre in 1752, and was one of the first actors of
          his time; he died in great distress in this parish, but,
          after his death, his brethren paid him every respect; his
          remains were followed by all the theatrical corps at that
          time in London, at the head of whom was Garrick, to Chelsea
          Church.
1799.     Dr. William Kenwick, June 13, the author of several
          dramatic and poetical works.
1780.     Sir John Fielding, September 13; he was half-brother to the
          celebrated Henry Fielding, author of “Tom Jones,” and
          succeeded him to the presidency at Bow Street, which,
          although nearly blind from his youth, he filled with great
          sagacity for many years.
1785.     John Baptist Cipriani, December 21.
1804.     Catherine Ruini Galli, December 30.  This lady died at her
          lodgings in Chelsea, in the 81st year of her age.  She was
          the last surviving scholar of Handel, who composed some of
          his airs for her.  Galli had a mezzo soprano voice, and
          first appeared at the Opera House.
1805.     Dr. Bisset, May 21; he kept an academy in Sloane Street,
          and published several works.
1805.     Henry Sampson Woodfall, Esq., Dec. 11.

   (It would occupy a volume to give even a selection of the Baptisms,
           Marriages, and Burials that have since taken place.)



THE OLD PARISH BOOKS.


The original books, previous to the year 1696, are all lost; and the
parishioners are indebted to the industry of Lord Cheyne for the
preservation of many of these historical fragments.  The following few
extracts from the early dates, taken from amongst many others, are
singular:—

1595.     Of Richard Munden, wch he gained to the Church by the Wheel
          of Fortune, xxix_s._ viii_d._
1697.     Gave a poore man by the College, having just buried his
          wife and left with 3 small children, and in great agony and
          dispair, fearing he would with himself make away, 1s.

          Payd for a truss of straw to put in the Cage, for a poore
          woman to lye on, and gave her two pence, 8d.

          Payd Mr. Tuley for cureing Charles Matthews’s toes of a
          mortification, £2 5s.

          Gave Stacey, for shaving a child’s head, 6d.
1707.     Ordered, in Vestry, that the weekly pensioners shall wear
          badges, according to the Act of Parliament, or else be
          excluded from the said weekly pension.
1782.     Resolved to employ a number of labourers to cut off all the
          little twigs, in order to destroy certain insects which
          appear everywhere in our trees and hedges; and from which
          the most dreadful consequences are apprehended if they are
          suffered to remain.
1795.     Resolved, that a bounty of twenty guineas be offered and
          paid to eight men, agreeably to Act of Parliament, for the
          service of his Majesty’s navy; and, if not sufficient, the
          churchwardens to have power to augment the same.
1796.     Resolved to make a rate of 4d. in the pound to defray the
          necessary expenses of raising eleven men for the service of
          his Majesty’s navy.

As the population increased the records of the parish naturally became
more voluminous, and for many years past the proceedings of the
vestrymen, and also of the Board of Guardians, are kept in the most
admirable manner.  This, it is true, is the effect of the improved state
of society, the passing of the Metropolis Local Management Act, 1855, and
the introduction of better Laws for the relief and maintenance of the
poor.



THE PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS.


These schools are situated at the east side of the Cemetery.  The pointed
style was adopted on account of the contiguity of the building to the
Parish Church.  It consists of a centre, with low wings.  The wings are
occupied by the schools, and the centre as residences intended for the
master and mistress; a large pointed arch connects the two divisions.
The first stone was laid on the 18th of June, 1824, by the Hon. and Rev.
Dr. Wellesley, rector, with the customary formalities, at which there
were present the late Rev. Henry Blunt, and several other clergymen,
besides a vast number of the parishioners, including many ladies.  In
1826 the entire building was finished, and the children were admitted.



CHELSEA WORKHOUSE.


Before the year 1723 there were no workhouses in England.  It was the
custom to relieve the able-bodied at their own dwelling places, and the
aged and infirm were, in many cases, supported by the alms given at the
church.  In 1727, it was “agreed that the churchwardens should be
empowered to take, with all convenient speed, a proper house upon lease,
in the name of the parish, for the use of the poor.”  In 1733 it was
resolved, at a vestry, “That a committee be appointed to find out the
most proper method to procure a workhouse for the poor, and an additional
burial ground.”  The result was that Sir Hans Sloane gave the present
ground for both purposes, and the first erection of the workhouse took
place about 1737.

                                * * * * *

The building, at the early part of this century, contained but few
dwelling rooms, besides those occupied by the master and mistress.  It
had two wings, however, the one to the south-west was built in 1792, and
the south-east wing in 1797.  The whole did not occupy much space.  There
was a garden, tastefully laid out, with a neat box-edging around each
compartment. {150}  An aged inmate was the gardener, and he took great
delight in keeping it in good order.  How altered is now the appearance
of the workhouse!  The pretty garden, where once I plucked a flower, has
long since disappeared, and on its site are erected extensive buildings,
to afford necessary accommodation for the vast increase of inmates.
Since the period to which I first alluded many additions have been made
to the original workhouse, and consequently it was altogether devoid of
uniformity; but as it has been within the last few years almost rebuilt,
under the direction of G. Handford, Esq., architect and surveyor, of the
King’s Road, the defect mentioned is no longer apparent.  Indeed, unless
it had been an entire new erection, no further improvement, as regards
the exterior, could have been made.  The interior is well arranged, both
for comfort and convenience.  There are at the present time upwards of
560 inmates, and the Guardians afford every reasonable indulgence to the
aged and deserving amongst them.  Thomas Symons, Esq., the Chairman of
the Board, is highly esteemed by the parishioners, and they have recently
presented to him a very handsome testimonial of respect.



THE KING’S ROAD CEMETERY.


This cemetery adjoins the workhouse, and the ground was the gift of Sir
Hans Sloane.  It was consecrated in 1736, by Edmund Gibson, Bishop of
London.  In 1790 it was enlarged by a grant from Lord Cadogan.

                                * * * * *

The obelisk, near the centre, was erected to the memory of Andrew Millar,
an eminent bookseller in London, who died in 1768, aged 61 years; he had
little pretensions to learning, but possessed a very nice discrimination
in selecting his literary counsellors.

                                * * * * *

On a flat stone, on the north side, is an inscription in memory of John
Martyn, F.R.S., Professor of Botany at Cambridge, and Eulalia, his wife,
youngest daughter of the Rev. Dr. King, rector.  She died in 1748–9, and
Mr. Martyn in 1768.

                                * * * * *

John Baptist Cipriani, the celebrated artist, and one of the earliest
members of the Royal Academy, was interred in this burial ground.  On the
north side is a tomb to his memory.  Cipriani excelled in delineating the
human figure, and was much employed by the printsellers in making
drawings, which are well known by Bartolozzi’s beautiful engravings from
them; he died in 1785, aged 58.

                                * * * * *

The Rev. Philip Withers, D.D., July 1790.  In 1779 he published proposals
for a splendid edition of the Table of Cebes, with plates and notes,
intended for the benefit of the Sons of the Clergy, but owing to some
misunderstanding with Archbishop Cornwallis, the work never appeared; he
lived in Sloane Square in 1789, and imprudently published several
libellous pamphlets, for which he was convicted.  He was committed to
Newgate for twelve months, fined £50, and died there of a fever.

                                * * * * *

Dr. Sloane Ellesmere, rector, was buried here in 1766; and Lady Rous,
aged 90, widow of Sir W. Rous, Alderman of London, in 1777.

                                * * * * *

Hannah Aston and Anne Aston, two sisters, died in 1806.  These
unfortunate young women were daughters of Mr. Aston, of Robinson’s Lane
(now Flood Street), and had been with a party to Richmond.  On their
return the boat struck on a barge near Putney Bridge, by which accident
they were both drowned, together with Mr. Isaac Van Butchell, son of the
eccentric Dr. Van Butchell.

                                * * * * *

In this ground is the family vault of the Rev. Weeden Butler, whom we
have noticed amongst the residents in Cheyne Walk.

                                * * * * *

Mr. John Fraser, nurseryman, who resided many years in the King’s Road,
close to Sloane Square; he was ardently attached to botanical researches,
and several times explored the wilds of North America; he died in 1811.

                                * * * * *

Mrs. Elizabeth Smith, of the King’s Road, died in 1828, in the 49th year
of her age, after a short but severe illness.

                                * * * * *

There have been but few interments in this burial ground for many years.
When the new St. Luke’s cemetery was completed, in 1812, this ground was
closed, excepting to those who had relatives previously buried in it.
The population of the parish, from the year just mentioned, rapidly
increased, and the burials, about 1832, amounted in the year to upwards
of 600, but many of these belonged to the adjoining parishes, and a large
proportion were children.



The King’s Road:
ITS ORIGIN, EARLY CONDITION, AND PRESENT STATE.


As this road is the central great thoroughfare through Chelsea, some
early particulars respecting it cannot be otherwise than interesting.  It
was originally only a footway through the fields, for the use of the
farmers and gardeners to get access to their lands; but soon after the
restoration of Charles II. it was found a convenient way for his Majesty
to go to Hampton Court Palace, and thus it was, after some discussion
between the Government and the parishioners of Chelsea, converted into a
coach road.  The following extracts from the petition of Sir Hans Sloane,
Bart., Lord of the Manor, and other freeholders, will give a sufficient
detail of its history and origin, and from which it appears that disputes
had arisen concerning the right of way; and after the claims of the
inhabitants had been considered by the Lords Commissioners of his
Majesty’s Treasury, the matter was finally decided in their favour in the
year 1719, the 5th of George I.:—

       TO THE RT. HON. THE LORDS OF HIS MAJESTY’S TREASURY, &c. {153a}

    “That before the restoration of King Charles the Second, and some
    time after, the fields of Chelsea were open fields; and that the
    bridge, called Bloody Bridge, {153b} was only a foot-bridge, with a
    plank or board; and the way leading thence to the lane facing
    Blackland House, {153c} was then only a foot-path of about five feet
    wide, and the lands on each side were plowed and sowed close up to
    the same; and that from the said lane to the town gate was only a
    baulk, or head land, of about ten or twelve feet broad, or
    thereabouts; and the lands on each side of the said head-lands were
    also ploughed up to the edges thereof; and that the said head-land
    was used by the owners and occupiers of the said lands for a way,
    egress and regress, to their lands, with ploughs and other utensils
    of husbandry, and to carry off their crops from their lands, time out
    of mind.  That some time after the restoration, King Charles II.
    built Bloody Bridge, as it now stands; and, as we are informed,
    agreed with the then Lord of the Manor, and others concerned, for the
    said head-land, for his Majesty’s private road, allowing the
    freeholders their ancient way through the same.  Whereupon the king
    made the road with gravel, and the landowners ditched out their lands
    on each side of the same; and the king took upon him the repair of
    the gate at the town end (which before was maintained by the
    parishioners), and as soon as the fields were sown, was hung up and
    shut, and, after harvest, was always open until seed time returned
    again, as many yet alive well remember.  And ever since the
    landholders of the said parish have been in possession of a free way
    and passage to their lands through the said road, (some persons
    having no other way,) and were never denied it during the reigns of
    King Charles the Second, King James, King William, and Queen Anne, as
    we can make appear by sufficient evidence.  Now, whereas, upon his
    present Majesty’s repairing the said road, the present
    Surveyor-General has given orders to shut the gates against the
    landholders of Chelsea, to their great detriment, and, as we
    conceive, to the debarring them of their right.  We humbly beg your
    Lordships will take the matter into your consideration, hear our
    evidence, and grant us such relief as, in your great wisdom, you
    shall think fit.  That the late Duchess Dowager of Beaufort (to whose
    stables and offices there is no other way), about five or six years
    ago, ordered her stewards and servants to cut down a turnpike, which
    Mr. Manly, the Surveyor-General, had set up between the walls at the
    corner, next Church Lane (Street); and they carried the posts away,
    being set up, as she said, upon her ground.”

To this petition was attached the evidence of several of the freeholders,
in confirmation of what was stated in the above petition.  One of these
was given by Mr. Matthew Hutchins, gardener, of the King’s Road.

                                * * * * *

The above petition was referred to Hugh Cholmley, Esq., Surveyor-General,
and William Watkins, Esq., Surveyor of his Majesty’s private roads.  The
reports from these two official gentlemen were evasive and
unsatisfactory, and consequently a second statement was sent to the
Commissioners, in reply to the objections.  This last statement from Sir
Hans Sloane was dated May 6, 1719.

                                * * * * *

On the same day (May 6) the following letter was received:—“My Lords
direct Mr. Watkins to permit the tenants of the lands adjoining to the
King’s Road, through Chelsea, to have free passage through the same, with
their carts and horses, in the manner they have been accustomed to; and
that the ditches which belong to the land, and lately filled up, be
opened again.”

                                * * * * *

The above particulars explain the origin of placing the gates, or bars,
at different parts of the King’s Road, and which many of the parishioners
at the present time well remember.

                                * * * * *

Daring robberies and murders appear to have been very frequent about this
period, especially in the Five Fields, (now Eaton Square, &c.) and along
the whole line of the King’s Private Road.

                                * * * * *

Mr. Timbs, F.S.A., says, “In the King’s Road, near the spot where is now
the Vestry Hall, the Earl of Peterborough was stopped by highwaymen in
what was then a narrow lane; and the robbers, being watched by some
soldiers, who formed a part of the guard at Chelsea College, were fired
at from behind the hedge; one of these highwaymen turned out to be a
student in the Temple, whose father having lost his estate, his son lived
by ‘play, sharping, and a little on the highway,’ the desperate resources
of the day.”

                                * * * * *

In September, 1753, a Mr. Crouch, cook to the Earl of Harrington, was
attacked at night by two men who took his watch and money, and then
stabbed him with a knife and beat him till he died. {155}

                                * * * * *

The following most diabolical and remarkable case of burglary and murder
occurred in the King’s Road in 1771:—

On the site of the King’s Parade (near to Oakley Square) stood an ancient
farm, which was in the occupation of the family of Mrs. Hutchins for many
years.  She was a widow, and some Jews it appeared made inquiries as to
her circumstances, and considering there was a chance of obtaining
valuable booty, determined on robbing the house.  In June, 1771, they
sauntered about the fields till 10 o’clock at night, and then went and
knocked at the door, which was opened by a female servant, when
immediately eight Jews entered the house.  They seized the girl and
treated her with great severity.  Mrs. Hutchins went to her servant’s
assistance, but one of them, Levi Weil, called Dr. Weil, compelled her to
sit in a chair, after which he threw part of her clothes over her head to
prevent her seeing their faces, and threatened to murder her if she made
any resistance.  They then went up stairs to a room, where Joseph Slow
and William Stone, two men servants, were in bed, and in a sound sleep.
Dr. Weil gave Stone a violent blow on the breast, when Slow instantly
started up, on which the others cried out “Shoot him!” and a pistol was
fired, the ball from which entered the body of Slow, who exclaimed, “Lord
have mercy upon me!  I am murdered!  I am murdered!”  They then dragged
him to the stairs, which, being observed by Stone, he made his escape out
of the window.  They then robbed the house, and demanded money of Mrs.
Hutchins, one of them struck her violently, and threatened to kill her.
She was compelled at length to give her watch and 64 guineas, after which
they quitted the house.  Mrs. Hutchins then went to see her servants.
She found the two maid-servants bound together; and no sooner had she
given them their liberty than the wounded man said, “How are you, madam,
for I am dying.”  These words were scarcely uttered, when he fell down on
the floor, and having suffered the most excruciating pain, expired on the
following day, leaving a wife and two children to lament his loss.

                                * * * * *

The robbery and murder was no sooner known than a reward was offered from
the Secretary of State’s office, for the apprehension of the gang.  The
offer was seconded by that of a much larger reward from the City of
London; and also another of £50 from the parishioners of Chelsea.

                                * * * * *

The murderers, however, remained undiscoverd for a considerable time till
Daniel Isaacs, one of the gang, became the means of discovering his
accomplices, in the following manner:—Isaacs, being touched with remorse
of conscience, &c., sent for a friend and acknowledged himself to be one
of the nine men concerned in the robbery and murder at Mrs. Hutchins’s,
at Chelsea.  He desired his friend to inform some magistrate of it; and
having told him the names and places of abode of his accomplices, his
friend went immediately to Sir John Fielding, at Bow Street, who sent the
officers after them, by which means seven of them were taken.  The cause
of this confession and remorse of conduct, on the part of Isaacs, was
distress.  He applied for relief to the elders of the Jewish synagogue,
but the treasurer refused him any immediate assistance, urging as a
reason that he should not have left his native country, Holland, where he
might have obtained probably an honest living.  At that time a great
number of Jews came to this country, and a selection of cases could only
be relieved.  Isaacs, in consequence of the refusal, became greatly
distressed, and, in order to gain the reward, offered by the City of
London, made the above confession.

                                * * * * *

Isaacs was admitted to give evidence against his accomplices, six of whom
were soon apprehended, but the other made his escape.  There appears to
have been some discrepancy as regards the number of the gang, one account
states eight, while another mentions nine.

                                * * * * *

At the Old Bailey Sessions, in December, 1771, Levi Weil, Asher Weil,
Marcus Hartogh, Jacob Lazarus, Solomon Porter, Hyam Lazarus, and Abraham
Linewill, (the man who had absconded) were indicted for the robbery and
murder, when the two of the name of Weil, with Jacob Lazarus and Solomon
Porter, were capitally convicted, and Marcus Hartogh and Hyam Lazarus
were acquitted.

                                * * * * *

Mrs. Hutchins deposed on the trial, that about six weeks before her house
was robbed, Hyam Lazarus came to it, inquiring for one Beetham, a weaver,
when she said she knew no such person; that on the 11th of June, the
night of the robbery she heard the dog bark, about ten o’clock at night,
her men being then gone to bed; that she called to one of her two
maid-servants to see what was the matter with the dog, and shortly after,
hearing a noise, she ran herself to see, and found her maid, Mary
Hodgkin, with her cap off, and some men using her extremely ill; that to
the best of her remembrance, she recollected Levi Weil and Hyam Lazarus
to be among these men; and though her fright was exceedingly great, she
did her endeavour to assist her maid, but that Levi Weil (called the
Doctor,) pushed her into a chair, and pulled her upper petticoat over her
face, which hindered her seeing any of the rest.  Hearing her cook cry
very much, one of them said, “Cut her throat;” another, “If you don’t
hold your tongue, I will cut your throat.”  Then coming to her (Mrs.
Hutchins) they offered to tie her legs, and she begged they would not, as
she would not stir; whereupon they all went to another room, the door of
which being locked, they said they would break it, if not immediately
opened, and returned from it in about five minutes; that then going up
stairs, she shortly after heard somebody cry “fire!” and after much
swearing, heard also a pistol go off, and a man cried out, and begged
they would not; that, endeavouring to get out at the back door, she was
prevented by some men on the outside, who told her if they were not her
friends they would blow her brains out; that then returning to her chair,
she heard a very great noise above stairs, as if they were throwing the
servant down, and a little while after she heard another pistol go off;
that the wounded man, endeavouring to get down, came to her, and said,
“How are you ma’am, for I am a dead man;” on which, turning short, he
fell on the ground; that his shirt was on fire close to the wound just
under the shoulder, which she put out, that he groaned very much, and
complained of being cold; that the people in the house, running from room
to room, came down to her, and Levi Weil, to the best of her knowledge,
took the buckles out of her shoes, and two others attempted to put their
hands into her pockets; she begged they would not, saying she would give
them something worth their acceptance, and accordingly gave them her
purse and watch; that asking where her plate was, she told them, and they
took it out of the cupboard, and gave it to their companions at the back
door.  That going into the parlour, where there was a cupboard, they
broke it open; and she following, told them there was nothing in it worth
having but paper; but that one of them, a short, thick, elderly man,
struck her on the face with a pistol, and would have shot her, had not
the Doctor turned the pistol with his hand.

