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Title: Western Bird Guide - Birds of the Rockies and West to the Pacific
Author: Brasher, Rex I., Reed, Chester A. (Chester Albert), Harvey, Harry F.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Western Bird Guide - Birds of the Rockies and West to the Pacific" ***

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Transcriber's note:

      Text enclosed by underscores is in italics (_italics_).

[Illustration: ]


Birds of the Rockies and West to the Pacific

Illustrations by


[Illustration: ]

Garden City      New York
Doubleday, Page & Company

Copyright, 1913, by
Chas. K. Reed, Worcester, Mass.

The numbers and names used in this book are those adopted by the American
Ornithologists’ Union, and are known both in this country and abroad. The
lengths given are averages; our small birds often vary considerably and
may be found either slightly larger or smaller than those quoted.

On some of the pages a number of sub-species are mentioned. Sub-species
often cause confusion, because they are usually very similar to the
original; they can best be identified by the locality in which they are

The nests and eggs are described, as they often lead to the identity of a
bird. We would suggest that you neatly, and with ink, make a cross
against the name of each bird that you see in your locality, and also
that you write at the top of the page the date of the arrival and
departure of each bird as you note it; these dates vary so much in
different localities that we have not attempted to give them. As many
will not wish to soil their books we would suggest that they have a
leather-covered copy for the library and a cloth one for pocket use.

[Illustration: ]


[Illustration: ]

                     DIVING BIRDS—Order Pygopodes.
                        GREBES—Family Colymbidæ.

                             WESTERN GREBE.
         1.     Æchmophorus occidentalis.     25 to 29 inches.

This is the largest of the grebe family. In summer the back of the neck
is black, but in winter it is gray like the back.

Nest.—A floating mass of decayed rushes, sometimes attached to the
upright stalks; 2 to 5 pale bluish white eggs are laid, usually much nest
stained (2.40 × 1.55). Breeding in colonies.

Range.—Western North America, from the Dakotas and Manitoba to the
Pacific, and north to southern Alaska.

                            HOLBOELL GREBE.
               2.     Colymbus Holboelli.     19 inches.

This is next to the Western Grebe in size, both being larger than any of
the others. In summer, they are very handsomely marked, as shown in the
illustration, but in winter have the usual dress of gray and white.

Nest.—Similar to above, the eggs averaging smaller (2.35 × 1.25).

Range.—North America, breeding from northwestern Alaska, in the interior
of Canada and North Dakota. Winters usually on the coasts.

[Illustration: ]

                             HORNED GREBE.
                3.     Colymbus auritus.     14 inches.

In winter this Grebe is one of the plainest in its dress of gray and
white, but summer brings a great change, making it one of the most
attractive, with its black, puffy head, and buffy white ear tufts, the
front of the neck a rich chestnut color. Their food consists almost
wholly of small fish.

Nest.—Is a loosely built mass of vegetation floating in the bog and water
holes of the western prairies. The eggs, 3 to 7 in number, are brownish
yellow (1.70 × 1.15).

Range.—Breeds from Dakota and Illinois northward; winters to the Gulf of

                              EARED GREBE.
        4.     Colymbus nigricollis californicus.     13 inches.

This species is rarely found as far east as the Mississippi River. In
summer the neck is black, lacking the chestnut color of the former. It
can always be distinguished from the Horned by the upper mandible being
straight on the top.

Nest.—In colonies similar to the above, laying from 3 to 8 eggs, which
are usually nest stained to a brownish cream color.

Range.—From the Mississippi to the Pacific, nesting from Texas to British

[Illustration: ]

                           PIED-BILLED GREBE.
              6.     Podilymbus podiceps.     13½ inches.

This species cannot be mistaken for any others of the grebes in any
plumage, because of its stout compressed bill and brown eyes, all the
others having red eyes. In summer the bill is nearly white, with a black
band encircling it; the throat is black; breast and sides brownish-gray;
the eye encircled with a white ring.

Nest.—Made of a mass of decayed weeds and rushes, floating in shallow
ponds or on the edges of lakes among the rushes. Five to 8 brownish white
eggs are laid (1.70 × 1.18).

Range.—Whole of N. A., breeding in small colonies or pairs.

                      LOON; GREAT NORTHERN DIVER.
                7.     Gavia immer.     31 to 35 inches.

In shape and motions the loons very much resemble the grebes, except in
size, being much larger. The common loon is the most beautiful of them
all, having a velvety black iridescent head with slashes of white on the
throat and neck and spots of white on the wings and back.

Nest.—Usually built under some shelter of bushes or rushes on the edge of
some of the larger ponds or lakes. The two eggs are a yellowish brown,
with black spots (3.50 × 2.25).

[Illustration: ]

                             PACIFIC LOON.
              10.     Gavia pacifica.     30 to 32 inches.

This species differs from the Loon in having the crown gray, and white
streaks down the back of the neck, and in the color reflections of the
black on the head. It is a trifle smaller also.

Nest.—Similar to the former, the eggs being more of a greenish brown,
with the black spots mostly on the larger end (3.10 × 2).

Range.—Western N. A., breeding in Alaska and British Columbia; winters
along the Pacific coast to Mexico.

                           RED-THROATED LOON.
                 11.     Gavia stellata.     25 inches.

The smallest of the Loon family. The back and head are gray, there is a
large patch of chestnut on the fore-neck; under parts white. Owing to the
straight top to the upper mandible the bill has a slightly up-turned

Nest.—Similar to the other Loons, placed within a few feet of the water.
The eggs are an olive brown with more markings usually than the others,
and mostly on the larger end (2.90 × 1.75).

Range.—Along the western coast of North America.

[Illustration: ]

                AUKS, MURRES AND PUFFINS—Family Alcidæ.

                       TUFTED PUFFIN; SEA PARROT.
                 12.     Lunda cirrhata.     13 inches.

This is the largest of the family, they are odd looking birds, with short
legs, stout bodies and very large, thin bills, highly colored with red
and yellow, the feet are red and the eyes are white. They stand erect
upon their feet and walk with ease.

Nest.—They breed commonly on the islands of the Pacific coast, laying
their single white egg in burrows or crevices of the rocks. In some
sections two or three broods are raised in a season (2.80 × 1.90).

Range.—Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska.

                             HORNED PUFFIN.
             14.     Fratercula corniculata.     11 inches.

This Puffin is similar to the common Puffin of the east, excepting that
the blackish band across the throat extends upwards in a point to the

Nest.—The same as the above, the single egg averaging smaller (2.65 ×

Range.—Islands of the northern Pacific to the Arctic ocean.

[Illustration: ]

                           RHINOCEROS AUKLET.
             15.     Cerorhinca monocerata.     11 inches.

These birds have a much smaller bill than the Puffins; in the summer
plumage there is a small horn at the base of the bill from which it is
given its name. These birds do not stand upright as do the Puffins; but
sit upon their tarsus.

Nest.—A single egg is laid in either burrows or in crevices of the rocks,
usually without any attempt at nest making (2.70 × 1.80).

Range.—Coast and islands of the northern Pacific. Breeds from Oregon to
northern Alaska.

                             CASSIN AUKLET.
             16.     Ptychoramphus aleuticus.     9 inches.

