Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

´╗┐Title: The 2005 CIA World Factbook
Author: United States. Central Intelligence Agency
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The 2005 CIA World Factbook" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



THE CIA WORLD FACTBOOK 2005



CONTENTS


Countries and Locations

Field Listings

Rank Orders

Appendixes

Notes and Definitions

History of The World Factbook

Contributors and Copyright Information

Purchasing Information

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)



What's New

- Country information has been updated as of 20 October, 2005.

- There have been some significant changes to the latest edition of The
World Factbook. Recent confirmation that the United Kingdom Government
administers the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia on Cyprus
as dependencies (and not as lease areas like the US Guantanamo Bay
Naval Station in Cuba) has required a changing of their status and
their addition to the Factbook as new entities. In addition, the
European Union has been included as an "Other" entity at the end of the
listing. The European Union continues to accrue more nation-like
characteristics for itself and so a separate listing was deemed
appropriate. A fuller explanation may be found under the European Union
Preliminary statement.

- Along with the new entities and the regular information updates,
The World Factbook now also features six new fields. In the
People category, a Major infectious diseases field has been added
for countries deemed to pose a higher degree of risk for
travelers. In the Economy category, entries have been added for
Current account balance, Investment (gross fixed), Public debt,
and Reserves of foreign exchange and gold. The Transnational
issues category has a new Refugees and internally displaced
persons entry.

- Revision of some individual country maps, first introduced in
the 2001 edition, is continued in this edition. Several regional
maps have also been updated to reflect boundary changes and place
name spelling changes.



=====================================================================



Country Listing


[Transcriber's note: To search on a country name in this file, prefix
the name with "@", e.g. "@Afghanistan".  "Afghanistan" will find all
occurrences; prefixing it with "@" will find the correct location.]



World


A

Afghanistan
Akrotiri
Albania
Algeria
American Samoa
Andorra
Angola
Anguilla
Antarctica
Antigua and Barbuda
Arctic Ocean
Argentina
Armenia
Aruba
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Atlantic Ocean
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan


B

Bahamas, The
Bahrain
Baker Island
Bangladesh
Barbados
Bassas da India
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bermuda
Bhutan
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Bouvet Island
Brazil
British Indian Ocean Territory
British Virgin Islands
Brunei
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burma
Burundi


C

Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Cayman Islands
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Christmas Island
Clipperton Island
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Colombia
Comoros
Congo, Democratic Republic of the
Congo, Republic of the
Cook Islands
Coral Sea Islands
Costa Rica
Cote d'Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic


D

Denmark
Dhekelia
Djibouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic


E

East Timor
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Europa Island


F

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Faroe Islands
Fiji
Finland
France
French Guiana
French Polynesia
French Southern and Antarctic Lands


G

Gabon
Gambia, The
Gaza Strip
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Gibraltar
Glorioso Islands
Greece
Greenland
Grenada
Guadeloupe
Guam
Guatemala
Guernsey
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana


H

Haiti
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Holy See (Vatican City)
Honduras
Hong Kong
Howland Island
Hungary


I

Iceland
India
Indian Ocean
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy


J

Jamaica
Jan Mayen
Japan
Jarvis Island
Jersey
Johnston Atoll
Jordan
Juan de Nova Island


K

Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kingman Reef
Kiribati
Korea, North
Korea, South
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan


L

Laos
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Luxembourg


M

Macau
Macedonia
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Man, Isle of
Marshall Islands
Martinique
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mayotte
Mexico
Micronesia, Federated States of
Midway Islands
Moldova
Monaco
Mongolia
Montserrat
Morocco
Mozambique


N

Namibia
Nauru
Navassa Island
Nepal
Netherlands
Netherlands Antilles
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Niue
Norfolk Island
Northern Mariana Islands
Norway


O

Oman


P

Pacific Ocean
Pakistan
Palau
Palmyra Atoll
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paracel Islands
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Pitcairn Islands
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico


Q

Qatar


R

Reunion
Romania
Russia
Rwanda


S

Saint Helena
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Samoa
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia and Montenegro
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Southern Ocean
Spain
Spratly Islands
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Svalbard
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria


T

Taiwan entry follows Zimbabwe
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Togo
Tokelau
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tromelin Island
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Turks and Caicos Islands
Tuvalu


U

Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan


V

Vanuatu
Venezuela
Vietnam
Virgin Islands


W

Wake Island
Wallis and Futuna
West Bank
Western Sahara


Y

Yemen


Z

Zambia
Zimbabwe



Taiwan
European Union



=====================================================================



Field Listings


[Transcriber's note: To search on a field code in this file, prefix
the code number with "@", e.g. "@2001".  "2001" will find all
occurrences; prefixing it with "@" will find the correct location.]



Code  Field Description

2001  GDP (purchasing power parity)
2002  Population growth rate (%)
2003  GDP - real growth rate (%)
2004  GDP - per capita
2006  Dependency status
2007  Diplomatic representation from the US
2008  Transportation - note
2010  Age structure (%)
2011  Geographic coordinates
2012  GDP - composition by sector (%)
2013  Radio broadcast stations
2015  Television broadcast stations
2018  Sex ratio (male(s)/female)
2019  Heliports
2020  Elevation extremes (m)
2021  Natural hazards
2022  People - note
2023  Area - comparative
2024  Military service age and obligation (years of age)
2025  Manpower fit for military service
2026  Manpower reaching military service age annually
2028  Background
2030  Airports - with paved runways
2031  Airports - with unpaved runways
2032  Environment - current issues
2033  Environment - international agreements
2034  Military expenditures - percent of GDP (%)
2038  Electricity - production (kWh)
2042  Electricity - consumption (kWh)
2043  Electricity - imports (kWh)
2044  Electricity - exports (kWh)
2046  Population below poverty line (%)
2047  Household income or consumption by percentage share (%)
2048  Labor force - by occupation (%)
2049  Exports - commodities
2050  Exports - partners (%)
2051  Administrative divisions
2052  Agriculture - products
2053  Airports
2054  Birth rate (births/1,000 population)
2055  Military branches
2056  Budget
2057  Capital
2058  Imports - commodities
2059  Climate
2060  Coastline (km)
2061  Imports - partners (%)
2062  Economic aid - donor
2063  Constitution
2064  Economic aid - recipient
2065  Currency (code)
2066  Death rate (deaths/1,000 population)
2067  Military expenditures - dollar figure
2068  Dependent areas
2070  Disputes - international
2075  Ethnic groups (%)
2076  Exchange rates
2077  Executive branch
2078  Exports
2079  Debt - external
2080  Fiscal year
2081  Flag description
2085  Highways (km)
2086  Illicit drugs
2087  Imports
2088  Independence
2089  Industrial production growth rate (%)
2090  Industries
2091  Infant mortality rate (deaths/1,000 live births)
2092  Inflation rate (consumer prices) (%)
2093  Waterways (km)
2094  Judicial branch
2095  Labor force
2096  Land boundaries (km)
2097  Land use (%)
2098  Languages (%)
2100  Legal system
2101  Legislative branch
2102  Life expectancy at birth (years)
2103  Literacy (%)
2105  Manpower available for military service
2106  Maritime claims
2107  International organization participation
2108  Merchant marine
2109  National holiday
2110  Nationality
2111  Natural resources
2112  Net migration rate (migrant(s)/1,000 population)
2113  Geography - note
2115  Political pressure groups and leaders
2116  Economy - overview
2117  Pipelines (km)
2118  Political parties and leaders
2119  Population
2120  Ports and harbors
2121  Railways (km)
2122  Religions (%)
2123  Suffrage
2124  Telephone system
2125  Terrain
2127  Total fertility rate (children born/woman)
2128  Government type
2129  Unemployment rate (%)
2137  Military - note
2138  Communications - note
2140  Government - note
2142  Country name
2144  Location
2145  Map references
2146  Irrigated land (sq km)
2147  Area (sq km)
2149  Diplomatic representation in the US
2150  Telephones - main lines in use
2151  Telephones - mobile cellular
2153  Internet users
2154  Internet country code
2155  HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)
2156  HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
2157  HIV/AIDS - deaths
2158  Currency code
2172  Distribution of family income - Gini index
2173  Oil - production (bbl/day)
2174  Oil - consumption (bbl/day)
2175  Oil - imports (bbl/day)
2176  Oil - exports (bbl/day)
2177  Median age (years)
2178  Oil - proved reserves (bbl)
2179  Natural gas - proved reserves (cu m)
2180  Natural gas - production (cu m)
2181  Natural gas - consumption (cu m)
2182  Natural gas - imports (cu m)
2183  Natural gas - exports (cu m)
2184  Internet hosts
2185  Investment (gross fixed) (% of GDP)
2186  Public debt (% of GDP)
2187  Current account balance
2188  Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
2193  Major infectious diseases
2194  Refugees and internally displaced persons



======================================================================



Rank Orders


[Transcriber's note: To search on a rank order in this file, prefix
the rank's name with "@", e.g. "@Population".  "Population" will find
all occurrences; prefixing it with "@" will find the correct location.]



Guide to Rank Order Pages


Rank Order pages are presorted lists of data from selected Factbook
data fields. Rank Order pages are generally given in descending order -
highest to lowest - such as Population and Area. The two exceptions are
Unemployment Rate and Inflation Rate, which are in ascending - lowest
to highest - order. Rank Order pages are available for the following 47
fields in six of the nine Factbook categories.


Geography

Area - total


People

Population
Birth rate
Death rate
Infant mortality rate
Life expectancy at birth - total
Total fertility rate
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS - deaths


Economy

GDP (purchasing power parity)
GDP - real growth rate
GDP - per capita
Investment (gross fixed)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
Labor force
Unemployment rate
Public debt
Industrial production growth rate
Electricity - production
Electricity - consumption
Oil - production
Oil - consumption
Oil - exports
Oil - imports
Oil - proved reserves
Natural Gas - production
Natural Gas - consumption
Natural Gas - exports
Natural Gas - imports
Natural Gas - proved reserves
Current account balance
Exports
Imports
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
Debt - external


Communications

Telephones - main lines in use
Telephones - mobile cellular
Internet hosts
Internet users


Transportation

Railways - total
Highways - total
Waterways
Merchant marine - total
Airports


Military

Military expenditures - dollar figure
Military expenditures - percent of GDP



Factbook fields with Rank Order pages are easily identified with a
small bar chart icon to the right of the data field title.

Not all Rank Order pages include the same number of entries because
information for a particular field is not available for all countries.
In addition, not all data fields are suitable for displaying as Rank
Order pages, such as those containing textual information. Textual
information is more readily viewed by clicking on the Field Listing
icon  next to the Data field title. The other icon next to the data
field title provides the definition of the field.

All of the 'Rank Order' pages can be downloaded as tab-delimited data
files and can be opened in other applications such as spreadsheets and
databases. To save a Rank Order page in a spreadsheet, first click on
the 'Download Datafile' choice above the Rank Order page you selected;
then, at the top of your browser window, click on 'File' and 'Save As'.
After saving the file, open the spreadsheet, find the saved file, and
'Open' it.

Additional Rank Order pages being considered for future updates of the
Factbook Web site include:

  Median age
  Literacy
  Population below the poverty line


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



=====================================================================



Appendixes


Appendix A - Abbreviations

Appendix B - International Organizations and Groups

Appendix C - Selected International Environmental Agreements

Appendix D - Cross-Reference List of Country Data Codes

Appendix E - Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data Codes

Appendix F - Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names



======================================================================



Notes and Definitions


Along with the new entities and the regular information updates, The
World Factbook now also features six new fields. In the Economy
category, entries have been added for Current account balance,
Investment (gross fixed), Public debt, and Reserves of foreign exchange
and gold. The Transnational issues category has a new Refugees and
internally displaced persons entry.


Abbreviations
This information is included in Appendix A: Abbreviations, which
includes all abbreviations and acronyms used in the Factbook, with
their expansions.

Acronyms
An acronym is an abbreviation coined from the initial letter of each
successive word in a term or phrase. In general, an acronym made up
solely from the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is
rendered in all capital letters (NATO from North Atlantic Treaty
Organization; an exception would be ASEAN for Association of Southeast
Asian Nations). In general, an acronym made up of more than the first
letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered with only an
initial capital letter (Comsat from Communications Satellite
Corporation; an exception would be NAM from Nonaligned Movement).
Hybrid forms are sometimes used to distinguish between initially
identical terms (WTO: WTrO for World Trade Organization and WToO for
World Tourism Organization.)

Administrative divisions
This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-
order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on
Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet
acted on by BGN are noted.

Age structure
This entry provides the distribution of the population according to
age. Information is included by sex and age group (0-14 years, 15-64
years, 65 years and over). The age structure of a population affects a
nation's key socioeconomic issues. Countries with young populations
(high percentage under age 15) need to invest more in schools, while
countries with older populations (high percentage ages 65 and over)
need to invest more in the health sector. The age structure can also be
used to help predict potential political issues. For example, the rapid
growth of a young adult population unable to find employment can lead
to unrest.

Agriculture - products
This entry is an ordered listing of major crops and products starting
with the most important.

Airports
This entry gives the total number of airports. The runway(s) may be
paved (concrete or asphalt surfaces) or unpaved (grass, dirt, sand, or
gravel surfaces), but must be usable. Not all airports have facilities
for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control.

Airports - with paved runways
This entry gives the total number of airports with paved runways
(concrete or asphalt surfaces) by length. For airports with more than
one runway, only the longest runway is included according to the
following five groups - (1) over 3,047 m, (2) 2,438 to 3,047 m, (3)
1,524 to 2,437 m, (4) 914 to 1,523 m, and (5) under 914 m. Only
airports with usable runways are included in this listing. Not all
airports have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic
control.

Airports - with unpaved runways
This entry gives the total number of airports with unpaved runways
(grass, dirt, sand, or gravel surfaces) by length. For airports with
more than one runway, only the longest runway is included according to
the following five groups - (1) over 3,047 m, (2) 2,438 to 3,047 m, (3)
1,524 to 2,437 m, (4) 914 to 1,523 m, and (5) under 914 m. Only
airports with usable runways are included in this listing. Not all
airports have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic
control.

Appendixes
This section includes Factbook-related material by topic.

Area
This entry includes three subfields. Total area is the sum of all land
and water areas delimited by international boundaries and/or
coastlines. Land area is the aggregate of all surfaces delimited by
international boundaries and/or coastlines, excluding inland water
bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). Water area is the sum of all water
surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines,
including inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers).

Area - comparative
This entry provides an area comparison based on total area equivalents.
Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states
based on area measurements (1990 revised) provided by the US Bureau of
the Census. The smaller entities are compared with Washington, DC (178
sq km, 69 sq mi) or The Mall in Washington, DC (0.59 sq km, 0.23 sq mi,
146 acres).

Background
This entry usually highlights major historic events and current issues
and may include a statement about one or two key future trends.

Birth rate
This entry gives the average annual number of births during a year per
1,000 persons in the population at midyear; also known as crude birth
rate. The birth rate is usually the dominant factor in determining the
rate of population growth. It depends on both the level of fertility
and the age structure of the population.

Budget
This entry includes revenues, total expenditures, and capital
expenditures. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis,
i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.

Capital
This entry gives the location of the seat of government.

Climate
This entry includes a brief description of typical weather regimes
throughout the year.

Coastline
This entry gives the total length of the boundary between the land area
(including islands) and the sea.

Communications
This category deals with the means of exchanging information and
includes the telephone, radio, television, and Internet host entries.

Communications - note
This entry includes miscellaneous communications information of
significance not included elsewhere.

Constitution
This entry includes the dates of adoption, revisions, and major
amendments.

Country data codes
see Data codes

Country map
Most versions of the Factbook provide a country map in color. The maps
were produced from the best information available at the time of
preparation. Names and/or boundaries may have changed subsequently.

Country name
This entry includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US
Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional
long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local
long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former
(Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also see the
Terminology note.

Crude oil
See entry for oil.

Currency (code)
This entry identifies the national medium of exchange and, in
parenthesis, gives the International Organization for Standardization
(ISO) 4217 alphabetic currency code for each country.

Current account balance
This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus
net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, and net
transfer payments (such as pension funds and worker remittances) to and
from the rest of the world during the period specified. These figures
are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power
parity (PPP) terms.

Data codes
This information is presented in Appendix D: Cross-Reference List of
Country Data Codes and Appendix E: Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic
Data Codes.

Date of information
In general, information available as of 1 January 2005, was used in the
preparation of this edition.

Death rate
This entry gives the average annual number of deaths during a year per
1,000 population at midyear; also known as crude death rate. The death
rate, while only a rough indicator of the mortality situation in a
country, accurately indicates the current mortality impact on
population growth. This indicator is significantly affected by age
distribution, and most countries will eventually show a rise in the
overall death rate, in spite of continued decline in mortality at all
ages, as declining fertility results in an aging population.

Debt - external
This entry gives the total public and private debt owed to nonresidents
repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. These figures are
calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power
parity (PPP) terms.

Dependency status
This entry describes the formal relationship between a particular
nonindependent entity and an independent state.

Dependent areas
This entry contains an alphabetical listing of all nonindependent
entities associated in some way with a particular independent state.

Diplomatic representation
The US Government has diplomatic relations with 187 independent states,
including 186 of the 191 UN members (excluded UN members are Bhutan,
Cuba, Iran, North Korea, and the US itself). In addition, the US has
diplomatic relations with 1 independent state that is not in the UN -
Holy See.

Diplomatic representation from the US
This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing
address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations,
consulate general locations, and consulate locations.

Diplomatic representation in the US
This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery, telephone, FAX,
consulate general locations, and consulate locations.

Disputes - international
This entry includes a wide variety of situations that range from
traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one
sort or another. Information regarding disputes over international
terrestrial and maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the US
Department of State. References to other situations involving borders
or frontiers may also be included, such as resource disputes,
geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues; however, inclusion does
not necessarily constitute official acceptance or recognition by the US
Government.

Distribution of family income - Gini index
This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of
family income in a country. The index is calculated from the Lorenz
curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number
of families arranged from the poorest to the richest. The index is the
ratio of (a) the area between a country's Lorenz curve and the 45
degree helping line to (b) the entire triangular area under the 45
degree line. The more nearly equal a country's income distribution, the
closer its Lorenz curve to the 45 degree line and the lower its Gini
index, e.g., a Scandinavian country with an index of 25. The more
unequal a country's income distribution, the farther its Lorenz curve
from the 45 degree line and the higher its Gini index, e.g., a Sub-
Saharan country with an index of 50. If income were distributed with
perfect equality, the Lorenz curve would coincide with the 45 degree
line and the index would be zero; if income were distributed with
perfect inequality, the Lorenz curve would coincide with the horizontal
axis and the right vertical axis and the index would be 100.

Economic aid - donor
This entry refers to net official development assistance (ODA) from
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nations to
developing countries and multilateral organizations. ODA is defined as
financial assistance that is concessional in character, has the main
objective to promote economic development and welfare of the less
developed countries (LDCs), and contains a grant element of at least
25%. The entry does not cover other official flows (OOF) or private
flows. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e.,
not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.

Economic aid - recipient
This entry, which is subject to major problems of definition and
statistical coverage, refers to the net inflow of Official Development
Finance (ODF) to recipient countries. The figure includes assistance
from the World Bank, the IMF, and other international organizations and
from individual nation donors. Formal commitments of aid are included
in the data. Omitted from the data are grants by private organizations.
Aid comes in various forms including outright grants and loans. The
entry thus is the difference between new inflows and repayments. These
figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in
purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.

Economy
This category includes the entries dealing with the size, development,
and management of productive resources, i.e., land, labor, and capital.

Economy - overview
This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree
of market orientation, the level of economic development, the most
important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization. It
also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most
recent 12 months and may include a statement about one or two key
future macroeconomic trends.

Electricity - consumption
This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus
imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy
between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the
amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in
transmission and distribution.

Electricity - exports
This entry is the total exported electricity in kilowatt-hours.

Electricity - imports
This entry is the total imported electricity in kilowatt-hours.

Electricity - production
This entry is the annual electricity generated expressed in kilowatt-
hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated
and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted
for as loss in transmission and distribution.

Elevation extremes
This entry includes both the highest point and the lowest point.

Entities
Some of the independent states, dependencies, areas of special
sovereignty, and governments included in this publication are not
independent, and others are not officially recognized by the US
Government. "Independent state" refers to a people politically
organized into a sovereign state with a definite territory.
"Dependencies" and "areas of special sovereignty" refer to a broad
category of political entities that are associated in some way with an
independent state. "Country" names used in the table of contents or for
page headings are usually the short-form names as approved by the US
Board on Geographic Names and may include independent states,
dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty, or other geographic
entities. There are a total of 271 separate geographic entities in The
World Factbook that may be categorized as follows:
INDEPENDENT STATES
192 Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and
Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The
Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize,
Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil,
Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,
Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China,
Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the
Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, East Timor,
Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia,
Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany,
Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,
Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran,
Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan,
Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,
Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali,
Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated
States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique,
Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria,
Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay,
Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda,
Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,
Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia
and Montenegro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka,
Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan,
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,
Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay,
Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe
OTHER
2 Taiwan, European Union
DEPENDENCIES AND AREAS OF SPECIAL SOVEREIGNTY
6 Australia - Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos
(Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald
Islands, Norfolk Island
2 China - Hong Kong, Macau
2 Denmark - Faroe Islands, Greenland
16 France - Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, French
Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso
Islands, Guadeloupe, Juan de Nova Island, Martinique, Mayotte, New
Caledonia, Reunion, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Tromelin Island, Wallis
and Futuna
2 Netherlands - Aruba, Netherlands Antilles
3 New Zealand - Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau
3 Norway - Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard
17 UK - Akrotiri, Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory,
British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Dhekelia, Falkland Islands,
Gibraltar, Guernsey, Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands,
Saint Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and
Caicos Islands
14 US - American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis
Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island,
Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands,
Wake Island
MISCELLANEOUS
6 Antarctica, Gaza Strip, Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands, West Bank,
Western Sahara
OTHER ENTITIES
5 oceans - Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean,
Southern Ocean
1 World

271 total

Environment - current issues
This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental
problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the
entry:
acidification - the lowering of soil and water pH due to acid
precipitation and deposition usually through precipitation; this
process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows and may kill freshwater fish
and plants dependent on more neutral or alkaline conditions (see acid
rain).
acid rain - characterized as containing harmful levels of sulfur
dioxide or nitrogen oxide; acid rain is damaging and potentially deadly
to the earth's fragile ecosystems; acidity is measured using the pH
scale where 7 is neutral, values greater than 7 are considered
alkaline, and values below 5.6 are considered acid precipitation; note
- a pH of 2.4 (the acidity of vinegar) has been measured in rainfall in
New England.
aerosol - a collection of airborne particles dispersed in a gas, smoke,
or fog.
afforestation - converting a bare or agricultural space by planting
trees and plants; reforestation involves replanting trees on areas that
have been cut or destroyed by fire.
asbestos - a naturally occurring soft fibrous mineral commonly used in
fireproofing materials and considered to be highly carcinogenic in
particulate form.
biodiversity - also biological diversity; the relative number of
species, diverse in form and function, at the genetic, organism,
community, and ecosystem level; loss of biodiversity reduces an
ecosystem's ability to recover from natural or man-induced disruption.
bio-indicators - a plant or animal species whose presence, abundance,
and health reveal the general condition of its habitat.
biomass - the total weight or volume of living matter in a given area
or volume.
carbon cycle - the term used to describe the exchange of carbon (in
various forms, e.g., as carbon dioxide) between the atmosphere, ocean,
terrestrial biosphere, and geological deposits.
catchments - assemblages used to capture and retain rainwater and
runoff; an important water management technique in areas with limited
freshwater resources, such as Gibraltar.
DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane) - a colorless, odorless
insecticide that has toxic effects on most animals; the use of DDT was
banned in the US in 1972.
defoliants - chemicals which cause plants to lose their leaves
artificially; often used in agricultural practices for weed control,
and may have detrimental impacts on human and ecosystem health.
deforestation - the destruction of vast areas of forest (e.g.,
unsustainable forestry practices, agricultural and range land clearing,
and the over exploitation of wood products for use as fuel) without
planting new growth.
desertification - the spread of desert-like conditions in arid or semi-
arid areas, due to overgrazing, loss of agriculturally productive
soils, or climate change.
dredging - the practice of deepening an existing waterway; also, a
technique used for collecting bottom-dwelling marine organisms (e.g.,
shellfish) or harvesting coral, often causing significant destruction
of reef and ocean-floor ecosystems.
drift-net fishing - done with a net, miles in extent, that is generally
anchored to a boat and left to float with the tide; often results in an
over harvesting and waste of large populations of non-commercial marine
species (by-catch) by its effect of "sweeping the ocean clean".
ecosystems - ecological units comprised of complex communities of
organisms and their specific environments.
effluents - waste materials, such as smoke, sewage, or industrial waste
which are released into the environment, subsequently polluting it.
endangered species - a species that is threatened with extinction
either by direct hunting or habitat destruction.
freshwater - water with very low soluble mineral content; sources
include lakes, streams, rivers, glaciers, and underground aquifers.
greenhouse gas - a gas that "traps" infrared radiation in the lower
atmosphere causing surface warming; water vapor, carbon dioxide,
nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons, and ozone are the primary
greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere.
groundwater - water sources found below the surface of the earth often
in naturally occurring reservoirs in permeable rock strata; the source
for wells and natural springs.
Highlands Water Project - a series of dams constructed jointly by
Lesotho and South Africa to redirect Lesotho's abundant water supply
into a rapidly growing area in South Africa; while it is the largest
infrastructure project in southern Africa, it is also the most costly
and controversial; objections to the project include claims that it
forces people from their homes, submerges farmlands, and squanders
economic resources.
Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC) - represents the 145,000 Inuits of
Russia, Alaska, Canada, and Greenland in international environmental
issues; a General Assembly convenes every three years to determine the
focus of the ICC; the most current concerns are long-range transport of
pollutants, sustainable development, and climate change.
metallurgical plants - industries which specialize in the science,
technology, and processing of metals; these plants produce highly
concentrated and toxic wastes which can contribute to pollution of
ground water and air when not properly disposed.
noxious substances - injurious, very harmful to living beings.
overgrazing - the grazing of animals on plant material faster than it
can naturally regrow leading to the permanent loss of plant cover, a
common effect of too many animals grazing limited range land.
ozone shield - a layer of the atmosphere composed of ozone gas (O3)
that resides approximately 25 miles above the Earth's surface and
absorbs solar ultraviolet radiation that can be harmful to living
organisms.
poaching - the illegal killing of animals or fish, a great concern with
respect to endangered or threatened species.
pollution - the contamination of a healthy environment by man-made
waste.
potable water - water that is drinkable, safe to be consumed.
salination - the process through which fresh (drinkable) water becomes
salt (undrinkable) water; hence, desalination is the reverse process;
also involves the accumulation of salts in topsoil caused by
evaporation of excessive irrigation water, a process that can
eventually render soil incapable of supporting crops.
siltation - occurs when water channels and reservoirs become clotted
with silt and mud, a side effect of deforestation and soil erosion.
slash-and-burn agriculture - a rotating cultivation technique in which
trees are cut down and burned in order to clear land for temporary
agriculture; the land is used until its productivity declines at which
point a new plot is selected and the process repeats; this practice is
sustainable while population levels are low and time is permitted for
regrowth of natural vegetation; conversely, where these conditions do
not exist, the practice can have disastrous consequences for the
environment .
soil degradation - damage to the land's productive capacity because of
poor agricultural practices such as the excessive use of pesticides or
fertilizers, soil compaction from heavy equipment, or erosion of
topsoil, eventually resulting in reduced ability to produce
agricultural products.
soil erosion - the removal of soil by the action of water or wind,
compounded by poor agricultural practices, deforestation, overgrazing,
and desertification.
ultraviolet (UV) radiation - a portion of the electromagnetic energy
emitted by the sun and naturally filtered in the upper atmosphere by
the ozone layer; UV radiation can be harmful to living organisms and
has been linked to increasing rates of skin cancer in humans.
water-born diseases - those in which bacteria survive in, and are
transmitted through, water; always a serious threat in areas with an
untreated water supply.

Environment - international agreements
This entry separates country participation in international
environmental agreements into two levels - party to and signed, but not
ratified. Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the
abbreviated form of the full name.

Environmental agreements
This information is presented in Appendix C: Selected International
Environmental Agreements, which includes the name, abbreviation, date
opened for signature, date entered into force, objective, and parties
by category.

Ethnic groups
This entry provides an ordered listing of ethnic groups starting with
the largest and normally includes the percent of total population.

Exchange rates
This entry provides the official value of a country's monetary unit at
a given date or over a given period of time, as expressed in units of
local currency per US dollar and as determined by international market
forces or official fiat.

Executive branch
This entry includes several subfields. Chief of state includes the name
and title of the titular leader of the country who represents the state
at official and ceremonial functions but may not be involved with the
day-to-day activities of the government. Head of government includes
the name and title of the top administrative leader who is designated
to manage the day-to-day activities of the government. For example, in
the UK, the monarch is the chief of state, and the prime minister is
the head of government. In the US, the president is both the chief of
state and the head of government. Cabinet includes the official name
for this body of high-ranking advisers and the method for selection of
members. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession
to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election.
Election results includes the percent of vote for each candidate in the
last election.

Exports
This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports
on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an
exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.

Exports - commodities
This entry provides a rank ordering of exported products starting with
the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar
value.

Exports - partners
This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with
the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar
value.

Fiscal year
This entry identifies the beginning and ending months for a country's
accounting period of 12 months, which often is the calendar year but
which may begin in any month. All yearly references are for the
calendar year (CY) unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year (FY).

Flag description
This entry provides a written flag description produced from actual
flags or the best information available at the time the entry was
written. The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies
unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and
other areas do not have flags.

Flag graphic
Most versions of the Factbook include a color flag at the beginning of
the country profile. The flag graphics were produced from actual flags
or the best information available at the time of preparation. The flags
of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an
officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and other areas do not
have flags.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final
goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar
estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity
(PPP) calculations. See the note on GDP methodology for more
information.

GDP - composition by sector
This entry gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry,
and services to total GDP. The distribution will total less than 100
percent if the data are incomplete.

GDP - per capita
This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by
population as of 1 July for the same year.

GDP - real growth rate
This entry gives GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation
and expressed as a percent.

GDP methodology
In the Economy category, GDP dollar estimates for all countries are
derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations rather than
from conversions at official currency exchange rates. The PPP method
involves the use of standardized international dollar price weights,
which are applied to the quantities of final goods and services
produced in a given economy. The data derived from the PPP method
provide the best available starting point for comparisons of economic
strength and well-being between countries. The division of a GDP
estimate in domestic currency by the corresponding PPP estimate in
dollars gives the PPP conversion rate. Whereas PPP estimates for OECD
countries are quite reliable, PPP estimates for developing countries
are often rough approximations. Most of the GDP estimates are based on
extrapolation of PPP numbers published by the UN International
Comparison Program (UNICP) and by Professors Robert Summers and Alan
Heston of the University of Pennsylvania and their colleagues. In
contrast, the currency exchange rate method involves a variety of
international and domestic financial forces that often have little
relation to domestic output. In developing countries with weak
currencies the exchange rate estimate of GDP in dollars is typically
one-fourth to one-half the PPP estimate. Furthermore, exchange rates
may suddenly go up or down by 10% or more because of market forces or
official fiat whereas real output has remained unchanged. On 12 January
1994, for example, the 14 countries of the African Financial Community
(whose currencies are tied to the French franc) devalued their
currencies by 50%. This move, of course, did not cut the real output of
these countries by half. One important caution: the proportion of, say,
defense expenditures as a percentage of GDP in local currency accounts
may differ substantially from the proportion when GDP accounts are
expressed in PPP terms, as, for example, when an observer tries to
estimate the dollar level of Russian or Japanese military expenditures.
Note: the numbers for GDP and other economic data cannot be chained
together from successive volumes of the Factbook because of changes in
the US dollar measuring rod, revisions of data by statistical agencies,
use of new or different sources of information, and changes in national
statistical methods and practices.

GNP
Gross national product (GNP) is the value of all final goods and
services produced within a nation in a given year, plus income earned
by its citizens abroad, minus income earned by foreigners from domestic
production. The Factbook, following current practice, uses GDP rather
than GNP to measure national production. However, the user must realize
that in certain countries net remittances from citizens working abroad
may be important to national well-being.

GWP
This entry gives the gross world product (GWP) or aggregate value of
all final goods and services produced worldwide in a given year.

Geographic coordinates
This entry includes rounded latitude and longitude figures for the
purpose of finding the approximate geographic center of an entity and
is based on the Gazetteer of Conventional Names, Third Edition, August
1988, US Board on Geographic Names and on other sources.

Geographic names
This information is presented in Appendix F: Cross-Reference List of
Geographic Names. It includes a listing of various alternate names,
former names, local names, and regional names referenced to one or more
related Factbook entries. Spellings are normally, but not always, those
approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Alternate names and
additional information are included in parentheses.

Geography
This category includes the entries dealing with the natural environment
and the effects of human activity.

Geography - note
This entry includes miscellaneous geographic information of
significance not included elsewhere.

Gini index
See entry for Distribution of family income - Gini index

Government
This category includes the entries dealing with the system for the
adoption and administration of public policy.

Government - note
This entry includes miscellaneous government information of
significance not included elsewhere.

Government type
This entry gives the basic form of government. Definitions of the major
governmental terms are as follows:
Anarchy - a condition of lawlessness or political disorder brought
about by the absence of governmental authority.
Commonwealth - a nation, state, or other political entity founded on
law and united by a compact of the people for the common good.
Communism - a system of government in which the state plans and
controls the economy and a single - often authoritarian - party holds
power; state controls are imposed with the elimination of private
ownership of property or capital while claiming to make progress toward
a higher social order in which all goods are equally shared by the
people (i.e., a classless society).
Confederacy (Confederation) - a union by compact or treaty between
states, provinces, or territories, that creates a central government
with limited powers; the constituent entities retain supreme authority
over all matters except those delegated to the central government.
Constitutional - a government by or operating under an authoritative
document (constitution) that sets forth the system of fundamental laws
and principles that determines the nature, functions, and limits of
that government.
Constitutional democracy - a form of government in which the sovereign
power of the people is spelled out in a governing constitution.
Constitutional monarchy - a system of government in which a monarch is
guided by a constitution whereby his/her rights, duties, and
responsibilities are spelled out in written law or by custom.
Democracy - a form of government in which the supreme power is retained
by the people, but which is usually exercised indirectly through a
system of representation and delegated authority periodically renewed.
Democratic republic - a state in which the supreme power rests in the
body of citizens entitled to vote for officers and representatives
responsible to them.
Dictatorship - a form of government in which a ruler or small clique
wield absolute power (not restricted by a constitution or laws).
Ecclesiastical - a government administrated by a church.
Federal (Federative) - a form of government in which sovereign power is
formally divided - usually by means of a constitution - between a
central authority and a number of constituent regions (states,
colonies, or provinces) so that each region retains some management of
its internal affairs; differs from a confederacy in that the central
government exerts influence directly upon both individuals as well as
upon the regional units.
Federal republic - a state in which the powers of the central
government are restricted and in which the component parts (states,
colonies, or provinces) retain a degree of self-government; ultimate
sovereign power rests with the voters who chose their governmental
representatives.
Maoism - the theory and practice of Marxism-Leninism developed in China
by Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung), which states that a continuous revolution
is necessary if the leaders of a communist state are to keep in touch
with the people.
Marxism - the political, economic, and social principles espoused by
19th century economist Karl Marx; he viewed the struggle of workers as
a progression of historical forces that would proceed from a class
struggle of the proletariat (workers) exploited by capitalists
(business owners), to a socialist "dictatorship of the proletariat,"
to, finally, a classless society - communism.
Marxism-Leninism - an expanded form of communism developed by Lenin
from doctrines of Karl Marx; Lenin saw imperialism as the final stage
of capitalism and shifted the focus of workers' struggle from developed
to underdeveloped countries.
Monarchy - a government in which the supreme power is lodged in the
hands of a monarch who reigns over a state or territory, usually for
life and by hereditary right; the monarch may be either a sole absolute
ruler or a sovereign - such as a king, queen, or prince - with
constitutionally limited authority.
Oligarchy - a government in which control is exercised by a small group
of individuals whose authority generally is based on wealth or power.
Parliamentary democracy - a political system in which the legislature
(parliament) selects the government - a prime minister, premier, or
chancellor along with the cabinet ministers - according to party
strength as expressed in elections; by this system, the government
acquires a dual responsibility: to the people as well as to the
parliament.
Parliamentary government (Cabinet-Parliamentary government) - a
government in which members of an executive branch (the cabinet and its
leader - a prime minister, premier, or chancellor) are nominated to
their positions by a legislature or parliament, and are directly
responsible to it; this type of government can be dissolved at will by
the parliament (legislature) by means of a no confidence vote or the
leader of the cabinet may dissolve the parliament if it can no longer
function.
Parliamentary monarchy - a state headed by a monarch who is not
actively involved in policy formation or implementation (i.e., the
exercise of sovereign powers by a monarch in a ceremonial capacity);
true governmental leadership is carried out by a cabinet and its head -
a prime minister, premier, or chancellor - who are drawn from a
legislature (parliament).
Republic - a representative democracy in which the people's elected
deputies (representatives), not the people themselves, vote on
legislation.
Socialism - a government in which the means of planning, producing, and
distributing goods is controlled by a central government that
theoretically seeks a more just and equitable distribution of property
and labor; in actuality, most socialist governments have ended up being
no more than dictatorships over workers by a ruling elite.
Sultanate - similar to a monarchy, but a government in which the
supreme power is in the hands of a sultan (the head of a Muslim state);
the sultan may be an absolute ruler or a sovereign with
constitutionally limited authority.
Theocracy - a form of government in which a Deity is recognized as the
supreme civil ruler, but the Deity's laws are interpreted by
ecclesiastical authorities (bishops, mullahs, etc.); a government
subject to religious authority.
Totalitarian - a government that seeks to subordinate the individual to
the state by controlling not only all political and economic matters,
but also the attitudes, values, and beliefs of its population.

Gross domestic product
see GDP

Gross national product
see GNP

Gross world product
see GWP

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
This entry gives an estimate of the percentage of adults (aged 15-49)
living with HIV/AIDS. The adult prevalence rate is calculated by
dividing the estimated number of adults living with HIV/AIDS at yearend
by the total adult population at yearend.

HIV/AIDS - deaths
This entry gives an estimate of the number of adults and children who
died of AIDS during a given calendar year.

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
This entry gives an estimate of all people (adults and children) alive
at yearend with HIV infection, whether or not they have developed
symptoms of AIDS.

Heliports
This entry gives the total number of heliports with hard-surface
runways, helipads, or landing areas that support routine sustained
helicopter operations exclusively and have support facilities including
one or more of the following facilities: lighting, fuel, passenger
handling, or maintenance. It includes former airports used exclusively
for helicopter operations but excludes heliports limited to day
operations and natural clearings that could support helicopter landings
and takeoffs.

Highways
This entry states the total length of the highway system and the length
of the paved and unpaved parts.

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Data on household income or consumption come from household surveys,
the results adjusted for household size. Nations use different
standards and procedures in collecting and adjusting the data. Surveys
based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than
surveys based on consumption. The quality of surveys is improving with
time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country
comparisons.

Hydrographic data codes
see Data codes

Illicit drugs
This entry gives information on the five categories of illicit drugs -
narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, and
cannabis. These categories include many drugs legally produced and
prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally produced and sold
outside of medical channels.
Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which provides
hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana
(pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC,
Marinol), hashish (hash), and hashish oil (hash oil).
Coca (mostly Erythroxylum coca) is a bush with leaves that contain the
stimulant used to make cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa,
which comes from cacao seeds and is used in making chocolate, cocoa,
and cocoa butter.
Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush.
Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and
include chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal,
phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone
(Quaalude), glutethimide (Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl,
Valmid).
Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental,
emotional, or behavioral change in an individual.
Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that
results in physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an
individual.
Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking, self-
awareness, and emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid, microdot),
mescaline and peyote (mexc, buttons, cactus), amphetamine variants
(PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust, hog), phencyclidine
analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others (psilocybin, psilocyn).
Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis
sativa).
Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine.
Mandrax is a trade name for methaqualone, a pharmaceutical depressant.
Marijuana is the dried leaf of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis
sativa).
Methaqualone is a pharmaceutical depressant, referred to as mandrax in
Southwest Asia and Africa.
Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer to
opium, opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics
include opium (paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol),
codeine (Tylenol with codeine, Empirin with codeine, Robitussan AC),
and thebaine. Semisynthetic narcotics include heroin (horse, smack),
and hydromorphone (Dilaudid). Synthetic narcotics include meperidine or
Pethidine (Demerol, Mepergan), methadone (Dolophine, Methadose), and
others (Darvon, Lomotil).
Opium is the brown, gummy exudate of the incised, unripe seedpod of the
opium poppy.
Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the source for the natural and
semisynthetic narcotics.
Poppy straw is the entire cut and dried opium poppy-plant material,
other than the seeds. Opium is extracted from poppy straw in commercial
operations that produce the drug for medical use.
Qat (kat, khat) is a stimulant from the buds or leaves of Catha edulis
that is chewed or drunk as tea.
Quaaludes is the North American slang term for methaqualone, a
pharmaceutical depressant.
Stimulants are drugs that relieve mild depression, increase energy and
activity, and include cocaine (coke, snow, crack), amphetamines
(Desoxyn, Dexedrine), ephedrine, ecstasy (clarity, essence, doctor,
Adam), phenmetrazine (Preludin), methylphenidate (Ritalin), and others
(Cylert, Sanorex, Tenuate).

Imports
This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports
on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board)
basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e.,
not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.

Imports - commodities
This entry provides a rank ordering of imported products starting with
the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar
value.

Imports - partners
This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with
the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar
value.

Independence
For most countries, this entry gives the date that sovereignty was
achieved and from which nation, empire, or trusteeship. For the other
countries, the date given may not represent "independence" in the
strict sense, but rather some significant nationhood event such as the
traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation,
confederation, establishment, fundamental change in the form of
government, or state succession. Dependent areas include the notation
"none" followed by the nature of their dependency status. Also see the
Terminology note.

Industrial production growth rate
This entry gives the annual percentage increase in industrial
production (includes manufacturing, mining, and construction).

Industries
This entry provides a rank ordering of industries starting with the
largest by value of annual output.

Infant mortality rate
This entry gives the number of deaths of infants under one year old in
a given year per 1,000 live births in the same year; included is the
total death rate, and deaths by sex, male and female. This rate is
often used as an indicator of the level of health in a country.

Inflation rate (consumer prices)
This entry furnishes the annual percent change in consumer prices
compared with the previous year's consumer prices.

International disputes
see Disputes - international

International organization participation
This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those
international organizations in which the subject country is a member or
participates in some other way.

International organizations
This information is presented in Appendix B: International
Organizations and Groups which includes the name, abbreviation, date
established, aim, and members by category.

Internet country code
This entry includes the two-letter codes maintained by the
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in the ISO 3166
Alpha-2 list and used by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
to establish country-coded top-level domains (ccTLDs).

Internet hosts
This entry lists the number of Internet hosts available within a
country. An Internet host is a computer connected directly to the
Internet; normally an Internet Service Provider's (ISP) computer is a
host. Internet users may use either a hard-wired terminal, at an
institution with a mainframe computer connected directly to the
Internet, or may connect remotely by way of a modem via telephone line,
cable, or satellite to the Internet Service Provider's host computer.
The number of hosts is one indicator of the extent of Internet
connectivity.

Internet users
This entry gives the number of users within a country that access the
Internet. Statistics vary from country to country and may include users
who access the Internet at least several times a week to those who
access it only once within a period of several months.

Introduction
This category includes one entry, Background.

Investment (gross fixed)
This entry records total business spending on fixed assets, such as
factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw
materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is
measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes
invesment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital.

Irrigated land
This entry gives the number of square kilometers of land area that is
artificially supplied with water.

Judicial branch
This entry contains the name(s) of the highest court(s) and a brief
description of the selection process for members.

Labor force
This entry contains the total labor force figure.

Labor force - by occupation
This entry lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by
occupation. The distribution will total less than 100 percent if the
data are incomplete.

Land boundaries
This entry contains the total length of all land boundaries and the
individual lengths for each of the contiguous border countries.

Land use
This entry contains the percentage shares of total land area for three
different types of land use: arable land - land cultivated for crops
like wheat, maize, and rice that are replanted after each harvest;
permanent crops - land cultivated for crops like citrus, coffee, and
rubber that are not replanted after each harvest; includes land under
flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land
under trees grown for wood or timber; other - any land not arable or
under permanent crops; includes permanent meadows and pastures, forests
and woodlands, built-on areas, roads, barren land, etc.

Languages
This entry provides a rank ordering of languages starting with the
largest and sometimes includes the percent of total population speaking
that language.

Legal system
This entry contains a brief description of the legal system's
historical roots, role in government, and acceptance of International
Court of Justice (ICJ) jurisdiction.

Legislative branch
This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral,
bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of
office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession
to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election.
Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats
held by each party in the last election.

Life expectancy at birth
This entry contains the average number of years to be lived by a group
of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains
constant in the future. The entry includes total population as well as
the male and female components. Life expectancy at birth is also a
measure of overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the
mortality at all ages. It can also be thought of as indicating the
potential return on investment in human capital and is necessary for
the calculation of various actuarial measures.

Literacy
This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau
percentages for the total population, males, and females. There are no
universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise
specified, all rates are based on the most common definition - the
ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards
that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write
is beyond the scope of the Factbook. Information on literacy, while not
a perfect measure of educational results, is probably the most easily
available and valid for international comparisons. Low levels of
literacy, and education in general, can impede the economic development
of a country in the current rapidly changing, technology-driven world.

Location
This entry identifies the country's regional location, neighboring
countries, and adjacent bodies of water.

Major infectious diseases
This entry lists major infectious diseases likely to be encountered in
countries where the risk of such diseases is assessed to be very high
as compared to the United States. These infectious diseases represent
risks to US government personnel traveling to the specified country for
a period of less than three years. The degree of risk is assessed by
considering the foreign nature of these infectious diseases, their
severity, and the probability of being affected by the diseases
present. The diseases listed do not necessarily represent the total
disease burden experienced by the local population.
The risk to an individual traveler varies considerably by the specific
location, visit duration, type of activities, type of accommodations,
time of year, and other factors. Consultation with a travel medicine
physician is needed to evaluate individual risk and recommend
appropriate preventive measures such as vaccines.
Diseases are organized into the following six exposure categories shown
in italics and listed in typical descending order of risk. Note - The
sequence of exposure categories listed in individual country entries
may vary according to local conditions.
food or waterborne diseases acquired through eating or drinking on the
local economy:
Hepatitis A - viral disease that interferes with the functioning of the
liver; spread through consumption of food or water contaminated with
fecal matter, principally in areas of poor sanitation; victims exhibit
fever, jaundice, and diarrhea; 15% of victims will experience prolonged
symptoms over 6-9 months; vaccine available.
Hepatitis E - water-borne viral disease that interferes with the
functioning of the liver; most commonly spread through fecal
contamination of drinking water; victims exhibit jaundice, fatigue,
abdominal pain, and dark colored urine.
Typhoid fever - bacterial disease spread through contact with food or
water contaminated by fecal matter or sewage; victims exhibit sustained
high fevers; left untreated, mortality rates can reach 20%.
vectorborne diseases acquired through the bite of an infected
arthropod:
Malaria - caused by single-cell parasitic protozoa Plasmodium;
transmitted to humans via the bite of the female Anopheles mosquito;
parasites multiply in the liver attacking red blood cells resulting in
cycles of fever, chills, and sweats accompanied by anemia; death due to
damage to vital organs and interruption of blood supply to the brain;
endemic in 100, mostly tropical, countries with 90% of cases and the
majority of 1.5-2.5 million estimated annual deaths occurring in sub-
Saharan Africa.
Dengue fever - mosquito-borne (Aedes aegypti) viral disease associated
with urban environments; manifests as sudden onset of fever and severe
headache; occasionally produces shock and hemorrhage leading to death
in 5% of cases.
Yellow fever - mosquito-borne viral disease; severity ranges from
influenza-like symptoms to severe hepatitis and hemorrhagic fever;
occurs only in tropical South America and sub-Saharan Africa, where
most cases are reported; fatality rate is less than 20%.
Japanese Encephalitis - mosquito-borne (Culex tritaeniorhynchus) viral
disease associated with rural areas in Asia; acute encephalitis can
progress to paralysis, coma, and death; fatality rates 30%.
African Trypanosomiasis - caused by the parasitic protozoa Trypanosoma;
transmitted to humans via the bite of bloodsucking Tsetse flies;
infection leads to malaise and irregular fevers and, in advanced cases
when the parasites invade the central nervous system, coma and death;
endemic in 36 countries of sub-Saharan Africa; cattle and wild animals
act as reservoir hosts for the parasites.
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis - caused by the parasitic protozoa leishmania;
transmitted to humans via the bite of sandflies; results in skin
lesions that may become chronic; endemic in 88 countries; 90% of cases
occur in Iran, Afghanistan, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Brazil, and Peru; wild
and domesticated animals as well as humans can act as reservoirs of
infection.
Plague - bacterial disease transmitted by fleas normally associated
with rats; person-to-person airborne transmission also possible; recent
plague epidemics occurred in areas of Asia, Africa, and South America
associated with rural areas or small towns and villages; manifests as
fever, headache, and painfully swollen lymph nodes; disease progresses
rapidly and without antibiotic treatment leads to pneumonic form with a
death rate in excess of 50%.
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever - tick-borne viral disease; infection
may also result from exposure to infected animal blood or tissue;
geographic distribution includes Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and
Eastern Europe; sudden onset of fever, headache, and muscle aches
followed by hemorrhaging in the bowels, urine, nose, and gums;
mortality rate is approximately 30%.
Rift Valley fever - viral disease affecting domesticated animals and
humans; transmission is by mosquito and other biting insects; infection
may also occur through handling of infected meat or contact with blood;
geographic distribution includes eastern and southern Africa where
cattle and sheep are raised; symptoms are generally mild with fever and
some liver abnormalities, but the disease may progress to hemorrhagic
fever, encephalitis, or ocular disease; fatality rates are low at about
1% of cases.
Chikungunya - mosquito-borne (Aedes aegypti) viral disease associated
with urban environments, similar to Dengue Fever; characterized by
sudden onset of fever, rash, and severe joint pain usually lasting 3-7
days, some cases result in persistent arthritis.
water contact diseases acquired through swimming or wading in
freshwater lakes, streams, and rivers:
Leptospirosis - bacterial disease that affects animals and humans;
infection occurs through contact with water, food, or soil contaminated
by animal urine; symptoms include high fever, severe headache,
vomiting, jaundice, and diarrhea; untreated, the disease can result in
kidney damage, liver failure, meningitis, or respiratory distress;
fatality rates are low but left untreated recovery can take months.
Schistosomiasis - caused by parasitic trematode flatworm Schistosoma;
fresh water snails act as intermediate host and release larval form of
parasite that penetrates the skin of people exposed to contaminated
water; worms mature and reproduce in the blood vessels, liver, kidneys,
and intestines releasing eggs, which become trapped in tissues
triggering an immune response; may manifest as either urinary or
intestinal disease resulting in decreased work or learning capacity;
mortality, while generally low, may occur in advanced cases usually due
to bladder cancer; endemic in 74 developing countries with 80% of
infected people living in sub-Saharan Africa; humans act as the
reservoir for this parasite.
aerosolized dust or soil contact disease acquired through inhalation of
aerosols contaminated with rodent urine:
Lassa fever - viral disease carried by rats of the genus Mastomys;
endemic in portions of West Africa; infection occurs through direct
contact with or consumption of food contaminated by rodent urine or
fecal matter containing virus particles; fatality rate can reach 50% in
epidemic outbreaks.
respiratory disease acquired through close contact with an infectious
person:
Meningococcal meningitis - bacterial disease causing an inflammation of
the lining of the brain and spinal cord; one of the most important
bacterial pathogens is Neisseria meningitidis because of its potential
to cause epidemics; symptoms include stiff neck, high fever, headaches,
and vomiting; bacteria are transmitted from person to person by
respiratory droplets and facilitated by close and prolonged contact
resulting from crowded living conditions, often with a seasonal
distribution; death occurs in 5-15% of cases, typically within 24-48
hours of onset of symptoms; highest burden of meningococcal disease
occurs in the hyperendemic region of sub-Saharan Africa known as the
"Meningitis Belt" which stretches from Senegal east to Ethiopia.
animal contact disease acquired through direct contact with local
animals:
Rabies - viral disease of mammals usually transmitted through the bite
of an infected animal, most commonly dogs; virus affects the central
nervous system causing brain alteration and death; symptoms initially
are non-specific fever and headache progressing to neurological
symptoms; death occurs within days of the onset of symptoms.

Manpower available for military service
This entry gives the total numbers of males and females age 15-49 and
assumes that every individual is fit to serve.

Manpower fit for military service
This entry gives the number of males and females age 15-49 fit for
military service. This is a more refined measure of potential military
manpower availability which tries to account for the health situation
in the country and reduces the maximum potential number to a more
realistic estimate of the actual number fit to serve.

Manpower reaching military service age annually
This entry gives the number of draft-age males and females entering the
military manpower pool in any given year and is a measure of the
availability of draft-age young adults.

Map references
This entry includes the name of the Factbook reference map on which a
country may be found. The entry on Geographic coordinates may be
helpful in finding some smaller countries.

Maritime claims
This entry includes the following claims, the definitions of which are
excerpted from the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
(UNCLOS), which alone contains the full and definitive descriptions:
territorial sea - the sovereignty of a coastal state extends beyond its
land territory and internal waters to an adjacent belt of sea,
described as the territorial sea in the UNCLOS (Part II); this
sovereignty extends to the air space over the territorial sea as well
as its underlying seabed and subsoil; every state has the right to
establish the breadth of its territorial sea up to a limit not
exceeding 12 nautical miles; the normal baseline for measuring the
breadth of the territorial sea is the low-water line along the coast as
marked on large-scale charts officially recognized by the coastal
state; the UNCLOS describes specific rules for archipelagic states.
contiguous zone - according to the UNCLOS (Article 33), this is a zone
contiguous to a coastal state's territorial sea, over which it may
exercise the control necessary to: prevent infringement of its customs,
fiscal, immigration, or sanitary laws and regulations within its
territory or territorial sea; punish infringement of the above laws and
regulations committed within its territory or territorial sea; the
contiguous zone may not extend beyond 24 nautical miles from the
baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured
(e.g. the US has claimed a 12-nautical mile contiguous zone in addition
to its 12-nautical mile territorial sea).
exclusive economic zone (EEZ) - the UNCLOS (Part V) defines the EEZ as
a zone beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea in which a coastal
state has: sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring and
exploiting, conserving and managing the natural resources, whether
living or non-living, of the waters superjacent to the seabed and of
the seabed and its subsoil, and with regard to other activities for the
economic exploitation and exploration of the zone, such as the
production of energy from the water, currents, and winds; jurisdiction
with regard to the establishment and use of artificial islands,
installations, and structures; marine scientific research; the
protection and preservation of the marine environment; the outer limit
of the exclusive economic zone shall not exceed 200 nautical miles from
the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is
measured.
continental shelf - the UNCLOS (Article 76) defines the continental
shelf of a coastal state as comprising the seabed and subsoil of the
submarine areas that extend beyond its territorial sea throughout the
natural prolongation of its land territory to the outer edge of the
continental margin, or to a distance of 200 nautical miles from the
baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured
where the outer edge of the continental margin does not extend up to
that distance; the continental margin comprises the submerged
prolongation of the landmass of the coastal state, and consists of the
seabed and subsoil of the shelf, the slope and the rise; wherever the
continental margin extends beyond 200 nautical miles from the baseline,
coastal states may extend their claim to a distance not to exceed 350
nautical miles from the baseline or 100 nautical miles from the 2500
meter isobath; it does not include the deep ocean floor with its
oceanic ridges or the subsoil thereof.
exclusive fishing zone - while this term is not used in the UNCLOS,
some states (e.g. the United Kingdom) have chosen not to claim an EEZ,
but rather to claim jurisdiction over the living resources off their
coast; in such cases, the term exclusive fishing zone is often used;
the breadth of this zone is normally the same as the EEZ or 200
nautical miles.

Median age
This entry is the age that divides a population into two numerically
equal groups; that is, half the people are younger than this age and
half are older. It is a single index that summarizes the age
distribution of a population. Currently, the median age ranges from a
low of about 15 in Uganda and Gaza Strip to 40 or more in several
European countries and Japan. See the entry for "Age structure" for the
importance of a young versus an older age structure and, by
implication, a low versus a higher median age.

Merchant marine
Merchant marine may be defined as all ships engaged in the carriage of
goods; or all commercial vessels (as opposed to all nonmilitary ships),
which excludes tugs, fishing vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc. This
entry contains information in four fields - total, ships by type,
foreign-owned, and registered in other countries.
Total includes the number of ships (1,000 GRT or over), total DWT for
those ships, and total GRT for those ships. DWT or dead weight tonnage
is the total weight of cargo, plus bunkers, stores, etc., that a ship
can carry when immersed to the appropriate load line. GRT or gross
register tonnage is a figure obtained by measuring the entire sheltered
volume of a ship available for cargo and passengers and converting it
to tons on the basis of 100 cubic feet per ton; there is no stable
relationship between GRT and DWT. Ships
by type includes a listing of barge carriers, bulk cargo ships, cargo
ships, chemical tankers, combination bulk carriers, combination ore/oil
carriers, container ships, liquefied gas tankers, livestock carriers,
multifunctional large-load carriers, petroleum tankers, passenger
ships, passenger/cargo ships, railcar carriers, refrigerated cargo
ships, roll-on/roll-off cargo ships, short-sea passenger ships,
specialized tankers, and vehicle carriers.
Foreign-owned are ships that fly the flag of one country but belong to
owners in another.
Registered in other countries are ships that belong to owners in one
country but fly the flag of another.

Military
This category includes the entries dealing with a country's military
structure, manpower, and expenditures.

Military - note
This entry includes miscellaneous military information of significance
not included elsewhere.

Military branches
This entry lists the names of the ground, naval, air, marine, and other
defense or security forces.

Military expenditures - dollar figure
This entry gives current military expenditures in US dollars; the
figure is calculated by multiplying the estimated defense spending in
percentage terms by the gross domestic product (GDP) calculated on an
exchange rate basis, not purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Dollar
figures for military expenditures should be treated with caution
because of different price patterns and accounting methods among
nations, as well as wide variations in the strength of their
currencies.

Military expenditures - percent of GDP
This entry gives current military expenditures as an estimated percent
of gross domestic product (GDP). These figures are calculated on an
exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.

Military service age and obligation
This entry gives the minimum age at which an individual may volunteer
for military service or be subject to conscription.

Money figures
All money figures are expressed in contemporaneous US dollars unless
otherwise indicated.

National holiday
This entry gives the primary national day of celebration - usually
independence day.

Nationality
This entry provides the identifying terms for citizens - noun and
adjective.

Natural gas - consumption
This entry is the total natural gas consumed in cubic meters (cu m).
The discrepancy between the amount of natural gas produced and/or
imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission
of stock changes and other complicating factors.

Natural gas - exports
This entry is the total natural gas exported in cubic meters (cu m).

Natural gas - imports
This entry is the total natural gas imported in cubic meters (cu m).

Natural gas - production
This entry is the total natural gas produced in cubic meters (cu m).
The discrepancy between the amount of natural gas produced and/or
imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission
of stock changes and other complicating factors.

Natural gas - proved reserves
This entry is the stock of proved reserves of natural gas in cubic
meters (cu m). Proved reserves are those quantities of natural gas,
which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated
with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a
given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic
conditions.

Natural hazards
This entry lists potential natural disasters.

Natural resources
This entry lists a country's mineral, petroleum, hydropower, and other
resources of commercial importance.

Net migration rate
This entry includes the figure for the difference between the number of
persons entering and leaving a country during the year per 1,000
persons (based on midyear population). An excess of persons entering
the country is referred to as net immigration (e.g., 3.56
migrants/1,000 population); an excess of persons leaving the country as
net emigration (e.g., -9.26 migrants/1,000 population). The net
migration rate indicates the contribution of migration to the overall
level of population change. High levels of migration can cause problems
such as increasing unemployment and potential ethnic strife (if people
are coming in) or a reduction in the labor force, perhaps in certain
key sectors (if people are leaving).

Oil - consumption
This entry is the total oil consumed in barrels per day (bbl/day). The
discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the
amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock
changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors.

Oil - exports
This entry is the total oil exported in barrels per day (bbl/day),
including both crude oil and oil products.

Oil - imports
This entry is the total oil imported in barrels per day (bbl/day),
including both crude oil and oil products.

Oil - production
This entry is the total oil produced in barrels per day (bbl/day). The
discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the
amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock
changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors.

Oil - proved reserves
This entry is the stock of proved reserves of crude oil in barrels
(bbl). Proved reserves are those quantities of petroleum which, by
analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a
high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given
date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic
conditions.

People
This category includes the entries dealing with the characteristics of
the people and their society.

People - note
This entry includes miscellaneous demographic information of
significance not included elsewhere.

Personal Names - Capitalization
The Factbook capitalizes the surname or family name of individuals for
the convenience of our users who are faced with a world of different
cultures and naming conventions. The need for capitalization, bold
type, underlining, italics, or some other indicator of the individual's
surname is apparent in the following examples: MAO Zedong, Fidel CASTRO
Ruz, George W. BUSH, and TUNKU SALAHUDDIN Abdul Aziz Shah ibni Al-
Marhum Sultan Hisammuddin Alam Shah. By knowing the surname, a short
form without all capital letters can be used with confidence as in
President Castro, Chairman Mao, President Bush, or Sultan Tunku
Salahuddin. The same system of capitalization is extended to the names
of leaders with surnames that are not commonly used such as Queen
ELIZABETH II.

Personal Names - Spelling
The romanization of personal names in the Factbook normally follows the
same transliteration system used by the US Board on Geographic Names
for spelling place names. At times, however, a foreign leader expressly
indicates a preference for, or the media or official documents
regularly use, a romanized spelling that differs from the
transliteration derived from the US Government standard. In such cases,
the Factbook uses the alternative spelling.

Personal Names - Titles
The Factbook capitalizes any valid title (or short form of it)
immediately preceding a person's name. A title standing alone is not
capitalized. Examples: President PUTIN and President BUSH are chiefs of
state. In Russia, the president is chief of state and the premier is
the head of the government, while in the US, the president is both
chief of state and head of government.

Petroleum
See entry for "oil."

Petroleum products
See entry for "oil."

Pipelines
This entry gives the lengths and types of pipelines for transporting
products like natural gas, crude oil, or petroleum products.

Political parties and leaders
This entry includes a listing of significant political organizations
and their leaders.

Political pressure groups and leaders
This entry includes a listing of organizations with leaders involved in
politics, but not standing for legislative election.

Population
This entry gives an estimate from the US Bureau of the Census based on
statistics from population censuses, vital statistics registration
systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past and on
assumptions about future trends. The total population presents one
overall measure of the potential impact of the country on the world and
within its region. Note: starting with the 1993 Factbook, demographic
estimates for some countries (mostly African) have explicitly taken
into account the effects of the growing impact of the HIV/AIDS
epidemic. These countries are currently: The Bahamas, Benin, Botswana,
Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central
African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the
Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras,
Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South
Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, and
Zimbabwe.

Population below poverty line
National estimates of the percentage of the population falling below
the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results
weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty
vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally
employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations.

Population growth rate
The average annual percent change in the population, resulting from a
surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths and the balance of migrants
entering and leaving a country. The rate may be positive or negative.
The growth rate is a factor in determining how great a burden would be
imposed on a country by the changing needs of its people for
infrastructure (e.g., schools, hospitals, housing, roads), resources
(e.g., food, water, electricity), and jobs. Rapid population growth can
be seen as threatening by neighboring countries.

Ports and harbors
This entry lists the major ports and harbors selected on the basis of
overall importance to each country. This is determined by evaluating a
number of factors (e.g., dollar value of goods handled, gross tonnage,
facilities, military significance).

Public debt
This entry records the cumulatiive total of all government borrowings
less repayments that are denominated in a country's home currency.
Public debt should not be confused with external debt, which reflects
the foreign currency liabilities of both the private and public sector
and must be financed out of foreign exchange earnings.

Radio broadcast stations
This entry includes the total number of AM, FM, and shortwave broadcast
stations.

Railways
This entry states the total route length of the railway network and of
its component parts by gauge: broad, standard, narrow, and dual. Other
gauges are listed under note.

Reference maps
This section includes world and regional maps.

Refugees and internally displaced persons
This entry includes those persons residing in a country as refugees or
internally displaced persons (IDPs). The definition of a refugee
according to a United Nations Convention is "a person who is outside
his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well-
founded fear of persecution because of his/her race, religion,
nationality, membership in a particular social group or political
opinion; and is unable or unwilling to avail himself/herself of the
protection of that country, or to return there, for fear of
persecution." The UN established the Office of the UN High Commissioner
for Refugees (UNHCR) in 1950 to handle refugee matters worldwide. The
UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East
(UNRWA) has a different, operational definition for a Palestinian
refugee: "a person whose normal place of residence was Palestine during
the period 1 June 1946 to 15 May 1948 and who lost both home and means
of livelihood as a result of the 1948 conflict." However, UNHCR also
assists some 400,000 Palestinian refugees not covered under the UNRWA
definition. The term "internally displaced person" is not specifically
covered in the UN Convention; it is used to describe people who have
fled their homes for reasons similar to refugees, but who remain within
their own national territory and are subject to the laws of that state.

Religions
This entry is an ordered listing of religions by adherents starting
with the largest group and sometimes includes the percent of total
population.

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets
that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting
a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period
specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold,
but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the
International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund.

Sex ratio
This entry includes the number of males for each female in five age
groups - at birth, under 15 years, 15-64 years, 65 years and over, and
for the total population. Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an
indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some countries. For
instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian countries are now
attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide due to a strong
preference for sons. This will affect future marriage patterns and
fertility patterns. Eventually, it could cause unrest among young adult
males who are unable to find partners.

Suffrage
This entry gives the age at enfranchisement and whether the right to
vote is universal or restricted.

Telephone numbers
All telephone numbers in the Factbook consist of the country code in
brackets, the city or area code (where required) in parentheses, and
the local number. The one component that is not presented is the
international access code, which varies from country to country. For
example, an international direct dial telephone call placed from the US
to Madrid, Spain, would be as follows: 011 [34] (1) 577-xxxx, where 011
is the international access code for station-to-station calls; 01 is
for calls other than station-to-station calls, [34] is the country code
for Spain, (1) is the city code for Madrid, 577 is the local exchange,
and xxxx is the local telephone number. An international direct dial
telephone call placed from another country to the US would be as
follows: international access code + [1] (202) 939-xxxx, where [ 1] is
the country code for the US, (202) is the area code for Washington, DC,
939 is the local exchange, and xxxx is the local telephone number.

Telephone system
This entry includes a brief general assessment of the system with
details on the domestic and international components. The following
terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:
Africa ONE - a fiber-optic submarine cable link encircling the
continent of Africa.
Arabsat - Arab Satellite Communications Organization (Riyadh, Saudi
Arabia).
Autodin - Automatic Digital Network (US Department of Defense).
CB - citizen's band mobile radio communications.
cellular telephone system - the telephones in this system are radio
transceivers, with each instrument having its own private radio
frequency and sufficient radiated power to reach the booster station in
its area (cell), from which the telephone signal is fed to a telephone
exchange.
Central American Microwave System - a trunk microwave radio relay
system that links the countries of Central America and Mexico with each
other.
coaxial cable - a multichannel communication cable consisting of a
central conducting wire, surrounded by and insulated from a cylindrical
conducting shell; a large number of telephone channels can be made
available within the insulated space by the use of a large number of
carrier frequencies.
Comsat - Communications Satellite Corporation (US).
DSN - Defense Switched Network (formerly Automatic Voice Network or
Autovon); basic general-purpose, switched voice network of the Defense
Communications System (US Department of Defense).
Eutelsat - European Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Paris).
fiber-optic cable - a multichannel communications cable using a thread
of optical glass fibers as a transmission medium in which the signal
(voice, video, etc.) is in the form of a coded pulse of light.
GSM - a global system for mobile (cellular) communications devised by
the Groupe Special Mobile of the pan-European standardization
organization, Conference Europeanne des Posts et Telecommunications
(CEPT) in 1982.
HF - high frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to 30,000-kHz
range.
Inmarsat - International Maritime Satellite Organization (London);
provider of global mobile satellite communications for commercial,
distress, and safety applications at sea, in the air, and on land.
Intelsat - International Telecommunications Satellite Organization
(Washington, DC).
Intersputnik - International Organization of Space Communications
(Moscow); first established in the former Soviet Union and the East
European countries, it is now marketing its services worldwide with
earth stations in North America, Africa, and East Asia.
landline - communication wire or cable of any sort that is installed on
poles or buried in the ground.
Marecs - Maritime European Communications Satellite used in the
Inmarsat system on lease from the European Space Agency.
Marisat - satellites of the Comsat Corporation that participate in the
Inmarsat system.
Medarabtel - the Middle East Telecommunications Project of the
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) providing a modern
telecommunications network, primarily by microwave radio relay, linking
Algeria, Djibouti, Egypt, Jordan, Libya, Morocco, Saudi Arabia,
Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen; it was initially started in
Morocco in 1970 by the Arab Telecommunications Union (ATU) and was
known at that time as the Middle East Mediterranean Telecommunications
Network.
microwave radio relay - transmission of long distance telephone calls
and television programs by highly directional radio microwaves that are
received and sent on from one booster station to another on an optical
path.
NMT - Nordic Mobile Telephone; an analog cellular telephone system that
was developed jointly by the national telecommunications authorities of
the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden).
Orbita - a Russian television service; also the trade name of a packet-
switched digital telephone network.
radiotelephone communications - the two-way transmission and reception
of sounds by broadcast radio on authorized frequencies using telephone
handsets.
PanAmSat - PanAmSat Corporation (Greenwich, CT).
SAFE - South African Far East Cable
satellite communication system - a communication system consisting of
two or more earth stations and at least one satellite that provide long
distance transmission of voice, data, and television; the system
usually serves as a trunk connection between telephone exchanges; if
the earth stations are in the same country, it is a domestic system.
satellite earth station - a communications facility with a microwave
radio transmitting and receiving antenna and required receiving and
transmitting equipment for communicating with satellites.
satellite link - a radio connection between a satellite and an earth
station permitting communication between them, either one-way (down
link from satellite to earth station - television receive-only
transmission) or two-way (telephone channels).
SHF - super high frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to
30,000-MHz range.
shortwave - radio frequencies (from 1.605 to 30 MHz) that fall above
the commercial broadcast band and are used for communication over long
distances.
Solidaridad - geosynchronous satellites in Mexico's system of
international telecommunications in the Western Hemisphere.
Statsionar - Russia's geostationary system for satellite
telecommunications.
submarine cable - a cable designed for service under water.
TAT - Trans-Atlantic Telephone; any of a number of high-capacity
submarine coaxial telephone cables linking Europe with North America.
telefax - facsimile service between subscriber stations via the public
switched telephone network or the international Datel network.
telegraph - a telecommunications system designed for unmodulated
electric impulse transmission.
telex - a communication service involving teletypewriters connected by
wire through automatic exchanges.
tropospheric scatter - a form of microwave radio transmission in which
the troposphere is used to scatter and reflect a fraction of the
incident radio waves back to earth; powerful, highly directional
antennas are used to transmit and receive the microwave signals;
reliable over-the-horizon communications are realized for distances up
to 600 miles in a single hop; additional hops can extend the range of
this system for very long distances.
trunk network - a network of switching centers, connected by
multichannel trunk lines.
UHF - ultra high frequency; any radio frequency in the 300- to 3,000-
MHz range.
VHF - very high frequency; any radio frequency in the 30- to 300-MHz
range.

Telephones - main lines in use
This entry gives the total number of main telephone lines in use.

Telephones - mobile cellular
This entry gives the total number of mobile cellular telephones in use.

Television broadcast stations
This entry gives the total number of separate broadcast stations plus
any repeater stations.

Terminology
Due to the highly structured nature of the Factbook database, some
collective generic terms have to be used. For example, the word Country
in the Country name entry refers to a wide variety of dependencies,
areas of special sovereignty, uninhabited islands, and other entities
in addition to the traditional countries or independent states.
Military is also used as an umbrella term for various civil defense,
security, and defense activities in many entries. The Independence
entry includes the usual colonial independence dates and former ruling
states as well as other significant nationhood dates such as the
traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation,
confederation, establishment, or state succession that are not strictly
independence dates. Dependent areas have the nature of their dependency
status noted in this same entry.

Terrain
This entry contains a brief description of the topography.

Total fertility rate
This entry gives a figure for the average number of children that would
be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing
years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each
age. The total fertility rate (TFR) is a more direct measure of the
level of fertility than the crude birth rate, since it refers to births
per woman. This indicator shows the potential for population change in
the country. A rate of two children per woman is considered the
replacement rate for a population, resulting in relative stability in
terms of total numbers. Rates above two children indicate populations
growing in size and whose median age is declining. Higher rates may
also indicate difficulties for families, in some situations, to feed
and educate their children and for women to enter the labor force.
Rates below two children indicate populations decreasing in size and
growing older. Global fertility rates are in general decline and this
trend is most pronounced in industrialized countries, especially
Western Europe, where populations are projected to decline dramatically
over the next 50 years.

Transnational issues
This category includes three entries - Disputes - international,
Refugees and internally displaced persons, and Illicit drugs - that
deal with current issues going beyond national boundaries.

Transportation
This category includes the entries dealing with the means for movement
of people and goods.

Transportation - note
This entry includes miscellaneous transportation information of
significance not included elsewhere.

Unemployment rate
This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without
jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted.

Waterways
This entry gives the total length of navigable rivers, canals, and
other inland bodies of water.

Years
All year references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as
fiscal year (FY). The calendar year is an accounting period of 12
months from 1 January to 31 December. The fiscal year is an accounting
period of 12 months other than 1 January to 31 December.

Note: Information for the US and US dependencies was compiled from
material in the public domain and does not represent Intelligence
Community estimates.


This page was last updated on 20 October 2005



=====================================================================



History


The Intelligence Cycle is the process by which information is acquired,
converted into intelligence, and made available to policymakers.
Information is raw data from any source, data that may be fragmentary,
contradictory, unreliable, ambiguous, deceptive, or wrong.
Intelligence is information that has been collected, integrated,
evaluated, analyzed, and interpreted. Finished intelligence is the
final product of the Intelligence Cycle ready to be delivered to the
policymaker.

The three types of finished intelligence are: basic, current, and
estimative. Basic intelligence provides the fundamental and factual
reference material on a country or issue. Current intelligence reports
on new developments. Estimative intelligence judges probable outcomes.
The three are mutually supportive: basic intelligence is the foundation
on which the other two are constructed; current intelligence
continually updates the  inventory of knowledge; and estimative
intelligence revises overall interpretations of country and issue
prospects for guidance of basic and  current intelligence. The World
Factbook, The President's Daily Brief, and the National Intelligence
Estimates are examples of the three types of finished intelligence.

The United States has carried on foreign intelligence activities since
the days of George Washington but only since World War II have they
been coordinated on a government-wide basis. Three programs have
highlighted the development of coordinated basic intelligence since
that time: (1) the Joint Army Navy Intelligence Studies (JANIS), (2)
the National Intelligence Survey (NIS), and (3) The World Factbook.

During World War II, intelligence consumers realized that the
production of basic intelligence by different components of the US
Government resulted in a great duplication of effort and conflicting
information. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 brought home
to leaders in Congress and the executive branch the need for
integrating departmental reports to national policymakers. Detailed and
coordinated information was needed not only on such major powers as
Germany and Japan, but also on places of little previous interest. In
the Pacific Theater, for example, the Navy and Marines had to launch
amphibious operations against many islands about which information was
unconfirmed or nonexistent. Intelligence authorities resolved that the
United States should never again be caught unprepared.

In 1943, Gen. George B. Strong (G-2), Adm. H. C. Train (Office of Naval
Intelligence - ONI), and Gen. William J. Donovan (Director of the
Office of Strategic Services - OSS) decided that a joint effort should
be initiated. A steering committee was appointed on 27 April 1943 that
recommended the formation of a Joint Intelligence Study Publishing
Board to assemble, edit, coordinate, and publish the Joint Army Navy
Intelligence Studies (JANIS). JANIS was the first interdepartmental
basic intelligence program to fulfill the needs of the US Government
for an authoritative and coordinated appraisal of strategic basic
intelligence. Between April 1943 and July 1947, the board published 34
JANIS studies. JANIS performed well in the war effort, and numerous
letters of commendation were received, including a statement from Adm.
Forrest Sherman, Chief of Staff, Pacific Ocean Areas, which said,
"JANIS has become the indispensable reference work for the shore-based
planners."

     The need for more comprehensive basic intelligence in the postwar
world was well expressed in 1946 by George S. Pettee, a noted author on
national security. He wrote in The Future of American Secret
Intelligence (Infantry Journal Press, 1946, page 46) that world
leadership in peace requires even more elaborate intelligence than in
war. "The conduct of peace involves all countries, all human activities
- not just the enemy and his war production."

     The Central Intelligence Agency was established on 26 July 1947
and officially began operating on 18 September 1947. Effective 1
October 1947, the Director of Central Intelligence assumed operational
responsibility for JANIS. On 13 January 1948, the National Security
Council issued Intelligence Directive (NSCID) No. 3, which authorized
the National Intelligence Survey (NIS) program as a peacetime
replacement for the wartime JANIS program. Before adequate NIS country
sections could be produced, government agencies had to develop more
comprehensive gazetteers and better maps. The US Board on Geographic
Names (BGN) compiled the names; the Department of the Interior produced
the gazetteers; and CIA produced the maps.

The Hoover Commission's Clark Committee, set up in 1954 to study the
structure and administration of the CIA, reported to Congress in 1955
that: "The National Intelligence Survey is an invaluable publication
which provides the essential elements of basic intelligence on all
areas of the world. There will always be a continuing requirement for
keeping the Survey up-to-date." The Factbook was created as an annual
summary and update to the encyclopedic NIS studies. The first
classified Factbook was published in August 1962, and the first
unclassified version was published in June 1971. The NIS program was
terminated in 1973 except for the Factbook, map, and gazetteer
components. The 1975 Factbook was the first to be made available to the
public with sales through the US Government Printing Office (GPO). The
year 2005 marks the 58th anniversary of the establishment of the
Central Intelligence Agency and the 62nd year of continuous basic
intelligence support to the US Government by The World Factbook and its
two predecessor programs.


This page was last updated on 28 April, 2005



=====================================================================



Contributors and Copyright Information


The World Factbook is prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency for
the use of US Government officials, and the style, format, coverage,
and content are designed to meet their specific requirements.
Information is provided by Antarctic Information Program (National
Science Foundation), Bureau of the Census (Department of Commerce),
Bureau of Labor Statistics (Department of Labor), Central Intelligence
Agency, Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs, Defense
Intelligence Agency (Department of Defense), Department of State, Fish
and Wildlife Service (Department of the Interior), National Geospatial-
Intelligence Agency (Department of Defense), Naval Facilities
Engineering Command (Department of Defense), Office of Insular Affairs
(Department of the Interior), US Board on Geographic Names (Department
of the Interior), and other public and private sources.

The Factbook is in the public domain. Accordingly, it may be copied
freely without permission of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
The official seal of the CIA, however, may NOT be copied without
permission as required by the CIA Act of 1949 (50 U.S.C. section
403m).  Misuse of the official seal of the CIA could result in civil
and criminal penalties.


Comments and queries are welcome and may be addressed to:

Central Intelligence Agency
Attn.: Office of Public Affairs
Washington, DC 20505
Hours: Monday-Friday 8:00 AM-4:30 PM Eastern Standard Time
Telephone: [1] (703) 482-0623
FAX: [1] (703) 482-1739



This page was last updated on 18 July, 2005



=====================================================================



Purchasing Information


The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) publishes The World Factbook in
printed and Internet versions. US Government officials may obtain
information about availability of the Factbook from their organizations
or through liaison channels to the CIA. Other users may obtain sales
information about printed copies from the following:

Superintendent of Documents
P. O. Box 371954
Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954
Hours: Monday-Friday 7:30 AM-9:00 PM Eastern Standard Time (EST)
Telephone: [1] (202) 512-1800; toll free: [1] (866) 512-1800
FAX: [1] (202) 512-2104
http://bookstore.gpo.gov/

National Technical Information Service
5285 Port Royal Road
Springfield, VA 22161
Hours: Monday-Friday 8:00 AM-6:00 PM Eastern Standard Time (EST)
Telephone: [1] (800) 553-6847 (only in the US);
[1] (703) 605-6000 (for outside US)
FAX: [1] (703) 605-6900
http://www.ntis.gov/


The World Factbook can be accessed on the Internet at:
http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html



This page was last updated on 27 September, 2005


=====================================================================



Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)


The World Factbook staff thanks you for your comments, suggestions,
updates, kudos, and corrections over the past years. The willingness of
readers from around the world to share their observations and
specialized knowledge is very helpful as we try to produce the best
possible publications. Please feel free to continue to write and e-mail
us. At least two Factbook staffers review every item. The sheer volume
of correspondence precludes detailed personal replies, but we sincerely
appreciate your time and interest in the Factbook. If you include your
e-mail address we will at least acknowledge your note. Thank you again.


Answers to many frequently asked questions (FAQs) are explained in the
Notes and Definitions section in The World Factbook. Please review this
section to see if your question is already answered there. In addition,
we have compiled the following list of FAQs to answer other common
questions. Select from the following categories to narrow your search:


  General
  Geography
  Spelling and Pronunciation
  Policies and Procedures
  Technical



General

Can you provide additional information for a specific country?

The staff cannot provide data beyond what appears in The World
Factbook. The format and information in the Factbook are tailored to
the specific requirements of US Government officials and content is
focused on their current and anticipated needs. The staff welcomes
suggestions for new entries.


How often is The World Factbook updated?

Formerly our Web site (and the published Factbook) were only updated
annually. Beginning in November 2001 we instituted a new system of more
frequent online updates. The World Factbook is currently updated every
two weeks.


The annual printed version of the Factbook is usually released about
midyear. US Government officials may obtain information about Factbook
availability from their own organizations or through liaison channels
to the CIA. Other users may obtain sales information through the
following channels:


Superintendent of Documents
P. O. Box 371954 Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954
Telephone: [1] (202) 512-1800
FAX: [1] (202) 512-2250
http://bookstore.gpo.gov


National Technical Information Service
5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22161
Telephone: [1] (800) 553-6847 (only in the US);
[1] (703) 605-6000 (for outside US)
FAX: [1] (703) 605-6900
http://www.ntis.gov


Can I use some or all of The World Factbook for my Web site (book,
research project, homework, etc.)?

The World Factbook is in the public domain and may be used freely by
anyone at anytime without seeking permission. However, US Code
prohibits use of the CIA seal in a manner which implies that the CIA
approved, endorsed, or authorized such use. If you have any questions
about your intended use, you should consult with legal counsel. Further
information on The World Factbook's use is described on the
Contributors and Copyright Information page. As a courtesy, please cite
The World Factbook when used.