                                * * * * *

The Recorder prefaced the sentence with a judicious and just compliment
to the principal Jews, for their very laudable conduct in the course of
the prosecution, and hoped no person would stigmatize a whole nation for
the villanies of a few.

                                * * * * *

These men, as was customary formerly in cases of murder, were tried on a
Friday, and on the following day (the Jewish Sabbath) they were
anathematized in the Synagogue.

                                * * * * *

As their execution was to take place on the following Monday, one of the
Rabbies went to them in the press-room of Newgate, and delivered to each
of them a Hebrew book, but declined attending them to the place of death,
nor even prayed with them, at the time of his visit.  Their wives and
children were admitted to take their leave of them before they set out
for Tyburn, where executions took place. {159}

                                * * * * *

An immense number of people attended the execution.  They prayed
together, sung an hymn in the Hebrew language, and soon afterwards were
launched into eternity.

                                * * * * *

The following anecdote, in reference to this daring robbery, was very
frequently related many years ago, and I do not remember that its
veracity was ever questioned.  Soon after the conviction of the Jews, the
Queen paid a visit to Mrs. Hutchins, and, after expressing the deepest
sympathy for her sufferings, desired to be informed whether she could
advance the interests of any member of the family.  A circumstance was
mentioned to her Majesty, which resulted in one of the junior branches
being ultimately educated at one of the Universities.

                                * * * * *

We will now briefly notice the King’s Road, as it was at the earlier part
of the present century.  At the entrance into Chelsea parish, at the
eastern end of Sloane Square, the bridge, to which we have several times
referred, was at that period probably about 14 or 16ft. wide, on both
sides of which there was a wall of sufficient height to protect
passengers from falling into the narrow rivulet which it spanned, and
which belonged to the commissioners of sewers.  There were two little
cottages near to this stream, and immediately contiguous to them was Mr.
Burgess’s premises, who carried on a very good business, as a coach
builder, &c.  The houses around Sloane Square were nearly the same as
they are at the present time, but the square was an open space, simply
enclosed by wooden posts, connected by iron chains, where boys frequently
played at cricket, &c.  Here, too, Queen Charlotte’s Royal Volunteers
often assembled, and marched off in military order to Hyde Park,
accompanied by an excellent band.

In 1812 the Chelsea and Brompton Dispensary was established in Sloane
Square, principally through the great exertions of the Rev. George Clark,
M.A., the then chaplain of the Royal Military Asylum.  At the meeting
convened for that purpose, the late W. Wilberforce, Esq., M.P., presided,
whose name will be ever associated with the abolition of slavery, and as
the advocate of almost every humane society in this country.  This
admirable institution indicates the rapid growth of the population.  The
earliest annual average of patients did not exceed 1200, in 1860 it was
upwards of 6000, and since the last date the number has greatly
increased.  The first physicians were Dr. Ainsley and Dr. Adam Black, and
its first surgeons Robert Smith and Anthony Todd Thomson, Esqrs.

                                * * * * *

Mr. Fraser’s Botanical Grounds adjoined Sloane Square.  He explored
distant parts of the world several times, so ardently attached was he to
botanical researches.  He was patronized by a large number of the
nobility and gentry.  His death took place, in 1811, at his residence.

                                * * * * *

It will be seen shortly that if the King’s Road, in the “Olden Times,”
was almost exclusively occupied by farmers and gardeners, that, for a
number of years afterwards, one of the principal attractions to it was
the many celebrated nursery and floricultural grounds.

                                * * * * *

The high wall at the Royal Military Asylum, which formed the back of the
boys’ lavatory, &c., and which stood more forward than the present
enclosure, had no pathway whatever against it, and the road being at one
part very narrow, it was not only inconvenient but at times dangerous.

                                * * * * *

Mr. Colvill’s Nursery Ground stood on the site of Colvill Terrace, and
the entrance to it was at the eastern corner.  His display of flowers
excited general admiration, and consequently an immense number of the
gentry generally paid him a daily visit during the summer season..  The
grounds, however, were only enclosed with an old wooden fence, and here
again there was no footway for passengers.

                                * * * * *

Mr. Thomas Davey was also a celebrated florist, and his ground was
opposite what was called the White Stiles, now known as the Royal Avenue
to Chelsea College.  The origin of the former name arose from there being
an ornamental stile at the entrances.

                                * * * * *

The grounds of Mr. Colvill were detached from those of Mr. Davey by a
footpath, on both sides of which there were neatly-trimmed hedges, and as
butterflies abound in floricultural gardens, this passage was called
“Butterfly Alley.”  Some houses have since been built on this site, and,
although the road is narrow, it now assumes the name of Keppel Street,
connecting the King’s Road with the Fulham Road.  Opposite the
above-named alley there was a bar placed across the road, to prevent
waggons, &c., from passing unless the driver produced proof that he was
going to some resident in it.  The origin of these bars has just been
fully detailed.

Mr. Pratt, a friend of Mr. Faulkner, wrote the following lines, “Flowers
and Fashion,” in reference to the above two celebrated floricultural
grounds:—

    Where smiling Chelsea spreads the cultur’d lands,
    Sacred to Flora a pavilion stands,
    And yet a second temple neighb’ring near
    Nurses the fragrance of the various year;
    Of Davey this, of Colvill that, the care,
    While both the favour of the goddess share.
    But not for her—the deity of flowers—
    _Alone_ the incense breathes, still higher Powers:—
    Fair Venus marks each temple for her own,
    And FASHION sits upon a blossom’d throne.
    She, pow’r supreme! bids vanquish’d Flora kneel,
    And drags proud Beauty at her chariot wheel.
    The Cyprian Queen asserts her loftier sway,
    And blushing rivals with a smile obey.
    At Fashion’s shrine unnumber’d suppliants bow,
    And to their idol chaunt the sacred vow.
    A thousand Eves, each as their mother fair,
    To these gay Edens every hour repair:
    And though the wreaths boast but a fleeting bloom,
    And often press at eve a twilight tomb,
    Still, as by magic, we behold each morn
    A fresh supply the pillag’d scenes adorn;
    And though the lovely plunderers bear away
    The fairy sweets that open’d with the day;
    Though one fair Paradise is lost each night,
    Another blooms with the returning light.
    Thus, strange to tell! near London you behold
    The age of FASHION, BEAUTY, and of GOLD.

The old White Hart public-house and tea-gardens, situated on the opposite
side of the road to Mr. Davey’s grounds, was a rather ancient-looking
place of resort.  It was well-conducted, and occasionally a great many
persons visited it.  On its site is now a very respectable tavern.

                                * * * * *

Near to this house, a little to the east, about 1818, a poor man was
sitting by the roadside, apparently in the most pitiable state of hunger
and destitution.  A pensioner belonging to Chelsea Hospital, a man of
colour, was passing along at the time with a can of soup and a small loaf
of bread, which he had just previously received as his dinner allowance,
some of the men being allowed to have private lodgings.  The pensioner
gazed for a moment at the wretched object of misery, and then, with a
heart full of sympathy, gave him some of the soup and bread.  Such an act
of benevolence excited the attention of a very young man, who, whenever
he met the kind-hearted black pensioner, always felt a feeling of respect
for him.  Some time afterwards it came to the knowledge of this youth
that the pensioner had been convicted of a certain crime, not now a
capital offence, and sentenced to be executed.  This communication very
much surprised him, but he could not erase from his memory the humane
conduct he had witnessed.  Accordingly, he went to Newgate on the
following day, unknown to his friends, to see the condemned malefactor.
On his arrival at the prison the turnkey at the entrance door refused him
admittance, and told him, in a gruff manner, that he must get an order.
He then went direct to the Sheriff’s residence, and, after some
conversation, obtained a special order for admission.  The turnkey now
became very respectful, and the young man was immediately conducted to
the yard where the condemned prisoners took the benefit of the fresh air.
The aged convict’s appearance was much altered, and during nearly the
whole time of the visit tears rolled down his cheeks.  He was thus
visited several times, and, at length, through a petition presented by
the authorities at Chelsea Hospital, and another from some of the
parishioners, the unhappy black man’s sentence was mitigated to
transportation for life.  At one of the interviews, the culprit asked for
some memorial of the young man’s kindness, having been previously told
that his life would be spared, and a Bible was given to him, with the
name of the youthful donor written in it.  An assurance was given that he
would see him again that week, but when the young man went the poor black
pensioner had been removed from the prison, and he never heard of him
afterwards.  The evidence produced at the trial fully justified the
verdict of being guilty of the charge, but there was gross culpability on
the part of the prosecutrix.

                                * * * * *

A little beyond the old White Hart tea gardens, to the west, on the same
side of the road, was the residence of the elder Mr. Downing.  It stood
in a neatly laid out garden, and resembled very much in appearance one of
those old but comfortable retreats which may still be seen by the
roadside in some parts of the country.  Adjoining the garden was his
extensive Floor Cloth Manufactory (on the site of which is now Wellington
Square).  This spacious building was situated a short distance from the
road, and the approach to it was by a carriage-way on each side, the
centre being a grass plat.  In this manufactory were held most of the
earlier annual meetings of the Chelsea Auxiliary Bible Society, which
were invariably crowded.  Amongst the speakers were the Rev. G. Clark,
M.A., the Rev. John Owen, M.A., the Rev. Joseph Hughes, M.A., the Rev.
John Morison, D.D., the Rev. R. H. Shepherd, the Rev. John Bunce, and
several others.  Mr. Downing, sen., was a gentleman esteemed alike for
his piety and benevolence, and his sons and other branches of the family
have at all times maintained a similar respect.

                                * * * * *

The residence and manufactory which we have just described was pulled
down some years ago, and the present one was then erected.  A deplorable
event occurred, about 38 years since, at Messrs. Downings’ new Floor
Cloth Manufactory, which it is requisite to notice in a work of this
description.  A young man, whose name was Butler, the son of very worthy
parents, and who had borne a tolerably good character previous to the
fatal event we are about to mention, was convicted and executed at
Newgate, for setting fire to a portion of the premises.  The fire broke
out in or near to the stables, and as it occurred on the Sunday morning,
between the hours of twelve and one o’clock, the horses were of course
locked in them.  It was with great difficulty that they were rescued.
The evidence, although principally circumstantial, resulted in the jury
finding a verdict of “Guilty.”  Notwithstanding the most strenuous
efforts to save the life of the young man, he suffered the extreme
penalty of the then law.  A Wesleyan minister, who attended him at his
last moments, published a pamphlet stating his reasons for believing that
he was innocent.  He was interred in St. Luke’s Burial Ground, and the
Church was crowded to excess.

                                * * * * *

On the same side of the road, and opposite Wellington Square, was
formerly the Nursery belonging to Mr. Moore.  A little further westward
was the residence of Mr. Evans, sen., known as Box Farm.  For many years
he lived there, and was much respected in the parish.

                                * * * * *

Smith Street was begun to be built in 1794, by the late Thomas Smith,
Esq., of Manor Terrace, but it was not finally; completed until about
1807.

                                * * * * *

Mr. Little’s Nursery Ground was established many years since, and at the
present time it is celebrated for the production of some of the choicest
plants and flowers.

                                * * * * *

Jubilee Place was first opened in 1809, and named in commemoration of
that event in the annals of the reign of George the Third.

                                * * * * *

Flood Street, it appears, by ancient documents, was originally called
Pound Lane, probably from the pound of the manor standing on or near its
site.  It was known for some years by the name of Robinson’s Lane, and
since the buildings were continued to the King’s Road, it was, by an
order from the magistrates, called Queen Street.  It has recently been
altered to Flood Street, so named as a tribute to the memory of Luke
Thomas Flood, Esq., for his munificent annual gifts to the poor of this
parish, and by doing which many mistakes are now obviated, as there was
and is still Queen’s Road West adjoining Cheyne Walk.

                                * * * * *

Upper Manor Street was originally called Wellesley Street, in honour of
the Rev. Dr. Wellesley, the then rector of the parish.  A murder was
committed in this street about forty years since, which created great
excitement throughout Chelsea.  An elderly female resided in one of the
houses, and she was found dead early one morning under circumstances
which left no doubt whatever that the dreadful crime just mentioned had
been perpetrated.  Two men were apprehended, who lived in the
neighbourhood, and who had been seen standing near the house at about 12
o’clock the preceding night, but beyond that fact no further evidence was
adduced.  It appeared they were both at a public house that evening, and
left when it was closed, but they produced no witnesses to prove that
they went afterwards direct to their homes.  The evidence in support of
the charge being insufficient, the magistrate discharged them.  One of
them was a second time charged with the murder, but the result was the
same.  The name of the street was then altered.

                                * * * * *

Robert Street, and the adjacent streets, have all been built in the
course of the present century.

                                * * * * *

Mr. Roll’s Nursery Grounds were situated two or three doors from that old
established house, the “Six Bells,” and joined Argyll House.  His son
carried on the business for many years, and the family were greatly
respected.

                                * * * * *

Edward James Mascall, Esq., a gentleman who occasionally took a very
active part in parochial affairs, resided in what is now called Argyll
House for many years.

                                * * * * *

The entrance to Cook’s Grounds, from the King’s Road, was anciently a
back way to the stable-yard of Alston House, in Cheyne Walk.  Some years
ago the stone frame-work of the gate was visible in a garden in Upper
Cheyne Row.  Formerly the parishioners had only the privilege of a
footway through the glebe land from the King’s Road, as appears from the
following extract from the Vestry Minutes:—

                                * * * * *

“1755.  Sept. 18.  Whereas the road leading from the north end of Great
Cheyne Row over the glebe land to the King’s Private Road, is the proper
right of Mr. John Narbonne, of this parish, and whereas the inhabitants
of this parish do frequently pass and repass that way, not only with
corpse to the New Burying Ground, but to the Workhouse contiguous, as
well as to other places; and as the privilege is only upon sufferance, by
consent, and during the pleasure of Mr. Narbonne, therefore we
unanimously agree to pay him and his heirs, as long as this privilege
shall continue, upon the 1st day of May in every year, being from the day
the Burying Ground was consecrated, the sum of one shilling, which we
order shall be paid by the churchwardens for the time being.”  There have
been no material alterations made from its recent state during my
remembrance; but Cook’s Grounds will soon be no longer recognised as it
was in 1868, as many very superior houses are now being erected, which
will be presently noticed.

                                * * * * *

Mr. Pamplin, another celebrated nurseryman, resided at the western corner
of Cook’s Grounds.  The old dwelling-house has just been pulled down.

                                * * * * *

The King’s Parade, opposite Cook’s Grounds, was erected in 1810.  It is
no longer known as the “Parade”—principally so called on account of the
stone-pavement, which was considered then a luxury to walk on at that
part of the road—but is now included under the general appellation of the
King’s Road.

                                * * * * *

Mr. Edward Wright, comedian, of the Adelphi Theatre, lived at Merton
Villa, Trafalgar Square, opposite Cook’s Grounds, for some time.  He died
in France some few years ago.

                                * * * * *

On the site of Oakley Square there still remained a portion of Mrs.
Hutchins’s market garden.  The road at this spot was very narrow, and no
pathway for passengers on that side.  Here, again, there was an
obstructive bar placed across the road.

                                * * * * *

Mr. Faulkner mentions a singular circumstance that occurred just at this
place.  He says, “About the year 1796, I was present at a stag-hunt in
Chelsea.  The animal swam across the river from Battersea, and made for
Lord Cremorne’s grounds; and upon being driven from thence ran along the
water-side as far as the Church, and turning up Church Lane (street), at
last took refuge in Mrs. Hutchins’s barn, where he was taken alive.”

                                * * * * *

A little on the west of Oakley Square, in a spacious house, Mrs. Kelly,
the author of several novels, conducted a most respectable school.  It
was subsequently taken for the reception of invalid soldiers, who came to
pass the Board at Chelsea Hospital, previous to their discharge from the
army.  This house, long since pulled down, was said to have been built
about the year 1715.

                                * * * * *

Adjoining the preceding house, and at the corner of Upper Church Street,
was the “Rose and Crown,” a small road-side public-house, standing much
below the level of the road, and, from its appearance, had evidently been
built at an early period.  At the entrance was a wooden bench, on which
many a weary traveller took rest.  On the site of this house is now the
Cadogan Arms.

                                * * * * *

Passing Church Street, and proceeding westward, the road was extremely
narrow.  At the south corner of Church Street there was an additional
house to what there is at the present time, and the old residence on the
opposite side, lately pulled down, projected several feet forward on the
road, without any pathway for foot-passengers.  There is now a capital
carriage-road and a good pavement, with some commanding shops at the
northern corner.

                                * * * * *

Adjoining, on the north side of the King’s Road, are the extensive
premises of Messrs. Ransome and Co., the eminent saw-mill engineers, &c.

                                * * * * *

On the opposite side were the Nursery Grounds belonging to Mr. Shepard,
the main portion of which now forms Paultons Square, and the remainder,
formerly in the occupation of Mr. H. Larner, has recently been purchased
by Mr. Gray, the horticultural builder, in addition to his extensive
works in Danvers Street.  He is making very considerable alterations,
and, when completed, it will no doubt be an ornament to this fashionably
frequented road.

                                * * * * *

The late Mr. Alfred Mellon, so celebrated for his concerts, and musical
entertainments, lived for a considerable time in what is known as “The
Vale,” which is situated on the opposite side to Paultons Square, where
he died some two or three years since.  He was buried in the Brompton
Cemetery, and his funeral was attended by a great many of his private
friends, and by a large number of the most eminent men in the musical and
theatrical world, by all of whom he was highly respected.

                                * * * * *

Mr. John Varley, the celebrated water colour painter, and principal
founder of the old Society now in Pall Mall East, whose works are well
known to the world, lived at 10, Beaufort Row, now Beaufort Street, about
the year 1810.  His town house was in Conduit Street, Regent Street.
During the time he resided here he made a very excellent drawing of the
Old Church, from near the Bishop of Winchester’s Palace, in Cheyne Walk,
the property of J. H. Chance, Esq., which was lent and exhibited at the
Great Exhibition of 1862.  Many other beautiful sketches of Chelsea were
made by Mr. Varley from the shores, as well as from one of Mr.
Bettsworth’s boats, which was always at his service.  Some of the family
have long been and are now residents in Chelsea and Brompton.  Mr. John
Varley was born in 1778, and died in 1842.

                                * * * * *

When Mr. Varley left Chelsea, Mr. Dorrell, the artist, took the house,
and afterwards Mr. J. Stark, the well-known oil painter of woodland
scenes, occupied it.  Two prettily painted pieces, although small, are
now to be seen at the South Kensington Museum.  Mr. Stark was born in
1794, and died in 1859.