A plain appearing bird, breast and throat grayish and belly white with
blackish upper-parts relieved only by a small white spot over the eye.
This Auklet is fairly abundant on the Farallones and islands off the
Lower California coast.

Nest.—A single egg, dull white, the inside of the shell being a pale
green when held to the light. These are laid in burrows or tunnels under
the rocks, at times three or four feet long (1.80 × 1.30).

Range.—Pacific coast of N. A., Alaska to Lower California.

[Illustration: ]

                            PAROQUET AUKLET.
              17.     Phaleris psittacula.     10 inches.

This bird is much like Cassin Auklet, but lacking the white spot over the
eye and having a white breast. The bill is very peculiar, being quite
deep and rounded and having an upward tendency. It is orange red in

Range.—The Alaskan coast, usually farther south in winter. Nesting in the
Aleutian Islands, a single white egg is laid (2.25 × 1.40).

                           WHISKERED AUKLET.
                  19.     Æthia pygmæa.     7½ inches.

Breeds quite abundantly on some of the Aleutian Islands. The single white
egg is laid in burrows or crevices of the rocks (2.00 × 1.25).

                            CRESTED AUKLET.
             18.     Æthia cristatella.     8 to 9 inches.

Similar in form and plumage to the Paroquet Auklet, except the whole
under parts are gray.

Nest and Range.—On the islands and main land of the Alaskan coast, laying
only one chalky white egg in crevices or burrows under the rocks.

[Illustration: ]

                             LEAST AUKLET.
                 20.     Æthia pusilla.     6½ inches.

This is the smallest of the Auklets, and in habits are the same as others
of the same family. They are one of the most abundant of the water birds
of the extreme Northwest.

Nest.—Only one single white egg is laid upon the bare rocks or in
crevices, on the islands of the Alaskan coast (1.50 × 1.10).

                           ANCIENT MURRELET.
           21.     Synthliboramphus antiquus.     11 inches.

The Murrelets have no crests or plumes and the bills are more slender
than the Auklets and are not highly colored.

Nest.—One or two eggs are laid either in burrows or crevices of the
rocks, buffy white in color, with faint markings of light brown.

Range.—Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska, breeding north
of the United States.

                           MARBLED MURRELET.
            23.     Brachyramphus marmoratus.     10 inches.

Nesting habits and eggs are similar to the Ancient Murrelet (2.20 × 1.40)
and range is same as above, possibly breeding a little farther south.

[Illustration: ]

                           XANTHUS MURRELET.
                   25.     Brachyramphus hypoleucus.

This bird is a dull black above, and entirely white below, including the
sides of the head below the eye. The under-surface of the wing is also

Nest.—The single egg is laid at the end of burrows or under the rocks in
dark places similar to the other Murrelets. It is a pale buffy white, and
thickly but finely dotted with brown over the entire surface, heaviest on
the larger end (2.05 × 1.40).

Range.—Resident along the coast of southern and Lower California, where
it breeds on many of the islands.

                           PIGEON GUILLEMOT.
                29.     Cepphus columba.     13 inches.

This bird is very similar to the Black Guillemot except that the
under-surfaces of the wings are dark. The nearly straight and slender
bill is black, feathered to the upper edge of nostrils. Feet and inside
of mouth bright red.

Nest.—Their two eggs are laid on the bare rocks in dark places under the
rocks, are pale blue or green in color with black or brown markings and
paler spots of lilac.

Range.—Pacific coast of North America.

[Illustration: ]

                           CALIFORNIA MURRE.
         30.     Uria troille californica.     15 to 16 inches.

This is one of the most abundant birds breeding on the Farallones. Large
numbers of their eggs are taken yearly to the San Francisco and other
market places and disposed of as a food product, and as yet the birds do
not seem to diminish to any great extent.

Nest.—But a single white egg is laid on the bare ledges. They vary
greatly in color, from nearly white without markings to a deep greenish
blue with an endless variety of patterns in light and dark brown (3.40 ×

Range.—Pacific coast, breeding from the Farallones north to Alaska.

                            POMARINE JAEGER.
             36.     Stercorarius pomarinus.     21 inches.

These birds are slender and graceful in form and flight, but are the real
pirates of bird life, especially among the terns and gulls. This species
has two color phases regardless of sex or age. In the light plumage the
top of the head is black, rest of the bird brownish. Easily identified by
the lengthened central tail-feathers.

Nest.—Two olive brown eggs spotted with black (2.20 × 1.70).

[Illustration: ]

                           PARASITIC JAEGER.
            37.     Stercorarius parasiticus.     17 inches.

This bird has the two phases of color similar to the last. The two
central tail-feathers are longer and more pointed, projecting about four
inches beyond the others. All of the Jaegers have grayish blue legs with
black feet, and brown eyes.

Nest.—A slight hollow in the marshy ground in which the two brownish eggs
are laid (2.15 × 1.65).

Range.—Northern part of North America, south in winter to southern
California, breeding in the Arctic regions.

                          LONG-TAILED JAEGER.
            38.     Stercorarius longicaudus.     20 inches.

This is the most swift and graceful of this family in flight. Similar to
the last species, but the central pointed tail-feathers extend eight or
ten inches beyond the others. It is more often found in the lighter

Nest.—Their eggs are either laid on the bare ground or in a slight
depression, scantily lined with grass (2.10 × 1.50).

Range.—Arctic America; south in winter to South America.

[Illustration: ]

                     GULLS AND TERNS—Family Laridæ.

                              IVORY GULL.
                 39.     Pagophila alba.     17 inches.

The little Snow Gull, as it is often called, in the breeding season is
entirely white; the bill is tipped with yellow and there is a red ring
about the eye.

Nest.—Of grasses and seaweed, on the cliffs in the Arctic regions. Three
grayish buff eggs are laid marked with brown and black (2.30 × 1.70).

Range.—North of the Arctic Circle, and winters south to British Columbia.

                           PACIFIC KITTIWAKE.
          40a.     Rissa tridactyla pollicaris.     16 inches.

These birds breed in immense rookeries on some of the islands in the
Bering Sea.

Nest.—On almost inaccessible cliffs, made of sticks, moss and seaweed,
making the interior cup-shaped, to hold the two or three eggs, which are
buffy brown or grayish, spotted with darker shades of brown (2.20 ×

Range.—Coast of the North Pacific, wintering as far south as Lower

[Illustration: ]

                         RED-LEGGED KITTIWAKE.
               41.     Rissa brevirostris.     16 inches.

This Kittiwake is very much like the former, excepting that the legs are
bright red, the mantle is darker and the bill shorter. They usually nest
in separate colonies from the former, and can be readily identified when
in flight by the red legs.

Nest.—They have been found abundantly on the islands of the Bering Sea,
nesting on the higher ledges and cliffs. The color of the eggs is buffy
or brownish, blotched and spotted with lilac and shades of brown.

Range.—Northwestern coast and islands of Bering Sea.

                             GLAUCOUS GULL.
               42.     Larus hyperboreus.     28 inches.

This is one of the largest of the Gulls; mantle light gray; it is
distinguished by its size and the primaries, which are white to the tips.
It is a powerful bird that preys upon the smaller Gulls, eating both the
eggs and young.