Why doesn't The World Factbook include information on states,
departments, provinces, etc., in the country format?

The World Factbook provides national-level information on countries,
territories, and dependencies, but not subnational administrative units
within a country. A good encyclopedia should provide state/province-
level information.


Is it possible to access older editions of The World Factbook to do
comparative research and trend analysis?

Only the current version is available for browsing on the CIA Web site.
In the future, the staff hopes to post electronic versions of The World
Factbook as far back as 1986. Hardcopy editions for earlier years are
available from libraries.


Would it be possible to set up a partnership or collaboration between
the producers of The World Factbook and other organizations or
individuals?

The World Factbook does not partner with other organizations or
individuals, but we do welcome comments and suggestions that such
groups or persons choose to provide.


Geography

I can't find a geographic name for a particular country. Why not?

The World Factbook is not a gazetteer (a dictionary or index of places,
usually with descriptive or statistical information) and cannot provide
more than the names of the administrative divisions (in the Government
category) and major cities/towns (on the country maps). Our expanded
Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names, however, includes many of the
world's major geographic features as well as historic (former) names of
countries and cities mentioned in The World Factbook.


Why are Taiwan and the European Union listed out of alphabetical order
at the end of the Factbook entries?

Taiwan is listed after the regular entries because even though the
mainland People's Republic of China claims Taiwan, elected Taiwanese
authorities de facto administer the island and reject mainland
sovereignty claims. With the establishment of diplomatic relations with
China on January 1, 1979, the US Government recognized the People's
Republic of China as the sole legal government of China, acknowledging
the Chinese position that there is only one China and that Taiwan is
part of China.


The European Union (EU) is not a country, but it has taken on many
nation-like attributes and these are likely to be expanded in the
future. A more complete explanation on the inclusion of the EU into the
Factbook may be found in the Preliminary statement.


Since we have an ambassador who represents the US at the Vatican, why
is this entity not listed in the Factbook?

Vatican City is found under Holy See. The term "Holy See" refers to the
authority, jurisdiction, and sovereignty vested in the Pope and his
advisors to direct the worldwide Catholic Church. The Holy See has a
legal personality that allows it to enter into treaties as the
juridical equal of a state and to send and receive diplomatic
representatives. Vatican City, created in 1929 to administer properties
belonging to the Holy See in Rome, is recognized under international
law as a sovereign state, but it does not send or receive diplomatic
representatives. Consequently, Holy See is included as a Factbook
entry, with Vatican City cross-referenced in the Geographic Names
appendix.


Why is Palestine not listed in The World Factbook?

The areas that could potentially form a future Palestinian state -- the
West Bank and Gaza Strip -- do appear in the Factbook. These areas are
presently Israeli-occupied with current status subject to the Israeli-
Palestinian 1995 Interim Agreement; their permanent status is to be
determined through further negotiation.


Why are the Golan Heights not shown as part of Israel or Northern
Cyprus with Turkey?

Territorial occupations/annexations not recognized by the United States
Government are not shown on US Government maps.


Why don't you include information on entities such as Tibet, Kashmir,
or Kosovo?

The World Factbook provides information on the administrative divisions
of a country as recommended by the United States Board on Geographic
Names (BGN). The BGN is a component of the US Government that develops
policies, principles, and procedures governing the spelling, use, and
application of geographic names--domestic, foreign, Antarctic, and
undersea. Its decisions enable all departments and agencies of the US
Government to have access to uniform names of geographic features.


Also included in the Factbook are entries on parts of the world whose
status has not yet been resolved (e.g., West Bank, Spratly Islands).
Specific regions within a country or areas in dispute among countries
are not covered.


What do you mean when you say that a country is "doubly landlocked"?

A doubly landlocked country is one that is separated from an ocean or
an ocean-accessible sea by two intervening countries. Uzbekistan and
Liechtenstein are the only countries that fit this definition.


Spelling and Pronunciation

Why is the spelling of proper names such as rulers, presidents, and
prime ministers in The World Factbook different than their spelling in
my country?

The Factbook staff applies the names and spellings from the Chiefs of
State link on the CIA Web site. The World Factbook is prepared using
the standard American English computer keyboard and does not use any
special characters, symbols, or most diacritical markings in its
spellings. Surnames are always spelled with capital letters; they may
appear first in some cultures.


The spelling of geographic names, features, cities, administrative
divisions, etc. in the Factbook differs from those used in my country.
Why is this?

The United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) recommends and
approves names and spellings. The BGN is the component of the United
States Government that develops policies, principles, and procedures
governing the spelling, use, and application of geographic names--
domestic, foreign, Antarctic, and undersea. Its decisions enable all
departments and agencies of the US Government to use uniform names of
geographic features. (A note is usually included where changes may have
occurred but have not yet been approved by the BGN). The World Factbook
is prepared using the standard American English computer keyboard and
does not use any special characters, symbols, or most diacritical
markings in its spellings.


Why doesn't The World Factbook include pronunciations of country or
leader names?

There are too many variations in pronunciation among English-speaking
countries, not to mention English renditions of non-English names, for
pronunciations to be included. American English pronunciations are
included for some countries like Qatar and Kiribati.


Why is the name of the Labour party misspelled?

When American and British spellings of common English words differ, The
World Factbook always uses the American spelling, even when these
common words form part of a proper name in British English.


Policies and Procedures

What is The World Factbook's source for a specific subject field?

The Factbook staff uses many different sources to publish what we judge
are the most reliable and consistent data for any particular category.
Space considerations preclude a listing of these various sources.


The names of some geographic features provided in the Factbook differ
from those used in other publications. For example, in Asia the
Factbook has Burma as the country name, but in other publications
Myanmar is used; also, the Factbook uses Sea of Japan whereas other
publications label it East Sea. What is your policy on naming
geographic features?

The Factbook staff follows the guidance of the United States Board on
Geographic Names (BGN). The BGN is the component of the United States
Government that develops policies, principles, and procedures governing
the spelling, use, and application of geographic names--domestic,
foreign, Antarctic, and undersea. Its decisions enable all departments
and agencies of the US Government to have access to uniform names of
geographic features. The position of the BGN is that the names Burma
and Sea of Japan be used in official US Government maps and
publications.


Why is most of the statistical information in the Factbook given in
metric units, rather than the units standard to US measure?

US Federal agencies are required by the Metric Conversion Act of 1975
(Public Law 94-168) and by Executive Order 12770 of July 1991 to use
the International System of Units, commonly referred to as the metric
system or SI. In addition, the metric system is used by over 95 percent
of the world's population.


Why don't you include information on minimum and maximum temperature
extremes?

The Factbook staff judges that this information would only be useful
for some (generally smaller) countries. Larger countries can have large
temperature extremes that do not represent the landmass as a whole. In
the future, such a category may be adopted listing the extremes, but
also adding a normal temperature range found throughout most of a
country's territory.


What information sources are used for the country flags?

Flag designs used in The World Factbook are those recognized by the
protocol office of the US Department of State.


Why do your GDP (Gross Domestic Product) statistics differ from other
sources?

GDP dollar estimates in The World Factbook are derived from purchasing
power parity (PPP) calculations. See the Notes and Definitions section
on GDP methodology for more information.


On the CIA Web site, Chiefs of State is updated weekly, but the last
update for the Factbook was an earlier date. Why the discrepancy?

Although Chiefs of State and The World Factbook both appear on the CIA
Web site, they are produced and updated by separate staffs. Chiefs of
State includes fewer countries but more leaders, and is updated more
frequently than The World Factbook, which has a much larger database,
and includes all countries.


Some percentage distributions do not add to 100. Why not?

Because of rounding, percentage distributions do not always add
precisely to 100%. Rounding of numbers always results in a loss of
precision--i.e., error. This error becomes apparent when percentage data
are totaled, as the following two examples show:


                  Original Data        Rounded to whole integer

  Example 1       43.2                 43
                  30.4                 30
                  26.4                 26
                  ----                 --
                 100.0                 99

  Example 2       42.8                 43
                  31.6                 32
                  25.6                 26
                  ----                 --
                 100.0                101

When this occurs, we do not force the numbers to add exactly to 100,
because doing so would introduce additional error into the
distribution.


What rounding convention does The World Factbook use?

In deciding on the number of digits to present, the Factbook staff
assesses the accuracy of the original data and the needs of US
Government officials. All of the economic data are processed by
computer--either at the source or by the Factbook staff. The economic
data presented in The Factbook, therefore, follow the rounding
convention used by virtually all numerical software applications,
namely, any digit followed by a "5" is rounded up to the next higher
digit, no matter whether the original digit is even or odd. Thus, for
example, when rounded to the nearest integer, 2.5 becomes 3, rather
than 2, as occurred in some pre-computer rounding systems.


Technical

Does The World Factbook comply with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation
Act regarding accessibility of Web pages?

The World Factbook home page has a link entitled "Text/Low Bandwidth
Version." The country data in the text version is fully accessible. We
believe The World Factbook is compliant with the Section 508 law in
both fact and spirit. If you are experiencing difficulty, please use
our comment form to provide us details of the specific problem you are
experiencing and the assistive software and/or hardware that you are
using so that we can work with our technical support staff to find and
implement a solution. We welcome visitors' suggestions to improve
accessibility of The World Factbook and the CIA Web site.


I am using the Factbook online and it is not working. What is wrong?

Hundreds of "Factbook" look-alikes exist on the Internet. The Factbook
site at: www.cia.gov is the only official site.


When I attempt to download a PDF (Portable Document Format) map file
(or some other map) the file has no image. Can you fix this?

Some of the files on The World Factbook Web site are large and could
take several minutes to download on a dial-up connection. The screen
might be blank during the download process.


When I open a map on The World Factbook site, it is fuzzy or granular,
or too big or too small. Why?

Adjusting the resolution setting on your monitor should correct this
problem.


Is The World Factbook country data available in machine-readable
format? All I can find is HTML, but I'm looking for simple tabular
data.

The Factbook Web site now features "Rank Order" pages for selected
Factbook entries. "Rank Order" pages are available for those data
fields identified with a small bar chart icon located next to the title
of the data entry. In addition, all of the "Rank Order" pages can be
downloaded as tab-delimited data files that can be opened in other
applications such as spreadsheets and databases.


This page was last updated on 27 September, 2005



=====================================================================



@Afghanistan

Introduction Afghanistan


Background:
  Afghanistan's recent history is a story of war and civil unrest.
  The Soviet Union invaded in 1979, but was forced to withdraw 10
  years later by anti-Communist mujahidin forces. The Communist regime
  in Kabul collapsed in 1992. Fighting that subsequently erupted among
  the various mujahidin factions eventually helped to spawn the
  Taliban, a hardline Pakistani-sponsored movement that fought to end
  the warlordism and civil war that gripped the country. The Taliban
  seized Kabul in 1996 and were able to capture most of the country
  outside of Northern Alliance strongholds primarily in the northeast.
  Following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks, a US, Allied, and
  Northern Alliance military action toppled the Taliban for sheltering
  Osama BIN LADIN. In late 2001, a conference in Bonn, Germany,
  established a process for political reconstruction that ultimately
  resulted in the adoption of a new constitution and presidential
  election in 2004. On 9 October 2004, Hamid KARZAI became the first
  democratically elected president of Afghanistan. The new Afghan
  government's next task is to hold National Assembly elections,
  tentatively scheduled for April 2005.

Geography Afghanistan


Location:
  Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran

Geographic coordinates:
  33 00 N, 65 00 E

Map references:
  Asia

Area:
  total: 647,500 sq km
  land: 647,500 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,529 km
  border countries: China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km,
  Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

Terrain:
  mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Amu Darya 258 m
  highest point: Nowshak 7,485 m

Natural resources:
  natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, chromite, talc, barites,
  sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones

Land use:
  arable land: 12.13%
  permanent crops: 0.22%
  other: 87.65% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  23,860 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; flooding;
  droughts

Environment - current issues:
  limited natural fresh water resources; inadequate supplies of
  potable water; soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of
  the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building
  materials); desertification; air and water pollution

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping
  signed, but not ratified: Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
  Life Conservation

Geography - note:
  landlocked; the Hindu Kush mountains that run northeast to
  southwest divide the northern provinces from the rest of the
  country; the highest peaks are in the northern Vakhan (Wakhan
  Corridor)

People Afghanistan


Population:
  29,928,987 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 44.7% (male 6,842,857/female 6,524,485)
  15-64 years: 52.9% (male 8,124,077/female 7,713,603)
  65 years and over: 2.4% (male 353,193/female 370,772) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 17.56 years
  male: 17.55 years
  female: 17.57 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  4.77%
  note: this rate does not take into consideration the recent war and
  its continuing impact (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  47.02 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  20.75 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  21.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 163.07 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 167.79 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 158.12 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 42.9 years
  male: 42.71 years
  female: 43.1 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  6.75 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.01% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: high
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea,
  hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
  vectorborne disease: malaria is a high risk countrywide below 2,000
  meters from March through November
  animal contact disease: rabies (2004)

Nationality:
  noun: Afghan(s)
  adjective: Afghan

Ethnic groups:
  Pashtun 42%, Tajik 27%, Hazara 9%, Uzbek 9%, Aimak 4%, Turkmen 3%,
  Baloch 2%, other 4%

Religions:
  Sunni Muslim 80%, Shi'a Muslim 19%, other 1%

Languages:
  Afghan Persian or Dari (official) 50%, Pashtu (official) 35%,
  Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor
  languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 36%
  male: 51%
  female: 21% (1999 est.)

People - note:
  of the estimated 4 million refugees in October 2001, 2.3 million
  have returned

Government Afghanistan


Country name:
  conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
  conventional short form: Afghanistan
  local long form: Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Afghanestan
  local short form: Afghanestan
  former: Republic of Afghanistan

Government type:
  Islamic republic

Capital:
  Kabul

Administrative divisions:
  34 provinces (velayat, singular - velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis,
  Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Daykondi, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr,
  Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Khowst, Konar,
  Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Nurestan, Oruzgan,
  Paktia, Paktika, Panjshir, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar,
  Vardak, and Zabol

Independence:
  19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign affairs)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 19 August (1919)

Constitution:
  new constitution drafted 14 December 2003 - 4 January 2004; signed
  16 January 2004

Legal system:
  according to the new constitution, no law should be "contrary to
  Islam"; the state is obliged to create a prosperous and progressive
  society based on social justice, protection of human dignity,
  protection of human rights, realization of democracy, and to ensure
  national unity and equality among all ethnic groups and tribes; the
  state shall abide by the UN charter, international treaties,
  international conventions that Afghanistan signed, and the Universal
  Declaration of Human Rights

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
  Hamid KARZAI (since 7 December 2004); note - the president is both
  the chief of state and head of government; former King ZAHIR Shah
  holds the honorific, "Father of the Country," and presides
  symbolically over certain occasions, but lacks any governing
  authority; the honorific is not hereditary
  head of government: President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
  Hamid KARZAI (since 7 December 2004); note - the president is both
  chief of state and head of government
  cabinet: 27 ministers; note - under the new constitution, ministers
  are appointed by the president and approved by the National Assembly
  elections: the president and two vice presidents are elected by
  direct vote for a five-year term; if no candidate receives 50% or
  more of the vote in the first round of voting, the two candidates
  with the most votes will participate in a second round; a president
  can only be elected for two terms; election last held 9 October 2004
  (next to be held in 2009)
  election results: Hamid KARZAI elected president; percent of vote -
  Hamid KARZAI 55.4%, Yunus QANOONI 16.3%, Ustad Mohammad MOHAQQEQ
  11.6%, Abdul Rashid DOSTAM 10.0%, Abdul Latif PEDRAM 1.4%, Masooda
  JALAL 1.2%

Legislative branch:
  nonfunctioning as of January 2004; government is empowered by the
  constitution to issue legislation by decree until the new assembly
  is seated; under the new constitution, the bicameral National
  Assembly will consist of the Wolesi Jirga or House of People (no
  more than 249 seats), directly elected for a five-year term, and the
  Meshrano Jirga or House of Elders (102 seats, one third elected from
  provincial councils for a four-year term, one third elected from
  local district councils for a three-year term, and one third
  presidential appointees for a five-year term; the presidential
  appointees will include two representatives of Kuchis and two
  representatives of the disabled; half of the presidential appointees
  will be women)
  note: on rare occasions the government may convene the Loya Jirga on
  issues of independence, national sovereignty, and territorial
  integrity; it can amend the provisions of the constitution and
  prosecute the president; it is made up of members of the National
  Assembly and chairpersons of the provincial and district councils
  elections: scheduled for spring 2005

Judicial branch:
  the new constitution establishes a nine-member Stera Mahkama or
  Supreme Court (its nine justices are appointed for 10-year terms by
  the president with approval of the Wolesi Jirga) and subordinate
  High Courts and Appeals Courts; there is also a Minister of Justice;
  a separate Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission established by
  the Bonn Agreement is charged with investigating human rights abuses
  and war crimes

Political parties and leaders:
  note - includes only political parties approved by the Ministry of
  Justice: Afghan Millat [Anwarul Haq AHADI]; De Afghanistan De Solay
  Ghorzang Gond [Shahnawaz TANAI]; De Afghanistan De Solay Mili Islami
  Gond [Shah Mahmood Polal ZAI]; Harakat-e-Islami Afghanistan
  [Mohammad Asif MOHSINEE]; Hezb-e-Aarman-e-Mardum-e-Afghanistan
  [Iihaj Saraj-u-din ZAFAREE]; Hezb-e-Aazadee Afghanistan [Abdul
  MALIK]; Hezb-e-Adalat-e-Islami Afghanistan [Mohammad Kabeer
  MARZBAN]; Hezb-e-Afghanistan-e-Wahid [Mohammad Wasil RAHEEMEE];
  Hezb-e-Afghan Watan Islami Gond [leader NA]; Hezb-e-Congra-e-Mili
  Afghanistan [Latif PEDRAM]; Hezb-e-Falah-e-Mardum-e-Afghanistan
  [Mohammad ZAREEF]; Hezb-e-Libral-e-Aazadee
  Khwa-e-Mardum-e-Afghanistan [Ajmal SOHAIL]; Hezb-e-Hambastagee Mili
  Jawanan-e-Afghanistan [Mohammad Jamil KARZAI];
  Hezb-e-Hamnbatagee-e-Afghanistan [Abdul Khaleq NEMAT];
  Hezb-e-Harakat-e-Mili Wahdat-e-Afghanistan [Mohammad Nadir AATASH];
  Hezb-e-Harak-e-Islami Mardum-e-Afghanistan [Ilhaj Said Hssain
  ANWARY]; Hezb-e-Ifazat Az Uqoq-e-Bashar Wa Inkishaf-e-Afghanistan
  [Baryalai NASRATEE]; Hezb-e-Istiqlal-e-Afghanistan [Dr. Gh. Farooq
  NIJZRABEE]; Hezb-e-Jamhoree Khwahan [Sibghatullah SANJAR];
  Hezb-e-Kar Wa Tawsiha-e-Afghanistan [Zulfiar OMID]; Hezb-e-Mili
  Afghanistan [Abdul Rasheed AARYAN]; Hezb-e-Mili
  Wahdat-e-Aqwam-e-Islami Afghanistan [Mohammad Shah KHOGYANEE];
  Hezb-e-Nuhzhat-e-Mili Afghanistan [Ahmad Wali MASOUD];
  Hezb-e-Paiwand-e-Mili Afghanistan [Said Mansoor NADIRI];
  Hezb-e-Rastakhaiz-e-Islami Mardum-e-Afghanistan [Said ZAHIR];
  Hezb-e-Refah-e-Mardum-e-Afghanistan [Mia Gul WASEEQ];
  Hezb-e-Risalat-e-Mardum-e-Afghanistan [Noor Aqa ROEEN];
  Hezb-e-Sahadat-e-Mardum-e-Afghanistan [Mohammad Zubair PAIROZ];
  Hezb-e-Sahadat-e-Mili Wa Islami Afghanistan [Mohammad Usman
  SALIGZADA]; Hezb-e-Sulh-e-Mili Islami Aqwam-e-Afghanistan [Abdul
  Qahir SHARYATEE]; Hezb-e-Sulh Wa Wahdat-e-Mili Afghanistan [Abdul
  Qadir IMAMEE]; Hezb-e-Tafahum-e-Wa Democracy Afghanistan [Ahamad
  SHAHEEN]; Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Islami Afghanistan [Mohammad Karim
  KHALILI]; Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Islami Mardum-e-Afghanistan [Ustad
  Mohammad MOHAQQEQ]; Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Mili Afghanistan [Abdul Rasheed
  Jalili]; Jamahat-ul-Dahwat ilal Qurhan-wa-Sunat-ul-Afghanistan
  [Mawlawee Samiullah NAJEEBEE]; Jombesh-e Milli [Abdul Rashid
  DOSTAM]; Mahaz-e-Mili Islami Afghanistan [Said Ahmad GAILANEE];
  Majmah-e-Mili Fahaleen-e-Sulh-e-Afghanistan [Shams ul Haq Noor
  SHAMS]; Nuhzat-e-Aazadee Wa democracy Afghanistan [Abdul Raqeeb
  Jawid KUHISTANEE]; Nuhzat-e-Hambastagee Mili Afghanistan [Peer Said
  Ishaq GAILANEE]; Sazman-e-Islami Afghanistan-e-Jawan [Siad Jawad
  HUSSAINEE]; Tahreek Wahdat-e-Mili [Sultan Mahmood DHAZI] (30 Sep
  2004)

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Jamiat-e Islami (Society of Islam) [former President Burhanuddin
  RABBANI]; Ittihad-e Islami (Islamic Union for the Liberation of
  Afghanistan), [Abdul Rasul SAYYAF]; there are also small monarchist,
  communist, and democratic groups

International organization participation:
  AsDB, CP, ECO, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
  IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC,
  OPCW, SACEP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WMO,
  WTO (observer), WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Said Tayeb JAWAD
  chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] 202-483-6410
  FAX: [1] 202-483-6488
  consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Zalmay KHALILZAD
  embassy: The Great Masood Road, Kabul
  mailing address: 6180 Kabul Place, Dulles, VA 20189-6180
  telephone: [00] (2) 230-0436
  FAX: [0093] (2) 230-1364

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of black (hoist), red, and green, with a
  gold emblem centered on the red band; the emblem features a
  temple-like structure encircled by a wreath on the left and right
  and by a bold Islamic inscription above

Economy Afghanistan


Economy - overview:
  Afghanistan's economic outlook has improved significantly since the
  fall of the Taliban regime in 2001 because of the infusion of over
  $2 billion in international assistance, recovery of the agricultural
  sector, and the reestablishment of market institutions. Agriculture
  boomed in 2003 with the end of a four-year drought, but drought
  conditions returned for the southern half of the country in 2004.
  Despite the progress of the past few years, Afghanistan remains
  extremely poor, landlocked, and highly dependent on foreign aid,
  farming, and trade with neighboring countries. It will probably take
  the remainder of the decade and continuing donor aid and attention
  to raise Afghanistan's living standards up from its current status
  among the lowest in the world. Much of the population continues to
  suffer from shortages of housing, clean water, electricity, medical
  care, and jobs, but the Afghan government and international donors
  remain committed to improving access to these basic necessities by
  prioritizing infrastructure development, education, housing
  development, jobs programs, and economic reform over the next year.
  Growing political stability and continued international commitment
  to Afghan reconstruction create an optimistic outlook for
  maintaining improvements in the Afghan economy in 2005. Expanding
  poppy cultivation and a growing opium trade may account for
  one-third of GDP and looms as one of Kabul's most serious policy
  challenges.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $21.5 billion (2003 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  7.5% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $800 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 60%
  industry: 20%
  services: 20% (1990 est.)

Labor force:
  11.8 million (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 80%, industry 10%, services 10% (2004 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  NA

Population below poverty line:
  53% (2003)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  10.3% (2003)

Budget:
  revenues: $300 million
  expenditures: $609 million, including capital expenditures of NA
  (FY04-05 budget)

Agriculture - products:
  opium, wheat, fruits, nuts, wool, mutton, sheepskins, lambskins

Industries:
  small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes,
  fertilizer, cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, coal, copper

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA

Electricity - production:
  540 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 36.3%
  hydro: 63.7%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  652.2 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  150 million kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  3,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Oil - proved reserves:
  0 bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  220 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  220 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  49.98 billion cu m (1 January 2002)

Exports:
  $446 million (not including illicit exports or reexports) (FY03-04)

Exports - commodities:
  opium, fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and
  pelts, precious and semi-precious gems

Exports - partners:
  Pakistan 24%, India 21.3%, US 12.4%, Germany 5.5% (2004)

Imports:
  $3.759 billion (FY03-04)

Imports - commodities:
  capital goods, food, textiles, petroleum products

Imports - partners:
  Pakistan 25.5%, US 8.7%, India 8.5%, Germany 6.5%, Turkmenistan
  5.3%, Kenya 4.7%, South Korea 4.2%, Russia 4.2% (2004)

Debt - external:
  $8 billion in bilateral debt, mostly to Russia; Afghanistan has
  $500 million in debt to Multilateral Development Banks (2004)

Economic aid - recipient:
  international pledges made by more than 60 countries and
  international financial institutions at the Berlin Donors Conference
  for Afghan reconstruction in March 2004 reached $8.9 billion for
  2004-09

Currency (code):
  afghani (AFA)

Currency code:
  AFA

Exchange rates:
  afghanis per US dollar - 3,000 (2004), 3,000 (2003), 3,000 (2002),
  3,000 (2001), 3,000 (2000)
  note: in 2002, the afghani was revalued and the currency stabilized
  at about 50 afghanis to the dollar; before 2002, the market rate
  varied widely from the official rate

Fiscal year:
  21 March - 20 March

Communications Afghanistan


Telephones - main lines in use:
  33,100 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  15,000 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: very limited telephone and telegraph service
  domestic: telephone service improving with the establishment of two
  mobile phone operators by 2003; telephone main lines remain weak
  with only 0.1 line per 10 people
  international: country code - 93; five VSAT's installed in Kabul,
  Herat, Mazar-e-Sharif, Kandahar, and Jalalabad provide international
  and domestic voice and data connectivity

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 21, FM 23, shortwave 1 (broadcasts in Pashtu, Afghan Persian
  (Dari), Urdu, and English) (2003)

Radios:
  167,000 (1999)

Television broadcast stations:
  at least 10 (one government-run central television station in Kabul
  and regional stations in nine of the 32 provinces; the regional
  stations operate on a reduced schedule; also, in 1997, there was a
  station in Mazar-e Sharif reaching four northern Afghanistan
  provinces) (1998)

Televisions:
  100,000 (1999)

Internet country code:
  .af

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  1,000 (2002)

Communications - note:
  in March 2003 'af' was established as Afghanistan's domain name;
  Internet access is growing through Internet cafes as well as public
  "telekiosks" in Kabul that are part of a nationwide network proposed
  by the Transitional Authority for Internet access (2002)

Transportation Afghanistan


Highways:
  total: 21,000 km
  paved: 2,793 km
  unpaved: 18,207 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  1,200 km
  note: chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to 500 DWT (2004)

Pipelines:
  gas 387 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Kheyrabad, Shir Khan

Airports:
  47 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 10
  over 3,047 m: 3
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 37
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
  914 to 1,523 m: 4
  under 914 m: 11 (2004 est.)

Heliports:
  5 (2004 est.)

Military Afghanistan


Military branches:
  Afghan National Army (includes Afghan Air Force), Afghan Militia
  Force (AMF) (2005)

Military service age and obligation:
  22 years of age; inductees are contracted into service for a 4-year
  term (2005)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 22-49: 4,952,812 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 22-49: 2,662,946 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males: 275,362 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $188.4 million (2004)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.6% (2004)

Transnational Issues Afghanistan


Disputes - international:
  the UN has been able to repatriate over two million Afghan refugees
  but several million more continue to reside in Iran and Pakistan in
  camps and elsewhere, many at their own choosing; Coalition and
  Pakistani forces continue to patrol remote tribal areas to control
  the borders and stem organized terrorist and other illegal
  cross-border activities; regular meetings between Pakistani and
  Coalition allies aim to resolve periodic claims of boundary
  encroachments; occasional conflicts over water-sharing arrangements
  with Amu Darya and Helmand River states

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  IDPs: 167,000 - 200,000 (mostly Pashtuns and Kuchis displaced in
  south and west due to drought and instability) (2004)

Illicit drugs:
  world's largest producer of opium; cultivation of opium poppy
  reached unprecedented level of 206,700 hectares in 2004; counterdrug
  efforts largely unsuccessful; potential opium production of 4,950
  metric tons; potential heroin production of 582 metric tons if all
  opium was processed; source of hashish; many narcotics-processing
  labs throughout the country; drug trade source of instability and
  some antigovernment groups profit from the trade; 80-90% of the
  heroin consumed in Europe comes from Afghan opium; vulnerable to
  narcotics money laundering through informal financial networks


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Akrotiri

Introduction Akrotiri


Background:
  By terms of the 1960 Treaty of Establishment that created the
  independent Republic of Cyprus, the UK retained full sovereignty and
  jurisdiction over two areas of almost 254 square kilometers in
  total: Akrotiri and Dhekelia. The southernmost and smallest of these
  is the Akrotiri Sovereign Base Area, which is also referred to as
  the Western Sovereign Base Area.

Geography Akrotiri


Location:
  peninsula on the southwest coast of Cyprus

Geographic coordinates:
  34 37 N, 32 58 E

Map references:
  Middle East

Area:
  total: 123 sq km
  note: includes a salt lake and wetlands

Area - comparative:
  about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  total: 47.4 km
  border countries: Cyprus 47.4 km

Coastline:
  56.3 km

Climate:
  temperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool winters

Environment - current issues:
  shooting around the salt lake; note - breeding place for loggerhead
  and green turtles; only remaining colony of griffon vultures is on
  the base

Geography - note:
  British extraterritorial rights also extended to several small
  off-post sites scattered across Cyprus

People Akrotiri


Population:
  no indigenous inhabitants
  note: approximately 1,300 military personnel are on the base; there
  are another 5,000 British citizens who are families of military
  personnel or civilian staff on both Akrotiri and Dhekelia; Cyprus
  citizens work on the base, but do not live there

Languages:
  English, Greek

Government Akrotiri


Country name:
  conventional long form: Akrotiri Sovereign Base Area
  conventional short form: Akrotiri

Dependency status:
  overseas territory of UK; administered by an administrator who is
  also the Commander, British Forces Cyprus

Capital:
  Episkopi Cantonment; also serves as capital of Dhekelia

Legal system:
  the laws of the UK, where applicable, apply

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen Elizabeth II (since 6 February 1952)
  head of government: Administrator Maj. Gen. Peter Thomas Clayton
  PEARSON (since 9 May 2003); note - reports to the British Ministry
  of Defence
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the administrator is
  appointed by the monarch

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description:
  the flag of the UK is used

Economy Akrotiri


Economy - overview:
  Economic activity is limited to providing services to the military
  and their families located in Akrotiri. All food and manufactured
  goods must be imported.



Military Akrotiri


Military - note:
  Akrotiri has a full RAF base, Headquarters for British Forces on
  Cyprus, and Episkopi Support Unit



This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Albania

Introduction Albania


Background:
  Between 1990 and 1992 Albania ended 46 years of xenophobic
  Communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. The
  transition has proven difficult as successive governments have tried
  to deal with high unemployment, widespread corruption, a dilapidated
  infrastructure, powerful organized crime networks with links to
  government officials, and disruptive political opponents. Albania
  has made incremental progress in its democratic development since
  first holding multiiparty elections in 1991, but deficiencies remain
  - particularly in regard to the rule of law. Despite some lingering
  problems, international observers have judged elections to be
  largely free and fair since the restoration of political stability
  following the collapse of pyramid schemes in 1997. In the 2005
  general elections, the Democratic Party and its allies won a
  decisive victory on pledges of reducing crime and corruption,
  promoting economic growth, and decreasing the size of government.
  Although Albania's economy continues to grow, the country is still
  one of the poorest in Europe, hampered by a large informal economy,
  large public debt, and an inadequate energy and tranportation
  infrastructure. Albania has played a largely helpful role in
  managing inter-ethnic tensions in southeastern Europe, and is
  continuing to work toward joining NATO and the EU.

Geography Albania


Location:
  Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea,
  between Greece and Serbia and Montenegro

Geographic coordinates:
  41 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 28,748 sq km
  land: 27,398 sq km
  water: 1,350 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 720 km
  border countries: Greece 282 km, Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and
  Montenegro 287 km

Coastline:
  362 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate:
  mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers;
  interior is cooler and wetter

Terrain:
  mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
  highest point: Maja e Korabit (Golem Korab) 2,764 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, natural gas, coal, bauxite, chromite, copper, iron ore,
  nickel, salt, timber, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 21.09%
  permanent crops: 4.42%
  other: 74.49% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  3,400 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along southwestern coast;
  floods; drought

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and
  domestic effluents

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
  Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to
  Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

People Albania


Population:
  3,563,112 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 25.6% (male 476,989/female 434,298)
  15-64 years: 65.8% (male 1,199,964/female 1,144,886)
  65 years and over: 8.6% (male 141,559/female 165,416) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 28.52 years
  male: 27.95 years
  female: 29.1 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.52% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  15.08 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  5.12 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -4.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.1 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 21.52 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 21.96 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 21.03 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 77.24 years
  male: 74.6 years
  female: 80.15 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.04 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Albanian(s)
  adjective: Albanian

Ethnic groups:
  Albanian 95%, Greek 3%, other 2% (Vlach, Roma (Gypsy), Serb,
  Macedonian, Bulgarian) (1989 est.)
  note: in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from
  1% (official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization)

Religions:
  Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%
  note: percentages are estimates; there are no available current
  statistics on religious affiliation; all mosques and churches were
  closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November
  1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice

Languages:
  Albanian (official - derived from Tosk dialect), Greek, Vlach,
  Romani, Slavic dialects

Literacy:
  definition: age 9 and over can read and write
  total population: 86.5%
  male: 93.3%
  female: 79.5% (2003 est.)

Government Albania


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Albania
  conventional short form: Albania
  local long form: Republika e Shqiperise
  local short form: Shqiperia
  former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania

Government type:
  emerging democracy

Capital:
  Tirana

Administrative divisions:
  12 counties (qarqe, singular - qark); Qarku i Beratit, Qarku i
  Dibres, Qarku i Durresit, Qarku i Elbasanit, Qarku i Fierit, Qarku i
  Gjirokastres, Qarku i Korces, Qarku i Kukesit, Qarku i Lezhes, Qarku
  i Shkodres, Qarku i Tiranes, Qarku i Vlores

Independence:
  28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 28 November (1912)

Constitution:
  adopted by popular referendum on 28 November 1998

Legal system:
  has a civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction; has accepted jurisdiction of the International
  Criminal Court for its citizens

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President of the Republic Alfred MOISIU (since 24
  July 2002)
  head of government: Prime Minister Sali BERISHA (since 10 September
  2005)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister,
  nominated by the president, and approved by parliament
  elections: president elected by the People's Assembly for a
  five-year term; election last held 24 June 2002 (next to be held
  June 2007); prime minister appointed by the president
  election results: Alfred MOISIU elected president; People's Assembly
  vote by number - total votes 116, for 97, against 19

Legislative branch:
  unicameral People's Assembly or Kuvendi Popullor (140 seats; 100
  are elected by direct popular vote and 40 by proportional vote for
  four-year terms)
  elections: last held 4 July 2005 (next to be held July 2009)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  PD 55, PS 40, PR 11, PSD 7, LSI 5, other 22

Judicial branch:
  Constitutional Court, Supreme Court (chairman is elected by the
  People's Assembly for a four-year term), and multiple appeals and
  district courts

Political parties and leaders:
  Agrarian Environmentalist Party or PAA [Lufter XHUVELI]; Christian
  Democratic Party or PDK [Nikolle LESI]; Communist Party of Albania
  or PKSH [Hysni MILLOSHI]; Democratic Alliance Party or PAD [Neritan
  CEKA]; Democratic Party or PD [Sali BERISHA]; Legality Movement
  Party or PLL [Ekrem SPAHIU]; Liberal Union Party or PBL [Arjan
  STAROVA]; National Front Party (Balli Kombetar) or PBK [Adriatik
  ALIMADHI]; New Democratic Party or PDR [Genc POLLO]; Party of
  National Unity or PUK [Idajet BEQIRI]; Renewed Democratic Party or
  PDR [Dashamir SHEHI]; Republican Party or PR [Fatmir MEDIU]; Social
  Democracy Party or PDS [Paskal MILO]; Social Democratic Party or PSD
  [Skender GJINUSHI]; Socialist Movement for Integration or LSI [Ilir
  META]; Socialist Party or PS (formerly the Albanian Party of Labor)
  [Fatos NANO]; Union for Human Rights Party or PBDNJ [Vangjel DULE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Confederation of Trade Unions of Albania or KSSH [Kastriot MUCO];
  Front for Albanian National Unification or FBKSH [Gafur ADILI];
  Omonia [Jani JANI]; Union of Independent Trade Unions of Albania or
  BSPSH [Gezim KALAJA]

International organization participation:
  ACCT, BSEC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt,
  ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
  IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
  WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Agim NESHO
  chancery: 2100 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942
  FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Marcie B. RIES
  embassy: Rruga Elbasanit, Labinoti #103, Tirana
  mailing address: U. S. Department of State, 9510 Tirana Place,
  Dulles, VA 20189-9510
  telephone: [355] (4) 247285
  FAX: [355] (4) 374957 and [355] (4) 232222

Flag description:
  red with a black two-headed eagle in the center

Economy Albania


Economy - overview:
  Poor and backward by European standards, Albania is making the
  difficult transition to a more modern open-market economy. The
  government has taken measures to curb violent crime and to spur
  economic activity and trade. The economy is bolstered by annual
  remittances from abroad of $600-$800 million, mostly from Greece and
  Italy; this helps offset the towering trade deficit. Agriculture,
  which accounts for about one-half of GDP, is held back because of
  frequent drought and the need to modernize equipment, to clarify
  property rights, and to consolidate small plots of land. Energy
  shortages and antiquated and inadequate infrastructure make it
  difficult to attract and sustain foreign investment. The planned
  construction of a new thermal power plant near Vlore and improved
  transmission and distribution facilities will help relieve the
  energy shortages. Also, the government is moving slowly to improve
  the poor national road and rail network, a long-standing barrier to
  sustained economic growth. On the positive side: growth was strong
  in 2003 and 2004, the nation has important oil and gas reserves, and
  inflation is not a problem.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $17.46 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5.6% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $4,900 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 46.2%
  industry: 25.4%
  services: 28.4% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  1.09 million (not including 352,000 emigrant workers) (2004 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 57%, non-agricultural private sector 20%, public sector
  23% (2004 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  14.8% officially; may be as high as 30% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  25% (2004 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.2% (2004 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  18.4% of GDP (2004 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $2.05 billion
  expenditures: $2.46 billion, including capital expenditures of $500
  million (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, sugar beets, grapes;
  meat, dairy products

Industries:
  food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil, cement,
  chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower

Industrial production growth rate:
  3.1% (2004 est.)

Electricity - production:
  5.68 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 2.9%
  hydro: 97.1%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  6.76 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  100 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  1.08 billion kWh (2004 est.)

Oil - production:
  2,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  7,500 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
  0 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - imports:
  5,500 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - proved reserves:
  185.5 million bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  30 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  30 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  3.316 billion cu m (1 January 2002)

Current account balance:
  $-504 million (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $552.4 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  textiles and footwear; asphalt, metals and metallic ores, crude
  oil; vegetables, fruits, tobacco

Exports - partners:
  Italy 71.7%, Canada 4.3%, Germany 4.3% (2004)

Imports:
  $2.076 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, chemicals

Imports - partners:
  Italy 34.8%, Greece 19.8%, Turkey 7.7%, Germany 5.3% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $1.206 billion (2004 est.)

Debt - external:
  $1.41 billion (2003)

Economic aid - recipient:
  ODA: $315 million (top donors were Italy, EU, Germany) (2000 est.)

Currency (code):
  lek (ALL)

Currency code:
  ALL

Exchange rates:
  leke per US dollar - 102.649 (2004), 121.863 (2003), 140.155
  (2002), 143.485 (2001), 143.709 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Albania


Telephones - main lines in use:
  255,000 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1.1 million (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: despite new investment in fixed lines, the
  density of main lines remains the lowest in Europe with roughly 8
  lines per 100 people; however, cellular telephone use is widespread
  and generally effective
  domestic: offsetting the shortage of fixed line capacity, mobile
  phone service has been available since 1996; by 2003 two companies
  were providing mobile services at a greater density than some of
  Albania's Balkan neighbors
  international: country code - 355; inadequate fixed main lines;
  adequate cellular connections; international traffic carried by
  microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece
  (2003)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 13, FM 4, shortwave 2 (2001)

Radios:
  1 million (2001)

Television broadcast stations:
  3 (plus 58 repeaters) (2001)

Televisions:
  700,000 (2001)

Internet country code:
  .al

Internet hosts:
  455 (2004)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  10 (2001)

Internet users:
  30,000 (2003)

Transportation Albania


Railways:
  total: 447 km
  standard gauge: 447 km 1.435-m gauge (2004)

Highways:
  total: 18,000 km
  paved: 5,400 km
  unpaved: 12,600 km (2002)

Waterways:
  43 km (2004)

Pipelines:
  gas 339 km; oil 207 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore

Merchant marine:
  total: 25 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 40,878 GRT/62,676 DWT
  by type: cargo 24, roll on/roll off 1
  foreign-owned: 2 (Denmark 1, Turkey 1)
  registered in other countries: 1 (2005)

Airports:
  11 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 3
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 8
  over 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 2
  under 914 m: 4 (2004 est.)

Heliports:
  1 (2004 est.)

Military Albania


Military branches:
  General Staff Headquarters, Land Forces Command (Army), Naval
  Forces Command, Air Defense Command, Logistics Command, Training and
  Doctrine Command

Military service age and obligation:
  19 years of age (2004)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 19-49: 809,524 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 19-49: 668,526 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males: 37,407 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $56.5 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.49% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Albania


Disputes - international:
  the Albanian Government calls for the protection of the rights of
  ethnic Albanians in neighboring countries, and the peaceful
  resolution of interethnic disputes; some ethnic Albanian groups in
  neighboring countries advocate for a "greater Albania," but the idea
  has little appeal among Albanian nationals; thousands of unemployed
  Albanians emigrate annually to nearby Italy and other developed
  countries

Illicit drugs:
  increasingly active transshipment point for Southwest Asian
  opiates, hashish, and cannabis transiting the Balkan route and - to
  a far lesser extent - cocaine from South America destined for
  Western Europe; limited opium and growing cannabis production;
  ethnic Albanian narcotrafficking organizations active and expanding
  in Europe; vulnerable to money laundering associated with regional
  trafficking in narcotics, arms, contraband, and illegal aliens


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Algeria

Introduction Algeria


Background:
  After more than a century of rule by France, Algerians fought
  through much of the 1950s to achieve independence in 1962. Algeria's
  primary political party, the National Liberation Front (FLN), has
  dominated politics ever since. Many Algerians in the subsequent
  generation were not satisfied, however, and moved to counter the
  FLN's centrality in Algerian politics. The surprising first round
  success of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) in the December 1991
  balloting spurred the Algerian army to intervene and postpone the
  second round of elections to prevent what the secular elite feared
  would be an extremist-led government from assuming power. The army
  began a crack down on the FIS that spurred FIS supporters to begin
  attacking government targets. The government later allowed elections
  featuring pro-government and moderate religious-based parties, but
  did not appease the activists who progressively widened their
  attacks. The fighting escalated into an insurgency, which saw
  intense fighting between 1992-98 and which resulted in over 100,000
  deaths - many attributed to indiscriminate massacres of villagers by
  extremists. The government gained the upper hand by the late-1990s
  and FIS's armed wing, the Islamic Salvation Army, disbanded in
  January 2000. However, small numbers of armed militants persist in
  confronting government forces and conducting ambushes and occasional
  attacks on villages. The army placed Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA in the
  presidency in 1999 in a fraudulent election but claimed neutrality
  in his 2004 landslide reelection victory. Longstanding problems
  continue to face BOUTEFLIKA in his second term, including the ethnic
  minority Berbers' ongoing autonomy campaign, large-scale
  unemployment, a shortage of housing, unreliable electrical and water
  supplies, government inefficiencies and corruption, and the
  continuing - although significantly degraded - activities of
  extremist militants. Algeria must also diversify its petroleum-based
  economy, which has yielded a large cash reserve but which has not
  been used to redress Algeria's many social and infrastructure
  problems. Algeria assumed a two-year seat on the UN Security Council
  in January 2004.

Geography Algeria


Location:
  Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco
  and Tunisia

Geographic coordinates:
  28 00 N, 3 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 2,381,740 sq km
  land: 2,381,740 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 6,343 km
  border countries: Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km,
  Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km

Coastline:
  998 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 nm

Climate:
  arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along
  coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau;
  sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

Terrain:
  mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow,
  discontinuous coastal plain

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m
  highest point: Tahat 3,003 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc

Land use:
  arable land: 3.22%
  permanent crops: 0.25%
  other: 96.53% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  5,600 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mudslides and
  floods in rainy season

Environment - current issues:
  soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices;
  desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes,
  and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers
  and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming
  polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff;
  inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)

People Algeria


Population:
  32,531,853 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 29% (male 4,811,086/female 4,626,271)
  15-64 years: 66.3% (male 10,861,862/female 10,701,459)
  65 years and over: 4.7% (male 719,460/female 811,715) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 24.36 years
  male: 24.18 years
  female: 24.53 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.22% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  17.13 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  4.6 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 31 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 34.83 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 26.98 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 73 years
  male: 71.45 years
  female: 74.63 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.92 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.1% ; note - no country specific models provided (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  9,100 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 500 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: intermediate
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and
  typhoid fever
  vectorborne disease: cutaneous leishmaniasis is a high risk in some
  locations (2004)

Nationality:
  noun: Algerian(s)
  adjective: Algerian

Ethnic groups:
  Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%
  note: almost all Algerians are Berber in origin, not Arab; the
  minority who identify themselves as Berber live mostly in the
  mountainous region of Kabylie east of Algiers; the Berbers are also
  Muslim but identify with their Berber rather than Arab cultural
  heritage; Berbers have long agitated, sometimes violently, for
  autonomy; the government is unlikely to grant autonomy but has
  offered to begin sponsoring teaching Berber language in schools

Religions:
  Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%

Languages:
  Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 70%
  male: 78.8%
  female: 61% (2003 est.)

Government Algeria


Country name:
  conventional long form: People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
  conventional short form: Algeria
  local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash
  Sha'biyah
  local short form: Al Jaza'ir

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  Algiers

Administrative divisions:
  48 provinces (wilayas, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain
  Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida,
  Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa,
  El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel,
  Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila,
  Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi
  Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret,
  Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen

Independence:
  5 July 1962 (from France)

National holiday:
  Revolution Day, 1 November (1954)

Constitution:
  19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised 3 November
  1988, 23 February 1989, and 28 November 1996

Legal system:
  socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of
  legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of
  various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices;
  has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 April 1999)
  head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed OUYAHIA (since 9 May 2003)
  cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  election last held 8 April 2004 (next to be held NA April 2009);
  prime minister appointed by the president
  election results: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA reelected president for
  second term; percent of vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA 85%, Ali BENFLIS
  6.4%, Abdellah DJABALLAH 5%

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the National People's Assembly or
  Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani (389 seats - changed from 380 seats
  in the 2002 elections; members elected by popular vote to serve
  five-year terms) and the Council of Nations (Senate) (144 seats;
  one-third of the members appointed by the president, two-thirds
  elected by indirect vote; members serve six-year terms; the
  constitution requires half the council to be renewed every three
  years)
  elections: National People's Assembly - last held 30 May 2002 (next
  to be held NA 2007); Council of Nations (Senate) - last held 30
  December 2003 (next to be held NA 2006)
  election results: National People's Assembly - percent of vote by
  party - NA%; seats by party - FLN 199, RND 48, Islah 43, MSP 38, PT
  21, FNA 8, EnNahda 1, PRA 1, MEN 1, independents 29; Council of
  Nations - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party NA%

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Court Supreme

Political parties and leaders:
  Algerian National Front or FNA [Moussa TOUATI]; Democratic National
  Rally or RND [Ahmed OUYAHIA, chairman]; Islamic Salvation Front or
  FIS (outlawed April 1992) [Ali BELHADJ and Dr. Abassi MADANI, Rabeh
  KEBIR (self-exiled in Germany)]; National Entente Movement or MEN
  [Ali BOUKHAZNA]; National Liberation Front or FLN [Abdelaziz
  BELKHADEM, secretary general (also serves as Foreign Minister)];
  National Reform Movement or Islah (formerly MRN) [Abdellah
  DJABALLAH]; National Renewal Party or PRA [Yacine TERKMANE];
  Progressive Republican Party [Khadir DRISS]; Rally for Culture and
  Democracy or RCD [Said SAADI, secretary general]; Renaissance
  Movement or EnNahda Movement [Fatah RABEI]; Socialist Forces Front
  or FFS [Hocine Ait AHMED, secretary general (self-exiled in
  Switzerland)]; Social Liberal Party or PSL [Ahmed KHELIL]; Society
  of Peace Movement or MSP [Boujerra SOLTANI]; Workers Party or PT
  [Louisa HANOUN]
  note: a law banning political parties based on religion was enacted
  in March 1997

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  The Algerian Human Rights League or LADH or LADDH [Yahia Ali
  ABDENOUR]; SOS Disparus [Nacera DUTOUR]; Somoud [Ali MERABET]

International organization participation:
  ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BIS, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA,
  IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
  IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAS, MIGA,
  MONUC, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, OSCE (partner),
  UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
  UNMEE, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Amine KHERBI
  chancery: 2137 Wyoming Ave NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800
  FAX: [1] (202) 667-2174

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Richard W. ERDMAN
  embassy: 4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers
  mailing address: B. P. 408, Alger-Gare, 16030 Algiers
  telephone: [213] (21) 691-425/255/186
  FAX: [213] (21) 69-39-79

Flag description:
  two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white; a red,
  five-pointed star within a red crescent centered over the two-color
  boundary; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional
  symbols of Islam (the state religion)

Economy Algeria


Economy - overview:
  The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the economy, accounting
  for roughly 60% of budget revenues, 30% of GDP, and over 95% of
  export earnings. Algeria has the seventh-largest reserves of natural
  gas in the world and is the second-largest gas exporter; it ranks
  14th in oil reserves. Sustained high oil prices in recent years,
  along with macroeconomic policy reforms supported by the IMF, have
  helped improve Algeria's financial and macroeconomic indicators.
  Algeria is running substantial trade surpluses and building up
  record foreign exchange reserves. Real GDP has risen due to higher
  oil output and increased government spending. The government's
  continued efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and
  domestic investment outside the energy sector, however, has had
  little success in reducing high unemployment and improving living
  standards. Structural reform within the economy moves ahead slowly.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $212.3 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  6.1% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $6,600 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 10.3%
  industry: 57.4%
  services: 32.3% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  9.91 million (2004 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 14%, industry 13.4%, construction and public works 10%,
  trade 14.6%, government 32%, other 16% (2003 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  25.4% (2004 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  23% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2.8%
  highest 10%: 26.8% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  35.3 (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.1% (2004 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  26.2% of GDP (2004 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $31.47 billion
  expenditures: $29.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.8
  billion (2004 est.)

Public debt:
  37.4% of GDP (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle

Industries:
  petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical,
  petrochemical, food processing

Industrial production growth rate:
  6% (2004 est.)

Electricity - production:
  25.76 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 99.7%
  hydro: 0.3%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  23.61 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  500 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  150 million kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  1.2 million bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  209,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Oil - proved reserves:
  11.87 billion bbl (2004 est.)

Natural gas - production:
  80.3 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  22.32 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  57.98 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  4.739 trillion cu m (2004)

Current account balance:
  $11.9 billion (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $32.16 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products 97%

Exports - partners:
  US 22.6%, Italy 17.2%, France 11.4%, Spain 10.1%, Canada 7.5%,
  Brazil 6.1%, Belgium 4.6% (2004)

Imports:
  $15.25 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods

Imports - partners:
  France 30.3%, Italy 8.2%, Germany 6.5%, Spain 5.5%, US 5.2%, China
  5.1%, Turkey 4.3% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $43.55 billion (2004 est.)

Debt - external:
  $21.9 billion (2004 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $122.8 million (2002 est.)

Currency (code):
  Algerian dinar (DZD)

Currency code:
  DZD

Exchange rates:
  Algerian dinars per US dollar - 72.061 (2004), 77.395 (2003),
  79.682 (2002), 77.215 (2001), 75.26 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Algeria


Telephones - main lines in use:
  2,199,600 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1,447,310 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: telephone density in Algeria is very low, not
  exceeding five telephones per 100 persons; the number of fixed main
  lines increased in the last few years to a little more than
  2,000,000, but only about two-thirds of these have subscribers; much
  of the infrastructure is outdated and inefficient
  domestic: good service in north but sparse in south; domestic
  satellite system with 12 earth stations (20 additional domestic
  earth stations are planned)
  international: country code - 213; 5 submarine cables; microwave
  radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial
  cable to Morocco and Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel; satellite
  earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1
  Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat (1998)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 25, FM 1, shortwave 8 (1999)

Radios:
  7.1 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  46 (plus 216 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions:
  3.1 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .dz

Internet hosts:
  897 (2004)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  500,000 (2002)

Transportation Algeria


Railways:
  total: 3,973 km
  standard gauge: 2,888 km 1.435-m gauge (283 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 1,085 km 1.055-m gauge (2004)

Highways:
  total: 104,000 km
  paved: 71,656 km (including 640 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 32,344 km (1999)

Pipelines:
  condensate 1,344 km; gas 85,946 km; liquid petroleum gas 2,213 km;
  oil 6,496 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Djendjene, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran,
  Skikda

Merchant marine:
  total: 56 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 837,676 GRT/929,847 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 9, cargo 14, chemical tanker 4, liquefied gas
  10, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 6, roll on/roll off 9
  foreign-owned: 3 (United Kingdom 3)
  registered in other countries: 1 (2005)

Airports:
  137 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 52
  over 3,047 m: 10
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 27
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
  914 to 1,523 m: 4
  under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 85
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 26
  914 to 1,523 m: 38
  under 914 m: 19 (2004 est.)

Heliports:
  1 (2004 est.)

Military Algeria


Military branches:
  People's National Army (ANP; includes Land Forces), Algerian
  National Navy (MRA), Air Force (QJJ), Territorial Air Defense Force
  (2005)

Military service age and obligation:
  19-30 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript
  service obligation - 18 months (October 2003)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 19-49: 8,033,049 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 19-49: 6,590,079 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males: 374,639 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $2.48 billion (2004)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  3.2% (2004)

Transnational Issues Algeria


Disputes - international:
  Algeria supports the exiled Sahrawi Polisario Front and rejects
  Moroccan administration of Western Sahara; Algeria's border with
  Morocco remains an irritant to bilateral relations, each nation has
  accused the other of harboring militants and arms smuggling; in an
  attempt to improve relations after unilaterally imposing a visa
  requirement on Algerians in the early 1990s, Morocco lifted the
  requirement in mid-2004 - a gesture not reciprocated by Algeria;
  Algeria remains concerned about armed bandits operating throughout
  the Sahel who sometimes destabilize southern Algerian towns; dormant
  disputes include Libyan claims of about 32,000 sq km still reflected
  on its maps of southeastern Algeria and the FLN's assertions of a
  claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  refugees (country of origin): 165,000 (Western Saharan Sahrawi,
  mostly living in Algerian-sponsored camps in the southwestern
  Algerian town of Tindouf)
  IDPs: 100,000 - 200,000 (conflict between government forces, Islamic
  insurgents) (2004)


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@American Samoa

Introduction American Samoa


Background:
  Settled as early as 1000 B.C., Samoa was "discovered" by European
  explorers in the 18th century. International rivalries in the latter
  half of the 19th century were settled by an 1899 treaty in which
  Germany and the US divided the Samoan archipelago. The US formally
  occupied its portion - a smaller group of eastern islands with the
  excellent harbor of Pago Pago - the following year.

Geography American Samoa


Location:
  Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about half
  way between Hawaii and New Zealand

Geographic coordinates:
  14 20 S, 170 00 W

Map references:
  Oceania

Area:
  total: 199 sq km
  land: 199 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  note: includes Rose Island and Swains Island

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  116 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual
  rainfall averages about 3 m; rainy season from November to April,
  dry season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain:
  five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal plains,
  two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island)

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Lata 966 m

Natural resources:
  pumice, pumicite

Land use:
  arable land: 10%
  permanent crops: 15%
  other: 75% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  typhoons common from December to March

Environment - current issues:
  limited natural fresh water resources; the water division of the
  government has spent substantial funds in the past few years to
  improve water catchments and pipelines

Geography - note:
  Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the
  South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and
  protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic
  location in the South Pacific Ocean

People American Samoa


Population:
  57,881 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 35.7% (male 10,705/female 9,956)
  15-64 years: 61.3% (male 18,351/female 17,125)
  65 years and over: 3% (male 664/female 1,080) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 22.76 years
  male: 22.5 years
  female: 23.05 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  -0.11% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  23.13 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  3.33 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -20.89 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 9.27 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 9.85 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 8.65 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 75.84 years
  male: 72.27 years
  female: 79.62 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.25 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: American Samoan(s)
  adjective: American Samoan

Ethnic groups:
  native Pacific islander 92.9%, Asian 2.9%, white 1.2%, mixed 2.8%,
  other 0.2% (2000 census)

Religions:
  Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%, Protestant and
  other 30%

Languages:
  Samoan 90.6% (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian
  languages), English 2.9%, Tongan 2.4%, other Pacific islander 2.1%,
  other 2%
  note: most people are bilingual (2000 census)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 97%
  male: 98%
  female: 97% (1980 est.)

Government American Samoa


Country name:
  conventional long form: Territory of American Samoa
  conventional short form: American Samoa
  abbreviation: AS

Dependency status:
  unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US; administered by
  the Office of Insular Affairs, US Department of the Interior

Government type:
  NA

Capital:
  Pago Pago

Administrative divisions:
  none (territory of the US); there are no first-order administrative
  divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are three
  districts and two islands* at the second order; Eastern, Manu'a,
  Rose Island*, Swains Island*, Western

Independence:
  none (territory of the US)

National holiday:
  Flag Day, 17 April (1900)

Constitution:
  ratified 2 June 1966, effective 1 July 1967

Legal system:
  NA

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President George W. BUSH of the US (since 20
  January 2001) and Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 January
  2001)
  head of government: Governor Togiola TULAFONO (since 7 April 2003)
  cabinet: cabinet made up of 12 department directors
  elections: US president and vice president elected on the same
  ticket for four-year terms; governor and lieutenant governor elected
  on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election
  last held 2 and 16 November 2004 (next to be held November 2008)
  election results: Togiola TULAFONO elected governor; percent of vote
  - Togiola TULAFONO 55.7%, Afoa Moega LUTU 44.3%

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Fono or Legislative Assembly consists of the House of
  Representatives (21 seats - 20 of which are elected by popular vote
  and 1 is an appointed, nonvoting delegate from Swains Island;
  members serve two-year terms) and the Senate (18 seats; members are
  elected from local chiefs and serve four-year terms)
  elections: House of Representatives - last held 2 November 2004
  (next to be held November 2006); Senate - last held 2 November 2004
  (next to be held November 2008)
  election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by
  party - NA%; seats by party - NA; Senate - percent of vote by party
  - NA%; seats by party - independents 18
  note: American Samoa elects one nonvoting representative to the US
  House of Representatives; election last held 2 November 2004 (next
  to be held November 2006); results - Eni F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA
  (Democrat) reelected as delegate

Judicial branch:
  High Court (chief justice and associate justices are appointed by
  the US Secretary of the Interior)

Political parties and leaders:
  Democratic Party [Oreta M. TOGAFAU]; Republican Party [Tautai A. F.
  FAALEVAO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  Interpol (subbureau), IOC, UPU

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (territory of the US)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (territory of the US)

Flag description:
  blue, with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the outer
  side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American bald
  eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional
  Samoan symbols of authority, a staff and a war club

Economy American Samoa


Economy - overview:
  This is a traditional Polynesian economy in which more than 90% of
  the land is communally owned. Economic activity is strongly linked
  to the US, with which American Samoa conducts most of its foreign
  trade. Tuna fishing and tuna processing plants are the backbone of
  the private sector, with canned tuna the primary export. Transfers
  from the US Government add substantially to American Samoa's
  economic well-being. Attempts by the government to develop a larger
  and broader economy are restrained by Samoa's remote location, its
  limited transportation, and its devastating hurricanes. Tourism is a
  promising developing sector.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $500 million (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  NA

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $8,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Labor force:
  14,000 (1996)

Labor force - by occupation:
  tuna canneries 34%, government 33%, other 33% (1990)

Unemployment rate:
  6% (2000)

Population below poverty line:
  NA

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $121 million (37% in local revenue and 63% in US grants)
  expenditures: $127 million, including capital expenditures of NA
  (FY96/97)

Agriculture - products:
  bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams, copra,
  pineapples, papayas; dairy products, livestock

Industries:
  tuna canneries (largely supplied by foreign fishing vessels),
  handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  130 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  120.9 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  3,800 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Exports:
  $30 million (2002)

Exports - commodities:
  canned tuna 93%

Exports - partners:
  Samoa 39.8%, Australia 19.9%, Japan 15.1%, New Zealand 10.5% (2004)

Imports:
  $123 million (2002)

Imports - commodities:
  materials for canneries 56%, food 8%, petroleum products 7%,
  machinery and parts 6%

Imports - partners:
  Japan 31.4%, New Zealand 27.9%, Germany 17.1%, Australia 8.9% (2004)

Debt - external:
  $NA

Economic aid - recipient:
  important financial support from the US, more than $40 million in
  1994

Currency (code):
  US dollar (USD)

Currency code:
  USD

Exchange rates:
  the US dollar is used

Fiscal year:
  1 October - 30 September

Communications American Samoa


Telephones - main lines in use:
  15,000 (2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  2,377 (1999)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: good telex, telegraph, facsimile and cellular telephone
  services; domestic satellite system with 1 Comsat earth station
  international: country code - 1-684; satellite earth station - 1
  Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 3, FM 4, shortwave 1 (2004)

Radios:
  57,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1; note - one cable TV station (2004)

Televisions:
  14,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .as

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  NA

Transportation American Samoa


Highways:
  total: 185 km
  paved: 185 km
  unpaved: 0 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Pago Pago

Airports:
  3 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Military American Samoa


Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the US

Transnational Issues American Samoa


Disputes - international:
  none


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Andorra

Introduction Andorra


Background:
  For 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, Andorrans lived under a unique
  co-principality, ruled by French and Spanish leaders (from 1607
  onward, the French chief of state and the Spanish bishop of Urgel).
  In 1993, this feudal system was modified with the titular heads of
  state retained, but the government transformed into a parliamentary
  democracy. Long isolated and impoverished, mountainous Andorra
  achieved considerable prosperity since World War II through its
  tourist industry. Many immigrants (legal and illegal) are attracted
  to the thriving economy with its lack of income taxes.

Geography Andorra


Location:
  Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain

Geographic coordinates:
  42 30 N, 1 30 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 468 sq km
  land: 468 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  total: 120.3 km
  border countries: France 56.6 km, Spain 63.7 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

Terrain:
  rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m
  highest point: Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m

Natural resources:
  hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

Land use:
  arable land: 2.22%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 97.78% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  avalanches

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil
  erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Hazardous Wastes
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads in the
  Pyrenees

People Andorra


Population:
  70,549 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 14.8% (male 5,471/female 4,995)
  15-64 years: 71.5% (male 26,463/female 23,977)
  65 years and over: 13.7% (male 4,780/female 4,863) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 40.34 years
  male: 40.63 years
  female: 40.02 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.95% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  9 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  6.07 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  6.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.98 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 4.05 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 4.38 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 3.69 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 83.51 years
  male: 80.6 years
  female: 86.6 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.29 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Andorran(s)
  adjective: Andorran

Ethnic groups:
  Spanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%, other 6%
  (1998)

Religions:
  Roman Catholic (predominant)

Languages:
  Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese

Literacy:
  definition: NA
  total population: 100%
  male: NA%
  female: NA%

Government Andorra


Country name:
  conventional long form: Principality of Andorra
  conventional short form: Andorra
  local long form: Principat d'Andorra
  local short form: Andorra

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its
  chiefs of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president
  of France and bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain, who are represented
  locally by coprinces' representatives

Capital:
  Andorra la Vella

Administrative divisions:
  7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra la Vella,
  Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Escaldes-Engordany, Ordino, Sant Julia
  de Loria

Independence:
  1278 (was formed under the joint suzerainty of the French count of
  Foix and the Spanish bishop of Urgel)

National holiday:
  Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)

Constitution:
  Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991, approved
  by referendum 14 March 1993, effective 4 May 1993

Legal system:
  based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of
  legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: French Coprince Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995),
  represented by Philippe MASSONI (since 26 July 2002); Spanish
  Coprince Bishop Joan Enric VIVES i SICILIA (since 12 May 2003),
  represented by Nemesi MARQUES i OSTE (since NA)
  head of government: Executive Council President Albert PINTAT
  SANTOLARIA (since 27 May 2005)
  cabinet: Executive Council or Govern designated by the Executive
  Council president
  elections: Executive Council president elected by the General
  Council and formally appointed by the coprinces for a four-year
  term; election last held 4 March 2001 (next to be held April-May
  2005)
  election results: Marc FORNE MOLNE elected executive council
  president; percent of General Council vote - NA%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de las
  Valls (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote, 14 from
  a single national constituency and 14 to represent each of the 7
  parishes; members serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 24 April 2005 (next to be held March-April 2009)
  election results: percent of vote by party - PLA 41.2%, PS 38.1%,
  CDA 11%, other 9.7%; seats by party - PLA 14, PS 12, CDA 2

Judicial branch:
  Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts
  or Tribunal de Corts; Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or
  Tribunal Superior de Justicia d'Andorra; Supreme Council of Justice
  or Consell Superior de la Justicia; Fiscal Ministry or Ministeri
  Fiscal; Constitutional Tribunal or Tribunal Constitucional

Political parties and leaders:
  Andorran Democratic Center Party or CDA (formerly Democratic Party
  or PD) [leader NA]; Liberal Party of Andorra or PLA (formerly
  Liberal Union or UL) [Albert PINTAT]; Social Democratic Party or PS
  (formerly part of National Democratic Group or AND) [Mariona
  GONZALEZ REOLIT]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  CE, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OPCW, OSCE, UN,
  UNESCO, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WToO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Jelena V.
  PIA-COMELLA
  chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017
  telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064
  FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  the US does not have an embassy in Andorra; the US Ambassador to
  Spain is accredited to Andorra; US interests in Andorra are
  represented by the Consulate General's office in Barcelona (Spain);
  mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain;
  telephone: [34] (93) 280-2227; FAX: [34] (93) 280-6175

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red
  with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat
  of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad
  and Romania, which do not have a national coat of arms in the
  center, and the flag of Moldova, which does bear a national emblem

Economy Andorra


Economy - overview:
  Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do economy,
  accounts for roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 9 million tourists
  visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its
  summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative advantage has
  recently eroded as the economies of neighboring France and Spain
  have been opened up, providing broader availability of goods and
  lower tariffs. The banking sector, with its "tax haven" status, also
  contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is
  limited - only 2% of the land is arable - and most food has to be
  imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising.
  Manufacturing output consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and
  furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is
  treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs)
  and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $1.9 billion (2003 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  2% (2003 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $26,800 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Labor force:
  33,000 (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 1%, industry 21%, services 78% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  0% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  4.3% (2000)

Budget:
  revenues: $385 million
  expenditures: $342 million, including capital expenditures of NA
  (1997)

Agriculture - products:
  small quantities of rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables; sheep

Industries:
  tourism (particularly skiing), cattle raising, timber, banking

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  NA kWh

Electricity - production by source:
  NA

Electricity - consumption:
  NA kWh

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  NA kWh; note - most electricity supplied by Spain and France;
  Andorra generates a small amount of hydropower

Exports:
  $58 million f.o.b. (1998)

Exports - commodities:
  tobacco products, furniture

Exports - partners:
  Spain 58%, France 34% (2000)

Imports:
  $1.077 billion (1998)

Imports - commodities:
  consumer goods, food, electricity

Imports - partners:
  Spain 48%, France 35%, US 2.3% (2000)

Debt - external:
  $NA

Economic aid - recipient:
  none

Currency (code):
  euro (EUR)

Currency code:
  EUR

Exchange rates:
  euros per US dollar - 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002),
  1.1175 (2001), 1.0854 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Andorra


Telephones - main lines in use:
  35,000 (2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  23,500 (2001)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections
  between exchanges
  international: country code - 376; landline circuits to France and
  Spain

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 0, FM 15, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  16,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  0 (1997)

Televisions:
  27,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ad

Internet hosts:
  4,144 (2004)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  24,500 (2001)

Transportation Andorra


Highways:
  total: 269 km
  paved: 198 km
  unpaved: 71 km

Merchant marine:
  registered in other countries: 1

Airports:
  none (2004 est.)

Military Andorra


Military branches:
  no regular military forces, Police Service of Andorra

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of France and Spain

Transnational Issues Andorra


Disputes - international:
  none


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Angola

Introduction Angola


Background:
  Angola has begun to enjoy the fruits of peace since the end of a
  27-year civil war in 2002. Fighting between the Popular Movement for
  the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, and
  the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led
  by Jonas SAVIMBI, followed independence from Portugal in 1975. Peace
  seemed imminent in 1992 when Angola held national elections, but
  UNITA renewed fighting after being beaten by the MPLA at the polls.
  Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people
  displaced - in the quarter century of fighting. SAVIMBI's death in
  2002 ended UNITA's insurgency and strengthened the MPLA's hold on
  power. DOS SANTOS has pledged to hold national elections in 2006.

Geography Angola


Location:
  Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between
  Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates:
  12 30 S, 18 30 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 1,246,700 sq km
  land: 1,246,700 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,198 km
  border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km (of
  which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province),
  Republic of the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km

Coastline:
  1,600 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry
  season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

Terrain:
  narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Morro de Moco 2,620 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold,
  bauxite, uranium

Land use:
  arable land: 2.41%
  permanent crops: 0.24%
  other: 97.35% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  750 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau

Environment - current issues:
  overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to
  population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical
  rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical
  timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of
  biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and
  siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the
  Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of
  the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo

People Angola


Population:
  11,190,786 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 43.4% (male 2,454,209/female 2,407,083)
  15-64 years: 53.7% (male 3,059,339/female 2,955,060)
  65 years and over: 2.8% (male 139,961/female 175,134) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 18.12 years
  male: 18.12 years
  female: 18.11 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.9% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  44.64 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  25.9 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 191.19 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 203.68 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 178.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 38.43 years
  male: 37.28 years
  female: 39.64 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  6.27 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  3.9% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  240,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  21,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: very high
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea,
  hepatitis A, typhoid fever
  vectorborne diseases: malaria, African trypanosomiasis (sleeping
  sickness) are high risks in some locations
  respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
  water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2004)

Nationality:
  noun: Angolan(s)
  adjective: Angolan

Ethnic groups:
  Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European
  and native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%

Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (1998
  est.)

Languages:
  Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 66.8%
  male: 82.1%
  female: 53.8% (2001 est.)

Government Angola


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Angola
  conventional short form: Angola
  local long form: Republica de Angola
  local short form: Angola
  former: People's Republic of Angola

Government type:
  republic, nominally a multiparty democracy with a strong
  presidential system

Capital:
  Luanda

Administrative divisions:
  18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela,
  Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene,
  Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico,
  Namibe, Uige, Zaire

Independence:
  11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 11 November (1975)

Constitution:
  11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August 1980, 6 March
  1991, and 26 August 1992; note - new constitution has not yet been
  approved

Legal system:
  based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently
  modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use of
  free markets

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21
  September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and
  head of government
  head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21
  September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and
  head of government; Fernando de Piedade Dias DOS SANTOS was
  appointed Prime Minister on 6 December 2002, but this is not a
  position of real power
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
  elections: president elected by universal ballot for a five-year
  term; President DOS SANTOS originally elected (in 1979) without
  opposition under a one-party system and stood for reelection in
  Angola's first multiparty elections 29-30 September 1992 (next to be
  held September 2006)
  election results: DOS SANTOS 49.6%, Jonas SAVIMBI 40.1%, making a
  run-off election necessary; the run-off was not held and SAVIMBI's
  National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA)
  repudiated the results of the first election; the civil war resumed

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats;
  members elected by proportional vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held September
  2006)
  election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 54%, UNITA 34%,
  others 12%; seats by party - MPLA 129, UNITA 70, PRS 6, FNLA 5, PLD
  3, others 7

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Tribunal da Relacao (judges are appointed by the
  president)

Political parties and leaders:
  Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Analia de Victoria PEREIRA];
  National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA [disputed
  leadership: Lucas NGONDA, Holden ROBERTO]; National Union for the
  Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Isaias SAMAKUVA], largest
  opposition party has engaged in years of armed resistance; Popular
  Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS
  SANTOS], ruling party in power since 1975; Social Renewal Party or
  PRS [disputed leadership: Eduardo KUANGANA, Antonio MUACHICUNGO]
  note: about a dozen minor parties participated in the 1992 elections
  but only won a few seats and have little influence in the National
  Assembly

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita
  Henriques TIAGO, Antonio Bento BEMBE]
  note: FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed
  struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province

International organization participation:
  ACP, AfDB, AU, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory),
  ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC,
  IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), SADC, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Josefina Perpetua Pitra DIAKIDI
  chancery: 2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
  telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156
  FAX: [1] (202) 785-1258
  consulate(s) general: Houston and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Cynthia EFFIRD
  embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne (in the Miramar area of
  Luanda), Luanda
  mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6468, Luanda;
  pouch: American Embassy Luanda, Department of State, Washington, DC
  20521-2550
  telephone: [244] (2) 445-481, 447-028, 446-224
  FAX: [244] (2) 446-924

Flag description:
  two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered
  yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a
  cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)

Economy Angola


Economy - overview:
  Angola has been an economy in disarray because of a quarter century
  of nearly continuous warfare. An apparently durable peace was
  established after the death of rebel leader Jonas SAVIMBI in
  February 2002, but consequences from the conflict continue including
  the impact of widespread land mines. Subsistence agriculture
  provides the main livelihood for 85% of the population. Oil
  production and the supporting activities are vital to the economy,
  contributing about 45% to GDP and more than half of exports. Much of
  the country's food must still be imported. To fully take advantage
  of its rich natural resources - gold, diamonds, extensive forests,
  Atlantic fisheries, and large oil deposits - Angola will need to
  continue reforming government policies and to reduce corruption.
  While Angola made progress in further lowering inflation, from 325%
  in 2000 to about 106% in 2002, the government has failed to make
  sufficient progress on reforms recommended by the IMF such as
  increasing foreign exchange reserves and promoting greater
  transparency in government spending. Increased oil production
  supported 7% GDP growth in 2003 and 12% growth in 2004.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $23.17 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  11.7% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $2,100 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 8%
  industry: 67%
  services: 25% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
  5.41 million (2004 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 85%, industry and services 15% (2003 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  extensive unemployment and underemployment affecting more than half
  the population (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  70% (2003 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  43.8% (2004 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  34.5% of GDP (2004 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $9.013 billion
  expenditures: $9.562 billion, including capital expenditures of $963
  million (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, manioc (tapioca),
  tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish

Industries:
  petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite,
  uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing;
  food processing; brewing; tobacco products; sugar; textiles, ship
  repair

Industrial production growth rate:
  1% (2000)

Electricity - production:
  1.707 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 36.4%
  hydro: 63.6%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  1.587 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  980,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  31,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Oil - proved reserves:
  22.88 billion bbl (2004 est.)

Natural gas - production:
  530 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  530 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  79.57 billion cu m (2004)

Current account balance:
  $-37.88 million (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $12.76 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas, coffee,
  sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton

Exports - partners:
  US 38%, China 35.9%, Taiwan 6.8%, France 6.5% (2004)

Imports:
  $4.896 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts;
  medicines, food, textiles, military goods

Imports - partners:
  South Korea 28.3%, Portugal 13.1%, US 9.3%, South Africa 7.4%,
  Brazil 5.6%, Japan 4.8%, France 4.4% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $800 million (2004 est.)

Debt - external:
  $10.45 billion (2004 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $383.5 million (1999)

Currency (code):
  kwanza (AOA)

Currency code:
  AOA

Exchange rates:
  kwanza per US dollar - 83.541 (2004), 74.606 (2003), 43.53 (2002),
  22.058 (2001), 10.041 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Angola


Telephones - main lines in use:
  96,300 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  130,000 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: telephone service limited mostly to government
  and business use; HF radiotelephone used extensively for military
  links
  domestic: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and
  tropospheric scatter
  international: country code - 244; satellite earth stations - 2
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC)
  provides connectivity to Europe and Asia

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 21, FM 6, shortwave 7 (2000)

Radios:
  815,000 (2000)

Television broadcast stations:
  6 (2000)

Televisions:
  196,000 (2000)

Internet country code:
  .ao

Internet hosts:
  17 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  41,000 (2002)

Transportation Angola


Railways:
  total: 2,761 km
  narrow gauge: 2,638 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2004)

Highways:
  total: 51,429 km
  paved: 5,328 km
  unpaved: 46,101 km (2001)

Waterways:
  1,300 km (2004)

Pipelines:
  gas 214 km; liquid natural gas 14 km; liquid petroleum gas 30 km;
  oil 837 km; refined products 56 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Cabinda, Luanda, Soyo

Merchant marine:
  total: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 26,123 GRT/42,879 DWT
  by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1
  registered in other countries: 4 (2005)

Airports:
  243 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 32
  over 3,047 m: 4
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
  914 to 1,523 m: 5
  under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 211
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 30
  914 to 1,523 m: 95
  under 914 m: 80 (2004 est.)

Military Angola


Military branches:
  Army, Navy (Marinha de Guerra, MdG), Air and Air Defense Forces
  (FANA)

Military service age and obligation:
  17 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service
  obligation - 2 years plus time for training (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 17-49: 2,423,221 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 17-49: 1,174,548 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males: 121,254 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $183.58 million (2004)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  10.6% (2004)

Transnational Issues Angola


Disputes - international:
  90,000 Angolan refugees were repatriated by 2004, the remaining
  refugees in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia are
  expected to return in 2005; many Cabinda exclave secessionists have
  sought shelter in neighboring states

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  IDPs: 40,000-60,000 (27-year civil war ending in 2002; 4 million
  IDPs already have returned) (2004)

Illicit drugs:
  used as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for Western
  Europe and other African states


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Anguilla

Introduction Anguilla


Background:
  Colonized by English settlers from Saint Kitts in 1650, Anguilla
  was administered by Great Britain until the early 19th century, when
  the island - against the wishes of the inhabitants - was
  incorporated into a single British dependency, along with Saint
  Kitts and Nevis. Several attempts at separation failed. In 1971, two
  years after a revolt, Anguilla was finally allowed to secede; this
  arrangement was formally recognized in 1980, with Anguilla becoming
  a separate British dependency.

Geography Anguilla


Location:
  Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic
  Ocean, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates:
  18 15 N, 63 10 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 102 sq km
  land: 102 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about half the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  61 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 3 nm
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

Terrain:
  flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Crocus Hill 65 m

Natural resources:
  salt, fish, lobster

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some
  commercial salt ponds) (2001)

Irrigated land:
  NA

Natural hazards:
  frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July to October)

Environment - current issues:
  supplies of potable water sometimes cannot meet increasing demand
  largely because of poor distribution system

Geography - note:
  the most northerly of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles

People Anguilla


Population:
  13,254 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 23.2% (male 1,561/female 1,517)
  15-64 years: 69.9% (male 4,767/female 4,501)
  65 years and over: 6.9% (male 405/female 503) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 30.76 years
  male: 30.81 years
  female: 30.7 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.77% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  14.26 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  5.43 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  8.83 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 21.03 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 27.59 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 14.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 77.11 years
  male: 74.18 years
  female: 80.12 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.73 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Anguillan(s)
  adjective: Anguillan

Ethnic groups:
  black (predominant) 90.1%, mixed, mulatto 4.6%, white 3.7%, other
  1.6% (2001 Census)

Religions:
  Anglican 29%, Methodist 23.9%, other Protestant 30.2%, Roman
  Catholic 5.7%, other Christian 1.7%, other 5.2%, none or unspecified
  4.3% (2001 Census)

Languages:
  English (official)

Literacy:
  definition: age 12 and over can read and write
  total population: 95%
  male: 95%
  female: 95% (1984 est.)

Government Anguilla


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Anguilla

Dependency status:
  overseas territory of the UK

Government type:
  NA

Capital:
  The Valley

Administrative divisions:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday:
  Anguilla Day, 30 May

Constitution:
  Anguilla Constitutional Order 1 April 1982; amended 1990

Legal system:
  based on English common law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);
  represented by Governor Alan Eden HUCKLE (since 28 May 2004)
  head of government: Chief Minister Osbourne FLEMING (since 3 March
  2000)
  cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from among the
  elected members of the House of Assembly
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by
  the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the
  majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually
  appointed chief minister by the governor

Legislative branch:
  unicameral House of Assembly (11 seats total, 7 elected by direct
  popular vote, 2 ex officio members, and 2 appointed; members serve
  five-year terms)
  elections: last held 21 February 2005 (next to be held 2010)
  election results: percent of vote by party - AUF 38.9%, ANSA 19.2%,
  AUM 19.4%, APP 9.5 %, independents 13%; seats by party - AUF 4, ANSA
  2, AUM 1

Judicial branch:
  High Court (judge provided by Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court)

Political parties and leaders:
  Anguilla United Movement or AUM [Hubert HUGHES]; The Anguilla
  United Front or AUF [Osbourne FLEMING, Victor BANKS], a coalition of
  the Anguilla Democratic Party or ADP and the Anguilla National
  Alliance or ANA; Anguilla Progressive Party or APP [Roy ROGERS];
  Anguilla Strategic Alternative or ANSA [Edison BAIRD]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), OECS (associate),
  UPU

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description:
  blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
  the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag;
  the coat of arms depicts three orange dolphins in an interlocking
  circular design on a white background with blue wavy water below

Economy Anguilla


Economy - overview:
  Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy depends heavily
  on luxury tourism, offshore banking, lobster fishing, and
  remittances from emigrants. Increased activity in the tourism
  industry, which has spurred the growth of the construction sector,
  has contributed to economic growth. Anguillan officials have put
  substantial effort into developing the offshore financial sector,
  which is small, but growing. In the medium term, prospects for the
  economy will depend largely on the tourism sector and, therefore, on
  revived income growth in the industrialized nations as well as on
  favorable weather conditions.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $112 million (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  2.8% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $7,500 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 4%
  industry: 18%
  services: 78% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  6,049 (2001)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining 4%, manufacturing 3%,
  construction 18%, transportation and utilities 10%, commerce 36%,
  services 29% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  8% (2002)

Population below poverty line:
  23% (2002)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.3%

Budget:
  revenues: $22.8 million
  expenditures: $22.5 million, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2000 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  small quantities of tobacco, vegetables; cattle raising

Industries:
  tourism, boat building, offshore financial services

Industrial production growth rate:
  3.1% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production:
  NA

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: NA
  hydro: NA
  nuclear: NA
  other: NA

Electricity - consumption:
  42.6 million kWh

Exports:
  $2.6 million (1999)

Exports - commodities:
  lobster, fish, livestock, salt, concrete blocks, rum

Exports - partners:
  UK, US, Puerto Rico, Saint-Martin (2000)

Imports:
  $80.9 million (1999)

Imports - commodities:
  fuels, foodstuffs, manufactures, chemicals, trucks, textiles

Imports - partners:
  US, Puerto Rico, UK (2000)

Debt - external:
  $8.8 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $9 million (2004 est.)