                                * * * * *

Wilson Lowry, F.R.S., M.G.S., lived near to Battersea Bridge, about the
year 1809.  He was known not only for his eminence as an engraver, but
also for his extensive knowledge of anatomy, natural philosophy,
mathematics, mineralogy, and geology, added to an extraordinary talent
for metaphysical discussion, which placed him on terms of intimacy with
the first philosophers and most scientific men of his day, and in the
year 1812, unsolicited, was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, next
to Sir Joshua Reynolds, the only artist who was honoured by such a
conferment.  He died in 1824, in his 63rd year.  Mr. Lowry’s only
daughter by his second wife was Mr. John Varley’s second wife.

                                * * * * *

Mr. John Galt, the author of “Sir Archibald Wylie,” and the “Ayrshire
Legatees,” lived in Beaufort Row about 1809.

                                * * * * *

Mr. Ralph Wedgwood, (of the firm of Josiah Wedgwood and Co.,) the
celebrated manufacturers of the Queen’s Ware, died at Chelsea in 1837.

                                * * * * *

Mr. Bentley, one of Mr. Wedgwood’s partners, superintended a branch
establishment at Chelsea, about 1770, for finishing and painting the best
pieces.

                                * * * * *

Mr. Paul Bedford, the popular comedian, late of the Adelphi and Haymarket
Theatres, resides in Lindsey Place.  He is much respected in private
life, and as an actor few have obtained greater celebrity.

                                * * * * *

Returning to the King’s Road, and proceeding from Beaufort Street, we
arrive at “the Man in the Moon” tavern.  There are many conjectures
respecting the origin of the sign of this house, but nothing certain has
been elucidated.  As a celebrated neighbouring tavern was called the
“World’s End,” perhaps the original proprietor thought he would give his
house an equally singular sign.

                                * * * * *

We have already noticed the Clock House, Lord and Lady Cremorne’s Villa
(now known as Cremorne Gardens), Ashburnham House, Stanley House, St.
Mark’s College, &c.; but there are one or two others to which we will now
briefly allude.  The first of these is Messrs. Christie’s Flour Mills,
established a great many years ago.  The premises are situated at the
western extremity of the parish, and close to the Chelsea Railway
Station.  Mr. Ormson, horticultural builder, resides at Dudmaston House,
which is opposite the entrance to St. Mark’s College.

                                * * * * *

The King’s Road, at the commencement of this century, was by no means a
place for general business.  There were here and there, it is true,
tradesmen who succeeded very well, but, generally speaking, the line of
road was almost exclusively occupied by nurserymen and florists, and thus
it became a fashionable resort for the nobility and gentry.  The road, in
most parts, was very narrow, and the different grounds were mostly
enclosed by wooden palings.  There was nothing like a good pathway for
passengers, excepting at certain places.  At night there were only a few
gloomy oil-lamps, and the lives and property of the inhabitants were
principally entrusted to a small number of private watchmen.  When
disturbances or robberies in the streets occurred in the daytime, the
tradesmen-constables of the parish had the onerous and sometimes the
dangerous duty to quell them, and take into custody the offenders or
perpetrators.  It need scarcely be added that when sent for, on such
occasions, the constables were frequently—“_Not at home_!”

                                * * * * *

Let us now take a glance at the present state of the King’s Road, and a
few more of the vast improvements which have been made in it.  But,
before doing so, we will give some particulars descriptive of a novel
enterprise which is attracting a large share of public attention at the
present time.

                                * * * * *

THE CHELSEA STEAM CAPTIVE BALLOON.—This monster aerial balloon ascends
daily, weather permitting, from a part of the grounds known as the
Ashburnham estate, a little beyond Cremorne Gardens.  The balloon itself
is 93 feet in diameter, and has a cubical capacity for gas of 421,161 ft.
It is capable of taking up into the air no less than 30 passengers, and
is attached to one strong rope, 2000 ft. long, which passes round a
balance wheel, and thence to a large cylinder worked by an engine of 200
horse power.  These appliances are all fitted in a kind of amphitheatre,
from the centre of which the ascents take place.  The supposed altitude
to which the rope allows ascent is 2000 feet, but as a rule the height is
generally less.  The cost of the balloon alone is stated to be £24,000,
and the value of the gas required (pure hydrogen) £600.  It is composed
of linen and India rubber, made of five thicknesses, and is the property
of a French gentleman well known for his attachment to scientific
experiments.

                                * * * * *

On the opposite side of the road, and adjoining St. Mark’s College, is
Mr. Veitch’s Royal Exotic Nursery.  These grounds for a great many years
belonged to Mr. Knight, who possessed a most choice collection of Cape
plants, &c., and who was patronized by nearly all the nobility and gentry
in this country.  Mr. Veitch has fully sustained the celebrity acquired
by his predecessor.

                                * * * * *

A little further eastward is Mr. W. Bull’s Nursery, and on the opposite
side is the Ashburnham Park Nursery, belonging to Mr. J. W. Wimsett.
Both of them are distinguished cultivators of rare and valuable plants.

                                * * * * *

Near to Cremorne Gardens, on the opposite side of the road, is the
extensive Show Establishment belonging to John Weeks and Co.,
Horticultural Builders and Hot-Water Apparatus Manufacturers, Engineers,
and Iron Founders.  The Horticultural Building and Engineering department
is carried on near to Messrs. Downing’s Floor Cloth Manufactory, in the
King’s Road.

                                * * * * *

Proceeding on, eastward, we arrive once more at Cook’s Grounds, which
was, as previously stated, a private way originally to the stabling of
Sir Joseph Alston’s House, in Cheyne Walk.  The old house, for so many
years occupied by Mr. Pamplin, the nurseryman, on the western entrance in
the King’s Road, has recently been pulled down, and two commanding shops
erected on the site, by Mr. Leete, the builder, of Little Cadogan Place.
They contain thirteen rooms each, built with white bricks and
compo-dressings, with enrichments and cornices.  On the right-hand side
of Cook’s Grounds, from the King’s Road, about 30 superior-looking
private dwelling houses are now being built, each of which will contain
eight rooms.  These are also built with white bricks, and will have what
is termed “cant” windows.  The road opposite them is intended to be 50
ft. wide, and there will be a good pavement.  When this great improvement
is finally completed, and carried forward to Cheyne Walk, which no doubt
is the intention, this new street will then scarcely be surpassed by
Oakley Street.  In Trafalgar Square, likewise, there are a number of very
superior dwelling-houses now in course of erection, and, when the entire
square is finished, there will be an excellent road from Cheyne Walk to
the South Kensington Museum.



THE VESTRY HALL.


This building is situated on the south side of the King’s Road, and is
nearly opposite Robert Street.  The foundation stone was laid on the 12th
of December, 1859.  The arrangements for the accommodation of the public
were under the superintendence of W. W. Pocock, Esq., the architect, and
notwithstanding it was a very inclement day, there were at least a
thousand persons present.

                                * * * * *

In a bottle were deposited a suitable inscription on vellum, a list of
the parish officers for the year, one copy of each of the three Annual
Reports of the Vestry, a copy of the “Metropolis Local Management Act,”
with its Amendments, and of the “Nuisances Removal Act,” and one of each
of the Coins of the present Reign.  The band of the Royal Military Asylum
attended, and played several popular airs, which added greatly to enliven
the proceedings.

                                * * * * *

The following particulars are extracted from the “MORNING ADVERTISER,”
Tuesday, December 13th, 1859, and which were inserted in the Fourth
Annual Report of the Vestry, 1860.

                                * * * * *

The foundation stone was laid by Viscount Chelsea in due form, in the
presence of Robert Hanbury, Esq., and the Hon. G. Byng, the Members for
Middlesex, W. Tite, Esq., M.P., the Rev. C. Kingsley, the Rector of the
Parish, the Members of the Vestry, and a large number of the influential
inhabitants of the parish.

                                * * * * *

The building is in the Italian style, with stone facings.  The length is
about 140 ft., and between 60 and 70 feet in breadth.  The great hall is
64ft. in length, and 40 ft. wide, and accommodates upwards of 1000
persons.  The board room is about 45 ft. by 30.

                                * * * * *

The time appointed for the ceremonial was two o’clock in the afternoon,
and at half-past one o’clock the gentlemen invited to take part in the
day’s proceedings assembled in the Vestry-Room of St. Luke’s Church, and
proceeded from thence to the site of the proposed building, headed by the
juvenile band of the Royal Military Asylum, playing national and other
appropriate airs.  The procession, on arriving at the spot, was received
with loud cheers by a large number of the inhabitants who were admitted
within the grounds.

                                * * * * *

Mr. Tite, M.P., opened the business of the day in an appropriate speech,
in the course of which he alluded to the kind gift of the freehold site
by Earl Cadogan, the money for the erection of the building having been
voted by the Vestry.  The new hall, he said, when built, would not only
be useful as regarded parochial purposes, but it would be an ornament to
that locality.  He was not disposed to introduce politics into a matter
so purely parochial, but he could not help saying that, in the event of
Chelsea obtaining a right to send representatives to Parliament—to which
it is fully entitled on account of the number, respectability, and
intelligence of its inhabitants—they could meet in their new hall, and
there canvass and consider the claims of the candidates who presented
themselves for their suffrages.

                                * * * * *

Mr. Hanbury and Mr. Byng then severally addressed the numerous assemblage
in suitable speeches.

                                * * * * *

Mr. Charles Lahee, the respected Vestry Clerk, then read the following
document, which was afterwards deposited in the bottle previously
referred to:—“This building, the foundation stone of which was laid by
the Right Hon. Lord Viscount Chelsea, on the 12th day of our Lord one
thousand eight hundred and fifty nine, is intended for the transaction of
the parochial and municipal business of Chelsea, which contains at the
present time a population, by estimation, of seventy thousand persons.
It is built by the Vestry constituted by an Act for the better Local
Management of the Metropolis (18th & 19th Victoria, cap. 120) upon
freehold land presented them by the Lord of the Manor, and his heirs,
from the designs of Mr. Willmer Pocock, architect, by Thomas Piper and
Sons, builders.  Contract sum £5630.  Lord of the Manor, George, 3rd Earl
of Cadogan.”  To which was attached the names of the Rector,
Churchwardens, Vestrymen, &c., &c.

                                * * * * *

The Rev. Richard Burgess, of Trinity Church, Sloane Street, then offered
an appropriate prayer, after which,

Mr. W. Rabbits, one of the vestrymen, presented a silver trowel to
Viscount Chelsea, to be used in laying the first stone, and to be kept by
his lordship as a token of the respect of the parishioners for him.

                                * * * * *

Viscount Chelsea having expressed his acknowledgments for the compliment
paid him,

Mr. Pocock, the architect, then placed the bottle containing the
documents, &c., in the cavity of the under stone, which was covered with
mortar.  The other portion of the stone was then let down, and Viscount
Chelsea having gone through the usual “masonic” operations in a
workmanlike manner, his lordship declared the Vestry Hall to be in due
course of erection amidst the loud cheers of all present.

                                * * * * *

The erection of the entire building was completed in 1860, and, occupying
such a central position, it adds materially to the respectability of the
King’s Road.  It is an attractive structure, and its architectural design
reflects great credit on Mr. Pocock.  The estimate laid before the Vestry
Finance Committee on the 21st of February, 1861, by Mr. Charles Lahee,
the Vestry Clerk, of the total probable cost of the Vestry Hall
buildings, including the fittings and furniture, was altogether £12,059
16s. 2d.

                                * * * * *

A portion of the building is occupied by the Chelsea Literary and
Scientific Institution, for the use of which a rental is paid.  T. L.
Bull, Esq., was the original founder, and to his indefatigable efforts,
for a considerable time, may be attributed the advantages that have been
derived from it.  It appears, however, that the receipts of this useful
and admirable institution are unfortunately just now insufficient to meet
the necessary expenditure, but it is gratifying to record that at a late
influential meeting, held at the Vestry Hall, to consider the “present
position and future prospects of the Institution,” and at which Lord
George Hamilton, M.P., presided, it was unanimously resolved to extricate
it from temporary difficulties.

                                * * * * *

Mr. Charles Lahee, who has been Vestry Clerk for many years, has a
private dwelling-house at the Vestry Hall.  The offices are on the ground
floor, and the large hall is at the rear of the building.  The spacious
room above the offices, and which fronts the road, is where the vestrymen
weekly assemble, adjoining it are committee rooms, &c.  The whole
interior is well-arranged and admirably adapted for the requirements of
the parish, which has now become one of the most populous and important
in the metropolis.

                                * * * * *

In Flood Street, near to the King’s Road, is a small Chapel belonging to
the Primitive Methodists.

                                * * * * *

METHODIST NEW CONNEXION CHAPEL.—This Chapel, which is situated in Radnor
Street, King’s Road, was originally attached to the Commercial Tavern.
After some time had elapsed it was converted into a place for Divine
Worship, having undergone material alterations and made a distinct
building.  The Rev. Clifford Hooper was the Pastor, and the Congregation
rapidly increasing they ultimately erected the Congregational Church in
Markham Square.  When that structure was completed, Radnor Street Chapel
was purchased by the Methodist New Connexion Society, and to that body of
the Christian church it still belongs.  There is a very excellent Sabbath
School, and the members and friends have expended, at different times,
considerable sums in making it both commodious and comfortable.

                                * * * * *

The Savings’ Bank is situated on the north side of the King’s Road.  It
was established in the year 1819.  The benefits derived by the labouring
classes, and others of limited means, by the establishment of such banks,
are now so well known and appreciated that it would be needless to
enumerate them.  The Chelsea Savings’ Bank is one of the most secure and
best conducted in London.



CHELSEA CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH,
MARKHAM SQUARE.


The foundation stone of this Chapel was laid on Tuesday, October 5th,
1858, and the building was opened for public worship on April 3rd, 1860,
the Honourable and Rev. Baptist Noel, M.A., preaching at noon, and the
Rev. Newman Hall, LL.B., in the evening.  The Rev. Clifford Hooper was
the first Pastor.  He resigned the pastorate on account of failing health
on the 3rd of June, 1863, and died on March 6th, 1864.  The Rev. R.
Brindley, of Bath, then accepted the pastorate, commencing his ministry
on November 22nd, 1863, and on October 19th, 1865, was suddenly and
unexpectedly called to his rest, in the very prime of life and in the
midst of his labours.  The Rev. Andrew Mearns, of Great Marlow, was then
invited to become Pastor, and commenced his ministry, at Chelsea, on
September 16th, 1866, where his pulpit ministrations and pastoral labours
have been greatly blessed.

                                * * * * *

The Chapel stands in a very prominent position, covering a large piece of
ground at the north end of Markham Square, forming a very conspicuous and
beautiful object from the King’s Road.

                                * * * * *

The form of the building is slightly cruciform, having transepts
projecting about five feet from the body of the Chapel.  The prominent
feature of the exterior is a tower and spire, rising from the west side
of the southern transept to the height of 138 feet.

                                * * * * *

The proportions are well-conceived, and the effect good.  The dimensions
in the clear, are, length 85 ft. 2 in.; length, including apse, 93 ft. 6
in.; width 41 ft. 3 in.; width across transept 51 ft. 3 in.; height from
floor of chapel to ridge of open roof, 49 ft.; height from floor to roof,
on the wall line, 22 ft.; and the height of school rooms 13 ft.

                                * * * * *

The style of the building is in the second period of the Gothic.  The
exterior is entirely of stone; the interior, will accommodate on the
ground and gallery floors, 1,150 adults, besides an additional gallery in
the apse for the organ and choir.

                                * * * * *

The ground floor is raised about four feet above the footway, and beneath
are lofty and spacious schoolrooms for about 850 children, with requisite
offices.  The building was erected from a design by John Tarring, Esq.,
of Bucklersbury, and Messrs. Myers, of Lambeth, were the contractors who
undertook the erection.

                                * * * * *

The Sabbath School is well attended, and the labours of the teachers and
superintendent very successful.  Above 380 children are registered as
scholars, and, on Feb. 28, the actual attendance was 256 in the morning
and 356 in the afternoon, taught by 33 teachers.

                                * * * * *

The various institutions and agencies connected with this Church are
likewise flourishing under the oversight of the Pastor, who, we trust,
may be long spared to a beloved and loving people.



WHITELANDS TRAINING INSTITUTION.


The old house now attached to these extensive premises was for many years
a boarding school, conducted by the Misses Babington.  Previous to that
period it had no doubt been a scholastic establishment for young ladies,
as I find that a discourse was delivered here, about 1772, by the Rev.
John Jenkins, A.M., on Female Education and Christian Fortitude under
Affliction.

                                * * * * *

In the year 1842 the house and grounds were taken on a long lease by the
National Society, and in 1850 a public meeting was held in London to
raise funds for the erection of the present buildings.

                                * * * * *

The Institution provides for the education, maintenance, and training of
more than 100 young women, between the ages of 18 and 25, who purpose to
become teachers of National Schools; and, secondly, for the daily
instruction of children of the neighbourhood, in four schools.

                                * * * * *

In one of these schools the charge of 10s. per quarter is made.  It is
attended by children whose parents would not wish to send them to the
National Schools.

                                * * * * *

The vast improvements which are everywhere conspicuous throughout the
length of the King’s Road, as regards that portion of it which is within
the boundaries of Chelsea, are far more numerous than in any other road
in the metropolis.  At the eastern and western extremities of the parish,
there are Railway Stations, then there are the steamboats, besides these
there are the omnibuses traversing the road every quarter of an hour.
What a contrast does the King’s Road now present when compared with what
it was at the commencement of this century!

                                * * * * *

I now return to the bank of the Thames, passing through Flood Street,
proceeding eastward along Queen’s Road West, (formerly called Paradise
Row,) the residence of many of the Nobility and Gentry in the “Olden
Times.”



Queen’s Road West.


In the year 1664, Mr. James Hamilton, probably by order of the Lord of
the Manor, made a survey of this parish.  It was further continued, till
the year 1715, by the Rev. Dr. King, the rector, to whose labours this
work is much indebted.

                                * * * * *

From Hamilton’s survey, it appears that the Earl of Radnor resided in
Paradise Row, {177} adjoining Robinson’s Lane.  He entertained his
Majesty King Charles II. most sumptuously on the 4th of September, 1660,
at this house.  When the above survey was taken, his relict, Lady Radnor,
was in possession of the premises.  There are in the Parish Register
several entries of baptisms and deaths of this family.  Lord Radnor died
at this house July 17, 1685, and Lady Radnor, his second wife, who
survived him, resided at Chelsea till her death in 1714.  His son,
Francis, by his second wife, who was a gentleman of general learning and
good abilities, was buried at Chelsea.

                                * * * * *

At the north end of George Place, Queen’s Road West, formerly stood an
old white house, called “Queen Elizabeth’s Larder,” which was pulled down
to erect the present houses.



THE BOTANIC GARDEN.


On the south side of Queen’s Road West, near to the river, is situated
the garden belonging to the Company of Apothecaries.  The earliest record
that we possess of a Botanical Garden in England, was that of the
celebrated John Gerarde, the father of English botany.  The next in order
of time was that of the elder Tradescant, who, about 1630, established a
garden for the cultivation of exotic plants at South Lambeth; this
collection was presented, in 1667, to the University of Oxford.  The next
garden in succession is this at Chelsea.