Nest.—Of seaweed on ledge of sea cliff, eggs three in number, in shades
of light drab to brown, spotted with brown and black.

Range.—Arctic regions, in winter south to San Francisco Bay.

[Illustration: ]

                         GLAUCOUS-WINGED GULL.
            44.     Larus glaucescens.     25 to 27 inches.

The primaries are the same color as the mantle on this gull except that
the primaries are tipped with white. They breed in large numbers both on
the rocky cliffs and on the low sandy islands of the Aleutians. On the
cliffs large nests of seaweed are built, while on the low sandy islands
no attempt is made at nest building.

Nest.—Two or three eggs are the usual complement, of a greenish brown
ground color with various shades of brown spots, most thickly covered on
the larger end (2.75 × 2.05).

Range.—North Pacific coast, breeding from British Columbia northwards,
and wintering to southern California.

                           SLATY-BACKED GULL.
               48.     Larus schistisagus.     27 inches.

This large gull, with its almost pure white head and neck and slaty
colored back, is one of the prettiest. They often nest in colonies with
other gulls, building their small mounds of seaweed on the higher parts
of the islands.

Nest.—Usually contains sets of two or three grayish colored eggs, spotted
with dark brown and lavender (2.90 × 2.00).

Range.—Northern Pacific and Arctic oceans.

[Illustration: ]

                             WESTERN GULL.
               49.     Larus occidentalis.     26 inches.

This bird is the most southerly distributed of any of the large Gulls,
and can be seen about the harbors of California at all seasons of the
year. They are great thieves, robbing the Murres and Terns wherever eggs
are left unprotected, and are the greatest enemy that the Murres have to
contend with.

Nest.—Their nests are made up of weeds and grass, and the full set
contains three eggs of grayish brown spotted with dark brown, showing the
usual variation found in color in the Gulls’ eggs (2.75 × 1.90).

Range.—Pacific coast, breeding from southern California to British

                             HERRING GULL.
                51.     Larus argentatus.     24 inches.

These Gulls nest in colonies in favorable localities, usually on the
ground, sometimes making a bulky nest of seaweed quite a distance from
the water. A few pair nest on the islands of some of the inland lakes and
it is not uncommon to see nests built in low trees ten or fifteen feet
from the ground.

Nest.—They lay three eggs of a grayish brown color spotted with black and

[Illustration: ]

                           RING-BILLED GULL.
               54.     Larus delawarensis.     18 inches.

A small Gull with light gray mantle, black primaries with white tips and
always to be identified in the breeding season by the black band around
the middle of the greenish yellow bill. They nest in large colonies on
the islands in the interior of the country. They frequent lakes and ponds
at high altitudes in Colorado. Thousands of them breed about the lakes of
the Dakotas and northward.

Nest.—Commonly lay three eggs, placing them in a slight hollow on the
ground generally on the grassy portion of some island (2.80 × 1.75).

Range.—North America. On the Pacific coast from Lower California to
British Columbia.

                            CALIFORNIA GULL.
               53.     Larus californicus.     23 inches.

This is a slightly smaller Gull than the Cal. Herring Gull and the
primaries are grayish instead of black. Bill yellow, with red spot near
end of lower mandible; feet greenish yellow.

Nest.—Abundantly around Great Salt Lake, placing their nests generally
upon the bare ground. Three or four eggs constitute a set, and they are
the usual color of the Gulls’.

[Illustration: ]

                           SHORT-BILLED GULL.
              55.     Larus brachyrhynchus.     17 inches.

The short-billed Gull or American Mew Gull is much like the European
variety. Adults in breeding plumage; mantle pearly gray; rest of white;
outer primary nearly black with a white spot at the end. Bill, feet and
legs greenish.

Nest.—On islands in the lakes and rivers of Alaska. The nest is generally
made of moss, grass and weeds and placed on the ground.

Range.—Breeds from the interior of British Columbia to Alaska. Winters in
the south to Lower California.

                             HEERMANN GULL.
                57.     Larus heermanni.     17 inches.

A handsome little species, often called the White-headed Gull. In summer
the entire head, neck and throat are white, with a red bill and legs. The
body color shades abruptly from the neck into slaty, both the upper and
under parts. The primaries and tail are black.

Nest.—Similar to others of the Gull family, with three eggs greenish drab
in color marked with brown, black and lilac (2.45 × 1.50).

Range.—Pacific coast of North America.

[Illustration: ]

                            BONAPARTE GULL.
               60.     Larus philadelphia.     14 inches.

In summer, tip and outer web of outer primaries black; inner web and
shaft white, with a black bill. The head and neck are gray; while in
winter the head is white with gray spots back of the eyes. Young birds
have the back mixed with brownish and the tail with a band of black near
the tip. They are rarely found in the U. S. with the black hood.

Nest.—They nest in great numbers in the marshes of the northwest. The
nests of sticks and grass are placed on the higher parts of the marshes
and the usual complement of three eggs is laid. The eggs are grayish to
greenish brown, marked with dark brown spots (1.90 × 1.30).

                              SABINE GULL.
                  62.     Xema sabini.     13 inches.

A handsome bird, having the slaty hood bordered behind with a black ring;
the primaries black, white tipped, and the tail slightly forked. In
winter the head and throat white with the back of the neck dusky.

Nest.—They breed abundantly on the marshes of northern Alaska and
Greenland. The two or three eggs are greenish brown in color and marked
with dark brown (1.75 × 1.25).

[Illustration: ]

                             CASPIAN TERN.
                 64.     Sterna caspia.     21 inches.

The largest and most beautiful of the Tern family. The bill is large,
heavy and bright red. The crest with which this species is adorned is
black. The mantle is pearl color and the breast is white. Winter birds
have the crown mixed with white, and the young are blotched with blackish
in the wings and tail.

Nest.—They sometimes nest in large colonies and then again only a few
pair will be found on an island. Eggs vary from gray to greenish buff,
marked with brown and lilac. The two eggs usually being laid in a hollow
in the sand.

Range.—North America, breeding from the Gulf Coast and Lower California
to the Arctic regions.

                             ELEGANT TERN.
                 66.     Sterna elegans.     17 inches.

In the breeding plumage the under parts of the Terns are tinged with
rosy, which probably first gave the birds their name.

Nest.—They lay but a single egg, in a slight depression in the sand,
creamy brown with light brown markings (2.40 × 1.40).

Range.—Central and South America, in summer to California.

[Illustration: ]

                             FORSTERS TERN.
                69.     Sterna forsteri.     15 inches.

These beautiful birds are often known as “Sea Swallows,” because of their
similarity in flight to those well-known land birds. They are the picture
of grace as they dart about high in the air, bill pointed downward, alert
and ready to dart down upon any small fish that may take their fancy.

Nest.—A slight depression in the sand, rarely lined with grass, in which
are laid three, sometimes four, eggs varying in color from almost white
to brownish, thickly spotted with brown and lavender (1.80 × 1.30).

Range.—Throughout North America; breeding from Manitoba to the Gulf

                              COMMON TERN.
                 70.     Sterna hirundo.     15 inches.

This bird differs from the above in the red of the bill being more
blackish at the tip, and the under parts being a pearly gray in place of
white, tail not quite as much forked, and shorter; edge of outer
primaries and outer tail-feathers blackish.