Currency (code):
  East Caribbean dollar (XCD)

Currency code:
  XCD

Exchange rates:
  East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7 (2004), 2.7 (2003), 2.7
  (2002), 2.7 (2001), 2.7 (2000)
  note: fixed rate since 1976

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Anguilla


Telephones - main lines in use:
  6,200 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1,800 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: modern internal telephone system
  international: country code - 1-264; microwave radio relay to island
  of Saint Martin (Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 7, shortwave 0 (2004)

Radios:
  3,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (1997)

Televisions:
  1,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ai

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  16 (2000)

Internet users:
  3,000 (2002)

Transportation Anguilla


Highways:
  total: 105 km
  paved: 65 km
  unpaved: 40 km (1997)

Ports and harbors:
  Blowing Point, Road Bay

Airports:
  3 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 2
  under 914 m: 2 (2004 est.)

Military Anguilla


Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues Anguilla


Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the
  US and Europe


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Antarctica

Introduction Antarctica


Background:
  Speculation over the existence of a "southern land" was not
  confirmed until the early 1820s when British and American commercial
  operators and British and Russian national expeditions began
  exploring the Antarctic Peninsula region and other areas south of
  the Antarctic Circle. Not until 1840 was it established that
  Antarctica was indeed a continent and not just a group of islands.
  Several exploration "firsts" were achieved in the early 20th
  century. Following World War II, there was an upsurge in scientific
  research on the continent. A number of countries have set up
  year-round research stations on Antarctica. Seven have made
  territorial claims, but not all countries recognize these claims. In
  order to form a legal framework for the activities of nations on the
  continent, an Antarctic Treaty was negotiated that neither denies
  nor gives recognition to existing territorial claims; signed in
  1959, it entered into force in 1961.

Geography Antarctica


Location:
  continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle

Geographic coordinates:
  90 00 S, 0 00 E

Map references:
  Antarctic Region

Area:
  total: 14 million sq km
  land: 14 million sq km (280,000 sq km ice-free, 13.72 million sq km
  ice-covered) (est.)
  note: fifth-largest continent, following Asia, Africa, North
  America, and South America, but larger than Australia and the
  subcontinent of Europe

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US

Land boundaries:
  0 km
  note: see entry on Disputes - international

Coastline:
  17,968 km

Maritime claims:
  Australia, Chile, and Argentina claim Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)
  rights or similar over 200 nm extensions seaward from their
  continental claims, but like the claims themselves, these zones are
  not accepted by other countries; 20 of 27 Antarctic consultative
  nations have made no claims to Antarctic territory (although Russia
  and the US have reserved the right to do so) and do not recognize
  the claims of the other nations; also see the Disputes -
  international entry

Climate:
  severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance
  from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica
  because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most
  moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along the
  coast and average slightly below freezing

Terrain:
  about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock, with
  average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges
  up to nearly 5,000 meters; ice-free coastal areas include parts of
  southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area,
  and parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves
  along about half of the coastline, and floating ice shelves
  constitute 11% of the area of the continent

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Bentley Subglacial Trench -2,555 m
  highest point: Vinson Massif 4,897 m
  note: the lowest known land point in Antarctica is hidden in the
  Bentley Subglacial Trench; at its surface is the deepest ice yet
  discovered and the world's lowest elevation not under seawater

Natural resources:
  iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum and other
  minerals, and coal and hydrocarbons have been found in small
  uncommercial quantities; none presently exploited; krill, finfish,
  and crab have been taken by commercial fisheries

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%) (2001)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km

Natural hazards:
  katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from the high
  interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the plateau;
  cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise along the
  coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West
  Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak; large icebergs may
  calve from ice shelf

Environment - current issues:
  in 1998, NASA satellite data showed that the antarctic ozone hole
  was the largest on record, covering 27 million square kilometers;
  researchers in 1997 found that increased ultraviolet light passing
  through the hole damages the DNA of icefish, an antarctic fish
  lacking hemoglobin; ozone depletion earlier was shown to harm
  one-celled antarctic marine plants; in 2002, significant areas of
  ice shelves disintegrated in response to regional warming

Geography - note:
  the coldest, windiest, highest (on average), and driest continent;
  during summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South
  Pole than is received at the Equator in an equivalent period; mostly
  uninhabitable

People Antarctica


Population:
  no indigenous inhabitants, but there are both permanent and
  summer-only staffed research stations
  note: 26 nations, all signatory to the Antarctic Treaty, operate
  seasonal (summer) and year-round research stations on the continent
  and in its surrounding oceans; the population of persons doing and
  supporting science on the continent and its nearby islands south of
  60 degrees south latitude (the region covered by the Antarctic
  Treaty) varies from approximately 4,000 in summer to 1,000 in
  winter; in addition, approximately 1,000 personnel including ship's
  crew and scientists doing onboard research are present in the waters
  of the treaty region; summer (January) population - 3,687 total;
  Argentina 302, Australia 201, Belgium 13, Brazil 80, Bulgaria 16,
  Chile 352, China 70, Finland 11, France 100, Germany 51, India 60,
  Italy 106, Japan 136, South Korea 14, Netherlands 10, NZ 60, Norway
  40, Peru 28, Poland 70, Russia 254, South Africa 80, Spain 43,
  Sweden 20, UK 192, US 1,378 (1998-99); winter (July) population -
  964 total; Argentina 165, Australia 75, Brazil 12, Chile 129, China
  33, France 33, Germany 9, India 25, Japan 40, South Korea 14, NZ 10,
  Poland 20, Russia 102, South Africa 10, UK 39, US 248 (1998-99);
  research stations operated within the Antarctic Treaty area (south
  of 60 degrees south) by members of the Council of Managers of
  National Antarctic Programs (COMNAP): year-round stations - 38
  total; Argentina 6, Australia 3, Brazil 1, Chile 4, China 2, France
  1, Germany 1, India 1, Japan 1, South Korea 1, NZ 1, Poland 1,
  Russia 6, South Africa 1, Ukraine 1, UK 2, US 3, Uruguay 1, Italy
  and France jointly 1 (2005); summer-only stations - 34 total;
  Argentina 8, Australia 2, Bulgaria 1, Chile 5, Ecuador 1, Finland 1,
  Germany 2, Italy 1, Japan 3, Norway 2, Peru 1, Russia 2, South
  Africa 1, Spain 2, Sweden 1, UK 1 (2004-2005); in addition, during
  the austral summer some nations have numerous occupied locations
  such as tent camps, summer-long temporary facilities, and mobile
  traverses in support of research

Government Antarctica


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Antarctica

Government type:
  Antarctic Treaty Summary - the Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1
  December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961, establishes
  the legal framework for the management of Antarctica; the 27th
  Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was held in Cape Town, South
  Africa in May-June 2004; at these periodic meetings, decisions are
  made by consensus (not by vote) of all consultative member nations;
  at the end of 2003, there were 45 treaty member nations: 28
  consultative and 17 non-consultative; consultative (decision-making)
  members include the seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica
  as national territory (some claims overlap) and 21 non-claimant
  nations; the US and Russia have reserved the right to make claims;
  the US does not recognize the claims of others; Antarctica is
  administered through meetings of the consultative member nations;
  decisions from these meetings are carried out by these member
  nations (with respect to their own nationals and operations) in
  accordance with their own national laws; the year in parentheses
  indicates when an acceding nation was accepted as a consultative
  member, while no date indicates the country was an original 1959
  treaty signatory; claimant nations are - Argentina, Australia,
  Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the UK. Nonclaimant
  consultative nations are - Belgium, Brazil (1983), Bulgaria (1998)
  China (1985), Ecuador (1990), Finland (1989), Germany (1981), India
  (1983), Italy (1987), Japan, South Korea (1989), Netherlands (1990),
  Peru (1989), Poland (1977), Russia, South Africa, Spain (1988),
  Sweden (1988), Ukraine (1992), Uruguay (1985), and the US;
  non-consultative members, with year of accession in parentheses, are
  - Austria (1987), Canada (1988), Colombia (1989), Cuba (1984), Czech
  Republic (1993), Denmark (1965), Estonia (2001), Greece (1987),
  Guatemala (1991), Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987), Papua New
  Guinea (1981), Romania (1971), Slovakia (1993), Switzerland (1990),
  Turkey (1995), and Venezuela (1999); Article 1 - area to be used for
  peaceful purposes only; military activity, such as weapons testing,
  is prohibited, but military personnel and equipment may be used for
  scientific research or any other peaceful purpose; Article 2 -
  freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue;
  Article 3 - free exchange of information and personnel, cooperation
  with the UN and other international agencies; Article 4 - does not
  recognize, dispute, or establish territorial claims and no new
  claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force; Article 5 -
  prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes;
  Article 6 - includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south
  of 60 degrees 00 minutes south and reserves high seas rights;
  Article 7 - treaty-state observers have free access, including
  aerial observation, to any area and may inspect all stations,
  installations, and equipment; advance notice of all expeditions and
  of the introduction of military personnel must be given; Article 8 -
  allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own
  states; Article 9 - frequent consultative meetings take place among
  member nations; Article 10 - treaty states will discourage
  activities by any country in Antarctica that are contrary to the
  treaty; Article 11 - disputes to be settled peacefully by the
  parties concerned or, ultimately, by the ICJ; Articles 12, 13, 14 -
  deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among
  involved nations; other agreements - some 200 recommendations
  adopted at treaty consultative meetings and ratified by governments
  include - Agreed Measures for Fauna and Flora (1964) which were
  later incorporated into the Environmental Protocol; Convention for
  the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention on the
  Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980); a mineral
  resources agreement was signed in 1988 but remains unratified; the
  Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was
  signed 4 October 1991 and entered into force 14 January 1998; this
  agreement provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment
  through five specific annexes: 1) environmental impact assessment,
  2) conservation of Antarctic fauna and flora, 3) waste disposal and
  waste management, 4) prevention of marine pollution, and 5) area
  protection and management; it prohibits all activities relating to
  mineral resources except scientific research; a permanent Antarctic
  Treaty Secretariat was established in 2004 in Buenos Aires, Argentina

Legal system:
  Antarctica is administered through meetings of the consultative
  member nations; decisions from these meetings are carried out by
  these member nations (with respect to their own nationals and
  operations) in accordance with their own national laws; US law,
  including certain criminal offenses by or against US nationals, such
  as murder, may apply extra-territorially; some US laws directly
  apply to Antarctica; for example, the Antarctic Conservation Act, 16
  U.S.C. section 2401 et seq., provides civil and criminal penalties
  for the following activities, unless authorized by regulation of
  statute: the taking of native mammals or birds; the introduction of
  nonindigenous plants and animals; entry into specially protected
  areas; the discharge or disposal of pollutants; and the importation
  into the US of certain items from Antarctica; violation of the
  Antarctic Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000 in
  fines and one year in prison; the National Science Foundation and
  Department of Justice share enforcement responsibilities; Public Law
  95-541, the US Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, as amended in
  1996, requires expeditions from the US to Antarctica to notify, in
  advance, the Office of Oceans, Room 5805, Department of State,
  Washington, DC 20520, which reports such plans to other nations as
  required by the Antarctic Treaty; for more information, contact
  Permit Office, Office of Polar Programs, National Science
  Foundation, Arlington, Virginia 22230; telephone: (703) 292-8030, or
  visit their website at www.nsf.gov; more generally, access to the
  Antarctic Treaty area, that is to all areas between 60 and 90
  degrees latitude South, is subject to a number of relevant legal
  instruments and authorization procedures adopted by the states party
  to the Antarctic Treaty.

Economy Antarctica


Economy - overview:
  Fishing off the coast and tourism, both based abroad, account for
  the limited economic activity. Antarctic fisheries in 2000-01 (1
  July-30 June) reported landing 112,934 metric tons. Unregulated
  fishing, particularly of Patagonian toothfish, is a serious problem.
  The Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living
  Resources determines the recommended catch limits for marine
  species. A total of 13,571 tourists visited in the 2002-03 antarctic
  summer, up from the 11,588 visitors the previous year. Nearly all of
  them were passengers on commercial (nongovernmental) ships and
  several yachts that make trips during the summer. Most tourist trips
  last approximately two weeks.

Communications Antarctica


Telephones - main lines in use:
  0
  note: information for US bases only (2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  NA

Telephone system:
  general assessment: local systems at some research stations
  domestic: NA
  international: country code - 672; via satellite (mobile Inmarsat
  and Iridium system) from some research stations

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM NA, FM 2, shortwave 1
  note: information for US bases only (2002)

Radios:
  NA

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (cable system with six channels; American Forces Antarctic
  Network-McMurdo)
  note: information for US bases only (2002)

Televisions:
  several hundred at McMurdo Station (US)
  note: information for US bases only (2001)

Internet country code:
  .aq

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  NA

Transportation Antarctica


Ports and harbors:
  there are no developed ports and harbors in Antarctica; most
  coastal stations have offshore anchorages, and supplies are
  transferred from ship to shore by small boats, barges, and
  helicopters; a few stations have a basic wharf facility; US coastal
  stations include McMurdo (77 51 S, 166 40 E), Palmer (64 43 S, 64 03
  W); government use only except by permit (see Permit Office under
  "Legal System"); all ships at port are subject to inspection in
  accordance with Article 7, Antarctic Treaty; offshore anchorage is
  sparse and intermittent; relevant legal instruments and
  authorization procedures adopted by the states party to the
  Antarctic Treaty regulating access to the Antarctic Treaty area, to
  all areas between 60 and 90 degrees of latitude South, have to be
  complied with (see "Legal System") (2004)

Airports:
  there are no developed public access airports or landing
  facilities; 30 stations, operated by 16 national governments party
  to the Antarctic Treaty, have restricted aircraft landing facilities
  for either helicopters or fixed-wing aircraft; commercial
  enterprises operate two additional aircraft landing facilities;
  helicopter pads are available at 27 stations; runways at 15
  locations are gravel, sea-ice, blue-ice, or compacted snow suitable
  for landing wheeled, fixed-wing aircraft; of these, one is greater
  than 3 km in length, six are between 2 km and 3 km in length, three
  are between 1 km and 2 km in length, three are less than 1 km in
  length, and two are of unknown length; snow surface skiways, limited
  to use by ski-equipped, fixed-wing aircraft, are available at
  another 15 locations; of these, four are greater than 3 km in
  length, three are between 2 km and 3 km in length, two are between 1
  km and 2 km in length, two are less than 1 km in length, and four
  are of unknown length; aircraft landing facilities generally subject
  to severe restrictions and limitations resulting from extreme
  seasonal and geographic conditions; aircraft landing facilities do
  not meet ICAO standards; advance approval from the respective
  governmental or nongovernmental operating organization required for
  using their facilities; landed aircraft are subject to inspection in
  accordance with Article 7, Antarctic Treaty; guidelines for the
  operation of aircraft near concentrations of birds in Antarctica
  were adopted in 2004; relevant legal instruments and authorization
  procedures adopted by states party to the Antarctic Treaty
  regulating access to the Antarctic Treaty area, that is to all areas
  between 60 and 90 degrees of latitude South, have to be complied
  with (see information under "Legal System"); an Antarctic Flight
  Information Manual (AFIM) providing up-to-date details of Antarctic
  air facilities and procedures is maintained and published by the
  Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 20
  over 3,047 m: 6
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 4
  under 914 m: 6 (2004 est.)

Heliports:
  27 stations have restricted helicopter landing facilities
  (helipads) (2004 est.)

Military Antarctica


Military - note:
  the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a military nature,
  such as the establishment of military bases and fortifications, the
  carrying out of military maneuvers, or the testing of any type of
  weapon; it permits the use of military personnel or equipment for
  scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes

Transnational Issues Antarctica


Disputes - international:
  Antarctic Treaty freezes claims (see Antarctic Treaty Summary in
  Government type entry); Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, NZ,
  Norway, and UK claim land and maritime sectors (some overlapping)
  for a large portion of the continent; the US and many other states
  do not recognize these territorial claims and have made no claims
  themselves (the US and Russia reserve the right to do so); no claims
  have been made in the sector between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees
  west; several states with territorial claims in Antarctica have
  expressed their intention to submit data to the UN Commission on the
  Limits of the Continental Shelf to extend their continental shelf
  claims to adjoining undersea ridges


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Antigua and Barbuda

Introduction Antigua and Barbuda


Background:
  The Siboney were the first to inhabit the islands of Antigua and
  Barbuda in 2400 B.C., but Arawak and Carib Indians populated the
  islands when Columbus landed on his second voyage in 1493. Early
  settlements by the Spanish and French were succeeded by the English
  who formed a colony in 1667. Slavery, established to run the sugar
  plantations on Antigua, was abolished in 1834. The islands became an
  independent state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981.

Geography Antigua and Barbuda


Location:
  Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic
  Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates:
  17 03 N, 61 48 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 442.6 sq km (Antigua 280 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km)
  land: 442.6 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  note: includes Redonda, 1.6 sq km

Area - comparative:
  2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  153 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate:
  tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain:
  mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher
  volcanic areas

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m

Natural resources:
  NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism

Land use:
  arable land: 18.18%
  permanent crops: 4.55%
  other: 77.27% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  NA

Natural hazards:
  hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts

Environment - current issues:
  water management - a major concern because of limited natural fresh
  water resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to
  increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
  Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  Antigua has a deeply indented shoreline with many natural harbors
  and beaches; Barbuda has a very large western harbor

People Antigua and Barbuda


Population:
  68,722 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 27.9% (male 9,767/female 9,427)
  15-64 years: 68% (male 23,466/female 23,250)
  65 years and over: 4.1% (male 1,085/female 1,727) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 29.67 years
  male: 29.19 years
  female: 30.15 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.57% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  17.26 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  5.44 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -6.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female
  total population: 1 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 19.46 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 23.43 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 15.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 71.9 years
  male: 69.53 years
  female: 74.38 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.26 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
  adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan

Ethnic groups:
  black, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrian

Religions:
  Christian, (predominantly Anglican with other Protestant, and some
  Roman Catholic)

Languages:
  English (official), local dialects

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of
  schooling
  total population: 89%
  male: 90%
  female: 88% (1960 est.)

Government Antigua and Barbuda


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda

Government type:
  constitutional monarchy with UK-style parliament

Capital:
  Saint John's (Antigua)

Administrative divisions:
  6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George,
  Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip

Independence:
  1 November 1981 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day (National Day), 1 November (1981)

Constitution:
  1 November 1981

Legal system:
  based on English common law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General Sir James B. CARLISLE (since 10 June
  1993)
  head of government: Prime Minister Winston Baldwin SPENCER (since 24
  March 2004)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on
  the advice of the prime minister
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general chosen
  by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following
  legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the
  leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister
  by the governor general

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17-member body
  appointed by the governor general) and the House of Representatives
  (17 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to
  serve five-year terms)
  elections: House of Representatives - last held 23 March 2004 (next
  to be held NA 2009)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  ALP 4, UPP 13

Judicial branch:
  Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia; one judge of
  the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the
  Court of Summary Jurisdiction)

Political parties and leaders:
  Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester Bryant BIRD]; Barbuda People's
  Movement or BPM [Thomas H. FRANK]; United Progressive Party or UPP
  [Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of three opposition parties - United
  National Democratic Party or UNDP, Antigua Caribbean Liberation
  Movement or ACLM, and Progressive Labor Movement or PLM)

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; People's
  Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]

International organization participation:
  ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM,
  IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber),
  ITU, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Lionel A. HURST
  chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
  telephone: [1] (202) 362-5122
  FAX: [1] (202) 362-5225
  consulate(s) general: Miami

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda (embassy
  closed 30 June 1994); the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to
  Antigua and Barbuda

Flag description:
  red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of
  the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black
  (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising sun in the black
  band

Economy Antigua and Barbuda


Economy - overview:
  Tourism continues to dominate the economy, accounting for more than
  half of GDP. Weak tourist arrival numbers since early 2000 have
  slowed the economy, however, and pressed the government into a tight
  fiscal corner. The dual-island nation's agricultural production is
  focused on the domestic market and constrained by a limited water
  supply and a labor shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages
  in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type
  assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts,
  and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the
  medium term will continue to depend on income growth in the
  industrialized world, especially in the US, which accounts for
  slightly more than one-third of tourist arrivals.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $750 million (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $11,000 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 3.9%
  industry: 19.2%
  services: 76.8% (2002)

Labor force:
  30,000

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 7%, industry 11%, services 82% (1983)

Unemployment rate:
  11% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  0.4% (2000 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $123.7 million
  expenditures: $145.9 million, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2000 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes,
  sugarcane; livestock

Industries:
  tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol,
  household appliances)

Industrial production growth rate:
  6% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production:
  110.8 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  103 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  3,600 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Exports:
  $689 million (2002)

Exports - commodities:
  petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, machinery and transport
  equipment 17%, food and live animals 4%, other 8%

Exports - partners:
  Poland 47.8%, UK 24.6%, Germany 8.7% (2004)

Imports:
  $692 million (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment,
  manufactures, chemicals, oil

Imports - partners:
  China 19.5%, US 18.7%, Singapore 14.8%, Poland 8.5%, Trinidad and
  Tobago 4.7% (2004)

Debt - external:
  $231 million (1999)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $2.3 million (1995)

Currency (code):
  East Caribbean dollar (XCD)

Currency code:
  XCD

Exchange rates:
  East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7 (2004), 2.7 (2003), 2.7
  (2002), 2.7 (2001), 2.7 (2000)
  note: fixed rate since 1976

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Antigua and Barbuda


Telephones - main lines in use:
  38,000 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  38,200 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: good automatic telephone system
  international: country code - 1-268; 1 coaxial submarine cable;
  satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric
  scatter to Saba (Netherlands Antilles) and Guadeloupe

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  36,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  2 (1997)

Televisions:
  31,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ag

Internet hosts:
  1,665 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  16 (2000)

Internet users:
  10,000 (2002)

Transportation Antigua and Barbuda


Highways:
  total: 250 km (1999 est.)

Ports and harbors:
  Saint John's

Merchant marine:
  total: 980 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 5,873,626 GRT/7,683,143 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 33, cargo 630, chemical tanker 9, container
  272, liquefied gas 9, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 8, roll
  on/roll off 17, vehicle carrier 1
  foreign-owned: 923 (Australia 2, Bangladesh 4, Belgium 4, Colombia
  2, Denmark 8, Estonia 2, Germany 849, Iceland 5, Latvia 5, Lebanon
  2, Lithuania 1, Netherlands 11, Norway 3, Philippines 1, Russia 1,
  Slovenia 5, Sweden 1, Switzerland 5, Turkey 4, United Kingdom 1,
  United States 7) (2005)

Airports:
  3 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Military Antigua and Barbuda


Military branches:
  Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force: Infantry, Coast Guard
  (2004)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age (est.); no conscript military service (2001)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  NA

Transnational Issues Antigua and Barbuda


Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  considered a minor transshipment point for narcotics bound for the
  US and Europe; more significant as an offshore financial center


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Arctic Ocean

Introduction Arctic Ocean


Background:
  The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the world's five oceans (after
  the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and the recently
  delimited Southern Ocean). The Northwest Passage (US and Canada) and
  Northern Sea Route (Norway and Russia) are two important seasonal
  waterways. A sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes
  circumscribes the Arctic Ocean.

Geography Arctic Ocean


Location:
  body of water between Europe, Asia, and North America, mostly north
  of the Arctic Circle

Geographic coordinates:
  90 00 N, 0 00 E

Map references:
  Arctic Region

Area:
  total: 14.056 million sq km
  note: includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea,
  East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara
  Sea, Laptev Sea, Northwest Passage, and other tributary water bodies

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US

Coastline:
  45,389 km

Climate:
  polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively
  narrow annual temperature ranges; winters characterized by
  continuous darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear
  skies; summers characterized by continuous daylight, damp and foggy
  weather, and weak cyclones with rain or snow

Terrain:
  central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar icepack that,
  on average, is about 3 meters thick, although pressure ridges may be
  three times that thickness; clockwise drift pattern in the Beaufort
  Gyral Stream, but nearly straight-line movement from the New
  Siberian Islands (Russia) to Denmark Strait (between Greenland and
  Iceland); the icepack is surrounded by open seas during the summer,
  but more than doubles in size during the winter and extends to the
  encircling landmasses; the ocean floor is about 50% continental
  shelf (highest percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a central
  basin interrupted by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera,
  Nansen Cordillera, and Lomonosov Ridge)

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Fram Basin -4,665 m
  highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources:
  sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules,
  oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales)

Natural hazards:
  ice islands occasionally break away from northern Ellesmere Island;
  icebergs calved from glaciers in western Greenland and extreme
  northeastern Canada; permafrost in islands; virtually ice locked
  from October to June; ships subject to superstructure icing from
  October to May

Environment - current issues:
  endangered marine species include walruses and whales; fragile
  ecosystem slow to change and slow to recover from disruptions or
  damage; thinning polar icepack

Geography - note:
  major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea (northern access to
  the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait); strategic location between
  North America and Russia; shortest marine link between the extremes
  of eastern and western Russia; floating research stations operated
  by the US and Russia; maximum snow cover in March or April about 20
  to 50 centimeters over the frozen ocean; snow cover lasts about 10
  months



Economy Arctic Ocean


Economy - overview:
  Economic activity is limited to the exploitation of natural
  resources, including petroleum, natural gas, fish, and seals.


Transportation Arctic Ocean


Ports and harbors:
  Churchill (Canada), Murmansk (Russia), Prudhoe Bay (US)

Transportation - note:
  sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes; the Northwest
  Passage (North America) and Northern Sea Route (Eurasia) are
  important seasonal waterways


Transnational Issues Arctic Ocean


Disputes - international:
  some maritime disputes (see littoral states)


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Argentina

Introduction Argentina


Background:
  Following independence from Spain in 1816, Argentina experienced
  periods of internal political conflict between conservatives and
  liberals and between civilian and military factions. After World War
  II, a long period of Peronist authoritarian rule and interference in
  subsequent governments was followed by a military junta that took
  power in 1976. Democracy returned in 1983, and numerous elections
  since then have underscored Argentina's progress in democratic
  consolidation.

Geography Argentina


Location:
  Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between
  Chile and Uruguay

Geographic coordinates:
  34 00 S, 64 00 W

Map references:
  South America

Area:
  total: 2,766,890 sq km
  land: 2,736,690 sq km
  water: 30,200 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US

Land boundaries:
  total: 9,665 km
  border countries: Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km, Chile 5,150 km,
  Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km

Coastline:
  4,989 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate:
  mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest

Terrain:
  rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau
  of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Laguna del Carbon -105 m (located between Puerto San
  Julian and Comandante Luis Piedra Buena in the province of Santa
  Cruz)
  highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,960 m (located in the northwestern
  corner of the province of Mendoza)

Natural resources:
  fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore,
  manganese, petroleum, uranium

Land use:
  arable land: 12.31%
  permanent crops: 0.48%
  other: 87.21% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  15,610 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to
  earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the
  pampas and northeast; heavy flooding

Environment - current issues:
  environmental problems (urban and rural) typical of an
  industrializing economy such as deforestation, soil degradation,
  desertification, air pollution, and water pollution
  note: Argentina is a world leader in setting voluntary greenhouse
  gas targets

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living
  Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate
  Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:
  second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic
  location relative to sea lanes between the South Atlantic and the
  South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake
  Passage); Cerro Aconcagua is South America's tallest mountain, while
  Laguna del Carbon is the lowest point in the Western Hemisphere

People Argentina


Population:
  39,537,943 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 25.6% (male 5,170,721/female 4,938,171)
  15-64 years: 63.9% (male 12,626,711/female 12,627,026)
  65 years and over: 10.6% (male 1,712,117/female 2,463,197) (2005
  est.)

Median age:
  total: 29.42 years
  male: 28.52 years
  female: 30.4 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.98% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  16.9 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  7.56 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 15.18 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 17.07 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 13.19 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 75.91 years
  male: 72.17 years
  female: 79.85 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.19 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.7% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  130,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  1,500 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Argentine(s)
  adjective: Argentine

Ethnic groups:
  white (mostly Spanish and Italian) 97%, mestizo (mixed white and
  Amerindian ancestry), Amerindian, or other non-white groups 3%

Religions:
  nominally Roman Catholic 92% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant
  2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%

Languages:
  Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 97.1%
  male: 97.1%
  female: 97.1% (2003 est.)

Government Argentina


Country name:
  conventional long form: Argentine Republic
  conventional short form: Argentina
  local long form: Republica Argentina
  local short form: Argentina

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  Buenos Aires

Administrative divisions:
  23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), and 1 autonomous
  city* (distrito federal); Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires Capital
  Federal*, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios,
  Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquen, Rio
  Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del
  Estero, Tierra del Fuego - Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur,
  Tucuman
  note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica

Independence:
  9 July 1816 (from Spain)

National holiday:
  Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)

Constitution:
  1 May 1853; revised August 1994

Legal system:
  mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Nestor KIRCHNER (since 25 May 2003); Vice
  President Daniel SCIOLI (since 25 May 2003); note - the president is
  both the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President Nestor KIRCHNER (since 25 May 2003);
  Vice President Daniel SCIOLI (since 25 May 2003); note - the
  president is both the chief of state and head of government
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 27 April
  2003 (next election to be held NA 2007)
  election results: results of the presidential election of 27 April
  2003: Carlos Saul MENEM 24.3%, Nestor KIRCHNER 22%, Ricardo Lopez
  MURPHY 16.4%, Adolfo Rodriguez SAA 14.4%, Elisa CARRIO 14.2%, other
  8.7%; the subsequent runoff election slated for 25 May 2003 was
  awarded to KIRCHNER by default after MENEM withdrew his candidacy on
  the eve of the election

Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the
  Senate (72 seats; members are elected by direct vote; presently
  one-third of the members elected every two years to a six-year term)
  and the Chamber of Deputies (257 seats; members are elected by
  direct vote; one-half of the members elected every two years to a
  four-year term)
  elections: Senate - last held intermittently by province during the
  2nd half of 2003 (next to be held NA 2005); Chamber of Deputies -
  last held intermittently by province during the 2nd half of 2003
  (next to be held NA 2005)
  election results: Senate - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA%;
  seats by bloc or party - PJ 41, UCR 16, provincial parties 15;
  Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA%; seats
  by bloc or party - PJ 133, UCR 46, IF 23, ARI 11, Socialist 6,
  other/provincial parties 38

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (the nine Supreme Court judges are
  appointed by the president with approval by the Senate)

Political parties and leaders:
  Action for the Republic or AR [Domingo CAVALLO]; Alternative for a
  Republic of Equals or ARI [Elisa CARRIO]; Federal Recreate Movement
  or RECREAR [Ricardo LOPEZ MURPHY]; Front for a Country in Solidarity
  or Frepaso (a four-party coalition) [Dario Pedro ALESSANDRO];
  Interbloque Federal or IF (a broad coalition of approximately 12
  parties including RECREAR) [leader NA]; Justicialist Party or PJ
  (Peronist umbrella political organization) [leader NA]; Radical
  Civic Union or UCR [Angel ROZAS]; Socialist Party or PS [Ruben
  GIUSTINIANI]; Union For All [Patricia BULLRICH]; several provincial
  parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs (CILFA); Argentine
  Industrial Union (manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural
  Society (large landowners' association); business organizations;
  Central of Argentine Workers or CTA (a radical union for employed
  and unemployed workers); General Confederation of Labor or CGT
  (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization); Peronist-dominated
  labor movement; Roman Catholic Church; students

International organization participation:
  AfDB, Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CSN, FAO, G-6, G-15, G-24, G-77,
  IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
  IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA,
  Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG,
  UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR,
  UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMOVIC, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
  WToO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Jose Octavio BORDON
  chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
  telephone: [1] (202) 238-6400
  FAX: [1] (202) 332-3171
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
  New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Lino GUTIERREZ
  embassy: Avenida Colombia 4300, C1425GMN Buenos Aires
  mailing address: international mail: use street address; APO
  address: Unit 4334, APO AA 34034
  telephone: [54] (11) 5777-4533
  FAX: [54] (11) 5777-4240

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and light
  blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a
  human face known as the Sun of May

Economy Argentina


Economy - overview:
  Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate
  population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a
  diversified industrial base. Over the past decade, however, the
  country has suffered problems of inflation, external debt, capital
  flight, and budget deficits. Growth in 2000 was a negative 0.8%, as
  both domestic and foreign investors remained skeptical of the
  government's ability to pay debts and maintain the peso's fixed
  exchange rate with the US dollar. The economic situation worsened in
  2001 with the widening of spreads on Argentine bonds, massive
  withdrawals from the banks, and a further decline in consumer and
  investor confidence. Government efforts to achieve a "zero deficit,"
  to stabilize the banking system, and to restore economic growth
  proved inadequate in the face of the mounting economic problems. The
  peso's peg to the dollar was abandoned in January 2002, and the peso
  was floated in February; the exchange rate plunged and real GDP fell
  by 10.9% in 2002, but by mid-year the economy had stabilized, albeit
  at a lower level. GDP expanded by more than 8% in 2003 and again in
  2004, with unemployment falling and inflation remaining in single
  digits.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $483.5 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  8.3% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $12,400 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 10.6%
  industry: 35.9%
  services: 53.5% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  15.04 million (2004 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate:
  14.8% (2004 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  44.3% (June 2004)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  6.1% (2004 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  18.3% of GDP (2004 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $29.15 billion
  expenditures: $26.84 billion, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2004 est.)

Public debt:
  118% of GDP (June 2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  sunflower seeds, lemons, soybeans, grapes, corn, tobacco, peanuts,
  tea, wheat; livestock

Industries:
  food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles,
  chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel

Industrial production growth rate:
  12% (2004 est.)

Electricity - production:
  81.39 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 52.2%
  hydro: 40.8%
  nuclear: 6.7%
  other: 0.2% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  81.65 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  2.818 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  8.775 billion kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  755,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  486,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Oil - proved reserves:
  2.9 billion bbl (2004 est.)

Natural gas - production:
  37.15 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  31.1 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  6.05 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  768 billion cu m (2004)

Current account balance:
  $5.473 billion (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $33.78 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  edible oils, fuels and energy, cereals, feed, motor vehicles

Exports - partners:
  Brazil 15.3%, Chile 10.7%, US 10.2%, China 8.7%, Spain 4.4% (2004)

Imports:
  $22.06 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal
  manufactures, plastics

Imports - partners:
  Brazil 36.2%, US 16.6%, Germany 5.7%, China 4.3% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $19.47 billion (2004 est.)

Debt - external:
  $157.7 billion (2004 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $10 billion (2001 est.)

Currency (code):
  Argentine peso (ARS)

Currency code:
  ARS

Exchange rates:
  Argentine pesos per US dollar - 2.9233 (2004), 2.9006 (2003),
  3.0633 (2002), 0.9995 (2001), 0.9995 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Argentina


Telephones - main lines in use:
  8,009,400 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  6.5 million (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: by opening the telecommunications market to
  competition and foreign investment with the "Telecommunications
  Liberalization Plan of 1998," Argentina encouraged the growth of
  modern telecommunication technology; fiber-optic cable trunk lines
  are being installed between all major cities; the major networks are
  entirely digital and the availability of telephone service is being
  improved; however, telephone density is presently minimal, and
  making telephone service universally available will take time
  domestic: microwave radio relay, fiber-optic cable, and a domestic
  satellite system with 40 earth stations serve the trunk network;
  more than 110,000 pay telephones are installed and mobile telephone
  use is rapidly expanding
  international: country code - 54; satellite earth stations - 8
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); Atlantis II and Unisur submarine cables;
  two international gateways near Buenos Aires (1999)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 260 (including 10 inactive stations), FM NA (probably more than
  1,000, mostly unlicensed), shortwave 6 (1998)

Radios:
  24.3 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  42 (plus 444 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:
  7.95 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ar

Internet hosts:
  742,358 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  33 (2000)

Internet users:
  4.1 million (2002)

Transportation Argentina


Railways:
  total: 34,091 km (167 km electrified)
  broad gauge: 20,594 km 1.676-m gauge (141 km electrified)
  standard gauge: 2,885 km 1.435-m gauge (26 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 10,375 km 1.000-m gauge; 237 km 0.750-m gauge (2004)

Highways:
  total: 215,471 km
  paved: 63,348 km (including 734 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 152,123 km (1999)

Waterways:
  11,000 km (2004)

Pipelines:
  gas 27,166 km; liquid petroleum gas 41 km; oil 3,668 km; refined
  products 2,945 km; unknown (oil/water) 13 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Concepcion del Uruguay, La Plata, Punta
  Colorada, Rosario, San Lorenzo-San Martin, San Nicolas

Merchant marine:
  total: 26 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 149,007 GRT/212,620 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 2, cargo 9, chemical tanker 1, passenger 1,
  passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 7, refrigerated cargo 2, roll
  on/roll off 1
  foreign-owned: 2 (Chile 1, Uruguay 1)
  registered in other countries: 23 (2005)

Airports:
  1,334 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 144
  over 3,047 m: 4
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 26
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 62
  914 to 1,523 m: 44
  under 914 m: 8 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1,190
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 50
  914 to 1,523 m: 569
  under 914 m: 567 (2004 est.)

Military Argentina


Military branches:
  Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic (includes Naval
  Aviation and Marines), Argentine Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Argentina,
  FAA)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription
  (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 8,981,886 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 7,316,038 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males: 344,575 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $4.3 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.3% (FY00)

Military - note:
  the Argentine military is a well-organized force constrained by the
  country's prolonged economic hardship; the country has recently
  experienced a strong recovery, and the military is now implementing
  "Plan 2000," aimed at making the ground forces lighter and more
  responsive (2005)

Transnational Issues Argentina


Disputes - international:
  Argentina claims the UK-administered Falkland Islands (Islas
  Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands in its
  constitution; it briefly occupied the Falklands in 1982, but in 1995
  agreed no longer to seek settlement by force; territorial claim in
  Antarctica partially overlaps UK and Chilean claims (see Antarctic
  disputes); unruly region at convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay
  borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and illegal
  narcotics trafficking, and fundraising for extremist organizations;
  uncontested dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera
  Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with
  Argentina in question

Illicit drugs:
  used as a transshipment country for cocaine headed for Europe and
  the US; some money-laundering activity, especially in the Tri-Border
  Area; domestic consumption of drugs in urban centers is increasing


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Armenia

Introduction Armenia


Background:
  Armenia prides itself on being the first nation to formally adopt
  Christianity (early 4th century). Despite periods of autonomy, over
  the centuries Armenia came under the sway of various empires
  including the Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Persian, and Ottoman. It was
  incorporated into Russia in 1828 and the USSR in 1920. Armenian
  leaders remain preoccupied by the long conflict with Muslim
  Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated
  region, assigned to Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s by Moscow.
  Armenia and Azerbaijan began fighting over the area in 1988; the
  struggle escalated after both countries attained independence from
  the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold,
  Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also a
  significant portion of Azerbaijan proper. The economies of both
  sides have been hurt by their inability to make substantial progress
  toward a peaceful resolution. Turkey imposed an economic blockade on
  Armenia and closed the common border because of the Armenian
  occupation of Nagorno-Karabakh and surrounding areas.

Geography Armenia


Location:
  Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey

Geographic coordinates:
  40 00 N, 45 00 E

Map references:
  Asia

Area:
  total: 29,800 sq km
  land: 28,400 sq km
  water: 1,400 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,254 km
  border countries: Azerbaijan-proper 566 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan
  exclave 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  highland continental, hot summers, cold winters

Terrain:
  Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing
  rivers; good soil in Aras River valley

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Debed River 400 m
  highest point: Aragats Lerrnagagat' 4,090 m

Natural resources:
  small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, alumina

Land use:
  arable land: 17.55%
  permanent crops: 2.3%
  other: 80.15% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  2,870 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts

Environment - current issues:
  soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; the energy crisis
  of the 1990s led to deforestation when citizens scavenged for
  firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the
  draining of Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan), a result of its use as a
  source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of
  Metsamor nuclear power plant in spite of its location in a
  seismically active zone

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate
  Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Geography - note:
  landlocked in the Lesser Caucasus Mountains; Sevana Lich (Lake
  Sevan) is the largest lake in this mountain range

People Armenia


Population:
  2,982,904 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 21.6% (male 339,453/female 305,214)
  15-64 years: 67.5% (male 938,734/female 1,074,240)
  65 years and over: 10.9% (male 131,519/female 193,744) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 30.07 years
  male: 27.45 years
  female: 32.84 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  -0.25% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  11.76 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  8.16 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -6.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.17 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.9 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 23.28 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 28.51 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 17.13 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 71.55 years
  male: 67.97 years
  female: 75.75 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.32 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.1% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  2,600 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 200 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Armenian(s)
  adjective: Armenian

Ethnic groups:
  Armenian 97.9%, Yezidi (Kurd) 1.3%, Russian 0.5%, other 0.3% (2001
  census)

Religions:
  Armenian Apostolic 94.7%, other Christian 4%, Yezidi (monotheist
  with elements of nature worship) 1.3%

Languages:
  Armenian 97.7%, Yezidi 1%, Russian 0.9%, other 0.4% (2001 census)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98.6%
  male: 99.4%
  female: 98% (2003 est.)

Government Armenia


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Armenia
  conventional short form: Armenia
  local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
  local short form: Hayastan
  former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  Yerevan

Administrative divisions:
  11 provinces (marzer, singular - marz); Aragatsotn, Ararat,
  Armavir, Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak, Syunik', Tavush,
  Vayots' Dzor, Yerevan

Independence:
  21 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 21 September (1991)

Constitution:
  adopted by nationwide referendum 5 July 1995

Legal system:
  based on civil law system

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Robert KOCHARIAN (since 30 March 1998)
  head of government: Prime Minister Andranik MARGARYAN (since 12 May
  2000)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  election last held 19 February and 5 March 2003 (next to be held NA
  2008); prime minister appointed by the president; the prime minister
  and Council of Ministers must resign if the National Assembly
  refuses to accept their program
  election results: Robert KOCHARIAN reelected president; percent of
  vote - Robert KOCHARIAN 67.5%, Stepan DEMIRCHYAN 32.5%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or Azgayin Zhoghov (131
  seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms; 75
  members elected by party list, 56 by direct vote)
  elections: last held 25 May 2003 (next to be held in the spring of
  2007)
  note: percent of vote by party - Republican Party 23.5%, Justice
  Bloc 13.6%, Rule of Law 12.3%, ARF (Dashnak) 11.4%, National Unity
  Party 8.8%, United Labor Party 5.7%; seats by party - Republican
  Party 23, Justice Bloc 14, Rule of Law 12, ARF (Dashnak) 11,
  National Unity 9, United Labor 6; note - seats by party change
  frequently as deputies switch parties or announce themselves
  independent

Judicial branch:
  Constitutional Court; Court of Cassation (Appeals Court)

Political parties and leaders:
  Agro-Industrial Party [Vladimir BADALIAN]; Armenia Party [Myasnik
  MALKHASYAN]; Armenian National Movement or ANM [Alex ARZUMANYAN,
  chairman]; Armenian Ramkavar Liberal Party or HRAK [Harutyun
  MIRZAKHANYAN, chairman]; Armenian Revolutionary Federation
  ("Dashnak" Party) or ARF [Vahan HOVHANISSIAN]; Democratic Party
  [Aram SARKISYAN]; Justice Bloc (comprised of the Democratic Party,
  National Democratic Party, National Democratic Union, and the
  People's Party) [Stepan DEMIRCHYAN]; National Democratic Party
  [Shavarsh KOCHARIAN]; National Democratic Union or NDU [Vazgen
  MANUKIAN]; National Unity Party [Artashes GEGAMIAN, chairman];
  People's Party of Armenia [Stepan DEMIRCHYAN]; Republic Party
  [Albert BAZEYAN and Aram SARKISYAN, chairmen]; Republican Party or
  RPA [Andranik MARKARYAN]; Rule of Law Party [Artur BAGDASARIAN,
  chairman]; Union of Constitutional Rights [Hrant KHACHATURYAN];
  United Labor Party [Gurgen ARSENIAN]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Yerkrapah Union [Manvel GRIGORIAN]

International organization participation:
  BSEC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory),
  ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
  MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Tatoul MARKARIAN
  chancery: 2225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 319-1976
  FAX: [1] (202) 319-2982
  consulate(s) general: Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador John M. EVANS
  embassy: 18 Baghramyan Ave., Yerevan 375019
  mailing address: American Embassy Yerevan, Department of State, 7020
  Yerevan Place, Washington, DC 20521-7020
  telephone: [374](1) 521-611, 520-791, 542-117, 542-132, 524-661,
  527-001, 524-840
  FAX: [374](1) 520-800

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and orange

Economy Armenia


Economy - overview:
  Under the old Soviet central planning system, Armenia had developed
  a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and
  other manufactured goods to sister republics in exchange for raw
  materials and energy. Since the implosion of the USSR in December
  1991, Armenia has switched to small-scale agriculture away from the
  large agroindustrial complexes of the Soviet era. The agricultural
  sector has long-term needs for more investment and updated
  technology. The privatization of industry has been at a slower pace,
  but has been given renewed emphasis by the current administration.
  Armenia is a food importer, and its mineral deposits (copper, gold,
  bauxite) are small. The ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan over the
  ethnic Armenian-dominated region of Nagorno-Karabakh and the breakup
  of the centrally directed economic system of the former Soviet Union
  contributed to a severe economic decline in the early 1990s. By
  1994, however, the Armenian Government had launched an ambitious
  IMF-sponsored economic liberalization program that resulted in
  positive growth rates in 1995-2003. Armenia joined the WTO in
  January 2003. Armenia also has managed to slash inflation, stabilize
  the local currency (the dram), and privatize most small- and
  medium-sized enterprises. The chronic energy shortages Armenia
  suffered in the early and mid-1990s have been offset by the energy
  supplied by one of its nuclear power plants at Metsamor. Armenia is
  now a net energy exporter, although it does not have sufficient
  generating capacity to replace Metsamor, which is under
  international pressure to close. The electricity distribution system
  was privatized in 2002. Armenia's severe trade imbalance has been
  offset somewhat by international aid and foreign direct investment.
  Economic ties with Russia remain close, especially in the energy
  sector.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $13.65 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  9% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $4,600 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 22.9%
  industry: 36.1%
  services: 41.1% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  1.4 million (2001)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 45%, industry 25%, services 30% (2002 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  30% (2003 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  50% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2.3%
  highest 10%: 46.2% (1999)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  44.4 (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.5% (2004 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  19.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $428.1 million
  expenditures: $491.2 million, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  fruit (especially grapes), vegetables; livestock

Industries:
  diamond-processing, metal-cutting machine tools, forging-pressing
  machines, electric motors, tires, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk
  fabric, chemicals, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, jewelry
  manufacturing, software development, food processing, brandy

Industrial production growth rate:
  15% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  6.492 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 42.3%
  hydro: 27%
  nuclear: 30.7%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  5.797 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  704 million kWh; note - exports an unknown quantity to Georgia;
  includes exports to Nagorno-Karabakh region in Azerbaijan (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  463 million kWh; note - imports an unknown quantity from Iran (2002)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  5,700 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  1.4 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  1.4 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Current account balance:
  $-240.4 million (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $850 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  diamonds, mineral products, foodstuffs, energy

Exports - partners:
  Belgium 18%, Israel 15.3%, Germany 13.3%, Russia 12.5%, US 8.1%,
  Netherlands 7.2%, Iran 5.5%, Georgia 4.3%, UAE 4% (2004)

Imports:
  $1.3 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  natural gas, petroleum, tobacco products, foodstuffs, diamonds

Imports - partners:
  Russia 11.3%, Belgium 10.1%, Israel 8.4%, US 7.6%, Iran 7.1%, UAE
  6.1%, Ukraine 5.9%, Italy 5.5%, Germany 5.2%, Georgia 4.6%, France
  4.5% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $555 million (2004 est.)

Debt - external:
  $905 million (June 2001)

Economic aid - recipient:
  ODA $170 million (2000)

Currency (code):
  dram (AMD)

Currency code:
  AMD

Exchange rates:
  drams per US dollar - 533.45 (2004), 578.76 (2003), 573.35 (2002),
  555.08 (2001), 539.53 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Armenia


Telephones - main lines in use:
  562,600 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  114,400 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: system inadequate; now 90% privately owned and
  undergoing modernization and expansion
  domestic: the majority of subscribers and the most modern equipment
  are in Yerevan (this includes paging and mobile cellular service)
  international: country code - 374; Yerevan is connected to the
  Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic cable through Iran; additional
  international service is available by microwave radio relay and
  landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of
  Independent States and through the Moscow international switch and
  by satellite to the rest of the world; satellite earth stations - 1
  Intelsat (2000)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 9, FM 6, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  850,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  3 (plus an unknown number of repeaters); (1998)

Televisions:
  825,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .am

Internet hosts:
  2,206 (2004)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  9 (2001)

Internet users:
  150,000 (2003)

Transportation Armenia


Railways:
  total: 845 km
  broad gauge: 845 km 1.520-m gauge (828 km electrified)
  note: some lines are out of service (2004)

Highways:
  total: 8,431 km
  paved: 8,161 km (includes 7,567 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 270 km (2002)

Pipelines:
  gas 1,871 km (2004)

Airports:
  16 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 11
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
  914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 5
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 2
  under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Military Armenia


Military branches:
  Army, Air Force, Air Defense Force

Military service age and obligation:
  18-27 years of age for compulsory military service, conscript
  service obligation - 12 months; 18 years of age for voluntary
  military service (May 2004)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 722,836 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 551,938 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males: 31,774 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $135 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  6.5% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Armenia


Disputes - international:
  Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh
  and since the early 1990s, has militarily occupied 16% of Azerbaijan
  - Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)
  continues to mediate dispute; over 800,000 mostly ethnic
  Azerbaijanis were driven from the occupied lands and Armenia; about
  230,000 ethnic Armenians were driven from their homes in Azerbaijan
  into Armenia; Azerbaijan seeks transit route through Armenia to
  connect to Naxcivan exclave; border with Turkey remains closed over
  Nagorno-Karabakh dispute; ethnic Armenian groups in Javakheti region
  of Georgia seek greater autonomy; tens of thousands of Armenians
  emigrate, primarily to Russia, to seek employment

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  refugees (country of origin): 236,306 (Azerbaijan)
  IDPs: 50,000 (conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh) (2004)

Illicit drugs:
  illicit cultivation of small amount of cannabis for domestic
  consumption; used as a transit point for illicit drugs - mostly
  opium and hashish - moving from Southwest Asia to Russia and to a
  lesser extent the rest of Europe


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Aruba

Introduction Aruba


Background:
  Discovered and claimed for Spain in 1499, Aruba was acquired by the
  Dutch in 1636. The island's economy has been dominated by three main
  industries. A 19th century gold rush was followed by prosperity
  brought on by the opening in 1924 of an oil refinery. The last
  decades of the 20th century saw a boom in the tourism industry.
  Aruba seceded from the Netherlands Antilles in 1986 and became a
  separate, autonomous member of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
  Movement toward full independence was halted at Aruba's request in
  1990.

Geography Aruba


Location:
  Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Venezuela

Geographic coordinates:
  12 30 N, 69 58 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 193 sq km
  land: 193 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  68.5 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate:
  tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain:
  flat with a few hills; scant vegetation

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Mount Jamanota 188 m

Natural resources:
  NEGL; white sandy beaches

Land use:
  arable land: 10.53% (including aloe 0.01%)
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 89.47% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  0.01 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Geography - note:
  a flat, riverless island renowned for its white sand beaches; its
  tropical climate is moderated by constant trade winds from the
  Atlantic Ocean; the temperature is almost constant at about 27
  degrees Celsius (81 degrees Fahrenheit)

People Aruba


Population:
  71,566 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 19.9% (male 7,308/female 6,960)
  15-64 years: 68.2% (male 23,736/female 25,068)
  65 years and over: 11.9% (male 3,486/female 5,008) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 38 years
  male: 36.07 years
  female: 39.7 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.47% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  11.26 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  6.57 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 5.89 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 6.71 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 5.03 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 79.14 years
  male: 75.8 years
  female: 82.65 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.79 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Aruban(s)
  adjective: Aruban; Dutch

Ethnic groups:
  mixed white/Caribbean Amerindian 80%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant 8%, Hindu, Muslim, Confucian, Jewish

Languages:
  Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, English
  dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish

Literacy:
  definition:
  total population: 97%
  male: NA%
  female: NA%

Government Aruba


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Aruba

Dependency status:
  part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; full autonomy in internal
  affairs obtained in 1986 upon separation from the Netherlands
  Antilles; Dutch Government responsible for defense and foreign
  affairs

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  Oranjestad

Administrative divisions:
  none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

Independence:
  none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

National holiday:
  Flag Day, 18 March

Constitution:
  1 January 1986

Legal system:
  based on Dutch civil law system, with some English common law
  influence

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen BEATRIX of the Netherlands (since 30 April
  1980), represented by Governor General Fredis REFUNJOL (since 11 May
  2004)
  head of government: Prime Minister Nelson O. ODUBER (since 30
  October 2001)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers (elected by the Staten)
  elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed for
  a six-year term by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime
  minister elected by the Staten for four-year terms; election last
  held 28 September 2001 (next to be held by December 2005)
  election results: Nelson O. ODUBER elected prime minister; percent
  of legislative vote - NA

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Legislature or Staten (21 seats; members elected by
  direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 23 September 2005 (next to be held by NA 2009)
  election results: percent of vote by party - MEP 43%, AVP 32%, MPA
  7%, RED 7%, PDR 6%, OLA 4%, PPA 2%; seats by party - MEP 11, AVP 8,
  MPA 1, RED 1

Judicial branch:
  Common Court of Justice of Aruba (judges are appointed by the
  monarch)

Political parties and leaders:
  Aliansa/Aruban Social Movement or MSA [Robert WEVER]; Aruban
  Liberal Organization or OLA [Glenbert CROES]; Aruban Patriotic
  Movement or MPA [Monica ARENDS-KOCK]; Aruban Patriotic Party or PPA
  [Benny NISBET]; Aruban People's Party or AVP [Mike EMAN]; People's
  Electoral Movement Party or MEP [Nelson O. ODUBER]; Real Democracy
  or PDR [Andin BIKKER]; RED [Rudy LAMPE]; Workers Political Platform
  or PTT [Gregorio WOLFF]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, UNESCO (associate), UPU, WCL, WToO
  (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (represented by the Kingdom of the Netherlands); note - Mr.
  Henry Baarh, Minister Plenipotentiary for Aruba at the Embassy of
  the Kingdom of the Netherlands

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  the US does not have an embassy in Aruba; the Consul General to
  Netherlands Antilles is accredited to Aruba

Flag description:
  blue, with two narrow, horizontal, yellow stripes across the lower
  portion and a red, four-pointed star outlined in white in the upper
  hoist-side corner

Economy Aruba


Economy - overview:
  Tourism is the mainstay of the small, open Aruban economy, with
  offshore banking and oil refining and storage also important. The
  rapid growth of the tourism sector over the last decade has resulted
  in a substantial expansion of other activities. Construction has
  boomed, with hotel capacity five times the 1985 level. In addition,
  the reopening of the country's oil refinery in 1993, a major source
  of employment and foreign exchange earnings, has further spurred
  growth. Aruba's small labor force and exceptionally low unemployment
  rate have led to a large number of unfilled job vacancies, despite
  sharp rises in wage rates in recent years. Tourist arrivals have
  declined in the aftermath of the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks
  on the US. The government now must deal with a budget deficit and a
  negative trade balance.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $1.94 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  -1.5% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $28,000 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Labor force:
  41,500 (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  most employment is in wholesale and retail trade and repair,
  followed by hotels and restaurants; oil refining

Unemployment rate:
  0.6% (2003 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.2% (2002 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $135.8 million
  expenditures: $147 million, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2000)

Agriculture - products:
  aloes; livestock; fish

Industries:
  tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  807.7 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  751.2 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  6,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Exports:
  $128 million f.o.b. (including oil reexports) (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  live animals and animal products, art and collectibles, machinery
  and electrical equipment, transport equipment

Exports - partners:
  Netherlands 28.5%, Panama 17.5%, Venezuela 14.7%, Netherlands
  Antilles 11.2%, Colombia 10.7%, US 10.4% (2004)

Imports:
  $841 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and electrical equipment, crude oil for refining and
  reexport, chemicals; foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  US 55.5%, Netherlands 14.1%, Venezuela 3.3% (2004)

Debt - external:
  $285 million (1996)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $26 million (1995); note - the Netherlands provided a $127 million
  aid package to Aruba and Suriname in 1996

Currency (code):
  Aruban guilder/florin (AWG)

Currency code:
  AWG

Exchange rates:
  Aruban guilders/florins per US dollar - 1.79 (2004), 1.79 (2003),
  1.79 (2002), 1.79 (2001), 1.79 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Aruba


Telephones - main lines in use:
  37,100 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  53,000 (2001)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: modern fully automatic telecommunications system
  domestic: increased competition through privatization; 3 wireless
  service providers are now licensed
  international: country code - 297; 1 submarine cable to Sint Maarten
  (Netherlands Antilles); extensive interisland microwave radio relay
  links

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 16, shortwave 0 (2004)

Radios:
  50,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (1997)

Televisions:
  20,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .aw

Internet hosts:
  923 (2001)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  NA

Internet users:
  24,000 (2002)

Transportation Aruba


Highways:
  total: 800 km
  paved: 513 km
  unpaved: 287 km
  note: most coastal roads are paved, while unpaved roads serve large
  tracts of the interior (1995)

Ports and harbors:
  Barcadera, Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas

Airports:
  1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Military Aruba


Military branches:
  no regular indigenous military forces; Royal Dutch Navy and
  Marines, Coast Guard

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the Kingdom of the Netherlands

Transnational Issues Aruba


Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  transit point for US- and Europe-bound narcotics with some
  accompanying money-laundering activity


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Introduction Ashmore and Cartier Islands


Background:
  These uninhabited islands came under Australian authority in 1931;
  formal administration began two years later. Ashmore Reef supports a
  rich and diverse avian and marine habitat; in 1983, it became a
  National Nature Reserve. Cartier Island, a former bombing range, is
  now a marine reserve.

Geography Ashmore and Cartier Islands


Location:
  Southeastern Asia, islands in the Indian Ocean, midway between
  northwestern Australia and Timor island

Geographic coordinates:
  12 14 S, 123 05 E

Map references:
  Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 5 sq km
  land: 5 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  note: includes Ashmore Reef (West, Middle, and East Islets) and
  Cartier Island

Area - comparative:
  about eight times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  74.1 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 12 nm
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical

Terrain:
  low with sand and coral

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: unnamed location 3 m

Natural resources:
  fish

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100% (all grass and sand) (2001)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  surrounded by shoals and reefs that can pose maritime hazards

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Geography - note:
  Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve established in August 1983

People Ashmore and Cartier Islands


Population:
  no indigenous inhabitants
  note: Indonesian fishermen are allowed access to the lagoon and
  fresh water at Ashmore Reef's West Island (July 2005 est.)

People - note:
  the landing of illegal immigrants from Indonesia's Rote Island has
  become an ongoing problem

Government Ashmore and Cartier Islands


Country name:
  conventional long form: Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands
  conventional short form: Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Dependency status:
  territory of Australia; administered by the Australian Department
  of Transport and Regional Services

Legal system:
  the laws of the Commonwealth of Australia and the laws of the
  Northern Territory of Australia, where applicable, apply

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (territory of Australia)

Flag description:
  the flag of Australia is used

Economy Ashmore and Cartier Islands


Economy - overview:
  no economic activity


Transportation Ashmore and Cartier Islands


Ports and harbors:
  none; offshore anchorage only

Military Ashmore and Cartier Islands


Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of Australia; periodic visits by the
  Royal Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force

Transnational Issues Ashmore and Cartier Islands


Disputes - international:
  Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef;
  Australia closed the surrounding waters to Indonesian traditional
  fishing and created a national park in the region while continuing
  to prospect for hydrocarbons in the vicinity


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Atlantic Ocean

Introduction Atlantic Ocean


Background:
  The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's five oceans
  (after the Pacific Ocean, but larger than the Indian Ocean, Southern
  Ocean, and Arctic Ocean). The Kiel Canal (Germany), Oresund
  (Denmark-Sweden), Bosporus (Turkey), Strait of Gibraltar
  (Morocco-Spain), and the Saint Lawrence Seaway (Canada-US) are
  important strategic access waterways. The decision by the
  International Hydrographic Organization in the spring of 2000 to
  delimit a fifth world ocean, the Southern Ocean, removed the portion
  of the Atlantic Ocean south of 60 degrees south.

Geography Atlantic Ocean


Location:
  body of water between Africa, Europe, the Southern Ocean, and the
  Western Hemisphere

Geographic coordinates:
  0 00 N, 25 00 W

Map references:
  Political Map of the World

Area:
  total: 76.762 million sq km
  note: includes Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait,
  Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador
  Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea, almost all of the
  Scotia Sea, and other tributary water bodies

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than 6.5 times the size of the US

Coastline:
  111,866 km

Climate:
  tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of Africa near
  Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea; hurricanes can
  occur from May to December, but are most frequent from August to
  November

Terrain:
  surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea, Denmark
  Strait, and coastal portions of the Baltic Sea from October to June;
  clockwise warm-water gyre (broad, circular system of currents) in
  the northern Atlantic, counterclockwise warm-water gyre in the
  southern Atlantic; the ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic
  Ridge, a rugged north-south centerline for the entire Atlantic basin

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench -8,605 m
  highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources:
  oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales), sand
  and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules,
  precious stones

Natural hazards:
  icebergs common in Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, and the
  northwestern Atlantic Ocean from February to August and have been
  spotted as far south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands; ships
  subject to superstructure icing in extreme northern Atlantic from
  October to May; persistent fog can be a maritime hazard from May to
  September; hurricanes (May to December)

Environment - current issues:
  endangered marine species include the manatee, seals, sea lions,
  turtles, and whales; drift net fishing is hastening the decline of
  fish stocks and contributing to international disputes; municipal
  sludge pollution off eastern US, southern Brazil, and eastern
  Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Lake
  Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North Sea; industrial waste and
  municipal sewage pollution in Baltic Sea, North Sea, and
  Mediterranean Sea

Geography - note:
  major chokepoints include the Dardanelles, Strait of Gibraltar,
  access to the Panama and Suez Canals; strategic straits include the
  Strait of Dover, Straits of Florida, Mona Passage, The Sound
  (Oresund), and Windward Passage; the Equator divides the Atlantic
  Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean



Economy Atlantic Ocean


Economy - overview:
  The Atlantic Ocean provides some of the world's most heavily
  trafficked sea routes, between and within the Eastern and Western
  Hemispheres. Other economic activity includes the exploitation of
  natural resources, e.g., fishing, dredging of aragonite sands (The
  Bahamas), and production of crude oil and natural gas (Caribbean
  Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and North Sea).


Transportation Atlantic Ocean


Ports and harbors:
  Alexandria (Egypt), Algiers (Algeria), Antwerp (Belgium), Barcelona
  (Spain), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Casablanca (Morocco), Colon
  (Panama), Copenhagen (Denmark), Dakar (Senegal), Gdansk (Poland),
  Hamburg (Germany), Helsinki (Finland), Las Palmas (Canary Islands,
  Spain), Le Havre (France), Lisbon (Portugal), London (UK), Marseille
  (France), Montevideo (Uruguay), Montreal (Canada), Naples (Italy),
  New Orleans (US), New York (US), Oran (Algeria), Oslo (Norway),
  Peiraiefs or Piraeus (Greece), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Rotterdam
  (Netherlands), Saint Petersburg (Russia), Stockholm (Sweden)

Transportation - note:
  Kiel Canal and Saint Lawrence Seaway are two important waterways;
  significant domestic commercial and recreational use of Intracoastal
  Waterway on central and south Atlantic seaboard and Gulf of Mexico
  coast of US


Transnational Issues Atlantic Ocean


Disputes - international:
  some maritime disputes (see littoral states)


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Australia

Introduction Australia


Background:
  Aboriginal settlers arrived on the continent from Southeast Asia
  about 40,000 years before the first Europeans began exploration in
  the 17th century. No formal territorial claims were made until 1770,
  when Capt. James COOK took possession in the name of Great Britain.
  Six colonies were created in the late 18th and 19th centuries; they
  federated and became the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901. The new
  country took advantage of its natural resources to rapidly develop
  its agricultural and manufacturing industries and to make a major
  contribution to the British effort in World Wars I and II. In recent
  decades, Australia has transformed itself into an internationally
  competitive, advanced market economy. It boasted one of the OECD's
  fastest growing economies during the 1990's, a performance due in
  large part to economic reforms adopted in the 1980's. Long-term
  concerns include pollution, particularly depletion of the ozone
  layer, and management and conservation of coastal areas, especially
  the Great Barrier Reef.

Geography Australia


Location:
  Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific
  Ocean

Geographic coordinates:
  27 00 S, 133 00 E

Map references:
  Oceania

Area:
  total: 7,686,850 sq km
  land: 7,617,930 sq km
  water: 68,920 sq km
  note: includes Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than the US contiguous 48 states

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  25,760 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate:
  generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical
  in north

Terrain:
  mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m
  highest point: Mount Kosciuszko 2,229 m

Natural resources:
  bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, gold, silver, uranium,
  nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas,
  petroleum

Land use:
  arable land: 6.55% (includes about 27 million hectares of
  cultivated grassland)
  permanent crops: 0.04%
  other: 93.41% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  24,000 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  cyclones along the coast; severe droughts; forest fires

Environment - current issues:
  soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development,
  urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due
  to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for
  agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique
  animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast
  coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by
  increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited
  natural fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living
  Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate
  Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
  Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note:
  world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; population
  concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; the
  invigorating tropical sea breeze known as the "Fremantle Doctor"
  affects the city of Perth on the west coast, and is one of the most
  consistent winds in the world

People Australia


Population:
  20,090,437 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 19.8% (male 2,038,809/female 1,943,563)
  15-64 years: 67.2% (male 6,815,600/female 6,695,189)
  65 years and over: 12.9% (male 1,145,274/female 1,452,002) (2005
  est.)

Median age:
  total: 36.56 years
  male: 35.74 years
  female: 37.4 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.87% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  12.26 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  7.44 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  3.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 4.69 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 5.08 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 4.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 80.39 years
  male: 77.52 years
  female: 83.4 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.76 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.1% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  14,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 200 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Australian(s)
  adjective: Australian

Ethnic groups:
  Caucasian 92%, Asian 7%, aboriginal and other 1%

Religions:
  Catholic 26.4%, Anglican 20.5%, other Christian 20.5%, Buddhist
  1.9%, Muslim 1.5%, other 1.2%, unspecified 12.7%, none 15.3% (2001
  Census)

Languages:
  English 79.1%, Chinese 2.1%, Italian 1.9%, other 11.1%, unspecified
  5.8% (2001 Census)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 100%
  male: 100%
  female: 100% (1980 est.)

Government Australia


Country name:
  conventional long form: Commonwealth of Australia
  conventional short form: Australia

Government type:
  democratic, federal-state system recognizing the British monarch as
  sovereign

Capital:
  Canberra

Administrative divisions:
  6 states and 2 territories*; Australian Capital Territory*, New
  South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland, South Australia,
  Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia

Dependent areas:
  Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling)
  Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands,
  Norfolk Island, Macquarie Island

Independence:
  1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)

National holiday:
  Australia Day, 26 January (1788)

Constitution:
  9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901

Legal system:
  based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
  with reservations

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen of Australia ELIZABETH II (since 6 February
  1952), represented by Governor General Maj. Gen. (Ret.) Michael
  JEFFERY (since 11 August 2003)
  head of government: Prime Minister John Winston HOWARD (since 11
  March 1996); Deputy Prime Minister Mark VAILE (since 6 July 2005)
  cabinet: Prime Minister nominates, from among members of Parliament,
  candidates who are subsequently sworn in by the Governor General to
  serve as government ministers
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
  appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime
  minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the
  majority party or leader of a majority coalition is sworn in as
  prime minister by the governor general
  note: government coalition - Liberal Party and National Party

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Federal Parliament consists of the Senate (76 seats - 12
  from each of the six states and two from each of the two mainland
  territories; one-half of state members are elected every three years
  by popular vote to serve six-year terms while all territory members
  are elected every three years) and the House of Representatives (150
  seats; members elected by popular preferential voting to serve terms
  of up to three-years; no state can have fewer than five
  representatives)
  elections: Senate - last held 9 October 2004 (next to be held no
  later than June 2008); House of Representatives - last held 9
  October 2004 (next to be called no later than November 2007)
  election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by
  party (for session beginning on 1 July 2005) - Liberal
  Party-National Party coalition 39, Australian Labor Party 28,
  Democrats 4, Australian Greens 4, Family First Party 1; House of
  Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  Liberal Party-National Party coalition 87, Australian Labor Party
  60, independents 3

Judicial branch:
  High Court (the chief justice and six other justices are appointed
  by the governor general)

Political parties and leaders:
  Australian Democrats [Lyn ALLISON]; Australian Labor Party [Kim
  BEAZLEY]; Australian Progressive Alliance [Meg LEES]; Australian
  Greens [Bob BROWN]; Liberal Party [John Winston HOWARD]; The
  Nationals [Mark VAILE]; One Nation Party [Len HARRIS]; Family First
  Party [Steve FIELDING]

International organization participation:
  ANZUS, APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group,
  BIS, C, CP, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM,
  IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
  ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OECD, OPCW, Paris Club, PCA,
  PIF, Sparteca, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNMEE, UNMISET, UNTSO,
  UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, WToO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Michael J. THAWLEY
  chancery: 1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
  telephone: [1] (202) 797-3000
  FAX: [1] (202) 797-3168
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New
  York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: William A. STANTON, Charge d'Affaires ad interim
  embassy: Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital
  Territory 2600
  mailing address: APO AP 96549
  telephone: [61] (02) 6214-5600
  FAX: [61] (02) 6214-5970
  consulate(s) general: Melbourne, Perth, Sydney

Flag description:
  blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a
  large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant known as
  the Commonwealth Star, representing the federation of the colonies
  of Australia in 1901; the star depicts one point for each of the six
  original states and one representing all of Australia's internal and
  external territories; the remaining half is a representation of the
  Southern Cross constellation in white with one small five-pointed
  star and four larger, seven-pointed stars

Economy Australia


Economy - overview:
  Australia has an enviable Western-style capitalist economy, with a
  per capita GDP on par with the four dominant West European
  economies. Rising output in the domestic economy, robust business
  and consumer confidence, and rising exports of raw materials and
  agricultural products are fueling the economy. Australia's emphasis
  on reforms, low inflation, and growing ties with China are other key
  factors behind the economy's strength. The impact of drought, weak
  foreign demand, and strong import demand pushed the trade deficit up
  from $8 billion in 2002, to $18 billion in 2003, and to $13 billion
  in 2004. One other concern is the rapid increase in domestic housing
  prices, which have raised the prospect that interest rates will need
  to be raised to prevent a speculative bubble.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $611.7 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3.5% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $30,700 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 3.4%
  industry: 28.2%
  services: 68.4% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  10.35 million (2004 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 3.6%, industry 26.4%, services 70% (2004 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  5.1% (December 2004 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2%
  highest 10%: 25.4% (1994)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  35.2 (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.3% (2004 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  25.3% of GDP (2004 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $222.7 billion
  expenditures: $221.7 billion, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2004 est.)

Public debt:
  17.4% of GDP (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits; cattle, sheep, poultry

Industries:
  mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing,
  chemicals, steel

Industrial production growth rate:
  1.9% (2004 est.)

Electricity - production:
  210.3 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 90.8%
  hydro: 8.3%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0.9% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  195.6 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  537,500 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  796,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  523,400 bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  530,800 bbl/day (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  3.664 billion bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  33.08 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  23.33 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  9.744 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  2.407 trillion cu m (1 January 2002)

Current account balance:
  $-38.3 billion (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $86.89 billion (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, iron ore, wheat, machinery and
  transport equipment

Exports - partners:
  Japan 18.6%, China 9.2%, US 8.1%, South Korea 7.7%, New Zealand
  7.4%, India 4.6%, UK 4.2% (2004)

Imports:
  $98.1 billion (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, computers and office machines,
  telecommunication equipment and parts; crude oil and petroleum
  products

Imports - partners:
  US 14.8%, China 12.7%, Japan 11.8%, Germany 5.8%, Singapore 4.4%,
  UK 4.1% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $35.14 billion (2004 est.)

Debt - external:
  $308.7 billion (3rd quarter, 2004 est.)

Economic aid - donor:
  ODA, $894 million (FY99/00)

Currency (code):
  Australian dollar (AUD)

Currency code:
  AUD

Exchange rates:
  Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.3598 (2004), 1.5419 (2003),
  1.8406 (2002), 1.9334 (2001), 1.7248 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Australia


Telephones - main lines in use:
  10.815 million (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  14.347 million (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: excellent domestic and international service
  domestic: domestic satellite system; much use of radiotelephone in
  areas of low population density; rapid growth of mobile cellular
  telephones
  international: country code - 61; submarine cables to New Zealand,
  Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia; satellite earth stations - 10
  Intelsat (4 Indian Ocean and 6 Pacific Ocean), 2 Inmarsat (Indian
  and Pacific Ocean regions) (1998)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 262, FM 345, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  25.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  104 (1997)

Televisions:
  10.15 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .au

Internet hosts:
  2,847,763 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  571 (2002)

Internet users:
  9.472 million (2002)

Transportation Australia


Railways:
  total: 54,439 km (3859 km electrified)
  broad gauge: 5,434 km 1.600-m gauge
  standard gauge: 34,110 km 1.435-m gauge (1,397 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 14,895 km 1.067-m gauge (2,462 km electrified)
  dual gauge: 213 km dual gauge (2004)

Highways:
  total: 811,603 km
  paved: 314,090 km (including 18,619 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 497,513 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  2,000 km (mainly used for recreation on Murray and Murray-Darling
  river systems) (2004)

Pipelines:
  condensate/gas 492 km; gas 28,680 km; liquid petroleum gas 240 km;
  oil 4,773 km; oil/gas/water 110 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Brisbane, Dampier, Fremantle, Gladstone, Hay Point, Melbourne,
  Newcastle, Port Hedland, Port Kembla, Port Walcott, Sydney

Merchant marine:
  total: 55 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,531,461 GRT/1,999,409 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 16, cargo 7, chemical tanker 3, container 1,
  liquefied gas 4, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 8,
  roll on/roll off 5
  foreign-owned: 16 (France 1, Germany 3, Japan 1, Philippines 1,
  Saudi Arabia 1, United Kingdom 2, United States 7)
  registered in other countries: 35 (2005)

Airports:
  448 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 305
  over 3,047 m: 10
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 131
  914 to 1,523 m: 139
  under 914 m: 13 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 143
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
  914 to 1,523 m: 112
  under 914 m: 14 (2004 est.)

Military Australia


Military branches:
  Australian Defense Force (ADF): Australian Army, Royal Australian
  Navy, Royal Australian Air Force, Special Operations Command

Military service age and obligation:
  16 years of age for voluntary service (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 16-49: 4,943,676 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 16-49: 4,092,717 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males: 142,158 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $16.65 billion (2004)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.7% (2004)

Transnational Issues Australia


Disputes - international:
  East Timor and Australia continue to meet but disagree over how to
  delimit a permanent maritime boundary and share unexploited
  petroleum resources that fall outside the Joint Petroleum
  Development Area covered by the 2002 Timor Sea Treaty; East Timor
  dispute hampers creation of a revised maritime boundary with
  Indonesia (see also Ashmore and Cartier Islands dispute); regional
  states express concern over Australia's 2004 declaration of a
  1,000-nautical mile-wide maritime indentification zone; Australia
  asserts land and maritime claims to Antarctica (see Antarctica); in
  2004 Australia submitted claims to UNCLOS to extend its continental
  margin from both its mainland and Antarctic claims

Illicit drugs:
  Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate
  products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium
  poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Austria

Introduction Austria


Background:
  Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire,
  Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World
  War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent
  occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status
  remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended
  the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade
  unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year
  declared the country's "perpetual neutrality" as a condition for
  Soviet military withdrawal. Following the Soviet Union's collapse in
  1991 and Austria's entry into the European Union in 1995, some
  Austrians have called into question this neutrality. A prosperous,
  democratic country, Austria entered the Economic and Monetary Union
  in 1999.

Geography Austria


Location:
  Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates:
  47 20 N, 13 20 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 83,870 sq km
  land: 82,444 sq km
  water: 1,426 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,562 km
  border countries: Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366
  km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 35 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 330
  km, Switzerland 164 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and
  some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with
  occasional showers

Terrain:
  in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern
  and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m
  highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m

Natural resources:
  oil, coal, lignite, timber, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony,
  magnesite, tungsten, graphite, salt, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 16.91%
  permanent crops: 0.86%
  other: 82.23% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  457 sq km (2000 est.)

Natural hazards:
  landslides; avalanches; earthquakes

Environment - current issues:
  some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil
  pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air
  pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power
  stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria
  between northern and southern Europe

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85,
  Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
  Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
  Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe
  with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river
  is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands
  because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere

People Austria


Population:
  8,184,691 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 15.6% (male 656,058/female 624,574)
  15-64 years: 67.8% (male 2,790,673/female 2,756,612)
  65 years and over: 16.6% (male 543,626/female 813,148) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 40.44 years
  male: 39.3 years
  female: 41.61 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.11% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  8.81 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  9.7 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  1.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 4.66 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 5.74 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 3.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 78.92 years
  male: 76.03 years
  female: 81.96 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.36 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.3% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  10,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 100 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Austrian(s)
  adjective: Austrian

Ethnic groups:
  Austrians 91.1%, former Yugoslavs 4% (includes Croatians, Slovenes,
  Serbs, and Bosniaks), Turks 1.6%, German 0.9%, other or unspecified
  2.4% (2001 census)

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 73.6%, Protestant 4.7%, Muslim 4.2%, other 3.5%,
  unspecified 2%, none 12% (2001 census)

Languages:
  German (official nationwide), Slovene (official in Carinthia),
  Croatian (official in Burgenland), Hungarian (official in Burgenland)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98%
  male: NA%
  female: NA%

Government Austria


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Austria
  conventional short form: Austria
  local long form: Republik Oesterreich
  local short form: Oesterreich

Government type:
  federal republic

Capital:
  Vienna

Administrative divisions:
  9 states (Bundeslaender, singular - Bundesland); Burgenland,
  Kaernten, Niederoesterreich, Oberoesterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark,
  Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien (Vienna)

Independence:
  1156 (Duchy of Austria founded); 12 November 1918 (republic
  proclaimed)

National holiday:
  National Day, 26 October (1955); note - commemorates the State
  Treaty restoring national sovereignty and the end of occupation and
  the passage of the law on permanent neutrality

Constitution:
  1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May 1945)

Legal system:
  civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of
  legislative acts by the Constitutional Court; separate
  administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; accepts compulsory
  ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal; compulsory for presidential elections

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Heinz FISCHER (since 8 July 2004)
  head of government: Chancellor Wolfgang SCHUESSEL (OeVP)(since 4
  February 2000); Vice Chancellor Hubert GORBACH (since 21 October
  2003)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice
  of the chancellor
  elections: president elected by direct popular vote for a six-year
  term; presidential election last held 25 April 2004 (next to be held
  April 2010); chancellor traditionally chosen by the president from
  the plurality party in the National Council; vice chancellor chosen
  by the president on the advice of the chancellor
  election results: Heinz FISCHER elected president; percent of vote -
  Heinz FISCHER (SPOe) 52.4%, Benita FERRERO-WALDNER (OeVP) 47.6%
  note: government coalition - OeVP and FPOe

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of Federal
  Council or Bundesrat (62 members; members represent each of the
  states on the basis of population, but with each state having at
  least three representatives; members serve a five- or six-year term)
  and the National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members elected
  by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: National Council - last held 24 November 2002 (next to be
  held in the fall of 2006)
  election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - OeVP
  42.3%, SPOe 36.5%, FPOe 10.0%, Greens 9.5%; seats by party - OeVP
  79, SPOe 69, FPOe 18, Greens 17; seating as of May 2005 after split
  within the Freedom Party: OeVP 79, SPOe 69, Greens 17, BZOe 11, FPOe
  7

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Judicial Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Administrative
  Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Constitutional Court or
  Verfassungsgerichtshof

Political parties and leaders:
  Alliance for the Future of Austria or BZOe [Joerg HAIDER]; Austrian
  People's Party or OeVP [Wolfgang SCHUESSEL]; Freedom Party of
  Austria or FPOe [Heinz Christian STRACHE]; Social Democratic Party
  of Austria or SPOe [Alfred GUSENBAUER]; The Greens [Alexander VAN
  DER BELLEN]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Austrian Trade Union Federation (nominally independent but
  primarily Socialist) or OeGB; Federal Economic Chamber;
  OeVP-oriented League of Austrian Industrialists or VOeI; Roman
  Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic
  Action; three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or
  OeVP representing business, labor, and farmers and other
  non-government organizations in the areas of environment and human
  rights

International organization participation:
  AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CE, CEI, CERN,
  EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
  ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG,
  OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIK, UNOMIG,
  UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
  WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Eva NOWOTNY
  chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035
  telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700
  FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750
  consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador William Lee LYONS BROWN, Jr.
  embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1090, Vienna
  mailing address: use embassy street address
  telephone: [43] (1) 31339-0, 31375, 31335
  FAX: [43] (1) 3100682

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red

Economy Austria


Economy - overview:
  Austria, with its well-developed market economy and high standard
  of living, is closely tied to other EU economies, especially
  Germany's. The economy features up-to-date industrial and
  agricultural sectors. Timber is a key industry, 47% of the land area
  being forested. Membership in the EU has drawn an influx of foreign
  investors attracted by Austria's access to the single European
  market and proximity to the new EU economies. Slow growth in Europe
  has held the economy to 0.7% growth in 2001, 1.4% in 2002, 0.8% in
  2003, and 1.9% in 2004. To meet increased competition from both EU
  and Central European countries, particularly the new EU members,
  Austria will need to emphasize knowledge-based sectors of the
  economy, continue to deregulate the service sector, and encourage
  much greater participation in the labor market by its aging
  population. The aging phenomenon, together with already high health
  and pension costs, poses fundamental problems in tax and welfare
  policies.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $255.9 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  1.9% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $31,300 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 2.3%
  industry: 30.8%
  services: 66.9% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  3.45 million (2004 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture and forestry 4%, industry and crafts 29%, services 67%
  (2001 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  4.4% (2004 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  3.9% (1999)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2.5%
  highest 10%: 22.5% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  31 (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1.8% (2004 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  22.6% of GDP (2004 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $142.5 billion
  expenditures: $146.4 billion, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2004 est.)