                                * * * * *

Of these premises, containing three acres, one rood, the first lease was
taken by the Company in the year 1673, for the term of 61 years, at a
ground rent of £5 per annum.  Mr. Evelyn thus mentions a visit he paid
it:—“1685, August 7th, I went to see Mr. Watts, keeper of the
Apothecaries’ garden of simples at Chelsea, where there is a collection
of innumerable rarities of that sort particularly; besides many rare
annuals, the true-bearing Jesuits’ Bark, which had done such wonders in
quartan agues.  What was very ingenious was the subterranean heat,
conveyed by a stove under the conservatory, all vaulted with bricks, so
as he has the doors and windows open in the hardest frosts, secluding all
the snow.”  Mr. Watts was succeeded by Mr. Doody, who enjoyed
considerable eminence as a botanist, and he continued to superintend it
till 1717, when the celebrated Petiver was appointed, who had officiated
as demonstrator of plants since 1709.  He accumulated so large a
collection of natural history, that, some time before his death, Sir Hans
Sloane is said to have offered him £4000 for it.  After his death, Sir
Hans Sloane purchased it, and it went eventually to the British Museum.

                                * * * * *

Sir Hans Sloane granted the freehold of these premises, in 1722, upon
conditions that the Company should pay a quit rent of £5 per annum for
ever, and employ the same as a Physic Garden; that the Company should
deliver to the Royal Society fifty specimens, the growth of the garden,
till the number should amount to three thousand.

                                * * * * *

It was here that Sir Hans Sloane first studied his favourite science; and
he continued a friend to this establishment, continually enriching it
with scarce and curious plants, besides contributing largely towards the
building, &c.  As a tribute of gratitude the Company of Apothecaries
employed the celebrated Rysbrach on a marble statue of their benefactor,
which stands in the middle of the garden.  He is represented in a
Doctor’s gown, with a full-bottomed peruke, and a roll in his right hand.
It displays much dignity, and conveys a most pleasing impression of the
learned person whom it represents.  On the north side of the pedestal is
the following inscription:—“In honour and perpetuation of the memory of
Sir Hans Sloane, Bart., an eminent physician, and great encourager of the
science of botany, this statue was erected by the Company of Apothecaries
of London, 1733.”  On the west side, “They being sensible how necessary
that branch of science is to the faithful discharging the duty of their
profession, with grateful hearts and general consent, ordered this statue
to be erected in the year of our Lord 1733, that their successors and
posterity may never forget their common benefactor.  Placed here in the
year 1737.”  There is another inscription, similar in purport, on the
south side of the pedestal.

                                * * * * *

The garden is laid out in divisions, in which the plants, shrubs, and
trees, are arranged systematically.  On the south side of the garden,
facing the Thames, formerly stood two large cedars of Lebanon.  Lysons
says, that Sir Joseph Banks made an accurate admeasurement of these
trees, in 1793, and found the girth of the larger to be twelve feet
eleven inches and a half, that of the smaller twelve feet and half an
inch.  Upon being measured again, in 1809, they had increased twelve
inches in girth since 1793.  There is now only one of these trees.

                                * * * * *

Mr. Philip Miller resided many years in the house at the garden, and
rendered himself particularly distinguished by his botanical works.  He
succeeded to the office of curator of this establishment in 1722, and
resigned a little before his decease, which took place in 1771.  He was
buried in Chelsea churchyard, where a monument has been since erected to
his memory by the Fellows of the Linnean and Horticultural Societies of
London.  He was succeeded in the management of the garden by his pupil,
Mr. Forsyth, who, in 1784, was appointed chief superintendent of the
Royal Gardens at Kensington, which he held till his death in 1804.  Mr.
Anderson was subsequently curator, and Mr. Wheeler demonstrator.

                                * * * * *

Having thus endeavoured to give a brief sketch of the rise and progress
of this establishment, it only remains to mention a few particulars in
reference to its present condition.

                                * * * * *

Within the last twenty-five years the garden has been in a great measure
remodelled, and in consequence has become better adapted to the purpose
for which it is maintained, namely, the instruction of medical students.
Several of the old hot-houses and greenhouses have been removed, and new
ones erected in their place; new arrangements of medicinal plants have
been formed; and groups representing the natural orders of plants have
been brought together to facilitate their study.  Formerly two cedars of
Lebanon, some of the first planted in England, were conspicuous objects
from the river, but in 1853 one of these, which had become much decayed,
was blown down, the other still remains, but is gradually decaying, being
not only injuriously affected by the smoke of London, but like all the
other large trees in the garden, more or less damaged by the deprivation
of water caused by the construction of the deep sewer in the Queen’s
Road.  A fine specimen of a rare tree, the Salisburia adiantifolia, the
Ginkgo of Japan, with leaves resembling those of the Maidenhair Fern in
form, may be seen towering above the wall in the Queen’s Road.  The
alterations in this garden were commenced in 1846 by Mr. Robt. Fortune,
the Chinese traveller, who was succeeded, in 1848, by Mr. Thomas Moore,
the present Curator.

                                * * * * *

Near to the Botanic Garden, in front of the river, stood a capital
mansion, erected in the reign of Queen Anne, which was for many years
inhabited by Mrs. Banks, the mother of Sir Joseph Banks.



CHRIST CHURCH.


This Church was consecrated on the 26th of June, 1839.  It stands on a
piece of ground for many years previously a market garden, and is
situated in Paradise Street, Queen’s Road West.  The exterior is
particularly plain, and would admit of great improvements were there
funds available for such a purpose.  The interior will probably seat
about 1000 persons.  On the opposite side of the street there are
neatly-designed schoolrooms, in which the children belonging to the
National, Infant, and Sunday Schools assemble for instruction.  Each of
these schools is very well attended.  The residents in a great portion of
the immediate locality are poor, and consequently the most strenuous
efforts are necessary to raise sufficient funds to meet the expenditure.

                                * * * * *

The Rev. W. H. Howard, M.A., was the first Incumbent of the Church, and
was much esteemed.  He was a kind-hearted clergyman, and made every
effort in his power to promote the spiritual and temporal welfare of the
numerous poor in his district.  He resigned in 1845.

                                * * * * *

The Rev. W. W. Robinson, M.A., was, as is well known, most zealous in his
exertions to accomplish the same great object.  He was likewise a most
strenuous supporter and advocate of Total Abstinence Societies from all
intoxicating liquors.

                                * * * * *

The Rev. G. S. Whitlock, M.A., succeeded Mr. Robinson.  He displays an
untiring zeal in the discharge of his sacred duties, and there are
gratifying testimonies to prove that his ministerial labours have been
blessed.  Under his energetic administration of affairs a large amount of
voluntary subscriptions have been collected, and many important
improvements in the interior of the Church have been effected, and should
he be spared to the District, no doubt the exterior will soon likewise
have a more imposing appearance.

                                * * * * *

GOUGH HOUSE was erected at the commencement of the last century by John,
third Earl of Carberry.  He died in his coach, as he was returning from
London to this house in 1713, and was interred in Westminster Abbey.
After his death the house and premises were in possession of the Gough
family, several of whom resided here.  Sir Richard Gough was a merchant
in London; he died in 1727.  Sir Henry Gough took the name of Calthorpe,
in compliance with the will of his uncle, Sir Henry Calthorpe, K.B., and
was created a peer, in 1796, by the title of Baron Calthorpe.

                                * * * * *

The house was at length occupied by Mrs. Pemberton, who conducted an
establishment for the education of young ladies for many years.  The Rev.
Richard Wilson, D.D., subsequently resided in it for a considerable
period.  At the present time the approach to this old mansion presents a
melancholy contrast to what it was in former days.

                                * * * * *

Gough House is now the Victoria Hospital for Sick Children, established
in 1866.  The frontage is otherwise occupied, and consequently the
originally attractive appearance is entirely destroyed.  The youthful
patients come from all parts of the metropolis, and several from the
country.  The objects of the institution are as follow:—

1.  The treatment, as in-patients, of children between the ages of two
and twelve years.

2.  The treatment, as out-patients, of children under sixteen years of
age.

3.  The training of nurses for children.

The Rev. A. G. W. Blunt, M.A., Rector of Chelsea, takes a deep interest
in promoting this much-needed and admirable institution.  The committee
are now earnestly making an appeal for contributions to create a Building
Fund, and when it is known that there is not in all the metropolis a
single hospital BUILT for the special reception of children, it is to be
hoped that such a noble charity will receive the liberal assistance of
all benevolent persons.

                                * * * * *

Edward Montague, first Earl of Sandwich, resided in this neighbourhood in
1663.  Mr. Pepys, in his Diary, has recorded a visit he paid to that
nobleman.  “March 28, 1663.  To Chelsea, where we found my lord all
alone, with one joint of meat at dinner, and mightily extolling the
manner of his retirement, and the goodness of his diet; the mistress of
the house hath all things most excellently dressed; amongst other things
her cakes admirable, and so good, that my lord’s words were, they were
fit to present to Lady Castlemaine . . . ”

                                * * * * *

Archbishop Sharpe resided here about 1691; he preached the sermon at the
coronation of Queen Anne.  Mackay says, “He is one of the greatest
ornaments of the Church of England, of great piety and learning, a black
man, and 55 years old.”

                                * * * * *

Charles, Duke of St. Albans, natural son of Charles II. by Eleanor Gwynn,
had a house here about 1692.

                                * * * * *

Fitton Gerrard, the last Earl of Macclesfield of that family, died at his
house in Chelsea, in 1702.  A law-suit was commenced about the right of
succession to his property, between Lord Mohun and the Duke of Hamilton,
who had married his niece.  A duel was fought between the competitors in
Hyde Park, which proved fatal to both parties.  The Duchess lived in
Chelsea till 1714.

                                * * * * *

Henry, Duke of Kent, had a house in Queen’s Road West, about 1715.  On
his Grace’s death, in 1740, the Dukedom of Kent became extinct.

                                * * * * *

The beautiful Duchess of Mazarin resided in Queen’s Road West, and died
there in 1699, aged 52.  Her dramatic routs and musical entertainments
were celebrated for their magnificence.  The singers were from the
theatres, and the instrumental performers the most eminent masters of the
time.  It is said that the design of introducing the Italian Opera into
England was first concerted in this assembly.  Lysons was told that it
was usual for the nobility and others who dined at her house to leave
money under their plates to pay for their entertainment.  She appears to
have been in arrears for the parish rates during the whole time of her
residence at Chelsea.

                                * * * * *

Mrs. Mary Astell resided here the greater part of her life, which was
spent in writing for the advancement of learning, religion, and virtue.
“The good Christian,” she would say, “only hath reason to be cheerful in
this world.”  She died at her house in 1731, in her 63rd year, beloved by
all who knew her, and greatly esteemed by the inhabitants.

                                * * * * *

Dr. Richard Mead, it appears by the parish books, resided here about
1714; he was an eminent physician.  Matthew Mead, his father, was a
celebrated Nonconformist divine.  Dr. Mead had a house also in Great
Ormond Street, which became a repository for all that was curious in
nature and art.  He built a gallery for his pictures and antiquities,
which, when sold, produced as follows:—

   57  days’ sale of books            £5,518     10     11
    3  ditto pictures                  3,417     11      0
   14  ditto prints and drawings       1,908     14      6
    8  ditto coins and medals          1,977     17      0
    5  ditto antiquities               3,246     15      6

The world was deprived of this distinguished physician in 1754.  To the
poor he gave money as well as advice.

                                * * * * *

Sir Francis Windham had a house in Queen’s Road West, about 1700.  He
entertained Charles II. at Trent, after the battle of Worcester, where
the king remained concealed for several days.

                                * * * * *

The Rev. James Miller was born in 1703.  He wrote the oratorio of “Joseph
and his Brethren,” and translated and adapted to the English stage, the
“Mahomet” of Voltaire, which met with great applause; but on the third
night of its representation, being for his own benefit, he died suddenly
at his house at Chelsea, in 1743.

                                * * * * *

Dr. Alexander Blackwell, a physician, resided in a house near the Botanic
Garden; he became involved in his circumstances, and was taken to prison
for debt.  Mrs. Blackwell possessed by nature a fine genius for drawing
and painting, and being told that a Herbal was wanted, she drew from the
life several of the physical plants.  These were shewn to several eminent
men, who being pleased with the undertaking she proceeded with the work,
and at length procured her husband’s liberty.  She not only made the
drawings, but engraved them on copper plates, and coloured them.  This
celebrated work was completed in 1739.  Mr. Rand, who had the care of the
Botanic Garden, rendered her every assistance in his power.
Unfortunately Dr. Blackwell left Chelsea and went to Sweden, where he was
appointed physician to the king.  Sometime afterwards, however, he was
found guilty of high treason “in plotting to overturn the constitution of
the kingdom, and sentenced to be broken alive on the wheel.” {184}  It is
further said that “he prayed with great devotion; but, having laid his
head wrong, he remarked jocosely that, being his first experiment, no
wonder he should want a little instruction.”  Such jocularity, at such an
awful moment, does not accord with earnest prayer.

                                * * * * *

The Rev. Thomas Stackhouse, a learned and pious divine, resided in
Queen’s Road West, about the year 1750; he was the author of “The History
of the Bible,” &c.

                                * * * * *

Mr. John Collett, the painter, resided here for a long period.  The
favourite subjects of his pencil were pieces of humour, somewhat in
imitation of Hogarth.  Collett died here in 1780.

                                * * * * *

Mr. John Giles Eccardt had a house here for some years, and died in 1779;
he was a painter of some eminence.  The portrait of Gay, the poet, in
Lord Orford’s works, now almost extant, is from a painting by Eccardt.

                                * * * * *

Mr. W. Hamilton, a pleasing artist, resided also here for several years;
his most capital work was “The Queen of Sheba entertained at a banquet by
Solomon.”

                                * * * * *

Mr. Samuel Cotes lived in Queen’s Road West, where he died in 1818.  He
painted miniatures both in enamel and water colours, and was in great
practice.

                                * * * * *

Mary, Duchess of Ormond, resided in a large house, near Chelsea Hospital,
in 1730.  She was a daughter of the Duke of Beaufort, and the second wife
of James, Duke of Ormond.  This house was for many years afterwards
occupied as a school.  It enjoyed a distinguished reputation for maritime
education.  The novelty of having a ship built on the play-ground,
completely rigged, with sails bent, and of capacity sufficient to admit
of twenty-four of the young gentlemen going aloft at one time, attracted
general notice.  This ship moved round on swivels, which enabled her to
represent the evolutions of wearing or tacking.  She was under the care
of an old naval lieutenant, and was named “The Cumberland.”

                                * * * * *

Sir Robert Walpole had a house and garden “next the College.”  He built
here an octagon summer-house and a large greenhouse, the latter filled
with fine exotics by Lady Walpole; he had also a curious grotto.  Nell
Gwynn is said to have lived in this house when it was Crown property.  It
was taken down about 1808.  On the site of this house is now a spacious
infirmary for the sick and aged pensioners of Chelsea Hospital.

                                * * * * *

SCHOOL OF DISCIPLINE.—This is the oldest Reformatory for young girls in
London.  It was opened by Mrs. Elizabeth Fry, who, with some Christian
friends, brought six other children from Newgate to a small house at
Chelsea, in 1825.  Since that time a larger house has been taken in
Queen’s Road West, near to Chelsea Hospital, and the number of children
increased.  They are daily instructed in the love and fear of God,
carefully trained in all useful branches of household work, needlework,
and the usual subjects of elementary secular education.  The number of
children now boarded, clothed, and educated in the school is 42.  It is a
“Certified Industrial School,” for the purpose of receiving, by
magistrates warrants, girls who are either found begging, homeless, or
frequent the company of thieves, &c.  Twenty-one of such, in 1869, were
under detention.  They are paid for by the Home Office, the parents,
where possible, contributing to their maintenance.  The others are such
as need restraint and discipline, and the parents are required to pay
sums varying from 6d. to 5s., according to their means.  It is conducted
by a Ladies’ Committee, Mrs. Cromwell, the lady of the Principal of St.
Mark’s College, kindly discharging the duties of honorary secretary.

                                * * * * *

Mr. Thomas Faulkner, to whom this work is so greatly indebted, lived at
the corner house, opposite the grounds of Chelsea Hospital.  He was one
of the principal booksellers in the parish, and possessed great literary
attainments.  As a local historian none have excelled him, and in private
life no parishioner was more respected.  He was interred in the Brompton
Cemetery, where there is the following inscription to his memory:—“Thomas
Faulkner, the historian of Chelsea, and an inhabitant of that parish 60
years.  Born 1777, died 1855.  Lector si monumentum requiris libros ejus
diligenter evolve.”

                                * * * * *

Mr. Richard Suett, who acquired considerable repute as a low comedian,
died at his lodgings here in 1805, aged 47.  He made his first appearance
at Drury Lane in the character of Ralph, in the Maid of the Mill.  He was
buried on the north side of St. Paul’s Cathedral, where he had been
educated as one of the choir; his disposition was amiable, and the needy
always shared his mite.

                                * * * * *

DURHAM HOUSE.—It appears that a large house was standing on this spot in
1694, it was then called the Ship House, and is said traditionally to
have been a tavern, and frequented by the workmen whilst the Royal
Hospital was building.  The present structure, which was built in the
beginning of the last century, has been distinguished for a great number
of years as an eminent school.  It is at present in the occupation of the
Rev. John Wilson, D.D., of Holy Trinity Church, Knightsbridge.

                                * * * * *

Durham Place was built in 1790, by Mr. Richardson, who was for many years
steward to the Lord of the Manor; he resided in the detached house
adjoining, on the north, which had extensive grounds, and was called by
him Manor House.

                                * * * * *

Green’s Row, a little eastward, was built in 1765.  It was for many years
the property of a Mr. Green, an extensive brewer.  In one of these houses
Henry Blunt, Esq., father of the late Rev. H. Blunt, resided for a
considerable period.  Mr. Blunt, sen., was universally respected in the
parish.  He held a commission in Queen Charlotte’s Chelsea Royal
Volunteers.

                                * * * * *

In Rayner Place resided Philip Burrard, Esq., for many years.  He served
the office of churchwarden of the parish, &c., and was a captain in the
old Chelsea Volunteers.

                                * * * * *

Mr. Robert Farrier, a celebrated artist and portrait painter, has resided
in Hemus Terrace for some years.  He is a very old inhabitant, and much
respected.



Chelsea Royal Hospital.