Nest.—These breed much more abundantly on the Atlantic coast. Their eggs
are more rounded (1.75 × 1.40).

[Illustration: ]

                              ARCTIC TERN.
                71.     Sterna paradisæ.     15 inches.

A similar bird to the last; more northern in its distribution; and the
pearly gray mantle somewhat darker both above and below. Bill quite red
and feet much smaller and bright red. When their nesting colonies are
approached they will rise in clouds, circling about high in the air,
uttering at times their peculiar cry.

Nest.—Similar to the others, with very little if any attempt at nest
building. Usually placing the two or three eggs on the bare sand or
gravel just above the water line. There is no difference in the color or
markings of the eggs from the others (1.75 × 1.40).

Range.—More northerly than the preceding, to the Arctic Regions and
wintering from California to the Gulf States.

                             ALEUTIAN TERN.
                73.     Sterna aleutica.     15 inches.

This handsome Tern is of the same form and size as the Common Tern, but
has a darker mantle, and the forehead is white, with a black line
extending from the bill to the eye.

Nest.—Is much the same as the Arctic, but the eggs are somewhat smaller
and narrower (1.70 × 1.15).

[Illustration: ]

                              LEAST TERN.
                74.     Sterna antillarum.     9 inches.

This is the smallest of our Terns; not much larger than a swallow and in
flight are much the same, darting through the air, taking insects the
same as swallows, or dipping into the water for small minnows that are
showing themselves near the surface.

Nest.—Simply a depression in the sand or gravel just above the water
line, with two to four creamy white eggs beautifully marked with
different shades of brown and lilac (1.25 × .95).

Range.—Throughout the United States to northern South America, breeding
abundantly on the coast of southern California.

                              BLACK TERN.
        77.     Hydrochelidon nigra surinamensis.     10 inches.

We always think of the Terns as light colored birds, either white or
pearly; but here we have one nearly black. Adults in summer having the
head, neck and under parts black, with the back, wings and tail gray.

Nest.—Their nesting habits vary also as much as their color. Nests are of
weeds and grass in the sloughs on the prairies. Two to four eggs are a
dark greenish brown with black spots (1.35 × .95).

[Illustration: ]

                     ALBATROSSES—Family Diomedeidæ.

                        BLACK-FOOTED ALBATROSS.
            81.     Diomedea nigripes.     32 to 36 inches.

This bird is of a uniform sooty brown color shading into whitish at the
base of the bill, which is rounded. It is noted for its extended flights,
following vessels day after day without any apparent period of rest.

Nest.—They lay a single white egg upon the ground (4.00 × 2.40).

                        SHORT-TAILED ALBATROSS.
               82.     Diomedea albatrus.     36 inches.

This bird is much more shy than the former, and when following a vessel
will keep a long distance behind in its search for food. With the
exception of the primaries, which are black, as are also the shoulders
and tail, the entire plumage is white, tinged with yellow on the back of
the head.

Nest.—They breed on the islands in the North Pacific off the coast of
Alaska. A single white egg is laid upon the bare ground or rocks.

Range.—Northern Pacific ocean in summer from Lower California to Alaska;
most common in northern part of the range.

[Illustration: ]

                           LAYSAN ALBATROSS.
             82.1.     Diomedea immutabilis.     32 inches.

These birds are white with the exception of the back, wings and tail,
which are black; bill and feet yellow.

Nest.—Their single white egg is laid upon the ground or rocks (4.00 ×

Range.—This species breeds in large numbers on the island from which it
takes its name—Layson Island, of the Hawaiian Group—appearing rarely off
the coast of California.

                        YELLOW-NOSED ALBATROSS.
            83.     Thalassogeron culminatus.     36 inches.

This is a species which inhabits the South Pacific and Indian oceans and
is said to occur rarely on the California coast. An egg in the collection
of Col. John E. Thayer, Lancaster, Mass., was taken on Gough Island Sept.
1st, 1888. The nest was a mound of mud and grass about two feet high. The
single white egg measured 3.75 × 2.25.

                            SOOTY ALBATROSS.
              84.     Phœbetria palpebrata.     36 inches.

This species is entirely sooty brown except the white rim around the
eyelids. One white egg is laid (4.10 × 2.75).

[Illustration: ]

                        FULMARS AND SHEARWATERS.
                         Family Procellariidæ.

                            PACIFIC FULMAR.
         86b.     Fulmarus glacialis glupischa.     18 inches.

In markings these birds closely resemble the Gulls. Bill is shorter and
stouter, strongly hooked at the tip, and with the nostrils opening out of
a single tube, prominently located on top of the bill. Their flight is
graceful like that of the Gulls.

Nest.—On the islands and cliffs of the mainland of the Northern Pacific
they nest in large colonies. Every crevice in the rocks having its
tenant. They lay but a single white egg on the bare rocks (2.90 × 2.00).

Range.—Northern Pacific, southerly to Lower California.

                         SLENDER-BILLED FULMAR.
             87.     Priocella glacialoides.     18 inches.

This species has a paler mantle than others of the family, and the
primaries are black.

Range.—Southern seas, appearing on the Pacific coast of the United States
in the summer. They probably breed in the far south during our winter,
although we have no definite record relative to their nesting habits.

[Illustration: ]

                        PINK-FOOTED SHEARWATER.
               91.     Puffinus creatopus.     19 inches.

Very little is known of the breeding habits of this bird. Upper parts and
under-tail coverts are a pale brownish color, darkest on the wings; top
of head dark, with throat and breast white, with yellowish bill and pink
colored feet.

Range.—From Monterey, California, to South America.

                        BLACK-VENTED SHEARWATER.
             93.     Puffinus opisthomelas.     14 inches.

Similar to the previous, only smaller and somewhat lighter in color.
Quite common in southern California and much more so in Lower California.

Range.—From northern United States to Lower California. A single white
egg is laid (2.00 × 1.30).

                          TOWNSEND SHEARWATER.
             93.1.     Puffinus auricularis.     14 inches.

A more southern species; occurs occasionally on the lower California
coast and islands.

[Illustration: ]

                        DARK-BODIED SHEARWATER.
                95.     Puffinus griseus.     17 inches.

This is a southern species which, after nesting on the islands in the far
south during our winter months, comes north and appears off the Pacific
coast of the United States during our summer months, as far north as
Alaska. They are a dark sooty gray, except for the under-coverts, which
are whitish.

Nest.—Habits are the same as the others of the family. The single white
egg is laid at the end of the burrows or in crevices under rocks (2.40 ×

                       SLENDER-BILLED SHEARWATER.
             96.     Puffinus tenuirostris.     14 inches.

This is much smaller than the preceding, otherwise resembling it in color
and markings, being a little lighter under the throat, and the bill more
slender in proportion to the size of the bird. Bill and feet nearly
black, as is also the one above.

Nest.—Nesting habits and range of the bird are the same as the
Dark-bodied Shearwater; it is not found on the N. A. coast as commonly as
the other.

[Illustration: ]

                             FISHER PETREL.
               100.     Æstrelata fisheri.     7 inches.

This is a handsome bird known only from the type specimen taken off
Kadiak Island, Alaska, by Mr. Fisher.