Public debt:
  64.2% of GDP (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  grains, potatoes, sugar beets, wine, fruit; dairy products, cattle,
  pigs, poultry; lumber

Industries:
  construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, metals,
  chemicals, lumber and wood processing, paper and paperboard,
  communications equipment, tourism

Industrial production growth rate:
  3.3% (2004 est.)

Electricity - production:
  58.49 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 29.3%
  hydro: 67.2%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 3.5% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  55.09 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  14.7 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  15.4 billion kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  20,670 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  262,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  35,470 bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  262,000 bbl/day (2001)

Oil - proved reserves:
  85.69 million bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  1.731 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  7.81 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  403 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  6.033 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  24.9 billion cu m (1 January 2002)

Current account balance:
  $-3.283 billion (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $102.7 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, paper and
  paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel; textiles,
  foodstuffs

Exports - partners:
  Germany 32%, Italy 8.9%, US 6%, Switzerland 4.8%, France 4.2%, UK
  4.2% (2004)

Imports:
  $101.2 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal goods,
  oil and oil products; foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  Germany 46.3%, Italy 6.8%, Switzerland 4.3% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $12.73 billion (2003)

Debt - external:
  $15.5 billion (2003 est.)

Economic aid - donor:
  ODA, $520 million (2002)

Currency (code):
  euro (EUR)
  note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the
  euro as a common currency to be used by the financial institutions
  of member countries; as of 1 January 2002, the euro became the only
  legal tender in EMU member countries, including Austria

Currency code:
  EUR

Exchange rates:
  euros per US dollar - 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002),
  1.1175 (2001), 1.0854 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Austria


Telephones - main lines in use:
  3.881 million (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  7,094,500 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: highly developed and efficient
  domestic: there are 48 main lines for every 100 persons; the fiber
  optic net is very extensive; all telephone applications and Internet
  services are available
  international: country code - 43; satellite earth stations - 2
  Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Eutelsat; in
  addition, there are about 600 VSAT (very small aperture terminals)
  (2002)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 65 (plus several hundred repeaters), shortwave 1 (2001)

Radios:
  6.08 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  10 (plus more than 1,000 repeaters) (2001)

Televisions:
  4.25 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .at

Internet hosts:
  387,006 (2004)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  37 (2000)

Internet users:
  3.73 million (2003)

Transportation Austria


Railways:
  total: 6,021 km (3,552 km electrified)
  standard gauge: 5,565 km 1.435-m gauge (3,430 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 34 km 1.000-m gauge (28 km electrified); 422 km
  0.760-m gauge (94 km electrified) (2004)

Highways:
  total: 200,000 km
  paved: 200,000 km (including 1,645 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 0 km (2002)

Waterways:
  358 km (2003)

Pipelines:
  gas 2,722 km; oil 663 km; refined products 149 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Enns, Krems, Linz, Vienna

Merchant marine:
  total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 29,624 GRT/37,425 DWT
  by type: cargo 6, container 2
  foreign-owned: 2 (Netherlands 2)
  registered in other countries: 19 (2005)

Airports:
  55 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 24
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 3
  under 914 m: 14 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 31
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 3
  under 914 m: 27 (2004 est.)

Heliports:
  1 (2004 est.)

Military Austria


Military branches:
  Land Forces (KdoLdSK), Air Forces (KdoLuSK)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for compulsory military service; 16 years of age
  for voluntary service; from 2007, at the earliest, compulsory
  military service obligation will be reduced from 8 months to 6 (June
  2004)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,914,800 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,550,441 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males: 48,967 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $1.497 billion (FY01/02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  0.9% (2004)

Transnational Issues Austria


Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South American
  cocaine destined for Western Europe


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Azerbaijan

Introduction Azerbaijan


Background:
  Azerbaijan - a nation with a Turkic and majority-Muslim population
  - regained its independence after the collapse of the Soviet Union
  in 1991. Despite a 1994 cease-fire, Azerbaijan has yet to resolve
  its conflict with Armenia over the Azerbaijani Nagorno-Karabakh
  enclave (largely Armenian populated). Azerbaijan has lost 16% of its
  territory and must support some 571,000 internally displaced persons
  as a result of the conflict. Corruption is ubiquitous and the
  promise of widespread wealth from Azerbaijan's undeveloped petroleum
  resources remains largely unfulfilled.

Geography Azerbaijan


Location:
  Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and
  Russia, with a small European portion north of the Caucasus range

Geographic coordinates:
  40 30 N, 47 30 E

Map references:
  Asia

Area:
  total: 86,600 sq km
  land: 86,100 sq km
  water: 500 sq km
  note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the
  Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by
  Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,013 km
  border countries: Armenia (with Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia
  (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran
  (with Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan
  exclave) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (800
  km, est.)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  dry, semiarid steppe

Terrain:
  large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland) (much of it below
  sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag
  Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) in west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi
  (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
  highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, alumina

Land use:
  arable land: 19.63%
  permanent crops: 2.71%
  other: 77.66% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  14,550 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  droughts

Environment - current issues:
  local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron
  Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be
  the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe
  air, soil, and water pollution; soil pollution results from oil
  spills, from the use of DDT as a pesticide, and from toxic
  defoliants used in the production of cotton

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate
  Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species,
  Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are
  landlocked

People Azerbaijan


Population:
  7,911,974 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 26.4% (male 1,063,731/female 1,028,684)
  15-64 years: 65.7% (male 2,533,762/female 2,665,381)
  65 years and over: 7.8% (male 245,758/female 374,658) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 27.53 years
  male: 26.09 years
  female: 29 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.59% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  20.4 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  9.86 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -4.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 81.74 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 83.58 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 79.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 63.35 years
  male: 59.24 years
  female: 67.66 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.44 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  1,400 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 100 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Azerbaijani(s)
  adjective: Azerbaijani

Ethnic groups:
  Azeri 90.6%, Dagestani 2.2%, Russian 1.8%, Armenian 1.5%, other
  3.9% (1999 census)
  note: almost all Armenians live in the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh
  region

Religions:
  Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox 2.3%, other
  1.8% (1995 est.)
  note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan;
  percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower

Languages:
  Azerbaijani (Azeri) 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995
  est.)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98.8%
  male: 99.5%
  female: 98.2% (1999 est.)

Government Azerbaijan


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Azerbaijan
  conventional short form: Azerbaijan
  local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi
  local short form: none
  former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  Baku (Baki)

Administrative divisions:
  59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities* (saharlar; sahar
  - singular), 1 autonomous republic** (muxtar respublika)
  : rayons: Abseron Rayonu, Agcabadi Rayonu, Agdam Rayonu, Agdas
  Rayonu, Agstafa Rayonu, Agsu Rayonu, Astara Rayonu, Balakan Rayonu,
  Barda Rayonu, Beylaqan Rayonu, Bilasuvar Rayonu, Cabrayil Rayonu,
  Calilabad Rayonu, Daskasan Rayonu, Davaci Rayonu, Fuzuli Rayonu,
  Gadabay Rayonu, Goranboy Rayonu, Goycay Rayonu, Haciqabul Rayonu,
  Imisli Rayonu, Ismayilli Rayonu, Kalbacar Rayonu, Kurdamir Rayonu,
  Lacin Rayonu, Lankaran Rayonu, Lerik Rayonu, Masalli Rayonu,
  Neftcala Rayonu, Oguz Rayonu, Qabala Rayonu, Qax Rayonu, Qazax
  Rayonu, Qobustan Rayonu, Quba Rayonu, Qubadli Rayonu, Qusar Rayonu,
  Saatli Rayonu, Sabirabad Rayonu, Saki Rayonu, Salyan Rayonu, Samaxi
  Rayonu, Samkir Rayonu, Samux Rayonu, Siyazan Rayonu, Susa Rayonu,
  Tartar Rayonu, Tovuz Rayonu, Ucar Rayonu, Xacmaz Rayonu, Xanlar
  Rayonu, Xizi Rayonu, Xocali Rayonu, Xocavand Rayonu, Yardimli
  Rayonu, Yevlax Rayonu, Zangilan Rayonu, Zaqatala Rayonu, Zardab
  Rayonu
  : cities: Ali Bayramli Sahari, Baki Sahari, Ganca Sahari, Lankaran
  Sahari, Mingacevir Sahari, Naftalan Sahari, Saki Sahari, Sumqayit
  Sahari, Susa Sahari, Xankandi Sahari, Yevlax Sahari
  : autonomous republic: Naxcivan Muxtar Respublikasi

Independence:
  30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday:
  Founding of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan, 28 May (1918)

Constitution:
  adopted 12 November 1995

Legal system:
  based on civil law system

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Ilham ALIYEV (since 31 October 2003)
  head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 4 November
  2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Abbas ABBASOV (since 10 November
  2003)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and
  confirmed by the National Assembly
  elections: president elected by popular vote to a five-year term;
  election last held 15 October 2003 (next to be held October 2008);
  prime minister and first deputy prime ministers appointed by the
  president and confirmed by the National Assembly
  election results: Ilham ALIYEV elected president; percent of vote -
  Ilham ALIYEV 76.8%, Isa GAMBAR 14%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats; members
  elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
  elections: last held 4 November 2000 (next to be held NA November
  2005)
  note: 100 members of the current parliament were elected on the
  basis of single mandate constituencies, while 25 were elected based
  on proportional balloting; as a result of a 24 August 2002 national
  referendum on changes to the constitution, all 125 members of the
  next parliament will be elected from single mandate constituencies
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  NAP and allies 108, APF "Reform" 6, CSP 3, PNIA 2, Musavat Party 2,
  CPA 2, APF "Classic" 1, Compatriot Party 1
  note: PNIA, Musavat, and APF "Classic" parties refused to take their
  seats

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders:
  Azerbaijan Popular Front or APF [Ali KARIMLI, leader of "Reform"
  faction; Mirmahmud MIRALI-OGLU, leader of "Classic" faction]; Civic
  Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLY]; Civic Union Party
  [Ayaz MUTALIBOV]; Communist Party of Azerbaijan or CPA [Ramiz
  AHMADOV]; Compatriot Party [Mais SAFARLI]; Democratic Party for
  Azerbaijan or DPA [Rasul QULIYEV, chairman]; Justice Party [Ilyas
  ISMAILOV]; Liberal Party of Azerbaijan [Lala Shovkat HACIYEVA];
  Musavat [Isa GAMBAR, chairman]; New Azerbaijan Party or NAP
  [vacant]; Party for National Independence of Azerbaijan or PNIA
  [Etibar MAMMADLI, chairman]; Social Democratic Party of Azerbaijan
  or SDP [Araz ALIZADE and Ayaz MUTALIBOV]
  note: opposition parties regularly factionalize and form new parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Sadval, Lezgin movement; self-proclaimed Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh
  Republic; Talysh independence movement; Union of Pro-Azerbaijani
  Forces (UPAF)

International organization participation:
  AsDB, BSEC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, GUUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
  ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
  IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MIGA, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
  (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Hafiz PASHAYEV
  chancery: 2741 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 337-3500
  FAX: [1] (202) 337-5911

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Reno L. HARNISH III
  embassy: 83 Azadlyg Prospecti, Baku AZ1007
  mailing address: American Embassy Baku, Department of State, 7050
  Baku Place, Washington, DC 20521-7050
  telephone: [9] (9412) 98-03-35, 36, 37
  FAX: [9] (9412) 656-671

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green; a
  crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band

Economy Azerbaijan


Economy - overview:
  Azerbaijan's number one export is oil. Azerbaijan's oil production
  declined through 1997 but has registered an increase every year
  since. Negotiation of production-sharing arrangements (PSAs) with
  foreign firms, which have thus far committed $60 billion to
  long-term oilfield development, should generate the funds needed to
  spur future industrial development. Oil production under the first
  of these PSAs, with the Azerbaijan International Operating Company,
  began in November 1997. Azerbaijan shares all the formidable
  problems of the former Soviet republics in making the transition
  from a command to a market economy, but its considerable energy
  resources brighten its long-term prospects. Baku has only recently
  begun making progress on economic reform, and old economic ties and
  structures are slowly being replaced. One obstacle to economic
  progress is the need for stepped up foreign investment in the
  non-energy sector. A second obstacle is the continuing conflict with
  Armenia over the Nagorno-Karabakh region. Trade with Russia and the
  other former Soviet republics is declining in importance while trade
  is building with Turkey and the nations of Europe. Long-term
  prospects will depend on world oil prices, the location of new
  pipelines in the region, and Azerbaijan's ability to manage its oil
  wealth.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $30.01 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  9.8% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $3,800 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 14.1%
  industry: 45.7%
  services: 40.2% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  5.09 million (2004 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture and forestry 41%, industry 7%, services 52% (2001)

Unemployment rate:
  1.2% (official rate) (2004 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  49% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2.8%
  highest 10%: 27.8% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  36 (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  4.6% (2004 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  65.1% of GDP (2004 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $2.715 billion
  expenditures: $2.801 billion, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2004 est.)

Public debt:
  18.9% of GDP (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea, tobacco;
  cattle, pigs, sheep, goats

Industries:
  petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment;
  steel, iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles

Industrial production growth rate:
  4% (2004 est.)

Electricity - production:
  17.55 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 89.7%
  hydro: 10.3%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  17.37 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  505 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  1.558 billion kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  312,800 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  140,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Oil - proved reserves:
  589 million bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  5.72 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  6.72 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  1 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  62.3 billion cu m (1 January 2002)

Current account balance:
  $-2.899 billion (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $3.168 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  oil and gas 90%, machinery, cotton, foodstuffs

Exports - partners:
  Italy 26.6%, Czech Republic 11.9%, Germany 8.1%, Indonesia 6.4%,
  Romania 6.2%, Georgia 6%, Russia 5.3%, Turkey 5.2%, France 4.1%
  (2004)

Imports:
  $3.622 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, oil products, foodstuffs, metals, chemicals

Imports - partners:
  Russia 16.1%, UK 12.5%, Turkey 10.5%, Germany 7.8%, Ukraine 5.6%,
  Netherlands 4.9%, US 4.1%, Italy 4% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $875 million (2004 est.)

Debt - external:
  $1.832 billion (2004 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  ODA, $140 million (2000 est.)

Currency (code):
  Azerbaijani manat (AZM)

Currency code:
  AZM

Exchange rates:
  Azerbaijani manats per US dollar - 4,913.48 (2004), 4,910.73
  (2003), 4,860.82 (2002), 4,656.58 (2001), 4,474.15 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Azerbaijan


Telephones - main lines in use:
  923,800 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  870,000 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: inadequate; requires considerable expansion and
  modernization; teledensity of 10 main lines per 100 persons is low
  (2002)
  domestic: the majority of telephones are in Baku and other
  industrial centers - about 700 villages still without public
  telephone service; satellite service connects Baku to a modern
  switch in its exclave of Naxcivan
  international: country code - 994; the old Soviet system of cable
  and microwave is still serviceable; a satellite connection to Turkey
  enables Baku to reach about 200 additional countries, some of which
  are directly connected to Baku by satellite providers other than
  Turkey (1997)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 10, FM 17, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  175,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  2 (1997)

Televisions:
  170,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .az

Internet hosts:
  586 (2004)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  300,000 (2002)

Transportation Azerbaijan


Railways:
  total: 2,957 km
  broad gauge: 2,957 km 1.520-m gauge (1,278 km electrified) (2004)

Highways:
  total: 28,030 km
  paved: 25,890 km
  unpaved: 2,130 km (2002)

Pipelines:
  gas 4,451 km; oil 1,518 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Baku (Baki)

Merchant marine:
  total: 81 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 253,004 GRT/318,922 DWT
  by type: cargo 26, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 8, petroleum tanker
  41, roll on/roll off 2, specialized tanker 2
  registered in other countries: 3 (2005)

Airports:
  50 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 27
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
  914 to 1,523 m: 3
  under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 23
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 6
  under 914 m: 15 (2004 est.)

Heliports:
  2 (2004 est.)

Military Azerbaijan


Military branches:
  Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; law
  passed December 2001 raises maximum conscription age from 28 to 35
  (December 2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,961,973 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,314,955 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males: 82,358 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $121 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.6% (FY99)

Transnational Issues Azerbaijan


Disputes - international:
  Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh
  and since the early 1990s has militarily occupied 16% of Azerbaijan
  - Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)
  continues to mediate dispute; over 800,000 mostly ethnic
  Azerbaijanis were driven from the occupied lands and Armenia; about
  230,000 ethnic Armenians were driven from their homes in Azerbaijan
  into Armenia; Azerbaijan seeks transit route through Armenia to
  connect to Naxcivan exclave; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia
  ratify Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance,
  while Iran continues to insist on an even one-fifth allocation and
  challenges Azerbaijan's hydrocarbon exploration in disputed waters;
  bilateral talks continue with Turkmenistan on dividing the seabed
  and contested oilfields in the middle of the Caspian; Azerbaijan and
  Georgia cannot resolve the alignment of their boundary at certain
  crossing areas

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  IDPs: 571,000 (conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh) (2004)

Illicit drugs:
  limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for
  CIS consumption; small government eradication program; transit point
  for Southwest Asian opiates bound for Russia and to a lesser extent
  the rest of Europe


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Bahamas, The

Introduction Bahamas, The


Background:
  Arawak Indians inhabited the islands when Christopher Columbus
  first set foot in the New World on San Salvador in 1492. British
  settlement of the islands began in 1647; the islands became a colony
  in 1783. Since attaining independence from the UK in 1973, The
  Bahamas have prospered through tourism and international banking and
  investment management. Because of its geography, the country is a
  major transshipment point for illegal drugs, particularly shipments
  to the US, and its territory is used for smuggling illegal migrants
  into the US.

Geography Bahamas, The


Location:
  Caribbean, chain of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, southeast
  of Florida, northeast of Cuba

Geographic coordinates:
  24 15 N, 76 00 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 13,940 sq km
  land: 10,070 sq km
  water: 3,870 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  3,542 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream

Terrain:
  long, flat coral formations with some low rounded hills

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mount Alvernia, on Cat Island 63 m

Natural resources:
  salt, aragonite, timber, arable land

Land use:
  arable land: 0.8%
  permanent crops: 0.4%
  other: 98.8% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  NA

Natural hazards:
  hurricanes and other tropical storms cause extensive flood and wind
  damage

Environment - current issues:
  coral reef decay; solid waste disposal

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law
  of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  strategic location adjacent to US and Cuba; extensive island chain
  of which 30 are inhabited

People Bahamas, The


Population:
  301,790
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 27.9% (male 42,142/female 42,096)
  15-64 years: 65.9% (male 97,865/female 101,047)
  65 years and over: 6.2% (male 7,616/female 11,024) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 27.55 years
  male: 26.78 years
  female: 28.34 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.67% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  17.87 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  8.97 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -2.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 25.21 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 31.02 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 19.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 65.54 years
  male: 62.11 years
  female: 69.04 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.2 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  3% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  5,600 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 200 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bahamian(s)
  adjective: Bahamian

Ethnic groups:
  black 85%, white 12%, Asian and Hispanic 3%

Religions:
  Baptist 35.4%, Anglican 15.1%, Roman Catholic 13.5%, Pentecostal
  8.1%, Church of God 4.8%, Methodist 4.2%, other Christian 15.2%,
  none or unspecified 2.9%, other 0.8% (2000 census)

Languages:
  English (official), Creole (among Haitian immigrants)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 95.6%
  male: 94.7%
  female: 96.5% (2003 est.)

Government Bahamas, The


Country name:
  conventional long form: Commonwealth of The Bahamas
  conventional short form: The Bahamas

Government type:
  constitutional parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  Nassau

Administrative divisions:
  21 districts; Acklins and Crooked Islands, Bimini, Cat Island,
  Exuma, Freeport, Fresh Creek, Governor's Harbour, Green Turtle Cay,
  Harbour Island, High Rock, Inagua, Kemps Bay, Long Island, Marsh
  Harbour, Mayaguana, New Providence, Nichollstown and Berry Islands,
  Ragged Island, Rock Sound, Sandy Point, San Salvador and Rum Cay

Independence:
  10 July 1973 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 10 July (1973)

Constitution:
  10 July 1973

Legal system:
  based on English common law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General Dame Ivy DUMONT (since NA May 2002)
  head of government: Prime Minister Perry CHRISTIE (since 3 May 2002)
  and Deputy Prime Minister Cynthia PRATT (since 7 May 2002)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the prime
  minister's recommendation
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
  appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the
  leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition
  is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; the
  prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (16-member body
  appointed by the governor general upon the advice of the prime
  minister and the opposition leader for five-year terms) and the
  House of Assembly (40 seats; members elected by direct popular vote
  to serve five-year terms); the government may dissolve the
  parliament and call elections at any time
  elections: last held 1 May 2002 (next to be held by May 2007)
  election results: percent of vote by party - PLP 50.8%, FNM 41.1%,
  independents 5.2%; seats by party - PLP 29, FNM 7, independents 4

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; magistrates courts

Political parties and leaders:
  Free National Movement or FNM [Tommy TURNQUEST]; Progressive
  Liberal Party or PLP [Perry CHRISTIE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt
  (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOM,
  IOC, ITU, LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW (signatory), UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Joshua SEARS
  chancery: 2220 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 319-2660
  FAX: [1] (202) 319-2668
  consulate(s) general: Miami and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador John D. ROOD
  embassy: 42 Queen Street, Nassau
  mailing address: local or express mail address: P. O. Box N-8197,
  Nassau; Department of State, 3370 Nassau Place, Washington, DC
  20521-3370
  telephone: [1] (242) 322-1181, 328-2206 (after hours)
  FAX: [1] (242) 356-0222

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of aquamarine (top), gold, and
  aquamarine, with a black equilateral triangle based on the hoist side

Economy Bahamas, The


Economy - overview:
  The Bahamas is a stable, developing nation with an economy heavily
  dependent on tourism and offshore banking. Tourism alone accounts
  for more than 60% of GDP and directly or indirectly employs half of
  the archipelago's labor force. Steady growth in tourism receipts and
  a boom in construction of new hotels, resorts, and residences had
  led to solid GDP growth in recent years, but the slowdown in the US
  economy and the attacks of 11 September 2001 held back growth in
  these sectors in 2001-03. Financial services constitute the
  second-most important sector of the Bahamian economy, accounting for
  about 15% of GDP. However, since December 2000, when the government
  enacted new regulations on the financial sector, many international
  businesses have left The Bahamas. Manufacturing and agriculture
  together contribute approximately a tenth of GDP and show little
  growth, despite government incentives aimed at those sectors.
  Overall growth prospects in the short run rest heavily on the
  fortunes of the tourism sector, which depends on growth in the US,
  the source of more than 80% of the visitors. In addition to tourism
  and banking, the government supports the development of a "third
  pillar," e-commerce.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $5.295 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $17,700 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 3%
  industry: 7%
  services: 90% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
  156,000 (1999)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 5%, industry 5%, tourism 50%, other services 40% (1999
  est.)

Unemployment rate:
  10.2% (2004 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: 27% (2000)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1.2% (year ending September 2004)

Budget:
  revenues: $1 billion
  expenditures: $1 billion, including capital expenditures of $106.7
  million (FY03/04)

Agriculture - products:
  citrus, vegetables; poultry

Industries:
  tourism, banking, cement, oil transshipment, salt, rum, aragonite,
  pharmaceuticals, spiral-welded steel pipe

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA

Electricity - production:
  1.716 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  1.596 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  23,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  transhipments of 29,000 bbl/day (2003)

Oil - imports:
  NA

Exports:
  $636 million (2003 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  mineral products and salt, animal products, rum, chemicals; fruit
  and vegetables

Exports - partners:
  US 40.2%, Poland 13.3%, Spain 11.6%, Germany 5.9%, France 4.3%
  (2004)

Imports:
  $1.63 billion (2003)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, mineral
  fuels; food and live animals

Imports - partners:
  US 22.4%, South Korea 18.9%, Brazil 9.2%, Japan 7.9%, Italy 7.8%,
  Venezuela 6.6% (2004)

Debt - external:
  $308.5 million (2002)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $9.8 million (1995)

Currency (code):
  Bahamian dollar (BSD)

Currency code:
  BSD

Exchange rates:
  Bahamian dollars per US dollar - 1 (2004), 1 (2003), 1 (2002), 1
  (2001), 1 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Bahamas, The


Telephones - main lines in use:
  131,700 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  121,800 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: modern facilities
  domestic: totally automatic system; highly developed
  international: country code - 1-242; tropospheric scatter and
  submarine cable to Florida; 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite
  earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (1997)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 3, FM 5, shortwave 0 (2004)

Radios:
  215,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  2 (2004)

Televisions:
  67,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bs

Internet hosts:
  302 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  19 (2000)

Internet users:
  84,000 (2003)

Transportation Bahamas, The


Highways:
  total: 2,693 km
  paved: 1,546 km
  unpaved: 1,147 km (1999 est.)

Ports and harbors:
  Freeport, Nassau, South Riding Point

Merchant marine:
  total: 1,119
  by type: barge carrier 2, bulk carrier 183, cargo 259, chemical
  tanker 54, combination ore/oil 17, container 74, liquefied gas 28,
  livestock carrier 2, passenger 116, passenger/cargo 40, petroleum
  tanker 168, refrigerated cargo 130, roll on/roll off 20, specialized
  tanker 2, vehicle carrier 24
  foreign-owned: 968 (Angola 4, Australia 4, Belgium 17, Canada 9,
  China 3, Croatia 1, Cuba 1, Cyprus 13, Denmark 18, Estonia 1,
  Finland 7, France 28, Germany 15, Greece 194, Hong Kong 11,
  Indonesia 2, Ireland 1, Israel 1, Italy 7, Japan 49, Jordan 2, Kenya
  1, Latvia 1, Malaysia 12, Monaco 15, Netherlands 24, New Zealand 1,
  Nigeria 2, Norway 229, Poland 13, Reunion 1, Russia 2, Saudi Arabia
  12, Serbia & Montenegro 2, Singapore 11, Slovenia 1, South Korea 1,
  Spain 6, Sweden 9, Switzerland 4, Thailand 1, Trinidad & Tobago 2,
  Turkey 7, UAE 12, United Kingdom 55, United States 154, Uruguay 2)
  registered in other countries: 35 (2005)

Airports:
  63 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 29
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
  914 to 1,523 m: 9
  under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 34
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
  914 to 1,523 m: 10
  under 914 m: 21 (2004 est.)

Heliports:
  1 (2004 est.)

Military Bahamas, The


Military branches:
  Royal Bahamaian Defense Force (naval forces) (2004)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age (est.); no conscription (2001)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  NA

Transnational Issues Bahamas, The


Disputes - international:
  have not been able to agree on the alignment of a maritime boundary
  with the US; continues to monitor and interdict Haitian refugees
  fleeing economic privation and political instability

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for US and
  Europe; offshore financial center


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Bahrain

Introduction Bahrain


Background:
  Bahrain's small size and central location among Persian Gulf
  countries require it to play a delicate balancing act in foreign
  affairs among its larger neighbors. Facing declining oil reserves,
  Bahrain has turned to petroleum processing and refining and has
  transformed itself into an international banking center. The new
  amir, installed in 1999, has pushed economic and political reforms
  and has worked to improve relations with the Shi'a community. In
  February 2001, Bahraini voters approved a referendum on the National
  Action Charter - the centerpiece of the amir's political
  liberalization program. In February 2002, Amir HAMAD bin Isa Al
  Khalifa proclaimed himself king. In October 2002, Bahrainis elected
  members of the lower house of Bahrain's reconstituted bicameral
  legislature, the National Assembly.

Geography Bahrain


Location:
  Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates:
  26 00 N, 50 33 E

Map references:
  Middle East

Area:
  total: 665 sq km
  land: 665 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  161 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined

Climate:
  arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Terrain:
  mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
  highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 122 m

Natural resources:
  oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish, pearls

Land use:
  arable land: 2.82%
  permanent crops: 5.63%
  other: 91.55% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  50 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  periodic droughts; dust storms

Environment - current issues:
  desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable
  land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation
  (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting
  from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil
  refineries, and distribution stations; lack of freshwater resources,
  groundwater and seawater are the only sources for all water needs

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous
  Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic
  location in Persian Gulf, through which much of the Western world's
  petroleum must transit to reach open ocean

People Bahrain


Population:
  688,345
  note: includes 235,108 non-nationals (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 27.8% (male 96,807/female 94,863)
  15-64 years: 68.7% (male 275,792/female 197,424)
  65 years and over: 3.4% (male 12,078/female 11,381) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 29.19 years
  male: 32.16 years
  female: 25.54 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.51% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  18.1 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  4.08 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  1.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.4 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.06 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.27 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 17.27 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 20.17 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 14.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 74.23 years
  male: 71.76 years
  female: 76.78 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.63 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.2% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  less than 600 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 200 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bahraini(s)
  adjective: Bahraini

Ethnic groups:
  Bahraini 62.4%, non-Bahraini 37.6% (2001 census)

Religions:
  Muslim (Shi'a and Sunni) 81.2%, Christian 9%, other 9.8% (2001
  census)

Languages:
  Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 89.1%
  male: 91.9%
  female: 85% (2003 est.)

Government Bahrain


Country name:
  conventional long form: Kingdom of Bahrain
  conventional short form: Bahrain
  local long form: Mamlakat al Bahrayn
  local short form: Al Bahrayn
  former: Dilmun

Government type:
  constitutional hereditary monarchy

Capital:
  Manama

Administrative divisions:
  12 municipalities (manatiq, singular - mintaqah); Al Hadd, Al
  Manamah, Al Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al Mintaqah al Wusta, Al Mintaqah
  ash Shamaliyah, Al Muharraq, Ar Rifa' wa al Mintaqah al Janubiyah,
  Jidd Hafs, Madinat Hamad, Madinat 'Isa, Juzur Hawar, Sitrah
  note: all municipalities administered from Manama

Independence:
  15 August 1971 (from UK)

National holiday:
  National Day, 16 December (1971); note - 15 August 1971 is the date
  of independence from the UK, 16 December 1971 is the date of
  independence from British protection

Constitution:
  new constitution 14 February 2002

Legal system:
  based on Islamic law and English common law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: King HAMAD bin Isa al-Khalifa (since 6 March 1999);
  Heir Apparent Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad (son of the monarch,
  born 21 October 1969)
  head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman al-Khalifa
  (since NA 1971)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch
  elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister
  appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of Shura Council (40 members
  appointed by the King) and House of Deputies (40 members directly
  elected to serve four-year terms)
  elections: House of Deputies - last held 31 October 2002 (next
  election to be held NA 2006)
  election results: House of Deputies - percent of vote by party -
  NA%; seats by party - independents 21, Sunni Islamists 9, other 10
  note: first elections since 7 December 1973; unicameral National
  Assembly dissolved 26 August 1975; National Action Charter created
  bicameral legislature on 23 December 2000; approved by referendum 14
  February 2001; first legislative session of Parliament held on 25
  December 2002

Judicial branch:
  High Civil Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders:
  political parties prohibited but politically oriented societies are
  allowed

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Shi'a activists fomented unrest sporadically in 1994-97, demanding
  the return of an elected National Assembly and an end to
  unemployment; several small, clandestine leftist and Islamic
  fundamentalist groups are active

International organization participation:
  ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt
  (signatory), ICRM, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
  IOC, ISO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Nasir al-BALUSHI
  chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 342-1111
  FAX: [1] (202) 362-2192
  consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador William T. MONROE
  embassy: Building #979, Road 3119 (next to Al-Ahli Sports Club),
  Block 331, Zinj District, Manama
  mailing address: American Embassy Manama, PSC 451, FPO AE
  09834-5100; international mail: American Embassy, Box 26431, Manama
  telephone: [973] 1724-2700
  FAX: [973] 1725-6242 (consular)

Flag description:
  red, the traditional color for flags of Persian Gulf states, with a
  white serrated band (five white points) on the hoist side; the five
  points represent the five pillars of Islam

Economy Bahrain


Economy - overview:
  In well-to-do Bahrain, petroleum production and refining account
  for about 60% of export receipts, 60% of government revenues, and
  30% of GDP. With its highly developed communication and transport
  facilities, Bahrain is home to numerous multinational firms with
  business in the Gulf. A large share of exports consist of petroleum
  products made from refining imported crude. Construction proceeds on
  several major industrial projects. Unemployment, especially among
  the young, and the depletion of oil and underground water resources
  are major long-term economic problems. In September 2004 Bahrain
  signed a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the United States - the
  first such agreement undertaken by a Gulf state. Both countries must
  ratify the FTA before it is enforced.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $13.01 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5.6% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $19,200 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 0.7%
  industry: 41%
  services: 58.4% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  370,000
  note: 44% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national
  (2004 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 1%, industry, commerce, and services 79%, government
  20% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  15% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.1% (2004 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  12.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $3.825 billion
  expenditures: $3.262 billion, including capital expenditures of $700
  million (2004 est.)

Public debt:
  63.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products; shrimp, fish

Industries:
  petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, iron
  pelletization, fertilizers, offshore banking, ship repairing; tourism

Industrial production growth rate:
  2% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production:
  6.86 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  6.379 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  44,000 bbl/day (2003)

Oil - consumption:
  40,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Oil - proved reserves:
  126 million bbl (2004 est.)

Natural gas - production:
  32.7 billion cu m (2002 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  32.7 billion cu m (2002 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2002 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2002 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  46 billion cu m (2004)

Current account balance:
  $586.1 million (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $8.205 billion (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  petroleum and petroleum products, aluminum, textiles

Exports - partners:
  Saudi Arabia 3%, US 2.9%, UAE 2.2% (2004)

Imports:
  $5.87 billion (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  crude oil, machinery, chemicals

Imports - partners:
  Saudi Arabia 32.4%, Japan 7.3%, Germany 6.1%, US 5.6%, UK 5.4%,
  France 4.8% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $2.141 billion (2004 est.)

Debt - external:
  $6.215 billion (2004 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $150 million; note - $50 million annually since 1992 from each of
  Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Kuwait (2002)

Currency (code):
  Bahraini dinar (BHD)

Currency code:
  BHD

Exchange rates:
  Bahraini dinars per US dollar - 0.376 (2004), 0.376 (2003), 0.376
  (2002), 0.376 (2001), 0.376 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Bahrain


Telephones - main lines in use:
  185,800 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  443,100 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: modern system
  domestic: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network
  with rapidly growing use of mobile cellular telephones
  international: country code - 973; tropospheric scatter to Qatar and
  UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to
  Qatar, UAE, and Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat
  (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat (1997)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  338,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  4 (1997)

Televisions:
  275,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bh

Internet hosts:
  1,334 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  195,700 (2003)

Transportation Bahrain


Highways:
  total: 3,459 km
  paved: 2,653 km
  unpaved: 806 km (2002)

Pipelines:
  gas 20 km; oil 53 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Mina' Salman, Sitrah

Merchant marine:
  total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 219,083 GRT/312,638 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 2, container 2, petroleum tanker 1
  foreign-owned: 2 (Kuwait 2) (2005)

Airports:
  4 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 3
  over 3,047 m: 2
  1524 to 2437 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Heliports:
  1 (2004 est.)

Military Bahrain


Military branches:
  Bahrain Defense Forces (BDF): Ground Force (includes Air Defense),
  Navy, Air Force, National Guard

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for voluntary military service (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 202,126 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 161,372 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males: 6,013 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $628.9 million (2004)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  6.3% (2004)

Transnational Issues Bahrain


Disputes - international:
  none


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Baker Island

Introduction Baker Island


Background:
  The US took possession of the island in 1857, and its guano
  deposits were mined by US and British companies during the second
  half of the 19th century. In 1935, a short-lived attempt at
  colonization was begun on this island - as well as on nearby Howland
  Island - but was disrupted by World War II and thereafter abandoned.
  Presently the island is a National Wildlife Refuge run by the US
  Department of the Interior; a day beacon is situated near the middle
  of the west coast.

Geography Baker Island


Location:
  Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about half way between
  Hawaii and Australia

Geographic coordinates:
  0 13 N, 176 31 W

Map references:
  Oceania

Area:
  total: 1.4 sq km
  land: 1.4 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about 2.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  4.8 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

Terrain:
  low, nearly level coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: unnamed location 8 m

Natural resources:
  guano (deposits worked until 1891), terrestrial and aquatic wildlife

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can be a maritime
  hazard

Environment - current issues:
  no natural fresh water resources

Geography - note:
  treeless, sparse, and scattered vegetation consisting of grasses,
  prostrate vines, and low growing shrubs; primarily a nesting,
  roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine
  wildlife

People Baker Island


Population:
  uninhabited
  note: American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and
  naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during
  World War II, but abandoned after the war; public entry is by
  special-use permit from US Fish and Wildlife Service only and
  generally restricted to scientists and educators; a cemetery and
  remnants of structures from early settlement are located near the
  middle of the west coast; visited annually by US Fish and Wildlife
  Service (2005 est.)

Government Baker Island


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Baker Island

Dependency status:
  unincorporated territory of the US; administered from Washington,
  DC, by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the
  Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge system

Legal system:
  the laws of the US, where applicable, apply

Flag description:
  the flag of the US is used

Economy Baker Island


Economy - overview:
  no economic activity


Transportation Baker Island


Ports and harbors:
  none; offshore anchorage only; note - there is one small boat
  landing area along the middle of the west coast

Airports:
  1 abandoned World War II runway of 1,665 m, completely covered with
  vegetation and unusable (2004 est.)

Transportation - note:
  there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast

Military Baker Island


Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US
  Coast Guard

Transnational Issues Baker Island


Disputes - international:
  none


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Bangladesh

Introduction Bangladesh


Background:
  Bangladesh came into existence in 1971 when Bengali East Pakistan
  seceded from its union with West Pakistan. About a third of this
  extremely poor country floods annually during the monsoon rainy
  season, hampering economic development.

Geography Bangladesh


Location:
  Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India

Geographic coordinates:
  24 00 N, 90 00 E

Map references:
  Asia

Area:
  total: 144,000 sq km
  land: 133,910 sq km
  water: 10,090 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Iowa

Land boundaries:
  total: 4,246 km
  border countries: Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km

Coastline:
  580 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 18 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  continental shelf: up to the outer limits of the continental margin

Climate:
  tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March
  to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)

Terrain:
  mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Keokradong 1,230 m

Natural resources:
  natural gas, arable land, timber, coal

Land use:
  arable land: 62.11%
  permanent crops: 3.07%
  other: 34.82% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  38,440 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  droughts, cyclones; much of the country routinely inundated during
  the summer monsoon season

Environment - current issues:
  many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate
  flood-prone land; water-borne diseases prevalent in surface water;
  water pollution, especially of fishing areas, results from the use
  of commercial pesticides; ground water contaminated by naturally
  occurring arsenic; intermittent water shortages because of falling
  water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil
  degradation and erosion; deforestation; severe overpopulation

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  most of the country is situated on deltas of large rivers flowing
  from the Himalayas: the Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel
  of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna to eventually empty
  into the Bay of Bengal

People Bangladesh


Population:
  144,319,628 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 33.1% (male 24,590,207/female 23,162,420)
  15-64 years: 63.5% (male 46,764,824/female 44,868,733)
  65 years and over: 3.4% (male 2,650,683/female 2,282,761) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 21.87 years
  male: 21.88 years
  female: 21.85 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.09% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  30.01 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  8.4 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.16 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 62.6 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 63.65 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 61.48 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 62.08 years
  male: 62.13 years
  female: 62.02 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.13 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  13,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  650 (2001 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: high
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E,
  and typhoid fever
  vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria are high risks in
  some locations
  water contact disease: leptospirosis
  animal contact disease: rabies (2004)

Nationality:
  noun: Bangladeshi(s)
  adjective: Bangladeshi

Ethnic groups:
  Bengali 98%, tribal groups, non-Bengali Muslims (1998)

Religions:
  Muslim 83%, Hindu 16%, other 1% (1998)

Languages:
  Bangla (official, also known as Bengali), English

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 43.1%
  male: 53.9%
  female: 31.8% (2003 est.)

Government Bangladesh


Country name:
  conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh
  conventional short form: Bangladesh
  former: East Pakistan

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  Dhaka

Administrative divisions:
  6 divisions; Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi, and
  Sylhet

Independence:
  16 December 1971 (from West Pakistan); note - 26 March 1971 is the
  date of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is known
  as Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state
  of Bangladesh

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 26 March (1971); note - 26 March 1971 is the date
  of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is Victory Day
  and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh

Constitution:
  4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972; suspended following
  coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986; amended many times

Legal system:
  based on English common law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Iajuddin AHMED (since 6 September 2002);
  note - the president's duties are normally ceremonial, but with the
  13th amendment to the constitution ("Caretaker Government
  Amendment"), the president's role becomes significant at times when
  Parliament is dissolved and a caretaker government is installed - at
  presidential direction - to supervise the elections
  head of government: Prime Minister Khaleda ZIA (since 10 October
  2001)
  cabinet: Cabinet selected by the prime minister and appointed by the
  president
  elections: president elected by National Parliament for a five-year
  term; election scheduled for 16 September 2002 was not held since
  Iajuddin AHMED was the only presidential candidate; he was sworn in
  on 6 September 2002 (next election to be held by NA 2007); following
  legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins the most
  seats is usually appointed prime minister by the president
  election results: Iajuddin AHMED declared by the Election Commission
  elected unopposed as president; percent of National Parliament vote
  - NA

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Parliament or Jatiya Sangsad; 300 seats elected
  by popular vote from single territorial constituencies (the
  constitutional amendment reserving 30 seats for women over and above
  the 300 regular parliament seats expired in May 2001); members serve
  five-year terms
  elections: last held 1 October 2001 (next to be held before October
  2006)
  election results: percent of vote by party - BNP and alliance
  partners 47%, AL 40%; seats by party - BNP 195, AL 58, JI 17, JP
  (Ershad faction) 14, IOJ 3, JP (Naziur) 4, other 9; note - the
  election of October 2001 brought a majority BNP government aligned
  with three other smaller parties - Jamaat-e-Islami, Islami Oikya
  Jote, and Jatiya Party (Manzur)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (the chief justices and other judges are appointed by
  the president)

Political parties and leaders:
  Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA]; Bangladesh Communist Party or
  BCP [Saifuddin Ahmed MANIK]; Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP
  [Khaleda ZIA, chairperson]; Islami Oikya Jote or IOJ [Mufti Fazlul
  Haq AMINI]; Jamaat-e-Islami or JI [Motiur Rahman NIZAMI]; Jatiya
  Party or JP (Ershad faction) [Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD]; Jatiya Party
  (Manzur faction) [Naziur Rahman MANZUR]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  AsDB, C, CP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory),
  ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OIC, ONUB,
  OPCW, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
  UNMEE, UNMIK, UNMIL, UNMISET, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU,
  WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Shamsher Mobin CHOWDHURY
  chancery: 3510 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 244-0183
  FAX: [1] (202) 244-5366
  consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Harry K. THOMAS, Jr.
  embassy: Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212
  mailing address: G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1000
  telephone: [880] (2) 885-5500
  FAX: [880] (2) 882-3744

Flag description:
  green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist side of center;
  the red sun of freedom represents the blood shed to achieve
  independence; the green field symbolizes the lush countryside, and
  secondarily, the traditional color of Islam

Economy Bangladesh


Economy - overview:
  Despite sustained domestic and international efforts to improve
  economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh remains a poor,
  overpopulated, and ill-governed nation. Although half of GDP is
  generated through the service sector, nearly two-thirds of
  Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector, with rice as
  the single-most-important product. Major impediments to growth
  include frequent cyclones and floods, inefficient state-owned
  enterprises, inadequate port facilities, a rapidly growing labor
  force that cannot be absorbed by agriculture, delays in exploiting
  energy resources (natural gas), insufficient power supplies, and
  slow implementation of economic reforms. Economic reform is stalled
  in many instances by political infighting and corruption at all
  levels of government. Progress also has been blocked by opposition
  from the bureaucracy, public sector unions, and other vested
  interest groups. The BNP government, led by Prime Minister Khaleda
  ZIA, has the parliamentary strength to push through needed reforms,
  but the party's political will to do so has been lacking in key
  areas. One encouraging note: growth has been a steady 5% for the
  past several years.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $275.7 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  4.9% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $2,000 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 21.2%
  industry: 27.1%
  services: 51.7% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  65.49 million
  note: extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman,
  Qatar, and Malaysia; workers' remittances estimated at $1.71 billion
  in 1998-99 (2004 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 63%, industry 11%, services 26% (FY95/96)

Unemployment rate:
  40% (includes underemployment) (2004 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  45% (2004 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 3.9%
  highest 10%: 28.6% (1995-96 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  33.6 (FY95/96)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  6% (2004 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  23.5% of GDP (2004 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $5.921 billion
  expenditures: $8.262 billion, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2004 est.)

Public debt:
  43% of GDP (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes, tobacco, pulses,
  oilseeds, spices, fruit; beef, milk, poultry

Industries:
  cotton textiles, jute, garments, tea processing, paper newsprint,
  cement, chemical fertilizer, light engineering, sugar

Industrial production growth rate:
  6.5% (2004 est.)

Electricity - production:
  16.45 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 93.7%
  hydro: 6.3%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  15.3 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  3,581 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  71,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Oil - proved reserves:
  28.45 million bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  9.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  9.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  150.3 billion cu m (1 January 2002)

Current account balance:
  $216.6 million (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $7.478 billion (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  garments, jute and jute goods, leather, frozen fish and seafood
  (2001)

Exports - partners:
  US 22.4%, Germany 14.5%, UK 11.2%, France 6.9%, Italy 4% (2004)

Imports:
  $10.03 billion (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles,
  foodstuffs, petroleum products, cement (2000)

Imports - partners:
  India 15.1%, China 12.5%, Singapore 7.5%, Kuwait 5.5%, Japan 5.3%,
  Hong Kong 4.5% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $3 billion (2004 est.)

Debt - external:
  $19.97 billion (2004 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $1.575 billion (2000 est.)

Currency (code):
  taka (BDT)

Currency code:
  BDT

Exchange rates:
  taka per US dollar - 59.513 (2004), 58.15 (2003), 57.888 (2002),
  55.807 (2001), 52.142 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Bangladesh


Telephones - main lines in use:
  740,000 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1.365 million (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: totally inadequate for a modern country
  domestic: modernizing; introducing digital systems; trunk systems
  include VHF and UHF microwave radio relay links, and some
  fiber-optic cable in cities
  international: country code - 880; satellite earth stations - 2
  Intelsat (Indian Ocean); international radiotelephone communications
  and landline service to neighboring countries (2000)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 12, FM 12, shortwave 2 (1999)

Radios:
  6.15 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  15 (1999)

Televisions:
  770,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bd

Internet hosts:
  1 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  10 (2000)

Internet users:
  243,000 (2003)

Transportation Bangladesh


Railways:
  total: 2,706 km
  broad gauge: 884 km 1.676-m gauge
  narrow gauge: 1,822 km 1.000-m gauge (2004)

Highways:
  total: 207,486 km
  paved: 19,773 km
  unpaved: 187,713 km (1999)

Waterways:
  8,372 km
  note: includes 2,575 km main cargo routes (2004)

Pipelines:
  gas 2,012 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Chittagong, Mongla Port

Merchant marine:
  total: 41 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 319,897 GRT/440,575 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 2, cargo 28, container 6, passenger/cargo 1,
  petroleum tanker 4
  foreign-owned: 10 (China 1, Singapore 9)
  registered in other countries: 14 (2005)

Airports:
  16 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 15
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 6 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Military Bangladesh


Military branches:
  Army, Navy, Air Force

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription
  (2005)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 35,170,019 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 26,841,255 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $995.3 million (2004)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.8% (2004)

Transnational Issues Bangladesh


Disputes - international:
  discussions with India remain stalled to delimit a small section of
  river boundary, exchange 162 miniscule enclaves in both countries,
  allocate divided villages, and stop illegal cross-border trade,
  migration, violence, and transit of terrorists through the porous
  border; Bangladesh protests India's attempts to fence off
  high-traffic sections of the porous boundary; a joint
  Bangladesh-India boundary inspection in 2005 revealed 92 pillars are
  missing; dispute with India over New Moore/South Talpatty/Purbasha
  Island in the Bay of Bengal deters maritime boundary delimitation;
  Burmese Muslim refugees strain Bangladesh's meager resources

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  IDPs: 61,000 (land conflicts, religious persecution) (2004)

Illicit drugs:
  transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring countries


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Barbados

Introduction Barbados


Background:
  The island was uninhabited when first settled by the British in
  1627. Slaves worked the sugar plantations established on the island
  until 1834 when slavery was abolished. The economy remained heavily
  dependent on sugar, rum, and molasses production through most of the
  20th century. The gradual introduction of social and political
  reforms in the 1940s and 1950s led to complete independence from the
  UK in 1966. In the 1990s, tourism and manufacturing surpassed the
  sugar industry in economic importance.

Geography Barbados


Location:
  Caribbean, island in the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of
  Venezuela

Geographic coordinates:
  13 10 N, 59 32 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 431 sq km
  land: 431 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  97 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical; rainy season (June to October)

Terrain:
  relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mount Hillaby 336 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, fish, natural gas

Land use:
  arable land: 37.21%
  permanent crops: 2.33%
  other: 60.46% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  10 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  infrequent hurricanes; periodic landslides

Environment - current issues:
  pollution of coastal waters from waste disposal by ships; soil
  erosion; illegal solid waste disposal threatens contamination of
  aquifers

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law
  of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  easternmost Caribbean island

People Barbados


Population:
  279,254 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 20.6% (male 28,813/female 28,634)
  15-64 years: 70.6% (male 96,590/female 100,622)
  65 years and over: 8.8% (male 9,432/female 15,163) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 34.15 years
  male: 32.99 years
  female: 35.28 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.33% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  12.83 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  9.17 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.01 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 12.5 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 14.14 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 10.83 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 72.59 years
  male: 70.6 years
  female: 74.6 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.65 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  1.5% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  2,500 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 200 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Barbadian(s) or Bajan (colloquial)
  adjective: Barbadian or Bajan (colloquial)

Ethnic groups:
  black 90%, white 4%, Asian and mixed 6%

Religions:
  Protestant 67% (Anglican 40%, Pentecostal 8%, Methodist 7%, other
  12%), Roman Catholic 4%, none 17%, other 12%

Languages:
  English

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
  total population: 99.7%
  male: 99.7%
  female: 99.7% (2002 est.)

Government Barbados


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Barbados

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy; independent sovereign state within the
  Commonwealth

Capital:
  Bridgetown

Administrative divisions:
  11 parishes; Christ Church, Saint Andrew, Saint George, Saint
  James, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Lucy, Saint Michael, Saint
  Peter, Saint Philip, Saint Thomas; note - the city of Bridgetown may
  be given parish status

Independence:
  30 November 1966 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 30 November (1966)

Constitution:
  30 November 1966

Legal system:
  English common law; no judicial review of legislative acts

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General Sir Clifford Straughn HUSBANDS
  (since 1 June 1996)
  head of government: Prime Minister Owen Seymour ARTHUR (since 7
  September 1994); Deputy Prime Minister Mia MOTTLEY (since 26 May
  2003)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of
  the prime minister
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
  appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the
  leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition
  is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; the
  prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (21-member body
  appointed by the governor general) and the House of Assembly (30
  seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year
  terms)
  elections: House of Assembly - last held 21 May 2003 (next to be
  held by May 2008)
  election results: House of Assembly - percent of vote by party -
  NA%; seats by party - BLP 23, DLP 7

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court of Judicature (judges are appointed by the Service
  Commissions for the Judicial and Legal Services)

Political parties and leaders:
  Barbados Labor Party or BLP [Owen ARTHUR]; Democratic Labor Party
  or DLP [Clyde Mascoll]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Barbados Workers Union [Leroy TROTMAN]; Clement Payne Labor Union
  [David COMMISSIONG]; People's Progressive Movement [Eric SEALY];
  Worker's Party of Barbados [Dr. George BELLE]

International organization participation:
  ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU,
  ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU,
  LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Michael Ian KING
  chancery: 2144 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 939-9200
  FAX: [1] (202) 332-7467
  consulate(s) general: Miami and New York
  consulate(s): Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Mary E. KRAMER
  embassy: Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce Building, Broad Street,
  Bridgetown; (courier) ALICO Building-Cheapside, Bridgetown
  mailing address: P. O. Box 302, Bridgetown; CMR 1014, APO AA 34055
  telephone: [1] (246) 436-4950
  FAX: [1] (246) 429-5246, 429-3379

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold, and blue
  with the head of a black trident centered on the gold band; the
  trident head represents independence and a break with the past (the
  colonial coat of arms contained a complete trident)

Economy Barbados


Economy - overview:
  Historically, the Barbadian economy had been dependent on sugarcane
  cultivation and related activities, but production in recent years
  has diversified into light industry and tourism. Offshore finance
  and information services are important foreign exchange earners. The
  government continues its efforts to reduce unemployment, to
  encourage direct foreign investment, and to privatize remaining
  state-owned enterprises. The economy contracted in 2002-03 mainly
  due to a decline in tourism. Growth probably was positive in 2004,
  as economic conditions in the US and Europe moderately improved.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $4.569 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  2.3% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $16,400 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 6%
  industry: 16%
  services: 78% (2000 est.)

Labor force:
  128,500 (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 10%, industry 15%, services 75% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  10.7% (2003 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  -0.5% (2003 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $847 million (including grants)
  expenditures: $886 million, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2000 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  sugarcane, vegetables, cotton

Industries:
  tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component assembly for export

Industrial production growth rate:
  -3.2% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production:
  800 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  744 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  1,271 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  10,900 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Oil - proved reserves:
  1.254 million bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  29.17 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  29.17 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  70.79 million cu m (1 January 2002)

Exports:
  $206 million (2002)

Exports - commodities:
  sugar and molasses, rum, other foods and beverages, chemicals,
  electrical components

Exports - partners:
  US 20.6%, UK 14.5%, Trinidad and Tobago 13.9%, Saint Lucia 6.9%,
  Jamaica 6.6%, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 5.1% (2004)

Imports:
  $1.039 billion (2002)

Imports - commodities:
  consumer goods, machinery, foodstuffs, construction materials,
  chemicals, fuel, electrical components

Imports - partners:
  US 35.2%, Trinidad and Tobago 20%, UK 5.6%, Japan 4.3% (2004)

Debt - external:
  $668 million (2003)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $9.1 million (1995)

Currency (code):
  Barbadian dollar (BBD)

Currency code:
  BBD

Exchange rates:
  Barbadian dollars per US dollar - 2 (2004), 2 (2003), 2 (2002), 2
  (2001), 2 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Barbados


Telephones - main lines in use:
  134,000 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  140,000 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: island-wide automatic telephone system
  international: country code - 1-246; satellite earth stations - 4
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Trinidad and
  Saint Lucia

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 6, shortwave 0 (2004)

Radios:
  237,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (plus two cable channels) (2004)

Televisions:
  76,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bb

Internet hosts:
  204 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  19 (2000)

Internet users:
  100,000 (2003)

Transportation Barbados


Highways:
  total: 1,600 km
  paved: 1,578 km
  unpaved: 22 km (2002)

Ports and harbors:
  Bridgetown

Merchant marine:
  total: 58 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 427,465 GRT/668,195 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 14, cargo 31, chemical tanker 6,
  passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 2,
  specialized tanker 1
  foreign-owned: 53 (Bahamas 1, Bangladesh 1, Canada 12, Greece 11,
  Lebanon 2, Netherlands 1, Norway 17, UAE 1, United Kingdom 7)
  registered in other countries: 1 (2005)

Airports:
  1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  over 3,047 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Military Barbados


Military branches:
  Royal Barbados Defense Force: Troops Command and Coast Guard (2005)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for voluntary military service; volunteers at
  earlier age with parental consent; no conscription (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 71,330 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 51,298 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  NA

Military - note:
  the Royal Barbados Defense Force includes a land-based Troop
  Command and a small Coast Guard; the primary role of the land
  element is to defend the island against external aggression; the
  Command consists of a single, part-time battalion with a small
  regular cadre that is deployed throughout the island; it
  increasingly supports the police in patrolling the coastline to
  prevent smuggling and other illicit activities (2005)

Transnational Issues Barbados


Disputes - international:
  in 2005, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago agreed to compulsory
  international arbitration that will result in a binding award
  challenging whether the northern limit of Trinidad and Tobago's and
  Venezuela's maritime boundary extends into Barbadian waters and the
  southern limit of Barbadian traditional fishing; joins other
  Caribbean states to counter Venezuela's claim that Aves Island
  sustains human habitation, a criterion under UNCLOS, which permits
  Venezuela to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion
  of the Caribbean Sea

Illicit drugs:
  one of many Caribbean transshipment points for narcotics bound for
  Europe and the US; offshore financial center


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Bassas da India

Introduction Bassas da India


Background:
  This atoll is a volcanic rock surrounded by reefs and is awash at
  high tide. A French possession since 1897, it was placed under the
  administration of a commissioner residing in Reunion in 1968.

Geography Bassas da India


Location:
  Southern Africa, islands in the southern Mozambique Channel, about
  one-half of the way from Madagascar to Mozambique

Geographic coordinates:
  21 30 S, 39 50 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 0.2 sq km
  land: 0.2 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about one-third the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  35.2 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical

Terrain:
  volcanic rock

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: unnamed location 2.4 m

Natural resources:
  none

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100% (all rock) (2001)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  maritime hazard since it is usually under water during high tide
  and surrounded by reefs; subject to periodic cyclones

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Geography - note:
  the islands emerge from a circular reef that sits atop a
  long-extinct, submerged volcano

People Bassas da India


Population:
  uninhabited (July 2005 est.)

Government Bassas da India


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Bassas da India

Dependency status:
  possession of France; administered by the Administrateur Superieur
  of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands

Legal system:
  the laws of France, where applicable, apply

Flag description:
  the flag of France is used

Economy Bassas da India


Economy - overview:
  no economic activity


Transportation Bassas da India


Ports and harbors:
  none; offshore anchorage only

Military Bassas da India


Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues Bassas da India


Disputes - international:
  claimed by Madagascar


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Belarus

Introduction Belarus


Background:
  After seven decades as a constituent republic of the USSR, Belarus
  attained its independence in 1991. It has retained closer political
  and economic ties to Russia than any of the other former Soviet
  republics. Belarus and Russia signed a treaty on a two-state union
  on 8 December 1999 envisioning greater political and economic
  integration. Although Belarus agreed to a framework to carry out the
  accord, serious implementation has yet to take place. Since his
  election in July 1995 as the country's first president, Alexander
  LUKASHENKO has steadily consolidated his power through authoritarian
  means. Government restrictions on freedom of speech and the press,
  peaceful assembly, and religion continue.

Geography Belarus


Location:
  Eastern Europe, east of Poland

Geographic coordinates:
  53 00 N, 28 00 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 207,600 sq km
  land: 207,600 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Kansas

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,900 km
  border countries: Latvia 141 km, Lithuania 502 km, Poland 407 km,
  Russia 959 km, Ukraine 891 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between
  continental and maritime

Terrain:
  generally flat and contains much marshland

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Nyoman River 90 m
  highest point: Dzyarzhynskaya Hara 346 m

Natural resources:
  forests, peat deposits, small quantities of oil and natural gas,
  granite, dolomitic limestone, marl, chalk, sand, gravel, clay

Land use:
  arable land: 29.55%
  permanent crops: 0.6%
  other: 69.85% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  1,150 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  NA

Environment - current issues:
  soil pollution from pesticide use; southern part of the country
  contaminated with fallout from 1986 nuclear reactor accident at
  Chornobyl' in northern Ukraine

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Sulfur 85, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification,
  Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
  Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:
  landlocked; glacial scouring accounts for the flatness of
  Belarusian terrain and for its 11,000 lakes; the country is
  geologically well endowed with extensive deposits of granite,
  dolomitic limestone, marl, chalk, sand, gravel, and clay

People Belarus


Population:
  10,300,483 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 16% (male 839,292/female 804,738)
  15-64 years: 69.5% (male 3,481,432/female 3,672,991)
  65 years and over: 14.6% (male 498,717/female 1,003,313) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 37.03 years
  male: 34.32 years
  female: 39.7 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  -0.09% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  10.83 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  14.15 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  2.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.5 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.88 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 13.37 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 14.3 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 12.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 68.72 years
  male: 63.03 years
  female: 74.69 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.39 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.3% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  15,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  1,000 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Belarusian(s)
  adjective: Belarusian

Ethnic groups:
  Belarusian 81.2%, Russian 11.4%, Polish 3.9%, Ukrainian 2.4%, other
  1.1% (1999 census)

Religions:
  Eastern Orthodox 80%, other (including Roman Catholic, Protestant,
  Jewish, and Muslim) 20% (1997 est.)

Languages:
  Belarusian, Russian, other

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 99.6%
  male: 99.8%
  female: 99.5% (2003 est.)

Government Belarus


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Belarus
  conventional short form: Belarus
  local long form: Respublika Byelarus'
  local short form: none
  former: Belorussian (Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type:
  republic in name, although in fact a dictatorship

Capital:
  Minsk

Administrative divisions:
  6 provinces (voblastsi, singular - voblasts') and 1 municipality*
  (horad); Brest, Homyel', Horad Minsk*, Hrodna, Mahilyow, Minsk,
  Vitsyebsk
  note: administrative divisions have the same names as their
  administrative centers

Independence:
  25 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 3 July (1944); note - 3 July 1944 was the date
  Minsk was liberated from German troops, 25 August 1991 was the date
  of independence from the Soviet Union

Constitution:
  15 March 1994; revised by national referendum of 24 November 1996
  giving the presidency greatly expanded powers and became effective
  27 November 1996; revised again 17 October 2004 removing
  presidential term limits

Legal system:
  based on civil law system

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (since 20 July 1994)
  head of government: Prime Minister Sergei SIDORSKY (since 19
  December 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir SEMASHKO (since
  December 2003)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  first election took place 23 June and 10 July 1994; according to the
  1994 constitution, the next election should have been held in 1999,
  however LUKASHENKO extended his term to 2001 via a November 1996
  referendum; new election held 9 September 2001; October 2004
  referendum ended presidential term limits allowing president to run
  for a third term in September 2006; prime minister and deputy prime
  ministers appointed by the president
  election results: Aleksandr LUKASHENKO reelected president; percent
  of vote - Aleksandr LUKASHENKO 75.6%, Vladimir GONCHARIK 15.4%

Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Assembly or Natsionalnoye Sobranie consists of
  the Council of the Republic or Soviet Respubliki (64 seats; 56
  members elected by regional councils and 8 members appointed by the
  president, all for 4-year terms) and the Chamber of Representatives
  or Palata Predstaviteley (110 seats; members elected by universal
  adult suffrage to serve 4-year terms)
  elections: last held 18 March and 1 April 2001 and 17 and 31 October
  2004; international observers widely denounced the October 2004
  elections as flawed and undemocratic, based on massive government
  falsification; pro-Lukashenko candidates won every seat, after many
  opposition candidates were disqualified for technical reasons
  election results: Soviet Respubliki - percent of vote by party -
  NA%; seats by party - NA; Palata Predstaviteley - percent of vote by
  party - NA%; seats by party - NA

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president);
  Constitutional Court (half of the judges appointed by the president
  and half appointed by the Chamber of Representatives)

Political parties and leaders:
  Pro-government parties: Agrarian Party or AP [leader NA];
  Belarusian Communist Party or KPB [leader NA]; Belarusian Patriotic
  Movement (Belarusian Patriotic Party) or BPR [Anatoliy BARANKEVICH,
  chairman]; Liberal Democratic Party of Belarus [Sergei GAYDUKEVICH];
  Social-Sports Party [leader NA]; Opposition parties: Belarusian
  Popular Front or BNF [Vintsuk VYACHORKA]; Belarusian Social-Democrat
  Party Narodnaya Gromada or BSDP NG [Nikolay STATKEVICH, chairman];
  Belarusian Social-Democratic Party Hromada [Stanislav SHUSHKEVICH,
  chairman]; United Civic Party or UCP [Anatol LEBEDKO]; Party of
  Communists Belarusian or PKB [Sergei KALYAKIN, chairman]; Women's
  Party "Nadezhda" [Valentina MATUSEVICH, chairperson]
  note: the opposition Belarusian Party of Labor [Aleksandr
  BUKHVOSTOV] was liquidated in August 2004, but remains active

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  CEI, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS,
  ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, NSG,
  OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU,
  WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Mikhail KHVOSTOV
  chancery: 1619 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
  telephone: [1] (202) 986-1604
  FAX: [1] (202) 986-1805
  consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador George A. KROL
  embassy: 46 Starovilenskaya St., Minsk 220002
  mailing address: PSC 78, Box B Minsk, APO 09723
  telephone: [375] (17) 210-12-83, 217-7347, 217-7348
  FAX: [375] (17) 234-7853

Flag description:
  red horizontal band (top) and green horizontal band one-half the
  width of the red band; a white vertical stripe on the hoist side
  bears Belarusian national ornamention in red

Economy Belarus


Economy - overview:
  Belarus's economy in 2003-04 posted 6.1% and 6.4% growth. Still,
  the economy continues to be hampered by high inflation, persistent
  trade deficits, and ongoing rocky relations with Russia, Belarus'
  largest trading partner and energy supplier. Belarus has seen little
  structural reform since 1995, when President LUKASHENKO launched the
  country on the path of "market socialism." In keeping with this
  policy, LUKASHENKO reimposed administrative controls over prices and
  currency exchange rates and expanded the state's right to intervene
  in the management of private enterprises. In addition, businesses
  have been subject to pressure on the part of central and local
  governments, e.g., arbitrary changes in regulations, numerous
  rigorous inspections, retroactive application of new business
  regulations, and arrests of "disruptive" businessmen and factory
  owners. A wide range of redistributive policies has helped those at
  the bottom of the ladder; the Gini coefficient is among the lowest
  in the world. For the time being, Belarus remains self-isolated from
  the West and its open-market economies. Growth has been strong in
  recent years, despite the roadblocks in a tough, centrally directed
  economy and the high, but decreasing, rate of inflation. Growth has
  been buoyed by increased Russian demand for generally noncompetitive
  Belarusian goods.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $70.5 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  6.4% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $6,800 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 11%
  industry: 36.4%
  services: 52.6% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  4.305 million (31 December 2003)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 14%, industry 34.7%, services 51.3% (2003 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  2% officially registered unemployed; large number of underemployed
  workers (2004)

Population below poverty line:
  27.1% (2003 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 5.1%
  highest 10%: 20% (1998)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  21.7 (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  17.4% (2004 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  21.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $3.326 billion
  expenditures: $3.564 billion, including capital expenditures of $180
  million (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  grain, potatoes, vegetables, sugar beets, flax; beef, milk

Industries:
  metal-cutting machine tools, tractors, trucks, earthmovers,
  motorcycles, televisions, chemical fibers, fertilizer, textiles,
  radios, refrigerators

Industrial production growth rate:
  4% (2004 est.)

Electricity - production:
  30 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 99.5%
  hydro: 0.1%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0.4% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  34.3 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - exports:
  800 million kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports:
  3.2 billion kWh (2003)

Oil - production:
  36,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  285,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - exports:
  14,500 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - imports:
  360,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Natural gas - production:
  250 million cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  18.8 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  18.5 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Current account balance:
  $-1.119 billion (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $11.47 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, mineral products, chemicals, metals;
  textiles, foodstuffs

Exports - partners:
  Russia 47%, UK 8.3%, Netherlands 6.7%, Poland 5.3% (2004)

Imports:
  $13.57 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  mineral products, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs,
  metals

Imports - partners:
  Russia 68.2%, Germany 6.6%, Ukraine 3.3% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $770.2 million (2004 est.)

Debt - external:
  $600 million (2004 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $194.3 million (1995)

Currency (code):
  Belarusian ruble (BYB/BYR)

Currency code:
  BYB/BYR

Exchange rates:
  Belarusian rubles per US dollar - 2,160.26 (2004), 2,051.27 (2003),
  1,790.92 (2002), 1,390 (2001), 876.75 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Belarus


Telephones - main lines in use:
  3,071,300 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1.118 million (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: the Ministry of Telecommunications controls all
  telecommunications through its carrier (a joint stock company)
  Beltelcom which is a monopoly
  domestic: local - Minsk has a digital metropolitan network and a
  cellular NMT-450 network; waiting lists for telephones are long;
  local service outside Minsk is neglected and poor; intercity -
  Belarus has a partly developed fiber-optic backbone system presently
  serving at least 13 major cities (1998); Belarus' fiber optics form
  synchronous digital hierarchy rings through other countries'
  systems; an inadequate analog system remains operational
  international: country code - 375; Belarus is a member of the
  Trans-European Line (TEL), Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line,
  and has access to the Trans-Siberia Line (TSL); three fiber-optic
  segments provide connectivity to Latvia, Poland, Russia, and
  Ukraine; worldwide service is available to Belarus through this
  infrastructure; additional analog lines to Russia; Intelsat,
  Eutelsat, and Intersputnik earth stations

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 28, FM 37, shortwave 11 (1998)

Radios:
  3.02 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  47 (plus 27 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions:
  2.52 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .by

Internet hosts:
  5,308 (2004)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  23 (2002)

Internet users:
  1,391,900 (2003)

Transportation Belarus


Railways:
  total: 5,512 km
  broad gauge: 5,497 km 1.520-m gauge (874 km electrified)
  standard gauge: 15 km 1.435-m (2004)

Highways:
  total: 79,990 km
  paved: 69,351 km
  unpaved: 10,639 km (2002)

Waterways:
  2,500 km (use limited by location on perimeter of country and by
  shallowness) (2003)

Pipelines:
  gas 5,223 km; oil 2,443 km; refined products 1,686 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Mazyr

Airports:
  133 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 50
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 22
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 21 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 83
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
  914 to 1,523 m: 11
  under 914 m: 64 (2004 est.)

Heliports:
  1 (2004 est.)

Military Belarus


Military branches:
  Army, Air and Air Defense Force

Military service age and obligation:
  18-27 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript
  service obligation - 18 months (May 2004)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 2,520,644 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,657,984 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males: 85,202 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $176.1 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.4% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Belarus


Disputes - international:
  1997 boundary treaty with Ukraine remains unratified over
  unresolved financial claims, preventing demarcation and diminishing
  border security; boundary with Latvia remains undemarcated but a
  third of the border with Lithuania was demarcated in 2004

Illicit drugs:
  limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for the
  domestic market; transshipment point for illicit drugs to and via
  Russia, and to the Baltics and Western Europe; a small and lightly
  regulated financial center; new anti-money-laundering legislation
  does not meet international standards; few investigations or
  prosecutions of money-laundering activities


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Belgium

Introduction Belgium


Background:
  Belgium became independent from the Netherlands in 1830 and was
  occupied by Germany during World Wars I and II. It has prospered in
  the past half century as a modern, technologically advanced European
  state and member of NATO and the EU. Tensions between the
  Dutch-speaking Flemings of the north and the French-speaking
  Walloons of the south have led in recent years to constitutional
  amendments granting these regions formal recognition and autonomy.

Geography Belgium


Location:
  Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between France and the
  Netherlands

Geographic coordinates:
  50 50 N, 4 00 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 30,528 sq km
  land: 30,278 sq km
  water: 250 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about the size of Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,385 km
  border countries: France 620 km, Germany 167 km, Luxembourg 148 km,
  Netherlands 450 km

Coastline:
  66.5 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive economic zone: geographic coordinates define outer limit
  continental shelf: median line with neighbors

Climate:
  temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy

Terrain:
  flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills, rugged
  mountains of Ardennes Forest in southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: North Sea 0 m
  highest point: Signal de Botrange 694 m

Natural resources:
  construction materials, silica sand, carbonates

Land use:
  arable land: 23.28%
  permanent crops: 0.4%
  other: 76.32%
  note: includes Luxembourg (2001)

Irrigated land:
  40 sq km (includes Luxembourg) (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  flooding is a threat along rivers and in areas of reclaimed coastal
  land, protected from the sea by concrete dikes

Environment - current issues:
  the environment is exposed to intense pressures from human
  activities: urbanization, dense transportation network, industry,
  extensive animal breeding and crop cultivation; air and water
  pollution also have repercussions for neighboring countries;
  uncertainties regarding federal and regional responsibilities (now
  resolved) have slowed progress in tackling environmental challenges

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
  Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
  Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic
  Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
  Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
  Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
  Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
  Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Geography - note:
  crossroads of Western Europe; majority of West European capitals
  within 1,000 km of Brussels, the seat of both the European Union and
  NATO

People Belgium


Population:
  10,364,388 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 16.9% (male 892,995/female 855,177)
  15-64 years: 65.7% (male 3,435,282/female 3,373,917)
  65 years and over: 17.4% (male 745,178/female 1,061,839) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 40.55 years
  male: 39.29 years
  female: 41.81 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.15% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  10.48 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  10.22 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  1.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 4.68 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 5.27 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 4.06 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 78.62 years
  male: 75.44 years
  female: 81.94 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.64 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.2% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  10,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 100 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Belgian(s)
  adjective: Belgian

Ethnic groups:
  Fleming 58%, Walloon 31%, mixed or other 11%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 75%, Protestant or other 25%

Languages:
  Dutch (official) 60%, French (official) 40%, German (official) less
  than 1%, legally bilingual (Dutch and French)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98%
  male: NA%
  female: NA%

Government Belgium


Country name:
  conventional long form: Kingdom of Belgium
  conventional short form: Belgium
  local long form: Royaume de Belgique/Koninkrijk Belgie
  local short form: Belgique/Belgie

Government type:
  federal parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarch

Capital:
  Brussels

Administrative divisions:
  10 provinces (French: provinces, singular - province; Dutch:
  provincies, singular - provincie) and 3 regions* (French: regions;
  Dutch: gewesten); Antwerpen, Brabant Wallon, Brussels* (Bruxelles),
  Flanders*, Hainaut, Liege, Limburg, Luxembourg, Namur,
  Oost-Vlaanderen, Vlaams-Brabant, Wallonia*, West-Vlaanderen
  note: as a result of the 1993 constitutional revision that furthered
  devolution into a federal state, there are now three levels of
  government (federal, regional, and linguistic community) with a
  complex division of responsibilities

Independence:
  4 October 1830 (a provisional government declares independence from
  the Netherlands); 21 July 1831 (King Leopold I ascends to the throne)

National holiday:
  21 July (1831) ascension to the Throne of King Leopold I

Constitution:
  7 February 1831; amended many times; revised 14 July 1993 to create
  a federal state

Legal system:
  civil law system influenced by English constitutional theory;
  judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: King ALBERT II (since 9 August 1993); Heir Apparent
  Prince PHILIPPE, son of the monarch
  head of government: Prime Minister Guy VERHOFSTADT (since 13 July
  1999)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers formally appointed by the monarch
  elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative
  elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the
  majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the
  monarch and then approved by parliament
  note: government coalition - VLD, MR, PS, SP.A-Spirit

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of a Senate or Senaat in Dutch, Senat
  in French (71 seats; 40 members are directly elected by popular
  vote, 31 are indirectly elected; members serve four-year terms) and
  a Chamber of Deputies or Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordigers in Dutch,
  Chambre des Representants in French (150 seats; members are directly
  elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation
  to serve four-year terms)
  elections: Senate and Chamber of Deputies - last held 18 May 2003
  (next to be held no later than May 2007)
  election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - SP.A-Spirit
  15.5%, VLD 15.4%, CD & V 12.7%, PS 12.8%, MR 12.1%, VB 9.4%, CDH
  5.6%; seats by party - SP.A-Spirit 7, VLD 7, CD & V 6, PS 6, MR 5,
  VB 5, CDH 2, other 2 (note - there are also 31 indirectly elected
  senators); Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - VLD
  15.4%, SP.A-Spirit 14.9%, CD & V 13.3%, PS 13.0%, VB 11.6%, MR
  11.4%, CDH 5.5%, Ecolo 3.1%; seats by party - VLD 25, SP.A-Spirit
  23, CD & V 21, PS 25, VB 18, MR 24, CDH 8 Ecolo 4, other 2
  note: as a result of the 1993 constitutional revision that furthered
  devolution into a federal state, there are now three levels of
  government (federal, regional, and linguistic community) with a
  complex division of responsibilities; this reality leaves six
  governments each with its own legislative assembly

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court of Justice or Hof van Cassatie (in Dutch) or Cour de
  Cassation (in French) (judges are appointed for life by the
  Government; candidacies have to be submitted by the High Justice
  Council)

Political parties and leaders:
  Flemish parties: Christian Democrats and Flemish or CD & V [Jo
  VANDEURZEN]; Flemish Liberal Democrats or VLD [Bart SOMERS]; GROEN!
  (formerly AGALEV, Flemish Greens) [Vera DUA]; New Flemish Alliance
  or NVA [Bart DE WEVER]; Socialist Party.Alternative or SP.A
  [Caroline GENNEZ]; Spirit [Geert LAMBERT] (new party now associated
  with SP.A); Vlaams Belang (Flemish Interest) or VB [Frank VANHECKE]
  Francophone parties: Ecolo (Francophone Greens) [Jean-Michel JAVAUX,
  Evelyne HUYTEBROECK, Claude BROUIR]; Humanist and Democratic Center
  of CDH [Joelle MILQUET]; National Front or FN [Daniel FERET];
  Reformist Movement or MR [Didier REYNDERS]; Socialist Party or PS
  [Elio DI RUPO]; other minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Christian, Socialist, and Liberal Trade Unions; Federation of
  Belgian Industries; numerous other associations representing
  bankers, manufacturers, middle-class artisans, and the legal and
  medical professions; various organizations represent the cultural
  interests of Flanders and Wallonia; various peace groups such as Pax
  Christi and groups representing immigrants

International organization participation:
  ACCT, AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CE, CERN, EAPC,
  EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
  ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF,
  IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS
  (observer), OECD, ONUB, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WADB
  (nonregional), WCL, WCO, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Franciskus VAN DAELE
  chancery: 3330 Garfield Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 333-6900
  FAX: [1] (202) 333-3079
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Tom C. KOROLOGOS
  embassy: Regentlaan 27 Boulevard du Regent, B-1000 Brussels
  mailing address: PSC 82, Box 002, APO AE 09710
  telephone: [32] (2) 508-2111
  FAX: [32] (2) 511-2725

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), yellow, and red;
  the design was based on the flag of France

Economy Belgium


Economy - overview:
  This modern private enterprise economy has capitalized on its
  central geographic location, highly developed transport network, and
  diversified industrial and commercial base. Industry is concentrated
  mainly in the populous Flemish area in the north. With few natural
  resources, Belgium must import substantial quantities of raw
  materials and export a large volume of manufactures, making its
  economy unusually dependent on the state of world markets. Roughly
  three-quarters of its trade is with other EU countries. Public debt
  is nearly 100% of GDP. On the positive side, the government has
  succeeded in balancing its budget, and income distribution is
  relatively equal. Belgium began circulating the euro currency in
  January 2002. Economic growth in 2001-03 dropped sharply because of
  the global economic slowdown, with moderate recovery in 2004.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $316.2 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  2.6% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $30,600 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 1.3%
  industry: 25.7%
  services: 73% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  4.75 million (2004 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 1.3%, industry 24.5%, services 74.2% (2003 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  12% (first half, 2004)

Population below poverty line:
  4% (1989 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 3.2%
  highest 10%: 23% (1996)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  28.7 (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1.9% (2004 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  19.1% of GDP (2004 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $173.7 billion
  expenditures: $174.8 billion, including capital expenditures of
  $1.56 billion (2004 est.)

Public debt:
  96.2% of GDP (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  sugar beets, fresh vegetables, fruits, grain, tobacco; beef, veal,
  pork, milk

Industries:
  engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly,
  transportation equipment, scientific instruments, processed food and
  beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles, glass, petroleum

Industrial production growth rate:
  3.5% (2004 est.)

Electricity - production:
  76.58 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 38.4%
  hydro: 0.6%
  nuclear: 59.3%
  other: 1.8% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  78.82 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  9.1 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  16.7 billion kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  595,100 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  450,000 bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:
  1.042 million bbl/day (2001)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  15.5 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  15.4 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Current account balance:
  $11.4 billion (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $255.7 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, chemicals, diamonds, metals and metal
  products, foodstuffs

Exports - partners:
  Germany 19.9%, France 17.2%, Netherlands 11.8%, UK 8.6%, US 6.5%,
  Italy 5.2% (2004)

Imports:
  $235 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, chemicals, diamonds, pharmaceuticals,
  foodstuffs, transportation equipment, oil products

Imports - partners:
  Germany 18.4%, Netherlands 17%, France 12.5%, UK 6.8%, Ireland
  6.3%, US 5.5% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $14.45 billion (2003)

Debt - external:
  $28.3 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - donor:
  ODA, $1.072 billion (2002)

Currency (code):
  euro (EUR)
  note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the
  euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of
  member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole
  currency for everyday transactions within the member countries

Currency code:
  EUR

Exchange rates:
  euros per US dollar - 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002),
  1.1175 (2001), 1.0854 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Belgium


Telephones - main lines in use:
  5,120,400 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  8,135,500 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: highly developed, technologically advanced, and
  completely automated domestic and international telephone and
  telegraph facilities
  domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; extensive cable
  network; limited microwave radio relay network
  international: country code - 32; 5 submarine cables; satellite
  earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Eutelsat

Radio broadcast stations:
  FM 79, AM 7, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  8.075 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  25 (plus 10 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:
  4.72 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .be

Internet hosts:
  166,799 (2004)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  61 (2000)

Internet users:
  3.4 million (2002)

Transportation Belgium


Railways:
  total: 3,521 km
  standard gauge: 3,521 km 1.435-m gauge (2,927 km electrified) (2004)

Highways:
  total: 149,028 km
  paved: 116,540 km (including 1,729 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 32,488 km (2002)

Waterways:
  2,043 km (1,528 km in regular commercial use) (2003)

Pipelines:
  gas 1,485 km; oil 158 km; refined products 535 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Antwerp, Brussels, Gent, Liege, Oostende, Zeebrugge

Merchant marine:
  total: 53 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,146,301 GRT/1,588,184 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 15, cargo 2, chemical tanker 2, container 8,
  liquefied gas 17, petroleum tanker 9
  foreign-owned: 12 (Denmark 4, France 4, Greece 4)
  registered in other countries: 101 (2005)

Airports:
  43 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 25
  over 3,047 m: 6
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 7 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 18
  914 to 1,523 m: 2
  under 914 m: 16 (2004 est.)

Heliports:
  1 (2004 est.)

Military Belgium


Military branches:
  Land, Naval, and Air Components (2005)

Military service age and obligation:
  16 years of age for voluntary military service; women comprise some
  7% of the Belgian armed forces (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 16-49: 2,436,736 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 16-49: 1,998,003 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males: 64,263 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $3.999 billion (2003)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.3% (2003)

Transnational Issues Belgium


Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  growing producer of synthetic drugs; transit point for US-bound
  ecstasy; source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine
  processors; transshipment point for cocaine, heroin, hashish, and
  marijuana entering Western Europe; despite a strengthening of
  legislation, the country remains vulnerable to money laundering
  related to narcotics, automobiles, alcohol, and tobacco


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Belize

Introduction Belize


Background:
  Territorial disputes between the UK and Guatemala delayed the
  independence of Belize (formerly British Honduras) until 1981.
  Guatemala refused to recognize the new nation until 1992. Tourism
  has become the mainstay of the economy. The country remains plagued
  by high unemployment, growing involvement in the South American drug
  trade, and increasing urban crime.