On the site of this noble establishment—the home of our military
veterans—was originally a college or place of education for controversial
divines.  It was projected by Dr. Sutcliffe, Dean of Exeter, in the reign
of James I.  The king was one of its best patrons, and supported it by
various grants and benefactions; he himself laid the first stone of the
edifice, in 1609; gave timber requisite for the building, and ordered
that when erected it should be called “King James’s College at Chelsey.”
Thus fortified, Dean Sutcliffe experienced no difficulty in obtaining
from Charles, Earl of Nottingham, an advantageous lease of a plot of land
which the latter held under the Crown, and which was called “Thame Shot,”
for which he paid the yearly rent of seven pounds ten shillings.  A
charter of incorporation was granted, which limited the number of its
members to a provost and nineteen fellows, of whom seventeen were to be
in holy orders, the other two might be laymen.  Their employment was to
consist in noticing and recording the principal historical and religious
events which might occur during the time they remained in office; but
none of the members, on being elected bishops, could be permitted to
retain their fellowships; by this charter, also, the college was enabled
to use a corporate seal.  The building, however, progressed but slowly.
The Dean’s funds became exhausted; the proceeds of the king’s letter
proved small.  Out of two quadrangles which it was contemplated to erect,
and of which the lesser was to be internally surrounded by a piazza, only
a portion of one side was completed.  Still the number of those who took
an interest in the matter daily increased, and were far from despairing.
“The work we confess,” says Darley, “hitherto proceeded slowly; and no
marvel, seeing great works are not easily achieved.  Noah’s Ark, God’s
Tabernacle and Temple, &c., were long in building; and do we wonder that
this college is not finished?”

                                * * * * *

Several causes contributed to render the king’s appeal through the medium
of the bishops of slight avail.  In the first place, the expenses
attending the collection of briefs were then inordinate.  The money,
after it had been gathered, passed through many hands, each of which took
care to attach a portion to itself; while the efforts made about the same
time to push forward the building of St. Paul’s Cathedral stood very much
in the way of the completion of King James’s College. {188}  With James
I. died the only conscientious supporter, excepting the founder, and a
few churchmen; the death of Sutcliffe was a deadly blight upon the
prospects of his infant college.  It was afterwards converted into a
place for prisoners of war; and, with the manor, of which the Parliament
took forcible possession, was ultimately put up to sale.  Darley says,
“It became a cage of unclean beasts, a stable for horses; and not only a
place to make leaden guns in, but desired also for a palcestra to manage
great horses and to practise horsemanship.”  A print of the original
design of this college was prefixed to a small book, called “The Glory of
Chelsey College,” by John Darley, B.D., Rector of Northill, Cornwall.
1662.  Archbishop Laud called it sneeringly “Controversy College.”

                                * * * * *

In 1667, Charles II. resolved on granting this college to the Royal
Society, which was about that time incorporated.  And as a grant of the
manor of Chelsea had been made to the Duke of Hamilton by Charles I., the
heirs of that nobleman now conveyed it to Andrew Cole, in trust, for that
learned body.  The Society, however, did not hold their sittings in it,
probably from its dilapidated state; they ultimately conveyed it, in
1681, to Sir Stephen Fox, for the king’s use, in order to build Chelsea
Hospital, for the sum of £1,300.

                                * * * * *

I will now give a description of the establishment of Chelsea Hospital.
The building, as it now stands, was begun by Charles II., continued
during the short reign of his successor, and completed by William and
Mary.

                                * * * * *

It has been just stated that the site of King James’s College was
purchased of the Royal Society for the purpose of erecting this Hospital;
but not being found sufficient, the lands lying between the College and
the river Thames, and that in front of the present Hospital, now called
Burton’s Court, were also purchased of Lord Cheyne and Sir Thomas
Grosvenor, for about the sum of £1100.  About twenty-two acres of this
land, lying on the eastern side, were, in 1690, granted by the Crown to
the Earl of Ranelagh.

                                * * * * *

There are several pleasing legends told as to the origin of Chelsea
Hospital.  The following is one of them:—The King was sitting in his
chariot, with poor Nell Gwynne, when observing her unusually pensive, he
asked:

    “What ails thee, Nell?”

    She replied: “A dream I had last night, troubleth me sore.”

    “What _was_ thy dream, Nell?”

    “Methought I was in the fields at Chelsea, and slowly and
    majestically there rose before mine eyes, a beautiful palace of a
    thousand chambers; and in and out thereat walked divers many old and
    worn-out soldier-men.  Some had lost a leg, some an arm, others were
    blind of an eye, many bore piteous scars of old wounds in the wars,
    upon their wrinkled faces, and all of them were aged, and past
    service.  But none of them looked ill-at-ease, and as they went out,
    and as they came in, the old men cried, ‘God bless King Charles!’ and
    I awoke, and was sore discomfitted, that it was only a dream!”

    “Cheer up, Nelly,” said the King.  “Thy dream shall be fulfilled,
    mayhap, thou shalt yet see old soldiers come in, and go out, crying,
    ‘God bless King Charles!’  The monarch did violence to his infirmity,
    and kept his word.”

No appeal seems to have been made to the public at large, as was the case
with King James’s College; but while the voluntary contributions of the
charitable were received with gratitude, the troops were, to a certain
extent, burdened with the expenses of the asylum from which they were
themselves to derive the sole benefit.  From the pay given to these, a
deduction was made of one shilling in the pound; which, being divided
into three equal parts, was one to defray the expenses of the Paymaster’s
office, one to the general use of the soldiers, and one to the
accumulation of a fund, first, for the building, and ultimately for the
maintenance of the hospital.  By giving to this a retrospective effect,
so as to include the whole of the year 1680, and strengthened by
donations of £1,300 from Sir Stephen Fox, of £1,000 from Tobias Rustas,
Esq., of £1,000 from Sancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury, and of nearly
£7,000 from the Secret Service Fund, the projectors of the establishment
had at their disposal a sum of £17,012 14s. 7d. with which they
determined to make a beginning.

The edifice was consequently begun in the year 1682, but was not
completed till 1690.  King Charles II., attended by a great number of the
principal nobility and gentry, laid the first stone of this magnificent
structure on the 16th of February, 1682.  The whole expense of the
building is computed to have amounted to £150,000.

                                * * * * *

Sir Christopher Wren, to whose genius and abilities we owe the grandest
edifices of which our metropolis can boast, gave the original design, and
conducted the building to its completion.

                                * * * * *

Chelsea Hospital is generally considered to be a fine specimen of Sir
Christopher Wren’s professional abilities.  It possesses a superior air
of grandeur, more spacious arrangement of the principal parts, greater
attention to the central points, for grace and effect, and a higher
degree of chastity maintained in the whole structure than any public
design entered into by Sir Christopher Wren, or his immediate successors.

                                * * * * *

At the grand entrance, from the King’s Road, are four detached stone
piers, with breaks, with an entablature, on which are military trophies.
These piers, by their disposure, give three passes; the iron gates much
modernised; dwarf walls, having cornices in succession, containing small
door-ways.  Two lodges, right and left, carry on the line, containing
four compartments, or blank windows each.

                                * * * * *

The central approach, from the King’s Road to the north general front of
the Hospital, including the Royal Avenue, has a very imposing effect,
with trees on either side.

                                * * * * *

It would be impossible to give in this work an architectural description
of Chelsea Hospital, or of its arrangements.  It is within the reach of
every inhabitant of London, and now as our country friends have the
benefit of frequent railway excursions, almost every person in the
country, may at any time give this home of England’s worn out and gallant
defenders a personal inspection.  Still it is necessary that a general
sketch of the building and grounds should be given.  I have therefore
extracted most of the following particulars from Mr. Gleig’s admirable
work.

                                * * * * *

Chelsea Hospital occupies, with the buildings, courts, gardens, and
offices attached, an area of something more than 54 square acres.  Its
principal courts, or quadrangles, are three in number; of which the
central alone existed in 1690, though the good taste of a modern
architect has provided that no discordance in style should be anywhere
perceptible between the nucleus and the additions which have, from to
time, gathered round it.  Over the whole, there hangs an air of sobered
and collegiate repose, as far removed from gloom on the one hand, as from
garishness on the other; a character every way suitable to the purposes
to which the edifice has been set apart, and in strict accordance with
the habits and condition of its inmates.

                                * * * * *

The central court, which is open towards the south, and separated from
what are called the water-gardens only by an iron railing, is closed in
on the east and west by two ranges of buildings 365ft. in length by 40 in
width; on the north and south by the hall and chapel, divided one from
the other by a handsome cupola and gateway.  In these long buildings, or
wings, to the extent at least of 200ft. the old soldiers are chiefly
housed—that is to say, such of them as are rated in the hospital books as
privates, corporals, and sergeants.  Sixteen wards or barracks arranged
each into 26 bed places, furnish the men with adequate accommodation;
while the sergeants occupy cabins, closed in, one at each extremity of
the ward, in which it is their duty to preserve order.  For the captains
and light-horse distinct lodgings are provided.  At the southern
extremity of each wing, so as to project into the water-gardens, are the
apartments of the Governor and the Lieutenant-Governor, both comfortable
dwellings, altogether free from ostentation, yet well fitted for the uses
of the distinguished officers to whom the honour of presiding over the
first of England’s military establishments may be assigned.

    “Go with old Thames, view Chelsea’s glorious pile,
    And ask the shatter’d hero whence his smiles;
    Go view the splendid domes of Greenwich—go,
    And own what raptures from reflection flow.”—ROGERS.

The Chapel and Hall present, when examined from without, a perfect
uniformity of appearance.  Each has its plain brick front, indented with
tall arched windows; and each appears to lean upon the noble stone
pillars that flank the central gateway; while along that face that looks
in upon the square, is a piazza, or covered gallery.  Beneath are
benches, on which the old men may occasionally be seen smoking their
pipes in the heat of a summer’s day; while from either end branches off a
passage, opening out a communication with the lesser or flanking
quadrangles.  Moreover, the cornice of this piazza bears a neat
inscription, indicative of the purpose which the hospital is meant to
serve, and partly commemorative of the names of the sovereigns to whom
the country stands indebted for so noble an institution.

                                * * * * *

The Hall is 110 ft. in length, and 30 in width; an oblong of the best
proportions, in length, width, and height, befitting the purposes of the
Royal Institution.  Wainscotting with compartments rise to the sills of
the windows, and is continued to the high pace.  At the entrance end,
compartments also, with a gallery supported by ornamented cantalivers; on
the centre of the gallery a large ornamental shield with the Royal Arms
of Charles II. most exquisitely carved.

                                * * * * *

Over the gallery is a large allegorical picture, painted by Ward,
representing Field Marshal the Duke of Wellington, in a triumphal car,
trampling upon the emblems of War, Anarchy, and Rebellion, whilst Victory
is crowning him, and Peace and her attendant deities are following in her
train.  It was purposely painted for the Hospital, and a present from the
British Institution.  Concerts, in honour of Queen Anne’s coronation,
were performed in the great Hall of the Hospital, in the year 1702, under
the direction of Mr. Abel, singing master.

                                * * * * *

There is a statue of Charles II. in the centre of the square, cast in
bronze, in the garb of a Roman warrior, and facing the north.  It is said
to be the production of Gibbons; but as a mere work of art, it cannot be
very highly commended.

                                * * * * *

With respect to the lesser or flanking squares, they are given up
entirely to the lodgings of the officers of the establishment, to public
offices, including clerks’ chambers, board-room, &c., and, as has just
been stated, to the accommodation of a certain number of captains and
light-horsemen.  In both, the buildings are lower and less solid than
those which surround the principal square.  But the general character is
the same throughout.  Brick walls, inlaid with a profusion of square
windows, all of them deep seated, and carefully touched in the mouldings;
free-stone finishings to each angle, gateways flanked by free-stone
pillars, and a roof universally high, and covered with grey shining
slate, point to a period when, in the arrangement of such edifices, every
approach to a classic model was in this country carefully eschewed.

Let us return to a further description of the Hall, and also notice some
events which have taken place in it.

                                * * * * *

Over the high table, and occupying the whole length of the western face,
is another painting, which was designed and begun by Verrio, though
finished by Henry Cook, representing Charles II. on horseback, surrounded
by groups of heathen gods, with a distant view of Chelsea Hospital in the
background.  This painting was the gift of one of the Earls of Ranelagh.
Flags and trophies, taken in battle, are suspended round the hall.  These
occupy, in a double row, the spaces that intervene between the windows,
while in front of the music gallery, elevated above a bundle of spear
handles, waves the Union jack.  In the hall are double rows of tables,
generally covered, as if all the inhabitants of the pile took here their
meals; but the practice of dining together has long since died out.
Among the officers it ceased in 1796; among the men some years
previously.

                                * * * * *

TRIAL OF GENERAL WHITELOCKE.—On Thursday, Jan. 30, 1808, this hall was
prepared for the trial of this officer.  The charges against him were in
substance four, viz.:—

1.  Having, contrary to the tenor of instructions, in the summons to
Buenos Ayres, required that the civil officers and magistrates should be
prisoners.

2.  Exposing the army, in marching against Buenos Ayres, to a destructive
discharge of musketry from the town.

3.  Not being present personally on the advance against Buenos Ayres.

4.  Surrendering the Fortress of Monte Video without necessity.

The Court, after having proceeded with the trial for several days,
allowed the General a week for his defence; and on the 24th of March, the
Secretary to H.R.H. the Commander-in-Chief communicated officially to
General Whitelocke the sentence of the Court Martial, as approved by his
Majesty, as follows:—“That the said Lieutenant-General Whitelocke be
cashiered, and declared totally unfit and unworthy to serve his Majesty
in any military capacity whatever.”

                                * * * * *

There have been two or three Courts of Inquiry, &c., convened at
subsequent periods, but they created nothing like the interest that was
shewn at the time of the above trial.

                                * * * * *

The remains of the late Duke of Wellington were laid in great state in
this hall for several days in September, 1852.  Thousands of persons from
all parts of the country, as well as many distinguished foreigners, came
to witness the splendid but mournful spectacle.  Such exhibitions,
however, seem rather to belong to past ages than to the present period.

                                * * * * *

From the Hall to the Chapel the visitor passes across a noble vestibule
lighted from above by a cupola, and which, besides serving as a
communication to both apartments, constitutes the principal entrance into
the Hospital itself.  Over the altar is a fresco painting, which
represents the Resurrection of our Saviour, sublimely described in the
28th chapter of St. Matthew’s Gospel.  It is the production of Sebastian
Ricci.  The chapel bears the same proportions as the dining hall.  It was
consecrated by Dr. Compton, Bishop of London, on the 13th of October,
1691.  The service of plate, for the use of the altar, was given by King
James II.

                                * * * * *

The first organ was the gift of Major Ingram; but, in 1817, a new one was
placed in the original case, built by Gray, at the expense of four
hundred guineas.  It contained at that time 704 pipes with 12 pedal
pipes.

                                * * * * *

In the chapel are deposited the standards of Tippoo Saib, the whole of
the eagles, thirteen in number, that were taken during the war with
France, &c.  Both the chapel and hall must be visited to be fully
appreciated, and this remark equally applies to the different wards, the
water-garden, and indeed every part of this noble establishment.

                                * * * * *

Chelsea Hospital is, of course, designed to furnish an asylum for those
members of the regular army alone, whom wounds, sickness, or old age, may
have totally disabled.  Its inmates are therefore, in some way or other,
invalids, that is to say, men affected by some infirmity, which, though
not visible to the eye of the common spectator, is by the patient himself
abundantly felt.  For the reception of those who require admission into
it, a spacious Infirmary has been erected, where the aged patients
receive the best medical treatment and every requisite comfort.

                                * * * * *

Amongst the chaplains during this century may be mentioned the Rev. W.
Haggitt, M.A., the Rev. Richard Yates, D.D., the Rev. G. R. Gleig, M.A.,
and the Rev. G. Matthias, M.A., who at the present time holds the
appointment.



THE HOSPITAL BURIAL GROUND, &c.


On the east side of the Hospital, adjoining Queen’s Road East, originally
called Jews’ Row, is the cemetery, formerly used for the interment of the
officers and pensioners belonging to the establishment.  Near the
entrance, on the right, is the tomb of Simon Box, the first pensioner
there buried in 1692.

                                * * * * *

There is a very droll epitaph in this burial ground, to the memory of
William Hiseland, which states that “when an hundred years old he took
unto him a wife.”  It appears he had served in the army 80 years.  He was
born in 1620, and died in 1732, so that at his decease he was 112 years
old.  A literary gentleman, referring to the above marriage, exclaimed,
“Oh, the centenarian wooer and antidiluvian bridegroom—of what chronology
was his bride?  Let us hope she was as silly at one end of the mortal
story, as he was in his second childhood, at the other!”

                                * * * * *

In this ground was buried General Sir William Fawcett, K.B., Governor of
the Hospital, who died in 1804, aged 76.  His remains were attended to
the grave by the Prince of Wales, the Dukes of York, Clarence, Kent, and
Cambridge, and by several noblemen and general officers.

                                * * * * *

Although Dr. Monsey was not buried here, yet, as he died in the Hospital,
we must not omit to notice so remarkable a character.  Sir Robert Walpole
assiduously cultivated his acquaintance, and the celebrated Earl of
Chesterfield acknowledged with gratitude the benefits he had derived from
his medical assistance.

                                * * * * *

The character of Dr. Monsey, in point of natural humour, is thought to
have borne a near resemblance to that of Dean Swift.  His classical
abilities were indeed enviable, and his memory wonderfully retentive;
insomuch that he was allowed to be a storehouse of anecdote.  The
exuberance of his wit, which, like the web of life, was of a mingled
yarn, often rendered his conversation exceedingly entertaining, sometimes
rather offensive, and at other times pointedly pathetic and instructive.
Sir Robert Walpole knew and valued the worth of his “Norfolk Doctor,” as
he called him; but though he knew it, he neglected it.  The Prime
Minister was very fond of billiards, at which his friend very much
excelled him.  “How happens it,” said Sir Robert, in a social hour, “that
nobody will beat me at billiards, or contradict me, but Dr. Monsey?”
“They get places,” said the Doctor, “I get a dinner and praise.”

                                * * * * *

The following anecdote is very characteristic of the Doctor’s turn of
temper, and is said to be well attested.  He lived so long in his office
as physician to Chelsea Hospital, that, during many changes of
Administration, the reversion of his place had been successively promised
to several medical friends of the Paymaster-General of the Forces.
Looking out of his window one day, and observing a gentleman below,
examining the hospital and gardens, who he knew had secured the reversion
of his place, the Doctor came down stairs, and going out to him, accosted
him thus:—“Well, sir, I see you are examining your house and garden, that
ARE TO BE, and I will assure you they are both very pleasant and very
convenient.  But I must tell you one circumstance—you are the fifth man
that has had the reversion of the place, and I have buried them all.  And
what is more,” continued he, looking very scientifically at him, “there
is something in your face that tells me I shall bury you too!”  The event
justified the prediction, for the gentleman died some years after; and,
what is still more extraordinary, at the time of the Doctor’s death there
was not a person who seems to have even solicited the promise of a
reversion.  He died in 1788, aged 94.

                                * * * * *

On a table monument is an inscription to the memory of John Wilson, Esq.,
Deputy Treasurer of Chelsea Hospital, and Lieutenant-Colonel of the Royal
Volunteers.  He died of apoplexy in 1812, aged 56.  The monument was
erected by the officers of his regiment, as a token of their esteem.

                                * * * * *

Benjamin Moseley, M.D., thirty years physician to the hospital, was
buried here in 1819, aged 73.

                                * * * * *

General Sir David Dundas, Governor of Chelsea Hospital, was buried here
in 1820.  His funeral was attended by the Duke of York, accompanied by
his Staff.