                             LEAST PETREL.
             103.     Halocyptena microsoma.     5½ inches.

This is the smallest of the family. Their plumage is entirely dark sooty.

Nest.—They have been found breeding on the islands of Lower California,
and they probably do on others farther south. The single egg of this bird
is white with a wreath of tiny brown specks about the larger end.

                          FORK-TAILED PETREL.
              105.     Oceanodroma furcata.     8 inches.

These birds have a plumage of bluish gray, the wings being darker and the
under parts lightest.

Nest.—Single egg is laid at the end of a burrow on the ground. Egg white
with a fine wreath of purplish black specks about the larger end. Found
breeding on the islands of Alaska.

[Illustration: ]

                            KAEDING PETREL.
            105.2.     Oceanodroma kaedingi.     7½ inches.

This bird is similar to the following, but a trifle smaller and the tail
less deeply forked. Its range is from northern California to Mexico,
breeding in the southern part of its range.

                             LEACH PETREL.
             106.     Oceanodroma leucorhoa.     8 inches.

These are quite common on both the eastern and western coasts, breeding
from the Farallones northward to the Aleutians. They are of a sooty brown
color, upper tail-coverts and side of under-coverts white. They burrow in
the ground for two or three feet, but make no attempt at nest building;
placing their single white egg on the bare ground at end of burrow. These
birds generally take turns in the task of incubation, one remaining at
sea during the day and returning at night. They are rarely seen in the
vicinity of their nests during the day.

                           GUADALUPE PETREL.
                  106.1.     Oceanodroma macrodactyla.

Very similar to the preceding, having more of a forked tail and somewhat
longer. Breed on the islands of Lower California.

Nest.—Same as above with one white egg, usually much nest stained.

[Illustration: ]

                             BLACK PETREL.
              107.     Oceanodroma melania.     7½ inches.

These birds are sooty black all over, lacking the white rump of the two
or three preceding. All of the Petrels have a very offensive musky odor,
which is always noticeable about an island inhabited by them. The skins
and eggs of the birds always retain this odor.

Nest.—Made in burrows similar to the others, but sometimes containing a
small amount of nesting material; grass and roots.

Range.—Southern California southward to Mexico.

                              ASHY PETREL.
             108.     Oceanodroma homochroa.     7 inches.

This species breeds most abundantly on the Farallone Islands, sooty gray
in color, their plumage matching their surroundings so closely that,
unless one is looking for them, they will easily be overlooked.

They sit very close when nesting, and will even allow themselves to be
removed from the nest by hand, so tame are they. They build in burrows or
in any crevice of the rocks, laying their single white egg on the ground
or rock without much, if any, lining to the nest.

[Illustration: ]

                  CORMORANTS—Family Phalacrocoracidæ.

                          FARALLONE CORMORANT.
      120c.     Phalacrocorax auritus albociliatus.     30 inches.

Plumage glossy greenish black, with back and wings slaty. These birds
breed in large numbers on the Farallones, placing their nests well up on
the higher ridges and also in the trees on some of the inland islands, or
near large ponds or lakes. They build large nests of sticks and roots,
lined with grass, seaweed and moss.

Nest.—Three to five chalky, greenish white eggs are laid (2.40 × 1.50).

                           BRANDT CORMORANT.
          122.     Phalacrocorax penicillatus.     35 inches.

Plumage, under parts are same as above. Bill more slender and nearly
straight. The young are hatched without feathers or down and the skin is
nearly black. The young for two or three months are the food supply for
the larger Gulls. Like the other Cormorants breeding on these islands,
they stay closely by their nests to protect them from the Gulls that are
always on the watch for either the eggs or young.

Range.—Pacific coast, breeding along the whole coast of the United

[Illustration: ]

                           BAIRD CORMORANTS.
     123b.     Phalacrocorax pelagicus resplendens.     28 inches.

This smaller Cormorant breeds on the Pacific coast from Washington south
to Mexico. It is not nearly as common as the former species and not
inclined to breed in colonies with the others, but is more secluded.

Nest.—Their nest building is very similar, using the rocks and cliffs on
which to place their nests mostly, and very seldom building in trees.
Their eggs are much smaller, averaging 2.20 × 1.40.

                          RED-FACED CORMORANT.
              124.     Phalacrocorax urile.     32 inches.

The plumage of this species differs from the above chiefly in having the
forehead bare. Their breeding habits are the same as other members of the
family. That the Cormorants are expert fishermen may be seen from the
fact that the Chinese tame them to catch fish for them, placing a ring
about their necks to prevent their swallowing the fish.

Nest.—The nesting places of these as well as other members of this family
are very filthy, being covered with excrement and the remains of fish
that are strewn about their nests (2.50 × 1.50).

[Illustration: ]

                      PELICANS.—Family Pelecanidæ.

                             WHITE PELICAN.
           125.     Pelecanus erythrorhynchos.     60 inches.

Plumage mostly white, with black primaries; eyes white; bill and feet
yellow, the former in the breeding season having a thin upright knob
about midway on the top of the upper mandible. They get their food by
approaching a school of small fish and suddenly dipping their head
beneath the surface, sometimes scooping a large number of fish at a time;
they contract the pouch, allowing the water to run out of the sides of
the mouth, and then swallow the fish.

Nest.—On the ground made of sticks and weeds, generally only a lining
about the outer edge; the eggs being placed upon the ground. Two or three
eggs are laid, pure chalky white (3.45 × 2.30).

                       CALIFORNIA BROWN PELICAN.
            127.     Pelecanus californicus.     55 inches.

Upper parts gray; lower brownish streaked with white; back of neck rich
velvety brown; head and throat white.

Nest.—On the ground or in small trees, composed of sticks and weeds.
Three or four chalky white eggs (3.10 × 1.95).

[Illustration: ]

                   MAN-O’-WAR BIRDS—Family Fregatidæ.

                             FRIGATE BIRD.
                128.     Fregata aquila.     40 inches.

In comparison with their weight, these birds have the largest expanse of
wing of any known bird. Weighing only about four pounds they have an
extent of from seven to eight feet. The length of the bird is about 40
inches, of which the tail comprises about 18, more than half of this
being forked. They can walk only with difficulty and are very poor
swimmers, owing to their small feet and long tail, but they are complete
masters of the air and delight to soar at great heights. Their food of
small fish is secured by plunging, or preying upon other sea birds.

Nest.—A frail platform of sticks in the tops of bushes or low trees. A
single white egg (2.80 × 1.90).

               129.     Mergus americanus.     25 inches.

These birds have the bill long, not flattened, but edged with sharp teeth
to grasp the fish, upon which they live to a great extent.

Nest.—In holes of trees, cavities among the rocks, or on the ground; 6 to
9 creamy buff eggs are laid (2.70 × 1.75).

[Illustration: ]

                        RED-BREASTED MERGANSER.
                130.     Mergus serrator.     22 inches.

This species is more abundant than the preceding, and is found commonly
on our large ponds, lakes and rivers, more than on the coast. The male
has the head, neck, and crest iridescent greenish black, breast brownish
with black spots. The female has the head, neck and crown a deep chestnut
color and the upper parts and tail a gray in place of the black found on
the males.