Geography Belize


Location:
  Central America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala and
  Mexico

Geographic coordinates:
  17 15 N, 88 45 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 22,966 sq km
  land: 22,806 sq km
  water: 160 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries:
  total: 516 km
  border countries: Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 250 km

Coastline:
  386 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm in the north, 3 nm in the south; note - from
  the mouth of the Sarstoon River to Ranguana Cay, Belize's
  territorial sea is 3 nm; according to Belize's Maritime Areas Act,
  1992, the purpose of this limitation is to provide a framework for
  negotiating a definitive agreement on territorial differences with
  Guatemala
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to November); dry
  season (February to May)

Terrain:
  flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Victoria Peak 1,160 m

Natural resources:
  arable land potential, timber, fish, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 2.85%
  permanent crops: 1.71%
  other: 95.44% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  30 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  frequent, devastating hurricanes (June to November) and coastal
  flooding (especially in south)

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation; water pollution from sewage, industrial effluents,
  agricultural runoff; solid and sewage waste disposal

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law
  of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  only country in Central America without a coastline on the North
  Pacific Ocean

People Belize


Population:
  279,457 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 40.1% (male 57,114/female 54,877)
  15-64 years: 56.4% (male 79,694/female 77,881)
  65 years and over: 3.5% (male 4,768/female 5,123) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 19.35 years
  male: 19.21 years
  female: 19.49 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.33% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  29.34 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  6.04 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 25.69 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 28.97 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 22.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 68.44 years
  male: 66.54 years
  female: 70.44 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.68 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  2.4% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  3,600 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 200 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Belizean(s)
  adjective: Belizean

Ethnic groups:
  mestizo 48.7%, Creole 24.9%, Maya 10.6%, Garifuna 6.1%, other 9.7%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 49.6%, Protestant 27% (Pentecostal 7.4%, Anglican
  5.3%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5.2%, Mennonite 4.1%, Methodist 3.5%,
  Jehovah's Witnesses 1.5%), other 14%, none 9.4% (2000)

Languages:
  English (official), Spanish, Mayan, Garifuna (Carib), Creole

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 94.1%
  male: 94.1%
  female: 94.1% (2003 est.)

Government Belize


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Belize
  former: British Honduras

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  Belmopan

Administrative divisions:
  6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal, Orange Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo

Independence:
  21 September 1981 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 21 September (1981)

Constitution:
  21 September 1981

Legal system:
  English law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General Sir Colville YOUNG, Sr. (since 17
  November 1993)
  head of government: Prime Minister Said Wilbert MUSA (since 28
  August 1998); Deputy Prime Minister John BRICENO (since 1 September
  1998)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of
  the prime minister
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
  appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the
  leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition
  is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; prime
  minister recommends the deputy prime minister

Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (12 members
  appointed by the governor general - six on the advice of the prime
  minister, three on the advice of the leader of the opposition, and
  one each on the advice of the Belize Council of Churches and
  Evangelical Association of Churches, the Belize Chamber of Commerce
  and Industry and the Belize Better Business Bureau, and the National
  Trade Union Congress and the Civil Society Steering Committee;
  members are appointed for five-year terms) and the House of
  Representatives (29 seats; members are elected by direct popular
  vote to serve five-year terms)
  elections: House of Representatives - last held 5 March 2003 (next
  to be held March 2008)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  PUP 21, UDP 8

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (the chief justice is appointed by the governor
  general on the advice of the prime minister)

Political parties and leaders:
  People's United Party or PUP [Said MUSA]; United Democratic Party
  or UDP [Dean BARROW, party leader; Douglas SINGH, party chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Society for the Promotion of Education and Research or SPEAR [Adele
  CATZIM]

International organization participation:
  ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU,
  ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU,
  LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
  UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Lisa M. SHOMAN
  chancery: 2535 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 332-9636
  FAX: [1] (202) 332-6888
  consulate(s) general: Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Russell F. FREEMAN
  embassy: 29 Gabourel Lane, Belize City
  mailing address: P. O. Box 286, Belize City
  telephone: [501] 227-7161 through 7163
  FAX: [501] 2-30802

Flag description:
  blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the bottom edges;
  centered is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms; the coat of
  arms features a shield flanked by two workers in front of a mahogany
  tree with the related motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I Flourish in the
  Shade) on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a green garland

Economy Belize


Economy - overview:
  In this small, essentially private enterprise economy the tourism
  industry is the number one foreign exchange earner followed by
  marine products, citrus, cane sugar, bananas, and garments. The
  government's expansionary monetary and fiscal policies, initiated in
  September 1998, led to sturdy GDP growth averaging nearly 6% in
  1999-2004. Major concerns continue to be the sizable trade deficit
  and foreign debt. A key short-term objective remains the reduction
  of poverty with the help of international donors.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $1.778 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3.5% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $6,500 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 17.7%
  industry: 15%
  services: 67.3% (2003 est.)

Labor force:
  90,000
  note: shortage of skilled labor and all types of technical personnel
  (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 27%, industry 18%, services 55% (2001 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  12.9% (2003)

Population below poverty line:
  33% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.9% (2004 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  33.6% of GDP (2004 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $244.5 million
  expenditures: $300 million, including capital expenditures of $70
  million (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  bananas, coca, citrus, sugar; fish, cultured shrimp; lumber;
  garments

Industries:
  garment production, food processing, tourism, construction

Industrial production growth rate:
  4.6% (1999)

Electricity - production:
  117 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 59.9%
  hydro: 40.1%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  108.8 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  5,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Current account balance:
  $-115 million (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $401.4 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  sugar, bananas, citrus, clothing, fish products, molasses, wood

Exports - partners:
  US 37.2%, UK 26.8%, Jamaica 4.6% (2004)

Imports:
  $579.9 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods; fuels,
  chemicals, pharmaceuticals; food, beverages, tobacco

Imports - partners:
  US 30.1%, Mexico 12%, Guatemala 7.4%, Cuba 7.2%, China 4.2%, Japan
  4.1% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $111.1 million (2004 est.)

Debt - external:
  $1.362 billion (June 2004 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  NA

Currency (code):
  Belizean dollar (BZD)

Currency code:
  BZD

Exchange rates:
  Belizean dollars per US dollar - 2 (2004), 2 (2003), 2 (2002), 2
  (2001), 2 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Belize


Telephones - main lines in use:
  33,300 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  60,400 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: above-average system
  domestic: trunk network depends primarily on microwave radio relay
  international: country code - 501; satellite earth station - 1
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 12, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  133,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  2 (1997)

Televisions:
  41,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bz

Internet hosts:
  2,613 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  30,000 (2002)

Transportation Belize


Highways:
  total: 2,872 km
  paved: 488 km
  unpaved: 2,384 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  825 km (navigable only by small craft) (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Belize City

Merchant marine:
  total: 295 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,015,270 GRT/1,336,890 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 25, cargo 207, chemical tanker 9, container 6,
  passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 20, refrigerated cargo 17, roll
  on/roll off 5
  foreign-owned: 142 (Australia 2, Belgium 1, China 50, Cuba 1, Cyprus
  1, Estonia 9, Germany 4, Hong Kong 6, Indonesia 3, Italy 2, Japan 5,
  Latvia 4, Malaysia 1, Nigeria 1, Pakistan 1, Poland 2, Russia 23,
  Singapore 5, South Korea 6, Spain 3, Switzerland 1, Turkey 2,
  Ukraine 4, UAE 3, United States 2) (2005)

Airports:
  43 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 5
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 2
  under 914 m: 2 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 38
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 11
  under 914 m: 26 (2004 est.)

Military Belize


Military branches:
  Belize Defense Force (BDF): Army, Maritime Wing, Air Wing, and
  Volunteer Guard

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for voluntary military service; laws allow for
  conscription only if volunteers are insufficient; conscription has
  never been implemented; volunteers typically outnumber available
  positions by 3:1 (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 60,750 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 41,368 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males: 3,209 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $18 million (2003)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2% (2003)

Transnational Issues Belize


Disputes - international:
  Guatemalan squatters continue to settle in the largely uninhabited
  rain forests of Belize's border region; OAS is attempting to revive
  the 2002 failed Differendum that created a small adjustment to land
  boundary, a Guatemalan maritime corridor in Caribbean, joint
  ecological park for disputed Sapodilla Cays, and substantial US-UK
  financial package

Illicit drugs:
  major transshipment point for cocaine; small-scale illicit producer
  of cannabis for the international drug trade; money-laundering
  activity related to narcotics trafficking and offshore sector


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Benin

Introduction Benin


Background:
  Present day Benin was the site of Dahomey, a prominent West African
  kingdom that rose in the 15th century. The territory became a French
  Colony in 1872 and achieved independence on 1 August 1960, as the
  Republic of Benin. A succession of military governments ended in
  1972 with the rise to power of Mathieu KEREKOU and the establishment
  of a government based on Marxist-Leninist principles. A move to
  representative government began in 1989. Two years later, free
  elections ushered in former Prime Minister Nicephore SOGLO as
  president, marking the first successful transfer of power in Africa
  from a dictatorship to a democracy. KEREKOU was returned to power by
  elections held in 1996 and 2001, though some irregularities were
  alleged.

Geography Benin


Location:
  Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Nigeria and
  Togo

Geographic coordinates:
  9 30 N, 2 15 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 112,620 sq km
  land: 110,620 sq km
  water: 2,000 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,989 km
  border countries: Burkina Faso 306 km, Niger 266 km, Nigeria 773 km,
  Togo 644 km

Coastline:
  121 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

Terrain:
  mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low mountains

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mont Sokbaro 658 m

Natural resources:
  small offshore oil deposits, limestone, marble, timber

Land use:
  arable land: 18.08%
  permanent crops: 2.4%
  other: 79.52% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  120 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north from December to
  March

Environment - current issues:
  inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching threatens wildlife
  populations; deforestation; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  sandbanks create difficult access to a coast with no natural
  harbors, river mouths, or islands

People Benin


Population:
  7,460,025
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 46.5% (male 1,752,243/female 1,719,458)
  15-64 years: 51.2% (male 1,868,630/female 1,948,610)
  65 years and over: 2.3% (male 70,367/female 100,717) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 16.56 years
  male: 16.12 years
  female: 17.01 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.82% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  41.99 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  13.76 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 85 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 90 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 79.86 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 52.66 years
  male: 51.53 years
  female: 53.82 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  5.86 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  1.9% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  68,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  5,800 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: very high
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea,
  hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
  vectorborne diseases: malaria, yellow fever, and others are high
  risks in some locations
  respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2004)

Nationality:
  noun: Beninese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Beninese

Ethnic groups:
  African 99% (42 ethnic groups, most important being Fon, Adja,
  Yoruba, Bariba), Europeans 5,500

Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 30%, Muslim 20%

Languages:
  French (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common vernaculars in
  south), tribal languages (at least six major ones in north)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 33.6%
  male: 46.4%
  female: 22.6% (2002 est.)

Government Benin


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Benin
  conventional short form: Benin
  local long form: Republique du Benin
  local short form: Benin
  former: Dahomey

Government type:
  republic under multiparty democratic rule; dropped Marxism-Leninism
  December 1989

Capital:
  Porto-Novo is the official capital; Cotonou is the seat of
  government

Administrative divisions:
  12 departments; Alibori, Atakora, Atlantique, Borgou, Collines,
  Kouffo, Donga, Littoral, Mono, Oueme, Plateau, Zou

Independence:
  1 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday:
  National Day, 1 August (1960)

Constitution:
  December 1990

Legal system:
  based on French civil law and customary law; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4 April 1996);
  note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government
  head of government: President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4 April 1996);
  note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
  elections: president reelected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  runoff election held 22 March 2001 (next to be held March 2006)
  election results: Mathieu KEREKOU reelected president; percent of
  vote - Mathieu KEREKOU 84.1%, Bruno AMOUSSOU 15.9%
  note: the four top-ranking contenders following the first-round
  presidential elections were: Mathieu KEREKOU (incumbent) 45.4%,
  Nicephore SOGLO (former president) 27.1%, Adrien HOUNGBEDJI
  (National Assembly Speaker) 12.6%, and Bruno AMOUSSOU (Minister of
  State) 8.6%; the second-round balloting, originally scheduled for 18
  March 2001, was postponed four days because both SOGLO and
  HOUNGBEDJI withdrew alleging electoral fraud; this left KEREKOU to
  run against his own Minister of State, AMOUSSOU, in what was termed
  a "friendly match"

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (83 seats;
  members are elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 30 March 2003 (next to be held March 2007)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  Presidential Movement 52, opposition (PRB, PRD, E'toile, and 5 other
  small parties) 31

Judicial branch:
  Constitutional Court or Cour Constitutionnelle; Supreme Court or
  Cour Supreme; High Court of Justice

Political parties and leaders:
  African Congress for Renewal or DUNYA [Saka SALEY]; African
  Movement for Democracy and Progress or MADEP [Sefou FAGBOHOUN];
  Alliance of the Social Democratic Party or PSD [Bruno AMOUSSOU];
  Coalition of Democratic Forces [Gatien HOUNGBEDJI]; Democratic
  Renewal Party or PRD [Adrien HOUNGBEDJI]; Front for Renewal and
  Development or FARD-ALAFIA [Jerome Sakia KINA]; Impulse for Progress
  and Democracy or IPD [Bertin BORNA]; Key Force or FC [leader NA];
  Presidential Movement (UBF, MADEP, FC, IDP, and four small parties);
  Renaissance Party du Benin or PRB [Nicephore SOGLO]; The Star
  Alliance (Alliance E'toile) [Sacca LAFIA]; Union of Tomorrow's Benin
  or UBF [Bruno AMOUSSOU]
  note: approximately 20 additional minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUC,
  NAM, OIC, ONUB, OPCW, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WCO,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Cyrille Segbe OGUIN
  chancery: 2124 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 232-6656
  FAX: [1] (202) 265-1996

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Wayne NEILL
  embassy: Rue Caporal Bernard Anani, Cotonou
  mailing address: 01 B. P. 2012, Cotonou
  telephone: [229] 30-06-50
  FAX: [229] 30-06-70

Flag description:
  two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red (bottom) with a
  vertical green band on the hoist side

Economy Benin


Economy - overview:
  The economy of Benin remains underdeveloped and dependent on
  subsistence agriculture, cotton production, and regional trade.
  Growth in real output has averaged around 5% in the past six years,
  but rapid population growth has offset much of this increase.
  Inflation has subsided over the past several years. In order to
  raise growth still further, Benin plans to attract more foreign
  investment, place more emphasis on tourism, facilitate the
  development of new food processing systems and agricultural
  products, and encourage new information and communication
  technology. The 2001 privatization policy should continue in
  telecommunications, water, electricity, and agriculture in spite of
  initial government reluctance. The Paris Club and bilateral
  creditors have eased the external debt situation, while pressing for
  more rapid structural reforms. Benin continues to be hurt by
  Nigerian trade protection that bans imports of a growing list of
  products from Benin and elsewhere. As a result, smuggling and
  criminality along the Benin-Nigeria border has been on the rise.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $8.338 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,200 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 36.3%
  industry: 14.3%
  services: 49.4% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  NA (1996)

Unemployment rate:
  NA

Population below poverty line:
  33% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.8% (2004 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  19.3% of GDP (2004 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $869.4 million
  expenditures: $720.4 million, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  cotton, corn, cassava (tapioca), yams, beans, palm oil, peanuts,
  livestock (2001)

Industries:
  textiles, food processing, construction materials, cement (2001)

Industrial production growth rate:
  8.3% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:
  285.2 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 14.2%
  hydro: 85.8%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  565.2 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  300 million kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  700 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  11,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Oil - proved reserves:
  4.105 million bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  608.8 million cu m (1 January 2002)

Current account balance:
  $-159.9 million (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $720.9 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  cotton, crude oil, palm products, cocoa

Exports - partners:
  China 28.7%, India 18.4%, Ghana 6.3%, Thailand 6%, Niger 5.8%,
  Indonesia 4.2%, Nigeria 4.2% (2004)

Imports:
  $934.5 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  foodstuffs, capital goods, petroleum products

Imports - partners:
  China 32.2%, France 13%, Thailand 6.7%, Cote d'Ivoire 5.3% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $839.3 million (2004 est.)

Debt - external:
  $1.6 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $342.6 million (2000)

Currency (code):
  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible
  authority is the Central Bank of the West African States

Currency code:
  XOF

Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 528.29
  (2004), 581.2 (2003), 696.99 (2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Benin


Telephones - main lines in use:
  66,500 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  236,200 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: NA
  domestic: fair system of open-wire, microwave radio relay, and
  cellular connections
  international: country code - 229; satellite earth station - 1
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC)
  provides connectivity to Europe and Asia

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 4 (2000)

Radios:
  660,000 (2000)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2001)

Televisions:
  66,000 (2000)

Internet country code:
  .bj

Internet hosts:
  879 (2004)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  4 (2002)

Internet users:
  70,000 (2003)

Transportation Benin


Railways:
  total: 578 km
  narrow gauge: 578 km 1.000-m gauge (2004)

Highways:
  total: 6,787 km
  paved: 1,357 km (including 10 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 5,430 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  150 km (on River Niger along northern border) (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Cotonou

Airports:
  5 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 4
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2004 est.)

Military Benin


Military branches:
  Army, Navy, Air Force

Military service age and obligation:
  21 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; in
  practice, volunteers may be taken at the age of 18; both sexes are
  eligible for military service; conscript tour of duty - 18 months
  (2004)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 21-49: 1,207,071
  females age 21-49: 1,216,180 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 21-49: 670,170
  females age 21-49: 630,078 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males: 72,841
  females: 71,428 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $96.5 million (2004)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.4% (2004)

Transnational Issues Benin


Disputes - international:
  two villages remain in dispute along the border with Burkina Faso;
  accuses Burkina Faso of moving boundary pillars; much of Benin-Niger
  boundary, including tripoint with Nigeria, remains undemarcated, and
  the states expect a ruling in 2005 from the ICJ over the disputed
  Niger and Mekrou River islands; a joint task force was established
  in 2004 that resolved disputes over and redrew the maritime and the
  870-km land boundary with Nigeria, including the sovereignty over
  seven villages along the Okpara River; a joint boundary commission
  continues to resurvey the boundary with Togo to verify Benin's claim
  that Togo moved boundary stones

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for narcotics associated with Nigerian
  trafficking organizations and most commonly destined for Western
  Europe and the US; vulnerable to money laundering due to a poorly
  regulated financial infrastructure


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Bermuda

Introduction Bermuda


Background:
  Bermuda was first settled in 1609 by shipwrecked English colonists
  headed for Virginia. Tourism to the island to escape North American
  winters first developed in Victorian times. Tourism continues to be
  important to the island's economy, although international business
  has overtaken it in recent years. Bermuda has developed into a
  highly successful offshore financial center. A referendum on
  independence was soundly defeated in 1995.

Geography Bermuda


Location:
  North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, east
  of South Carolina (US)

Geographic coordinates:
  32 20 N, 64 45 W

Map references:
  North America

Area:
  total: 53.3 sq km
  land: 53.3 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about one-third the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  103 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter

Terrain:
  low hills separated by fertile depressions

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Town Hill 76 m

Natural resources:
  limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism

Land use:
  arable land: 20%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 80% (55% developed, 45% rural/open space) (2001)

Irrigated land:
  NA

Natural hazards:
  hurricanes (June to November)

Environment - current issues:
  asbestos disposal; water pollution; preservation of open space;
  sustainable development

Geography - note:
  consists of about 138 coral islands and islets with ample rainfall,
  but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land was leased by US
  Government from 1941 to 1995

People Bermuda


Population:
  65,365 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 18.9% (male 6,177/female 6,154)
  15-64 years: 69.2% (male 22,422/female 22,828)
  65 years and over: 11.9% (male 3,378/female 4,406) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 39.76 years
  male: 38.78 years
  female: 40.58 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.64% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  11.6 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  7.63 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  2.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 8.53 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 10.14 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 6.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 77.79 years
  male: 75.7 years
  female: 79.91 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.89 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Bermudian(s)
  adjective: Bermudian

Ethnic groups:
  black 54.8%, white 34.1%, mixed 6.4%, other races 4.3%, unspecified
  0.4% (2000 census)

Religions:
  Anglican 23%, Roman Catholic 15%, African Methodist Episcopal 11%,
  other Protestant 18%, other 12%, unaffiliated 6%, unspecified 1%,
  none 14% (2000 census)

Languages:
  English (official), Portuguese

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98%
  male: 98%
  female: 99% (1970 est.)

Government Bermuda


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Bermuda
  former: Somers Islands

Dependency status:
  overseas territory of the UK

Government type:
  parliamentary British overseas territory with internal
  self-government

Capital:
  Hamilton

Administrative divisions:
  9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*,
  Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint George's, Sandys, Smith's,
  Southampton, Warwick

Independence:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday:
  Bermuda Day, 24 May

Constitution:
  8 June 1968; amended 1989 and 2003

Legal system:
  English law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor Sir John VEREKER (since 11 April 2002)
  head of government: Premier William Alexander SCOTT (since 24 July
  2003); Deputy Premier Ewart BROWN
  cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by
  the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the
  majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually
  appointed premier by the governor

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (an 11-member body
  appointed by the governor, the premier, and the opposition) and the
  House of Assembly (36 seats; members are elected by popular vote to
  serve up to five-year terms)
  elections: last general election held 24 July 2003 (next to be held
  July 2008)
  election results: percent of vote by party - PLP 51.7%, UBP 48%;
  seats by party - PLP 22, UBP 14

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrate Courts

Political parties and leaders:
  Progressive Labor Party or PLP [William Alexander SCOTT]; United
  Bermuda Party or UBP [Grant GIBBONS]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Bermuda Employer's Union [Eddie SAINTS]; Bermuda Industrial Union
  or BIU [Derrick BURGESS]; Bermuda Public Services Union or BPSU [Ed
  BALL]; Bermuda Union of Teachers [Michael CHARLES]

International organization participation:
  Caricom (associate), ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), IOC, UPU, WCO,
  Egmont Group, Caribbean Financial Action Task Force

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Deputy Chief of Mission Antoinette BOECKER
  consulate(s) general: Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire DVO3
  mailing address: P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; American Consulate
  General Hamilton, Department of State, 5300 Hamilton Place,
  Washington, DC 20520-5300
  telephone: [1] (441) 295-1342
  FAX: [1] (441) 295-1592, [1] (441) 296-9233

Flag description:
  red, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
  the Bermudian coat of arms (white and green shield with a red lion
  holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea
  Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag

Economy Bermuda


Economy - overview:
  Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in the world,
  nearly equal to that of the US. Its economy is primarily based on
  providing financial services for international business and luxury
  facilities for tourists. The effects of 11 September 2001 have had
  both positive and negative ramifications for Bermuda. On the
  positive side, a number of new reinsurance companies have located on
  the island, contributing to the expansion of an already robust
  international business sector. On the negative side, Bermuda's
  tourism industry - which derives over 80% of its visitors from the
  US - was severely hit as American tourists chose not to travel.
  Tourism rebounded somewhat in 2002-04. Most capital equipment and
  food must be imported. Bermuda's industrial sector is small,
  although construction continues to be important; the average cost of
  a house in June 2003 had risen to $976,000. Agriculture is limited,
  only 20% of the land being arable.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $2.33 billion (2003 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  2% (2003 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $36,000 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 1%
  industry: 10%
  services: 89% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  37,470 (2000)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture and fishing 3%, laborers 17%, clerical 22%,
  professional and technical 17%, administrative and managerial 13%,
  sales 8%, services 20% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  5% (2002 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  19% (2000)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.3% (mid-2003 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $671.1 million
  expenditures: $594.6 million, including capital expenditures of $55
  million (FY03/04)

Agriculture - products:
  bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy products

Industries:
  tourism, international business, light manufacturing

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  643 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  598 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  4,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Exports:
  $879 million (2002)

Exports - commodities:
  reexports of pharmaceuticals

Exports - partners:
  France 73.2%, UK 6.2%, Spain 2.4% (2004)

Imports:
  $5.523 billion (2002)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, construction materials,
  chemicals, food and live animals

Imports - partners:
  Kazakhstan 39.2%, France 16.2%, Japan 13.1%, Italy 9.2%, South
  Korea 8.8%, US 6.4% (2004)

Debt - external:
  $160 million (FY99/00)

Economic aid - recipient:
  NA

Currency (code):
  Bermudian dollar (BMD)

Currency code:
  BMD

Exchange rates:
  Bermudian dollar per US dollar - 1.0000 (fixed rate pegged to the
  US dollar)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Bermuda


Telephones - main lines in use:
  56,000 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  37,873 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: good
  domestic: fully automatic digital telephone system; fiber optic
  trunk lines
  international: country code - 1-441; 3 fiber optic submarine cables;
  satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 5, FM 3, shortwave 0 (2004)

Radios:
  82,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  4 (2004)

Televisions:
  66,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bm

Internet hosts:
  5,161 (2001)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  20 (2000)

Internet users:
  34,500 (2003)

Transportation Bermuda


Highways:
  total: 450 km
  paved: 450 km
  unpaved: 0 km
  note: public roads - 209 km; private roads - 241 km (2002)

Ports and harbors:
  Hamilton, Saint George

Merchant marine:
  total: 108 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 4,845,326 GRT/6,501,782 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 22, cargo 6, container 22, liquefied gas 13,
  passenger 13, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 8, refrigerated
  cargo 11, roll on/roll off 7
  foreign-owned: 103 (Australia 2, Canada 20, Finland 2, Germany 1,
  Greece 1, Hong Kong 5, Indonesia 1, Nigeria 8, Norway 5, Sweden 9,
  Switzerland 2, United Kingdom 27, United States 20)
  registered in other countries: 1 (2005)

Airports:
  1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Military Bermuda


Military branches:
  Bermuda Regiment

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $4.03 million (2001)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  0.11% (FY00/01)

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues Bermuda


Disputes - international:
  none


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Bhutan

Introduction Bhutan


Background:
  In 1865, Britain and Bhutan signed the Treaty of Sinchulu, under
  which Bhutan would receive an annual subsidy in exchange for ceding
  some border land. Under British influence, a monarchy was set up in
  1907; three years later, a treaty was signed whereby the British
  agreed not to interfere in Bhutanese internal affairs and Bhutan
  allowed Britain to direct its foreign affairs. This role was assumed
  by independent India after 1947. Two years later, a formal
  Indo-Bhutanese accord returned the areas of Bhutan annexed by the
  British, formalized the annual subsidies the country received, and
  defined India's responsibilities in defense and foreign relations. A
  refugee issue of some 100,000 Bhutanese in Nepal remains unresolved;
  90% of the refugees are housed in seven United Nations Office of the
  High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) camps.

Geography Bhutan


Location:
  Southern Asia, between China and India

Geographic coordinates:
  27 30 N, 90 30 E

Map references:
  Asia

Area:
  total: 47,000 sq km
  land: 47,000 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about half the size of Indiana

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,075 km
  border countries: China 470 km, India 605 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers
  in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas

Terrain:
  mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Drangme Chhu 97 m
  highest point: Kula Kangri 7,553 m

Natural resources:
  timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbonate

Land use:
  arable land: 3.09%
  permanent crops: 0.43%
  other: 96.48% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  400 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  violent storms from the Himalayas are the source of the country's
  name which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon; frequent
  landslides during the rainy season

Environment - current issues:
  soil erosion; limited access to potable water

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:
  landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls
  several key Himalayan mountain passes

People Bhutan


Population:
  2,232,291
  note: other estimates range as low as 810,000 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 39.1% (male 452,213/female 420,675)
  15-64 years: 56.9% (male 654,109/female 615,431)
  65 years and over: 4% (male 45,281/female 44,582) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 20.27 years
  male: 20.11 years
  female: 20.44 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.11% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  34.03 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  12.94 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.02 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 100.44 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 98.19 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 102.81 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 54.39 years
  male: 54.65 years
  female: 54.11 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  4.81 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  less than 100 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Bhutanese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Bhutanese

Ethnic groups:
  Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35% (includes Lhotsampas - one of
  several Nepalese ethnic groups), indigenous or migrant tribes 15%

Religions:
  Lamaistic Buddhist 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced Hinduism 25%

Languages:
  Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects,
  Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 42.2%
  male: 56.2%
  female: 28.1% (1995 est.)

Government Bhutan


Country name:
  conventional long form: Kingdom of Bhutan
  conventional short form: Bhutan

Government type:
  monarchy; special treaty relationship with India

Capital:
  Thimphu

Administrative divisions:
  18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and plural); Bumthang, Chhukha,
  Chirang, Dagana, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi, Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel,
  Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang, Tashigang, Thimphu,
  Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang
  note: there may be two new districts named Gasa and Yangtse

Independence:
  8 August 1949 (from India)

National holiday:
  National Day (Ugyen WANGCHUCK became first hereditary king), 17
  December (1907)

Constitution:
  no written constitution or bill of rights; note - in 2001 the King
  commissioned the drafting of a constitution, and in November 2004
  presented a draft to the Council of Ministers; now awaiting
  referendum

Legal system:
  based on Indian law and English common law; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  each family has one vote in village-level elections; note - in late
  2003 Bhutan's legislature passed a new election law

Executive branch:
  chief of state: King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972)
  head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Lyonpo
  Sangay NGEDUP (since 5 September 2005)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog) nominated by the
  monarch, approved by the National Assembly; members serve fixed,
  five-year terms; note - there is also a Royal Advisory Council
  (Lodoi Tsokde), members nominated by the monarch
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary, but democratic reforms
  in July 1998 grant the National Assembly authority to remove the
  monarch with two-thirds vote

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Tshogdu (150 seats; 105 elected
  from village constituencies, 10 represent religious bodies, and 35
  are designated by the monarch to represent government and other
  secular interests; members serve three-year terms)
  elections: local elections last held November 2002 (next to be held
  NA 2005)
  election results: NA

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court of Appeal (the monarch); High Court (judges appointed
  by the monarch)

Political parties and leaders:
  no legal parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Buddhist clergy; ethnic Nepalese organizations leading militant
  antigovernment campaign; Indian merchant community; United Front for
  Democracy (exiled)

International organization participation:
  AsDB, CP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IOC, IOM
  (observer), ITU, NAM, OPCW (signatory), SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none; note - Bhutan has a Permanent Mission to the UN; address: 2
  United Nations Plaza, 27th Floor, New York, NY 10017; telephone [1]
  (212) 826-1919; FAX [1] (212) 826-2998; the Bhutanese mission to the
  UN has consular jurisdiction in the US
  consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  the US and Bhutan have no formal diplomatic relations, although
  informal contact is maintained between the Bhutanese and US Embassy
  in New Delhi (India)

Flag description:
  divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper
  triangle is yellow and the lower triangle is orange; centered along
  the dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing away from
  the hoist side

Economy Bhutan


Economy - overview:
  The economy, one of the world's smallest and least developed, is
  based on agriculture and forestry, which provide the main livelihood
  for more than 90% of the population. Agriculture consists largely of
  subsistence farming and animal husbandry. Rugged mountains dominate
  the terrain and make the building of roads and other infrastructure
  difficult and expensive. The economy is closely aligned with India's
  through strong trade and monetary links and dependence on India's
  financial assistance. The industrial sector is technologically
  backward, with most production of the cottage industry type. Most
  development projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian
  migrant labor. Bhutan's hydropower potential and its attraction for
  tourists are key resources. Model education, social, and environment
  programs are underway with support from multilateral development
  organizations. Each economic program takes into account the
  government's desire to protect the country's environment and
  cultural traditions. For example, the government, in its cautious
  expansion of the tourist sector, encourages visits by upscale,
  environmentally conscientious tourists. Detailed controls and
  uncertain policies in areas like industrial licensing, trade, labor,
  and finance continue to hamper foreign investment.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $2.9 billion (2003 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5.3% (2003 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,400 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 45%
  industry: 10%
  services: 45% (2002 est.)

Labor force:
  NA
  note: massive lack of skilled labor

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 93%, industry and commerce 2%, services 5%

Unemployment rate:
  NA

Population below poverty line:
  NA

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3% (2002 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $146 million
  expenditures: $152 million, including capital expenditures of NA
  note: the government of India finances nearly three-fifths of
  Bhutan's budget expenditures (FY95/96 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  rice, corn, root crops, citrus, foodgrains; dairy products, eggs

Industries:
  cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages,
  calcium carbide

Industrial production growth rate:
  9.3% (1996 est.)

Electricity - production:
  2.001 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 0.1%
  hydro: 99.9%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  312.9 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  1.56 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  12 million kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  1,020 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Exports:
  $154 million f.o.b. (2000 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  electricity (to India), cardamom, gypsum, timber, handicrafts,
  cement, fruit, precious stones, spices

Exports - partners:
  Bangladesh 47.4%, Japan 30.2%, France 3.4% (2004)

Imports:
  $196 million c.i.f. (2000 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts, vehicles, fabrics,
  rice

Imports - partners:
  Germany 65.4%, Japan 14.3%, Austria 6.8%, UK 4.5% (2004)

Debt - external:
  $245 million (2000)

Economic aid - recipient:
  substantial aid from India and other nations

Currency (code):
  ngultrum (BTN); Indian rupee (INR)

Currency code:
  BTN; INR

Exchange rates:
  ngultrum per US dollar - 45.317 (2004), 46.583 (2003), 48.61
  (2002), 47.186 (2001), 44.942 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Bhutan


Telephones - main lines in use:
  25,200 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  22,000 (2005)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: telecommunications facilities are poor
  domestic: very low tele-density; domestic service is very poor
  especially in rural areas; wireless service available since 2003
  international: country code - 975; international telephone and
  telegraph service via landline and microwave relay through India;
  satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2005)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 0, FM 1, shortwave 1 (2004)

Radios:
  37,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2005)

Televisions:
  11,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bt

Internet hosts:
  985 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  NA

Internet users:
  15,000 (2003)

Transportation Bhutan


Highways:
  total: 4,007 km
  paved: 24 km
  unpaved: 3,983 km (2002)

Airports:
  2 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Military Bhutan


Military branches:
  Royal Bhutan Army (includes Royal Bodyguard and Royal Bhutan
  Police) (2005)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription
  (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 483,860 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 314,975 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males: 23,939 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $13.7 million (2004)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.8% (2004)

Transnational Issues Bhutan


Disputes - international:
  approximately 104,000 Bhutanese refugees live in Nepal, 90% of whom
  reside in seven UN Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees
  camps; Bhutan cooperates with India to expel Indian separatists


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Bolivia

Introduction Bolivia


Background:
  Bolivia, named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR, broke away
  from Spanish rule in 1825; much of its subsequent history has
  consisted of a series of nearly 200 coups and counter-coups.
  Comparatively democratic civilian rule was established in 1982, but
  leaders have faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty, social
  unrest, and illegal drug production. Current goals include
  attracting foreign investment, strengthening the educational system,
  resolving disputes with coca growers over Bolivia's counterdrug
  efforts, and waging an anticorruption campaign.

Geography Bolivia


Location:
  Central South America, southwest of Brazil

Geographic coordinates:
  17 00 S, 65 00 W

Map references:
  South America

Area:
  total: 1,098,580 sq km
  land: 1,084,390 sq km
  water: 14,190 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries:
  total: 6,743 km
  border countries: Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400 km, Chile 861 km,
  Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid

Terrain:
  rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills,
  lowland plains of the Amazon Basin

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Rio Paraguay 90 m
  highest point: Nevado Sajama 6,542 m

Natural resources:
  tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver,
  iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 2.67%
  permanent crops: 0.19%
  other: 97.14% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  1,280 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  flooding in the northeast (March-April)

Environment - current issues:
  the clearing of land for agricultural purposes and the
  international demand for tropical timber are contributing to
  deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation
  methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification;
  loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used
  for drinking and irrigation

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law
  of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Life
  Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection

Geography - note:
  landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest
  navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru

People Bolivia


Population:
  8,857,870 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 35.7% (male 1,613,049/female 1,551,023)
  15-64 years: 59.8% (male 2,591,328/female 2,701,892)
  65 years and over: 4.5% (male 178,486/female 222,092) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 21.47 years
  male: 20.79 years
  female: 22.17 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.49% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  23.76 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  7.64 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -1.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 53.11 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 56.7 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 49.33 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 65.5 years
  male: 62.89 years
  female: 68.25 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.94 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.1% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  4,900 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 500 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bolivian(s)
  adjective: Bolivian

Ethnic groups:
  Quechua 30%, mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) 30%,
  Aymara 25%, white 15%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist) 5%

Languages:
  Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 87.2%
  male: 93.1%
  female: 81.6% (2003 est.)

Government Bolivia


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Bolivia
  conventional short form: Bolivia
  local long form: Republica de Bolivia
  local short form: Bolivia

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat of
  judiciary)

Administrative divisions:
  9 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Chuquisaca,
  Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija

Independence:
  6 August 1825 (from Spain)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 6 August (1825)

Constitution:
  2 February 1967; revised in August 1994

Legal system:
  based on Spanish law and Napoleonic Code; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age, universal and compulsory (married); 21 years of
  age, universal and compulsory (single)

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Eduardo RODRIGUEZ Veltze (since 9 June
  2005); Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both chief
  of state and head of government
  head of government: President Eduardo RODRIGUEZ Veltze (since 9 June
  2005); Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both chief
  of state and head of government
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 30 June 2002
  (next to be held June 2007)
  election results: as a result of no candidate winning a majority in
  the 30 June 2002 election, Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA Bustamante was
  chosen president by Congress; congressional votes - Gonzalo SANCHEZ
  DE LOZADA Bustamante 84, Evo MORALES 43; note - following the
  resignation of the elected president on 17 October 2003 and Vice
  President Carlos Diego MESA Gisbert on 9 June 2005, Eduardo
  RODRIGUEZ Veltze, President of the Supreme Court and constitutional
  successor, became president.

Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of
  Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (27 seats; members are
  elected by proportional representation from party lists to serve
  five-year terms) and Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130
  seats; 68 are directly elected from their districts and 62 are
  elected by proportional representation from party lists to serve
  five-year terms)
  elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies - last held
  30 June 2002 (next to be held June 2007)
  election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party -
  NA%; seats by party - MNR 11, MAS 8, MIR 5, NFR 2, other 1; Chamber
  of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MNR
  36, MAS 27, MIR 26, NFR 25, others 16

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges appointed for 10-year terms
  by National Congress); District Courts (one in each department);
  provincial and local courts (to try minor cases)

Political parties and leaders:
  Bolivian Socialist Falange or FSB [Romel PANTOJA]; Civic Solidarity
  Union or UCS [Johnny FERNANDEZ]; Free Bolivia Movement or MBL [Franz
  BARRIOS]; Marshal of Ayacucho Institutional Vanguard or VIMA [Freddy
  ZABALA]; Movement of the Revolutionary Left or MIR [Jaime PAZ
  Zamora]; Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Evo MORALES]; Movement
  Without Fear or MSM [Juan DEL GRANADO]; Nationalist Democratic
  Action or ADN [Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez]; Nationalist
  Revolutionary Movement or MNR [leader NA]; New Republican Force or
  NFR [Manfred REYES-VILLA]; Pachakuti Indigenous Movement or MIP
  [Felipe QUISPE]; Socialist Party or PS [Jeres JUSTINIANO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Cocalero Groups; indigenous organizations; labor unions; Sole
  Confederation of Campesino Workers of Bolivia or CSUTCB [Roman
  LOAYZA]

International organization participation:
  CAN, CSN, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD,
  IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent),
  ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAM,
  OAS, ONUB, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMIL, UNMISET, UNOCI, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
  WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Jaime APARICIO Otero
  chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 483-4410
  FAX: [1] (202) 328-3712
  consulate(s) general: Miami, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador David N. GREENLEE
  embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, San Jorge, La Paz
  mailing address: P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34032
  telephone: [591] (2) 2430120, 2430251
  FAX: [591] (2) 2433900

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with
  the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to the flag of
  Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the
  yellow band

Economy Bolivia


Economy - overview:
  Bolivia, long one of the poorest and least developed Latin American
  countries, reformed its economy after suffering a disastrous
  economic crisis in the early 1980s. The reforms spurred real GDP
  growth, which averaged 4 percent in the 1990s, and poverty rates
  fell. Economic growth, however, lagged again beginning in 1999
  because of a global slowdown and homegrown factors such as political
  turmoil, civil unrest, and soaring fiscal deficits, all of which
  hurt investor confidence. In 2003, violent protests against the
  pro-foreign investment economic policies of President SANCHEZ DE
  LOZADA led to his resignation and the cancellation of plans to
  export Bolivia's newly discovered natural gas reserves to large
  northern hemisphere markets. Foreign investment dried up as
  companies adopted a wait-and-see attitude regarding new President
  Carlos MESA's willingness to protect investor rights in the face of
  increased demands by radical groups that the government expropriate
  foreign-owned assets. Real GDP growth in 2003 and 2004 - helped by
  increased demand for natural gas in neighboring Brazil - was
  positive, but still below the levels seen during the 1990s. Bolivia
  remains dependent on foreign aid from multilateral lenders and
  foreign governments.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $22.33 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3.7% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $2,600 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 13%
  industry: 28%
  services: 59% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  3.8 million (2004 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate:
  9.2% in urban areas
  note: widespread underemployment (2003 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  64% (2004 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 1.3%
  highest 10%: 32% (1999)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  44.7 (1999)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  4.9% (2004 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  10.4% of GDP (2003 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $2.264 billion
  expenditures: $2.769 billion, including capital expenditures of $741
  million (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  soybeans, coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice, potatoes;
  timber

Industries:
  mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco,
  handicrafts, clothing

Industrial production growth rate:
  5.7% (2004 est.)

Electricity - production:
  4.132 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 44.4%
  hydro: 54%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 1.5% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  3.848 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  3 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  9 million kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  39,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  49,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Oil - proved reserves:
  458.8 million bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  8.44 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  1.15 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  2.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  727.2 billion cu m (1 January 2002)

Current account balance:
  $273 million (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $1.986 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  natural gas, soybeans and soy products, crude petroleum, zinc ore,
  tin

Exports - partners:
  Brazil 40%, US 13.9%, Colombia 8.7%, Peru 6.3%, Japan 4.5% (2004)

Imports:
  $1.595 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  petroleum products, plastics, paper, aircraft and aircraft parts,
  prepared foods, automobiles, insecticides, soybeans

Imports - partners:
  Brazil 29.7%, Argentina 17.6%, US 10.8%, Chile 7.7%, Peru 7.3%
  (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $1.214 billion (2004 est.)

Debt - external:
  $5.439 billion (June 2004 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $681 million (2002)

Currency (code):
  boliviano (BOB)

Currency code:
  BOB

Exchange rates:
  bolivianos per US dollar - 7.9363 (2004), 7.6592 (2003), 7.17
  (2002), 6.6069 (2001), 6.1835 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Bolivia


Telephones - main lines in use:
  600,100 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1,401,500 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: new subscribers face bureaucratic difficulties;
  most telephones are concentrated in La Paz and other cities; mobile
  cellular telephone use expanding rapidly
  domestic: primary trunk system, which is being expanded, employs
  digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic
  cable; mobile cellular systems are being expanded
  international: country code - 591; satellite earth station - 1
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 171, FM 73, shortwave 77 (1999)

Radios:
  5.25 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  48 (1997)

Televisions:
  900,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bo

Internet hosts:
  7,080 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  9 (2000)

Internet users:
  270,000 (2002)

Transportation Bolivia


Railways:
  total: 3,519 km
  narrow gauge: 3,519 km 1.000-m gauge (2004)

Highways:
  total: 60,282 km
  paved: 3,979 km
  unpaved: 56,303 km (2002)

Waterways:
  10,000 km (commercially navigable) (2004)

Pipelines:
  gas 4,860 km; liquid petroleum gas 47 km; oil 2,457 km; refined
  products 1,589 km; unknown (oil/water) 247 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Puerto Aguirre (on the Paraguay/Parana waterway, at the
  Bolivia/Brazil border); also, Bolivia has free port privileges in
  maritime ports in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay

Merchant marine:
  total: 32 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 413,407 GRT/699,901 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 2, cargo 16, chemical tanker 1, container 1,
  passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 9, refrigerated cargo 1
  foreign-owned: 11 (Argentina 1, Egypt 2, Eritrea 1, Germany 1, Iran
  1, Singapore 2, United Kingdom 1, United States 2) (2005)

Airports:
  1,065 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 16
  over 3,047 m: 4
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
  914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1,049
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 60
  914 to 1,523 m: 207
  under 914 m: 778 (2004 est.)

Military Bolivia


Military branches:
  Army (Ejercito Boliviano), Navy (Fuerza Naval; includes Marines),
  Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana) (2004)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for voluntary military service; when annual number
  of volunteers falls short of goal, compulsory recruitment is
  effected, including conscription of boys as young as 14; one
  estimate holds that 40% of the armed forces are under the age of 18,
  with 50% of those under the age of 16; conscript tour of duty - 12
  months (2002)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,923,234 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,311,414 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males: 101,101 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $132.2 million (2004)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.6% (2004)

Transnational Issues Bolivia


Disputes - international:
  Chile rebuffs Bolivia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama
  corridor, ceded to Chile in 1884, offering instead unrestricted but
  not sovereign maritime access through Chile for Bolivian natural gas
  and other commodities

Illicit drugs:
  world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Colombia and Peru)
  with an estimated 28,450 hectares under cultivation in June 2003, a
  23% increase from June 2002; intermediate coca products and cocaine
  exported mostly to or through Brazil, Argentina, and Chile to
  European and US drug markets; eradication and alternative crop
  programs under the MESA administration have been unable to keep pace
  with farmers' attempts to increase cultivation; money-laundering
  activity related to narcotics trade, especially along the borders
  with Brazil and Paraguay


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Bosnia and Herzegovina

Introduction Bosnia and Herzegovina


Background:
  Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in October
  1991, was followed by a declaration of independence from the former
  Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic
  Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and
  Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning
  the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form
  a "Greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the
  number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement
  creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed
  a peace agreement that brought to a halt three years of interethnic
  civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December
  1995). The Dayton Agreement retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's
  international boundaries and created a joint multi-ethnic and
  democratic government. This national government was charged with
  conducting foreign, diplomatic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized
  was a second tier of government comprised of two entities roughly
  equal in size: the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and
  Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The
  Federation and RS governments were charged with overseeing most
  government functions. The Office of the High Representative (OHR)
  was established to oversee the implementation of the civilian
  aspects of the agreement. In 1995-96, a NATO-led international
  peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops served in Bosnia to
  implement and monitor the military aspects of the agreement. IFOR
  was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR)
  whose mission was to deter renewed hostilities. European Union
  peacekeeping troops (EUFOR) replaced SFOR in December 2004; their
  mission was to maintain peace and stability throughout the country.

Geography Bosnia and Herzegovina


Location:
  Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia

Geographic coordinates:
  44 00 N, 18 00 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 51,129 sq km
  land: 51,129 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,459 km
  border countries: Croatia 932 km, Serbia and Montenegro 527 km

Coastline:
  20 km

Maritime claims:
  no data available

Climate:
  hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short,
  cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along
  coast

Terrain:
  mountains and valleys

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
  highest point: Maglic 2,386 m

Natural resources:
  coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, cobalt,
  manganese, nickel, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, forests, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 13.6%
  permanent crops: 2.96%
  other: 83.44% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  20 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues:
  air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of
  urban waste are limited; water shortages and destruction of
  infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous
  Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders, the country is
  divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the
  territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about
  49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous
  to Croatia and Serbia and Montenegro (Montenegro), and traditionally
  has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority in the west and an
  ethnic Serb majority in the east

People Bosnia and Herzegovina


Population:
  4,025,476 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 18.3% (male 378,784/female 358,784)
  15-64 years: 70.7% (male 1,458,405/female 1,388,793)
  65 years and over: 10.9% (male 188,741/female 251,969) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 36.21 years
  male: 35.81 years
  female: 36.63 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.44% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  12.49 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  8.44 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 21.05 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 23.62 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 18.31 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 77.83 years
  male: 74.21 years
  female: 81.72 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.71 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  900 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  100 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)
  adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian

Ethnic groups:
  Serb 37.1%, Bosniak 48%, Croat 14.3%, other 0.6% (2000)
  note: Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid
  confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam

Religions:
  Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 14%

Languages:
  Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 94.6%
  male: 98.4%
  female: 91.1% (2000 est.)

Government Bosnia and Herzegovina


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina
  local long form: none
  local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina
  former: People's Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Socialist
  Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Government type:
  emerging federal democratic republic

Capital:
  Sarajevo

Administrative divisions:
  2 first-order administrative divisions and 1 internationally
  supervised district* - Brcko district (Brcko Distrikt)*, the
  Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija Bosna
  i Hercegovina) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska; note -
  Brcko district is in northeastern Bosnia and is an administrative
  unit under the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina; the district
  remains under international supervision

Independence:
  1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia; referendum for independence was
  completed 1 March 1992; independence was declared 3 March 1992)

National holiday:
  National Day, 25 November (1943)

Constitution:
  the Dayton Agreement, signed 14 December 1995, included a new
  constitution now in force; note - each of the entities also has its
  own constitution

Legal system:
  based on civil law system

Suffrage:
  18 years of age, universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Ivo Miro JOVIC (since 28
  June 2005; presidency member since 9 May 2005 - Croat; note - Dragan
  COVIC was sacked by High Representative Paddy ASHDOWN on 29 Mar
  2005); other members of the three-member rotating (every eight
  months) presidency: Borislav PARAVAC (since 10 April 2003 - Serb);
  and Sulejman TIHIC (since 5 October 2002 - Bosniak)
  head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Adnan
  TERZIC (since 20 December 2002)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman;
  approved by the National House of Representatives
  elections: the three members of the presidency (one Bosniak, one
  Croat, one Serb) are elected by popular vote for a four-year term;
  the member with the most votes becomes the chairman unless he or she
  was the incumbent chairman at the time of the election, but the
  chairmanship rotates every eight months; election last held 5
  October 2002 (next to be held NA 2006); the chairman of the Council
  of Ministers is appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the
  National House of Representatives
  election results: percent of vote - Mirko SAROVIC with 35.5% of the
  Serb vote was elected chairman of the collective presidency for the
  first eight months; Dragan COVIC received 61.5% of the Croat vote;
  Sulejman TIHIC received 37% of the Bosniak vote
  note: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Niko
  LOZANCIC (since 27 January 2003); Vice Presidents Sahbaz DZIHANOVIC
  (since NA 2003) and Desnica RADIVOJEVIC (since NA 2003); President
  of the Republika Srpska: Dragan CAVIC (since 28 November 2002)

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina consists of the
  National House of Representatives or Predstavnicki Dom (42 seats -
  elected by proportional representation, 28 seats allocated from the
  Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 14 seats from the Republika
  Srpska; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms);
  and the House of Peoples or Dom Naroda (15 seats - 5 Bosniak, 5
  Croat, 5 Serb; members elected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's
  House of Representatives and the Republika Srpska's National
  Assembly to serve four-year terms); note - Bosnia's election law
  specifies four-year terms for the state and first-order
  administrative division entity legislatures
  elections: National House of Representatives - elections last held 5
  October 2002 (next to be held in NA 2006); House of Peoples - last
  constituted NA January 2003 (next to be constituted in 2007)
  election results: National House of Representatives - percent of
  vote by party/coalition - SDA 21.9%, SDS 14.0%, SBiH 10.5%, SDP
  10.4%, SNSD 9.8%, HDZ 9.5%, PDP 4.6%, others 19.3%; seats by
  party/coalition - SDA 10, SDS 5, SBiH 6, SDP 4, SNSD 3, HDZ 5, PDP
  2, others 7; House of Peoples - percent of vote by party/coalition -
  NA%; seats by party/coalition - NA
  note: the Bosniak/Croat Federation has a bicameral legislature that
  consists of a House of Representatives (98 seats; members elected by
  popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held 5
  October 2002 (next to be held NA October 2006); percent of vote by
  party - NA%; seats by party/coalition - SDA 32, HDZ-BiH 16, SDP 15,
  SBiH 15, other 20; and a House of Peoples (60 seats - 30 Bosniak, 30
  Croat); last constituted December 2002; the Republika Srpska has a
  National Assembly (83 seats; members elected by popular vote to
  serve four-year terms); elections last held 5 October 2002 (next to
  be held in the fall of 2006); percent of vote by party - NA%; seats
  by party/coalition - SDS 26, SNSD 19, PDP 9, SDA 6, SRS 4, SPRS 3,
  DNZ 3, SBiH 4, SDP 3, others 6; as a result of the 2002
  constitutional reform process, a 28-member Republika Srpska Council
  of Peoples (COP) was established in the Republika Srpska National
  Assembly including 8 Croats, 8 Bosniaks, 8 Serbs, and 4 members of
  the smaller communities

Judicial branch:
  BiH Constitutional Court (consists of nine members: four members
  are selected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of
  Representatives, two members by the Republika Srpska's National
  Assembly, and three non-Bosnian members by the president of the
  European Court of Human Rights); BiH State Court (consists of nine
  judges and three divisions - Administrative, Appellate and Criminal
  - having jurisdiction over cases related to state-level law and
  appellate jurisdiction over cases initiated in the entities; note -
  a War Crimes Chamber may be added at a future date)
  note: the entities each have a Supreme Court; each entity also has a
  number of lower courts; there are 10 cantonal courts in the
  Federation, plus a number of municipal courts; the Republika Srpska
  has five municipal courts

Political parties and leaders:
  Alliance of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK];
  Bosnian Party or BOSS [Mirnes AJANOVIC]; Civic Democratic Party or
  GDS [Ibrahim SPAHIC]; Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and
  Herzegovina or HDZ-BH [Barisa COLAK]; Croat Christian Democratic
  Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HKDU [Mijo IVANIC-LONIC]; Croat
  Party of Rights or HSP [Zdravko HRISTIC]; Croat Peasants Party or
  HSS [Marko TADIC]; Democratic National Union or DNZ [Fikret ABDIC];
  Liberal Democratic Party or LDS [Rasim KADIC]; New Croat Initiative
  or NHI [Kresimir ZUBAK]; Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina or SBiH
  [Safet HALILOVIC]; Party of Democratic Action or SDA [Sulejman
  TIHIC]; Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Mladen IVANIC]; Serb
  Democratic Party or SDS [Dragan CAVIC - acting]; Serb Radical Party
  of the Republika Srpska or SRS-RS [Milanko MIHAJLICA]; Serb Radical
  Party-Dr. Vojislav Seselj or SRS-VS [Radislav KANJERIC]; Social
  Democratic Party of BIH or SDP [Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA]; Social
  Democratic Union or SDU [Miro LAZOVIC]; Socialist Party of Republika
  Srpska or SPRS [Petar DJOKIC]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  BIS, CE, CEI, EBRD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, IDA, IFAD,
  IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
  MIGA, MONUC, NAM (guest), OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OPCW,
  OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
  WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Bisera TURKOVIC
  chancery: 2109 E Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
  telephone: [1] (202) 337-1500
  FAX: [1] (202) 337-1502
  consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Douglas L. McELHANEY
  embassy: Alipasina 43, 71000 Sarajevo
  mailing address: use street address
  telephone: [387] (33) 445-700
  FAX: [387] (33) 659-722
  branch office(s): Banja Luka, Mostar

Flag description:
  a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow
  isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the
  remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full five-pointed
  white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse
  of the triangle

Economy Bosnia and Herzegovina


Economy - overview:
  Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to Macedonia as the poorest
  republic in the old Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture is
  almost all in private hands, farms are small and inefficient, and
  the republic traditionally is a net importer of food. Industry has
  been greatly overstaffed, one reflection of the socialist economic
  structure of Yugoslavia. TITO had pushed the development of military
  industries in the republic with the result that Bosnia hosted a
  number of Yugoslavia's defense plants. The interethnic warfare in
  Bosnia caused production to plummet by 80% from 1992 to 1995 and
  unemployment to soar. With an uneasy peace in place, output
  recovered in 1996-99 at high percentage rates from a low base; but
  output growth slowed in 2000-02. Part of the lag in output was made
  up in 2003-2004. National-level statistics are limited and do not
  capture the large share of black market activity. The konvertibilna
  marka (convertible mark or BAM)- the national currency introduced in
  1998 - is now pegged to the euro, and the Central Bank of Bosnia and
  Herzegovina has dramatically increased its reserve holdings.
  Implementation of privatization, however, has been slow, and local
  entities only reluctantly support national-level institutions.
  Banking reform accelerated in 2001 as all the Communist-era payments
  bureaus were shut down. A sizeable current account deficit and high
  unemployment rate remain the two most serious economic problems. The
  country receives substantial amounts of reconstruction assistance
  and humanitarian aid from the international community but will have
  to prepare for an era of declining assistance.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $26.21 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $6,500 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 14.2%
  industry: 30.8%
  services: 55% (2002)

Labor force:
  1.026 million (2001)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture NA, industry NA, services NA

Unemployment rate:
  44% officially; however, grey economy may reduce actual
  unemployment to near 20% (2004 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  25% (2004 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1.1% (2004 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $3.618 billion
  expenditures: $3.642 billion, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock

Industries:
  steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, vehicle
  assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank and
  aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining (2001)

Industrial production growth rate:
  5.5% (2003 est.)

Electricity - production:
  10.04 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 53.5%
  hydro: 46.5%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  8.318 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  3.288 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  2.271 billion kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  20,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  300 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  300 million cu m (2001 est.)

Current account balance:
  $-2.1 billion (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $1.7 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  metals, clothing, wood products

Exports - partners:
  Italy 22.3%, Croatia 21.1%, Germany 20.8%, Austria 7.4%, Slovenia
  7.1%, Hungary 4.8% (2004)

Imports:
  $5.2 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  Croatia 23.8%, Slovenia 15.8%, Germany 14.8%, Italy 11.4%, Austria
  6.6%, Hungary 6.1% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $2 billion (2004 est.)

Debt - external:
  $3 billion (2004 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $650 million (2001 est.)

Currency (code):
  marka (BAM)

Currency code:
  BAM

Exchange rates:
  marka per US dollar - 1.58 (2004), 1.73 (2003), 2.08 (2002), 2.19
  (2001), 2.12 (2000)
  note: the marka is pegged to the euro

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Bosnia and Herzegovina


Telephones - main lines in use:
  938,000 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1.05 million (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: telephone and telegraph network needs
  modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below average as
  contrasted with services in other former Yugoslav republics
  domestic: NA
  international: country code - 387; no satellite earth stations

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 8, FM 16, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
  940,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  33 (plus 277 repeaters) (September 1995)

Televisions:
  NA

Internet country code:
  .ba

Internet hosts:
  6,994 (2004)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  3 (2000)

Internet users:
  100,000 (2002)

Transportation Bosnia and Herzegovina


Railways:
  total: 1,021 km (795 km electrified)
  standard gauge: 1,021 km 1.435-m gauge (2004)

Highways:
  total: 21,846 km
  paved: 11,424 km
  unpaved: 10,422 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  Sava River (northern border) open to shipping but use limited
  because of no agreement with neighboring countries (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac, and Brcko (all
  inland waterway ports on the Sava), Orasje

Airports:
  27 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 8
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  under 914 m: 3 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 19
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 7
  under 914 m: 11 (2004 est.)

Heliports:
  5 (2004 est.)

Military Bosnia and Herzegovina


Military branches:
  VF Army (the air and air defense forces are subordinate commands
  within the Army), VRS Army (the air and air defense forces are
  subordinate commands within the Army)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for compulsory military service in the Federation
  of Bosnia and Herzegovina; 16 years of age in times of war; 18 years
  of age for Republika Srpska; 17 years of age for voluntary military
  service in the Federation and in the Republika Srpska; by law,
  military obligations cover all healthy men between the ages of 18
  and 60, and all women between the ages of 18 and 55; service
  obligation is 4 months (July 2004)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,034,367 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 829,530 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males: 31,264 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $234.3 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  4.5% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Bosnia and Herzegovina


Disputes - international:
  Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia and Montenegro have delimited
  most of their boundary, but sections along the Drina River remain in
  dispute; discussions continue with Croatia on several small disputed
  sections of the boundary

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  IDPs: 327,200 (Bosnian Croats, Serbs, and Muslims displaced in
  1992-95 war) (2004)

Illicit drugs:
  minor transit point for marijuana and opiate trafficking routes to
  Western Europe; remains highly vulnerable to money-laundering
  activity given a primarily cash-based and unregulated economy, weak
  law enforcement and instances of corruption


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Botswana

Introduction Botswana


Background:
  Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted
  its new name upon independence in 1966. Four decades of
  uninterrupted civilian leadership, progressive social policies, and
  significant capital investment have created one of the most dynamic
  economies in Africa. Mineral extraction, principally diamond mining,
  dominates economic activity, though tourism is a growing sector due
  to the country's conservation practices and extensive nature
  preserves. Botswana has one of the world's highest known rates of
  HIV/AIDS infection, but also one of Africa's most progressive and
  comprehensive programs for dealing with the disease.

Geography Botswana


Location:
  Southern Africa, north of South Africa

Geographic coordinates:
  22 00 S, 24 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 600,370 sq km
  land: 585,370 sq km
  water: 15,000 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 4,013 km
  border countries: Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe
  813 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

Terrain:
  predominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in
  southwest

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m
  highest point: Tsodilo Hills 1,489 m

Natural resources:
  diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore,
  silver

Land use:
  arable land: 0.65%
  permanent crops: 0.01%
  other: 99.34% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  10 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west,
  carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure
  visibility

Environment - current issues:
  overgrazing; desertification; limited fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law
  of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country

People Botswana


Population:
  1,640,115
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 38.8% (male 322,916/female 312,735)
  15-64 years: 57.5% (male 455,183/female 487,236)
  65 years and over: 3.8% (male 23,914/female 38,131) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 19.29 years
  male: 18.64 years
  female: 19.93 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  23.33 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  29.36 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  6.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 54.58 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 55.97 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 53.14 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 33.87 years
  male: 33.89 years
  female: 33.84 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.85 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  37.3% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  350,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  33,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: high
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and
  typhoid fever
  vectorborne disease: malaria (2004)

Nationality:
  noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
  adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

Ethnic groups:
  Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, other, including
  Kgalagadi and white 7%

Religions:
  Christian 71.6%, Badimo 6%, other 1.4%, unspecified 0.4%, none
  20.6% (2001 census)

Languages:
  Setswana 78.2%, Kalanga 7.9%, Sekgalagadi 2.8%, English 2.1%
  (official), other 8.6%, unspecified 0.4% (2001 census)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 79.8%
  male: 76.9%
  female: 82.4% (2003 est.)

Government Botswana


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Botswana
  conventional short form: Botswana
  former: Bechuanaland

Government type:
  parliamentary republic

Capital:
  Gaborone

Administrative divisions:
  9 districts and 5 town councils*; Central, Francistown*, Gaborone*,
  Ghanzi, Jwaneng*, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Lobatse*, Northwest,
  Northeast, Selebi-Pikwe*, Southeast, Southern

Independence:
  30 September 1966 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day (Botswana Day), 30 September (1966)

Constitution:
  March 1965, effective 30 September 1966

Legal system:
  based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; judicial review
  limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory
  ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Festus G. MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) and
  Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 July 1998); note - the
  president is both the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President Festus G. MOGAE (since 1 April 1998)
  and Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 July 1998); note -
  the president is both the chief of state and head of government
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  elections: president indirectly elected for a five-year term;
  election last held 20 October 2004 (next to be held NA 2009); vice
  president appointed by the president
  election results: Festus G. MOGAE elected president; percent of
  National Assembly vote - 52%

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Chiefs (a largely
  advisory 15-member body consisting of the chiefs of the eight
  principal tribes, four elected subchiefs, and three members selected
  by the other 12 members) and the National Assembly (61 seats, 57
  members are directly elected by popular vote and four are appointed
  by the majority party; members serve five-year terms)
  elections: National Assembly elections last held 30 October 2004
  (next to be held October 2009)
  election results: percent of vote by party - BDP 52%, BNF 26%, BCP
  17%, other 5%; seats by party - BDP 44, BNF 12, BCP 1

Judicial branch:
  High Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrates' Courts (one in each
  district)

Political parties and leaders:
  Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Festus G. MOGAE]; Botswana
  National Front or BNF [Otswoletse MOUPO]; Botswana Congress Party or
  BCP [Otlaadisa KOOSALETSE]; Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM
  [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]
  note: a number of minor parties joined forces in 1999 to form the
  BAM but did not capture any parliamentary seats; the BAM parties
  are: the United Action Party [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]; the
  Independence Freedom Party or IFP [Motsamai MPHO]; and the Botswana
  Progressive Union [D. K. KWELE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACP, AfDB, AU, C, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM,
  IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM,
  OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Lapologang Caesar LEKOA
  chancery: 1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
  telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990
  FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph HUGGINS
  embassy: address NA, Gaborone
  mailing address: Embassy Enclave, P. O. Box 90, Gaborone
  telephone: [267] 353982
  FAX: [267] 312782

Flag description:
  light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center

Economy Botswana


Economy - overview:
  Botswana has maintained one of the world's highest economic growth
  rates since independence in 1966. Through fiscal discipline and
  sound management, Botswana has transformed itself from one of the
  poorest countries in the world to a middle-income country with a per
  capita GDP of $9,200 in 2004. Two major investment services rank
  Botswana as the best credit risk in Africa. Diamond mining has
  fueled much of the expansion and currently accounts for more than
  one-third of GDP and for 70-80% of export earnings. Tourism,
  financial services, subsistence farming, and cattle raising are
  other key sectors. On the downside, the government must deal with
  high rates of unemployment and poverty. Unemployment officially is
  23.8%, but unofficial estimates place it closer to 40%. HIV/AIDS
  infection rates are the second highest in the world and threaten
  Botswana's impressive economic gains. An expected leveling off in
  diamond mining production overshadow long-term prospects.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $15.05 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3.5% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $9,200 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 4%
  industry: 44% (including 36% mining)
  services: 52% (2003 est.)

Labor force:
  264,000 formal sector employees (2000)

Labor force - by occupation:
  NA

Unemployment rate:
  23.8% (2004 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  47% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  7% (2004 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  25.5% of GDP (2004 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $3.735 billion
  expenditures: $3.743 billion, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2004 est.)

Public debt:
  8.6% of GDP (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  livestock, sorghum, maize, millet, beans, sunflowers, groundnuts

Industries:
  diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash; livestock
  processing; textiles

Industrial production growth rate:
  4.4% (2004 est.)

Electricity - production:
  930 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  1.89 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  1.025 billion kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  16,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Current account balance:
  $337 million (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $2.94 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  diamonds, copper, nickel, soda ash, meat, textiles

Exports - partners:
  European Free Trade Association (EFTA) 87%, Southern African
  Customs Union (SACU) 7%, Zimbabwe 4% (2000)

Imports:
  $2.255 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  foodstuffs, machinery, electrical goods, transport equipment,
  textiles, fuel and petroleum products, wood and paper products,
  metal and metal products

Imports - partners:
  Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 74%, EFTA 17%, Zimbabwe 4%
  (2000)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $5.7 billion (2004 est.)

Debt - external:
  $531 million (2004 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $73 million (1995)

Currency (code):
  pula (BWP)

Currency code:
  BWP

Exchange rates:
  pulas per US dollar - 4.6929 (2004), 4.9499 (2003), 6.3278 (2002),
  5.8412 (2001), 5.1018 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Botswana


Telephones - main lines in use:
  142,400 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  435,000 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: the system is expanding with the growth of
  mobile cellular service and participation in regional development
  domestic: small system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay
  links, and a few radiotelephone communication stations; mobile
  cellular service is growing fast
  international: country code - 267; two international exchanges;
  digital microwave radio relay links to Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe,
  and South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 8, FM 13, shortwave 4 (2001)

Radios:
  252,720 (2000)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2001)

Televisions:
  31,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bw

Internet hosts:
  1,920 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  11 (2001)

Internet users:
  60,000 (2002)

Transportation Botswana


Railways:
  total: 888 km
  narrow gauge: 888 km 1.067-m gauge (2004)

Highways:
  total: 10,217 km
  paved: 5,619 km
  unpaved: 4,598 km (1999)

Airports:
  85 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 10
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 75
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
  914 to 1,523 m: 54
  under 914 m: 18 (2004 est.)

Military Botswana


Military branches:
  Botswana Defense Force (includes an Air Wing)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 is the apparent age of voluntary military service; the official
  qualifications for determining minimum age are unknown (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 350,649 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 136,322 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males: 21,103 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $338.5 million (2004)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  3.9% (2004)

Transnational Issues Botswana


Disputes - international:
  commission established with Namibia has yet to resolve small
  residual disputes along the Caprivi Strip, including the Situngu
  marshlands along the Linyanti River; downstream Botswana residents
  protest Namibia's planned construction of the Okavango hydroelectric
  dam at Popavalle (Popa Falls); Botswana has built electric fences to
  stem the thousands of Zimbabweans who flee to find work and escape
  political persecution; Namibia has long supported and in 2004
  Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to
  build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing
  their short, but not clearly delimited Botswana-Zambia boundary


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Bouvet Island

Introduction Bouvet Island


Background:
  This uninhabited volcanic island is almost entirely covered by
  glaciers and is difficult to approach. It was discovered in 1739 by
  a French naval officer after whom the island was named. No claim was
  made until 1825, when the British flag was raised. In 1928, the UK
  waived its claim in favor of Norway, which had occupied the island
  the previous year. In 1971, Bouvet Island and the adjacent
  territorial waters were designated a nature reserve. Since 1977,
  Norway has run an automated meteorological station on the island.

Geography Bouvet Island


Location:
  island in the South Atlantic Ocean, southwest of the Cape of Good
  Hope (South Africa)

Geographic coordinates:
  54 26 S, 3 24 E

Map references:
  Antarctic Region

Area:
  total: 58.5 sq km
  land: 58.5 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  29.6 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 4 nm

Climate:
  antarctic

Terrain:
  volcanic; coast is mostly inaccessible

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: South Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Olav Peak 935 m

Natural resources:
  none

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100% (93% ice) (2001)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  NA

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Geography - note:
  covered by glacial ice; declared a nature reserve

People Bouvet Island


Population:
  uninhabited (July 2005 est.)

Government Bouvet Island


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Bouvet Island

Dependency status:
  territory of Norway; administered by the Polar Department of the
  Ministry of Justice and Police from Oslo

Legal system:
  the laws of Norway, where applicable, apply

Flag description:
  the flag of Norway is used

Economy Bouvet Island


Economy - overview:
  no economic activity; declared a nature reserve

Communications Bouvet Island


Internet country code:
  .bv

Communications - note:
  automatic meteorological station

Transportation Bouvet Island


Ports and harbors:
  none; offshore anchorage only

Military Bouvet Island


Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of Norway

Transnational Issues Bouvet Island


Disputes - international:
  none


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Brazil

Introduction Brazil


Background:
  Following three centuries under the rule of Portugal, Brazil became
  an independent nation in 1822. By far the largest and most populous
  country in South America, Brazil overcame more than half a century
  of military intervention in the governance of the country when in
  1985 the military regime peacefully ceded power to civilian rulers.
  Brazil continues to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and
  development of its interior. Exploiting vast natural resources and a
  large labor pool, it is today South America's leading economic power
  and a regional leader. Highly unequal income distribution remains a
  pressing problem.

Geography Brazil


Location:
  Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean

Geographic coordinates:
  10 00 S, 55 00 W

Map references:
  South America

Area:
  total: 8,511,965 sq km
  land: 8,456,510 sq km
  water: 55,455 sq km
  note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas,
  Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao
  Paulo

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries:
  total: 14,691 km
  border countries: Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia 3,400 km, Colombia
  1,643 km, French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km, Paraguay 1,290 km,
  Peru 1,560 km, Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km, Venezuela 2,200 km

Coastline:
  7,491 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin

Climate:
  mostly tropical, but temperate in south

Terrain:
  mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills,
  mountains, and narrow coastal belt

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Pico da Neblina 3,014 m

Natural resources:
  bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum,
  tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber

Land use:
  arable land: 6.96%
  permanent crops: 0.9%
  other: 92.15% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  26,560 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in
  south

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a
  multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; there
  is a lucrative illegal wildlife trade; air and water pollution in
  Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land
  degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining
  activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spills

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living
  Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate
  Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with
  every South American country except Chile and Ecuador

People Brazil


Population:
  186,112,794
  note: Brazil took a count in August 2000, which reported a
  population of 169,799,170; that figure was about 3.3% lower than
  projections by the US Census Bureau, and is close to the implied
  underenumeration of 4.6% for the 1991 census; estimates for this
  country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality
  due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant
  mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and
  changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would
  otherwise be expected (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 26.1% (male 24,789,495/female 23,842,715)
  15-64 years: 67.9% (male 62,669,392/female 63,719,631)
  65 years and over: 6% (male 4,549,552/female 6,542,009) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 27.81 years
  male: 27.06 years
  female: 28.57 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.06% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  16.83 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  6.15 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 29.61 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 33.37 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 25.66 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 71.69 years
  male: 67.74 years
  female: 75.85 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.93 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.7% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  660,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  15,000 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Brazilian(s)
  adjective: Brazilian

Ethnic groups:
  white 53.7%, mulatto (mixed white and black) 38.5%, black 6.2%,
  other (includes Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 0.9%, unspecified 0.7%
  (2000 census)

Religions:
  Roman Catholic (nominal) 73.6%, Protestant 15.4%, Spriritualist
  1.3%, Bantu/voodoo 0.3%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.2%, none 7.4%
  (2000 census)

Languages:
  Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 86.4%
  male: 86.1%
  female: 86.6% (2003 est.)

Government Brazil


Country name:
  conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
  conventional short form: Brazil
  local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil
  local short form: Brasil

Government type:
  federative republic

Capital:
  Brasilia

Administrative divisions:
  26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district*
  (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara,
  Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso,
  Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco,
  Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul,
  Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins

Independence:
  7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 7 September (1822)

Constitution:
  5 October 1988

Legal system:
  based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory
  over 18 and under 70 years of age; note - military conscripts do not
  vote

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (since 1
  January 2003); Vice President Jose ALENCAR (since 1 January 2003);
  note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government
  head of government: President Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (since 1
  January 2003); Vice President Jose ALENCAR (since 1 January 2003);
  note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 6 October
  2002 (next to be held 1 October 2006, with a runoff on 29 October
  2006 if necessary); runoff election held 27 October 2002
  election results: in runoff election 27 October 2002, Luiz Inacio
  LULA DA SILVA (PT) elected with 61.3% of the vote; Jose SERRA (PSDB)
  38.7%

Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of the
  Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; three members from each
  state and federal district elected according to the principle of
  majority to serve eight-year terms; one-third elected after a
  four-year period, two-thirds elected after the next four-year
  period) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513
  seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve
  four-year terms)
  elections: Federal Senate - last held 6 October 2002 for two-thirds
  of the Senate (next to be held October 2006 for one-third of the
  Senate); Chamber of Deputies - last held 6 October 2002 (next to be
  held October 2006)
  election results: Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%;
  seats by party - PMBD 19, PFL 19, PT 14, PSDB 11, PDT 5, PSB 4, PL
  3, PTB 3, PPS 1, PSD 1, PP 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote
  by party - NA%; seats by party - PT 91, PFL 84, PMDB 74, PSDB 71, PP
  49, PL 26, PTB 26, PSB 22, PDT 21, PPS 15, PCdoB 12, PRONA 6, PV 5,
  other 11; note - many congressmen have changed party affiliation
  since the most recent election

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Federal Tribunal (11 ministers are appointed for life by
  the president and confirmed by the Senate); Higher Tribunal of
  Justice; Regional Federal Tribunals (judges are appointed for life);
  note - though appointed "for life," judges, like all federal
  employees, have a mandatory retirement age of 70

Political parties and leaders:
  Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Federal Deputy Michel
  TEMER]; Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Federal Deputy Roberto
  JEFFERSON]; Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Senator
  Eduardo AZAREDO]; Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Federal Deputy
  Miguel ARRAES]; Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Renato RABELO];
  Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Carlos LUPI]; Democratic Socialist
  Party or PSD [Pedro Miguel SANTANA LOPES]; Green Party or PV [Jose
  Luiz de Franca PENNA]; Liberal Front Party or PFL [Senator Jorge
  BORNHAUSEN]; Liberal Party or PL [Federal Deputy Valdemar COSTA
  Neto]; National Order Reconstruction Party or PRONA [Federal Deputy
  Dr. Eneas CARNEIRO]; Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Federal Deputy
  Roberto FREIRE]; Progressive Party or PP [Federal Deputy Pedro
  CORREA]; Social Christian Party or PSC [Vitor Jorge ABDALA NOSSEIS];
  Worker's Party or PT [Jose GENOINO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Landless Worker's Movement; labor unions and federations; large
  farmers' associations; religious groups including evangelical
  christian churches and the Catholic Church

International organization participation:
  AfDB, BIS, CSN, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
  ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINUSTAH,
  NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UN Security
  Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIK,
  UNMIL, UNMISET, UNMOVIC, UNOCI, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
  WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Roberto ABDENUR
  chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700
  FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827
  consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
  New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador John DANILOVICH
  embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Distrito Federal
  Cep 70403-900, Brasilia
  mailing address: Unit 3500, APO AA 34030
  telephone: [55] (61) 312-7000
  FAX: [55] (61) 225-9136
  consulate(s) general: Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
  consulate(s): Recife

Flag description:
  green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue
  celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one for each state
  and the Federal District) arranged in the same pattern as the night
  sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band with the
  motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)

Economy Brazil


Economy - overview:
  Possessing large and well-developed agricultural, mining,
  manufacturing, and service sectors, Brazil's economy outweighs that
  of all other South American countries and is expanding its presence
  in world markets. From 2001-03 real wages fell and Brazil's economy
  grew, on average, only 2.2% per year, as the country absorbed a
  series of domestic and international economic shocks. That Brazil
  absorbed these shocks without financial collapse is a tribute to the
  resiliency of the Brazilian economy and the economic program put in
  place by former President CARDOSO and strengthened by President LULA
  DA SILVA. In 2004, Brazil enjoyed more robust growth that yielded
  increases in employment and real wages. The three pillars of the
  economic program are a floating exchange rate, an
  inflation-targeting regime, and tight fiscal policy, all reinforced
  by a series of IMF programs. The currency depreciated sharply in
  2001 and 2002, which contributed to a dramatic current account
  adjustment: in 2003 and 2004, Brazil ran record trade surpluses and
  recorded its first current account surpluses since 1992.
  Productivity gains - particularly in agriculture - also contributed
  to the surge in exports, and Brazil in 2004 surpassed the previous
  year's record export level and again posted a current account
  surplus. While economic management has been good, there remain
  important economic vulnerabilities. The most significant are
  debt-related: the government's largely domestic debt increased
  steadily from 1994 to 2003 - straining government finances - before
  falling as a percentage of GDP in 2004, while Brazil's foreign debt
  (a mix of private and public debt) is large in relation to Brazil's
  small (but growing) export base. Another challenge is maintaining
  economic growth over a period of time to generate employment and
  make the government debt burden more manageable.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $1.492 trillion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5.1% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $8,100 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 10.1%
  industry: 38.6%
  services: 51.3% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  89 million (2004 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 20%, industry 14%, services 66% (2003 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  11.5% (2004 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  22% (1998 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 0.7%
  highest 10%: 48% (1998)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  60.7 (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  7.6% (2004 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  19.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $140.6 billion
  expenditures: $172.4 billion, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2004)

Public debt:
  52% of GDP (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef

Industries:
  textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel,
  aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment

Industrial production growth rate:
  6% (2004 est.)

Electricity - production:
  339 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 8.3%
  hydro: 82.7%
  nuclear: 4.4%
  other: 4.6% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  351.9 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  7 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  36.58 billion kWh; note - supplied by Paraguay (2002)

Oil - production:
  1.788 million bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  2.199 million bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Oil - proved reserves:
  13.9 billion bbl (2004 est.)

Natural gas - production:
  5.95 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  9.59 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  3.64 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  221.7 billion cu m (2004)

Current account balance:
  $8 billion (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $95 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  transport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, autos

Exports - partners:
  US 20.8%, Argentina 7.5%, Netherlands 6.1%, China 5.6%, Germany
  4.1%, Mexico 4% (2004)

Imports:
  $61 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery, electrical and transport equipment, chemical products,
  oil

Imports - partners:
  US 18.3%, Argentina 8.9%, Germany 8.1%, China 5.9%, Nigeria 5.6%,
  Japan 4.6% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $52.94 billion (2004 est.)

Debt - external:
  $219.8 billion (2004 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $30 billion (2002)

Currency (code):
  real (BRL)

Currency code:
  BRL

Exchange rates:
  reals per US dollar - 2.9251 (2004), 3.0771 (2003), 2.9208 (2002),
  2.3577 (2001), 1.8301 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Brazil


Telephones - main lines in use:
  38.81 million (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  46,373,300 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: good working system
  domestic: extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic
  satellite system with 64 earth stations
  international: country code - 55; 3 coaxial submarine cables;
  satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat
  (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to
  Mercosur Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1,365, FM 296, shortwave 161 (of which 91 are collocated with AM
  stations) (1999)

Radios:
  71 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  138 (1997)

Televisions:
  36.5 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .br

Internet hosts:
  3,163,349 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  50 (2000)

Internet users:
  14.3 million (2002)

Transportation Brazil


Railways:
  total: 29,412 km (1,567 km electrified)
  broad gauge: 4,907 km 1.600-m gauge (908 km electrified)
  standard gauge: 194 km 1.440-m gauge
  narrow gauge: 23,915 km 1.000-m gauge (581 km electrified)
  dual gauge: 396 km 1.000-m and 1.600-m gauges (three rails) (78 km
  electrified) (2004)

Highways:
  total: 1,724,929 km
  paved: 94,871 km
  unpaved: 1,630,058 km (2000)

Waterways:
  50,000 km (most in areas remote from industry and population) (2004)

Pipelines:
  condensate/gas 244 km; gas 10,739 km; liquid petroleum gas 341 km;
  oil 5,212 km; refined products 4,755 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Gebig, Itaqui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande, San Sebasttiao, Santos,
  Sepetiba Terminal, Tubarao, Vitoria

Merchant marine:
  total: 150 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 2,961,431 GRT/4,725,267 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 28, cargo 25, chemical tanker 7, combination
  ore/oil 2, container 7, liquefied gas 12, passenger/cargo 12,
  petroleum tanker 48, roll on/roll off 9
  foreign-owned: 17 (Chile 2, Germany 7, Norway 1, Spain 7)
  registered in other countries: 8 (2005)

Airports:
  4,136 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 698
  over 3,047 m: 7
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 23
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 158
  914 to 1,523 m: 461
  under 914 m: 49 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 3,438
  over 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 78
  914 to 1,523 m: 1,579
  under 914 m: 1,780 (2004 est.)

Heliports:
  417 (2004 est.)