                                * * * * *

BURIAL OF A FEMALE DRAGOON.—Christiana Davis died at Chelsea in 1739.
For several years she served as a dragoon, undiscovered, in the Royal
Irish Enniskillen Regiment; but receiving a wound in her body she was
then discovered, though her comrades had not the least suspicion of her
being a woman.  She behaved with great valour afterwards in Flanders, and
was very useful in a battle to supply the soldiers with water and other
necessaries, even to the mouth of a cannon.  She had an allowance of one
shilling per day, which she received till her death.  She was interred,
according to her desire, amongst the old pensioners, and three vollies
were fired over her grave.

                                * * * * *

Hannah Snell was also buried in this ground by her own desire.  She
enlisted, in 1745, in Guise’s Regiment of Foot, in which she served for
some time, but deserted and enlisted in the Marines.  She was severely
wounded, and, on her recovery, sent to England.  Her heroic conduct
procured for her an annual pension of £30 for life.  She also procured a
pension from Chelsea Hospital, and after her discharge continued to wear
her uniform.  At length this poor creature became insane, and was placed
in Bethlehem Hospital, where she died.

                                * * * * *

Charles Burney, Mus.D., author of the History of Music, &c., was buried
here in 1814, aged 88; he was organist at Chelsea Hospital, and father of
Madame D’Arblay, the authoress of Evelina, Cecilia, and Camilla.  She was
also for many years the organist.

                                * * * * *

Many a distinguished officer and old veteran have been interred in this
ground.  Amongst the pensioners some have lived to a great age.  Thomas
Asbey, buried in 1737, aged 112.—John Rogers, 1764, aged 103.—Robert
Cumming, 1767, aged 116.—Peter Dowling, 1768, aged 102.—Peter Burnet,
1773, aged 107.—Joshua Cueman, 1794, it is stated, aged 123.—Richard
Swifield, 1805, aged 105.—Abraham Moss, 1805, aged 106.—John Wolf, 1821,
aged 107.—John Salter, 1827, aged 104.  I have frequently conversed with
the latter centenarian.  In his youth he must have been a fine-built man,
standing upwards of six feet high.  He might often be seen, even within a
short time of his death, sweeping away the autumn leaves in the walks of
the hospital grounds, as a matter of choice.  Such a circumstance
suggests many serious reflections, which I leave to the reader to supply.
There is also said to be an inmate at the present time, aged 106.



OLD RANELAGH GARDENS.


Adjoining the Royal Hospital, on the eastern side, stood the mansion of
Richard, Earl of Ranelagh.  This nobleman, about the year 1690, obtained
from the Crown a large grant of land; he built a house thereon, and made
it his principal residence till his death in 1712.  In 1730 an Act was
passed vesting this estate in trustees, and three years after the house
and premises were sold in lots.  About this period, Lacy, the patentee of
Drury Lane Theatre, projected a plan for establishing a place of public
entertainment on a large and splendid scale; and, in pursuance of this
scheme, he took a lease of these premises.  But it appears he soon gave
up the undertaking, as in 1741, when the Rotunda was built, there were
two other lessees, one of whom became a bankrupt.  The property was then
divided into 36 shares of £1000 each, the greater number of which were
held by Sir Thomas Robinson, who built for himself a house adjoining to
Ranelagh Gardens.  Several of his friends took shares in the concern, and
it became for a time prosperous.

                                * * * * *

The Rotunda was opened with a public breakfast, &c., in 1742.  It was an
imitation of the Pantheon at Rome.  The external diameter was 185 ft.,
the internal 150 ft.  The entrances were by four Doric porticos opposite
each other, and the first story was rustic; round the whole, on the
outside, was an arcade, and over it a gallery, the stairs to which were
at the porticos.  The interior was fitted up with great taste, and from
the ceiling descended 28 chandeliers, in two circles.  Music and dancing
were the principal attractions.  From the branches of the trees that
shaded every walk festoons of coloured lamps hung down.  Royalty,
nobility, and gentry visited it.



PRESENTATION OF COLOURS TO THE CHELSEA VOLUNTEERS.


On the 4th of January, 1804, a brilliant scene was displayed at Ranelagh,
on the presentation of Colours to the Chelsea Royal Volunteers.  About
noon the trumpet announced the arrival of the Courtly party in three of
his Majesty’s carriages, followed by others belonging to different
noblemen.  The company having alighted, Lady Harrington was conducted to
her box by the Vice-Chamberlain.  The Countess being seated two pairs of
Colours were introduced, and placed on each side of the royal box.  The
King’s Colours of each regiment consisted of a plain Union standard, but
the regimental one, which was designed and executed by the Queen and
Princesses, was a superb piece of needlework, the ground being a rich
purple silk, having in the centre his Majesty’s arms, embroidered and
surrounded with sprigs of variegated tints and figures.  At the lower
corners were the letters “C. R.,” and under the armorial bearings the
words, “Queen’s Royal Volunteers.” {199}  After prayers and a suitable
discourse, Lady Harrington thus addressed the officers:—

    “Gentlemen,—Her Majesty having been graciously pleased to confer upon
    me the honour of presenting to you these Colours, I am anxious to
    express how highly I am flattered by this distinguished mark of the
    Queen’s favour.  At a time of all others the most awful, when our
    country is threatened with the unprovoked attack of a most implacable
    enemy, and when you have evinced your readiness to stand forward in
    the defence of everything that is most dear to us all, what can be
    more gratifying to you than being so particularly distinguished by
    her Majesty, and receiving your Colours from her?  Animated as your
    hearts must be in gratitude to the Queen, in addition to every other
    noble sentiment that has guided you, from the moment of the first
    offer of your services, it would not only be superfluous, but
    presumptuous in me, to add anything more upon the occasion than the
    expression of every fervent wish for your success in the event of the
    enemy carrying his threats into execution; confident that no power,
    however strenuously exerted, will ever wrest these Colours from you
    while there is yet left a man in your corps to defend them.”

To this speech a suitable answer was made by Lord Hobart, who expressed,
in behalf of the corps, the most patriotic and grateful sentiments.

                                * * * * *

Subsequent Directors turned Ranelagh into mere Assembly and Concert
Rooms, and the gardens for a display of fire-works.  It soon ceased to be
an attractive promenade, and the brilliant display of beauty it had made
for years was seen no more.

                                * * * * *

In 1805 an order was made for taking down Ranelagh House, which had been
the residence of Sir Thomas Robinson, and the Rotunda.  The furniture was
sold by auction, and the entire buildings.  General Wilford became the
purchaser of a portion of the land, on which he erected a large house,
and resided in it for many years.  The ruins of some of the original
buildings belonging to Ranelagh Gardens remained for a considerable time
afterwards.  In the front of General Wilford’s house, on the north, some
excellent cricket matches were played, for Chelsea then abounded with
first-rate cricketers.

At length the Crown purchased General Wilford’s house and the land
adjoining it, whereon the Rotunda formerly stood, for the use of Chelsea
Hospital, and when Lord John Russell (now Earl Russell) became
Paymaster-General, he caused the Ranelagh field, which was near the
river, to be laid out into portions or lots, for the old men to occupy,
each as his private garden.  The remaining portion of the land of
Ranelagh, on the east, has since been added to the Hospital Gardens, and
presents one of the most picturesque specimens of gardening in the
vicinity of London.  To these gardens the public have free access.  Along
the side of them there is an excellent road leading to the Suspension
Bridge, and on the opposite side a splendid range of Barracks erected
within the last few years.



THE ORIGINAL CHELSEA BUNHOUSE.


Chelsea was famous for its buns from the commencement of the last
century.  Swift, who lodged in Church Lane (street), and used to walk to
and from town, “two good miles, and just 5748 steps,” writes to Stella,
in 1712, “Pray, are not they fine buns sold here in our town? * * * Was
it not r-r-r-r-r-r rare Chelsea buns?  I bought one in my walk.”  This
old bunhouse was a rather long building of one storey, with a colonnade
in front, projecting over the pavement, the dwelling-house attached to it
standing in the rear, with a large and well-kept garden behind it.  It
was situated in what was called Grosvenor Row, known as such at the time
the bunhouse was pulled down, the site of which is a little eastward
beyond the boundary line of this parish, and not far distant from Chelsea
Hospital.  George II. and Queen Caroline, and the princesses, bought buns
here; as did George III. and Queen Charlotte, who presented to the
proprietor a silver half gallon mug, and five guineas in it.  Here, on
Good Friday morning, £250 has been taken for buns; and so lately as 1839
no less than 240,000 buns were sold here on Good Friday.  This may appear
to many an incredulous number; but few persons at the present time can
form an adequate idea of the immense demand for them.

                                * * * * *

The Rev. J. B. Owen, of St. Jude’s, Chelsea, in one of his admirable
lectures, delivered in 1860, humourously observed, “There is no poetry
more delicate, nor was street music more popular, than the old bellman’s
cry—‘Smoking hot, piping hot, Chelsea buns!’  Picture the enthusiasm of a
local rhymer thus immortalising the article:—

    O flour of the ovens! a zephyr in paste!
    Fragrant as honey, and sweeter in taste!
    Hail to the bellman, who sings as he runs,
    ‘Smoking hot, piping hot, Chelsea buns!’

    As flaky and white as if baked by the light,
    As the flesh of an infant, soft, doughy, and slight;
    The public devour thee like Goths and Huns,
    ‘Smoking hot, piping hot, Chelsea buns!’

    Prelates, and princes, and lieges, and kings,
    Hail for the bellman, who tinkles and sings,
    Bouche of the highest and lowliest ones,
    ‘Smoking hot, piping hot, Chelsea buns!’

    Like the home of your birth, or the scent of a flower,
    Or the blush of the morning on field or bower,
    There’s a charm in the sound which nobody shuns,
    Of ‘Smoking hot, piping hot, Chelsea buns!’

This bunhouse had become so famous, not only throughout London, but for
several miles round it, that not to visit Chelsea on Good Friday, and
purchase some of the “rare buns,” was considered as unaccountable amongst
a certain class—such as the servants of the nobility and gentry, shopmen,
mechanics, and apprentices—as it would have been for them to acknowledge
that they had never heard of Greenwich Fair.  But this part of Chelsea,
and the adjoining “Five Fields,” now Eaton and Belgrave Squares, actually
did represent a minor Greenwich Fair.  From my own personal observation I
should say, provided the weather was favourable, there were generally on
Good Fridays nearly 200,000 persons collected in the immediate
neighbourhood.  It was a fair to all intents and purposes.  In the “Five
Fields” there were drinking booths, swings, gingerbread stalls, nine-pins
being played, gaming, and all the other vicious “entertainments” which
annually disgraced the metropolis in former times.  Such was the pressure
of the immense crowd at the bunhouse, from about three o’clock in the
morning till five in the afternoon, that the only mode of supplying the
demand for buns was by obtaining them through apertures in the shutters.
The bunhouse, however, was very respectably conducted, and such scenes as
I have described were only to be witnessed on the day previously named—a
day set apart to commemorate the most momentous event, as regards its
consequences, in the history of the world.

                                * * * * *

There were many things very attractive at the original bunhouse.  In it
was a collection of pictures, models, grotesque, figures, and modern
antiques.  In a conspicuous position were two leaden figures of
grenadiers of 1745; a plaster figure of William, Duke of Cumberland; a
painting of the King and Queen seated; a model of the bunhouse, and of
the exploits of a bottle conjurer.  This celebrated building was pulled
down some years since, and with it the olden charm fled.

                                * * * * *

Having thus arrived at the eastern boundary of the parish, I trace my
steps through Queen’s Road East, formerly called Jews’ Row.  Many years
ago this road, for scenes of depravity, was as bad as any part of the
East end of London; but it happily was confined to this limited locality,
and arose from the circumstance that the Out-Pensioners from nearly all
parts of the country had to come to Chelsea Hospital to receive their
pensions, and disabled soldiers to pass the Board, &c., previously to
being discharged from the army.  The Government at length wisely altered
the arrangement for paying the Out-Pensioners, and they now receive their
pensions in districts nearer to where they dwell, which prevents their
being put to the expense of coming to London, being robbed by “sharpers,”
or beset by prostitution.  Jews’ Row, and its former scenes,
comparatively speaking, have passed away, and what remains of vice and
crime, in some of the crammed courts leading from it to Turks’ Row, is
gradually disappearing, through the exertions of the Rev. J. B. Owen,
M.A., of St. Jude’s Church, the District Visitors, and other agencies.
These courts will probably be cleared away before many years have
elapsed, and Queen’s Road East will then become one of the leading and
most attractive thoroughfares in the parish of Chelsea.

                                * * * * *

One very great improvement took place some few years since.  The Burial
Ground was enclosed by a high dismal-looking old wall, which was pulled
down, and a new one built, not more than three feet high, on which a neat
iron-railing is placed, thus removing much vice and preventing many
robberies, and rendering the road perfectly safe.

                                * * * * *

In the year 1793 a horrible murder was committed in a house fronting the
North Court of the Royal Hospital.  The victims were Mr. Silva and Mary
Williams, his servant.  It appears to have been perpetrated in the
morning, between half-past eight and twelve o’clock.

                                * * * * *

George Saunders, at the inquest, stated that when the alarm was given he
entered the house, and, on lifting up the servant, Mary Williams, there
were signs of life, but she expired in two or three minutes.  Mr. Silva
was alive, but speechless, and died shortly afterwards.  He found in a
closet in the kitchen two iron chests, unlocked, and empty.  In the front
room, one pair of stairs, a bureau open, with the drawers out, and the
papers in confusion, and on the floor a quantity of bedding, folded up.

                                * * * * *

Mr. North, surgeon, gave a fearful account of the wounds received, and
the jury, after a lengthened investigation, found a verdict of wilful
murder by persons unknown.

                                * * * * *

A nephew of Mr. Silva was taken up on suspicion, and examined at Bow
Street.  He shewed, by respectable evidence, that he was at home when the
murder was committed, and was discharged.  This person, however,
afterwards committed suicide, and he was buried in the highway at
Chelsea, leaving great doubts of his innocency of the crime.



Royal Military Asylum.


On the site of the Royal Military Asylum stood a capital mansion, the
residence for many years of the Cadogan family, and afterwards the
property of Sir Walter Farquhar, Bart., of whom it was purchased for the
purpose of erecting the present Institution.

                                * * * * *

The Royal Military Asylum for the children of soldiers of the regular
army is situated near the Royal Hospital, on the north east.  It was
built by Mr. Copland, from the designs of Mr. Sanders.  On the 19th of
June, 1801, the first stone of this structure was laid by the Duke of
York, accompanied by many general officers, and a considerable number of
the nobility.  The motives which gave rise to the establishment, and the
principles upon which it is founded, are alike honourable to the present
enlightened age, and congenial with the soundest maxims of policy,
humanity, and benevolence.  “The necessity of such an Institution will
appear obvious,” says Mr. Faulkner, “when we consider the helpless and
forlorn condition of many among these orphan objects of commiseration,
who in this comfortable asylum are clothed, have good wholesome food,
acquire a decent education, are taught the principles of Christianity,
and, finally, are made useful in whatever course of life they may be
enabled to adopt.”

                                * * * * *

The ground in front of this spacious building is laid out in grass plots
and gravel walks, and planted with trees.  The edifice forms three sides
of a quadrangle; it is built of brick, with an elegant stone balustrade
in the centre of the western front, which is ornamented with a noble
portico of the Doric order, consisting of four columns, which support a
large and well-proportioned pediment.  On the frieze is the following
inscription:—“The Royal Military Asylum for the Children of Soldiers of
the Regular Army.”  Over it are the Imperial arms.  The north and south
wings are joined to the principal front by a colonade, which forms a good
shelter for the boys in wet weather.

                                * * * * *

The vestibule is in the centre of the grand front.  On the left and right
are the dining halls, 80 ft. long and 30 ft. wide.  Over these are the
schoolrooms, of the same dimensions.  The committee-room is over the
vestibule.

                                * * * * *

The north wing contains the apartments of the Commandant, Surgeon,
Quartermaster, and dormitories for the boys; the south wing, apartments
for the Adjutant and Secretary, the Masters of the Normal and Model
Schools, and dormitories.

                                * * * * *

On the south of the grounds stands the Normal School of the Royal
Military Asylum, in which reside the Students who are being trained for
Schoolmasters in Her Majesty’s army.

                                * * * * *

The Chapel was consecrated in 1824, and is calculated to contain the
whole of the establishment, with accommodation for upwards of 100
visitors.

                                * * * * *

The girls were removed to Southampton in 1823, and the boys in that
institution removed to Chelsea, so that now the latter contains only
boys, and the former only girls.

                                * * * * *

On the 20th of June, 1805, George III., the Queen, with the Princesses
and Royal Dukes, visited the R.M. Asylum.  They inspected several of the
apartments, dining hall, &c., and his Majesty said it was one of the best
institutions in the country.  This was a regular gala day for the
children.

                                * * * * *

The King and Queen of the Sandwich Islands paid a visit to the Royal
Military Asylum in the year 1824.  Their Majesties were attended by
Major-General Sir Willoughby Gordon, and appeared much delighted with the
establishment, the nature of which was explained to them by the
interpreter.  They were received by the full band playing “God save the
King,” and were highly gratified with the skill of the juvenile
musicians.  After having seen the children at dinner, their Majesties
witnessed the various gymnastic exercises, and at their departure were
saluted by the hearty cheers of the youthful regiment, which was drawn up
before them.

                                * * * * *

His late Royal Highness the Duke of York was the founder of this
Institution, and constantly bestowed his best exertions in promoting the
welfare, and increasing the comforts, of the helpless inmates nurtured
within its walls.  On his last visit, the children crowded round their
benefactor, and gave him three hearty cheers.  Such was the effect
produced by it that the Duke could not refrain from shedding tears; and,
patting the head of the foremost boy, he ejaculated, as he passed down
the steps, “God bless you, my lads.”

                                * * * * *

On the 7th of January, 1827, a sermon was preached by the Rev. G. Clark,
M.A., chaplain, on the demise of the Royal Founder, at the conclusion of
which he thus addressed the children:—“I need not tell you that it has
pleased Almighty God to take away from this world the President of this
Institution, the Duke of York.  He was the firm friend of your fathers,
and also a kind and steady friend to you, their children.  Whatever
advantages you enjoy in this Asylum, you owe, under Divine Providence, to
the Duke of York.  He was the founder of this Institution, and by his
recommendations and exertions it was begun and completed.  Many of you
will remember this good friend who is now taken from us.  A few months
ago you beheld him walk through your ranks; you saw in his countenance
the pleasure he felt from witnessing the healthy and creditable
appearance of so many children of British soldiers.  I exhort you to hold
his memory in your hearts and affections; show your gratitude by
improving the advantages he has given to you in this Asylum, and by doing
your duty to God and man when you go forth into the world.”