Nest.—They lay from seven to ten eggs of a creamy buff color, making
their nest of moss and grasses, placed under or in tufts of grass or in
crevices of rocks; usually lining the nest with feathers (2.50 × 1.70).

Range.—Whole of North America, breeding from central United States to
British America.

                           HOODED MERGANSER.
             131.     Lophodytes cucullatus.     17 inches.

Bill short, compared with the preceding. The large crest with which both
sexes are adorned will easily distinguish this from the others. The male
having the crest black with a large white patch, and that of the female
plain brown.

Nest.—In holes of trees; 8 to 12 eggs, grayish white (2.15 × 1.70).

[Illustration: ]

            135.     Chaulelasmus streperus.     20 inches.

Male with chestnut wing coverts and white speculum; the female is similar
but the back and wings are brownish-gray. As is usual with many of the
ducks these do most of their feeding early in the morning or after dusk,
and spend the greater part of the day in sleeping. They are one of the
most noisy and active of the ducks.

Nest.—They nest on the ground among the reeds of marshes or in the long
grass of bordering fields. They lay from 7 to 12 eggs of a creamy buff
color (2.10 × 1.60).

Range.—Includes the whole of North America, breeds from British Columbia
to southern California.

              132.     Anas platyrhynchos.     23 inches.

These are regarded as one of the best table birds. They feed on mollusks
and marine insects which they generally reach by tipping in shallow

Nest.—In close proximity to ponds or lakes, placing their nests in the
tall grasses of which it is made and lined with feathers. Breed from
Alaska to southern California (2.25 × 1.25).

[Illustration: ]

                       BALDPATE—AMERICAN WIDGEON.
               137.     Mareca Americana.     19 inches.

These are common and well-known birds throughout North America, where
they are called by a great variety of names, most of which refer to the
bald appearance of the top of the head, owing to the white feathers. They
can usually be identified at a distance by the absence of any dark
markings, and when in flight by the whiteness of the under parts.

Nest.—Made of grass and weeds neatly lined with feathers, on the ground
or in marshes. 6 to 12 cream colored eggs are laid (2.15 × 1.20).

                           GREEN-WINGED TEAL.
              139.     Nettion carolinense.     14 inches.

These are the smallest of the Duck family, and are eagerly sought for by
sportsmen, both for their beauty and the excellence of their flesh. The
male may be easily identified by the reddish brown head and neck, with
the large green patch behind each ear.

Nest.—On the ground under the shelter of tall grasses, it is made of
weeds and grass and lined with feathers. 5 to 9 buffy eggs are laid (1.85
× 1.25). Breeds abundantly in California and Oregon.

[Illustration: ]

                           BLUE-WINGED TEAL.
              140.     Querquedula discors.     15 inches.

Male has the head a dark gray with white crescent in front of the eye;
under parts chestnut heavily spotted with black; wing coverts bright
blue. Female similar to female Green-wing, but has the blue wing coverts.
In flight can be easily separated from the Green-wing by its darker under
parts. Their flight is very rapid, and usually in compact lines. This is
more common east of the Rockies than the other.

Nest.—Made of grass and nicely lined with feathers placed in the reeds
bordering marshes. 8 to 12 creamy colored eggs are laid.

Range.—North America, breeding more abundantly than the former farther
north in its range.

                             CINNAMON TEAL.
            141.     Querquedula cyanoptera.     16 inches.

This is the most abundant of the Teal family west of the Rockies. It is
on the male a bright cinnamon color on the under parts; also the head and
neck, being darkest near the bill and lightest on the back. Wing coverts
blue; speculum green, divided by a line of white.

Nest.—Made same as above with 6 to 14 eggs (1.85 × 1.35).

[Illustration: ]

               142.     Spatula clypeata.     20 inches.

Easily recognized in any plumage by the large broad bill, which is out of
all proportion to the size of the bird. Head, neck and speculum dark
green, under parts reddish brown, breast and back white, wing coverts
blue. If it were not for the large ungainly bill, this duck would be
classed as one of our most beautiful during the breeding season.

Nest.—It makes its nest on the ground in marshy places of grass, weeds
and lined with feathers; laying from 6 to 10 grayish white eggs (2.10 ×

Range.—North America; breeding most abundant on the western coast from
southern California to northwest Alaska.

                 143.     Dafila acuta.     30 inches.

A long-necked duck and with a long pointed tail. Male with head and
stripe down the back of neck, brownish; back and sides barred with white
and black wavy lines.

Nest.—On the ground like the other ducks, well-lined with feathers
generally placed near the water, laying from 6 to 12 eggs of a dull olive
color (2.20 × 1.50).

Range.—North America.

[Illustration: ]

                               WOOD DUCK.
                  144.     Aix sponsa.     19 inches.

This bird, without doubt, is by far the most beautiful of any of the duck
family. Both the male and female have a long crest; that of the male of
the most beautiful shades of blue and iridescent green colors, with
stripes of white, the throat and under parts also white, breast chestnut
with white arrow head marking, sides buff with black and white line

Nest.—In the hollow of a tree, usually near the water. The birds are said
to carry the young from the nest to the water in their bills. 6 to 10
eggs, buffy in color (2.25 × 1.60).

Range.—Temperate North America, breeding from Canada to the Gulf of

               146.     Marila americana.     19 inches.

This bird, the preceding and the one following are considered as the best
table birds of the duck family.

Nest.—Placed on the ground in marshes. Eggs 6 to 14 in number, buffy
white in color (2.40 × 1.70).

Range.—North America, breeding from Minnesota northward.

[Illustration: ]

              147.     Marila valisineria.     21 inches.

Differs from the Redhead in the shape of its black bill, its blackish
forehead, very light colored back and red eyes, the Redhead having yellow
eyes. Like the last species, these birds are excellent swimmers and
divers, and secure their food from deeper water than many of the ducks.
Their food consists of various fresh water plants and small fish; shell
fish and frogs. These usually command the highest market price, and are
much sought after by gunners.

Nest.—On the ground in marshes or sloughs, lined with grass and feathers.
6 to 10 eggs of a pale olive (2.40 × 1.70).

Range.—North America; breeding from central British Columbia south to
Oregon and Minnesota.

                        SCAUP DUCK OR BLUE-BILL.
                 148.     Marila marila.     18 inches.

This and the following are widely known as Blue-bills owing to the slaty
blue color of that member. Head, neck and breast are black; speculum and
under parts white, and eyes yellow.

Nest.—In marshes about many of the ponds in the interior of British
Columbia. 6 to 10 eggs pale greenish gray (2.50 × 1.70).

[Illustration: ]

                           LESSER SCAUP DUCK.
                149.     Marila affinis.     17 inches.

Slightly smaller than the last, and with the head of the male glossed
purple instead of green on the black. They are one of the most abundant
migrants, and are one of the most active of the family, diving at the
flash of a gun. The immense flocks generally keep out in the open waters
of the lakes or rivers; where they feed by diving.

Nest.—Is made of marsh grasses and neatly lined with feathers from the
breast of the female. 6 to 9 eggs of a pale gray color (2.25 × 1.55).

                           RING-NECKED DUCK.
                150.     Marila collaris.     17 inches.