Military Brazil


Military branches:
  Brazilian Army, Brazilian Navy (includes Naval Air and Marines),
  Brazilian Air Force (FAB)

Military service age and obligation:
  19 years of age for compulsory military service, conscript service
  obligation - 12 months; 17 years of age for voluntary service (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 19-49: 45,586,036 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 19-49: 33,119,098 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males: 1,785,930 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $11 billion (2004)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.8% (2004)

Transnational Issues Brazil


Disputes - international:
  unruly region at convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay borders
  is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and illegal narcotics
  trafficking, and fundraising for extremist organizations;
  uncontested dispute with Uruguay over certain islands in the
  Quarai/Cuareim and Invernada boundary streams and the resulting
  tripoint with Argentina; in 2004 Brazil submitted its claims to
  UNCLOS to extend its maritime continental margin

Illicit drugs:
  illicit producer of cannabis; minor coca cultivation in the Amazon
  region, used for domestic consumption; government has a large-scale
  eradication program to control cannabis; important transshipment
  country for Bolivian, Colombian, and Peruvian cocaine headed for
  Europe and the US; also used by traffickers as a way station for
  narcotics air transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in
  drug-related violence and weapons smuggling; important market for
  Colombian, Bolivian, and Peruvian cocaine; illicit narcotics
  proceeds earned in Brazil are often laundered through the financial
  system; significant illicit financial activity in the Tri-Border Area


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@British Indian Ocean Territory

Introduction British Indian Ocean Territory


Background:
  Established as a territory of the UK in 1965, a number of the
  British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT) islands were transferred to
  the Seychelles when it attained independence in 1976. Subsequently,
  BIOT has consisted only of the six main island groups comprising the
  Chagos Archipelago. The largest and most southerly of the islands,
  Diego Garcia, contains a joint UK-US naval support facility. All of
  the remaining islands are uninhabited. Former agricultural workers,
  earlier residents in the islands, were relocated primarily to
  Mauritius but also to the Seychelles, between 1967 and 1973. In
  2000, a British High Court ruling invalidated the local immigration
  order that had excluded them from the archipelago, but upheld the
  special military status of Diego Garcia.

Geography British Indian Ocean Territory


Location:
  archipelago in the Indian Ocean, south of India, about one-half the
  way from Africa to Indonesia

Geographic coordinates:
  6 00 S, 71 30 E

Map references:
  Political Map of the World

Area:
  total: 60 sq km
  land: 60 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  note: includes the entire Chagos Archipelago

Area - comparative:
  about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  698 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 3 nm
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds

Terrain:
  flat and low (most areas do not exceed four meters in elevation)

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: unnamed location on Diego Garcia 15 m

Natural resources:
  coconuts, fish, sugarcane

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  NA

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Geography - note:
  archipelago of 2,300 islands; Diego Garcia, largest and
  southernmost island, occupies strategic location in central Indian
  Ocean; island is site of joint US-UK military facility

People British Indian Ocean Territory


Population:
  no indigenous inhabitants
  note: approximately 1,200 former agricultural workers resident in
  the Chagos Archipelago, often referred to as Chagossians or Ilois,
  were relocated to Mauritius and the Seychelles in the 1960s and
  1970s, in November 2000 they were granted the right of return by a
  British High Court ruling, though no timetable has been set; in
  2001, there were approximately 1,500 UK and US military personnel
  and 2,000 civilian contractors living on the island of Diego Garcia
  (July 2005 est.)

Government British Indian Ocean Territory


Country name:
  conventional long form: British Indian Ocean Territory
  conventional short form: none
  abbreviation: BIOT

Dependency status:
  overseas territory of the UK; administered by a commissioner,
  resident in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in London

Legal system:
  the laws of the UK, where applicable, apply

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
  head of government: Commissioner Tony CROMBIE (since January 2004);
  Administrator Tony HUMPHRIES (since February 2005); note - both
  reside in the UK
  cabinet: NA
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; commissioner and
  administrator appointed by the monarch

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description:
  white with six blue wavy horizontal stripes; the flag of the UK is
  in the upper hoist-side quadrant; the striped section bears a palm
  tree and yellow crown centered on the outer half of the flag

Economy British Indian Ocean Territory


Economy - overview:
  All economic activity is concentrated on the largest island of
  Diego Garcia, where joint UK-US defense facilities are located.
  Construction projects and various services needed to support the
  military installations are done by military and contract employees
  from the UK, Mauritius, the Philippines, and the US. There are no
  industrial or agricultural activities on the islands. When the Ilois
  return, they plan to reestablish sugarcane production and fishing.

Electricity - production:
  NA kWh; note - electricity supplied by the US military

Electricity - consumption:
  NA kWh

Communications British Indian Ocean Territory


Telephones - main lines in use:
  NA

Telephone system:
  general assessment: separate facilities for military and public
  needs are available
  domestic: all commercial telephone services are available, including
  connection to the Internet
  international: international telephone service is carried by
  satellite (2000)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  NA

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (1997)

Televisions:
  NA

Internet country code:
  .io

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Transportation British Indian Ocean Territory


Highways:
  total: NA km
  paved: short section of paved road between port and airfield on
  Diego Garcia
  unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors:
  Diego Garcia

Airports:
  1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  over 3,047 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Military British Indian Ocean Territory


Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the UK; the US lease on Diego
  Garcia expires in 2016

Transnational Issues British Indian Ocean Territory


Disputes - international:
  Mauritius and Seychelles claim the Chagos Archipelago and its
  former inhabitants, who reside chiefly in Mauritius, but in 2001
  were granted UK citizenship and the right to repatriation since
  eviction in 1965; the UK resists the Chagossians' demand for an
  immediate return to the islands; repatriation is complicated by the
  exclusive US military lease of Diego Garcia that restricts access to
  the largest island in the chain


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@British Virgin Islands

Introduction British Virgin Islands


Background:
  First settled by the Dutch in 1648, the islands were annexed in
  1672 by the English. The economy is closely tied to the larger and
  more populous US Virgin Islands to the west; the US dollar is the
  legal currency.

Geography British Virgin Islands


Location:
  Caribbean, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean,
  east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates:
  18 30 N, 64 30 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 153 sq km
  land: 153 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  note: comprised of 16 inhabited and more than 20 uninhabited
  islands; includes the island of Anegada

Area - comparative:
  about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  80 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 3 nm
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds

Terrain:
  coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep, hilly

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Mount Sage 521 m

Natural resources:
  NEGL

Land use:
  arable land: 20%
  permanent crops: 6.67%
  other: 73.33% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  NA

Natural hazards:
  hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October)

Environment - current issues:
  limited natural fresh water resources (except for a few seasonal
  streams and springs on Tortola, most of the islands' water supply
  comes from wells and rainwater catchments)

Geography - note:
  strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico

People British Virgin Islands


Population:
  22,643 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 21% (male 2,400/female 2,358)
  15-64 years: 73.9% (male 8,607/female 8,115)
  65 years and over: 5.1% (male 614/female 549) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 30.9 years
  male: 31.1 years
  female: 30.7 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.06% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  14.96 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  4.42 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  10.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.12 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 18.05 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 21.02 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 14.95 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 76.49 years
  male: 75.41 years
  female: 77.62 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.72 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: British Virgin Islander(s)
  adjective: British Virgin Islander

Ethnic groups:
  black 83%, white, Indian, Asian and mixed

Religions:
  Protestant 86% (Methodist 33%, Anglican 17%, Church of God 9%,
  Seventh-Day Adventist 6%, Baptist 4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 2%, other
  15%), Roman Catholic 10%, none 2%, other 2% (1991)

Languages:
  English (official)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 97.8% (1991 est.)
  male: NA%
  female: NA%

Government British Virgin Islands


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: British Virgin Islands
  abbreviation: BVI

Dependency status:
  overseas territory of the UK; internal self-governing

Government type:
  NA

Capital:
  Road Town

Administrative divisions:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday:
  Territory Day, 1 July

Constitution:
  1 June 1977

Legal system:
  English law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor Tom MACAN (since 14 October 2002)
  head of government: Chief Minister Orlando D. SMITH (since 17 June
  2003)
  cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from members of
  the Legislative Council
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by
  the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the
  majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually
  appointed chief minister by the governor

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Legislative Council (13 seats; members are elected by
  direct popular vote, one member from each of 9 electoral districts,
  four at-large members; members serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 16 May 2003 (next to be held NA 2007)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  NDP 8, VIP 5

Judicial branch:
  Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, consisting of the High Court of
  Justice and the Court of Appeal (one judge of the Supreme Court is a
  resident of the islands and presides over the High Court);
  Magistrate's Court; Juvenile Court; Court of Summary Jurisdiction

Political parties and leaders:
  Concerned Citizens Movement or CCM [Ethlyn SMITH]; National
  Democratic Party or NDP [Orlando SMITH]; United Party or UP [Gregory
  MADURO]; Virgin Islands Party or VIP [Ralph T. O'NEAL]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), IOC, OECS
  (associate), UNESCO (associate), UPU

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description:
  blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
  the Virgin Islander coat of arms centered in the outer half of the
  flag; the coat of arms depicts a woman flanked on either side by a
  vertical column of six oil lamps above a scroll bearing the Latin
  word VIGILATE (Be Watchful)

Economy British Virgin Islands


Economy - overview:
  The economy, one of the most stable and prosperous in the
  Caribbean, is highly dependent on tourism, generating an estimated
  45% of the national income. An estimated 350,000 tourists, mainly
  from the US, visited the islands in 1998. Tourism suffered in 2002
  because of the lackluster US economy. In the mid-1980s, the
  government began offering offshore registration to companies wishing
  to incorporate in the islands, and incorporation fees now generate
  substantial revenues. Roughly 400,000 companies were on the offshore
  registry by yearend 2000. The adoption of a comprehensive insurance
  law in late 1994, which provides a blanket of confidentiality with
  regulated statutory gateways for investigation of criminal offenses,
  is expected to make the British Virgin Islands even more attractive
  to international business. Livestock raising is the most important
  agricultural activity; poor soils limit the islands' ability to meet
  domestic food requirements. Because of traditionally close links
  with the US Virgin Islands, the British Virgin Islands has used the
  dollar as its currency since 1959.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $2.498 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  1% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $38,500 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 1.8%
  industry: 6.2%
  services: 92% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
  12,770 (2004)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate:
  3% (1995)

Population below poverty line:
  NA

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.5% (2003)

Budget:
  revenues: $121.5 million
  expenditures: $115.5 million, including capital expenditures of NA
  (1997)

Agriculture - products:
  fruits, vegetables; livestock, poultry; fish

Industries:
  tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete block,
  offshore financial center

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  36.28 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  33.74 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  420 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Exports:
  $25.3 million (2002)

Exports - commodities:
  rum, fresh fish, fruits, animals; gravel, sand

Exports - partners:
  Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

Imports:
  $187 million (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  building materials, automobiles, foodstuffs, machinery

Imports - partners:
  Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

Debt - external:
  $36.1 million (1997)

Economic aid - recipient:
  NA

Currency (code):
  US dollar (USD)

Currency code:
  USD

Exchange rates:
  the US dollar is used

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications British Virgin Islands


Telephones - main lines in use:
  11,700 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  8,000 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: worldwide telephone service
  domestic: NA
  international: country code - 1-284; submarine cable to Bermuda

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 0 (2004)

Radios:
  9,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (plus one cable company) (1997)

Televisions:
  4,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .vg

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  16 (2000)

Internet users:
  4,000 (2002)

Transportation British Virgin Islands


Highways:
  total: 177 km
  paved: 177 km
  unpaved: 0 km (2000)

Ports and harbors:
  Road Town

Merchant marine:
  total: 1 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 83,825 GRT/155,909 DWT
  by type: cargo 1
  registered in other countries: 7 (2005)

Airports:
  3 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Military British Virgin Islands


Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues British Virgin Islands


Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the
  US and Europe; large offshore financial center makes it vulnerable
  to money laundering


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Brunei

Introduction Brunei


Background:
  The Sultanate of Brunei's influence peaked between the 15th and
  17th centuries when its control extended over coastal areas of
  northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Brunei subsequently
  entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal
  succession, colonial expansion of European powers, and piracy. In
  1888, Brunei became a British protectorate; independence was
  achieved in 1984. The same family has ruled Brunei for over six
  centuries. Brunei benefits from extensive petroleum and natural gas
  fields, the source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in the
  developing world.

Geography Brunei


Location:
  Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia

Geographic coordinates:
  4 30 N, 114 40 E

Map references:
  Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 5,770 sq km
  land: 5,270 sq km
  water: 500 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries:
  total: 381 km
  border countries: Malaysia 381 km

Coastline:
  161 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line

Climate:
  tropical; hot, humid, rainy

Terrain:
  flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
  highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, natural gas, timber

Land use:
  arable land: 0.57%
  permanent crops: 0.76%
  other: 98.67% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  10 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare

Environment - current issues:
  seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
  Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and
  Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost
  an enclave of Malaysia

People Brunei


Population:
  372,361 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 28.6% (male 54,342/female 52,084)
  15-64 years: 68.4% (male 134,908/female 119,814)
  65 years and over: 3% (male 5,301/female 5,912) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 27.04 years
  male: 27.63 years
  female: 26.4 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.9% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  19.01 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  3.42 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  3.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.09 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 12.61 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 15.93 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 9.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 74.8 years
  male: 72.36 years
  female: 77.36 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.3 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  less than 200 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  less than 200 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bruneian(s)
  adjective: Bruneian

Ethnic groups:
  Malay 67%, Chinese 15%, indigenous 6%, other 12%

Religions:
  Muslim (official) 67%, Buddhist 13%, Christian 10%, indigenous
  beliefs and other 10%

Languages:
  Malay (official), English, Chinese

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 93.9%
  male: 96.3%
  female: 91.4% (2002)

Government Brunei


Country name:
  conventional long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
  conventional short form: Brunei

Government type:
  constitutional sultanate

Capital:
  Bandar Seri Begawan

Administrative divisions:
  4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei and
  Muara, Temburong, Tutong

Independence:
  1 January 1984 (from UK)

National holiday:
  National Day, 23 February (1984); note - 1 January 1984 was the
  date of independence from the UK, 23 February 1984 was the date of
  independence from British protection

Constitution:
  29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of
  Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1
  January 1984)

Legal system:
  based on English common law; for Muslims, Islamic Shari'a law
  supersedes civil law in a number of areas

Suffrage:
  none

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah
  (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of
  state and head of government
  head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah
  (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of
  state and head of government
  cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by
  the monarch; deals with executive matters; note - there is also a
  Religious Council (members appointed by the monarch) that advises on
  religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the
  monarch) that deals with constitutional matters, and the Council of
  Succession (members appointed by the monarch) that determines the
  succession to the throne if the need arises
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary

Legislative branch:
  Legislative Council met on 25 September 2004 for first time in 20
  years with 21 members appointed by the Sultan; passed constitutional
  amendments calling for a 45-seat council with 15 elected members;
  Sultan dissolved council on 1 September 2005 and appointed a new
  council with 29 members as of 2 September 2005
  elections: last held in March 1962 (date of next election NA)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (chief justice and judges are sworn in by the monarch
  for three-year terms)

Political parties and leaders:
  National Development Party (NDP) [Yassin AFFENDI]; National Unity
  Party of Brunei (PPKB) [leader NA]; People's Awareness Party (PAKAR)
  [leader NA]
  note: parties are small and inactive (2005)

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  APEC, APT, ARF, ASEAN, C, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFRCS, IMF,
  IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN,
  UNCTAD, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Pengiran Anak Dato PUTEH
  chancery: 3520 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 237-1838
  FAX: [1] (202) 885-0560

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Emil SKODON
  embassy: Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri
  Begawan
  mailing address: PSC 470 (BSB), FPO AP 96507
  telephone: [673] (2) 229670
  FAX: [673] (2) 225293

Flag description:
  yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width)
  and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in
  red is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a
  swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an upturned
  crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands

Economy Brunei


Economy - overview:
  This small, well-to-do economy encompasses a mixture of foreign and
  domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation, welfare measures,
  and village tradition. Crude oil and natural gas production account
  for nearly half of GDP. Per capita GDP is far above most other Third
  World countries, and substantial income from overseas investment
  supplements income from domestic production. The government provides
  for all medical services and free education through the university
  level and subsidizes rice and housing. Brunei's leaders are
  concerned that steadily increased integration in the world economy
  will undermine internal social cohesion, although it became a more
  prominent player by serving as chairman for the 2000 APEC (Asian
  Pacific Economic Cooperation) forum. Plans for the future include
  upgrading the labor force, reducing unemployment, strengthening the
  banking and tourist sectors, and, in general, further widening the
  economic base beyond oil and gas.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $6.842 billion (2003 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3.2% (2003 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $23,600 (2003 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 5%
  industry: 45%
  services: 50% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
  158,000
  note: includes foreign workers and military personnel; temporary
  residents make up about 40% of labor force (2002 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture, forestry, and fishing 10%, production of oil, natural
  gas, services, and construction 42%, government 48% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  3.2% (2002 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  0.3% (2003 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $4.9 billion
  expenditures: $4.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.35
  billion (2003 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  rice, vegetables, fruits, chickens, water buffalo

Industries:
  petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction

Industrial production growth rate:
  5% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  2.458 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  2.286 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  204,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  13,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  199,000 bbl/day (2003)

Oil - imports:
  NA

Oil - proved reserves:
  1.255 billion bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  10.35 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  1.35 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  9 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  315 billion cu m (1 January 2002)

Exports:
  $7.7 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  crude oil, natural gas, refined products

Exports - partners:
  Japan 38.1%, South Korea 14%, Australia 11.2%, US 8.6%, Thailand
  7.9%, Indonesia 5.9%, China 4.5% (2004)

Imports:
  $5.2 billion c.i.f. (2003)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food,
  chemicals

Imports - partners:
  Singapore 32.7%, Malaysia 21.2%, UK 8.3%, Japan 7.2% (2004)

Debt - external:
  $0

Economic aid - recipient:
  NA

Currency (code):
  Bruneian dollar (BND)

Currency code:
  BND

Exchange rates:
  Bruneian dollars per US dollar - 1.6902 (2004), 1.7422 (2003),
  1.7906 (2002), 1.7917 (2001), 1.724 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Brunei


Telephones - main lines in use:
  90,000 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  137,000 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: service throughout the country is excellent;
  international service is good to East Asia, Europe, and the US
  domestic: every service available
  international: country code - 673; satellite earth stations - 2
  Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean); digital submarine
  cable links to Malaysia, the Philippines, and Singapore (2001)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 3, FM 10, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:
  329,000 (1998)

Television broadcast stations:
  2 (1997)

Televisions:
  201,900 (1998)

Internet country code:
  .bn

Internet hosts:
  6,409 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  35,000 (2002)

Transportation Brunei


Highways:
  total: 2,525 km
  paved: 2,525 km
  unpaved: 0 km (2000)

Waterways:
  209 km (navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m) (2004)

Pipelines:
  gas 665 km; oil 439 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Lumut, Muara, Seria

Merchant marine:
  total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 465,937 GRT/413,393 DWT
  by type: liquefied gas 8
  foreign-owned: 8 (United Kingdom 8) (2005)

Airports:
  2 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  over 3,047 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Heliports:
  3 (2004 est.)

Military Brunei


Military branches:
  Royal Brunei Armed Forces: Royal Brunei Land Forces, Royal Brunei
  Navy, Royal Brunei Air Force

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age (est.) (2004)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 103,885 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: approx. 85,045 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males: 3,478 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $290.7 million (2004)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  5.1% (2004)

Transnational Issues Brunei


Disputes - international:
  in 2003 Brunei and Malaysia ceased gas and oil exploration in their
  disputed offshore and deepwater seabeds and negotiations have
  stalemated prompting consideration of international legal
  adjudication; Malaysia's land boundary with Brunei around Limbang is
  in dispute; Brunei established an exclusive economic fishing zone
  encompassing Louisa Reef in southern Spratly Islands in 1984 but
  makes no public territorial claim to the offshore reefs; the 2002
  "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has
  eased tensions in the Spratly Islands but falls short of a legally
  binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants

Illicit drugs:
  drug trafficking and illegally importing controlled substances are
  serious offenses in Brunei and carry a mandatory death penalty


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Bulgaria

Introduction Bulgaria


Background:
  The Bulgars, a Central Asian Turkic tribe, merged with the local
  Slavic inhabitants in the late 7th century to form the first
  Bulgarian state. In succeeding centuries, Bulgaria struggled with
  the Byzantine Empire to assert its place in the Balkans, but by the
  end of the 14th century the country was overrun by the Ottoman
  Turks. Northern Bulgaria attained autonomy in 1878 and all of
  Bulgaria became independent in 1908. Having fought on the losing
  side in both World Wars, Bulgaria fell within the Soviet sphere of
  influence and became a People's Republic in 1946. Communist
  domination ended in 1990, when Bulgaria held its first multiparty
  election since World War II and began the contentious process of
  moving toward political democracy and a market economy while
  combating inflation, unemployment, corruption, and crime. Today,
  reforms and democratization keep Bulgaria on a path toward eventual
  integration into the EU. The country joined NATO in 2004.

Geography Bulgaria


Location:
  Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania and
  Turkey

Geographic coordinates:
  43 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references:
  Europe

Area:
  total: 110,910 sq km
  land: 110,550 sq km
  water: 360 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,808 km
  border countries: Greece 494 km, Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km,
  Serbia and Montenegro 318 km, Turkey 240 km

Coastline:
  354 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

Terrain:
  mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
  highest point: Musala 2,925 m

Natural resources:
  bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land

Land use:
  arable land: 40.02%
  permanent crops: 1.92%
  other: 58.06% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  8,000 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  earthquakes, landslides

Environment - current issues:
  air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw
  sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from
  air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy
  metals from metallurgical plants and industrial wastes

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85,
  Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
  Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty,
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
  Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
  Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
  Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulfur 94

Geography - note:
  strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes
  from Europe to Middle East and Asia

People Bulgaria


Population:
  7,450,349 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 14.1% (male 539,005/female 512,762)
  15-64 years: 68.7% (male 2,516,368/female 2,599,524)
  65 years and over: 17.2% (male 531,008/female 751,682) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 40.66 years
  male: 38.59 years
  female: 42.66 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  -0.89% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  9.66 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  14.26 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -4.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 20.55 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 24.31 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 16.56 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 72.03 years
  male: 68.41 years
  female: 75.87 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.38 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  less than 0.1% - note - no country specific models provided (2001
  est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  346 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  100 (2001 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bulgarian(s)
  adjective: Bulgarian

Ethnic groups:
  Bulgarian 83.9%, Turk 9.4%, Roma 4.7%, other 2% (including
  Macedonian, Armenian, Tatar, Circassian) (2001 census)

Religions:
  Bulgarian Orthodox 82.6%, Muslim 12.2%, other Christian 1.2%, other
  4% (2001 census)

Languages:
  Bulgarian 84.5%, Turkish 9.6%, Roma 4.1%, other and unspecified
  1.8% (2001 census)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98.6%
  male: 99.1%
  female: 98.2% (2003 est.)

Government Bulgaria


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Bulgaria
  conventional short form: Bulgaria

Government type:
  parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  Sofia

Administrative divisions:
  28 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast); Blagoevgrad, Burgas,
  Dobrich, Gabrovo, Khaskovo, Kurdzhali, Kyustendil, Lovech, Montana,
  Pazardzhik, Pernik, Pleven, Plovdiv, Razgrad, Ruse, Shumen,
  Silistra, Sliven, Smolyan, Sofiya, Sofiya-Grad, Stara Zagora,
  Turgovishte, Varna, Veliko Turnovo, Vidin, Vratsa, Yambol

Independence:
  3 March 1878 (as an autonomous principality within the Ottoman
  Empire); 22 September 1908 (complete independence from the Ottoman
  Empire)

National holiday:
  Liberation Day, 3 March (1878)

Constitution:
  adopted 12 July 1991

Legal system:
  civil law and criminal law based on Roman law; accepts compulsory
  ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Georgi PURVANOV (since 22 January 2002);
  Vice President Angel MARIN (since 22 January 2002)
  head of government: Prime Minister Sergei STANISHEV (since 16 August
  2005); Deputy Prime Minister Ivaylo KALFIN (since 16 August 2005)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and
  elected by the National Assembly
  elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 11 and 18
  November 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); chairman of the Council of
  Ministers (prime minister) nominated by the president and elected by
  the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers nominated by the prime
  minister and elected by the National Assembly
  election results: Georgi PURVANOV elected president; percent of vote
  - Georgi PURVANOV 54.13%, Petar STOYANOV 45.87%; Sergei STANISHEV
  elected prime minister, result of legislative vote - 168 to 67

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sobranie (240 seats;
  members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 25 June 2005 (next to be held June 2009)
  election results: percent of vote by party - CfB 31.1%, NMS2 19.9%,
  MRF 12.7%, ATAKA 8.2%, UDF 7.7%, DSB 6.5%, BPU 5.2%; seats by party
  - CfB 83, NMS2 53, MRF 33, ATAKA 21, UDF 20, DSB 17, BPU 13

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Administrative Court; Supreme Court of Cassation;
  Constitutional Court (12 justices appointed or elected for nine-year
  terms); Supreme Judicial Council (consists of the chairmen of the
  two Supreme Courts, the Chief Prosecutor, and 22 other members;
  responsible for appointing the justices, prosecutors, and
  investigating magistrates in the justice system; members of the
  Supreme Judicial Council elected for five-year terms, 11 elected by
  the National Assembly and 11 by bodies of the judiciary)

Political parties and leaders:
  Attack National Union [Volen Siderov]; ATAKA (Attack Coalition)
  (coalition of parties headed by the Attack National Union);
  Bulgarian Agrarian National Union-People's Union or BANU [Anastasia
  MOZER]; Bulgarian People's Union or BPU (coalition of UFD, IMRO, and
  BANU); Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Sergei STANISHEV];
  Coalition for Bulgaria or CfB (coalition of parties dominated by
  BSP) [Sergei STANISHEV]; Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria or DSB
  [Ivan KOSTOV]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization or
  IMRO [Krasimir KARAKACHANOV]; Movement for Rights and Freedoms or
  MRF [Ahmed DOGAN]; National Movement for Simeon II or NMS2 [Simeon
  SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA]; New Time [Emil KOSHLUKOV]; Union of Democratic
  Forces or UDF [Nadezhda MIKHAYLOVA]; Union of Free Democrats or UFD
  [Stefan SOFIYANSKI]; United Democratic Forces or UtDF (a coalition
  of center-right parties dominated by UDF)

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or CITUB;
  Podkrepa Labor Confederation; numerous regional, ethnic, and
  national interest groups with various agendas

International organization participation:
  ACCT, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EU
  (applicant), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC,
  IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO,
  ITU, MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA,
  UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIK, UNMIL, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU
  (associate affiliate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Elena B. POPTODOROVA
  chancery: 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 387-0174
  FAX: [1] (202) 234-7973
  consulate(s) general: Chicago and New York
  consulate(s): Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador James William PARDEW
  embassy: 16 Kozyak Street, Sofia 1407
  mailing address: American Embassy Sofia, Department of State, 5740
  Sofia Place, Washington, DC 20521-5740
  telephone: [359] (2) 937-5100
  FAX: [359] (2) 937-5230

Flag description:
  three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; note -
  the national emblem, formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe,
  has been removed

Economy Bulgaria


Economy - overview:
  Bulgaria, a former communist country striving to enter the European
  Union, has experienced macroeconomic stability and strong growth
  since a major economic downturn in 1996 led to the fall of the then
  socialist government. As a result, the government became committed
  to economic reform and responsible fiscal planning. Minerals,
  including coal, copper, and zinc play an important role in industry.
  In 1997, macroeconomic stability was reinforced by the imposition of
  a fixed exchange rate of the lev against the German D-mark and the
  negotiation of an IMF standby agreement. Low inflation and steady
  progress on structural reforms improved the business environment;
  Bulgaria has averaged 4% growth since 2000 and has begun to attract
  significant amounts of foreign direct investment. Corruption in the
  public administration, a weak judiciary, and the presence of
  organized crime remain the largest challenges for Bulgaria.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $61.63 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5.3% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $8,200 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 11.5%
  industry: 30.1%
  services: 58.4% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  3.398 million (2004 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 11%, industry 32.7%, services 56.3% (3rd quarter 2004
  est.)

Unemployment rate:
  12.7% (2004 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  13.4% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 4.5%
  highest 10%: 22.8% (1997)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  26.4 (2001)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  6.1% (2004 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  18.6% of GDP (2004 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $9.67 billion
  expenditures: $9.619 billion, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2004 est.)

Public debt:
  41.9% of GDP (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  vegetables, fruits, tobacco, livestock, wine, wheat, barley,
  sunflowers, sugar beets

Industries:
  electricity, gas and water; food, beverages and tobacco; machinery
  and equipment, base metals, chemical products, coke, refined
  petroleum, nuclear fuel

Industrial production growth rate:
  5.2% (2004 est.)

Electricity - production:
  43.07 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 47.8%
  hydro: 8.1%
  nuclear: 44.1%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  32.71 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  8.3 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  960 million kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  603 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  94,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Oil - proved reserves:
  8.1 million bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  4 million cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  5.804 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  5.8 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  3.724 billion cu m (1 January 2002)

Current account balance:
  $682.9 million (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $9.134 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  clothing, footwear, iron and steel, machinery and equipment, fuels

Exports - partners:
  Italy 13.1%, Germany 11.6%, Turkey 9.3%, Belgium 6.1%, Greece 5.6%,
  US 5.3%, France 4.9% (2004)

Imports:
  $12.23 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment; metals and ores; chemicals and plastics;
  fuels, minerals, and raw materials

Imports - partners:
  Germany 15.1%, Italy 10.2%, Russia 7.9%, Greece 7.5%, Turkey 6.9%,
  France 4.4% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $7.526 billion (2004 est.)

Debt - external:
  $16.1 billion (November 2004 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $300 million (2000 est.)

Currency (code):
  lev (BGL)

Currency code:
  BGN

Exchange rates:
  leva per US dollar - 1.5751 (2004), 1.7327 (2003), 2.077 (2002),
  2.1847 (2001), 2.1233 (2000)
  note: on 5 July 1999, the lev was redenominated; the post-5 July
  1999 lev is equal to 1,000 of the pre-5 July 1999 lev

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Bulgaria


Telephones - main lines in use:
  2,868,200 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  2,597,500 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: extensive but antiquated
  domestic: more than two-thirds of the lines are residential;
  telephone service is available in most villages; a fairly modern
  digital cable trunk line now connects switching centers in most of
  the regions, the others are connected by digital microwave radio
  relay
  international: country code - 359; direct dialing to 58 countries;
  satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); 2
  Intelsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 31, FM 63, shortwave 2 (2001)

Radios:
  4.51 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  39 (plus 1,242 repeaters) (2001)

Televisions:
  3.31 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bg

Internet hosts:
  53,421 (2004)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  200 (2001)

Internet users:
  630,000 (2002)

Transportation Bulgaria


Railways:
  total: 4,294 km
  standard gauge: 4,049 km 1.435-m gauge (2,710 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 245 km 0.760-m gauge (2004)

Highways:
  total: 37,077 km
  paved: 34,111 km (including 328 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 2,966 km (2002)

Waterways:
  470 km (2004)

Pipelines:
  gas 2,425 km; oil 339 km; refined products 156 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Burgas, Varna

Merchant marine:
  total: 64 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 757,972 GRT/1,115,238 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 34, cargo 13, chemical tanker 4, container 6,
  passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 3
  registered in other countries: 45 (2005)

Airports:
  213 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 128
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 19
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 92 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 85
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 11
  under 914 m: 72 (2004 est.)

Heliports:
  1 (2004 est.)

Military Bulgaria


Military branches:
  Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service;
  conscript service obligation - 9 months (2004)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,661,211 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,302,037 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males: 51,023 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $356 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.6% (2003)

Transnational Issues Bulgaria


Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  major European transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and,
  to a lesser degree, South American cocaine for the European market;
  limited producer of precursor chemicals; some money laundering of
  drug-related proceeds through financial institutions


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Burkina Faso

Introduction Burkina Faso


Background:
  Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) achieved independence from
  France in 1960. Repeated military coups during the 1970s and 1980s
  were followed by multiparty elections in the early 1990s. Burkina
  Faso's high population density and limited natural resources result
  in poor economic prospects for the majority of its citizens. Recent
  unrest in Cote d'Ivoire and northern Ghana has hindered the ability
  of several hundred thousand seasonal Burkinabe farm workers to find
  employment in neighboring countries.

Geography Burkina Faso


Location:
  Western Africa, north of Ghana

Geographic coordinates:
  13 00 N, 2 00 W

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 274,200 sq km
  land: 273,800 sq km
  water: 400 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than Colorado

Land boundaries:
  total: 3,193 km
  border countries: Benin 306 km, Cote d'Ivoire 584 km, Ghana 549 km,
  Mali 1,000 km, Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers

Terrain:
  mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west and
  southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Mouhoun (Black Volta) River 200 m
  highest point: Tena Kourou 749 m

Natural resources:
  manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of gold, phosphates,
  pumice, salt

Land use:
  arable land: 14.43%
  permanent crops: 0.19%
  other: 85.38% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  250 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  recurring droughts

Environment - current issues:
  recent droughts and desertification severely affecting agricultural
  activities, population distribution, and the economy; overgrazing;
  soil degradation; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation,
  Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  landlocked savanna cut by the three principal rivers of the Black,
  Red, and White Voltas

People Burkina Faso


Population:
  13,925,313
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 46% (male 3,213,436/female 3,193,253)
  15-64 years: 51.2% (male 3,487,201/female 3,635,673)
  65 years and over: 2.8% (male 164,418/female 231,332) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 16.82 years
  male: 16.43 years
  female: 17.22 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.53% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  44.17 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  18.86 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 97.57 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 105.55 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 89.34 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 48.45 years
  male: 46.96 years
  female: 49.99 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  6.23 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  4.2% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  300,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  29,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: very high
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea,
  hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
  vectorborne disease: malaria is a high risk in some locations
  water contact disease: schistosomiasis
  respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2004)

Nationality:
  noun: Burkinabe (singular and plural)
  adjective: Burkinabe

Ethnic groups:
  Mossi over 40%, Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande, Fulani

Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 40%, Muslim 50%, Christian (mainly Roman
  Catholic) 10%

Languages:
  French (official), native African languages belonging to Sudanic
  family spoken by 90% of the population

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 26.6%
  male: 36.9%
  female: 16.6% (2003 est.)

Government Burkina Faso


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Burkina Faso
  former: Upper Volta, Republic of Upper Volta

Government type:
  parliamentary republic

Capital:
  Ouagadougou

Administrative divisions:
  45 provinces; Bale, Bam, Banwa, Bazega, Bougouriba, Boulgou,
  Boulkiemde, Comoe, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Ioba, Kadiogo,
  Kenedougou, Komondjari, Kompienga, Kossi, Koulpelogo, Kouritenga,
  Kourweogo, Leraba, Loroum, Mouhoun, Namentenga, Nahouri, Nayala,
  Noumbiel, Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Sanguie, Sanmatenga,
  Seno, Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Tuy, Yagha, Yatenga, Ziro,
  Zondoma, Zoundweogo

Independence:
  5 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday:
  Republic Day, 11 December (1958)

Constitution:
  2 June 1991 approved by referendum, 11 June 1991 formally adopted;
  amended April 2000

Legal system:
  based on French civil law system and customary law

Suffrage:
  universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October 1987)
  head of government: Prime Minister Ernest Paramanga YONLI (since 6
  November 2000)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
  recommendation of the prime minister
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  election last held 15 November 1998 (next to be held NA 2005); in
  April 2000, the constitution was amended reducing the presidential
  term from seven to five years, enforceable as of 2005, and allowing
  the president to be reelected only once; it is unclear whether this
  amendment will be applied retroactively or not; prime minister
  appointed by the president with the consent of the legislature
  election results: Blaise COMPAORE reelected president with 87.5%
  percent of the vote

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (111 seats;
  members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
  elections: National Assembly election last held 5 May 2002 (next to
  be held May 2007)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  CDP 57, RDA-ADF 17, PDP/PS 10, CFD 5, PAI 5, others 17

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court; Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders:
  African Democratic Rally-Alliance for Democracy and Federation or
  RDA-ADF [Herman YAMEOGO]; Confederation for Federation and Democracy
  or CFD [Amadou Diemdioda DICKO]; Congress for Democracy and Progress
  or CDP [Roch Marc-Christian KABORE]; Movement for Tolerance and
  Progress or MTP [Nayabtigungou Congo KABORE]; Party for African
  Independence or PAI [Philippe OUEDRAOGO]; Party for Democracy and
  Progress or PDP [Joseph KI-ZERBO]; Socialist Party or PS [leader
  NA]; Union of Greens for the Development of Burkina Faso or UVDB
  [Ram OVEDRAGO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Burkinabe General Confederation of Labor or CGTB; Burkinabe
  Movement for Human Rights or MBDHP; Group of 14 February; National
  Confederation of Burkinabe Workers or CNTB; National Organization of
  Free Unions or ONSL; watchdog/political action groups throughout the
  country in both organizations and communities

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OIC, ONUB, OPCW, PCA, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOCI, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WCO,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Tertius ZONGO
  chancery: 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 332-5577
  FAX: [1] (202) 667-1882

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Anthony HOLMES
  embassy: 602 Avenue Raoul Follereau, Koulouba, Secteur 4
  mailing address: 01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou 01; pouch mail - U. S.
  Department of State, 2440 Ouagadougou Place, Washington, DC
  20521-2440
  telephone: [226] 306723
  FAX: [226] 303890

Flag description:
  two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow
  five-pointed star in the center; uses the popular pan-African colors
  of Ethiopia

Economy Burkina Faso


Economy - overview:
  One of the poorest countries in the world, landlocked Burkina Faso
  has few natural resources and a weak industrial base. About 90% of
  the population is engaged in subsistence agriculture, which is
  vulnerable to harsh climatic conditions. Cotton is the key crop and
  the government has joined with other cotton producing countries in
  the region to lobby for improved access to Western markets. GDP
  growth has largely been driven by increases in world cotton prices.
  Industry remains dominated by unprofitable government-controlled
  corporations. Following the African franc currency devaluation in
  January 1994 the government updated its development program in
  conjunction with international agencies; exports and economic growth
  have increased. The government devolved macroeconomic policy and
  inflation targeting to the West African regional central bank
  (BCEAO), but maintains control over microeconomic policies,
  including reducing the trade deficit and implementing reforms to
  encourage private investment. The bitter internal crisis in
  neighboring Cote d'Ivoire continues to hurt trade and industrial
  prospects and deepens the need for international assistance.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $15.74 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  4.8% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,200 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 39.5%
  industry: 19.3%
  services: 41.3% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  5 million
  note: a large part of the male labor force migrates annually to
  neighboring countries for seasonal employment (2003)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 90% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  NA%

Population below poverty line:
  45% (2003 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2%
  highest 10%: 46.8% (1994)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  48.2 (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.4% (2004 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  29.1% of GDP (2004 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $695.2 million
  expenditures: $876.3 million, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  cotton, peanuts, shea nuts, sesame, sorghum, millet, corn, rice;
  livestock

Industries:
  cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes,
  textiles, gold

Industrial production growth rate:
  14% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production:
  361 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 69.9%
  hydro: 30.1%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  335.7 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  8,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Current account balance:
  $-471.7 million (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $418.6 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  cotton, livestock, gold

Exports - partners:
  China 32.1%, Singapore 11.5%, Ghana 4.7%, Bangladesh 4.3% (2004)

Imports:
  $866.3 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  capital goods, foodstuffs, petroleum

Imports - partners:
  France 29.3%, Cote d'Ivoire 16%, Togo 9.8% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $474.9 million (2004 est.)

Debt - external:
  $1.3 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $484.1 million (1995)

Currency (code):
  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible
  authority is the Central Bank of the West African States

Currency code:
  XOF

Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 528.29
  (2004), 581.2 (2003), 696.99 (2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Burkina Faso


Telephones - main lines in use:
  65,400 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  227,000 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: all services only fair
  domestic: microwave radio relay, open-wire, and radiotelephone
  communication stations
  international: country code - 226; satellite earth station - 1
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 3, FM 17, shortwave 3 (2002)

Radios:
  394,020 (2000)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2002)

Televisions:
  131,340 (2002)

Internet country code:
  .bf

Internet hosts:
  442 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2002)

Internet users:
  48,000 (2003)

Transportation Burkina Faso


Railways:
  total: 622 km
  narrow gauge: 622 km 1.000-m gauge
  note:: another 660 km of this railway extends into Cote D'Ivoire
  (2004)

Highways:
  total: 12,506 km
  paved: 2,001 km
  unpaved: 10,505 km (1999)

Airports:
  33 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 2
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 31
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
  914 to 1,523 m: 11
  under 914 m: 17 (2004 est.)

Military Burkina Faso


Military branches:
  Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie (2005)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for compulsory military service; 20 years of age
  for voluntary military service (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 2,664,572 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,323,548 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $64.2 million (2004)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.3% (2004)

Transnational Issues Burkina Faso


Disputes - international:
  two villages are in dispute along the border with Benin; Benin
  accuses Burkina Faso of moving boundary pillars; Burkina Faso border
  regions remain a staging area for Liberia and Cote d'Ivoire rebels
  and an asylum for refugees caught in local fighting; the Ivoirian
  Government accuses Burkina Faso of sheltering Ivoirian rebels


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Burma

Introduction Burma


Background:
  Britain conquered Burma over a period of 62 years (1824-1886) and
  incorporated it into its Indian Empire. Burma was administered as a
  province of India until 1937 when it became a separate,
  self-governing colony; independence from the Commonwealth was
  attained in 1948. Gen. NE WIN dominated the government from 1962 to
  1988, first as military ruler, then as self-appointed president, and
  later as political kingpin. Despite multiparty legislative elections
  in 1990 that resulted in the main opposition party - the National
  League for Democracy (NLD) - winning a landslide victory, the ruling
  junta refused to hand over power. NLD leader and Nobel Peace Prize
  recipient AUNG SAN SUU KYI, who was under house arrest from 1989 to
  1995 and 2000 to 2002, was imprisoned in May 2003 and is currently
  under house arrest. In December 2004, the junta announced it was
  extending her detention for at least an additional year. Her
  supporters, as well as all those who promote democracy and improved
  human rights, are routinely harassed or jailed.

Geography Burma


Location:
  Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal,
  between Bangladesh and Thailand

Geographic coordinates:
  22 00 N, 98 00 E

Map references:
  Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 678,500 sq km
  land: 657,740 sq km
  water: 20,760 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,876 km
  border countries: Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km,
  Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km

Coastline:
  1,930 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate:
  tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest
  monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild
  temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon,
  December to April)

Terrain:
  central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Andaman Sea 0 m
  highest point: Hkakabo Razi 5,881 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead,
  coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas,
  hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 15.19%
  permanent crops: 0.97%
  other: 83.84% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  15,920 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides
  common during rainy season (June to September); periodic droughts

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation; industrial pollution of air, soil, and water;
  inadequate sanitation and water treatment contribute to disease

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone
  Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
  Timber 94
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes

People Burma


Population:
  42,909,464
  note: estimates for this country take into account the effects of
  excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life
  expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 27.2% (male 5,967,487/female 5,717,795)
  15-64 years: 67.8% (male 14,448,887/female 14,641,419)
  65 years and over: 5% (male 939,092/female 1,194,784) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 26.14 years
  male: 25.57 years
  female: 26.72 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.42% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  18.11 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  12.15 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -1.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 67.24 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 73.11 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 61.03 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 60.7 years
  male: 57.8 years
  female: 63.78 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.01 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  1.2% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  330,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  20,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: very high
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea,
  hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
  vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria are high risks in
  some locations (2004)

Nationality:
  noun: Burmese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Burmese

Ethnic groups:
  Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%, Indian 2%,
  Mon 2%, other 5%

Religions:
  Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%), Muslim
  4%, animist 1%, other 2%

Languages:
  Burmese, minority ethnic groups have their own languages

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 85.3%
  male: 89.2%
  female: 81.4% (2002)

Government Burma


Country name:
  conventional long form: Union of Burma
  conventional short form: Burma
  local long form: Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the
  US Government as Union of Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of
  Myanmar)
  local short form: Myanma Naingngandaw
  former: Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma
  note: since 1989 the military authorities in Burma have promoted the
  name Myanmar as a conventional name for their state; this decision
  was not approved by any sitting legislature in Burma, and the US
  Government did not adopt the name, which is a derivative of the
  Burmese short-form name Myanma Naingngandaw

Government type:
  military junta

Capital:
  Rangoon (government refers to the capital as Yangon)

Administrative divisions:
  7 divisions (taing-myar, singular - taing) and 7 states (pyi
  ne-myar, singular - pyi ne)
  : divisions: Ayeyarwady, Bago, Magway, Mandalay, Sagaing,
  Tanintharyi, Yangon
  : states: Chin State, Kachin State, Kayin State, Kayah State, Mon
  State, Rakhine State, Shan State

Independence:
  4 January 1948 (from UK)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 4 January (1948); Union Day, 12 February (1947)

Constitution:
  3 January 1974; suspended since 18 September 1988; national
  convention convened in 1993 to draft a new constitution but
  collapsed in 1996; reconvened in 2004 but does not include
  participation of democratic opposition

Legal system:
  has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council
  Sr. Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992)
  head of government: Prime Minister, Gen SOE WIN (since 19 October
  2004)
  cabinet: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC); military junta,
  so named 15 November 1997, which initially assumed power 18
  September 1988 under the name State Law and Order Restoration
  Council (SLORC); the SPDC oversees the cabinet
  elections: none

Legislative branch:
  unicameral People's Assembly or Pyithu Hluttaw (485 seats; members
  elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 27 May 1990, but Assembly never allowed by
  junta to convene
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  NLD 392 (opposition), SNLD 23 (opposition), NUP 10 (pro-government),
  other 60

Judicial branch:
  remnants of the British-era legal system are in place, but there is
  no guarantee of a fair public trial; the judiciary is not
  independent of the executive

Political parties and leaders:
  National League for Democracy or NLD [AUNG SHWE, chairman, AUNG SAN
  SUU KYI, general secretary]; National Unity Party or NUP
  (pro-government) [THA KYAW]; Shan Nationalities League for Democracy
  or SNLD [KHUN HTUN OO]; and other smaller parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma or NCGUB
  (self-proclaimed government in exile) ["Prime Minister" Dr. SEIN
  WIN] consists of individuals, some legitimately elected to the
  People's Assembly in 1990 (the group fled to a border area and
  joined insurgents in December 1990 to form parallel government in
  exile); Kachin Independence Army or KIA; Karen National Union or
  KNU; several Shan factions; United Wa State Army or UWSA; Union
  Solidarity and Development Association or USDA (pro-government, a
  social and political organization) [THAN AUNG, general secretary]

International organization participation:
  APT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, CP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA,
  IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OPCW
  (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: vacant
  chancery: 2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 332-9044
  FAX: [1] (202) 332-9046
  consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Charge d'Affaires Carmen M. MARTINEZ
  embassy: 581 Merchant Street, Rangoon (GPO 521)
  mailing address: Box B, APO AP 96546
  telephone: [95] (1) 379 880, 379 881
  FAX: [95] (1) 256 018

Flag description:
  red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing,
  14 white five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel containing a stalk
  of rice; the 14 stars represent the 7 administrative divisions and 7
  states

Economy Burma


Economy - overview:
  Burma is a resource-rich country that suffers from government
  controls, inefficient economic policies, and abject rural poverty.
  The junta took steps in the early 1990s to liberalize the economy
  after decades of failure under the "Burmese Way to Socialism", but
  those efforts have since stalled and some of the liberalization
  measures have been rescinded. Burma has been unable to achieve
  monetary or fiscal stability, resulting in an economy that suffers
  from serious macroeconomic imbalances - including inflation and
  multiple official exchange rates that overvalue the Burmese kyat. In
  addition, most overseas development assistance ceased after the
  junta began to suppress the democracy movement in 1988 and
  subsequently ignored the results of the 1990 legislative elections.
  Economic sanctions against Burma by the United States - including a
  ban on imports of Burmese products and a ban on provision of
  financial services by US persons in response to the government of
  Burma's attack in May 2003 on AUNG SAN SUU KYI and her convoy -
  further slowed the inflow of foreign exchange. Official statistics
  are inaccurate. Published statistics on foreign trade are greatly
  understated because of the size of the black market and unofficial
  border trade - often estimated to be one to two times the size of
  the official economy. Though the Burmese government has good
  economic relations with its neighbors, a better investment climate
  and an improved political situation are needed to promote foreign
  investment, exports, and tourism. In February 2003, a major banking
  crisis hit the country's 20 private banks, shutting them down and
  disrupting the economy. As of January 2004, the largest private
  banks remained moribund, leaving the private sector with little
  formal access to credit.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $74.3 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  -1.3% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,700 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 56.6%
  industry: 8.8%
  services: 34.5% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  27.01 million (2004 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 70%, industry 7%, services 23% (2001 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  5.2% (2004 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  25% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2.8%
  highest 10%: 32.4% (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  17.2% (2004 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  10.2% of GDP (2004 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $474.9 million
  expenditures: $955.5 million, including capital expenditures of $5.7
  billion (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  rice, pulses, beans, sesame, groundnuts, sugarcane; hardwood; fish
  and fish products

Industries:
  agricultural processing; knit and woven apparel; wood and wood
  products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction materials;
  pharmaceuticals; fertilizer; cement

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA

Electricity - production:
  5.068 billion kWh (2003)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 44.5%
  hydro: 43.4%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 12.1% (2002)

Electricity - consumption:
  3.484 billion kWh (2003)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2004)

Oil - production:
  17,550 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  60,950 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - exports:
  3,356 bbl/day (2003)

Oil - imports:
  49,230 bbl/day (2003)

Oil - proved reserves:
  3.2 billion bbl (2003)

Natural gas - production:
  9.98 billion cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  1.569 billion cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  8.424 billion cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  2.46 trillion cu m (2003)

Current account balance:
  $-185 million (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $2.137 billion f.o.b.
  note: official export figures are grossly underestimated due to the
  value of timber, gems, narcotics, rice, and other products smuggled
  to Thailand, China, and Bangladesh (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  clothing, gas, wood products, pulses, beans, fish, rice

Exports - partners:
  Thailand 37.8%, India 11.7%, China 6%, Japan 5.3% (2004)

Imports:
  $1.754 billion f.o.b.
  note: import figures are grossly underestimated due to the value of
  consumer goods, diesel fuel, and other products smuggled in from
  Thailand, China, Malaysia, and India (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  fabric, petroleum products, plastics, machinery, transport
  equipment, construction materials, crude oil; food products

Imports - partners:
  China 29.8%, Singapore 20.8%, Thailand 19.3%, South Korea 5.2%,
  Malaysia 4.8% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $590 million (2004 est.)

Debt - external:
  $6.752 billion (2004 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $127 million (2001 est.)

Currency (code):
  kyat (MMK)

Currency code:
  MMK

Exchange rates:
  kyats per US dollar - 5.7459 (2004), 6.0764 (2003), 6.5734 (2002),
  6.6841 (2001), 6.4257 (2000)
  note: these are official exchange rates; unofficial exchange rates
  ranged in 2004 from 815 kyat/US dollar to nearly 970 kyat/US dollar

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Burma


Telephones - main lines in use:
  357,300 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  66,500 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: barely meets minimum requirements for local and
  intercity service for business and government; international service
  is fair
  domestic: NA
  international: country code - 95; satellite earth station - 2,
  Intelsat (Indian Ocean), and ShinSat

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 1 (2004)

Radios:
  4.2 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  2 (2004)

Televisions:
  320,000 (2000)

Internet country code:
  .mm

Internet hosts:
  3 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1
  note: as of September 2000, Internet connections were legal only for
  the government, tourist offices, and a few large businesses (2000)

Internet users:
  28,000 (2003)

Transportation Burma


Railways:
  total: 3,955 km
  narrow gauge: 3,955 km 1.000-m gauge (2004)

Highways:
  total: 28,200 km
  paved: 3,440 km
  unpaved: 24,760 km (1996 est.)

Waterways:
  12,800 km (2004)

Pipelines:
  gas 2,056 km; oil 558 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Moulmein, Rangoon, Sittwe

Merchant marine:
  total: 37 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 429,144 GRT/659,622 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 8, cargo 19, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 3,
  roll on'roll off 3, specialized tanker 1
  foreign-owned: 10 (Germany 4, Japan 5, United Kingdom 1) (2005)

Airports:
  78 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 9
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 69
  over 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
  914 to 1,523 m: 20
  under 914 m: 31 (2004 est.)

Heliports:
  1 (2004 est.)

Military Burma


Military branches:
  Myanmar Armed Forces (Tatmadaw): Army, Navy, Air Force (2005)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for voluntary military service for both sexes (May
  2002)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 11,254,374
  females age 18-49: 11,303,100 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 6,512,923
  females age 18-49: 6,789,720 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males: 440,914
  females: 427,382 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $39 million (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.1% (FY97)

Transnational Issues Burma


Disputes - international:
  over half of Burma's population consists of diverse ethnic groups
  with substantial numbers of kin beyond its borders; despite
  continuing border committee talks, significant differences remain
  with Thailand over boundary alignment and the handling of ethnic
  rebels, refugees, and illegal cross-border activities; ethnic Karens
  flee into Thailand to escape fighting between Karen rebels and
  Burmese troops, in 2004 Thailand sheltered about 118,000 Burmese
  refugees; Karens also protest Thai support for a Burmese
  hydroelectric dam on the Salween River near the border;
  environmentalists in Burma and Thailand continue to voice concern
  over China's construction of hydroelectric dams upstream on the
  Nujiang/Salween River in Yunnan Province; India seeks cooperation
  from Burma to keep Indian Nagaland separatists from hiding in remote
  Burmese uplands

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  IDPs: 600,000 - 1,000,000 (government offensives against ethnic
  insurgent groups near borders; most IDPs are ethnic Karen, Karenni,
  Shan, and Mon) (2004)

Illicit drugs:
  remains world's second largest producer of illicit opium (estimated
  production in 2004 - 292 metric tons, down 40% from 2003 due to
  eradication efforts and drought; cultivation in 2004 - 30,900
  hectares, a 34% decline from 2003); lack of government will and
  ability to take on major narcotrafficking groups and lack of serious
  commitment against money laundering continues to hinder the overall
  antidrug effort; major source of methamphetamine and heroin for
  regional consumption; currently under Financial Action Task Force
  countermeasures due to continued failure to address its inadequate
  money-laundering controls (2005)


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Burundi

Introduction Burundi


Background:
  Burundi's first democratically elected president was assassinated
  in October 1993 after only one hundred days in office. Since then,
  some 200,000 Burundians have perished in widespread, often intense
  ethnic violence between Hutu and Tutsi factions. Hundreds of
  thousands have been internally displaced or have become refugees in
  neighboring countries. Burundi troops, seeking to secure their
  borders, briefly intervened in the conflict in the Democratic
  Republic of the Congo in 1998. A new transitional government,
  inaugurated on 1 November 2001, signed a power-sharing agreement
  with the largest rebel faction in December 2003 and set in place a
  provisional constitution in October 2004. Implementation of the
  agreement has been problematic, however, as one remaining rebel
  group refuses to sign on and elections have been repeatedly delayed,
  clouding prospects for a sustainable peace.

Geography Burundi


Location:
  Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates:
  3 30 S, 30 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 27,830 sq km
  land: 25,650 sq km
  water: 2,180 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 974 km
  border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 233 km, Rwanda
  290 km, Tanzania 451 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772
  m to 2,670 m above sea level); average annual temperature varies
  with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally
  moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual
  rainfall is about 150 cm; wet seasons from February to May and
  September to November, and dry seasons from June to August and
  December to January

Terrain:
  hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some plains

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Lake Tanganyika 772 m
  highest point: Heha 2,670 m

Natural resources:
  nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum,
  vanadium, arable land, hydropower, niobium, tantalum, gold, tin,
  tungsten, kaolin, limestone

Land use:
  arable land: 35.05%
  permanent crops: 14.02%
  other: 50.93% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  740 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  flooding, landslides, drought

Environment - current issues:
  soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of
  agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land
  remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat
  loss threatens wildlife populations

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes,
  Ozone Layer Protection
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:
  landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed; the
  Kagera, which drains into Lake Victoria, is the most remote
  headstream of the White Nile

People Burundi


Population:
  6,370,609
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 46% (male 1,479,941/female 1,450,808)
  15-64 years: 51.3% (male 1,617,864/female 1,653,331)
  65 years and over: 2.6% (male 66,199/female 102,466) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 16.6 years
  male: 16.27 years
  female: 16.95 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.22% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  39.66 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  17.43 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 69.29 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 75.87 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 62.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 50.29 years
  male: 49.61 years
  female: 50.99 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  5.81 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  6% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  250,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  25,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: very high
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and
  typhoid fever
  vectorborne disease: malaria (2004)

Nationality:
  noun: Burundian(s)
  adjective: Burundian

Ethnic groups:
  Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%, Europeans
  3,000, South Asians 2,000

Religions:
  Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%), indigenous
  beliefs 23%, Muslim 10%

Languages:
  Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake
  Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 51.6%
  male: 58.5%
  female: 45.2% (2003 est.)

Government Burundi


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Burundi
  conventional short form: Burundi
  local long form: Republika y'u Burundi
  local short form: Burundi
  former: Urundi

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  Bujumbura

Administrative divisions:
  16 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke,
  Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Mwaro,
  Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi

Independence:
  1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

Constitution:
  13 March 1992; provided for establishment of a plural political
  system; supplanted on 20 October 2004 by a provisional constitution
  approved by the parliament which extended the transition; a 28
  February 2005 popular referendum ratified the new constitution which
  set ethnic quotas for government positions, and tentatively
  scheduled general elections for April 2005

Legal system:
  based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary law; has not
  accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Domitien NDAYIZEYE (since 30 April 2003);
  note - NDAYIZEYE, a Hutu, was sworn in as president for the second
  half of the three-year transitional government inaugurated on 1
  November 2001; Vice President Frederic NGENZEBUHORO (since 11
  November 2004)
  head of government: President Domitien NDAYIZEYE (since 30 April
  2003); note - NDAYIZEYE, a Hutu, was sworn in as president for the
  second half of the three-year transitional government inaugurated on
  1 November 2001; Vice President Frederic NGENZEBUHORO (since 11
  November 2004)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president
  elections: NA; current president assumed power on 30 April 2003 as
  part of the transitional government established by the 2000 Arusha
  Accord; note - next presidential election is scheduled for 22 April
  2005

Legislative branch:
  bicameral, consists of a National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale
  (expanded from 121 to approximately 140 seats under the transitional
  government inaugurated 1 November 2001; members are elected by
  popular vote to serve five-year terms) and a Senate (54 seats; term
  length is undefined, the current senators will likely serve out the
  three-year transition period)
  elections: last held 29 June 1993 (next was scheduled to be held in
  1998, but was suspended by presidential decree in 1996; elections
  are currently planned to be held by April 2005)
  election results: percent of vote by party - FRODEBU 71.04%, UPRONA
  21.4%, other 7.56%; seats by party - FRODEBU 65, UPRONA 16,
  civilians 27, other parties 13

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Constitutional Court; Courts of
  Appeal (there are three in separate locations); Tribunals of First
  Instance (17 at the province level and 123 small local tribunals)

Political parties and leaders:
  the three national, mainstream, governing parties are: Unity for
  National Progress or UPRONA [Jean-Baptiste MANWANGARI, secretary
  general]; Burundi Democratic Front or FRODEBU [Jean MINANI,
  president]; National Council for the Defense of Democracy, Front for
  the Defense of Democracy of CNDD-FDD [Pierre NKURUNZIZA, president]
  note: a multiparty system was introduced after 1998, included are:
  National Resistance Movement for the Rehabilitation of the Citizen
  or MRC-Rurenzangemero [Epitace BANYAGANAKANDI]; Party for National
  Redress or PARENA [Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  loosely organized Hutu and Tutsi militias, often affiliated with
  Hutu and Tutsi extremist parties or subordinate to government
  security forces

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, CEPGL, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU,
  ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM
  (observer), ISO (subscriber), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Antoine NTAMOBWA
  chancery: Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
  telephone: [1] (202) 342-2574
  FAX: [1] (202) 342-2578

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador James Howard YELLIN
  embassy: Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura
  mailing address: B. P. 1720, Bujumbura
  telephone: [257] 223454
  FAX: [257] 222926

Flag description:
  divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom)
  and green panels (hoist side and outer side) with a white disk
  superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars
  outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above,
  two stars below)

Economy Burundi


Economy - overview:
  Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country with an
  underdeveloped manufacturing sector. The economy is predominantly
  agricultural with roughly 90% of the population dependent on
  subsistence agriculture. Economic growth depends on coffee and tea
  exports, which account for 90% of foreign exchange earnings. The
  ability to pay for imports, therefore, rests primarily on weather
  conditions and international coffee and tea prices. The Tutsi
  minority, 14% of the population, dominates the government and the
  coffee trade at the expense of the Hutu majority, 85% of the
  population. Since October 1993 an ethnic-based war has resulted in
  more than 200,000 deaths, forced 450,000 refugees into Tanzania, and
  displaced 140,000 others internally. Doubts about the prospects for
  sustainable peace continue to impede development. Only one in two
  children go to school, and approximately one in ten adults has
  HIV/AIDS. Food, medicine, and electricity remain in short supply.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $4.001 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $600 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 48.1%
  industry: 19%
  services: 32.9% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  2.99 million (2002)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 93.6%, industry 2.3%, services 4.1% (2002 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  NA

Population below poverty line:
  68% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 1.8%
  highest 10%: 32.9% (1998)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  42.5 (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  8.5% (2004 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  10.7% of GDP (2004 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $152.5 million
  expenditures: $187.7 million, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc
  (tapioca); beef, milk, hides

Industries:
  light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap; assembly of
  imported components; public works construction; food processing

Industrial production growth rate:
  18% (2001)

Electricity - production:
  132 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 0.6%
  hydro: 99.4%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  137.8 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  15 million kWh; note - supplied by the Democratic Republic of the
  Congo (2002)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  2,750 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Current account balance:
  $-59.5 million (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $31.84 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  coffee, tea, sugar, cotton, hides

Exports - partners:
  Germany 19.6%, Belgium 8.2%, Pakistan 6.7%, US 5.6%, Rwanda 5.6%,
  Thailand 5.4% (2004)

Imports:
  $138.2 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  capital goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  Kenya 13.7%, Tanzania 11.2%, US 8.9%, Belgium 8.5%, France 8.4%,
  Italy 6%, Uganda 5.6%, Japan 4.6%, Germany 4.5% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $76.89 million (2004 est.)

Debt - external:
  $1.133 billion (2002)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $92.7 million (2000)

Currency (code):
  Burundi franc (BIF)

Currency code:
  BIF

Exchange rates:
  Burundi francs per US dollar - 1,100.91 (2004), 1,082.62 (2003),
  930.75 (2002), 830.35 (2001), 720.67 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Burundi


Telephones - main lines in use:
  23,900 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  64,000 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: primitive system
  domestic: sparse system of open-wire, radiotelephone communications,
  and low-capacity microwave radio relay
  international: country code - 257; satellite earth station - 1
  Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 0, FM 4, shortwave 1 (2001)

Radios:
  440,000 (2001)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2001)

Televisions:
  25,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .bi

Internet hosts:
  22 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  14,000 (2003)

Transportation Burundi


Highways:
  total: 14,480 km
  paved: 1,028 km
  unpaved: 13,452 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  mainly on Lake Tanganyika (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Bujumbura

Airports:
  8 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  over 3,047 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 7
  914 to 1,523 m: 4
  under 914 m: 3 (2004 est.)

Military Burundi


Military branches:
  National Defense Force (Forces de Defense Nationales, FDN): Army
  (includes Naval Detachment and Air Wing), National Gendarmerie (2005)

Military service age and obligation:
  16 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 16-49: 1,379,793 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 16-49: 693,956 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males: 84,597 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $38.7 million (2004)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  6% (2004)

Transnational Issues Burundi


Disputes - international:
  Tutsi, Hutu, other conflicting ethnic groups, associated political
  rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces continue fighting
  in the Great Lakes region, transcending the boundaries of Burundi,
  Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda in an effort to
  gain control over populated and natural resource areas; government
  heads pledge to end conflict, but localized violence continues
  despite the presence of about 6,000 peacekeepers from the UN
  Operation in Burundi (ONUB) since 2004; although some 150,000
  Burundian refugees have been repatriated, as of February 2005,
  Burundian refugees still reside in camps in western Tanzania as well
  as the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  refugees (country of origin): 60,288 (Democratic Republic of the
  Congo)
  IDPs: 140,000 (armed conflict between government and rebels; most
  IDPs in northern and western Burundi) (2004)


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Cambodia

Introduction Cambodia


Background:
  Most Cambodians consider themselves to be Khmers, whose Angkor
  Empire extended over much of Southeast Asia and reached its zenith
  between the 10th and 13th centuries. Subsequently, attacks by the
  Thai and Cham (from present-day Vietnam) weakened the empire
  ushering in a long period of decline. In 1863, the king of Cambodia
  placed the country under French protection; it became part of French
  Indochina in 1887. Following Japanese occupation in World War II,
  Cambodia became independent within the French Union in 1949 and
  fully independent in 1953. After a five-year struggle, Communist
  Khmer Rouge forces captured Phnom Penh in April 1975 and ordered the
  evacuation of all cities and towns; at least 1.5 million Cambodians
  died from execution, enforced hardships, or starvation during the
  Khmer Rouge regime under POL POT. A December 1978 Vietnamese
  invasion drove the Khmer Rouge into the countryside, led to a
  10-year Vietnamese occupation, and touched off almost 13 years of
  civil war. The 1991 Paris Peace Accords mandated democratic
  elections and a ceasefire, which was not fully respected by the
  Khmer Rouge. UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some
  semblance of normalcy and the final elements of the Khmer Rouge
  surrendered in early 1999. Factional fighting in 1997 ended the
  first coalition government, but a second round of national elections
  in 1998 led to the formation of another coalition government and
  renewed political stability. The July 2003 elections were relatively
  peaceful, but it took one year of negotiations between contending
  political parties before a coalition government was formed.
  Nation-wide local elections are scheduled for 2007 and national
  elections for 2008.

Geography Cambodia


Location:
  Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between
  Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos

Geographic coordinates:
  13 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references:
  Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 181,040 sq km
  land: 176,520 sq km
  water: 4,520 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Oklahoma

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,572 km
  border countries: Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km

Coastline:
  443 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season
  (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain:
  mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
  highest point: Phnum Aoral 1,810 m

Natural resources:
  oil and gas, timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese,
  phosphates, hydropower potential

Land use:
  arable land: 20.96%
  permanent crops: 0.61%
  other: 78.43% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  2,700 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts

Environment - current issues:
  illegal logging activities throughout the country and strip mining
  for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand have
  resulted in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular,
  destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); soil
  erosion; in rural areas, most of the population does not have access
  to potable water; declining fish stocks because of illegal fishing
  and overfishing

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes,
  Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:
  a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and
  Tonle Sap

People Cambodia


Population:
  13,607,069
  note: estimates for this country take into account the effects of
  excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life
  expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 37.3% (male 2,559,734/female 2,510,235)
  15-64 years: 59.7% (male 3,887,642/female 4,232,313)
  65 years and over: 3.1% (male 150,862/female 266,283) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 19.91 years
  male: 19.16 years
  female: 20.79 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.81% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  27.08 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  8.97 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.57 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 71.48 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 80.13 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 62.43 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 58.92 years
  male: 56.98 years
  female: 60.95 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.44 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  2.6% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  170,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  15,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: very high
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea,
  hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
  vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Japanese
  encephalitis are high risks in some locations (2004)

Nationality:
  noun: Cambodian(s)
  adjective: Cambodian

Ethnic groups:
  Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%

Religions:
  Theravada Buddhist 95%, other 5%

Languages:
  Khmer (official) 95%, French, English

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 73.6%
  male: 84.7%
  female: 64.1% (2004 est.)

Government Cambodia


Country name:
  conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia
  conventional short form: Cambodia
  local long form: Preahreacheanacha Kampuchea (phonetic pronunciation)
  local short form: Kampuchea
  former: Kingdom of Cambodia, Khmer Republic, Democratic Kampuchea,
  People's Republic of Kampuchea, State of Cambodia

Government type:
  multiparty democracy under a constitutional monarchy established in
  September 1993

Capital:
  Phnom Penh

Administrative divisions:
  20 provinces (khaitt, singular and plural) and 4 municipalities
  (krong, singular and plural)
  : provinces: Banteay Mean Chey, Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong
  Chhnang, Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum, Kampot, Kandal, Koh Kong,
  Kracheh, Mondol Kiri, Otdar Mean Chey, Pouthisat, Preah Vihear, Prey
  Veng, Rotanakir, Siem Reab, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takao
  : municipalities: Keb, Pailin, Phnom Penh, Preah Seihanu

Independence:
  9 November 1953 (from France)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 9 November (1953)

Constitution:
  promulgated 21 September 1993

Legal system:
  primarily a civil law mixture of French-influenced codes from the
  United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) period,
  royal decrees, and acts of the legislature, with influences of
  customary law and remnants of communist legal theory; increasing
  influence of common law in recent years

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: King Norodom SIHAMONI (since 29 October 2004)
  head of government: Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 14 January 1985)
  and Deputy Prime Ministers SAR KHENG (since 3 February 1992),
  Norodom SIRIVUDH, SOK AN, LU LAY SRENG, TEA BANH, HOR NAMHONG, NHEK
  BUNCHHAY (since 16 July 2004)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers in theory appointed by the monarch; in
  practice named by the prime minister
  elections: none; the monarch is chosen by a Royal Throne Council;
  following legislative elections, a member of the majority party or
  majority coalition is named prime minister by the Chairman of the
  National Assembly and appointed by the king

Legislative branch:
  bicameral, consists of the National Assembly (123 seats; members
  elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Senate (61
  seats; two members appointed by the monarch, two elected by the
  National Assembly, and 57 elected by "functional constituencies";
  members serve five-year terms)
  elections: National Assembly - last held 27 July 2003 (next to be
  held in July 2008); Senate - last held 2 March 1999 (scheduled to be
  held in 2004 but delayed)
  election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CPP
  47%, SRP 22%, FUNCINPEC 21%, other 10%; seats by party - CPP 73,
  FUNCINPEC 26, SRP 24; Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats
  by party - CPP 31, FUNCINPEC 21, SRP 7, other 2 (July 2003)

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Council of the Magistracy (provided for in the constitution
  and formed in December 1997); Supreme Court (and lower courts)
  exercises judicial authority

Political parties and leaders:
  Cambodian Pracheachon Party (Cambodian People's Party) or CPP [CHEA
  SIM]; National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful,
  and Cooperative Cambodia or FUNCINPEC [Prince NORODOM Ranariddh];
  Sam Rangsi Party or SRP [SAM RANGSI]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACCT, APT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM,
  IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO
  (subscriber), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW (signatory), PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador EK SEREYWATH
  chancery: 4530 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
  telephone: [1] (202) 726-7742
  FAX: [1] (202) 726-8381

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph A. MUSSOMELI
  embassy: 27 EO Street 240, Phnom Penh
  mailing address: Box P, APO AP 96546
  telephone: [855] (23) 216-436/438
  FAX: [855] (23) 216-437/811

Flag description:
  three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double width), and blue
  with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat outlined
  in black in the center of the red band; only national flag to
  incorporate a building in its design

Economy Cambodia


Economy - overview:
  Cambodia's economy slowed dramatically in 1997 and 1998 due to the
  regional economic crisis, civil violence, and political infighting,
  and foreign investment and tourism decreased. In 1999, the first
  full year of peace in 30 years, the government made progress on
  economic reforms. Growth resumed and remained about 5% from 2000 to
  2004. Economic growth has been largely driven by expansion in the
  garment sector and tourism, but is expected to fall in 2005 as
  growth in the garment sector stalls. Clothing exports were fostered
  by a US-Cambodian Bilateral Textile Agreement signed in 1999 which
  gave Cambodia a guaranteed quota of US textile imports and
  established a bonus for improving working conditions and enforcing
  Cambodian labor laws and international labor standards in the
  industry. With the January 2005 expiration of a WTO Agreement on
  Textiles and Clothing, Cambodia-based textile producers are in
  direct competition with lower priced producing countries such as
  China and India. Faced with the possibility that over the next five
  years Cambodia may lose orders and some of the 250,000 well-paid
  jobs the industry provides, Cambodia has committed itself to a
  policy of continued support for high labor standards in an attempt
  to maintain favor with buyers. Tourism growth remains strong, with
  arrivals up 15% in 2004. The long-term development of the economy
  after decades of war remains a daunting challenge. The population
  lacks education and productive skills, particularly in the
  poverty-ridden countryside, which suffers from an almost total lack
  of basic infrastructure. Fully 75% of the population remains engaged
  in subsistence farming. Fear of renewed political instability and a
  dysfunctional legal system coupled with extensive government
  corruption discourage foreign investment. The Cambodian government
  continues to work with bilateral and multilateral donors to address
  the country's many pressing needs. In December 2004, official donors
  pledged $504 million in aid for 2005 on the condition that the
  Cambodian government begins taking steps to address rampant
  corruption. The next donor pledging session is scheduled for
  December 2005. The major economic challenge for Cambodia over the
  next decade will be fashioning an economic environment in which the
  private sector can create enough jobs to handle Cambodia's
  demographic imbalance. More than 50% of the population is 20 years
  or younger.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $26.99 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5.4% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $2,000 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 35%
  industry: 30%
  services: 35% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  7 million (2003 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 75% (2004 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  2.5% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  40% (2004 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2.9%
  highest 10%: 33.8% (1997)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  40 (2004 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.1% (2004 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  20.9% of GDP (2004 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $548.2 million
  expenditures: $836.7 million, including capital expenditures of $291
  million of which 75% was financed by external assistance (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  rice, rubber, corn, vegetables, cashews, tapioca

Industries:
  tourism, garments, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products,
  rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles

Industrial production growth rate:
  22% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  122 million kWh (2003)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 65%
  hydro: 35%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  100.6 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  7,200 bbl/day (2002 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Current account balance:
  $-316.2 million (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $2.311 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  Clothing, timber, rubber, rice, fish, tobacco, footwear

Exports - partners:
  US 55.9%, Germany 11.7%, UK 6.9%, Vietnam 4.4%, Canada 4.2% (2004)

Imports:
  $3.129 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  petroleum products, cigarettes, gold, construction materials,
  machinery, motor vehicles, pharmaceutical products

Imports - partners:
  Thailand 22.5%, Hong Kong 14.1%, China 13.6%, Vietnam 10.9%,
  Singapore 10.8%, Taiwan 8.4% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $997.5 million (2004 est.)

Debt - external:
  $2.4 billion (2002 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $504 million pledged in grants and concessional loans for 2005 by
  international donors

Currency (code):
  riel (KHR)

Currency code:
  KHR

Exchange rates:
  riels per US dollar - 4,016.25 (2004), 3,973.33 (2003), 3,912.08
  (2002), 3,916.33 (2001), 3,840.75 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Cambodia


Telephones - main lines in use:
  35,400 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  380,000 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: adequate landline and/or cellular service in
  Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; mobile phone coverage is
  rapidly expanding in rural areas
  domestic: NA
  international: country code - 855; adequate but expensive landline
  and cellular service available to all countries from Phnom Penh and
  major provincial cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik
  (Indian Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 17, (2003)

Radios:
  1.34 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  7 (2003)

Televisions:
  94,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .kh

Internet hosts:
  818 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  30,000 (2002)

Transportation Cambodia


Railways:
  total: 602 km
  narrow gauge: 602 km 1.000-m gauge (2004)

Highways:
  total: 12,323 km
  paved: 1,996 km
  unpaved: 10,327 km (2000 est)

Waterways:
  2,400 km (mainly on Mekong River) (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Phnom Penh

Merchant marine:
  total: 479 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,913,910 GRT/2,713,967 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 34, cargo 396, chemical tanker 9, container 6,
  livestock carrier 3, passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 11,
  refrigerated cargo 11, roll on/roll off 5, specialized tanker 1
  foreign-owned: 193 (Canada 4, China 39, China 2, Cyprus 4, Egypt 5,
  Estonia 2, France 1, Germany 1, Greece 6, Honduras 1, Hong Kong 3,
  Indonesia 1, Isle of Man 1, Israel 1, Italy 1, Japan 1, Lebanon 1,
  Nigeria 2, Norway 1, Russia 58, Singapore 5, South Korea 23, Syria
  8, Turkey 7, Ukraine 6, UAE 1, United States 7, Yemen 1) (2005)

Airports:
  20 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 6
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 14
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 11
  under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Heliports:
  2 (2004 est.)

Military Cambodia


Military branches:
  Royal Cambodian Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military service age and obligation:
  18-30 years of age for compulsory military service for all males;
  conscription law passed September 2004; service obligation is 18
  months (September 2004)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 2,981,823 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,844,144 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males: 175,305 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $112 million (FY01 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  3% (FY01 est.)

Transnational Issues Cambodia


Disputes - international:
  Southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check
  the spread of avian flu; Cambodia and Thailand dispute sections of
  boundary with missing boundary markers and Thai encroachments into
  Cambodian territory; maritime boundary with Vietnam is hampered by
  unresolved dispute over offshore islands; Cambodia accuses Thailand
  of obstructing access to Preah Vihear temple ruins awarded to
  Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962; in 2004 Cambodian-Laotian and
  Laotian-Vietnamese boundary commissions reerect missing markers
  completing most of their demarcations

Illicit drugs:
  narcotics-related corruption reportedly involving some in the
  government, military, and police; possible small-scale opium,
  heroin, and amphetamine production; large producer of cannabis for
  the international market; vulnerable to money laundering due to its
  cash-based economy and porous borders


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Cameroon

Introduction Cameroon


Background:
  The former French Cameroon and part of British Cameroon merged in
  1961 to form the present country. Cameroon has generally enjoyed
  stability, which has permitted the development of agriculture,
  roads, and railways, as well as a petroleum industry. Despite
  movement toward democratic reform, political power remains firmly in
  the hands of an ethnic oligarchy.

Geography Cameroon


Location:
  Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between Equatorial
  Guinea and Nigeria

Geographic coordinates:
  6 00 N, 12 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 475,440 sq km
  land: 469,440 sq km
  water: 6,000 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
  total: 4,591 km
  border countries: Central African Republic 797 km, Chad 1,094 km,
  Republic of the Congo 523 km, Equatorial Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298
  km, Nigeria 1,690 km

Coastline:
  402 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 50 nm

Climate:
  varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot
  in north

Terrain:
  diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau in
  center, mountains in west, plains in north

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Fako (on Mount Cameroon) 4,095 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 12.81%
  permanent crops: 2.58%
  other: 84.61% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  330 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  volcanic activity with periodic releases of poisonous gases from
  Lake Nyos and Lake Monoun volcanoes

Environment - current issues:
  waterborne diseases are prevalent; deforestation; overgrazing;
  desertification; poaching; overfishing

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law
  of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
  Timber 94
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa; throughout the
  country there are areas of thermal springs and indications of
  current or prior volcanic activity; Mount Cameroon, the highest
  mountain in Sub-Saharan west Africa, is an active volcano

People Cameroon


Population:
  16,380,005
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 41.7% (male 3,457,180/female 3,375,668)
  15-64 years: 55% (male 4,537,281/female 4,477,163)
  65 years and over: 3.3% (male 239,634/female 293,079) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 18.6 years
  male: 18.45 years
  female: 18.76 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.93% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  34.67 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  15.4 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 68.26 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 72.14 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 64.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 50.89 years
  male: 50.71 years
  female: 51.08 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  4.47 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  6.9% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  560,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  49,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: very high
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and
  typhoid fever
  vectorborne diseases: malaria and yellow fever are high risks in
  some locations
  water contact disease: schistosomiasis
  respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2004)

Nationality:
  noun: Cameroonian(s)
  adjective: Cameroonian

Ethnic groups:
  Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%, Fulani
  10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other African 13%,
  non-African less than 1%

Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 40%, Christian 40%, Muslim 20%

Languages:
  24 major African language groups, English (official), French
  (official)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 79%
  male: 84.7%
  female: 73.4% (2003 est.)

Government Cameroon


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Cameroon
  conventional short form: Cameroon
  former: French Cameroon

Government type:
  unitary republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition
  parties legalized in 1990)
  note: preponderance of power remains with the president

Capital:
  Yaounde

Administrative divisions:
  10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est, Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord,
  Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest

Independence:
  1 January 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday:
  Republic Day (National Day), 20 May (1972)

Constitution:
  20 May 1972 approved by referendum, 2 June 1972 formally adopted;
  revised January 1996

Legal system:
  based on French civil law system, with common law influence; has
  not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  20 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982)
  head of government: Prime Minister Ephraim INONI (since 8 Dec 2004)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from proposals submitted
  by the prime minister
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term;
  election last held 11 October 2004 (next to be held NA October
  2011); prime minister appointed by the president
  election results: President Paul BIYA reelected; percent of vote -
  Paul BIYA 70.9%, John FRU NDI 17.4%, Adamou Ndam NJOYA 4.5%, Garga
  Haman ADJI 3.7%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (180 seats;
  members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms;
  note - the president can either lengthen or shorten the term of the
  legislature)
  elections: last held 23 June 2002 (next to be held NA 2007)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  RDCP 133, SDF 21, UDC 5, other 21
  note: the constitution calls for an upper chamber for the
  legislature, to be called a Senate, but it has yet to be established

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); High Court
  of Justice (consists of 9 judges and 6 substitute judges, elected by
  the National Assembly)

Political parties and leaders:
  Cameroonian Democratic Union or UDC [Adamou NDAM NJOYA]; Democratic
  Rally of the Cameroon People or RDCP [Paul BIYA]; Movement for the
  Defense of the Republic or MDR [Dakole DAISSALA]; Movement for the
  Liberation and Development of Cameroon or MLDC [leader Marcel
  YONDO]; Movement for the Youth of Cameroon or MYC [Dieudonne TINA];
  National Union for Democracy and Progress or UNDP [Maigari BELLO
  BOUBA]; Social Democratic Front or SDF [John FRU NDI]; Union of
  Cameroonian Populations or UPC [Augustin Frederic KODOCK]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Southern Cameroon National Council [Ayamba Ette OTUN]; Human Rights
  Defense Group [Albert MUKONG, president]

International organization participation:
  ABEDA, ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, C, CEMAC, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA,
  IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
  IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OIC,
  OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU,
  WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Jerome MENDOUGA
  chancery: 2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 265-8790
  FAX: [1] (202) 387-3826

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador George McDade STAPLES
  embassy: Rue Nachtigal, Yaounde
  mailing address: P. O. Box 817, Yaounde; pouch: American Embassy,
  Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2520
  telephone: [237] 223-05-12, 222-25-89, 222-17-94, 223-40-14
  FAX: [237] 223-07-53
  branch office(s): Douala

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), red, and yellow
  with a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band; uses the
  popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Economy Cameroon


Economy - overview:
  Because of its oil resources and favorable agricultural conditions,
  Cameroon has one of the best-endowed primary commodity economies in
  sub-Saharan Africa. Still, it faces many of the serious problems
  facing other underdeveloped countries, such as a top-heavy civil
  service and a generally unfavorable climate for business enterprise.
  Since 1990, the government has embarked on various IMF and World
  Bank programs designed to spur business investment, increase
  efficiency in agriculture, improve trade, and recapitalize the
  nation's banks. In June 2000, the government completed an
  IMF-sponsored, three-year structural adjustment program; however,
  the IMF is pressing for more reforms, including increased budget
  transparency, privatization, and poverty reduction programs.
  International oil and cocoa prices have considerable impact on the
  economy.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $30.17 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  4.9% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,900 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 43.7%
  industry: 20.1%
  services: 36.2% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  6.68 million (2004 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 70%, industry and commerce 13%, other 17%

Unemployment rate:
  30% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  48% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 1.9%
  highest 10%: 36.6% (1996)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  47.7 (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1% (2004 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  16.1% of GDP (2004 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $2.493 billion
  expenditures: $2.248 billion, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2004 est.)