                                * * * * *

The following tribute to the memory of the Duke of York was written by
Dr. Veitch, at that time physician to the Chelsea Dispensary:—“The
knowledge which his late Royal Highness possessed of human nature, and
what was becoming the character of British soldiers, induced him to
impress on their minds a system of discipline at once correct and
conveying lofty feelings; so that men thus trained were at all times
ready to prefer death to subjugation.  We may here say, with truth, that
to the love of his country and the army he has prematurely fallen a
victim.  No self-gratification, no pleasures, were ever by him allowed to
interfere with the duties he owed to the army and his country, and
however late his hour of going to rest, he was invariably the first man
at his post in the morning.  We find individuals who are distinguished as
statesmen, as admirals, as generals, but who are without the smallest
pretensions to true greatness, because their talents and their courage
are not blended with the chivalrous, the gallant, and finer inspirations
flowing from the heart.  Such men are generally anxious enough that their
services should be appreciated by their Sovereign, while they overlook
what they owe to others who have mainly contributed to their fame and to
their fortune.  The late illustrious Duke had no such narrowness; his
soul was surrounded with generous and delicate attributes, rendering all
periods of his splendid career utterly inaccessible to deeds of darkness,
and also ever ready to expand to the light of truth, to the claims of
justice and of humanity; and he is therefore eminently entitled to the
character of a great man; because his high attainments in military
affairs were combined with an exalted and refined sense of courage and of
honour.”

                                * * * * *

Lieutenant-Colonel George Williamson, the first Commandant of the Royal
Military Asylum, died Sept. 6, 1812, and his remains were interred in the
Burial Ground of the Royal Hospital on the 11th of that month.  In
consequence of the respect in which his memory was held by his Royal
Highness the Commander in Chief, and the Commissioners of the Asylum, it
was determined that he should be honoured with a military funeral; and
his body was followed to the grave by the above-mentioned royal and
illustrious personages.  The procession was received, at the front
entrance of the Royal Hospital, by the officers of that establishment,
and conducted by the chaplains to the Chapel, where the funeral service
was read by the Rev. G. Clark, and several psalms were sung by the
children.  The body was then carried to the burial ground in the same
order, and the remaining part of the ceremony performed; the Duke of
York, the Commissioners, officers, and children of the Institution,
surrounding the grave.  The whole was conducted with the greatest order
and solemnity, and presented a very impressive scene.  Since the erection
of the Chapel, a handsome monument has been placed therein to the memory
of this meritorious officer.

                                * * * * *

About the year 1810 part of the glebe opposite to the Royal Military
Asylum was purchased, under the authority of an Act of Parliament, for
the use of this Institution; and other land, at Merton, in Surrey, was
bought with the money as glebe to the Rectory of Chelsea.

                                * * * * *

In concluding this brief description of the Royal Military Asylum, it may
justly be observed that the contemplation of such a noble fabric is
calculated to excite the liveliest emotions of gratitude for having been
born in a country which abounds with charitable institutions.  To the
soldier it must continually afford the most pleasing prospects for the
comfort and support of his infant children, and it will induce him to
serve, if possible, with greater confidence and energy, feeling assured
that if he falls in battle his country has provided a home for his
helpless children.



ST. JUDE’S CHURCH.


This Church is situated in Turks’ Row, almost adjoining the extreme
southern side of the Royal Military Asylum.  The first stone of the
edifice was laid in August, 1843, and it was consecrated and opened for
Divine Service in June, 1844.  The Rev. John Patterson, M.A., was the
first Incumbent, and on his leaving Chelsea, the Rev. Shadwell Morley
Barkworth, M.A., succeeded him.  The present Incumbent is the Rev. J. B.
Owen, M.A., who has laboured most zealously in the District some years.
To his indefatigable exertions, and to the visitations of the District
Visitors, &c., connected with the Church, much of the demoralization
which generally prevailed in the numerous crowded courts, lying between
Turks’ Row and Queen’s Road East, has been removed.  Attached to the
Church are National, Free, and Infant Schools, each of which are very
well attended.  A portion of the children belonging to the Hans Town
Industrial School are here accommodated with sittings.  The Church will
hold about 900 persons.

                                * * * * *

Proceeding in an easterly direction we arrive at what was formerly known
as White Lion Street.  Here very considerable improvements have been
effected.  The whole of one side of this street has been pulled down, by
which means there is now a good road from the Suspension Bridge to
Knightsbridge.



CHELSEA CHAPEL.


This Chapel was erected in 1865, and is situated on a part of the site we
have just described, adjoining Lower Sloane Street.  The Church
worshipping within its sacred walls formerly occupied Paradise Chapel,
Queen’s Road West, which still remains, and which was originally a school
room belonging to a scholastic establishment, which occupied for many
years the site of Calthorpe Place.  It is still retained by the members
of the above Church as a Ragged School.

                                * * * * *

The Chapel is a plain white brick building, without any particular
attempt at architectural display.  Mr. James Cubitt was the architect.
It will seat probably 1000 persons.  There is a schoolroom underneath the
Chapel, which will contain about 600 adults, in which there is a Day
School for Girls and Infants in the week, and the Sunday School is also
held in it, which numbers about 200.  The Rev. Frank H. White, who
resides in Hemus Terrace, is the Minister, and is much esteemed not only
by the members of the church, but by all with whom he is associated in
life.

                                * * * * *

I must now proceed to Sloane Street, where first “I drew the breath of
life,” and which is consequently endeared to me by recollections of the
very earliest events of my life.

                                * * * * *

Mr. Holland, in the year 1777, took a lease of one hundred acres of land,
called in old records Blacklands, of Charles, Lord Cadogan, which now
consists of Sloane Street, Cadogan Place, Hans Place, Exeter Street,
Ellis Street, D’Oyley Street, Sloane Square, George Street, &c.  The
buildings were begun just at the commencement of the American war, owing
to which their progress was much impeded.

                                * * * * *

A very great improvement has at last been made at Grosvenor Bridge, in
ancient times called Blandel Bridge.  Its name was probably corrupted to
“Bloody Bridge,” in consequence of the numbers of robberies and murders
formerly committed on this spot.  The entrance here into the parish, at
the eastern end of Sloane Square, has been after years of delay
considerably widened, and some spacious shops erected.  There is also now
an Underground Railway Station, and the West London Commercial Bank has
likewise extensive premises in Sloane Square, both of which will confer
very great advantages on the inhabitants of Chelsea, and the public in
general.



Trinity Church, Upper Chelsea.


This Church is situated at the south end of Sloane Street, near Sloane
Square.  It is a brick structure of Gothic architecture, the western
front consisting of a centre flanked by two wide towers rising to a level
with the roof, and terminating with lofty octagonal spires.  A large
entrance door occupies the space from tower to tower to the height of the
first division, giving access both to nave and aisles, over which stands
a large window separated by two mullions, with trefoil headings slightly
ornamented; above this is placed a circular stone surrounded by tracery,
intended, probably, at some future period for a clock.  The towers to the
first blocking course are plain, but above they are enriched with
trefoil-headed windows, divided into two compartments, slender buttresses
separating the towers octagonally to the summit, crowned by a battlement
and surmounted by obtuse-headed pinnacles.  At each side of the centre
great door there is a smaller one for ingress and egress to the aisles
and galleries.

                                * * * * *

The interior of the Church presents no peculiar feature requiring special
notice, at the same time it possesses in its design all that is essential
to impress the mind with the sacred character of the edifice.  Those who
are unable to pay for a sitting have comfortable free seats provided for
them.  The Church will probably accommodate 1500 persons.  Attached to
it, on the right, is a spacious schoolroom, designed to correspond with
the architecture of the exterior of the Church.  The whole of the schools
are very well attended.

                                * * * * *

The late Rev. H. Blunt, M.A., was the first Incumbent, and when he
resigned the Rev. Richard Burgess, B.D., the present Rector of the
Church, succeeded him.  Trinity Church, from its consecration in 1830,
has always been very numerously attended.

                                * * * * *

In the Church are several tablets, amongst them is one to the memory of
the Rev. H. Blunt.



SLOANE TERRACE WESLEYAN CHAPEL.


This Chapel was built in 1811.  It is a neat and substantial edifice.
The galleries extend round three sides of the interior, and the whole
will accommodate about 1200 persons.  The erection of this place of
worship is to be attributed to the liberality of several beneficent
gentlemen, among whom may be especially mentioned Joseph Butterworth,
Esq., who, at that time, had summer apartments in Chelsea.  The attention
of these Christian friends had been arrested by observing a large number
of the middling and poorer classes, in the vicinity of Jews’ Row,
wandering about upon the mornings of the Sabbath.  They accordingly took
a large room, or small chapel, at nearly the end of George Street, and
subsequently erected Sloane Terrace Chapel.  The congregation and the
members rapidly increased, and at various times many alterations have
been made so as to render the chapel and schoolrooms more commodious.  It
is a pleasing thought, that, amidst a vast amount of Sabbath desecration,
there is not a Church or Chapel in the parish, where the Sabbath School
is not well attended.

                                * * * * *

Nearly opposite to Sloane Terrace, in Sloane Street, resided for many
years H. W. Burgess, Esq., a most accomplished artist.  His gentlemanly
deportment and piety endeared him to a large circle of friends.  There
was scarcely a benevolent society in the parish to which he was not a
contributor.

                                * * * * *

Thomas Hoblyn, Esq., who for many years was the Rector’s Churchwarden at
St. Luke’s Parish Church, occupied a house at the corner of Cadogan
Street, Sloane Street.  He was one of several newly-appointed
magistrates, about the time of the passing of the first Local Act of
Parliament for the better assessing and collecting the Poor’s Rate, &c.

                                * * * * *

The above house is now occupied as an Industrial Home for Girls, one of
the many admirable institutions which reflect so much credit upon that
part of Chelsea.

                                * * * * *

Captain G. Bague, R.N., resided also in Sloane Street, nearly opposite
Cadogan Place, for a long period.  He was made a magistrate for the
county at the same time as Mr. Hoblyn.

                                * * * * *

The late Rev. H. Blunt, M.A., resided for a considerable time in Sloane
Street.

                                * * * * *

The late Sir Charles Wentworth Dilke, Bart., resided for some years at
72, Sloane Street.  He died in 1869, at St. Petersburgh, after a short
illness, which unexpectedly proved fatal, at the age of 58.  He was born
in London in 1810, was the only son of the late Mr. Charles Wentworth
Dilke, chief proprietor and at one time editor of the _Athenæum_
newspaper, and subsequently the manager of the _Daily News_, and who died
about eight years ago.  His mother was Maria, daughter of Mr. E. Walker.
He was educated at Westminster School, and subsequently at Trinity Hall,
Cambridge, where he took his degree in Law instead of Arts.  In early
life he was associated with the literary labours of his father, whom he
largely aided by his cultivated tastes, his wide range of information,
sound judgment, and habits of business.  He was one of the earliest
promoters of the first Great Exhibition, and, indeed, acted as the
leading member of the Executive Committee.  The fact of his occupying
such a position naturally brought Mr. Dilke into close and frequent
contact with the late Prince Consort, who was much struck with the
ability he displayed, and at whose suggestion the honour of knighthood
was offered to him in recognition of his services.  That honour, however,
he declined; and with it refused all pecuniary remuneration, wishing his
services to be purely honorary.  Her Majesty, however, resolved that he
should not be wholly unrewarded, sent to Mrs. Dilke a handsome
diamond-bracelet, which, no doubt, will become an heirloom in the Dilke
family.  Mr. Dilke was also associated with the second Great Exhibition
as one of the five Royal Commissioners appointed by Her Majesty.  It has
always been understood also that the resuscitation of the Royal
Horticultural Society of London has been in a very great measure due to
his exertions as one of the most active of its vice-presidents.  It will
be remembered that almost immediately after the death of the Prince
Consort Her Majesty was pleased to confer a baronetcy on Mr. Dilke in
recognition of the Prince’s friendship and personal regard for him.  Sir
Charles Wentworth Dilke sat in the last Parliament in the Liberal
interest for Wallingford, defeating Mr. Serjeant Malins (who has since
attained the Judicial Bench), but he lost his seat at the last general
election.  The late baronet, who was a magistrate for Westminster and for
the county of Middlesex, married in 1840 Mary, a daughter of Captain
Chatfield, but was left a widower a few years ago.  By her he has left a
son, born in 1843, Mr. (now Sir) Charles Wentworth Dilke, of Trinity
Hall, Cambridge, who was returned at the last election as one of the
members, in the Liberal interest, for the newly-enfranchised constituency
of Chelsea, and another son, Mr. Ashton Wentworth Dilke, born 1850.

                                * * * * *

The present Sir Charles Wentworth Dilke, Bart., M.P., resides at his late
father’s house in Sloane Street.  He has extensively travelled in
America, and has published a very interesting work, entitled “Greater
Britain,” and is the author of several pamphlets on social and political
topics.

                                * * * * *

THE PAVILION, HANS PLACE.—A few particulars respecting this once
beautiful estate will no doubt be interesting to many of the readers of
this work.  When Mr. Holland took the lease of the land, formerly known
as “Blacklands,” now Upper Chelsea, he reserved to himself 21 acres of
it, on which he built an elegant house for his own residence.  This was
called the Pavilion, and it was purchased of Mr. Holland’s executors by
Peter Denys, Esq., and became afterwards the property of his relict, the
Right Hon. Lady Charlotte Denys, who resided in it with her family for
some years afterwards.  It consisted of three sides of a quadrangle, open
to the north, and the approach was from Hans Place.  The house was
superbly furnished.

                                * * * * *

In the library, on two mahogany pedestals, stood two busts in statuary
marble of Pitt and Fox, by Nollekens.  In the dining room were two
excellent pictures by Fuseli; one a vision of Lady Jane Grey, before her
execution, from a manuscript letter of Bishop Latimer to Dr. Bullinger;
the other a scene from the tragedy of King Lear.  To which might be added
many others of equal worth.

                                * * * * *

The south front faced an extensive and beautifully-planted lawn, gently
rising to the level of the colonnade and principal floor.  This front was
originally built as a model for the Pavilion at Brighton, and was
ornamented by a colonnade of the Doric order, extending the whole length
of the building.

                                * * * * *

On the west side of the lawn was an Ice-house, round which was erected an
admirable representation of the ruins of an ancient Priory, in which the
appearance of age and decay was strikingly faithful.  The Gothic
stone-work was brought from the ancient demolished residence of Cardinal
Wolsey, at Esher, in Surrey.  The lawn was ornamented by a fine sheet of
water, which produced a most pleasing effect.  The Priory displayed
considerable variety of fanciful intricate paths and scenery, profusely
ornamented with shrubs, and had a private communication with the house by
the walks of the shrubbery.

                                * * * * *

Lady Charlotte Denys gave annually a treat to the children of the “Hans
Town Schools,” &c., and had booths erected in which they partook of tea,
whilst others contained fruit and playthings to amuse them.  On these
occasions the inhabitants were admitted to witness the pleasing juvenile
scene.

                                * * * * *

HANS PLACE, SLOANE STREET.—Miss Landon (L.E.L.) was born in “snug Hans
Place” in 1802, and spent the greater portion of her life in it.  She
went to school at No. 22, kept by Miss Rowden, who published “A Poetical
Introduction to the Study of Botany,” and “The Pleasures of Friendship,”
and at length became the Countess of St. Queutin.

                                * * * * *

Among the inmates of the same house have been Lady Caroline Lamb, who
married the Hon. W. Lamb, afterwards Viscount Melbourne, Miss Mitford,
Lady Bulwer, &c.

                                * * * * *

Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Wigan, the talented artistes, resided for some time
in Hans Place.



ST. SAVIOUR’S CHURCH.


This Church is situated a little to the north of Hans Place, and near to
Walton Street.  The exterior has no particular pretensions to
architectural display.  The interior is neat, and possesses a greater
degree of architectural design.  It will seat probably more than 1000
persons.  The Rev. W. Niven, M.A., was the first Incumbent, and retained
it until recently, when the Rev. George Weldon, M.A., succeeded him.  Of
Mr. Niven it may justly be said that he was zealous and faithful, kind to
the poor, and respected by all classes.  There are excellent schools and
many charitable societies which are liberally supported by the
contributions of the congregation.

                                * * * * *

CADOGAN PLACE.—These capital houses were principally erected by Mr. W.
Whitehead, sen., on part of the land leased originally to Mr. Holland, as
previously mentioned.  Amongst the residents at different periods may be
selected the names of Capt. Acklom, R.N.; Thomas Bryan, Esq.; W. B.
France, Esq.; each of whom were made magistrates for the county at the
same time as Mr. Hoblyn and Capt. Bague; C. Hopkinson, Esq.; H.
Warburton, Esq., M.P.; Sir William Clay, M.P.; Dr. Veitch; the Rev.
Richard Burgess, and the Rev. J. B. Owen.

                                * * * * *

In Little Cadogan Place Mr. William Whitehead, jun., lived for a great
many years.  He was an extensive builder, and occupied a very prominent
position in the parish.

                                * * * * *

BOTANIC GARDENS, SLOANE STREET.—This garden was first planned and laid
out in 1807, by Mr. Salisbury.  The extent of ground was about six acres,
and formed a delightful promenade for company.  In the original plan the
whole collection of plants was arranged according to the system of
Linnæus, and was disposed of in seventeen different compartments.  When
Mr. Tate, in the year 1820, took possession of the premises, the
inhabitants, wishing to make it a public promenade, the above arrangement
was entirely superseded, and the interior of the ground laid out and
converted into a Nursery.  Mr. Tate, however, still devoted the hothouses
and greenhouses to the raising of curious and rare exotics.  Mr. Tuck,
nurseryman and seedsman, is now in possession of a portion of the ground,
but the whole presents a very different appearance to what it did many
years ago.

                                * * * * *

THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHAPEL, situated in Cadogan Street, was built in 1811,
by voluntary subscriptions.  Previous to the erection of this Chapel, the
Irish poor and others in Chelsea, as well as the Roman Catholic veterans
in the Royal Hospital, had not any place to resort to on Sundays, or at
such other times as they deemed it necessary to attend.  Besides, there
were several families in the locality who considered the erection of the
Chapel indispensable.  The Clergyman’s house adjoins the Chapel, and was
built at the expense of the Rev. Abbé Voyaux de Franous, D.D.  On the
south of Cadogan Street, some short distance west of the Chapel, are the
Convent, the Schools, and the Burial Ground, the latter being now closed
for interments.

                                * * * * *

Upon the site of the west end of Cadogan Street stood an ancient house,
inhabited, in Bowack’s time, by Lady Matthews; it was afterwards known
for many years as the Marlborough Tavern and Cricket Grounds.  It is
probable that the house was first established as a tavern during the
life-time of the great Duke of Marlborough, who, it is said, resided at
one time in Chelsea; hence Blenheim Street, &c., all contiguous.

                                * * * * *

The old Admiral Keppel Inn, with its tea gardens, was pulled down in
1856, on the site of which is now a large tavern.

                                * * * * *

CHELSEA COMMON was called in ancient records Chelsea Heath.  It was
bounded on the north by the Fulham Road; on the east by Blacklands Lane,
now Marlborough Road; on the south by College Place, abutting on the
King’s Road; and on the west by Sydney Street.  It was attached to the
Manor.  Certain ancient houses, cottages, and farms, had a right of
pasturage for forty cows and twenty heifers.  To keep these there was
always a cowkeeper, whose business it was to mark the cattle, to drive
home the cows at night to the several owners, and to impound all cattle
unmarked, or any horses which broke into the Common, or were found there.