In appearance and general habits this duck is much the same as the two
preceding. Male with head, neck and breast black with purple shades,
having a ring of chestnut about the neck, which at a little distance is
not noticeable. Bill blackish, with a bluish band near the end; eye

Nest.—Same in every way as above, and general distribution the same,
breeding from Oregon and Minnesota northward.

[Illustration: ]

                          AMERICAN GOLDEN-EYE.
          151.     Clangula clangula americana.     20 inches.

These are handsome ducks, known as “Whistlers,” from the noise of their
wings when flying, and also “Great-heads,” because of the puffy crest.
The head is greenish black with a large round white spot in front of and
a little below the eye. The rest of the plumage is black and white.

Nest.—Built in the hollows of trees near the water, lining the cavity
with fine grasses, moss or leaves and then lining the nest with feathers,
in which they place from 6 to 10 eggs of a grayish color (2.30 × 1.70).

Range.—North America, breeding from Alaska south to the most northern of
United States. Winters to southern California and the Gulf Coast.

                           BARROW GOLDEN-EYE.
              152.     Clangula islandica.     20 inches.

Head of this species a bluish black, with a crescent white spot between
the bill and eye; which is yellow as also is the preceding.

Nest.—The range and nesting habits are the same as above, possibly
breeding a little farther south on the Pacific coast.

[Illustration: ]

             153.     Charitonetta albeola.     14 inches.

This handsome little duck is also known as “Butter-ball” and
“Dipper-duck,” the latter name given to them on account of the ease with
which they can disappear under the water. They are always on the alert
and will dive at the flash of a gun. Head iridescent blue, green and
purple, and with a large white patch extending from eye to eye, across
the back of the puffy crest. Their flight is very rapid, and they can
take wing from the water easier than the majority of ducks.

Nest.—In holes of tree stumps or in the banks along the sides of rivers,
8 to 14 eggs of a light grayish color (2.00 × 1.40).

                      OLD-SQUAW—LONG-TAILED DUCK.
               154.     Harelda hyemalis.     21 inches.

One of the very few ducks that change their plumage in summer and winter.
Both sexes are marked similarly, but the female is somewhat duller and
lacks the long tail feathers of the male. They are excellent swimmers and
dive to great depths in search of their food.

Nest.—Generally concealed in the long grass near the water, made of grass
and lined with feathers. 6 to 10 eggs (2.00 × 1.50).

[Illustration: ]

                            HARLEQUIN DUCK.
           155.     Histrionicus histrionicus.     17 inches.

A beautiful and most attractive bird as shown in the illustration. It is
not the colors alone that make them so attractive, but the way the colors
are placed. The white being in long stripes, crescents or large spots,
with black, gray and chestnut. They are usually found only in pairs among
the swiftly running streams, or in the winter in small flocks on the

Nest.—Is nicely woven of weeds and grasses and lined with down placed on
the ground in crevices of rocks or sometimes in the hollow of a tree. 5
to 8 greenish buff eggs (2.30 × 1.60).

Range.—Northern North America, breeding from Alaska to the central part
of California among the mountain streams.

                             PACIFIC EIDER.
               161.     Somateria v-nigra.     23 inches.

This bird is in plumage like the Northern Eider, except that it has a
black V-shaped mark on the throat. They nest sparingly on the Aleutian
Islands, but in great numbers farther north.

Nest.—They make their nests of seaweed and grass, warmly lining same with
down from their breasts. 6 to 8 eggs (3.00 × 2.00).

[Illustration: ]

                             STELLER EIDER.
              157.     Polysticta stelleri.     18 inches.

A very beautiful species; head white, washed with greenish on the
forehead and nape; chin, throat, neck, back, tail and crissum, black;
under parts chestnut; wing coverts white, the long scapulars black and

Nest.—Are made of grasses and heavily lined with down. It breeds on the
rocky coast and islands of Bering Sea. The six to nine eggs are pale
olive green in color (2.25 × 1.60).

Range.—Arctic regions in America, chiefly on the Aleutian Islands and
northwest coast of Alaska.

                           SPECTACLED EIDER.
              158.     Arctonetta fischeri.     21 inches.

This species is black on the under parts and mostly white above. The head
is largely washed with sea green, leaving a large patch of white,
narrowly bordered with black around each eye, thus resembling a pair of
spectacles and giving it the name it has.

Nest.—Is made of seaweed, grass and lined with down from their breast;
they are placed upon the ground under overhanging stones or clumps of
grass. 5 to 9 eggs (2.70 × 1.85).

[Illustration: ]

                              KING EIDER.
             162.     Somateria spectabilis.     23 inches.

This species is very different from any of the preceding, the crown being
of an ashy blue, and the long scapulars black in place of the white of
the others. It also has a broad V-shaped mark on the throat and a black
crescent between the eye and bill. Like all of the other Eiders the
females are mottled brown and black, the different species being very
difficult to separate.

Nest.—These are usually a depression in the ground lined with the down
from the breast, and contain from 6 to 10 eggs of a greenish color (3.00
× 2.00).

Range.—Northern North America, breeding along the coast of Siberia,
Bering Sea and Arctic coast of America.

               163.     Oidemia americana.     19 inches.

Scoters or “Coots,” as they are generally called, are Sea Ducks whose
plumage is almost wholly black; base of the bill is yellow and orange.
This species nest similar to the Eiders, concealing it under overhanging
rocks or in tufts of grass. 6 to 10 eggs of a dull buff color (2.50 ×

[Illustration: ]

                          WHITE-WINGED SCOTER.
               165.     Oidemia deglandi.     22 inches.

This is the largest of the Scoters, and may easily be distinguished from
the others by the white speculum on the wing and a white comet extending
from the eye backwards. It also has a yellow eye.

This species often feeds in very deep water, like others of the family.

Nest.—They nest on the ground, generally in long grass or under low
bushes, making a coarse nest of grasses, and sometimes twigs, lined with
feathers; 6 to 8 pale buff eggs (2.75 × 1.70).

Range.—North America, breeding in British Columbia and Alaska.

                              SURF SCOTER.
             166.     Oidemia perspicillata.     20 inches.

The male of this species is entirely black, excepting a white spot on top
of the head and another on the nape; eye white; bill red, white and
yellow with a large black spot near the base. The female is a grayish
brown, lighter below; also with a spot of dull white in front of the eye
and the same in back.

[Illustration: ]

                              RUDDY DUCK.
            167.     Erismatura jamaicensis.     15 inches.

This species may always be recognized by the reddish brown upper parts;
blackish head, with white cheeks and chin and under parts silvery white
with grayish wash next to the ruddy. Bill is very stout and broad at the
end, and the tail feathers are very stiff and pointed. Females have back,
crown and sides grayish, cheeks showing traces of white as on the male.
These ducks are very quick either in the water, on land, or in flight.

Nest.—They are usually made of grass and rushes and generally lined with
down in which are placed their eggs to the number of from 8 to 12 of a
grayish white color (2.40 × 1.75) unusually large for the size of the

Range.—The whole of North America, breeding from Central British Columbia
southward as far as Lower California.

                              SNOW GOOSE.
         169.     Chen hyperboreus hyperboreus.     26 inches.

Plumage entirely white with primaries tipped with black. This is the
smallest species of the Snow Goose, the eastern variety being some ten
inches longer, found in N. A., west of the Mississippi River.