Public debt:
  69.1% of GDP (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  coffee, cocoa, cotton, rubber, bananas, oilseed, grains, root
  starches; livestock; timber

Industries:
  petroleum production and refining, aluminum production, food
  processing, light consumer goods, textiles, lumber, ship repair

Industrial production growth rate:
  4.2% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production:
  3.571 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 2.7%
  hydro: 97.3%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  3.321 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  94,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  22,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Oil - proved reserves:
  80 million bbl (2004 est.)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  55.22 billion cu m (2004)

Current account balance:
  $-149.1 million (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $2.445 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  crude oil and petroleum products, lumber, cocoa beans, aluminum,
  coffee, cotton

Exports - partners:
  Spain 15.2%, Italy 12.3%, UK 10.2%, France 9.2%, US 8.8%, South
  Korea 7.1%, Netherlands 4.3% (2004)

Imports:
  $1.979 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery, electrical equipment, transport equipment, fuel, food

Imports - partners:
  France 28.2%, Nigeria 9.9%, Belgium 7.6%, US 4.9%, China 4.8%,
  Germany 4.6%, Italy 4.1% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $687.5 million (2004 est.)

Debt - external:
  $8.46 billion (2004 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  on 23 January 2001, the Paris Club agreed to reduce Cameroon's debt
  of $1.3 billion by $900 million; debt relief now totals $1.26 billion

Currency (code):
  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible
  authority is the Bank of the Central African States

Currency code:
  XAF

Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 528.29
  (2004), 581.2 (2003), 696.99 (2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Cameroon


Telephones - main lines in use:
  110,900 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1.077 million (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: available only to business and government
  domestic: cable, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter
  international: country code - 237; satellite earth stations - 2
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC)
  provides connectivity to Europe and Asia

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 3 (2002)

Radios:
  2.27 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2002)

Televisions:
  450,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .cm

Internet hosts:
  479 (2004)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2002)

Internet users:
  60,000 (2002)
  note: Cameroon also had more than 100 cyber-cafes in 2001

Transportation Cameroon


Railways:
  total: 1,008 km
  narrow gauge: 1,008 km 1.000-m gauge (2004)

Highways:
  total: 34,300 km
  paved: 4,288 km
  unpaved: 30,012 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  navigation mainly on Benue River; limited during rainy season (2004)

Pipelines:
  gas 90 km; liquid petroleum gas 9 km; oil 1,120 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Douala, Limboh Terminal

Merchant marine:
  total: 1 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 169,593 GRT/357,023 DWT
  by type: petroleum tanker 1 (2005)

Airports:
  47 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 11
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 36
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
  914 to 1,523 m: 20
  under 914 m: 9 (2004 est.)

Military Cameroon


Military branches:
  Cameroon Armed Forces: Army, Navy (includes Naval Infantry), Air
  Force

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription
  (1999)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 3,410,440 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 1,720,385 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males: 188,662 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $221.1 million (2004)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.6% (2004)

Transnational Issues Cameroon


Disputes - international:
  ICJ ruled in 2002 on the entire Cameroon-Nigeria land and maritime
  boundary but the parties formed a Joint Border Commission, which
  continues to meet regularly to resolve differences bilaterally and
  have commenced with demarcation in less-contested sections of the
  boundary, starting in Lake Chad in the north; implementation of the
  ICJ ruling on the Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime
  boundary in the Gulf of Guinea is impeded by imprecisely defined
  coordinates, the unresolved Bakassi allocation, and a sovereignty
  dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the
  mouth of the Ntem River; Nigeria initially rejected cession of the
  Bakasi Peninsula, then agreed, but has yet to withdraw its forces
  while much of the indigenous population opposes cession; only
  Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's
  admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes
  Chad and Niger

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  refugees (country of origin): 39,261 (Chad) 16,983 (Nigeria) 9,634
  (Cote d'Ivoire) (2004)


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Canada

Introduction Canada


Background:
  A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became
  a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the
  British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has
  developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across
  an unfortified border. Canada's paramount political problem is
  meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care and
  education services after a decade of budget cuts. The issue of
  reconciling Quebec's francophone heritage with the majority
  anglophone Canadian population has moved to the back burner in
  recent years; support for separatism abated after the Quebec
  government's referendum on independence failed to pass in October of
  1995.

Geography Canada


Location:
  Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the
  east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the
  north, north of the conterminous US

Geographic coordinates:
  60 00 N, 95 00 W

Map references:
  North America

Area:
  total: 9,984,670 sq km
  land: 9,093,507 sq km
  water: 891,163 sq km

Area - comparative:
  somewhat larger than the US

Land boundaries:
  total: 8,893 km
  border countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)

Coastline:
  202,080 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate:
  varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north

Terrain:
  mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m

Natural resources:
  iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash,
  diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural
  gas, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 4.96%
  permanent crops: 0.02%
  other: 95.02% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  7,200 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to
  development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a
  result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and
  North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and
  snow east of the mountains

Environment - current issues:
  air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and
  damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and
  vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity;
  ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial,
  mining, and forestry activities

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85,
  Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
  Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic
  Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
  Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
  Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
  Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
  Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:
  second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location
  between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 90% of
  the population is concentrated within 160 km of the US border

People Canada


Population:
  32,805,041 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 17.9% (male 3,016,032/female 2,869,244)
  15-64 years: 68.9% (male 11,357,425/female 11,244,356)
  65 years and over: 13.2% (male 1,842,496/female 2,475,488) (2005
  est.)

Median age:
  total: 38.54 years
  male: 37.54 years
  female: 39.56 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.9% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  10.84 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  7.73 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  5.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 4.75 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 5.21 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 4.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 80.1 years
  male: 76.73 years
  female: 83.63 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.61 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.3% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  56,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  1,500 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Canadian(s)
  adjective: Canadian

Ethnic groups:
  British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other European 15%,
  Amerindian 2%, other, mostly Asian, African, Arab 6%, mixed
  background 26%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 42.6%, Protestant 23.3% (including United Church
  9.5%, Anglican 6.8%, Baptist 2.4%, Lutheran 2%), other Christian
  4.4%, Muslim 1.9%, other and unspecified 11.8%, none 16% (2001
  census)

Languages:
  English (official) 59.3%, French (official) 23.2%, other 17.5%

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 97% (1986 est.)
  male: NA%
  female: NA%

Government Canada


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Canada

Government type:
  a constitutional monarchy that is also a parliamentary democracy
  and a federation

Capital:
  Ottawa

Administrative divisions:
  10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia,
  Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest
  Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island,
  Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*

Independence:
  1 July 1867 (union of British North American colonies); 11 December
  1931 (independence recognized)

National holiday:
  Canada Day, 1 July (1867)

Constitution:
  made up of unwritten and written acts, customs, judicial decisions,
  and traditions; the written part of the constitution consists of the
  Constitution Act of 29 March 1867, which created a federation of
  four provinces, and the Constitution Act of 17 April 1982, which
  transferred formal control over the constitution from Britain to
  Canada, and added a Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms as well
  as procedures for constitutional amendments

Legal system:
  based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law
  system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General Michaelle Jean (since 27 October
  2005)
  head of government: Prime Minister Paul MARTIN (since 12 December
  2003); Deputy Prime Minister Anne MCLELLAN (since 12 December 2003)
  cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister from among
  the members of his own party sitting in Parliament
  elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; governor general
  appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a
  five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the
  majority party or the leader of the majority coalition in the House
  of Commons is automatically designated prime minister by the
  governor general

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat
  (members appointed by the governor general with the advice of the
  prime minister and serve until reaching 75 years of age; its normal
  limit is 105 senators) and the House of Commons or Chambre des
  Communes (308 seats; members elected by direct, popular vote to
  serve for up to five-year terms)
  elections: House of Commons - last held 28 June 2004 (next to be
  held by NA 2009)
  election results: House of Commons - percent of vote by party -
  Liberal Party 36.7%, Conservative Party 29.6%, New Democratic Party
  15.7%, Bloc Quebecois 12.4%, Greens 4.3%, independents 0.4%, other
  0.9%; seats by party - Liberal Party 134, Conservative Party 99,
  Bloc Quebecois 54, New Democratic Party 19, independent 2

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court of Canada (judges are appointed by the prime minister
  through the governor general); Federal Court of Canada; Federal
  Court of Appeal; Provincial Courts (these are named variously Court
  of Appeal, Court of Queens Bench, Superior Court, Supreme Court, and
  Court of Justice)

Political parties and leaders:
  Bloc Quebecois [Gilles DUCEPPE]; Conservative Party of Canada (a
  merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative
  Party) [Stephen HARPER]; Green Party [Jim HARRIS]; Liberal Party
  [Paul MARTIN]; New Democratic Party [Jack LAYTON]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACCT, AfDB, APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia
  Group, BIS, C, CDB, CE (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ESA (cooperating
  state), FAO, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt,
  ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAM (guest),
  NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, UN, UNAMSIL,
  UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNMOVIC, UNTSO, UPU, WCL,
  WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Francis Joseph MCKENNA
  chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001
  telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740
  FAX: [1] (202) 682-7726
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas,
  Denver, Detroit, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, Phoenix,
  San Diego, and Seattle
  consulate(s): Anchorage, Houston, Philadelphia, Princeton, Raleigh,
  San Francisco, and San Jose

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador David H. WILKINS
  embassy: 490 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 1G8
  mailing address: P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburgh, NY 13669-0430
  telephone: [1] (613) 238-5335, 4470
  FAX: [1] (613) 688-3082
  consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto,
  Vancouver, Winnipeg

Flag description:
  two vertical bands of red (hoist and fly side, half width), with
  white square between them; an 11-pointed red maple leaf is centered
  in the white square; the official colors of Canada are red and white

Economy Canada


Economy - overview:
  As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, newly entered in the
  trillion dollar class, Canada closely resembles the US in its
  market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and affluent
  living standards. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the
  manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the
  nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial
  and urban. The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and the
  1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (which includes
  Mexico) touched off a dramatic increase in trade and economic
  integration with the US. Given its great natural resources, skilled
  labor force, and modern capital plant Canada enjoys solid economic
  prospects. Solid fiscal management has produced a long-term budget
  surplus which is substantially reducing the national debt, although
  public debate continues over how to manage the rising cost of the
  publicly funded healthcare system. Exports account for roughly a
  third of GDP. Canada enjoys a substantial trade surplus with its
  principal trading partner, the United States, which absorbs more
  than 85% of Canadian exports.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $1.023 trillion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  2.4% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $31,500 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 2.3%
  industry: 26.4%
  services: 71.3% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  17.37 million (2004)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 3%, manufacturing 15%, construction 5%, services 74%,
  other 3% (2000)

Unemployment rate:
  7% (2004)

Population below poverty line:
  NA

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2.8%
  highest 10%: 23.8% (1994)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  31.5 (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1.9% (2004 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  19.4% of GDP (2004 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $151 billion
  expenditures: $144 billion, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2004 est.)

Public debt:
  NA (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy
  products; forest products; fish

Industries:
  transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed
  minerals, food products; wood and paper products; fish products,
  petroleum and natural gas

Industrial production growth rate:
  2% (2004 est.)

Electricity - production:
  548.9 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 28%
  hydro: 57.9%
  nuclear: 12.9%
  other: 1.3% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  487.3 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  36.13 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  13 billion kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  3.11 million bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  2.2 million bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - exports:
  1.37 million bbl/day (2004)

Oil - imports:
  987,000 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - proved reserves:
  178.9 billion bbl including shale oil (2004 est.)

Natural gas - production:
  165.8 billion cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  55.8 billion cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  91.52 billion cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  8.73 billion cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  1.691 trillion cu m (2004)

Current account balance:
  $28.2 billion (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $315.6 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft,
  telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood
  pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum

Exports - partners:
  US 85.2%, Japan 2.1%, UK 1.6% (2004)

Imports:
  $256.1 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil,
  chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods

Imports - partners:
  US 58.9%, China 6.8%, Mexico 3.8% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $36.27 billion (2003)

Debt - external:
  $570 billion (2004)

Economic aid - donor:
  ODA, $2 billion (2004)

Currency (code):
  Canadian dollar (CAD)

Currency code:
  CAD

Exchange rates:
  Canadian dollars per US dollar - 1.301 (2004), 1.4011 (2003),
  1.5693 (2002), 1.5488 (2001), 1.4851 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Canada


Telephones - main lines in use:
  19,950,900 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  13,221,800 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: excellent service provided by modern technology
  domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations
  international: country code - 1-xxx; 5 coaxial submarine cables;
  satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1
  Pacific Ocean) and 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 245, FM 582, shortwave 6 (2004)

Radios:
  32.3 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  80 (plus many repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:
  21.5 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ca

Internet hosts:
  3,210,081 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  760 (2000 est.)

Internet users:
  16.11 million (2002)

Transportation Canada


Railways:
  total: 48,683 km
  standard gauge: 48,683 km 1.435-m gauge (2004)

Highways:
  total: 1,408,800 km
  paved: 497,306 km (including 16,900 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 911,494 km (2002)

Waterways:
  631 km
  note: Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint
  Lawrence River of 3,058 km, shared with United States (2003)

Pipelines:
  crude and refined oil 23,564 km; liquid petroleum gas 74,980 km
  (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Fraser River Port, Goderich, Montreal, Port Cartier, Quebec, Saint
  John's (Newfoundland), Sept Isles, Vancouver

Merchant marine:
  total: 169 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,784,229 GRT/2,657,499 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 22, cargo 49, chemical tanker 6, combination
  ore/oil 1, container 1, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 65, petroleum
  tanker 13, roll on/roll off 6
  foreign-owned: 6 (France 1, Germany 3, United States 2)
  registered in other countries: 112 (2005)

Airports:
  1,326 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 503
  over 3,047 m: 18
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 15
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 150
  914 to 1,523 m: 245
  under 914 m: 75 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 823
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 67
  914 to 1,523 m: 347
  under 914 m: 409 (2004 est.)

Heliports:
  319 (2004)

Military Canada


Military branches:
  Canadian Armed Forces: Land Forces Command, Maritime Command, Air
  Command, Canada Command (homeland security) to be operational in
  early 2006 (2005)

Military service age and obligation:
  16 years of age for voluntary military service; women comprise some
  11% of Canada's armed forces (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 16-49: 8,216,510 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 16-49: 6,740,490 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males: 223,821 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $9,801.7 million (2003)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.1% (2003)

Transnational Issues Canada


Disputes - international:
  managed maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance,
  Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and around the disputed
  Machias Seal Island and North Rock; working toward greater
  cooperation with US in monitoring people and commodities crossing
  the border; uncontested sovereignty dispute with Denmark over Hans
  Island in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland

Illicit drugs:
  illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market and
  export to US; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant
  large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; transit point
  for heroin and cocaine entering the US market; vulnerable to
  narcotics money laundering because of its mature financial services
  sector


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Cape Verde

Introduction Cape Verde


Background:
  The uninhabited islands were discovered and colonized by the
  Portuguese in the 15th century; Cape Verde subsequently became a
  trading center for African slaves and later an important coaling and
  resupply stop for whaling and transatlantic shipping. Following
  independence in 1975, and a tentative interest in unification with
  Guinea-Bissau, a one-party system was established and maintained
  until multi-party elections were held in 1990. Cape Verde continues
  to exhibit one of Africa's most stable democratic governments.
  Repeated droughts during the second half of the 20th century caused
  significant hardship and prompted heavy emigration. As a result,
  Cape Verde's expatriate population is greater than its domestic one.
  Most Cape Verdeans have both African and Portuguese antecedents.

Geography Cape Verde


Location:
  Western Africa, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, west
  of Senegal

Geographic coordinates:
  16 00 N, 24 00 W

Map references:
  Political Map of the World

Area:
  total: 4,033 sq km
  land: 4,033 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than Rhode Island

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  965 km

Maritime claims:
  measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  temperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and very erratic

Terrain:
  steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mt. Fogo 2,829 m (a volcano on Fogo Island)

Natural resources:
  salt, basalt rock, limestone, kaolin, fish, clay, gypsum

Land use:
  arable land: 9.68%
  permanent crops: 0.5%
  other: 89.82% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  30 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  prolonged droughts; seasonal harmattan wind produces obscuring
  dust; volcanically and seismically active

Environment - current issues:
  soil erosion; deforestation due to demand for wood used as fuel;
  desertification; environmental damage has threatened several species
  of birds and reptiles; illegal beach sand extraction; overfishing

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification,
  Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
  Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa near major
  north-south sea routes; important communications station; important
  sea and air refueling site

People Cape Verde


Population:
  418,224 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 39% (male 82,249/female 80,752)
  15-64 years: 54.3% (male 110,119/female 116,816)
  65 years and over: 6.8% (male 10,599/female 17,689) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 19.4 years
  male: 18.62 years
  female: 20.25 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.67% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  25.33 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  6.62 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -11.99 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 47.77 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 52.95 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 42.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 70.45 years
  male: 67.13 years
  female: 73.86 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.48 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.035% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  775 (2001)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  225 (as of 2001)

Nationality:
  noun: Cape Verdean(s)
  adjective: Cape Verdean

Ethnic groups:
  Creole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic (infused with indigenous beliefs); Protestant
  (mostly Church of the Nazarene)

Languages:
  Portuguese, Crioulo (a blend of Portuguese and West African words)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 76.6%
  male: 85.8%
  female: 69.2% (2003 est.)

Government Cape Verde


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Cape Verde
  conventional short form: Cape Verde
  local long form: Republica de Cabo Verde
  local short form: Cabo Verde

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  Praia

Administrative divisions:
  17 municipalities (concelhos, singular - concelho); Boa Vista,
  Brava, Maio, Mosteiros, Paul, Praia, Porto Novo, Ribeira Grande,
  Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Sao Domingos, Sao Filipe, Sao
  Miguel, Sao Nicolau, Sao Vicente, Tarrafal

Independence:
  5 July 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 5 July (1975)

Constitution:
  new constitution came into force 25 September 1992; underwent a
  major revision on 23 November 1995, substantially increasing the
  powers of the president, and a further revision in 1999, to create
  the position of national ombudsman (Provedor de Justica)

Legal system:
  derived from the legal system of Portugal

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Pedro PIRES (since 22 March 2001)
  head of government: Prime Minister Jose Maria Pereira NEVES (since 1
  February 2001)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
  recommendation of the prime minister
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  election last held 11 and 25 February 2001 (next to be held February
  2006); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly and
  appointed by the president
  election results: Pedro PIRES elected president; percent of vote -
  Pedro PIRES (PAICV) 49.43%, Carlos VIEGA (MPD) 49.42%; note - the
  election was won by only twelve votes

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (72 seats;
  members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
  elections: last held 14 January 2001 (next to be held December 2005)
  election results: percent of vote by party - PAICV 47.3%, MPD 39.8%,
  ADM 6%, other 6.9%; seats by party - PAICV 40, MPD 30, ADM 2

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Supremo Tribunal de Justia

Political parties and leaders:
  African Party for Independence of Cape Verde or PAICV [Jose Maria
  Pereira NEVES, chairman]; Democratic Alliance for Change or ADM [Dr.
  Eurico MONTEIRO] (a coalition of PCD, PTS, and UCID); Democratic
  Christian Party or PDC [Manuel RODRIGUES, chairman]; Democratic
  Renovation Party or PRD [Jacinto SANTOS, president]; Movement for
  Democracy or MPD [Agostinho LOPES, president]; Party for Democratic
  Convergence or PCD [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO, president]; Party of Work
  and Solidarity or PTS [Isaias RODRIGUES, president]; Social
  Democratic Party or PSD [Joao ALEM, president]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt
  (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
  UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Jose BRITO
  chancery: 3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
  telephone: [1] (202) 965-6820
  FAX: [1] (202) 965-1207
  consulate(s) general: Boston

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Donald C. JOHNSON
  embassy: Rua Abilio m. Macedo 81, Praia
  mailing address: C. P. 201, Praia
  telephone: [238] 261 56 16, 261 56 17
  FAX: [238] 261 13 55

Flag description:
  three horizontal bands of light blue (top, double width), white
  (with a horizontal red stripe in the middle third), and light blue;
  a circle of 10 yellow five-pointed stars is centered on the hoist
  end of the red stripe and extends into the upper and lower blue bands

Economy Cape Verde


Economy - overview:
  This island economy suffers from a poor natural resource base,
  including serious water shortages exacerbated by cycles of long-term
  drought. The economy is service-oriented, with commerce, transport,
  tourism, and public services accounting for 72% of GDP. Although
  nearly 70% of the population lives in rural areas, the share of
  agriculture in GDP in 2004 was only 12%, of which fishing accounted
  for 1.5%. About 82% of food must be imported. The fishing potential,
  mostly lobster and tuna, is not fully exploited. Cape Verde annually
  runs a high trade deficit, financed by foreign aid and remittances
  from emigrants; remittances supplement GDP by more than 20%.
  Economic reforms are aimed at developing the private sector and
  attracting foreign investment to diversify the economy. Future
  prospects depend heavily on the maintenance of aid flows, the
  encouragement of tourism, remittances, and the momentum of the
  government's development program.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $600 million (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,400 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 12.1%
  industry: 21.9%
  services: 66% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  NA

Unemployment rate:
  21% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  30% (2000)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1.5% (2004 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  19.2% of GDP (2004 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $260.6 million
  expenditures: $305.3 million, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  bananas, corn, beans, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, coffee, peanuts;
  fish

Industries:
  food and beverages, fish processing, shoes and garments, salt
  mining, ship repair

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA

Electricity - production:
  43.08 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  40.06 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  2,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Current account balance:
  $-93.76 million (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $61.11 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  fuel, shoes, garments, fish, hides

Exports - partners:
  Portugal 59.4%, US 17.2%, UK 11.4% (2004)

Imports:
  $387.3 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  foodstuffs, industrial products, transport equipment, fuels

Imports - partners:
  Portugal 41.8%, US 12.3%, Netherlands 8.4%, Spain 5.2%, Italy 4.2%,
  Brazil 4% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $112.7 million (2004 est.)

Debt - external:
  $325 million (2002)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $136 million (1999)

Currency (code):
  Cape Verdean escudo (CVE)

Currency code:
  CVE

Exchange rates:
  Cape Verdean escudos (CVE) per US dollar - 88.808 (2004), 97.703
  (2003), 117.168 (2002), 123.228 (2001), 119.687 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Cape Verde


Telephones - main lines in use:
  71,700 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  53,300 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: effective system, extensive modernization from
  1996-2000 following partial privatization in 1995
  domestic: major service provider is Cabo Verde Telecom (CVT); fiber
  optic ring, completed in 2001, links all islands providing Internet
  access and ISDN services; cellular service introduced in 1998
  international: country code - 238; 2 coaxial submarine cables; HF
  radiotelephone to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station
  - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 0, FM 22 (and 12 low power repeaters), shortwave 0 (2002)

Radios:
  100,000 (2002 est.)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (and 7 repeaters) (2002)

Televisions:
  15,000 (2002 est.)

Internet country code:
  .cv

Internet hosts:
  118 (2004)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2002)

Internet users:
  20,400 (2003)

Transportation Cape Verde


Highways:
  total: 1,350 km
  paved: 932 km
  unpaved: 418 km (2000)

Ports and harbors:
  Mindelo, Praia, Tarrafal

Merchant marine:
  total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 5,395 GRT/6,614 DWT
  by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 1, passenger/cargo 2
  foreign-owned: 1 (United Kingdom 1) (2005)

Airports:
  7
  note: 3 airports are reported to be nonoperational (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 6
  over 3,047 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 5 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Military Cape Verde


Military branches:
  People's Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARP): Army, Coast Guard
  (includes maritime air wing)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 84,641 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 65,614 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $14.1 million (2004)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.5% (2004)

Transnational Issues Cape Verde


Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  used as a transshipment point for illicit drugs moving from Latin
  America and Asia destined for Western Europe; the lack of a
  well-developed financial system limits the country's utility as a
  money-laundering center


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Cayman Islands

Introduction Cayman Islands


Background:
  The Cayman Islands were colonized from Jamaica by the British
  during the 18th and 19th centuries. Administered by Jamaica since
  1863, they remained a British dependency after 1962 when the former
  became independent.

Geography Cayman Islands


Location:
  Caribbean, island group in Caribbean Sea, nearly one-half of the
  way from Cuba to Honduras

Geographic coordinates:
  19 30 N, 80 30 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 262 sq km
  land: 262 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  160 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and cool,
  relatively dry winters (November to April)

Terrain:
  low-lying limestone base surrounded by coral reefs

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: The Bluff 43 m

Natural resources:
  fish, climate and beaches that foster tourism

Land use:
  arable land: 3.85%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 96.15% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  hurricanes (July to November)

Environment - current issues:
  no natural fresh water resources; drinking water supplies must be
  met by rainwater catchments

Geography - note:
  important location between Cuba and Central America

People Cayman Islands


Population:
  44,270 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 21.1% (male 4,658/female 4,662)
  15-64 years: 70.8% (male 15,284/female 16,050)
  65 years and over: 8.2% (male 1,699/female 1,917) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 36.83 years
  male: 36.48 years
  female: 37.18 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.64% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  12.92 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  4.81 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  18.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population
  note: major destination for Cubans trying to migrate to the US (2005
  est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 8.19 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 9.39 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 6.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 79.95 years
  male: 77.33 years
  female: 82.6 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.9 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Caymanian(s)
  adjective: Caymanian

Ethnic groups:
  mixed 40%, white 20%, black 20%, expatriates of various ethnic
  groups 20%

Religions:
  United Church (Presbyterian and Congregational), Anglican, Baptist,
  Church of God, other Protestant, Roman Catholic

Languages:
  English

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
  total population: 98%
  male: 98%
  female: 98% (1970 est.)

Government Cayman Islands


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Cayman Islands

Dependency status:
  overseas territory of the UK

Government type:
  British crown colony

Capital:
  George Town

Administrative divisions:
  8 districts; Creek, Eastern, Midland, South Town, Spot Bay, Stake
  Bay, West End, Western

Independence:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday:
  Constitution Day, first Monday in July

Constitution:
  1959; revised 1972 and 1992

Legal system:
  British common law and local statutes

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);
  Governor Bruce DINWIDDY (since 29 May 2002)
  head of government: Leader of Government Business Kurt TIBBETTS
  (since 18 May 2005)
  cabinet: Executive Council (three members appointed by the governor,
  four members elected by the Legislative Assembly)
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the governor is
  appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the
  leader of the majority party or coalition is appointed by the
  governor Leader of Government Business

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Legislative Assembly (18 seats, three appointed members
  from the Executive Council and 15 elected by popular vote; members
  serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 11 May 2005 (next to be held 2009)
  election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - PPM 9, UDP 5,
  independent 1

Judicial branch:
  Summary Court; Grand Court; Cayman Islands Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders:
  no national teams (loose groupings of political organizations) were
  formed for the 2000 elections; United Democratic Party or UDP
  [leader McKeeva BUSH]; People's Progressive Movement or PPM [leader
  Kurt TIBBETTS]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), IOC, UNESCO
  (associate), UPU

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description:
  blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
  the Caymanian coat of arms centered on the outer half of the flag;
  the coat of arms includes a pineapple and turtle above a shield with
  three stars (representing the three islands) and a scroll at the
  bottom bearing the motto HE HATH FOUNDED IT UPON THE SEAS

Economy Cayman Islands


Economy - overview:
  With no direct taxation, the islands are a thriving offshore
  financial center. More than 40,000 companies were registered in the
  Cayman Islands as of 1998, including almost 600 banks and trust
  companies; banking assets exceed $500 billion. A stock exchange was
  opened in 1997. Tourism is also a mainstay, accounting for about 70%
  of GDP and 75% of foreign currency earnings. The tourist industry is
  aimed at the luxury market and caters mainly to visitors from North
  America. Total tourist arrivals exceeded 1.2 million in 1997, with
  600,000 from the US. About 90% of the islands' food and consumer
  goods must be imported. The Caymanians enjoy one of the highest
  outputs per capita and one of the highest standards of living in the
  world.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $1.391 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  1.7% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $32,300 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 1.4%
  industry: 3.2%
  services: 95.4% (1994 est.)

Labor force:
  19,820 (1995)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 1.4%, industry 12.6%, services 86% (1995)

Unemployment rate:
  4.1% (1997)

Population below poverty line:
  NA (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.8% (2002)

Budget:
  revenues: $265.2 million
  expenditures: $248.9 million, including capital expenditures of NA
  (1997)

Agriculture - products:
  vegetables, fruit; livestock, turtle farming

Industries:
  tourism, banking, insurance and finance, construction, construction
  materials, furniture

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA%

Electricity - production:
  410.8 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  382.1 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  2,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Exports:
  $1.2 million (1999)

Exports - commodities:
  turtle products, manufactured consumer goods

Exports - partners:
  mostly US

Imports:
  $457.4 million (1999)

Imports - commodities:
  foodstuffs, manufactured goods

Imports - partners:
  US, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, Netherlands Antilles, Japan

Debt - external:
  $70 million (1996)

Economic aid - recipient:
  NA

Currency (code):
  Caymanian dollar (KYD)

Currency code:
  KYD

Exchange rates:
  Caymanian dollars per US dollar - 0.82 (29 October 2001), 0.83 (3
  November 1995), 0.85 (22 November 1993)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Cayman Islands


Telephones - main lines in use:
  38,000 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  17,000 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: reasonably good system
  domestic: liberalization of telecom market in 2003 reflected in
  falling prices and improving services
  international: country code - 1-345; 2 submarine fiber optic cables
  (Maya-1, Cayman-Jamaica); satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat
  (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 4, shortwave 0 (2004)

Radios:
  36,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  4 with cable system (2004)

Televisions:
  7,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ky

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  16 (2000)

Internet users:
  9,909 (2003)

Transportation Cayman Islands


Highways:
  total: 785 km
  paved: 785 km (2000)

Ports and harbors:
  Cayman Brac, George Town

Merchant marine:
  total: 129 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 2,827,837 GRT/4,555,974 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 29, cargo 12, chemical tanker 39, liquefied
  gas 1, petroleum tanker 17, refrigerated cargo 28, roll on/roll off 3
  foreign-owned: 126 (Denmark 1, Germany 14, Greece 20, Italy 12,
  Norway 1, Philippines 1, Sweden 13, Switzerland 11, United Kingdom
  9, United States 44) (2005)

Airports:
  3 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Military Cayman Islands


Military branches:
  no regular military forces; Royal Cayman Islands Police Force

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues Cayman Islands


Disputes - international:
  none

Illicit drugs:
  offshore financial center; vulnerable to drug transshipment to the
  US and Europe


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Central African Republic

Introduction Central African Republic


Background:
  The former French colony of Ubangi-Shari became the Central African
  Republic upon independence in 1960. After three tumultuous decades
  of misrule - mostly by military governments - civilian rule was
  established in 1993 and lasted for one decade. President Ange-Felix
  PATASSE's civilian government was plagued by unrest, and in March
  2003 he was deposed in a military coup led by General Francois
  BOZIZE, who has since established a transitional government. Though
  the government has the tacit support of civil society groups and the
  main parties, a wide field of affiliated and independent candidates
  will contest the municipal, legislative, and presidential elections
  scheduled for February 2005. The government still does not fully
  control the countryside, where pockets of lawlessness persist.

Geography Central African Republic


Location:
  Central Africa, north of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates:
  7 00 N, 21 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 622,984 sq km
  land: 622,984 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,203 km
  border countries: Cameroon 797 km, Chad 1,197 km, Democratic
  Republic of the Congo 1,577 km, Republic of the Congo 467 km, Sudan
  1,165 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers

Terrain:
  vast, flat to rolling, monotonous plateau; scattered hills in
  northeast and southwest

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Oubangui River 335 m
  highest point: Mont Ngaoui 1,420 m

Natural resources:
  diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, oil, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 3.1%
  permanent crops: 0.14%
  other: 96.76% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds affect northern areas; floods are
  common

Environment - current issues:
  tap water is not potable; poaching has diminished the country's
  reputation as one of the last great wildlife refuges;
  desertification; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 94
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:
  landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa

People Central African Republic


Population:
  3,799,897
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 42.5% (male 813,596/female 802,728)
  15-64 years: 54% (male 1,010,696/female 1,041,903)
  65 years and over: 3.4% (male 54,345/female 76,629) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 18.12 years
  male: 17.75 years
  female: 18.5 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.49% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  35.17 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  20.27 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 91 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 97.84 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 83.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 43.39 years
  male: 43.27 years
  female: 43.52 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  4.5 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  13.5% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  260,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  23,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: very high
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and
  typhoid fever
  vectorborne disease: malaria
  respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2004)

Nationality:
  noun: Central African(s)
  adjective: Central African

Ethnic groups:
  Baya 33%, Banda 27%, Mandjia 13%, Sara 10%, Mboum 7%, M'Baka 4%,
  Yakoma 4%, other 2%

Religions:
  indigenous beliefs 35%, Protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, Muslim
  15%
  note: animistic beliefs and practices strongly influence the
  Christian majority

Languages:
  French (official), Sangho (lingua franca and national language),
  tribal languages

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 51%
  male: 63.3%
  female: 39.9% (2003 est.)

Government Central African Republic


Country name:
  conventional long form: Central African Republic
  conventional short form: none
  local long form: Republique Centrafricaine
  local short form: none
  former: Ubangi-Shari, Central African Empire
  abbreviation: CAR

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  Bangui

Administrative divisions:
  14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture), 2 economic
  prefectures* (prefectures economiques, singular - prefecture
  economique), and 1 commune**; Bamingui-Bangoran, Bangui**,
  Basse-Kotto, Haute-Kotto, Haut-Mbomou, Kemo, Lobaye, Mambere-Kadei,
  Mbomou, Nana-Grebizi*, Nana-Mambere, Ombella-Mpoko, Ouaka, Ouham,
  Ouham-Pende, Sangha-Mbaere*, Vakaga

Independence:
  13 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday:
  Republic Day, 1 December (1958)

Constitution:
  passed by referendum 5 December 2004

Legal system:
  based on French law

Suffrage:
  21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Francois BOZIZE (since 15 March 2003 coup)
  head of government: Prime Minister Elie DOTE (since 13 June 2005)
  note - Celestin GAOMBALET resigned 11 June 2005
  cabinet: Council of Ministers
  elections: president elected to five year term with a two-term
  limit; next presidential elections scheduled for 10 April 2005;
  prime minister appointed by the political party with a parliamentary
  majority

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (109 seats;
  members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms
  elections: last held 22-23 November and 13 December 1998 (next to be
  held 13 March 2005)
  election results: percent of vote by party - MLPC 43%, RDC 18%, MDD
  9%, FPP 6%, PSD 5%, ADP 4%, PUN 3%, FODEM 2%, PLD 2%, UPR 1%, FC 1%,
  independents 6%; seats by party - MLPC 47, RDC 20, MDD 8, FPP 7, PSD
  6, ADP 5, PUN 3, FODEM 2, PLD 2, UPR 1, FC 1, independents 7

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Constitutional Court (3 judges
  appointed by the president, 3 by the president of the National
  Assembly, and 3 by fellow judges); Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts;
  Inferior Courts

Political parties and leaders:
  Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP [Jacques MBOLIEDAS];
  Central African Democratic Assembly or RDC [Andre KOLINGBA]; Civic
  Forum or FC [Gen. Timothee MALENDOMA]; Democratic Forum for
  Modernity or FODEM [Charles MASSI]; Liberal Democratic Party or PLD
  [Nestor KOMBO-NAGUEMON]; Movement for Democracy and Development or
  MDD [David DACKO]; Movement for the Liberation of the Central
  African People or MLPC [the party of deposed president, Ange-Felix
  PATASSE]; Patriotic Front for Progress or FPP [Abel GOUMBA];
  People's Union for the Republic or UPR [Pierre Sammy MAKFOY];
  National Unity Party or PUN [Jean-Paul NGOUPANDE]; Social Democratic
  Party or PSD [Enoch LAKOUE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
  ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC,
  ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC (observer), OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Emmanuel TOUABOY
  chancery: 1618 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 483-7800
  FAX: [1] (202) 332-9893

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Charge d'Affaires James PANOS
  embassy: Avenue David Dacko, Bangui
  mailing address: B. P. 924, Bangui
  telephone: [236] 61 02 00
  FAX: [236] 61 44 94
  note: the embassy is currently operating with a minimal staff

Flag description:
  four equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, green, and yellow
  with a vertical red band in center; there is a yellow five-pointed
  star on the hoist side of the blue band

Economy Central African Republic


Economy - overview:
  Subsistence agriculture, together with forestry, remains the
  backbone of the economy of the Central African Republic (CAR), with
  more than 70% of the population living in outlying areas. The
  agricultural sector generates half of GDP. Timber has accounted for
  about 16% of export earnings and the diamond industry, for 54%.
  Important constraints to economic development include the CAR's
  landlocked position, a poor transportation system, a largely
  unskilled work force, and a legacy of misdirected macroeconomic
  policies. Factional fighting between the government and its
  opponents remains a drag on economic revitalization, with GDP growth
  at only 0.5% in 2004. Distribution of income is extraordinarily
  unequal. Grants from France and the international community can only
  partially meet humanitarian needs.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $4.248 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  0.5% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,100 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 55%
  industry: 20%
  services: 25% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
  NA

Unemployment rate:
  8% (23% for Bangui) (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA (1993)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 0.7%
  highest 10%: 47.7% (1993)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  61.3 (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.6% (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: NA
  expenditures: NA, including capital expenditures of NA

Agriculture - products:
  cotton, coffee, tobacco, manioc (tapioca), yams, millet, corn,
  bananas; timber

Industries:
  gold and diamond mining, logging, brewing, textiles, footwear,
  assembly of bicycles and motorcycles

Industrial production growth rate:
  3% (2002)

Electricity - production:
  106 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 19.8%
  hydro: 80.2%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  98.58 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  2,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Exports:
  $172 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  diamonds, timber, cotton, coffee, tobacco

Exports - partners:
  Belgium 39.2%, Italy 8.6%, Spain 7.9%, US 6.2%, France 6.1%,
  Indonesia 5.8%, China 4.9% (2004)

Imports:
  $136 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  food, textiles, petroleum products, machinery, electrical
  equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals

Imports - partners:
  France 17.6%, US 16.3%, Cameroon 9.3%, Belgium 5% (2004)

Debt - external:
  $881.4 million (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  ODA $73 million; note - traditional budget subsidies from France
  (2000 est.)

Currency (code):
  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible
  authority is the Bank of the Central African States

Currency code:
  XAF

Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 528.29
  (2004), 581.2 (2003), 696.99 (2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Central African Republic


Telephones - main lines in use:
  9,000 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  13,000 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: fair system
  domestic: network consists principally of microwave radio relay and
  low-capacity, low-powered radiotelephone communication
  international: country code - 236; satellite earth station - 1
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 1 (2002)

Radios:
  283,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2001)

Televisions:
  18,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .cf

Internet hosts:
  6 (2002)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2002)

Internet users:
  5,000 (2002)

Transportation Central African Republic


Highways:
  total: 23,810 km
  paved: 643 km
  unpaved: 23,167 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  2,800 km (primarily on the Oubangui and Sangha rivers) (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Bangui, Nola, Salo, Nzinga

Airports:
  50 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 3
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 47
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
  914 to 1,523 m: 23
  under 914 m: 13 (2004 est.)

Military Central African Republic


Military branches:
  Central African Armed Forces (FACA): Ground Forces, Air Force;
  General Directorate of Gendarmerie Inspection (DGIG), Republican
  Guard (2004)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for voluntary and compulsory military service;
  conscript service obligation is two years (2005)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 758,103 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 330,255 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $15.5 million (2004)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1% (2004)

Transnational Issues Central African Republic


Disputes - international:
  about 30,000 refugees fleeing the 2002 civil conflict in the CAR
  still reside in southern Chad; periodic skirmishes over water and
  grazing rights among related pastoral populations along the border
  with southern Sudan persist

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  refugees (country of origin): 36,479 (Sudan) 1,864 (Chad) 6,484
  (Democratic Republic of the Congo)
  IDPs: 200,000 (unrest following coup in 2003) (2004)


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Chad

Introduction Chad


Background:
  Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three
  decades of civil warfare as well as invasions by Libya before a
  semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government
  eventually suppressed or came to terms with most political-military
  groups, settled a territorial dispute with Libya on terms favorable
  to Chad, drafted a democratic constitution, and held multiparty
  presidential elections in 1996 and 1997. In 1998, a new rebellion
  broke out in northern Chad, which sporadically flares up despite two
  peace agreements signed in 2002 and 2003 between the government and
  the rebels. Despite movement toward democratic reform, power remains
  in the hands of an ethnic minority.

Geography Chad


Location:
  Central Africa, south of Libya

Geographic coordinates:
  15 00 N, 19 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 1.284 million sq km
  land: 1,259,200 sq km
  water: 24,800 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly more than three times the size of California

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,968 km
  border countries: Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197
  km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km

Coastline:
  0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
  none (landlocked)

Climate:
  tropical in south, desert in north

Terrain:
  broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in
  northwest, lowlands in south

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Djourab Depression 160 m
  highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad), gold,
  limestone, sand and gravel, salt

Land use:
  arable land: 2.86%
  permanent crops: 0.02%
  other: 97.12% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  200 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts;
  locust plagues

Environment - current issues:
  inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in
  rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography - note:
  landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the
  Sahel

People Chad


Population:
  9,826,419 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 47.9% (male 2,365,277/female 2,337,388)
  15-64 years: 49.4% (male 2,323,110/female 2,528,086)
  65 years and over: 2.8% (male 109,535/female 163,023) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 16.02 years
  male: 15.32 years
  female: 16.71 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.95% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  45.98 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  16.41 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 93.82 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 103.03 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 84.24 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 47.18 years
  male: 45.55 years
  female: 48.87 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  6.32 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  4.8% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  200,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  18,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: very high
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea,
  hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
  vectorborne disease: malaria
  water contact disease: schistosomiasis
  respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2004)

Nationality:
  noun: Chadian(s)
  adjective: Chadian

Ethnic groups:
  200 distinct groups; in the north and center: Arabs, Gorane
  (Toubou, Daza, Kreda), Zaghawa, Kanembou, Ouaddai, Baguirmi,
  Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Hausa, Boulala, and Maba, most of whom are
  Muslim; in the south: Sara (Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye), Moundang,
  Moussei, Massa, most of whom are Christian or animist; about 1,000
  French citizens live in Chad

Religions:
  Muslim 51%, Christian 35%, animist 7%, other 7%

Languages:
  French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than
  120 different languages and dialects

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic
  total population: 47.5%
  male: 56%
  female: 39.3% (2003 est.)

Government Chad


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Chad
  conventional short form: Chad
  local long form: Republique du Tchad
  local short form: Tchad

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  N'Djamena

Administrative divisions:
  14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture); Batha,
  Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Kanem, Lac,
  Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari,
  Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile
  note: instead of 14 prefectures, there may be a new administrative
  structure of 28 departments (departments, singular - department),
  and 1 city*; Assongha, Baguirmi, Bahr El Gazal, Bahr Koh, Batha
  Oriental, Batha Occidental, Biltine, Borkou, Dababa, Ennedi, Guera,
  Hadjer Lamis, Kabia, Kanem, Lac, Lac Iro, Logone Occidental, Logone
  Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Boneye, Mayo-Dallah, Monts de Lam,
  N'Djamena*, Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, Tandjile Oriental, Tandjile
  Occidental, Tibesti

Independence:
  11 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 11 August (1960)

Constitution:
  passed by referendum 31 March 1996

Legal system:
  based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law; has not
  accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (since 4 December
  1990)
  head of government: Prime Minister Pascal YOADIMNADJI (since 3
  February 2005)
  cabinet: Council of State, members appointed by the president on the
  recommendation of the prime minister
  elections: president elected by popular vote to serve five-year
  term; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the
  two candidates receiving the most votes must stand for a second
  round of voting; last held 20 May 2001 (next to be held NA 2006);
  prime minister appointed by the president
  election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY reelected president; percent
  of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 63%, Ngarlegy YORONGAR 16%, Saleh
  KEBZABO 7%

Legislative branch:
  bicameral according to constitution, consists of a National
  Assembly (155 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve
  four-year terms) and a Senate (not yet created and size unspecified,
  members to serve six-year terms, one-third of membership renewable
  every two years)
  elections: National Assembly - last held 21 April 2002 (next to be
  held in April 2006)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  MPS 110, RDP 12, FAR 9, RNDP 5, URD 5, UNDR 3, others 11

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts; Magistrate Courts

Political parties and leaders:
  Federation Action for the Republic or FAR [Ngarlejy YORONGAR];
  National Rally for Development and Progress or RNDP [Mamadou BISSO];
  National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO];
  Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Mahamat Saleh AHMAT, chairman];
  Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lol Mahamat CHOUA]; Union
  for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Gen. Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE];
  Viva Rally for Development and Progress or Viva RNDP [Delwa Kassire
  COUMAKOYE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt
  (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
  Interpol, IOC, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, ONUB, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UNOCI, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Mahamat Adam BECHIR
  chancery: 2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
  telephone: [1] (202) 462-4009
  FAX: [1] (202) 265-1937

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Marc WALL
  embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
  mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena
  telephone: [235] (51) 70-09
  FAX: [235] (51) 56-54

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red;
  similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flags of Andorra
  and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of arms centered in
  the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France

Economy Chad


Economy - overview:
  Chad's primarily agricultural economy will continue to be boosted
  by major oilfield and pipeline projects that began in 2000. Over 80%
  of Chad's population relies on subsistence farming and livestock
  raising for its livelihood. Cotton, cattle, and gum arabic provide
  the bulk of Chad's export earnings; Chad began to export oil in
  2004. Chad's economy has long been handicapped by its landlocked
  position, high energy costs, and a history of instability. Chad
  relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital for most public and
  private sector investment projects. A consortium led by two US
  companies has been investing $3.7 billion to develop oil reserves
  estimated at 1 billion barrels in southern Chad. Oil production came
  on stream in late 2003.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $15.66 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  38% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,600 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 22.6%
  industry: 35.6%
  services: 41.7% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  NA

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture more than 80% (subsistence farming, herding, and
  fishing)

Unemployment rate:
  NA

Population below poverty line:
  80% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  8% (2004 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  24.7% of GDP (2004 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $1.131 billion
  expenditures: $957.7 million, including capital expenditures of $146
  million (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca);
  cattle, sheep, goats, camels

Industries:
  oil, cotton textiles, meatpacking, beer brewing, natron (sodium
  carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials

Industrial production growth rate:
  5% (1995)

Electricity - production:
  96.13 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  89.4 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  200,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  1,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Current account balance:
  $330.2 million (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $365 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  cotton, cattle, gum arabic

Exports - partners:
  US 67.8%, China 21.5%, Portugal 4.3% (2004)

Imports:
  $500.7 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, petroleum
  products, foodstuffs, textiles

Imports - partners:
  France 21.9%, Cameroon 16.1%, US 10.8%, Portugal 10.4%, Germany
  6.4%, Belgium 4.6% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $652.7 million (2004 est.)

Debt - external:
  $1.1 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $238.3 million received; note - $125 million committed by Taiwan
  (August 1997); $30 million committed by African Development Bank;
  ODA $150 million (2001 est.)

Currency (code):
  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible
  authority is the Bank of the Central African States

Currency code:
  XAF

Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 528.29
  (2004), 581.2 (2003), 696.99 (2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Chad


Telephones - main lines in use:
  11,800 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  65,000 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: primitive system
  domestic: fair system of radiotelephone communication stations
  international: country code - 235; satellite earth station - 1
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 2, FM 4, shortwave 5 (2002)

Radios:
  1.67 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2002)

Televisions:
  10,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .td

Internet hosts:
  8 (2004)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2002)

Internet users:
  15,000 (2002)

Transportation Chad


Highways:
  total: 33,400 km
  paved: 267 km
  unpaved: 33,133 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  Chari and Legone rivers are navigable only in wet season (2002)

Pipelines:
  oil 205 km (2004)

Airports:
  50 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 7
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 44
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
  914 to 1,523 m: 20
  under 914 m: 10 (2004 est.)

Military Chad


Military branches:
  Chadian National Army (Armee Nationale Tchadienne, ANT), Air Force,
  Gendarmerie (2004)

Military service age and obligation:
  20 years of age for conscripts, with 3-year service obligation; 18
  years of age for volunteers; no minimum age restriction for
  volunteers with consent from a guardian (2004)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 20-49: 1,559,382 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 20-49: 834,695 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males: 95,228 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $101.3 million (2004)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.1% (2004)

Transnational Issues Chad


Disputes - international:
  since 2003, Janjawid armed militia and Sudanese military have
  driven about 200,000 Darfur region refugees into eastern Chad; Chad
  remains an important mediator in the Sudanese civil conflict;
  Chadian Aozou rebels reside in southern Libya; only Nigeria and
  Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify
  the delimitation treaty which also includes Chad and Niger

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  refugees (country of origin): 200,000 (Sudan) 30,000 (Central
  African Republic) (2004)


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Chile

Introduction Chile


Background:
  Prior to the coming of the Spanish in the 16th century, northern
  Chile was under Inca rule while Araucanian Indians inhabited central
  and southern Chile; the latter were not completely subjugated until
  the early 1880s. Although Chile declared its independence in 1810,
  decisive victory over the Spanish was not achieved until 1818. In
  the War of the Pacific (1879-84), Chile defeated Peru and Bolivia
  and won its present northern lands. A three-year-old Marxist
  government of Salvador ALLENDE was overthrown in 1973 by a
  dictatorial military regime led by Augusto PINOCHET, who ruled until
  a freely elected president was installed in 1990. Sound economic
  policies, maintained consistently since the 1980s, have contributed
  to steady growth and have helped secure the country's commitment to
  democratic and representative government. Chile has increasingly
  assumed regional and international leadership roles befitting its
  status as a stable, democratic nation.

Geography Chile


Location:
  Southern South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between
  Argentina and Peru

Geographic coordinates:
  30 00 S, 71 00 W

Map references:
  South America

Area:
  total: 756,950 sq km
  land: 748,800 sq km
  water: 8,150 sq km
  note: includes Easter Island (Isla de Pascua) and Isla Sala y Gomez

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana

Land boundaries:
  total: 6,171 km
  border countries: Argentina 5,150 km, Bolivia 861 km, Peru 160 km

Coastline:
  6,435 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  continental shelf: 200/350 nm

Climate:
  temperate; desert in north; Mediterranean in central region; cool
  and damp in south

Terrain:
  low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes in east

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Nevado Ojos del Salado 6,880 m

Natural resources:
  copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum,
  hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 2.65%
  permanent crops: 0.42%
  other: 96.93% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  18,000 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis

Environment - current issues:
  widespread deforestation and mining threaten natural resources; air
  pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution
  from raw sewage

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living
  Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate
  Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  strategic location relative to sea lanes between Atlantic and
  Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage);
  Atacama Desert is one of world's driest regions

People Chile


Population:
  15,980,912 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 25.2% (male 2,062,735/female 1,970,913)
  15-64 years: 66.7% (male 5,320,870/female 5,342,771)
  65 years and over: 8% (male 534,737/female 748,886) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 30.07 years
  male: 29.17 years
  female: 31.05 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.97% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  15.44 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  5.76 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 8.8 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 9.55 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 8.01 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 76.58 years
  male: 73.3 years
  female: 80.03 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.02 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.3% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  26,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  1,400 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Chilean(s)
  adjective: Chilean

Ethnic groups:
  white and white-Amerindian 95%, Amerindian 3%, other 2%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 11%, Jewish NEGL%

Languages:
  Spanish

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 96.2%
  male: 96.4%
  female: 96.1% (2003 est.)

Government Chile


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Chile
  conventional short form: Chile
  local long form: Republica de Chile
  local short form: Chile

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  Santiago

Administrative divisions:
  13 regions (regiones, singular - region); Aisen del General Carlos
  Ibanez del Campo, Antofagasta, Araucania, Atacama, Bio-Bio,
  Coquimbo, Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los Lagos,
  Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena, Maule, Region Metropolitana
  (Santiago), Tarapaca, Valparaiso
  note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica

Independence:
  18 September 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 18 September (1810)

Constitution:
  11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981; amended 30 July 1989,
  1993, and 1997

Legal system:
  based on Code of 1857 derived from Spanish law and subsequent codes
  influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial review of
  legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory
  ICJ jurisdiction
  note: Chile is in the process of completely overhauling its criminal
  justice system; a new, US-style adversarial system is being
  gradually implemented throughout the country with the final stage of
  implementation in the Santiago metropolitan region expected in June
  2005

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Ricardo LAGOS Escobar (since 11 March
  2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government
  head of government: President Ricardo LAGOS Escobar (since 11 March
  2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
  election last held 12 December 1999, with runoff election held 16
  January 2000 (next to be held December 2005)
  election results: Ricardo LAGOS Escobar elected president; percent
  of vote - Ricardo LAGOS Escobar 51.32%, Joaquin LAVIN 48.68%

Legislative branch:
  bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the
  Senate or Senado (48 seats, 38 elected by popular vote, 9 designated
  members, and 1 former president who has served a full six-year term
  and is senator for life); elected members serve eight-year terms
  (one-half elected every four years) and the Chamber of Deputies or
  Camara de Diputados (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote
  to serve four-year terms)
  elections: Senate - last held 16 December 2001 (next to be held
  December 2005); Chamber of Deputies - last held 16 December 2001
  (next to be held December 2005)
  election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by
  party - CPD 20 (PDC 12, PS 5, PPD 3), APC 16 (UDI 9, RN 7),
  independents 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party -
  NA%; seats by party - CPD 62 (PDC 24, PPD 21, PS 11, PRSD 6), UDI
  35, RN 22, independent 1

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges are appointed by the
  president and ratified by the Senate from lists of candidates
  provided by the court itself; the president of the Supreme Court is
  elected by the 21-member court); Constitutional Tribunal

Political parties and leaders:
  Alliance for Chile ("Alianza") or APC (including National Renewal
  or RN [Sebastian PINERA] and Independent Democratic Union or UDI
  [Pablo LONGUEIRA]); Coalition of Parties for Democracy
  ("Concertacion") or CPD (including Christian Democratic Party or PDC
  [Adolfo ZALDIVAR], Socialist Party or PS [Gonzalo MARTNER], Party
  for Democracy or PPD [Victor BARRUETO], Radical Social Democratic
  Party or PRSD [Orlando CANTUARIAS]); Communist Party or PC [Gladys
  MARIN]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  revitalized university student federations at all major
  universities; Roman Catholic Church; United Labor Central or CUT
  includes trade unionists from the country's five largest labor
  confederations

International organization participation:
  APEC, BIS, CSN, FAO, G-15, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt
  (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate),
  MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
  WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Andres BIANCHI
  chancery: 1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
  telephone: [1] (202) 785-1746
  FAX: [1] (202) 887-5579
  consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New
  York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Craig A. KELLY
  embassy: Avenida Andres Bello 2800, Las Condes, Santiago
  mailing address: APO AA 34033
  telephone: [56] (2) 232-2600
  FAX: [56] (2) 330-3710

Flag description:
  two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is a blue
  square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of
  the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the
  center representing a guide to progress and honor; blue symbolizes
  the sky, white is for the snow-covered Andes, and red stands for the
  blood spilled to achieve independence; design was influenced by the
  US flag

Economy Chile


Economy - overview:
  Chile has a market-oriented economy characterized by a high level
  of foreign trade. During the early 1990s, Chile's reputation as a
  role model for economic reform was strengthened when the democratic
  government of Patricio AYLWIN - which took over from the military in
  1990 - deepened the economic reform initiated by the military
  government. Growth in real GDP averaged 8% during 1991-97, but fell
  to half that level in 1998 because of tight monetary policies
  implemented to keep the current account deficit in check and because
  of lower export earnings - the latter a product of the global
  financial crisis. A severe drought exacerbated the recession in
  1999, reducing crop yields and causing hydroelectric shortfalls and
  electricity rationing, and Chile experienced negative economic
  growth for the first time in more than 15 years. Despite the effects
  of the recession, Chile maintained its reputation for strong
  financial institutions and sound policy that have given it the
  strongest sovereign bond rating in South America. By the end of
  1999, exports and economic activity had begun to recover, and growth
  rebounded to 4.2% in 2000. Growth fell back to 3.1% in 2001 and 2.1%
  in 2002, largely due to lackluster global growth and the devaluation
  of the Argentine peso. Chile's economy began a slow recovery in
  2003, growing 3.2% and accelerated to 5.8% in 2004. GDP growth
  benefited from high copper prices, solid export earnings
  (particularly forestry, fishing, and mining), and stepped-up foreign
  direct investment. Unemployment, however, remains stubbornly high.
  Chile deepened its longstanding commitment to trade liberalization
  with the signing of a free trade agreement with the US, which took
  effect on 1 January 2004.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $169.1 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  5.8% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $10,700 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 6.3%
  industry: 38.2%
  services: 55.5% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  6.2 million (2004 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 13.6%, industry 23.4%, services 63% (2003)

Unemployment rate:
  8.5% (2004 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  20.6% (2000)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 1.2%
  highest 10%: 47% (2000)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  57.1 (2000)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.4% (2004 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  23.9% of GDP (2004 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $21.53 billion
  expenditures: $19.95 billion, including capital expenditures of
  $3.33 billion (2004 est.)

Public debt:
  12.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  grapes, apples, pears, onions, wheat, corn, oats, peaches, garlic,
  asparagus, beans, beef, poultry, wool; fish; timber

Industries:
  copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and
  steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles

Industrial production growth rate:
  7.8% (2004 est.)

Electricity - production:
  48.6 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 47%
  hydro: 51.5%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 1.4% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  41.8 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  1.813 billion kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  18,500 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  240,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - exports:
  0 bbl/day (2003)

Oil - imports:
  221,500 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - proved reserves:
  150 million bbl (1 January 2004)

Natural gas - production:
  1.18 billion cu m (2002 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  6.517 billion cu m (2002 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2002)

Natural gas - imports:
  5.337 billion cu m (2002 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  99.05 billion cu m (1 January 2004)

Current account balance:
  $2.185 billion (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $29.2 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  copper, fruit, fish products, paper and pulp, chemicals, wine

Exports - partners:
  US 14%, Japan 11.4%, China 9.9%, South Korea 5.5%, Netherlands
  5.1%, Brazil 4.3%, Italy 4.1%, Mexico 4% (2004)

Imports:
  $22.53 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, electrical and
  telecommunications equipment, industrial machinery, vehicles,
  natural gas

Imports - partners:
  Argentina 17%, US 14%, Brazil 11.2%, China 7.4% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $16.02 billion (2004)

Debt - external:
  $44.6 billion (2004 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  ODA, $0 (2002)

Currency (code):
  Chilean peso (CLP)

Currency code:
  CLP

Exchange rates:
  Chilean pesos per US dollar - 609.37 (2004), 691.43 (2003), 688.94
  (2002), 634.94 (2001), 539.59 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Chile


Telephones - main lines in use:
  3.467 million (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  6,445,700 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: modern system based on extensive microwave
  radio relay facilities
  domestic: extensive microwave radio relay links; domestic satellite
  system with 3 earth stations
  international: country code - 56; satellite earth stations - 2
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 180 (eight inactive), FM 64, shortwave 17 (one inactive) (1998)

Radios:
  5.18 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  63 (plus 121 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions:
  3.15 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .cl

Internet hosts:
  202,429 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  7 (2000)

Internet users:
  3.575 million (2002)

Transportation Chile


Railways:
  total: 6,585 km
  broad gauge: 2,831 km 1.676-m gauge (1,317 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 3,754 km 1.000-m gauge (2004)

Highways:
  total: 79,605 km
  paved: 16,080 km (including 407 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 63,525 km (2001)

Pipelines:
  gas 2,583 km; gas/lpg 42 km; liquid petroleum gas 539 km; oil 1,003
  km; refined products 757 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Antofagasta, Arica, Huasco, Iquique, Lirquen, San Antonio, San
  Vicente, Valparaiso

Merchant marine:
  total: 47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 725,216 GRT/954,519 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 10, cargo 6, chemical tanker 9, container 1,
  liquefied gas 3, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 8,
  roll on/roll off 1, vehicle carrier 4
  registered in other countries: 21 (2005)

Airports:
  364 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 71
  over 3,047 m: 6
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 21
  914 to 1,523 m: 23
  under 914 m: 15 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 293
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
  914 to 1,523 m: 60
  under 914 m: 217 (2004 est.)

Military Chile


Military branches:
  Army of the Nation, National Navy (includes naval air, Coast Guard,
  and Marine Corps), Chilean Air Force, Chilean Carabineros (National
  Police)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for compulsory military service; all citizens 18-45
  are obligated to perform military service; conscript service
  obligation - 12 months for Army, 24 months for Navy and Air Force
  (2004)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 3,815,761 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 3,123,281 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males: 140,084 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $3.42 billion (2004)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  3.8% (2004)

Transnational Issues Chile


Disputes - international:
  Chile rebuffs Bolivia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama
  corridor, ceded to Chile in 1884, offering instead unrestricted but
  not sovereign maritime access through Chile to Bolivian gas and
  other commodities; Peru proposes changing its latitudinal maritime
  boundary with Chile to an equidistance line with a southwestern
  axis; territorial claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory)
  partially overlaps Argentine and British claims

Illicit drugs:
  important transshipment country for cocaine destined for Europe and
  the US; economic prosperity and increasing trade have made Chile
  more attractive to traffickers seeking to launder drug profits,
  especially through the Iquique Free Trade Zone, but a new
  anti-money-laundering law improves controls; imported precursors
  passed on to Bolivia; domestic cocaine consumption is rising


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@China

Introduction China


Background:
  For centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the
  rest of the world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and
  early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major
  famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War
  II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic
  socialist system that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed
  strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of
  millions of people. After 1978, his successor DENG Xiaoping and
  other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by
  2000 output had quadrupled. For much of the population, living
  standards have improved dramatically and the room for personal
  choice has expanded, yet political controls remain tight.

Geography China


Location:
  Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea,
  and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam

Geographic coordinates:
  35 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references:
  Asia

Area:
  total: 9,596,960 sq km
  land: 9,326,410 sq km
  water: 270,550 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries:
  total: 22,117 km
  border countries: Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km,
  India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km,
  Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Mongolia 4,677 km, Nepal 1,236 km,
  Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605 km, Russia (northwest) 40
  km, Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281 km
  regional borders: Hong Kong 30 km, Macau 0.34 km

Coastline:
  14,500 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate:
  extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north

Terrain:
  mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas,
  and hills in east

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m
  highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m

Natural resources:
  coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten,
  antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum,
  lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)

Land use:
  arable land: 15.4%
  permanent crops: 1.25%
  other: 83.35% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  525,800 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern
  coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land
  subsidence

Environment - current issues:
  air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from
  reliance on coal produces acid rain; water shortages, particularly
  in the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation;
  estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil
  erosion and economic development; desertification; trade in
  endangered species

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
  Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  world's fourth largest country (after Russia, Canada, and US);
  Mount Everest on the border with Nepal is the world's tallest peak

People China


Population:
  1,306,313,812 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 21.4% (male 148,134,928/female 131,045,415)
  15-64 years: 71% (male 477,182,072/female 450,664,933)
  65 years and over: 7.6% (male 47,400,282/female 51,886,182) (2005
  est.)

Median age:
  total: 32.26 years
  male: 31.87 years
  female: 32.67 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  0.58% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  13.14 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  6.94 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.12 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 24.18 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 21.21 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 27.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 72.27 years
  male: 70.65 years
  female: 74.09 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  1.72 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.1% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  840,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  44,000 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Chinese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Chinese

Ethnic groups:
  Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu,
  Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%

Religions:
  Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Muslim 1%-2%, Christian 3%-4%
  note: officially atheist (2002 est.)

Languages:
  Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing
  dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan
  (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages
  (see Ethnic groups entry)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 90.9%
  male: 95.1%
  female: 86.5% (2002)

Government China


Country name:
  conventional long form: People's Republic of China
  conventional short form: China
  local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
  local short form: Zhong Guo
  abbreviation: PRC

Government type:
  Communist state

Capital:
  Beijing

Administrative divisions:
  23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions
  (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities (shi, singular
  and plural)
  : provinces: Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan,
  Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin,
  Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan,
  Zhejiang
  : autonomous regions: Guangxi, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Xinjiang, Xizang
  (Tibet)
  : municipalities: Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Tianjin
  note: China considers Taiwan its 23rd province; see separate entries
  for the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau

Independence:
  221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty); 1 January 1912
  (Manchu Dynasty replaced by a Republic); 1 October 1949 (People's
  Republic established)

National holiday:
  Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China, 1
  October (1949)

Constitution:
  most recent promulgation 4 December 1982

Legal system:
  a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely criminal law;
  rudimentary civil code in effect since 1 January 1987; new legal
  codes in effect since 1 January 1980; continuing efforts are being
  made to improve civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President HU Jintao (since 15 March 2003) and Vice
  President ZENG Qinghong (since 15 March 2003)
  head of government: Premier WEN Jiabao (since 16 March 2003); Vice
  Premiers HUANG Ju (since 17 March 2003), WU Yi (17 March 2003), ZENG
  Peiyan (since 17 March 2003), and HUI Liangyu (since 17 March 2003)
  cabinet: State Council appointed by the National People's Congress
  (NPC)
  elections: president and vice president elected by the National
  People's Congress for five-year terms; elections last held 15-17
  March 2003 (next to be held mid-March 2008); premier nominated by
  the president, confirmed by the National People's Congress
  election results: HU Jintao elected president by the Tenth National
  People's Congress with a total of 2,937 votes (four delegates voted
  against him, four abstained, and 38 did not vote); ZENG Qinghong
  elected vice president by the Tenth National People's Congress with
  a total of 2,578 votes (177 delegates voted against him, 190
  abstained, and 38 did not vote); two seats were vacant

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao
  Dahui (2,985 seats; members elected by municipal, regional, and
  provincial people's congresses to serve five-year terms)
  elections: last held December 2002-February 2003 (next to be held
  late 2007-February 2008)
  election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - NA

Judicial branch:
  Supreme People's Court (judges appointed by the National People's
  Congress); Local Peoples Courts (comprise higher, intermediate and
  local courts); Special Peoples Courts (primarily military, maritime,
  and railway transport courts)

Political parties and leaders:
  Chinese Communist Party or CCP [HU Jintao, General Secretary of the
  Central Committee]; eight registered small parties controlled by CCP

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  no substantial political opposition groups exist, although the
  government has identified the Falungong spiritual movement and the
  China Democracy Party as subversive groups

International organization participation:
  AfDB, APEC, APT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, CDB,
  FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO,
  ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA
  (observer), MIGA, MONUC, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), ONUB,
  OPCW, PCA, SCO, UN, UN Security Council, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMOVIC, UNOCI, UNTSO, UPU, WCO,
  WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador YANG Jiechi
  chancery: 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 328-2500
  FAX: [1] (202) 328-2582
  consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and
  San Francisco
  consulate(s): Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Clark T. RANDT, Jr.
  embassy: Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, 100600 Beijing
  mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002
  telephone: [86] (10) 6532-3831
  FAX: [86] (10) 6532-6929
  consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Shanghai,
  Shenyang

Flag description:
  red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow
  five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle of
  the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner

Economy China


Economy - overview:
  In late 1978 the Chinese leadership began moving the economy from a
  sluggish, inefficient, Soviet-style centrally planned economy to a
  more market-oriented system. Whereas the system operates within a
  political framework of strict Communist control, the economic
  influence of non-state organizations and individual citizens has
  been steadily increasing. The authorities switched to a system of
  household and village responsibility in agriculture in place of the
  old collectivization, increased the authority of local officials and
  plant managers in industry, permitted a wide variety of small-scale
  enterprises in services and light manufacturing, and opened the
  economy to increased foreign trade and investment. The result has
  been a quadrupling of GDP since 1978. Measured on a purchasing power
  parity (PPP) basis, China in 2004 stood as the second-largest
  economy in the world after the US, although in per capita terms the
  country is still poor. Agriculture and industry have posted major
  gains especially in coastal areas near Hong Kong and opposite Taiwan
  and in Shanghai, where foreign investment has helped spur output of
  both domestic and export goods. The leadership, however, often has
  experienced - as a result of its hybrid system - the worst results
  of socialism (bureaucracy and lassitude) and of capitalism (growing
  income disparities and rising unemployment). China thus has
  periodically backtracked, retightening central controls at
  intervals. The government has struggled to (a) sustain adequate jobs
  growth for tens of millions of workers laid off from state-owned
  enterprises, migrants, and new entrants to the work force; (b)
  reduce corruption and other economic crimes; and (c) keep afloat the
  large state-owned enterprises, many of which had been shielded from
  competition by subsidies and had been losing the ability to pay full
  wages and pensions. From 100 to 150 million surplus rural workers
  are adrift between the villages and the cities, many subsisting
  through part-time, low-paying jobs. Popular resistance, changes in
  central policy, and loss of authority by rural cadres have weakened
  China's population control program, which is essential to
  maintaining long-term growth in living standards. At the same time,
  one demographic consequence of the "one child" policy is that China
  is now one of the most rapidly aging countries in the world. Another
  long-term threat to growth is the deterioration in the environment -
  notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the
  water table especially in the north. China continues to lose arable
  land because of erosion and economic development. As part of its
  effort to gradually slow the rapid economic growth seen in 2004,
  Beijing says it will reduce somewhat its spending on infrastructure
  in 2005, while continuing to focus on poverty relief and through
  rural tax reform. Accession to the World Trade Organization helps
  strengthen its ability to maintain strong growth rates but at the
  same time puts additional pressure on the hybrid system of strong
  political controls and growing market influences. China has
  benefited from a huge expansion in computer Internet use, with 94
  million users at the end of 2004. Foreign investment remains a
  strong element in China's remarkable economic growth. Shortages of
  electric power and raw materials may affect industrial output in
  2005. More power generating capacity is scheduled to come on line in
  2006. In its rivalry with India as an economic power, China has a
  lead in the absorption of technology, the rising prominence in world
  trade, and the alleviation of poverty; India has one important
  advantage in its relative mastery of the English language, but the
  number of competent Chinese English-speakers is growing rapidly.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $7.262 trillion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  9.1% (official data) (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $5,600 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 13.8%
  industry and construction: 52.9%
  services: 33.3% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  760.8 million (2003)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 49%, industry 22%, services 29% (2003 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  9.8% in urban areas; substantial unemployment and underemployment
  in rural areas; an official Chinese journal estimated overall
  unemployment (including rural areas) for 2003 at 20% (2004 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  10% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2.4%
  highest 10%: 30.4% (1998)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  44 (2002)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  4.1% (2004 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  46% of GDP (2004 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $317.9 billion
  expenditures: $348.9 billion, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2004 est.)

Public debt:
  31.4% of GDP (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, apples,
  cotton, oilseed, pork, fish

Industries:
  mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals;
  coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum;
  cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products, including
  footwear, toys, and electronics; food processing; transportation
  equipment, including automobiles, rail cars and locomotives, ships,
  and aircraft; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch
  vehicles and satellites

Industrial production growth rate:
  17.1% (2004 est.)

Electricity - production:
  1.91 trillion kWh (2003)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 80.2%
  hydro: 18.5%
  nuclear: 1.2%
  other: 0.1% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  1.63 trillion kWh (2003)

Electricity - exports:
  10.38 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  2.3 billion kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  3.392 million bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  4.956 million bbl/day (2002 est.)

Oil - exports:
  427,800 bbl/day (2002)

Oil - imports:
  2.414 million bbl/day (2002)

Oil - proved reserves:
  17.74 billion bbl (2004 est.)

Natural gas - production:
  35 billion cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  29.18 billion cu m (2002 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2002 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2002 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  2.23 trillion cu m (2004)

Current account balance:
  $30.32 billion (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $583.1 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, plastics, optical and medical equipment,
  iron and steel

Exports - partners:
  US 21.1%, Hong Kong 17%, Japan 12.4%, South Korea 4.7%, Germany 4%
  (2004)

Imports:
  $552.4 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  machinery and equipment, oil and mineral fuels, plastics, optical
  and medical equipment, organic chemicals, iron and steel

Imports - partners:
  Japan 16.8%, Taiwan 11.4%, South Korea 11.1%, US 8%, Germany 5.4%
  (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $609.9 billion (2004 est.)

Debt - external:
  $233.3 billion (3rd quarter 2004 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  NA

Currency (code):
  yuan (CNY)
  note:: also referred to as the Renminbi (RMB)

Currency code:
  CNY

Exchange rates:
  yuan per US dollar - 8.2768 (2004), 8.277 (2003), 8.277 (2002),
  8.2771 (2001), 8.2785 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications China


Telephones - main lines in use:
  263 million (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  269 million (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: domestic and international services are
  increasingly available for private use; unevenly distributed
  domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and
  many towns
  domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular
  telephone systems have been installed; a domestic satellite system
  with 55 earth stations is in place
  international: country code - 86; satellite earth stations - 5
  Intelsat (4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik
  (Indian Ocean region) and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean
  regions); several international fiber-optic links to Japan, South
  Korea, Hong Kong, Russia, and Germany (2000)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 369, FM 259, shortwave 45 (1998)

Radios:
  417 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  3,240 (of which 209 are operated by China Central Television, 31
  are provincial TV stations and nearly 3,000 are local city stations)
  (1997)

Televisions:
  400 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .cn

Internet hosts:
  160,421 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  3 (2000)

Internet users:
  94 million (2004)

Transportation China


Railways:
  total: 71,898 km
  standard gauge: 71,898 km 1.435-m gauge (18,115 km electrified)
  dual gauge: 23,945 km (multiple track not included in total) (2002)

Highways:
  total: 1,765,222 km
  paved: 395,410 km (with at least 25,130 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 1,369,812 km (2002 est.)

Waterways:
  121,557 km (2002)

Pipelines:
  gas 15,890 km; oil 14,478 km; refined products 3,280 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Dalian, Guangzhou, Nanjing, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai

Merchant marine:
  total: 1,649 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 18,724,653 GRT/27,749,784 DWT
  by type: barge carrier 2, bulk carrier 362, cargo 696, chemical
  tanker 38, combination ore/oil 1, container 135, liquefied gas 30,
  passenger 7, passenger/cargo 81, petroleum tanker 246, refrigerated
  cargo 30, roll on/roll off 11, vehicle carrier 10
  foreign-owned: 9 (Hong Kong 4, Japan 2, South Korea 2, United States
  1)
  registered in other countries: 872 (2005)

Airports:
  472 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 383
  over 3,047 m: 53
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 116
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 141
  914 to 1,523 m: 23
  under 914 m: 50 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 89
  over 3,047 m: 5
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
  914 to 1,523 m: 32
  under 914 m: 35 (2004 est.)

Heliports:
  15 (2004 est.)

Military China


Military branches:
  People's Liberation Army (PLA): Ground Forces, Navy (includes
  marines and naval aviation), Air Force (includes Airborne Forces),
  and II Artillery Corps (strategic missile force); People's Armed
  Police Force (internal security troops considered to be an adjunct
  to the PLA); Militia (2003)

Military service age and obligation:
  18-22 years of age for compulsory military service, with 24-month
  service obligation; no minimum age for voluntary service; 17 years
  of age for women who meet requirements for specific military jobs
  (2004)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 342,956,265 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 281,240,272 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males: 13,186,433 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $67.49 billion (2004)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  4.3% (2004)

Transnational Issues China


Disputes - international:
  in 2005, China and India initiate drafting principles to resolve
  all aspects of their extensive boundary and territorial disputes
  together with a security and foreign policy dialogue to consolidate
  discussions related to the boundary, regional nuclear proliferation,
  and other matters; recent talks and confidence-building measures
  have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, site of the world's
  largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under
  the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and
  Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); India does
  not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in
  1964; about 90,000 ethnic Tibetan exiles reside primarily in India
  as well as Nepal and Bhutan; China asserts sovereignty over the
  Spratly Islands together with Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan,
  Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct
  of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions in the
  Spratlys but is not the legally binding "code of conduct" sought by
  some parties; in March 2005, the national oil companies of China,
  the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord on marine seismic
  activities in the Spratly Islands; China occupies some of the
  Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; China and Taiwan
  have become more vocal in rejecting both Japan's claims to the
  uninhabited islands of Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) and Japan's
  unilaterally declared exclusive economic zone in the East China Sea,
  the site of intensive hydrocarbon prospecting; certain islands in
  the Yalu and Tumen rivers are in an uncontested dispute with North
  Korea and a section of boundary around Mount Paektu is considered
  indefinite; China seeks to stem illegal migration of tens of
  thousands of North Koreans; in 2004, China and Russia divided up the
  islands in the Amur, Ussuri, and Argun Rivers, ending a century-old
  border dispute; demarcation of the China-Vietnam boundary proceeds
  slowly and although the maritime boundary delimitation and fisheries
  agreements were ratified in June 2004, implementation has been
  delayed; environmentalists in Burma and Thailand remain concerned
  about China's construction of hydroelectric dams upstream on the
  Nujiang/Salween River in Yunnan Province

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  refugees (country of origin): 299,287 (Vietnam) estimated
  30,000-50,000 (North Korea) (2004)

Illicit drugs:
  major transshipment point for heroin produced in the Golden
  Triangle; growing domestic drug abuse problem; source country for
  chemical precursors and methamphetamine


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Christmas Island

Introduction Christmas Island


Background:
  Named in 1643 for the day of its discovery, the island was annexed
  and settlement was begun by the UK in 1888. Phosphate mining began
  in the 1890s. The UK transferred sovereignty to Australia in 1958.
  Almost two-thirds of the island has been declared a national park.

Geography Christmas Island


Location:
  Southeastern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of Indonesia

Geographic coordinates:
  10 30 S, 105 40 E

Map references:
  Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 135 sq km
  land: 135 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about three-quarters the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  138.9 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  contiguous zone: 12 nm
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical with a wet and dry season; heat and humidity moderated by
  trade winds; wet season December to April

Terrain:
  steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Murray Hill 361 m

Natural resources:
  phosphate, beaches

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100%
  note: mainly tropical rainforest; 63% of the island is a national
  park (2001)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can be a maritime
  hazard

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Geography - note:
  located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean

People Christmas Island


Population:
  361 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: NA
  15-64 years: NA
  65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate:
  0% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  NA

Death rate:
  NA

Net migration rate:
  NA

Sex ratio:
  NA

Infant mortality rate:
  total: NA
  male: NA
  female: NA

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: NA
  male: NA
  female: NA

Total fertility rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Christmas Islander(s)
  adjective: Christmas Island

Ethnic groups:
  Chinese 70%, European 20%, Malay 10%
  note: no indigenous population (2001)

Religions:
  Buddhist 36%, Muslim 25%, Christian 18%, other 21% (1997)

Languages:
  English (official), Chinese, Malay

Literacy:
  NA

People - note:
  the Australian Bureau of Statistics reports a population of 1,508
  as of the 2001 Census

Government Christmas Island


Country name:
  conventional long form: Territory of Christmas Island
  conventional short form: Christmas Island

Dependency status:
  territory of Australia; administered by the Australian Department
  of Transport and Regional Services

Government type:
  NA

Capital:
  The Settlement

Administrative divisions:
  none (territory of Australia)

Independence:
  none (territory of Australia)

National holiday:
  Australia Day, 26 January (1788)

Constitution:
  Christmas Island Act of 1958-59 (1 October 1958)

Legal system:
  under the authority of the governor general of Australia and
  Australian law

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by the Australian governor general
  head of government: Administrator Evan WILLIAMS (since 1 November
  2003)
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed
  by the governor general of Australia and represents the monarch and
  Australia

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Christmas Island Shire Council (9 seats; members elected
  by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: held every two years with half the members standing for
  election; last held 3 May 2003 (next to be held in 2005)
  election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - independents 9

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court; District Court; Magistrate's Court

Political parties and leaders:
  none

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  none

International organization participation:
  none

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (territory of Australia)

Flag description:
  the flag of Australia is used; note - in early 1986, the Christmas
  Island Assembly held a design competition for an island flag,
  however, the winning design has never been formally adopted as the
  official flag of the territory

Economy Christmas Island


Economy - overview:
  Phosphate mining had been the only significant economic activity,
  but in December 1987 the Australian Government closed the mine. In
  1991, the mine was reopened. With the support of the government, a
  $34 million casino opened in 1993. The casino closed in 1998. The
  Australian Government in 2001 agreed to support the creation of a
  commercial space-launching site on the island, projected to begin
  operations in the near future

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  NA

GDP - real growth rate:
  NA

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA
  industry: NA
  services: NA

Labor force:
  NA

Labor force - by occupation:
  NA

Budget:
  revenues: NA
  expenditures: NA, including capital expenditures of NA

Agriculture - products:
  NA

Industries:
  tourism, phosphate extraction (near depletion)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: NA
  hydro: NA
  nuclear: NA
  other: NA

Exports:
  NA

Exports - commodities:
  phosphate

Exports - partners:
  Australia, NZ

Imports:
  NA

Imports - commodities:
  consumer goods

Imports - partners:
  principally Australia

Economic aid - recipient:
  NA

Currency (code):
  Australian dollar (AUD)

Currency code:
  AUD

Exchange rates:
  Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.3598 (2004), 1.5419 (2003),
  1.8406 (2002), 1.9334 (2001), 1.7248 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Christmas Island


Telephones - main lines in use:
  NA

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  NA

Telephone system:
  general assessment: service provided by the Australian network
  domestic: GSM mobile telephone service replaced older analog system
  in February 2005
  international: country code - 61-891; satellite earth stations - one
  Intelsat earth station provides telephone and telex service (2000)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (2004)

Radios:
  1,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  NA

Televisions:
  600 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .cx

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  NA

Transportation Christmas Island


Highways:
  total: 240 km
  paved: 30 km
  unpaved: 210 km (2000)

Ports and harbors:
  Flying Fish Cove

Airports:
  1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Military Christmas Island


Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of Australia

Transnational Issues Christmas Island


Disputes - international:
  none


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Clipperton Island

Introduction Clipperton Island


Background:
  This isolated island was named for John CLIPPERTON, a pirate who
  made it his hideout early in the 18th century. Annexed by France in
  1855, it was seized by Mexico in 1897. Arbitration eventually
  awarded the island to France, which took possession in 1935.

Geography Clipperton Island


Location:
  Middle America, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, 1,120 km
  southwest of Mexico

Geographic coordinates:
  10 17 N, 109 13 W

Map references:
  Political Map of the World

Area:
  total: 6 sq km
  land: 6 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  about 12 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  11.1 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical; humid, average temperature 20-32 degrees C, rains
  May-October

Terrain:
  coral atoll

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Rocher Clipperton 29 m

Natural resources:
  fish

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100% (all coral) (2001)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  NA

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Geography - note:
  reef 12 km in circumference

People Clipperton Island


Population:
  uninhabited (July 2005 est.)