                                * * * * *

When the Old Church was to be rebuilt, the Common was enclosed by the
consent of Charles Cheyne, Esq., Lord of the Manor, and the several
proprietors, for 21 years, to defray part of the charges, by a lease
bearing date March 1674, and thereby let to George Hill and Francis
Guildford, who enclosed it, and quietly enjoyed it till 1695, when it was
thrown open again.  It would be an unnecessary waste of space to notice
what took place for some years afterwards.

                                * * * * *

At the commencement of the present century, however, the Lords of the
Manor, the Rector, and the other proprietors, let the Common on building
leases; after which the leases were found defective, by reason of one of
the proprietors being under age, and it being considered that the then
Rector could not bind his successors.  An Act of Parliament was therefore
obtained, which confirmed the leases and made them effectual.

                                * * * * *

The Common (as was) has been for many years covered with houses,
comprising Keppel Street, Whitehead’s Grove, College Street, Marlborough
Square, Leader Street, &c.

                                * * * * *

The principal entrance to the Brompton County Court is in Whitehead’s
Grove.  The house was formerly occupied by the Rev. Dr. Roberts, who gave
instruction to a limited number of young gentlemen who resided with him.

                                * * * * *

The Catholic Apostolic Church is situated in College Street, near to
Whitehead’s Grove.  The exterior has some claim to architectural design,
although the entrance at the side is small, and there are no windows to
give relief to its massive appearance.  There is ample light, however, in
the interior of the structure, and it is in every respect commodious.

                                * * * * *

The spacious Drill Hall belonging to the 1st Middlesex Engineer
Volunteers is also in College Street, near to the Fulham Road, where
recruits are enlisted.



MARLBOROUGH CHAPEL.


The old saying, “Where there is a will there is a way,” was never more
clearly exemplified than in the erection of this chapel, which occupies
the northern corner of Marlborough Square, and fully warrants the
inscription engraven on its summit, “This is the Lord’s doing, it is
marvellous in our eyes.”  The necessity of having a place of worship in
the Methodist connexion had long been felt by many in the neighbourhood,
and a room was consequently taken in Pond Place, but as it proved
unsuitable for the purpose, Mr. Cripps, of Keppel Street, was induced to
open his large workshop for a Thursday evening service, and having
obtained a minister from the Hinde Street Circuit to preach the first
sermon, was amply repaid for his kindness by a very crowded and attentive
congregation.  Mr. Hunt, an active and zealous member, commenced a class
on the following Sunday afternoon, which increased so rapidly as to make
him extremely anxious for the purchase of a spot of ground for a chapel,
and after many disappointments, and much discouragement, succeeded in
obtaining the present site.  The difficulty of raising funds for its
erection was a subject of great moment, but, on communicating with many
friends, their offers of assistance were so numerous, and accompanied
with such generosity, that all doubt as to the result was at once
removed.  In a few weeks promises were made, and fulfilled, of all kinds
of materials for its erection, both externally and internally, and, aided
by the gratuitous labours of many devoted followers, was completed and
opened July 30, 1849, about five months from its commencement.  It is a
neat and commodious structure, and will hold about 400 persons.  It has
lately undergone several alterations and improvements.  There is an
excellent Sunday School attached to the chapel, at which there is an
average attendance of nearly 300 children.

                                * * * * *

The Brompton District Letter Sorting Post Office is situated nearly
opposite to the northern side of St. Luke’s Cemetery.  It was erected a
few years ago, and is well adapted and arranged for the intended
purposes.

                                * * * * *

Near to Sydney Street, and to the north of St. Luke’s Church, was
formerly situated a solitary small house, known as Cock’s Hall.  It was
said to have been built by Captain Cock, a petty officer in the Royal
Hospital.  On a stone in the front of it was an inscription, “Built in
1710, rebuilt in 1767.”

                                * * * * *

Dr. Biber, author of “The Life of Pestalozzi,” and editor of the _John
Bull_ newspaper, resided for some time in Sydney Street, as did also
Thomas Wright, Esq., the antiquary and historical writer.

                                * * * * *

Henry Warren, Esq., President of the New Society of Water Colour
Painters, resided for some time opposite St. Luke’s Church, and at a
subsequent period at the corner of Church Street, which house has been
recently pulled down.

                                * * * * *

From the periodical publications of the time, and from other sources, it
appears the following persons have resided in this parish at various
periods:—

Robert Ratcliffe, the first Earl of Sussex of that family, and Lord High
Chamberlain of England, died at his palace at Chelsea, November 26, 1542.

Robert Viscount Fitzwalter was created Earl of Sussex by Henry VIII. in
1527.  He married first, Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Stafford, Duke of
Buckingham; secondly, Margaret, daughter of Thomas, Earl of Derby;
thirdly, Mary, daughter of Sir John Arundel.

                                * * * * *

John Pym, a distinguished Member of the House of Commons, resided at
Chelsea for several years. {218}  He was Member for Tavistock, and was a
remarkable instance of what wonders, strength of parts, and force of
eloquence, could effect.  His influence was superior to authority, but by
many he was thought to have made a very bad use of power; his intent was
to reform, not to abolish the Government; and yet he was a principal
engine in bringing about a revolution, which he never intended, and which
he did not live to see; he died December 8, 1643.  His excessive
application to public affairs is supposed to have hastened his death.
“He was a man,” says Hume, “as much hated by one party as respected by
the other.  At London, he was considered as the victim of national
liberty, who had abridged his life by incessant labours for the interest
of his country.  At Oxford, he was believed to have been struck with an
uncommon disease, and to have been consumed with vermin, as a mark of
Divine vengeance for his multiplied crimes and treasons.  He had been so
little studious of improving his private fortune in those civil wars, of
which he had been one principal author, that the Parliament thought
themselves obliged from gratitude to pay the debts which he had
contracted.”

                                * * * * *

Count D’Estrades, who came to England to negociate the sale of Dunkirk,
as ambassador from Lewis XIV., resided at Chelsea during the years 1661
and 1662.  This fact appears by the dates of his letters, of which a
translation appeared in 1755.  He had his first audience of his Majesty
King Charles II. on the 27th of July of the former year.  It was usual
for the Foreign Ambassadors at that time to make their public entry from
the Tower of London, but on this occasion the King sent his own coaches
to Chelsea, to carry the Ambassador, and the Count was accompanied by the
equipages of the whole of the diplomatic corps at that time in London.

Count D’Estrades was invited by letters from the Chancellor himself, in
order to conclude the bargain; £900,000 were demanded, £100,000 were
offered.  By degrees the English lowered their demands, and the French
raised their offers.  The bargain was concluded at £400,000.

                                * * * * *

Sir Robert Atkyns, either Chief Baron of the Exchequer, or his son, the
historian of Gloucestershire, appears by the Parish Books to have resided
in Chelsea in 1684.

Sir Robert Atkyns, K.B., was Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer under
William III., which office he held with distinguished ability and
integrity.  This gentleman, by his influence, promoted the Revolution,
and by his pen defended it in tracts replete with legal knowledge.

                                * * * * *

The Hon. Colonel Rieutort died at his house, Chelsea, on the 24th
January, 1725–6, in his 66th year.  He was born of a good family, at
Montpelier, in France, where he early bore arms; and, having left his
native country, on account of the Protestant religion, he attended
William III. in the wars of Ireland.  He afterwards served the Crown of
Great Britain in Piedmont; and in 1703 assisted Count de Frise in the
vigorous defence of Landau, then besieged by the French.  In 1704, he
went into Portugal with the Earl of Galway, who sent him to the relief of
the Prince of Hesse, then closely beset in Gibraltar, where he
contributed very much to the preservation of that important place.  He
was interred in Chelsea Church.



THE CANCER HOSPITAL.


This hospital is situated in the Fulham Road, almost facing the
Consumption Hospital.  The ceremony of laying the foundation stone was
performed on Monday, May 30, 1859, by Miss Burdett Coutts, in the
presence of a very numerous and respectable company, including Dr. Tait,
Bishop of London, Archdeacon Sinclair, Rev. D. Coleridge, Rev. J. B.
Owen, the Rev. Fathers Ballard and Bagshawe, Priests of the Oratory, at
Brompton, &c.

                                * * * * *

The Rev. Thomas Pearson commenced the proceedings with prayer, after
which the Bishop of London addressed the assemblage, and said they were
met to lay the foundation stone of a most excellent institution, destined
to bestow great blessings on a large portion of the community—a house for
the reception of persons afflicted with a most painful disease, demanding
the greatest sympathy from all friends of humanity.  His Lordship, at the
close of his address, prayed for its permanency and success.

                                * * * * *

Miss Coutts having deposited the bottle, with the usual contents, in a
cavity in the lower stone and spread the mortar, the upper stone was duly
lowered into its place, after which Miss Coutts gave the customary knocks
and declared the stone duly laid.

                                * * * * *

The Rev. J. B. Owen next addressed the assembly, after which John Abel
Smith, Esq., proposed thanks to Miss Coutts for having done them the
honour of laying the foundation stone of the hospital.  The Bishop of
London said that he had been requested by Miss Coutts to acknowledge the
compliment paid her, and to assure them that she should continue to take
the greatest interest in the prosperity of the Institution.

                                * * * * *

The building has a frontage of 130 ft. and a depth of 50 ft., surrounded
by an area of 10 ft., securing to the building the means of convenient
external communication and ventilation.  It is constructed of plain white
Suffolk bricks, relieved with bands of red brick, keystones, and cornices
of stone dressing.  The lower story contains the kitchens, larders, and
the rooms for the out-patients.  The principal ground floor is approached
by a flight of steps, and this contains the hall and a handsome staircase
of stone, apartments for the house-surgeon and medical officers, and
wards for patients.  Apparatus for heating and ventilating the building
is provided—everything, in short, that is calculated to add to the
comforts and assist the recovery of the patients.  On the first story are
the wards.  In the males it appears this direful disease shows itself
more frequently in the face, lip, and tongue, and among some of them in
the breast.  Of the females nearly five-sixths suffer in the breast.

                                * * * * *

The building, in all its details, has been open about six years.  It was
erected from the design of David Mocatta, Esq., by Messrs. Lawrence, at a
cost of £7,000.  William Marsden, M.D. was the founder.



HOSPITAL FOR CONSUMPTION.


This is another admirable Institution, and, although it is situated just
beyond the boundary of Chelsea parish, on the north of the Fulham Road,
it has a very strong claim to be noticed in this work.  It is a beautiful
Elizabethan structure, built in the shape of the letter H, the depth of
each wing being 190 ft., and the width of the building 200 ft.  It stands
in a square piece of ground covering three acres, and faces the public
road.  On entering the Lodge-gate there are three broad drives, one to
the central entrance, which opens to a cheerful hall upon the first
floor; another to the east entrance, which leads to the offices for the
transaction of the hospital business; and the third to the west entrance,
which is for the use of inmates and the friends of the in-patients on
visiting days.

                                * * * * *

The ground floor is on a level with the gardens.  The west wing and part
of the centre of this floor contain the Dispensary and Out-patient-rooms,
Laboratory, Museum, and Sitting-rooms of the Resident Clinical
Assistants.  The east wing contains the apartments of the Resident
Medical Officer and Matron, Linen-room, Store-room, Secretary’s Office,
Board-room, &c.

                                * * * * *

The first floor is devoted exclusively to Female Patients, saving small
rooms for the Chaplain, and for each of the two Head Nurses, and the two
requisite Sculleries, Baths, and Lavatories.

                                * * * * *

The arrangements of the second floor are precisely the same as those on
the first floor; the wards being occupied by Male Patients, for whom
there are about 107 beds.

                                * * * * *

The attic floor has comfortable dormitories for the Nurses and Servants,
and in the Tower-rooms are the sleeping apartments of the Resident
Clinical Assistants.

                                * * * * *

The Chapel stands on the north side of the hospital, and parallel with
the centre portion.  The approach is by a corridor opposite the front
entrance, to which the patients have immediate access from their
respective galleries.  The chaplain is the Rev. E. B. Allen, B.A., whose
faithful exhortations and kind manner of addressing the patients have
gained for him the esteem of all who know his worth.

                                * * * * *

His late R.H. the Prince Consort laid the foundation stone of the
hospital in 1844.

                                * * * * *

THE HOME.—This Institution is conducted and maintained by a few
benevolent Ladies, as an auxiliary to the above hospital, for persons who
are either waiting their turns for admission to the hospital, or after
leaving it, during the necessary time occupied in the full
re-establishment of their health and their search for employment.  This
excellent “Home” is at Manor House, near Durham Place, Chelsea.



CHELSEA IMPROVEMENTS.


The Metropolitan Board of Works (Loans) Bill, empowering the Metropolitan
Board of Works to raise money to construct the Chelsea Embankment, and to
effect other improvements, having received the Royal assent, there is now
no doubt that the Chelsea Embankment works will be very shortly
commenced.

                                * * * * *

The Bills for the “Belgrave Market,” which will remove the unsightly
block of buildings between Turk’s Row and Jew’s Row, and the “Belgravia
and South Kensington New Road,” which will open a direct communication
from Eaton Square to the South Kensington Museum, have also become law.

                                * * * * *

The works of the Albert Bridge are still suspended, but there is reason
to hope that they will shortly be recommenced, and rapidly completed.



FIRST ELECTION OF MEMBERS FOR THE BOROUGH OF CHELSEA.


I will now endeavour to record a few impartial particulars respecting the
proceedings on the day of election, with the ultimate state of the poll,
when the two first members for the Borough of Chelsea were elected.  The
nomination took place on Tuesday, the 17th of November, 1868, and the
election on the following day.

The hustings were erected in an open and central place near the South
Kensington Museum, and was capable of holding about 200 or 300 persons.
C. A. Bannister, Esq., of Chelsea, was the Returning Officer, and he
performed his duty with the utmost courtesy and fairness.

                                * * * * *

The candidates originally were C. Wentworth Dilke, Esq., {223} Sir Henry
Hoare, Dr. Russell, and C. J. Freake, Esq.  Mr. Odger, a working man, who
was warmly supported by a large number of the constituency, retired
previous to the nomination from what may be fairly considered the most
honourable motives.

                                * * * * *

R. Freeman, Esq., of Kensington, proposed Mr. C. W. Dilke, and John Boyd,
Esq., of Argyll House, King’s Road, seconded the nomination.

                                * * * * *

Wingfield Baker, Esq., proposed Sir H. A. Hoare, and James Heywood, Esq.,
seconded.

                                * * * * *

The Hon. E. C. Curzon proposed Mr. Freake, and the Hon. Capt. Maude
seconded the nomination.

                                * * * * *

General Sir A. S. Wangle proposed Dr. Russell, and Captain Morley
seconded.

                                * * * * *

The show of hands was then taken, and there being a large majority for
Mr. C. W. Dilke and Sir H. A. Hoare, the two liberal candidates, a poll
was demanded on behalf of Dr. Russell and Mr. Freake, which took place on
the following day, the 18th of November, 1868.  The proceedings were of
the most orderly character, generally speaking, at all the thirteen
polling booths.

                                * * * * *

The state of the poll was declared to be as follows:—

Dilke          7,357
Hoare          7,183
Russell        4,177
Freake         3,929

About 2,000 persons were present, and the four candidates with their
friends.



SINGULAR ASCENT IN THE CAPTIVE BALLOON.


A female inmate of St. George’s Workhouse, Fulham Road, named Hogg,
having completed her hundredth year, August 3, 1869, was asked by Mr.
Godrich, the medical officer, if, at her advanced age, there was any
particular wish he could gratify.  Her reply was that she should like to
go up in the balloon, and see the world once more.  Arrangements were
made for the following Thursday, and, accompanied by the Matron and a few
of Mr. Godrich’s friends, they ascended, and after enjoying themselves
for some considerable time descended quite safely, the centenarian
expressing herself much delighted with the aerial trip.

                                * * * * *

I have at length arrived at the conclusion of my work, and it now only
remains for me to bid the reader a respectful FAREWELL.

                                * * * * *

ERRATA.—At page 68, line 10, _read_ “East Meon, Hants,” instead of “East
Mere, Hants.”

                                * * * * *

                                * * * * *

                  FREDERICK BELL, PRINTER, KING’S ROAD.



Footnotes


{7}  For on account of the presentation of these colours, see “Ranelagh,”
in a subsequent part of this work.

{19a}  In 1534 he was attainted for denying the King’s supremacy, and
executed at Tyburn, the 7th of March in that year.—_Holinshed’s
Chronicle_.

{19b}  He was ejected from the Rectory in 1554, for being a married
priest, but was restored by Queen Elizabeth.—_Strype’s Stowe_.

{19c}  He gave, by will, £15 to the poor of this parish, and to the
repairing of the lead of the church.  He was buried at Chelsea in 1615.

{23}  From Dr. King’s MSS. it appears there had been a Clerk’s house and
school-rooms on this site previous to the erection of the present
building.

{26}  There is on accidental mistake at page 3.  The number of acres at
Kensal, belonging to the parish, should have been, as above, 137¾ acres.

{27}  This ancient manor house stood on the site of Lawrence Street, near
the Old Church, and derived its name from having been the residence of
the Lawrence family for a long period.

{41}  Mr. Thomas Bettsworth was well known to the parishioners and much
respected.  He was Churchwarden at the New Church, and took an active
part in parochial affairs.

{57}  Life of A. R. Bowes, Esq., by Jesse Foot.

{71}  Earl Cadogan’s Records.

{72}  I was well acquainted with these particulars, but for the sake of
accuracy I have taken an extract from “A Walk from Loudon to Fulham,” by
the late T. C. Croker, Esq., a work of great worth and highly
interesting.  Published by William Tegg, London, 1860.

{82}  See Old Church, page 14.

{85}  Gent. Mag., 1753.

{87}  Stephensiana, Monthly Magazine.

{100}  Granger, vol. iv., p. 293.

{102}  Gent. Mag. May, 1781.

{105}  See History of the Manor, p. 24.

{107}  Biog. Dram.

{108}  Dr. Drake’s Essays.

{111}  Pennant’s History of Whitford and Hollywell, p. 16.

{128}  Mr. Goss, the present Organist of St. Paul’s Cathedral, was then
Organist of the Church.

{137}  The Act specifies £20,000 and a Sixpenny Rate.

{144}  In allusion to a very impressive sermon preached by the late Rev.
H. Blunt, from 1 Sam. xv. 14.

{147}  The number that died of the plague this year in London was 30,578.

{150}  The Writer’s father was one of the two Overseers of the Poor in
1805.

{153a}  Drawn up in the hand-writing of the Rev. Dr. King, Rector.

{153b}  We find mention of Bloody Gate and Bridge as early as the reign
of Queen Elizabeth.  This spot was situated at the eastern entrance into
Sloane Square, and where Chelsea is divided from St. George’s, Hanover
Square.

{153c}  The whole of the land, now the site of Sloane Street, was
anciently called “Blackland.”  It extended as far as the Marlborough
Road, some few years since known as Blackland Lane.

{155}  Gent. Mag., 1753.

{159}  Annual Register, 1771, p. 160.

{177}  Queen’s Road West was formerly called Paradise Row.

{184}  Gent. Mag. 1747. pp. 298, 400.

{188}  Rev. G. R. Gleig’s “Chelsea Hospital.”

{199}  These Colours are deposited in the Old Church.

{218}  Granger’s Biog. Hist., vol. ii. p. 211.

{223}  Now Sir Charles Wentworth Dilke.





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