Government Clipperton Island


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Clipperton Island
  local long form: none
  local short form: Ile Clipperton
  former: sometimes called Ile de la Passion

Dependency status:
  possession of France; administered by France from French Polynesia
  by a high commissioner of the Republic

Legal system:
  the laws of France, where applicable, apply

Flag description:
  the flag of France is used

Economy Clipperton Island


Economy - overview:
  Although 115 species of fish have been identified in the
  territorial waters of Clipperton Island, the only economic activity
  is tuna fishing.


Transportation Clipperton Island


Ports and harbors:
  none; offshore anchorage only

Military Clipperton Island


Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues Clipperton Island


Disputes - international:
  none


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Introduction Cocos (Keeling) Islands


Background:
  There are 27 coral islands in the group. Captain William KEELING
  discovered the islands in 1609, but they remained uninhabited until
  the 19th century. Annexed by the UK in 1857, they were transferred
  to the Australian Government in 1955. The population on the two
  inhabited islands generally is split between the ethnic Europeans on
  West Island and the ethnic Malays on Home Island.

Geography Cocos (Keeling) Islands


Location:
  Southeastern Asia, group of islands in the Indian Ocean, southwest
  of Indonesia, about halfway from Australia to Sri Lanka

Geographic coordinates:
  12 30 S, 96 50 E

Map references:
  Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 14 sq km
  land: 14 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  note: includes the two main islands of West Island and Home Island

Area - comparative:
  about 24 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  26 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical with high humidity, moderated by the southeast trade winds
  for about nine months of the year

Terrain:
  flat, low-lying coral atolls

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: unnamed location 5 m

Natural resources:
  fish

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  cyclone season is October to April

Environment - current issues:
  fresh water resources are limited to rainwater accumulations in
  natural underground reservoirs

Geography - note:
  islands are thickly covered with coconut palms and other vegetation

People Cocos (Keeling) Islands


Population:
  628 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: NA
  15-64 years: NA
  65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate:
  0% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  NA

Death rate:
  NA

Net migration rate:
  NA

Infant mortality rate:
  total: NA
  male: NA
  female: NA

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: NA
  male: NA
  female: NA

Total fertility rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Cocos Islander(s)
  adjective: Cocos Islander

Ethnic groups:
  Europeans, Cocos Malays

Religions:
  Sunni Muslim 80%, other 20% (2002 est.)

Languages:
  Malay (Cocos dialect), English

Government Cocos (Keeling) Islands


Country name:
  conventional long form: Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands
  conventional short form: Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Dependency status:
  territory of Australia; administered from Canberra by the
  Australian Department of Transport and Regional Services

Government type:
  NA

Capital:
  West Island

Administrative divisions:
  none (territory of Australia)

Independence:
  none (territory of Australia)

National holiday:
  Australia Day, 26 January (1788)

Constitution:
  Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act of 1955 (23 November 1953)

Legal system:
  based upon the laws of Australia and local laws

Suffrage:
  NA

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by the Australian governor general
  head of government: Administrator (nonresident) Evan WILLIAMS (since
  1 November 2003)
  cabinet: NA
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed
  by the governor general of Australia and represents the monarch and
  Australia

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Cocos (Keeling) Islands Shire Council (7 seats)
  elections: held every two years with half the members standing for
  election; last held NA

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court; Magistrate's Court

Political parties and leaders:
  none

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  none

International organization participation:
  none

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (territory of Australia)

Flag description:
  the flag of Australia is used

Economy Cocos (Keeling) Islands


Economy - overview:
  Grown throughout the islands, coconuts are the sole cash crop.
  Small local gardens and fishing contribute to the food supply, but
  additional food and most other necessities must be imported from
  Australia. There is a small tourist industry.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  NA

GDP - real growth rate:
  NA%

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Labor force:
  NA

Labor force - by occupation:
  the Cocos Islands Cooperative Society Ltd. employs construction
  workers, stevedores, and lighterage workers; tourism employs others

Unemployment rate:
  60% (2000 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: NA
  expenditures: NA

Agriculture - products:
  vegetables, bananas, pawpaws, coconuts

Industries:
  copra products and tourism

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: NA
  hydro: NA
  nuclear: NA
  other: NA

Exports:
  NA

Exports - commodities:
  copra

Exports - partners:
  Australia

Imports:
  NA

Imports - commodities:
  foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  Australia

Economic aid - recipient:
  NA

Currency (code):
  Australian dollar (AUD)

Currency code:
  AUD

Exchange rates:
  Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.3598 (2004), 1.5419 (2003),
  1.8406 (2002), 1.9334 (2001), 1.7248 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  1 July - 30 June

Communications Cocos (Keeling) Islands


Telephones - main lines in use:
  287 (1992)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  note - analog cellular service available

Telephone system:
  general assessment: connected within Australia's telecommunication
  system
  domestic: NA
  international: country code - 61-891; telephone, telex, and
  facsimile communications with Australia and elsewhere via satellite;
  1 satellite earth station of NA type (2002)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (2004)

Radios:
  300 (1992)

Television broadcast stations:
  NA

Televisions:
  NA

Internet country code:
  .cc

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  2 (2000)

Internet users:
  NA

Transportation Cocos (Keeling) Islands


Highways:
  total: 15 km
  paved: NA km
  unpaved: NA km (2003)

Ports and harbors:
  Port Refuge

Airports:
  1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Military Cocos (Keeling) Islands


Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of Australia; the territory does have
  a five-person police force

Transnational Issues Cocos (Keeling) Islands


Disputes - international:
  none


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Colombia

Introduction Colombia


Background:
  Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged from the
  collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others are Ecuador and
  Venezuela). A 40-year insurgent campaign to overthrow the Colombian
  Government escalated during the 1990s, undergirded in part by funds
  from the drug trade. Although the violence is deadly and large
  swaths of the countryside are under guerrilla influence, the
  movement lacks the military strength or popular support necessary to
  overthrow the government. An anti-insurgent army of paramilitaries
  has grown to several thousand strong in recent years, challenging
  the insurgents for control of territory and the drug trade, and also
  the government's ability to exert its dominion over rural areas.
  While Bogota steps up efforts to reassert government control
  throughout the country, neighboring countries worry about the
  violence spilling over their borders.

Geography Colombia


Location:
  Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama
  and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between
  Ecuador and Panama

Geographic coordinates:
  4 00 N, 72 00 W

Map references:
  South America

Area:
  total: 1,138,910 sq km
  land: 1,038,700 sq km
  water: 100,210 sq km
  note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and
  Serranilla Bank

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries:
  total: 6,004 km
  border countries: Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km,
  Peru 1,496 km (est.), Venezuela 2,050 km

Coastline:
  3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate:
  tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands

Terrain:
  flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains,
  eastern lowland plains

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Pico Cristobal Colon 5,775 m
  note: nearby Pico Simon Bolivar also has the same elevation

Natural resources:
  petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper,
  emeralds, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 2.42%
  permanent crops: 1.67%
  other: 95.91% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  8,500 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes;
  periodic droughts

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation; soil and water quality damage from overuse of
  pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle
  emissions

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate
  Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species,
  Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection,
  Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:
  only South American country with coastlines on both the North
  Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea

People Colombia


Population:
  42,954,279 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 30.7% (male 6,670,950/female 6,516,371)
  15-64 years: 64.2% (male 13,424,433/female 14,142,825)
  65 years and over: 5.1% (male 968,127/female 1,231,573) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 26.04 years
  male: 25.14 years
  female: 26.93 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.49% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  20.82 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  5.59 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 20.97 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 24.92 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 16.89 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 71.72 years
  male: 67.88 years
  female: 75.7 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.56 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.7% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  190,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  3,600 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Colombian(s)
  adjective: Colombian

Ethnic groups:
  mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed
  black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 90%, other 10%

Languages:
  Spanish

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 92.5%
  male: 92.4%
  female: 92.6% (2003 est.)

Government Colombia


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Colombia
  conventional short form: Colombia
  local long form: Republica de Colombia
  local short form: Colombia

Government type:
  republic; executive branch dominates government structure

Capital:
  Bogota

Administrative divisions:
  32 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1
  capital district* (distrito capital); Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca,
  Atlantico, Distrito Capital de Bogota*, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas,
  Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca,
  Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte
  de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y
  Providencia, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes,
  Vichada

Independence:
  20 July 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 20 July (1810)

Constitution:
  5 July 1991

Legal system:
  based on Spanish law; a new criminal code modeled after US
  procedures was enacted into law in 2004; judicial review of
  executive and legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
  with reservations

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Alvaro URIBE Velez (since 7 August 2002);
  Vice President Francisco SANTOS (since 7 August 2002); note - the
  president is both the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President Alvaro URIBE Velez (since 7 August
  2002); Vice President Francisco SANTOS (since 7 August 2002); note -
  the president is both the chief of state and head of government
  cabinet: Cabinet consists of a coalition of the two dominant parties
  - the PL and PSC - and independents
  elections: president and vice president elected by popular vote for
  a four-year term; election last held 26 May 2002 (next to be held
  May 2006)
  election results: President Alvaro URIBE Velez received 53% of the
  vote; Vice President Francisco SANTOS was elected on the same ticket

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the Senate or Senado
  (102 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year
  terms) and the House of Representatives or Camara de Representantes
  (166 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year
  terms)
  elections: Senate - last held 10 March 2002 (next to be held March
  2006); House of Representatives - last held 10 March 2002 (next to
  be held March 2006)
  election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by
  party - PL 28, PSC 13, independents and smaller parties (many
  aligned with conservatives) 61; House of Representatives - percent
  of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PL 54, PSC 21, independents
  and other parties 91

Judicial branch:
  four roughly coequal, supreme judicial organs; Supreme Court of
  Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (highest court of criminal law;
  judges are selected by their peers from the nominees of the Superior
  Judicial Council for eight-year terms); Council of State (highest
  court of administrative law; judges are selected from the nominees
  of the Superior Judicial Council for eight-year terms);
  Constitutional Court (guards integrity and supremacy of the
  constitution; rules on constitutionality of laws, amendments to the
  constitution, and international treaties); Superior Judicial Council
  (administers and disciplines the civilian judiciary; resolves
  jurisdictional conflicts arising between other courts; members are
  elected by three sister courts and Congress for eight-year terms)

Political parties and leaders:
  Colombian Communist Party or PCC [Jaime CAICEDO]; Conservative
  Party or PSC [Carlos HOLGUIN Sardi]; Democratic Pole or PDI [Samuel
  MORENO Rojas]; Liberal Party or PL [Juan Fernando CRISTO]
  note: Colombia has about 60 formally recognized political parties,
  most of which do not have a presence in either house of Congress

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  two largest insurgent groups active in Colombia - Revolutionary
  Armed Forces of Colombia or FARC and National Liberation Army or
  ELN; largest anti-insurgent paramilitary group is United
  Self-Defense Groups of Colombia or AUC

International organization participation:
  BCIE, CAN, CDB, CSN, FAO, G-3, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
  ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate),
  MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
  UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Luis Alberto MORENO Mejia
  chancery: 2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 387-8338
  FAX: [1] (202) 232-8643
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Beverly Hills, Boston, Chicago,
  Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan
  (Puerto Rico), and Washington, DC

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador William B. WOOD
  embassy: Calle 22D-BIS, numbers 47-51, Apartado Aereo 3831
  mailing address: Carrera 45 #22D-45, Bogota, D.C., APO AA 34038
  telephone: [57] (1) 315-0811
  FAX: [57] (1) 315-2197

Flag description:
  three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and
  red; similar to the flag of Ecuador, which is longer and bears the
  Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center

Economy Colombia


Economy - overview:
  Colombia's economy has been on a recovery trend during the past two
  years despite a serious armed conflict. The economy continues to
  improve thanks to austere government budgets, focused efforts to
  reduce public debt levels, and an export-oriented growth focus.
  Ongoing economic problems facing President URIBE range from
  reforming the pension system to reducing high unemployment. New
  exploration is needed to offset declining oil production. On the
  positive side, several international financial institutions have
  praised the economic reforms introduced by URIBE, which include
  measures designed to reduce the public-sector deficit below 2.5% of
  GDP. The government's economic policy and democratic security
  strategy have engendered a growing sense of confidence in the
  economy, particularly within the business sector. Coffee prices have
  recovered from previous lows as the Colombian coffee industry
  pursues greater market shares in developed countries such as the
  United States.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $281.1 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3.6% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $6,600 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 13.4%
  industry: 32.1%
  services: 54.5% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  20.7 million (2004 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 30%, industry 24%, services 46% (1990)

Unemployment rate:
  13.6% (2004 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  55% (2001)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 1%
  highest 10%: 44% (1999)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  57.1 (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  5.9% (2004 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  15.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $15.33 billion
  expenditures: $21.03 billion, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2004 est.)

Public debt:
  51.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa
  beans, oilseed, vegetables; forest products; shrimp

Industries:
  textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages,
  chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds

Industrial production growth rate:
  4% (2004 est.)

Electricity - production:
  44.87 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 26%
  hydro: 72.7%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 1.3% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  41.14 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  618 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  23 million kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  531,100 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  252,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Oil - proved reserves:
  1.7 billion bbl (2004 est.)

Natural gas - production:
  5.7 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  5.7 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  132 billion cu m (2004)

Current account balance:
  $-1.706 billion (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $15.5 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  petroleum, coffee, coal, apparel, bananas, cut flowers

Exports - partners:
  US 42.1%, Venezuela 9.7%, Ecuador 6% (2004)

Imports:
  $15.34 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer goods,
  chemicals, paper products, fuels, electricity

Imports - partners:
  US 29.1%, Venezuela 6.5%, China 6.4%, Mexico 6.2%, Brazil 5.8%
  (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $11.94 billion (2004 est.)

Debt - external:
  $38.7 billion (2004 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  NA

Currency (code):
  Colombian peso (COP)

Currency code:
  COP

Exchange rates:
  Colombian pesos per US dollar - 2,628.61 (2004), 2,877.65 (2003),
  2,504.24 (2002), 2,299.63 (2001), 2,087.9 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Colombia


Telephones - main lines in use:
  8,768,100 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  6,186,200 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: modern system in many respects
  domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system; domestic
  satellite system with 41 earth stations; fiber-optic network linking
  50 cities
  international: country code - 57; satellite earth stations - 6
  Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat; 3 fully digitalized international switching
  centers; 8 submarine cables

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 454, FM 34, shortwave 27 (1999)

Radios:
  21 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  60 (includes seven low-power stations) (1997)

Televisions:
  4.59 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .co

Internet hosts:
  115,158 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  18 (2000)

Internet users:
  2,732,200 (2003)

Transportation Colombia


Railways:
  total: 3,304 km
  standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge
  narrow gauge: 3,154 km 0.914-m gauge (2004)

Highways:
  total: 112,998 km
  paved: 26,000 km
  unpaved: 84,000 km (2000)

Waterways:
  9,187 km (2004)

Pipelines:
  gas 4,360 km; oil 6,134 km; refined products 3,140 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Barranquilla, Buenaventura, Cartagena, Muelles El Bosque, Puerto
  Bolivar, Santa Marta, Turbo

Merchant marine:
  total: 15 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 35,427 GRT/46,301 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 11, liquefied gas 1, petroleum tanker
  2
  registered in other countries: 7 (2005)

Airports:
  980 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 101
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 39
  914 to 1,523 m: 39
  under 914 m: 12 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 879
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 34
  914 to 1,523 m: 272
  under 914 m: 572 (2004 est.)

Heliports:
  1 (2004 est.)

Military Colombia


Military branches:
  Army (Ejercito Nacional), Navy (Armada Nacional, includes Naval
  Aviation, Marines, and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea
  Colombiana)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service;
  conscript service obligation - 24 months (2004)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 10,212,456 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 6,986,228 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males: 389,735 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $3.3 billion (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  3.4% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Colombia


Disputes - international:
  Nicaragua filed a claim against Honduras in 1999 and against
  Colombia in 2001 at the ICJ over disputed maritime boundary
  involving 50,000 sq km in the Caribbean Sea, including the
  Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank;
  dispute with Venezuela over maritime boundary and Los Monjes Islands
  near the Gulf of Venezuela; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics,
  guerrilla, and paramilitary activities penetrate all of its
  neighbors' borders and have created a serious refugee crisis with
  over 300,000 persons having fled the country, mostly into
  neighboring states

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  IDPs: 2,730,000 - 3,100,000 (conflict between government and FARC;
  drug wars) (2004)

Illicit drugs:
  illicit producer of coca, opium poppy, and cannabis; world's
  leading coca cultivator (cultivation of coca in 2002 was 144,450
  hectares, a 15% decline since 2001); potential production of opium
  between 2001 and 2002 declined by 25% to 91 metric tons; potential
  production of heroin declined to 11.3 metric tons; the world's
  largest processor of coca derivatives into cocaine; supplier of
  about 90% of the cocaine to the US market and the great majority of
  cocaine to other international drug markets; important supplier of
  heroin to the US market; active aerial eradication program; a
  significant portion of non-US narcotics proceeds are either
  laundered or invested in Colombia through the black market peso
  exchange


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Comoros

Introduction Comoros


Background:
  Unstable Comoros has endured 19 coups or attempted coups since
  gaining independence from France in 1975. In 1997, the islands of
  Anjouan and Moheli declared their independence from Comoros. In
  1999, military chief Col. AZALI seized power. He pledged to resolve
  the secessionist crisis through a confederal arrangement named the
  2000 Fomboni Accord. In December 2001, voters approved a new
  constitution and presidential elections took place in the spring of
  2002. Each island in the archipelago elected its own president and a
  new union president took office in May of 2002.

Geography Comoros


Location:
  Southern Africa, group of islands at the northern mouth of the
  Mozambique Channel, about two-thirds of the way between northern
  Madagascar and northern Mozambique

Geographic coordinates:
  12 10 S, 44 15 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 2,170 sq km
  land: 2,170 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly more than 12 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  340 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)

Terrain:
  volcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains to low hills

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Le Kartala 2,360 m

Natural resources:
  NEGL

Land use:
  arable land: 35.87%
  permanent crops: 23.32%
  other: 40.81% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  NA sq km

Natural hazards:
  cyclones possible during rainy season (December to April); Le
  Kartala on Grand Comore is an active volcano

Environment - current issues:
  soil degradation and erosion results from crop cultivation on
  slopes without proper terracing; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
  Ship Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  important location at northern end of Mozambique Channel

People Comoros


Population:
  671,247 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 42.8% (male 144,075/female 143,175)
  15-64 years: 54.2% (male 179,541/female 184,488)
  65 years and over: 3% (male 9,407/female 10,561) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 18.61 years
  male: 18.35 years
  female: 18.87 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.91% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  37.52 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  8.4 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 74.93 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 83.48 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 66.13 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 61.96 years
  male: 59.65 years
  female: 64.33 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  5.09 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.12% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Comoran(s)
  adjective: Comoran

Ethnic groups:
  Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava

Religions:
  Sunni Muslim 98%, Roman Catholic 2%

Languages:
  Arabic (official), French (official), Shikomoro (a blend of Swahili
  and Arabic)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 56.5%
  male: 63.6%
  female: 49.3% (2003 est.)

Government Comoros


Country name:
  conventional long form: Union of the Comoros
  conventional short form: Comoros
  local long form: Union des Comores
  local short form: Comores

Government type:
  independent republic

Capital:
  Moroni

Administrative divisions:
  3 islands; Grande Comore (Njazidja), Anjouan (Nzwani), and Moheli
  (Mwali); note - there are also four municipalities named Domoni,
  Fomboni, Moroni, and Moutsamoudou

Independence:
  6 July 1975 (from France)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 6 July (1975)

Constitution:
  23 December 2001

Legal system:
  French and Sharia (Islamic) law in a new consolidated code

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President AZALI Assoumani (since 26 May 2002); note
  - following a 1999 coup AZALI was appointed president; in January
  2002 he resigned his position to run in the 14 April 2002
  presidential elections; Prime Minister Hamada Madi BOLERO was
  appointed interim president until replaced again by AZALI in May
  2002 when BOLERO was appointed Minister of External Defense and
  Territorial Security; the president is both the chief of state and
  the head of government
  head of government: President AZALI Assoumani (since 26 May 2002);
  note - following a 1999 coup AZALI was appointed president; in
  January 2002 he resigned his position to run in the 14 April 2002
  presidential elections; Prime Minister Hamada Madi BOLERO was
  appointed interim president until replaced again by AZALI in May
  2002 when BOLERO was appointed Minister of External Defense and
  Territorial Security; the president is both the chief of state and
  the head of government
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
  elections: as defined by the 2001 constitution, the presidency
  rotates every four years among the elected presidents from the three
  main islands in the Union; election last held 14 April 2002 (next to
  be held April 2007); prime minister appointed by the president; note
  - AZALI has not appointed a Prime Minister since he was sworn into
  office in May 2002
  election results: President AZALI Assoumani elected president with
  75% of the vote

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Assembly of the Union (33 seats; 15 deputies are
  selected by the individual islands' local assemblies and the 18 by
  universal suffrage; deputies serve for five years);
  elections: last held 18 and 25 April 2004 (next to be held NA 2009)
  election results: NA

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Cour Supremes (two members appointed by the
  president, two members elected by the Federal Assembly, one elected
  by the Council of each island, and others are former presidents of
  the republic)

Political parties and leaders:
  Forces pour l'Action Republicaine or FAR [Col. Abdourazak
  ABDULHAMID]; Forum pour la Redressement National or FRN (alliance of
  12 parties); Front Democratique or FD [Moustoifa Said CHEIKH]; Front
  National pour la Justice or FNJ (Islamic party in opposition) [Ahmed
  RACHID]; Movement des Citoyens pour la Republique or MCR [Mahamoud
  MRADABI]; Mouvement Populaire Anjouanais or MPA (Anjouan separatist
  movement) [leader NA]; Mouvement pour la Democratie et le Progress
  or MDP-NGDC [Abbas DJOUSSOUF]; Movement pour le Socialisme et la
  Democratie or MSD (splinter group of FD) [Abdou SOEFOU]; Parti
  Comorien pour la Democratie et le Progress or PCDP [Ali MROUDJAE];
  Rassemblement National pour le Development or RND (party of the
  government) [Omar TAMOU, Abdoulhamid AFFRAITANE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AMF, AU, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt
  (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (observer), ILO, IMF,
  IMO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, ITU, LAS, NAM, OIC, OPCW (signatory), UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Mahmoud M. ABOUD (ambassador to the US
  and Canada and permanent representative to the UN)
  chancery: (temporary) care of the Permanent Mission of the Union of
  the Comoros to the United Nations, 420 East 50th Street, New York,
  NY 10022
  telephone: [1] (212) 972-8010 and 223-2711
  FAX: [1] (212) 983-4712 and 715-0699

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  the US does not have an embassy in Comoros; the ambassador to
  Mauritius is accredited to Comoros

Flag description:
  four equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), white, red, and blue
  with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist; centered within
  the triangle is a white crescent with the convex side facing the
  hoist and four white, five-pointed stars placed vertically in a line
  between the points of the crescent; the horizontal bands and the
  four stars represent the four main islands of the archipelago -
  Mwali, Njazidja, Nzwani, and Mayotte (a territorial collectivity of
  France, but claimed by Comoros); the crescent, stars, and color
  green are traditional symbols of Islam

Economy Comoros


Economy - overview:
  One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros is made up of three
  islands that have inadequate transportation links, a young and
  rapidly increasing population, and few natural resources. The low
  educational level of the labor force contributes to a subsistence
  level of economic activity, high unemployment, and a heavy
  dependence on foreign grants and technical assistance. Agriculture,
  including fishing, hunting, and forestry, contributes 40% to GDP,
  employs 80% of the labor force, and provides most of the exports.
  The country is not self-sufficient in food production; rice, the
  main staple, accounts for the bulk of imports. The government -
  which is hampered by internal political disputes - is struggling to
  upgrade education and technical training, privatize commercial and
  industrial enterprises, improve health services, diversify exports,
  promote tourism, and reduce the high population growth rate.
  Increased foreign support is essential if the goal of 4% annual GDP
  growth is to be met. Remittances from 150,000 Comorans abroad help
  supplement GDP.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $441 million (2002 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  2% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $700 (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 40%
  industry: 4%
  services: 56% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
  144,500 (1996 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 80%

Unemployment rate:
  20% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  60% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.5% (2001 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $27.6 million
  expenditures: NA, including capital expenditures of NA (2001 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  vanilla, cloves, perfume essences, copra, coconuts, bananas,
  cassava (tapioca)

Industries:
  tourism, perfume distillation

Industrial production growth rate:
  -2% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production:
  23.84 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 90.6%
  hydro: 9.4%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  22.17 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  700 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Exports:
  $28 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  vanilla, ylang-ylang, cloves, perfume oil, copra

Exports - partners:
  US 43.8%, France 18.6%, Singapore 16.5%, Turkey 4.8%, Germany 4.5%
  (2004)

Imports:
  $88 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  rice and other foodstuffs, consumer goods; petroleum products,
  cement, transport equipment

Imports - partners:
  France 23.5%, South Africa 11.1%, Kenya 7.5%, UAE 7.2%, Italy 4.9%,
  Pakistan 4.7%, Mauritius 4.2%, Singapore 4.1% (2004)

Debt - external:
  $232 million (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $10 million (2001 est.)

Currency (code):
  Comoran franc (KMF)

Currency code:
  KMF

Exchange rates:
  Comoran francs (KMF) per US dollar - 396.21 (2004), 435.9 (2003),
  522.74 (2002), 549.78 (2001), 533.98 (2000)
  note: the Comoran franc is pegged to the euro at a rate of 491.9677
  Comoran francs per euro

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Comoros


Telephones - main lines in use:
  13,200 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  2,000 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: sparse system of microwave radio relay and HF
  radiotelephone communication stations
  domestic: HF radiotelephone communications and microwave radio relay
  international: country code - 269; HF radiotelephone communications
  to Madagascar and Reunion

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 4, shortwave 1 (2001)

Radios:
  90,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  NA

Televisions:
  1,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .km

Internet hosts:
  11 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  5,000 (2003)

Transportation Comoros


Highways:
  total: 880 km
  paved: 673 km
  unpaved: 207 km (1999 est)

Ports and harbors:
  Mayotte, Moutsamoudou

Merchant marine:
  total: 79 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 452,801 GRT/681,343 DWT
  by type: bulk carrier 9, cargo 55, chemical tanker 1, container 1,
  livestock carrier 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 5,
  refrigerated cargo 5, roll on/roll off 1
  foreign-owned: 35 (Bulgaria 1, Germany 1, Greece 7, India 1, Jordan
  1, Kenya 1, Lebanon 3, Nigeria 1, Norway 1, Pakistan 1, Philippines
  1, Russia 2, Syria 3, Turkey 6, Ukraine 4, United Kingdom 1) (2005)

Airports:
  4 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 4
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2004 est.)

Military Comoros


Military branches:
  Comoran Security Force

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 138,940 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 98,792 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $11.6 million (2004)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  3% (2004)

Transnational Issues Comoros


Disputes - international:
  claims French-administered Mayotte


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Congo, Democratic Republic of the

Introduction Congo, Democratic Republic of the


Background:
  Established as a Belgian colony in 1908, the Republic of the Congo
  gained its independence in 1960, but its early years were marred by
  political and social instability. Col. Joseph MOBUTU seized power
  and declared himself president in a November 1965 coup. He
  subsequently changed his name - to MOBUTU Sese Seko - as well as
  that of the country - to Zaire. MOBUTU retained his position for 32
  years through several subsequent sham elections as well as through
  the use of brutal force. Ethnic strife and civil war, touched off by
  a massive inflow of refugees in 1994 from fighting in Rwanda and
  Burundi, led in May 1997 to the toppling of the MOBUTU regime by a
  rebellion led by Laurent KABILA. He renamed the country the
  Democratic Republic of the Congo (DROC), but in August 1998 his
  regime was itself challenged by an insurrection backed by Rwanda and
  Uganda. Troops from Zimbabwe, Angola, Namibia, Chad, and Sudan
  intervened to support the Kinshasa regime. A cease-fire was signed
  in July 1999 by the DROC, Zimbabwe, Angola, Uganda, Namibia, Rwanda,
  and Congolese armed rebel groups, but sporadic fighting continued.
  Laurent KABILA was assassinated in January 2001 and his son Joseph
  KABILA was named head of state. In October 2002, the new president
  was successful in negotiating the withdrawal of Rwandan forces
  occupying eastern Congo; two months later, the Pretoria Accord was
  signed by all remaining warring parties to end the fighting and
  establish a government of national unity. A transitional government
  was set up in July 2003; Joseph KABILA remains as president and is
  joined by four vice presidents representing the former government,
  former rebel groups, and the political opposition.

Geography Congo, Democratic Republic of the


Location:
  Central Africa, northeast of Angola

Geographic coordinates:
  0 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 2,345,410 sq km
  land: 2,267,600 sq km
  water: 77,810 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly less than one-fourth the size of the US

Land boundaries:
  total: 10,730 km
  border countries: Angola 2,511 km (of which 225 km is the boundary
  of Angola's discontiguous Cabinda Province), Burundi 233 km, Central
  African Republic 1,577 km, Republic of the Congo 2,410 km, Rwanda
  217 km, Sudan 628 km, Tanzania 459 km, Uganda 765 km, Zambia 1,930 km

Coastline:
  37 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive economic zone: boundaries with neighbors

Climate:
  tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and drier
  in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands; north
  of Equator - wet season April to October, dry season December to
  February; south of Equator - wet season November to March, dry
  season April to October

Terrain:
  vast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains in east

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Pic Marguerite on Mont Ngaliema (Mount Stanley) 5,110
  m

Natural resources:
  cobalt, copper, niobium, tantalum, petroleum, industrial and gem
  diamonds, gold, silver, zinc, manganese, tin, uranium, coal,
  hydropower, timber

Land use:
  arable land: 2.96%
  permanent crops: 0.52%
  other: 96.52% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  110 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  periodic droughts in south; Congo River floods (seasonal); in the
  east, in the Great Rift Valley, there are active volcanoes

Environment - current issues:
  poaching threatens wildlife populations; water pollution;
  deforestation; refugees responsible for significant deforestation,
  soil erosion, and wildlife poaching; mining of minerals (coltan - a
  mineral used in creating capacitors, diamonds, and gold) causing
  environmental damage

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone
  Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Geography - note:
  straddles equator; has very narrow strip of land that controls the
  lower Congo River and is only outlet to South Atlantic Ocean; dense
  tropical rain forest in central river basin and eastern highlands

People Congo, Democratic Republic of the


Population:
  60,085,804
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 48.1% (male 14,513,779/female 14,396,952)
  15-64 years: 49.4% (male 14,579,101/female 15,121,297)
  65 years and over: 2.5% (male 597,776/female 876,099) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 15.8 years
  male: 15.4 years
  female: 16.2 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.98% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  44.38 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  14.43 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  -0.17 migrant(s)/1,000 population
  note: fighting between the Congolese Government and Uganda- and
  Rwanda-backed Congolese rebels spawned a regional war in DROC in
  August 1998, which left 1.8 million Congolese internally displaced
  and caused 300,000 Congolese refugees to flee to surrounding
  countries (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.01 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 92.87 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 101.25 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 84.23 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 51.1 years
  male: 49.68 years
  female: 52.56 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  6.54 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  4.2% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  1.1 million (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  100,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: very high
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea,
  hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
  vectorborne diseases: malaria, plague, and African trypanosomiasis
  (sleeping sickness) are high risks in some locations
  water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2004)

Nationality:
  noun: Congolese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Congolese or Congo

Ethnic groups:
  over 200 African ethnic groups of which the majority are Bantu; the
  four largest tribes - Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all Bantu), and the
  Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) make up about 45% of the population

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Kimbanguist 10%, Muslim 10%,
  other syncretic sects and indigenous beliefs 10%

Languages:
  French (official), Lingala (a lingua franca trade language),
  Kingwana (a dialect of Kiswahili or Swahili), Kikongo, Tshiluba

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write French, Lingala,
  Kingwana, or Tshiluba
  total population: 65.5%
  male: 76.2%
  female: 55.1% (2003 est.)

Government Congo, Democratic Republic of the


Country name:
  conventional long form: Democratic Republic of the Congo
  conventional short form: none
  local long form: Republique Democratique du Congo
  local short form: none
  former: Congo Free State, Belgian Congo, Congo/Leopoldville,
  Congo/Kinshasa, Zaire
  abbreviation: DROC

Government type:
  dictatorship; presumably undergoing a transition to representative
  government

Capital:
  Kinshasa

Administrative divisions:
  10 provinces (provinces, singular - province) and 1 city* (ville);
  Bandundu, Bas-Congo, Equateur, Kasai-Occidental, Kasai-Oriental,
  Katanga, Kinshasa*, Maniema, Nord-Kivu, Orientale, Sud-Kivu

Independence:
  30 June 1960 (from Belgium)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 30 June (1960)

Constitution:
  new constitution adopted 17 July 2003

Legal system:
  based on Belgian civil law system and tribal law; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Joseph KABILA (since 26 January 2001);
  note - following the assassination of his father, Laurent Desire
  KABILA, on 16 January 2001, Joseph KABILA succeeded to the
  presidency; the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government
  head of government: President Joseph KABILA (since 26 January 2001);
  note - following the assassination of his father, Laurent Desire
  KABILA, on 16 January 2001, Joseph KABILA succeeded to the
  presidency; the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government
  cabinet: National Executive Council, appointed by the president
  elections: prior to the overthrow of MOBUTU Sese Seko, the president
  was elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last
  held 29 July 1984 (next was scheduled to be held in May 1997);
  formerly, there was also a prime minister who was elected by the
  High Council of the Republic; note - a Transitional Government is
  drafting a new constitution with free elections scheduled to be held
  in NA 2005
  election results: MOBUTU Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga
  reelected president in 1984 without opposition
  note: Joseph KABILA succeeded his father, Laurent Desire KABILA,
  following the latter's assassination in January 2001, negotiations
  with rebel leaders led to the establishment of a transitional
  government in July 2003 with free elections scheduled to be held in
  NA 2005

Legislative branch:
  a 300-member Transitional Constituent Assembly established in
  August 2000
  elections: NA; members of the Transitional Constituent Assembly were
  appointed by former President Laurent Desire KABILA

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders:
  Democratic Social Christian Party or PDSC [Andre BO-BOLIKO]; Forces
  for Renovation for Union and Solidarity or FONUS [Joseph
  OLENGHANKOY]; National Congolese Lumumbist Movement or MNC [Francois
  LUMUMBA]; Popular Movement of the Revolution or MPR (three factions:
  MPR-Fait Prive [Catherine NZUZI wa Mbombo]; MPR/Vunduawe [Felix
  VUNDUAWE]; MPR/Mananga [MANANGA Dintoka Mpholo]); Unified Lumumbast
  Party or PALU [Antoine GIZENGA]; Union for Democracy and Social
  Progress or UDPS [Etienne TSHISEKEDI wa Mulumba]; Union of
  Federalists and Independent Republicans or UFERI (two factions:
  UFERI [Lokambo OMOKOKO]; UFERI/OR [Adolph Kishwe MAYA])

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, CEPGL, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
  ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW
  (signatory), PCA, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
  WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Faida MITIFU
  chancery: 1800 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009: note -
  Consular Office at 1726 M Street, NW, Wasington, DC, 20036
  telephone: [1] (202) 234-7690, 7691
  FAX: [1] (202) 234-2609

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Aubrey HOOKS
  embassy: 310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa
  mailing address: Unit 31550, APO AE 09828
  telephone: [243] (88) 43608
  FAX: [243] (88) 43467

Flag description:
  light blue with a large yellow five-pointed star in the center and
  a columnar arrangement of six small yellow five-pointed stars along
  the hoist side

Economy Congo, Democratic Republic of the


Economy - overview:
  The economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo - a nation
  endowed with vast potential wealth - has declined drastically since
  the mid-1980s. The war, which began in August 1998, dramatically
  reduced national output and government revenue, increased external
  debt, and resulted in the deaths of perhaps 3.5 million people from
  war, famine, and disease. Foreign businesses curtailed operations
  due to uncertainty about the outcome of the conflict, lack of
  infrastructure, and the difficult operating environment. Conditions
  improved in late 2002 with the withdrawal of a large portion of the
  invading foreign troops. Several IMF and World Bank missions have
  met with the government to help it develop a coherent economic plan,
  and President KABILA has begun implementing reforms. Much economic
  activity lies outside the GDP data. Economic stability, aided by
  international donors, improved in 2003-04, although an uncertain
  legal framework, corruption, and a lack of openness in government
  policy continues to hamper growth. In 2005, renewed activity in the
  mining sector, the source of most exports, could boost Kinshasa's
  fiscal position and GDP growth.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $42.74 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  7.5% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $700 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 55%
  industry: 11%
  services: 34% (2000 est.)

Labor force:
  14.51 million (1993 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  NA

Unemployment rate:
  NA (2003 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  NA

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  14% (2003 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $269 million
  expenditures: $244 million, including capital expenditures of $24
  million (1996 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  coffee, sugar, palm oil, rubber, tea, quinine, cassava (tapioca),
  palm oil, bananas, root crops, corn, fruits; wood products

Industries:
  mining (diamonds, copper, zinc), mineral processing, consumer
  products (including textiles, footwear, cigarettes, processed foods
  and beverages), cement, commercial ship repair

Industrial production growth rate:
  NA

Electricity - production:
  6.086 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 1.8%
  hydro: 98.2%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  4.168 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  1.5 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  8 million kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  24,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  14,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Oil - proved reserves:
  1.538 billion bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  104.8 billion cu m (1 January 2002)

Exports:
  $1.417 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  diamonds, copper, crude oil, coffee, cobalt

Exports - partners:
  Belgium 47.8%, Finland 21%, US 10.9%, China 7.6% (2004)

Imports:
  $933 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  foodstuffs, mining and other machinery, transport equipment, fuels

Imports - partners:
  South Africa 18.5%, Belgium 15.5%, France 10.8%, Kenya 6.3%, US 6%,
  Germany 5.8% (2004)

Debt - external:
  $11.6 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $195.3 million (1995)

Currency (code):
  Congolese franc (CDF)

Currency code:
  CDF

Exchange rates:
  Congolese francs per US dollar - 401.04 (2004), 405.34 (2003),
  346.49 (2002), 206.62 (2001), 21.82 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Congo, Democratic Republic of the


Telephones - main lines in use:
  10,000 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1 million (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: poor
  domestic: barely adequate wire and microwave radio relay service in
  and between urban areas; domestic satellite system with 14 earth
  stations
  international: country code - 243; satellite earth station - 1
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 3, FM 11, shortwave 2 (2001)

Radios:
  18.03 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  4 (2001)

Televisions:
  6.478 million (1997)

Internet country code:
  .cd

Internet hosts:
  153 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2001)

Internet users:
  50,000 (2002)

Transportation Congo, Democratic Republic of the


Railways:
  total: 5,138 km
  narrow gauge: 3,987 km 1.067-m gauge (858 km electrified); 125 km
  1.000-m gauge; 1,026 km 0.600-m gauge (2004)

Highways:
  total: 157,000 km (including 30 km of expressways)
  paved: NA km
  unpaved: NA km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  15,000 km (navigation on the Congo curtailed by fighting) (2004)

Pipelines:
  gas 54 km; oil 71 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Banana, Boma, Bukavu, Bumba, Goma, Kalemie, Kindu, Kinshasa,
  Kisangani, Matadi, Mbandaka

Merchant marine:
  registered in other countries: 1

Airports:
  230 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 24
  over 3,047 m: 4
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
  914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 206
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
  914 to 1,523 m: 92
  under 914 m: 97 (2004 est.)

Military Congo, Democratic Republic of the


Military branches:
  Army, Navy, Air Force

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 11,052,696 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 5,851,292 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $93.5 million (2004)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  1.5% (2004)

Transnational Issues Congo, Democratic Republic of the


Disputes - international:
  heads of the Great Lakes states and UN pledge to end conflict but
  unchecked tribal, rebel, and militia fighting continues unabated in
  the northeastern region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo,
  drawing in the neighboring states of Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda; the
  UN Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
  (MONUC) has maintained over 14,000 peacekeepers in the region since
  1999; thousands of Ituri refugees from the Congo continue to flee
  the fighting primarily into Uganda; 90,000 Angolan refugees were
  repatriated by 2004 with the remainder in the Democratic Republic of
  the Congo expected to return in 2005; in 2005, DROC and Rwanda
  established a border verification mechanism to address accusations
  of Rwandan military supporting Congolese rebels and the DROC
  providing rebel Rwandan "Interhamwe" forces the means and bases to
  attack Rwandan forces; the location of the boundary in the broad
  Congo River with the Republic of the Congo is indefinite except in
  the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  refugees (country of origin): 45,060 (Sudan) 100,000 (Angola)
  19,552 (Burundi) 6,626 (Republic of Congo) 19,743 (Rwanda) 18,953
  (Uganda)
  IDPs: 2.33 million (fighting between government forces and rebels
  since mid-1990s; most IDPs are in eastern provinces) (2004)

Illicit drugs:
  illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for domestic consumption;
  while rampant corruption and inadequate supervision leaves the
  banking system vulnerable to money laundering, the lack of a
  well-developed financial system limits the country's utility as a
  money-laundering center


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Congo, Republic of the

Introduction Congo, Republic of the


Background:
  Upon independence in 1960, the former French region of Middle Congo
  became the Republic of the Congo. A quarter century of
  experimentation with Marxism was abandoned in 1990 and a
  democratically elected government installed in 1992. A brief civil
  war in 1997 restored former Marxist President SASSOU-NGUESSO, but
  ushered in a period of ethnic unrest. Southern-based rebel groups
  agreed to a final peace accord in March 2003, but the calm is
  tenuous and refugees continue to present a humanitarian crisis. The
  Republic of Congo is one of Africa's largest petroleum producers
  with significant potential for offshore development.

Geography Congo, Republic of the


Location:
  Western Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola
  and Gabon

Geographic coordinates:
  1 00 S, 15 00 E

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 342,000 sq km
  land: 341,500 sq km
  water: 500 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,504 km
  border countries: Angola 201 km, Cameroon 523 km, Central African
  Republic 467 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,410 km, Gabon
  1,903 km

Coastline:
  169 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to
  October); constantly high temperatures and humidity; particularly
  enervating climate astride the Equator

Terrain:
  coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern basin

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mount Berongou 903 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium, copper, phosphates,
  gold, magnesium, natural gas, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 0.51%
  permanent crops: 0.13%
  other: 99.36% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  10 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  seasonal flooding

Environment - current issues:
  air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from the
  dumping of raw sewage; tap water is not potable; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber
  94, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:
  about 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, or
  along the railroad between them

People Congo, Republic of the


Population:
  3,039,126
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 37.3% (male 571,011/female 563,414)
  15-64 years: 59% (male 886,297/female 907,348)
  65 years and over: 3.7% (male 45,799/female 65,257) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 20.7 years
  male: 20.2 years
  female: 21.1 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.31% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  27.88 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  14.82 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.01 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 92.41 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 98.48 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 86.16 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 52.26 years
  male: 51.17 years
  female: 53.39 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  3.54 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  4.9% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  90,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  9,700 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: very high
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and
  typhoid fever
  vectorborne disease: malaria (2004)

Nationality:
  noun: Congolese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Congolese or Congo

Ethnic groups:
  Kongo 48%, Sangha 20%, M'Bochi 12%, Teke 17%, Europeans and other 3%
  note: Europeans estimated at 8,500, mostly French, before the 1997
  civil war; may be half that in 1998, following the widespread
  destruction of foreign businesses in 1997

Religions:
  Christian 50%, animist 48%, Muslim 2%

Languages:
  French (official), Lingala and Monokutuba (lingua franca trade
  languages), many local languages and dialects (of which Kikongo is
  the most widespread)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 83.8%
  male: 89.6%
  female: 78.4% (2003 est.)

Government Congo, Republic of the


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of the Congo
  conventional short form: Congo (Brazzaville)
  local long form: Republique du Congo
  local short form: none
  former: Middle Congo, Congo/Brazzaville, Congo

Government type:
  republic

Capital:
  Brazzaville

Administrative divisions:
  10 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 commune*; Bouenza,
  Brazzaville*, Cuvette, Cuvette-Ouest, Kouilou, Lekoumou, Likouala,
  Niari, Plateaux, Pool, Sangha

Independence:
  15 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 15 August (1960)

Constitution:
  approved by referendum 20 January 2002

Legal system:
  based on French civil law system and customary law

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO (since 25 October
  1997, following the civil war in which he toppled elected president
  Pascal LISSOUBA); note - the president is both the chief of state
  and head of government
  head of government: President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO (since 25 October
  1997, following the civil war in which he toppled elected president
  Pascal LISSOUBA); note - the president is both the chief of state
  and head of government
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term
  (eligible for a second seven-year term); election last held 10 March
  2002 (next to be held NA 2009)
  election results: Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO reelected president; percent
  of vote - Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO 89.4%, Joseph Kignoumbi Kia MBOUNGOU
  2.7%

Legislative branch:
  bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (66 seats; members are
  elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the National
  Assembly (137 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
  five-year terms)
  elections: Senate - last held 11 July 2002 (next to be held July
  2007); National Assembly - last held 27 May and 26 June 2002 (next
  to be held by NA May 2007)
  election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by
  party - FDP 56, other 10; National Assembly - percent of vote by
  party - NA%; seats by party - FDP 83, UDR 6, UPADS 3, other 45

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders:
  the most important of the many parties are the Democratic and
  Patriotic Forces or FDP (an alliance of Convention for Alternative
  Democracy, Congolese Labor Party or PCT, Liberal Republican Party,
  National Union for Democracy and Progress, Patriotic Union for the
  National Reconstruction, and Union for the National Renewal) [Denis
  SASSOU-NGUESSO, president]; Congolese Movement for Democracy and
  Integral Development or MCDDI [Michel MAMPOUYA]; Pan-African Union
  for Social Development or UPADS [Martin MBERI]; Rally for Democracy
  and Social Progress or RDPS [Jean-Pierre Thystere TCHICAYA,
  president]; Rally for Democracy and the Republic or RDR [Raymond
  Damasge NGOLLO]; Union for Democracy and Republic or UDR [leader
  NA]; Union of Democratic Forces or UFD [Sebastian EBAO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Congolese Trade Union Congress or CSC; General Union of Congolese
  Pupils and Students or UGEEC; Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women
  or URFC; Union of Congolese Socialist Youth or UJSC

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt,
  ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC,
  IOM, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
  UNOCI, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Serge MOMBOULI
  chancery: 4891 Colorado Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20011
  telephone: [1] (202) 726-5500
  FAX: [1] (202) 726-1860

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Roger A. MEECE
  embassy: NA
  mailing address: NA
  telephone: [243] (88) 43608
  note: the embassy is temporarily collocated with the US Embassy in
  the Democratic Republic of the Congo (US Embassy Kinshasa, 310
  Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa)

Flag description:
  divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a yellow band; the
  upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is red;
  uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Economy Congo, Republic of the


Economy - overview:
  The economy is a mixture of village agriculture and handicrafts, an
  industrial sector based largely on oil, support services, and a
  government characterized by budget problems and overstaffing. Oil
  has supplanted forestry as the mainstay of the economy, providing a
  major share of government revenues and exports. In the early 1980s,
  rapidly rising oil revenues enabled the government to finance
  large-scale development projects with GDP growth averaging 5%
  annually, one of the highest rates in Africa. The government has
  mortgaged a substantial portion of its oil earnings, contributing to
  a shortage of revenues. The 12 January 1994 devaluation of Franc
  Zone currencies by 50% resulted in inflation of 61% in 1994, but
  inflation has subsided since. Economic reform efforts continued with
  the support of international organizations, notably the World Bank
  and the IMF. The reform program came to a halt in June 1997 when
  civil war erupted. Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO, who returned to power when
  the war ended in October 1997, publicly expressed interest in moving
  forward on economic reforms and privatization and in renewing
  cooperation with international financial institutions. However,
  economic progress was badly hurt by slumping oil prices and the
  resumption of armed conflict in December 1998, which worsened the
  republic's budget deficit. The current administration presides over
  an uneasy internal peace and faces difficult economic challenges of
  stimulating recovery and reducing poverty.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $2.324 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3.7% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $800 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 7.4%
  industry: 52%
  services: 40.6% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  NA

Unemployment rate:
  NA (2003)

Population below poverty line:
  NA

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1.8% (2004 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  25.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $870.1 million
  expenditures: $1.102 billion, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  cassava (tapioca), sugar, rice, corn, peanuts, vegetables, coffee,
  cocoa; forest products

Industries:
  petroleum extraction, cement, lumber, brewing, sugar, palm oil,
  soap, flour, cigarettes

Industrial production growth rate:
  0% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:
  348 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 0.3%
  hydro: 99.7%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  573.6 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  250 million kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  227,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  5,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Oil - proved reserves:
  93.5 million bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  495.5 million cu m (1 January 2002)

Current account balance:
  $266 million (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $2.224 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  petroleum, lumber, plywood, sugar, cocoa, coffee, diamonds

Exports - partners:
  China 26.8%, Taiwan 19.2%, North Korea 8.4%, US 7.3%, France 5.5%,
  South Korea 4.8% (2004)

Imports:
  $749.3 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  capital equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  France 32.7%, US 10.1%, Germany 6.2%, Italy 6%, China 5.2%,
  Netherlands 4.5% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $40.42 million (2004 est.)

Debt - external:
  $5 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $159.1 million (1995)

Currency (code):
  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible
  authority is the Bank of the Central African States

Currency code:
  XAF

Exchange rates:
  Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 528.29
  (2004), 581.2 (2003), 696.99 (2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Congo, Republic of the


Telephones - main lines in use:
  7,000 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  330,000 (2003)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: services barely adequate for government use;
  key exchanges are in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo;
  intercity lines frequently out of order
  domestic: primary network consists of microwave radio relay and
  coaxial cable
  international: country code - 242; satellite earth station - 1
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 3 (2001)

Radios:
  341,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (2002)

Televisions:
  33,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .cg

Internet hosts:
  46 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  1 (2000)

Internet users:
  15,000 (2003)

Transportation Congo, Republic of the


Railways:
  total: 894 km
  narrow gauge: 894 km 1.067-m gauge (2004)

Highways:
  total: 12,800 km
  paved: 1,242 km
  unpaved: 11,558 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:
  4,385 km (on Congo and Oubanqui rivers) (2004)

Pipelines:
  gas 53 km; oil 646 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Brazzaville, Djeno, Impfondo, Ouesso, Oyo, Pointe-Noire

Airports:
  32 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 4
  over 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 28
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
  914 to 1,523 m: 11
  under 914 m: 11 (2004 est.)

Military Congo, Republic of the


Military branches:
  Congolese Armed Forces (FAC): Army, Air Force (Armee de l'Air
  Congolaise), Navy, Gendarmerie, Republican Guard (2005)

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age for voluntary military service (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 686,123 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 360,492 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males: 34,281 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $126.5 million (2004)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  2.8% (2004)

Transnational Issues Congo, Republic of the


Disputes - international:
  about 7,000 Congolese refugees fleeing internal civil conflicts
  since the mid-1990s still reside in the Democratic Republic of the
  Congo; the location of the boundary in the broad Congo River with
  the Democratic Republic of the Congo is indefinite except in the
  Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
  IDPs: 60,000 (multiple civil wars since 1992; most IDPs are ethnic
  Lari) (2004)


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Cook Islands

Introduction Cook Islands


Background:
  Named after Captain COOK, who sighted them in 1770, the islands
  became a British protectorate in 1888. By 1900, administrative
  control was transferred to New Zealand; in 1965 residents chose
  self-government in free association with New Zealand. The emigration
  of skilled workers to New Zealand and government deficits are
  continuing problems.

Geography Cook Islands


Location:
  Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about
  one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates:
  21 14 S, 159 46 W

Map references:
  Oceania

Area:
  total: 240 sq km
  land: 240 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
  1.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  120 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate:
  tropical; moderated by trade winds

Terrain:
  low coral atolls in north; volcanic, hilly islands in south

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Te Manga 652 m

Natural resources:
  NEGL

Land use:
  arable land: 17.39%
  permanent crops: 13.04%
  other: 69.57% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  NA

Natural hazards:
  typhoons (November to March)

Environment - current issues:
  NA

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  the northern Cook Islands are seven low-lying, sparsely populated,
  coral atolls; the southern Cook Islands consist of eight elevated,
  fertile, volcanic isles where most of the populace lives

People Cook Islands


Population:
  21,388 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: NA
  15-64 years: NA
  65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate:
  NA

Birth rate:
  NA

Death rate:
  NA

Sex ratio:
  NA

Infant mortality rate:
  total: NA
  male: NA
  female: NA

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: NA
  male: NA
  female: NA

Total fertility rate:
  NA children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA

Nationality:
  noun: Cook Islander(s)
  adjective: Cook Islander

Ethnic groups:
  Cook Island Maori (Polynesian) 87.7%, part Cook Island Maori 5.8%,
  other 6.5% (2001 census)

Religions:
  Cook Islands Christian Church 55.9%, Roman Catholic 16.8%, Seventh
  Day Saint 7.9%, Church of Latter Day Saints 3.8%, other Protestant
  5.8%, other 4.2%, unspecified 2.6%, none 3% (2001 census)

Languages:
  English (official), Maori

Literacy:
  definition: NA
  total population: 95%
  male: NA%
  female: NA%

Government Cook Islands


Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Cook Islands
  former: Harvey Islands

Dependency status:
  self-governing in free association with New Zealand; Cook Islands
  is fully responsible for internal affairs; New Zealand retains
  responsibility for external affairs and defense, in consultation
  with the Cook Islands

Government type:
  self-governing parliamentary democracy

Capital:
  Avarua

Administrative divisions:
  none

Independence:
  none (became self-governing in free association with New Zealand on
  4 August 1965 and has the right at any time to move to full
  independence by unilateral action)

National holiday:
  Constitution Day, first Monday in August (1965)

Constitution:
  4 August 1965

Legal system:
  based on New Zealand law and English common law

Suffrage:
  NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Frederick GOODWIN (since 9 February 2001); New
  Zealand High Commissioner Kurt MEYER (since July 2001),
  representative of New Zealand
  head of government: Prime Minister Jim MARURAI (since 14 December
  2004); Deputy Prime Minister Terepai MAOATE (since 9 August 2005)
  cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister; collectively
  responsible to Parliament
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the UK representative is
  appointed by the monarch; the New Zealand high commissioner is
  appointed by the New Zealand Government; following legislative
  elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the
  majority coalition usually becomes prime minister

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Parliament (25 seats; members elected by popular vote to
  serve five-year terms)
  elections: last held 7 September 2004 (next to be held by 2009)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  CIP 10, DAP 9, Demo Tumu 4, independent 1; note - one seat undecided
  pending by-election
  note: the House of Ariki (chiefs) advises on traditional matters and
  maintains considerable influence, but has no legislative powers

Judicial branch:
  High Court

Political parties and leaders:
  Cook Islands People's Party or CIP [Geoffrey HENRY]; Democratic
  Alliance Party or DAP [Terepai MAOATE]; New Alliance Party or NAP
  [Norman GEORGE]; Cook Islands National Party or CIN [Teariki
  HEATHER]; Demo Party Tumu [Robert WOONTON]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACP, AsDB, FAO, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, IFRCS, IOC, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca,
  UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (self-governing in free association with New Zealand)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (self-governing in free association with New Zealand)

Flag description:
  blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
  a large circle of 15 white five-pointed stars (one for every island)
  centered in the outer half of the flag

Economy Cook Islands


Economy - overview:
  Like many other South Pacific island nations, the Cook Islands'
  economic development is hindered by the isolation of the country
  from foreign markets, the limited size of domestic markets, lack of
  natural resources, periodic devastation from natural disasters, and
  inadequate infrastructure. Agriculture provides the economic base
  with major exports made up of copra and citrus fruit. Manufacturing
  activities are limited to fruit processing, clothing, and
  handicrafts. Trade deficits are offset by remittances from emigrants
  and by foreign aid, overwhelmingly from New Zealand. In the 1980s
  and 1990s, the country lived beyond its means, maintaining a bloated
  public service and accumulating a large foreign debt. Subsequent
  reforms, including the sale of state assets, the strengthening of
  economic management, the encouragement of tourism, and a debt
  restructuring agreement, have rekindled investment and growth.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $105 million (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  7.1% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $5,000 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 17%
  industry: 7.8%
  services: 75.2% (2000 est.)

Labor force:
  8,000 (1996)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 29%, industry 15%, services 56%
  note: shortage of skilled labor (1995)

Unemployment rate:
  13% (1996)

Population below poverty line:
  NA

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA
  highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  3.2% (2000 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $28 million
  expenditures: $27 million, including capital expenditures of $3.3
  million (FY00/01 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  copra, citrus, pineapples, tomatoes, beans, pawpaws, bananas, yams,
  taro, coffee; pigs, poultry

Industries:
  fruit processing, tourism, fishing, clothing, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate:
  1% (2002)

Electricity - production:
  27 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  25.11 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  450 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Exports:
  $9.1 million (2000)

Exports - commodities:
  copra, papayas, fresh and canned citrus fruit, coffee; fish; pearls
  and pearl shells; clothing

Exports - partners:
  Australia 34%, Japan 27%, New Zealand 25%, US 8% (2000)

Imports:
  $50.7 million (2000)

Imports - commodities:
  foodstuffs, textiles, fuels, timber, capital goods

Imports - partners:
  New Zealand 61%, Fiji 19%, US 9%, Australia 6%, Japan 2% (2000)

Debt - external:
  $141 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  $13.1 million; note - New Zealand continues to furnish the greater
  part (1995)

Currency (code):
  New Zealand dollar (NZD)

Currency code:
  NZD

Exchange rates:
  New Zealand dollars per US dollar - 1.5087 (2004), 1.7221 (2003),
  2.1622 (2002), 2.3788 (2001), 2.2012 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  1 April - 31 March

Communications Cook Islands


Telephones - main lines in use:
  6,200 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  1,500 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: Telecom Cook Islands offers international
  direct dialing, Internet, email, fax, and Telex
  domestic: the individual islands are connected by a combination of
  satellite earth stations, microwave systems, and VHF and HF
  radiotelephone; within the islands, service is provided by small
  exchanges connected to subscribers by open-wire, cable, and
  fiber-optic cable
  international: country code - 682; satellite earth station - 1
  Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (2004)

Radios:
  14,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  1 (outer islands receive satellite broadcasts) (2004)

Televisions:
  4,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .ck

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  3 (2000)

Internet users:
  3,600 (2002)

Transportation Cook Islands


Highways:
  total: 320 km
  paved: 33 km
  unpaved: 287 km (2000)

Ports and harbors:
  Avatiu

Merchant marine:
  total: 1 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 4,074 GRT/7,520 DWT
  by type: petroleum tanker 1 (2005)

Airports:
  9 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 7
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 4
  under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Military Cook Islands


Military branches:
  no regular military forces; Ministry of Police and Disaster
  Management (2004)

Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of New Zealand, in consultation with
  the Cook Islands and at its request

Transnational Issues Cook Islands


Disputes - international:
  none


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Coral Sea Islands

Introduction Coral Sea Islands


Background:
  Scattered over some 1 million square kilometers of ocean, the Coral
  Sea Islands were declared a territory of Australia in 1969. They are
  uninhabited except for a small meteorological staff on the Willis
  Islets. Automated weather stations, beacons, and a lighthouse occupy
  many other islands and reefs.

Geography Coral Sea Islands


Location:
  Oceania, islands in the Coral Sea, northeast of Australia

Geographic coordinates:
  18 00 S, 152 00 E

Map references:
  Oceania

Area:
  total: less than 3 sq km
  land: less than 3 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  note: includes numerous small islands and reefs scattered over a sea
  area of about 780,000 sq km, with the Willis Islets the most
  important

Area - comparative:
  NA

Land boundaries:
  0 km

Coastline:
  3,095 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 3 nm
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical

Terrain:
  sand and coral reefs and islands (or cays)

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: unnamed location on Cato Island 6 m

Natural resources:
  NEGL

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  other: 100% (mostly grass or scrub cover) (2001)

Irrigated land:
  0 sq km

Natural hazards:
  occasional tropical cyclones

Environment - current issues:
  no permanent fresh water resources

Geography - note:
  important nesting area for birds and turtles

People Coral Sea Islands


Population:
  no indigenous inhabitants
  note: there is a staff of three to four at the meteorological
  station (2005 est.)

Government Coral Sea Islands


Country name:
  conventional long form: Coral Sea Islands Territory
  conventional short form: Coral Sea Islands

Dependency status:
  territory of Australia; administered from Canberra by the
  Department of the Environment, Sport, and Territories

Legal system:
  the laws of Australia, where applicable, apply

Executive branch:
  administered from Canberra by the Department of the Environment,
  Sport, and Territories

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  none (territory of Australia)

Flag description:
  the flag of Australia is used

Economy Coral Sea Islands


Economy - overview:
  no economic activity

Communications Coral Sea Islands


Communications - note:
  there are automatic weather stations on many of the isles and reefs
  relaying data to the mainland

Transportation Coral Sea Islands


Ports and harbors:
  none; offshore anchorage only

Military Coral Sea Islands


Military - note:
  defense is the responsibility of Australia; visited regularly by
  the Royal Australian Navy; Australia has control over the activities
  of visitors

Transnational Issues Coral Sea Islands


Disputes - international:
  none


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Costa Rica

Introduction Costa Rica


Background:
  Costa Rica is a Central American success story: since the late 19th
  century, only two brief periods of violence have marred its
  democratic development. Although still a largely agricultural
  country, it has expanded its economy to include strong technology
  and tourism sectors. The standard of living is relatively high. Land
  ownership is widespread.

Geography Costa Rica


Location:
  Central America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North
  Pacific Ocean, between Nicaragua and Panama

Geographic coordinates:
  10 00 N, 84 00 W

Map references:
  Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 51,100 sq km
  land: 50,660 sq km
  water: 440 sq km
  note: includes Isla del Coco

Area - comparative:
  slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
  total: 639 km
  border countries: Nicaragua 309 km, Panama 330 km

Coastline:
  1,290 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical and subtropical; dry season (December to April); rainy
  season (May to November); cooler in highlands

Terrain:
  coastal plains separated by rugged mountains including over 100
  volcanic cones, of which several are major volcanoes

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Cerro Chirripo 3,810 m

Natural resources:
  hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 4.41%
  permanent crops: 5.88%
  other: 89.71% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  1,260 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  occasional earthquakes, hurricanes along Atlantic coast; frequent
  flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season and landslides; active
  volcanoes

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation and land use change, largely a result of the clearing
  of land for cattle ranching and agriculture; soil erosion; coastal
  marine pollution; fisheries protection; solid waste management; air
  pollution

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
  Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:
  four volcanoes, two of them active, rise near the capital of San
  Jose in the center of the country; one of the volcanoes, Irazu,
  erupted destructively in 1963-65

People Costa Rica


Population:
  4,016,173 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 28.9% (male 593,540/female 566,361)
  15-64 years: 65.5% (male 1,330,481/female 1,300,664)
  65 years and over: 5.6% (male 104,564/female 120,563) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 26.03 years
  male: 25.59 years
  female: 26.5 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  1.48% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  18.6 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  4.33 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 9.95 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 10.85 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 76.84 years
  male: 74.26 years
  female: 79.55 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  2.28 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.6% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  12,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  900 (2003 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Costa Rican(s)
  adjective: Costa Rican

Ethnic groups:
  white (including mestizo) 94%, black 3%, Amerindian 1%, Chinese 1%,
  other 1%

Religions:
  Roman Catholic 76.3%, Evangelical 13.7%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.3%,
  other Protestant 0.7%, other 4.8%, none 3.2%

Languages:
  Spanish (official), English

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 96%
  male: 95.9%
  female: 96.1% (2003 est.)

Government Costa Rica


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Costa Rica
  conventional short form: Costa Rica
  local long form: Republica de Costa Rica
  local short form: Costa Rica

Government type:
  democratic republic

Capital:
  San Jose

Administrative divisions:
  7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Alajuela, Cartago,
  Guanacaste, Heredia, Limon, Puntarenas, San Jose

Independence:
  15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution:
  7 November 1949

Legal system:
  based on Spanish civil law system; judicial review of legislative
  acts in the Supreme Court; has accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Abel PACHECO (since 8 May 2002); First
  Vice President Lineth SABORIO (since 8 May 2002); Second Vice
  President (vacant); note - the president is both the chief of state
  and head of government
  head of government: President Abel PACHECO (since 8 May 2002); First
  Vice President Lineth SABORIO (since 8 May 2002); Second Vice
  President (vacant); note - the president is both the chief of state
  and head of government
  cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president
  elections: president and vice presidents elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 3 February
  2002; run-off election held 7 April 2002 (next to be held February
  2006)
  election results: Abel PACHECO elected president; percent of vote -
  Abel PACHECO (PUSC) 58%; Rolando ARAYA (PLN) 42%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa (57 seats;
  members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 3 February 2002 (next to be held 3 February
  2006)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  PUSC 19, PLN 17, PAC 14, PML 6, PRC 1; note - seats by party as of
  January 2005 - PUSC 19, PLN 16, PAC 8, PML 5, PRC 1, Patriotic Union
  3, Homeland First 1, Authentic Member from Heredia 1, Democratic
  National Alliance 1, independent 2

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (22 justices are elected for
  eight-year terms by the Legislative Assembly)

Political parties and leaders:
  Authentic Member from Heredia [Jose SALAS]; Citizen Action Party or
  PAC [Otton SOLIS]; Costa Rican Renovation Party or PRC [Justo
  OROZCO]; Democratic Force Party or PFD [Juan Carlos CHAVES Mora];
  Democratic National Alliance [Emilia RODRIGUEZ]; General Union Party
  or PUGEN [Carlos Alberto FERNANDEZ Vega]; Homeland First [Juan Jose
  VARGAS]; Independent Worker Party or PIO [Jose Alberto CUBERO
  Carmona]; Libertarian Movement Party or PML [Otto GUEVARA Guth];
  National Christian Alliance Party or ANC [Victor GONZALEZ]; National
  Integration Party or PIN [Walter MUNOZ Cespedes]; National
  Liberation Party or PLN [Francisco Antonio PACHECO]; National
  Patriotic Party or PPN [Daniel Enrique REYNOLDS Vargas]; National
  Rescue Party or PRN [Carlos VARGAS Solano]; Patriotic Union
  [Humberto ARCE]; Popular Vanguard [Trino BARRANTES Araya]; Social
  Christian Unity Party or PUSC [Lorena VASQUEZ Badilla]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  Authentic Confederation of Democratic Workers or CATD (Communist
  Party affiliate); Chamber of Coffee Growers; Confederated Union of
  Workers or CUT (Communist Party affiliate); Costa Rican
  Confederation of Democratic Workers or CCTD (Liberation Party
  affiliate); Federation of Public Service Workers or FTSP; National
  Association for Economic Development or ANFE; National Association
  of Educators or ANDE; Rerum Novarum or CTRN (PLN affiliate) [Gilbert
  Brown]

International organization participation:
  BCIE, CACM, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU,
  ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO,
  ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW,
  PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
  WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Tomas DUENAS
  chancery: 2114 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 234-2945
  FAX: [1] (202) 265-4795
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
  New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and
  Tampa
  consulate(s): Austin

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Douglas M.
  BARNES
  embassy: Calle 120 Avenida O, Pavas, San Jose
  mailing address: APO AA 34020
  telephone: [506] 220-3939
  FAX: [506] 519-2305

Flag description:
  five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red (double width),
  white, and blue, with the coat of arms in a white elliptical disk on
  the hoist side of the red band; above the coat of arms a light blue
  ribbon contains the words, AMERICA CENTRAL, and just below it near
  the top of the coat of arms is a white ribbon with the words,
  REPUBLICA COSTA RICA

Economy Costa Rica


Economy - overview:
  Costa Rica's basically stable economy depends on tourism,
  agriculture, and electronics exports. Poverty has been substantially
  reduced over the past 15 years, and a strong social safety net has
  been put into place. Foreign investors remain attracted by the
  country's political stability and high education levels, and tourism
  continues to bring in foreign exchange. Low prices for coffee and
  bananas have hurt the agricultural sector. The government continues
  to grapple with its large deficit and massive internal debt. The
  reduction of inflation remains a difficult problem because of rises
  in the price of imports, labor market rigidities, and fiscal
  deficits. The country also needs to reform its tax system and its
  pattern of public expenditure. Costa Rica recently concluded
  negotiations to participate in the US-Central American Free Trade
  Agreement, which, if ratified by the Costa Rican Legislature, would
  result in economic reforms and an improved investment climate.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $37.97 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  3.9% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $9,600 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 8.5%
  industry: 29.7%
  services: 61.8% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  1.81 million (2004 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture 20%, industry 22%, services 58% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  6.6% (2004 est.)

Population below poverty line:
  18% (2004 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 1.1%
  highest 10%: 36.8% (2002)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  45.9 (1997)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  11.5% (2004 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  19.2% of GDP (2004 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $2.497 billion
  expenditures: $3.094 billion, including capital expenditures of NA
  (2004 est.)

Public debt:
  58% of GDP (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  coffee, pineapples, bananas, sugar, corn, rice, beans, potatoes;
  beef; timber

Industries:
  microprocessors, food processing, textiles and clothing,
  construction materials, fertilizer, plastic products

Industrial production growth rate:
  3.1% (2004 est.)

Electricity - production:
  6.614 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 1.5%
  hydro: 81.9%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 16.6% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  5.733 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  477 million kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  59 million kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  37,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Current account balance:
  $-980.3 million (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $6.184 billion (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  coffee, bananas, sugar; pineapples; textiles, electronic
  components, medical equipment

Exports - partners:
  US 46.9%, Netherlands 5.3%, Guatemala 4.4% (2004)

Imports:
  $7.842 billion (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  raw materials, consumer goods, capital equipment, petroleum

Imports - partners:
  US 46.1%, Japan 5.9%, Mexico 5.1%, Brazil 4.2% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $1.736 billion (2004 est.)

Debt - external:
  $5.962 billion (2004 est.)

Currency (code):
  Costa Rican colon (CRC)

Currency code:
  CRC

Exchange rates:
  Costa Rican colones per US dollar - 437.91 (2004), 398.66 (2003),
  359.82 (2002), 328.87 (2001), 308.19 (2000)

Fiscal year:
  calendar year

Communications Costa Rica


Telephones - main lines in use:
  1.132 million (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
  528,047 (2002)

Telephone system:
  general assessment: good domestic telephone service in terms of
  breadth of coverage; restricted cellular telephone service
  domestic: point-to-point and point-to-multi-point microwave,
  fiber-optic, and coaxial cable link rural areas; Internet service is
  available
  international: country code - 506; connected to Central American
  Microwave System; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic
  Ocean); two submarine cables (1999)

Radio broadcast stations:
  AM 65, FM 51, shortwave 19 (2002)

Radios:
  980,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations:
  20 (plus 43 repeaters) (2002)

Televisions:
  525,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
  .cr

Internet hosts:
  10,826 (2003)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
  3 (of which only one is legal) (2000)

Internet users:
  800,000 (2002)

Transportation Costa Rica


Railways:
  total: 278 km
  narrow gauge: 278 km 1.067-m gauge (2004)

Highways:
  total: 35,303 km
  paved: 4,236 km
  unpaved: 31,067 km (2002)

Waterways:
  730 km (seasonally navigable by small craft) (2004)

Pipelines:
  refined products 242 km (2004)

Ports and harbors:
  Caldera, Puerto Limon

Merchant marine:
  total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,716 GRT/ DWT
  by type: passenger/cargo 2 (2005)

Airports:
  149 (2004 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
  total: 30
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 18
  under 914 m: 8 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
  total: 119
  914 to 1,523 m: 24
  under 914 m: 95 (2004 est.)

Military Costa Rica


Military branches:
  no regular military forces; Ministry of Public Security,
  Government, and Police

Military service age and obligation:
  18 years of age (2004)

Manpower available for military service:
  males age 18-49: 997,690 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
  males age 18-49: 829,874 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually:
  males: 41,097 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:
  $64.2 million (2004)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
  0.4% (2003)

Transnational Issues Costa Rica


Disputes - international:
  legal dispute over navigational rights of Rio San Juan on the
  border with Nicaragua remains unresolved

Illicit drugs:
  transshipment country for cocaine and heroin from South America;
  illicit production of cannabis on small, scattered plots; domestic
  cocaine consumption, particularly crack cocaine, is rising


This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005



======================================================================



@Cote d'Ivoire

Introduction Cote d'Ivoire


Background:
  Close ties to France since independence in 1960, the development of
  cocoa production for export, and foreign investment made Cote
  d'Ivoire one of the most prosperous of the tropical African states,
  but did not protect it from political turmoil. On 25 December 1999,
  a military coup - the first ever in Cote d'Ivoire's history -
  overthrew the government led by President Henri Konan BEDIE. Junta
  leader Robert GUEI held elections in late 2000, but excluded
  prominent opposition leader Alassane OUATTARA, blatantly rigged the
  polling results, and declared himself winner. Popular protest forced
  GUEI to step aside and brought runner-up Laurent GBAGBO into power.
  Ivorian dissidents and disaffected members of the military launched
  a failed coup attempt in September 2002. Rebel forces claimed the
  northern half of the country and in January 2003 were granted
  ministerial positions in a unity government under the auspices of
  the Linas-Marcoussis Peace Accord. President GBAGBO and rebel forces
  resumed implementation of the peace accord in December 2003 after a
  three-month stalemate, but issues that sparked the civil war, such
  as land reform and grounds for nationality remain unresolved. The
  central government has yet to exert control over the northern
  regions and tensions remain high between GBAGBO and rebel leaders.
  Several thousand French and West African troops remain in Cote
  d'Ivoire to maintain peace and facilitate the disarmament,
  demobilization, and rehabilitation process.

Geography Cote d'Ivoire


Location:
  Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Ghana
  and Liberia

Geographic coordinates:
  8 00 N, 5 00 W

Map references:
  Africa

Area:
  total: 322,460 sq km
  land: 318,000 sq km
  water: 4,460 sq km

Area - comparative:
  slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries:
  total: 3,110 km
  border countries: Burkina Faso 584 km, Ghana 668 km, Guinea 610 km,
  Liberia 716 km, Mali 532 km

Coastline:
  515 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm

Climate:
  tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons - warm
  and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and wet
  (June to October)

Terrain:
  mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Gulf of Guinea 0 m
  highest point: Mont Nimba 1,752 m

Natural resources:
  petroleum, natural gas, diamonds, manganese, iron ore, cobalt,
  bauxite, copper, gold, nickel, tantalum, silica sand, clay, cocoa
  beans, coffee, palm oil, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 9.75%
  permanent crops: 13.84%
  other: 76.41% (2001)

Irrigated land:
  730 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:
  coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; during the rainy
  season torrential flooding is possible

Environment - current issues:
  deforestation (most of the country's forests - once the largest in
  West Africa - have been heavily logged); water pollution from sewage
  and industrial and agricultural effluents

Environment - international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone
  Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
  Timber 94, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
  most of the inhabitants live along the sandy coastal region; apart
  from the capital area, the forested interior is sparsely populated

People Cote d'Ivoire


Population:
  17,298,040
  note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
  effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower
  life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower
  population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of
  population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July
  2005 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 41% (male 3,490,536/female 3,596,208)
  15-64 years: 56.3% (male 4,920,726/female 4,820,326)
  65 years and over: 2.7% (male 231,514/female 238,730) (2005 est.)

Median age:
  total: 19.05 years
  male: 19.36 years
  female: 18.76 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:
  2.06% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:
  35.51 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:
  14.94 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.97 male(s)/female
  total population: 1 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
  total: 90.83 deaths/1,000 live births
  male: 107.64 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 73.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 48.62 years
  male: 46.05 years
  female: 51.27 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:
  4.58 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  7% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  570,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  47,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
  degree of risk: very high
  food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and
  typhoid fever
  vectorborne diseases: malaria, yellow fever, and others are high
  risks in some locations
  water contact: schistosomiasis (2004)

Nationality:
  noun: Ivoirian(s)
  adjective: Ivoirian

Ethnic groups:
  Akan 42.1%, Voltaiques or Gur 17.6%, Northern Mandes 16.5%, Krous
  11%, Southern Mandes 10%, other 2.8% (includes 130,000 Lebanese and
  14,000 French) (1998)

Religions:
  Christian 20-30%, Muslim 35-40%, indigenous 25-40% (2001)
  note: the majority of foreigners (migratory workers) are Muslim
  (70%) and Christian (20%)

Languages:
  French (official), 60 native dialects with Dioula the most widely
  spoken

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 50.9%
  male: 57.9%
  female: 43.6% (2003 est.)

Government Cote d'Ivoire


Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Cote d'Ivoire
  conventional short form: Cote d'Ivoire
  local long form: Republique de Cote d'Ivoire
  local short form: Cote d'Ivoire
  former: Ivory Coast

Government type:
  republic; multiparty presidential regime established 1960

Capital:
  Yamoussoukro; note - although Yamoussoukro has been the official
  capital since 1983, Abidjan remains the commercial and
  administrative center; the US, like other countries, maintains its
  Embassy in Abidjan

Administrative divisions:
  19 regions; Agneby, Bafing, Bas-Sassandra, Denguele, Dix-Huit
  Montagnes, Fromager, Haut-Sassandra, Lacs, Lagunes, Marahoue,
  Moyen-Cavally, Moyen-Comoe, N'zi-Comoe, Savanes, Sud-Bandama,
  Sud-Comoe, Vallee du Bandama, Worodougou, Zanzan

Independence:
  7 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday:
  Independence Day, 7 August (1960)

Constitution:
  new constitution adopted 4 August 2000

Legal system:
  based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review
  in the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
  18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Laurent GBAGBO (since 26 October 2000);
  head of government: Prime Minister Seydou DIARRA (since 25 January
  2003); note - appointed as transitional Prime Minister by President
  GBAGBO as part of a French brokered peace plan
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  election last held 26 October 2000 (next to be held October 2005);
  prime minister appointed by the president
  election results: Laurent GBAGBO elected president; percent of vote
  - Laurent GBAGBO 59.4%, Robert GUEI 32.7%, Francis WODIE 5.7%, other
  2.2%

Legislative branch:
  unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (225 seats;
  members are elected in single- and multi-district elections by
  direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)
  elections: elections last held 10 December 2000 with by-elections on
  14 January 2001 (next to be held October 2005)
  election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -
  FPI 96, PDCI-RDA 94, RDR 5, PIT 4, other 2, independents 22, vacant 2
  note: a Senate is scheduled to be created in the next full election
  in 2005

Judicial branch:
  Supreme Court or Cour Supreme consists of four chambers: Judicial
  Chamber for criminal cases, Audit Chamber for financial cases,
  Constitutional Chamber for judicial review cases, and Administrative
  Chamber for civil cases; there is no legal limit to the number of
  members

Political parties and leaders:
  Citizen's Democratic Union or UDCY [Eg Theodore MEL]; Democratic
  Party of Cote d'Ivoire-African Democratic Rally or PDCI-RDA [Henri
  Konan BEDIE]; Ivorian Popular Front or FPI [Laurent GBAGBO]; Ivorian
  Worker's Party or PIT [Francis WODIE]; Rally of the Republicans or
  RDR [Alassane OUATTARA]; Union for Democracy and Peace or UDPCI
  [Paul Akoto YAO]; over 20 smaller parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  NA

International organization participation:
  ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, IAEA,
  IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
  IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW,
  UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL,
  WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Daouda DIABATE
  chancery: 3421 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
  telephone: [1] (202) 797-0300
  FAX: [1] (202) 462-9444

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Aubrey HOOKS
  embassy: 5 Rue Jesse Owens, Abidjan
  mailing address: B. P. 1712, Abidjan 01
  telephone: [225] 20 21 09 79
  FAX: [225] 20 22 32 59

Flag description:
  three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side), white, and
  green; similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and has the
  colors reversed - green (hoist side), white, and orange; also
  similar to the flag of Italy, which is green (hoist side), white,
  and red; design was based on the flag of France

Economy Cote d'Ivoire


Economy - overview:
  Cote d'Ivoire is among the world's largest producers and exporters
  of coffee, cocoa beans, and palm oil. Consequently, the economy is
  highly sensitive to fluctuations in international prices for these
  products and weather conditions. Despite government attempts to
  diversify the economy, it is still heavily dependent on agriculture
  and related activities, engaging roughly 68% of the population.
  After several years of lagging performance, the Ivorian economy
  began a comeback in 1994, due to the 50% devaluation of the CFA
  franc and improved prices for cocoa and coffee, growth in
  nontraditional primary exports such as pineapples and rubber,
  limited trade and banking liberalization, offshore oil and gas
  discoveries, and generous external financing and debt rescheduling
  by multilateral lenders and France. Moreover, government adherence
  to donor-mandated reforms led to a jump to 5% annual growth during
  1996-99. Growth was negative in 2000-03 because of the difficulty of
  meeting the conditions of international donors, continued low prices
  of key exports, and severe civil war. In November 2004 the situation
  deteriorated when President GBAGBO's troops attacked and killed nine
  French peacekeeping forces, and the UN imposed an arms embargo.
  Political uncertainty has clouded the economic outlook for 2005,
  with fear among Ivorians spreading, foreign investment shriveling,
  businessmen fleeing, travel within the country falling, and criminal
  elements that traffic in weapons and diamonds gaining ground.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $24.78 billion (2004 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
  -1% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita:
  purchasing power parity - $1,500 (2004 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 27.8%
  industry: 19.4%
  services: 52.8% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
  6.7 million (68% agricultural) (2004 est.)

Unemployment rate:
  13% in urban areas (1998)

Population below poverty line:
  37% (1995)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 3.1%
  highest 10%: 28.8% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
  36.7 (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  1.4% (2004 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
  11.3% of GDP (2004 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $2.412 billion
  expenditures: $2.767 billion, including capital expenditures of $420
  million (2004 est.)

Public debt:
  74.8% of GDP (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:
  coffee, cocoa beans, bananas, palm kernels, corn, rice, manioc
  (tapioca), sweet potatoes, sugar, cotton, rubber; timber

Industries:
  foodstuffs, beverages; wood products, oil refining, truck and bus
  assembly, textiles, fertilizer, building materials, electricity,
  ship construction and repair

Industrial production growth rate:
  15% (1998 est.)

Electricity - production:
  4.759 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - production by source:
  fossil fuel: 61.9%
  hydro: 38.1%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:
  2.976 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - exports:
  1.45 billion kWh (2002)

Electricity - imports:
  0 kWh (2002)

Oil - production:
  29,300 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - consumption:
  32,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
  NA

Oil - imports:
  NA

Oil - proved reserves:
  220 million bbl (2004 est.)

Natural gas - production:
  1.35 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
  1.35 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
  14.87 billion cu m (2004)

Current account balance:
  $-421.5 million (2004 est.)

Exports:
  $5.124 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
  cocoa, coffee, timber, petroleum, cotton, bananas, pineapples, palm
  oil, fish

Exports - partners:
  US 11.6%, Netherlands 10.3%, France 9.5%, Italy 5.5%, Belgium 4.7%,
  Germany 4.7% (2004)

Imports:
  $3.36 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
  fuel, capital equipment, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
  France 24.3%, Nigeria 19.2%, UK 4% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $1.95 billion (2004 est.)

Debt - external:
  $11.81 billion (2004 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:
  ODA, $1 billion (1996 est.)

Currency (code):
  Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible
  authority is the Central Bank of the West African Sta