[Illustration: ]

                              ROSS GOOSE.
                  170.     Chen rossi.     23 inches.

This beautiful species, with its breeding range unknown, winters in
California and as far south as the Gulf of Mexico, and is the smallest of
the family.

                          WHITE-FRONTED GOOSE.
           171a.     Anser albifrons gambeli.     27 inches.

These birds may be recognized by their mottled plumage, dark head and
white forehead; bill and feet orange. They are the most common on the
western coast and large numbers of them are sold in the markets.

Their food consists mostly of vegetable matter, frogs, snails, and

Nest.—These are placed upon the ground in a slight depression and made of
dried grasses, feathers and down. Eggs are from four to nine in number,
of a dull buff color (3.00 × 2.05).

Range.—Western and central North America, breeds on the Arctic coast
south to the lower Yukon Valley, winters from British Columbia to
southern California. During the spring flight immense flocks of these
birds pass through Oregon and follow down the west coast.

[Illustration: ]

                             CANADA GOOSE.
         172.     Branta canadensis canadensis.     38 inches.

This species is the most widely known of the family, and is the most
numerous. Its familiar “honk” has long been the signal of the coming
spring, and the V-shaped formation in which the flocks migrate is always
an object of interest to every one; large birds, with long necks
outstretched, wings beating the air in unison, and all following the
leadership of one bird in their journey over their invisible path.

Nest.—Of grasses and feathers lined with down, placed on the ground in
marshes or near lakes or ponds; four to nine eggs of a buff or drab color
are laid (3.50 × 2.50).

Range.—The whole of North America, breeding from northern United States
northward, and wintering in the southern part of U. S. to Lower

                            CACKLING GOOSE.
           172c.     Branta canadensis minima.     24 inches.

This is a perfect miniature of the above, the difference being only in
the size. It breeds in Alaska and along the Arctic coast and migrates in
winter along the western coast south to southern California. Eggs are
buff color; 4 to 9 (2.90 × 1.95).

[Illustration: ]

                              BLACK BRANT.
               174.     Branta nigricans.     26 inches.

Head, neck and breast black with a broad white collar nearly encircling
the black neck, back a grayish brown; under parts mostly white. They are
very inquisitive and easily come to decoys, and consequently large
numbers of them are shot each year for the markets. They are a noisy bird
especially when in large flocks. They get most of their food by tipping
up in the shallow waters, where they feed upon the tender water plants
and roots gathered from the bottom.

Nest.—A depression in the ground lined with grass and feathers and the
down from their breasts; four to eight eggs are laid of a grayish color
(2.80 × 1.75).

Range.—Western North America, breeding abundantly in northern Alaska and
wintering on the Pacific coast from British Columbia to Lower California.

                             EMPEROR GOOSE.
               176.     Philacte canagica.     26 inches.

This handsome species may be known by the mottled or scaly appearance of
the feathers; the head is white with a black chin and throat. Their 3 to
7 eggs are a dull buff color (3.10 × 2.15).

[Illustration: ]

                        BLACK-BELLIED TREE-DUCK.
            177.     Dendrocygna autumnalis.     22 inches.

These odd-shaped ducks, with their long legs and neck, are very common in
southern Texas and along the Rio Grande. They are not timid and are
frequently caught and domesticated. They can walk and run gracefully, and
feed in grain fields at considerable distance from the water. They
usually raise two broods in a season, each brood having from ten to as
many as twenty.

Nest.—They build their nests in hollow trees, oftentimes at a great
distance from the water. The nest is lined with a few feathers and down.
The eggs are a creamy white (2.05 × 1.50).

                           FULVOUS TREE-DUCK.
              178.     Dendrocygna bicolor.     22 inches.

In form this duck is much like the last, but in color is more of a rufous
all over, being darkest on the upper parts. It has no white markings. It
is fully as abundant as the preceding and is found farther north and west
to the Pacific coast in southern California.

Nest.—Their nesting habits; their eggs and the size of them are identical
with the former. As many as 32 eggs have been found in one nest, but
these were probably laid by two birds.

[Illustration: ]

                            WHISTLING SWAN.
               180.     Olor columbianus.     58 inches.

These large birds are snow white, with the exception of their bill and
feet, which are black. The nostril is situated nearer the end of the bill
than it is to the eye. It is distinguished from the next by the small
yellow spot on either side of the bill near its base.

Nest.—Are made of a large mass of rubbish, weeds, moss, grass, feathers
and a few sticks, generally placed in marshy places near ponds or lakes.
Three to six greenish or brownish buff eggs are laid (4.00 × 2.75).

Range.—North America, more common in the east, breeding in Alaska and the
Arctic islands, wintering from British Columbia to the central part of

                            TRUMPETER SWAN.
                181.     Olor buccinator.     65 inches.

This magnificent bird, over five feet in length, with a spread of wing
nearly ten feet, is found more in the interior than on the coast. Its
plumage is the same as above, except that the bill is entirely black and
the nostril is located nearer the eye. Their nesting habits are the same
as above, the eggs averaging a trifle larger.

[Illustration: ]

                      GLOSSY IBIS—Family Ibididæ.
              186.     Plegadis autumnalis.     25 inches.

The neck and body of this bird is a rich dark chestnut color, glossy with
purplish on the head; wings and tail glossy greenish black; bill, legs
and feet carmine red, bill much curved downward.

This bird is just the same as the White-faced Glossy Ibis which is
occasionally found in southern California, with the exception that the
latter has the forehead and feathers, bordering the bill, white.

Nest.—Strongly and compactly woven of dead rushes attached to living
stalks, and well cupped. Eggs 3 or 4 deep greenish blue color (1.95 ×

                       WOOD IBIS—Family Ciconiæ.
              188.     Mycteria americana.     45 inches.

Head and neck unfeathered and covered with scales, which are pale bluish
in color as are also the legs. Plumage entirely white except for the
primaries and tail, which are glossy purplish black. This is the only
true Stork which occurs in North America, and is found only in the
southern part of California and the most southern states near the Gulf of
Mexico. They lay 3 or 4 white eggs (2.75 × 1.75).

[Illustration: ]

                             LEAST BITTERN.
               191.     Ixobrychus exilis.     13 inches.

This small variety of Bittern is very common in the southern portions of
the United States. They are very quiet and sly birds, and their presence
is often unsuspected when they are really quite abundant. Their nests are
made of rushes woven about the upright stalks; 3 to 5 eggs, bluish white
(1.20 × .90).

                        BITTERN—Family Herodii.
             190.     Botaurus lentiginosus.     28 inches.

These are birds of the bogs and marshes, and will keep concealed so
closely that one may pass within a few feet of them and they not take
flight. They are known by a variety of names, nearly all of which have
reference to their “booming” sound while in the bogs. The most common
name given them being “Stake Driver” and again “Thunder Pumper.” They are
much variegated with brown and yellowish brown; adults with a long, broad
black stripe on either side of the white throat; eye is yellow; bill and
legs, greenish yellow.

Nest.—They build in swamps or marshy places, placing their nest usually
in a tussock of grass on some bog surrounded by water. They lay from
three to five brownish colored eggs (1.95 × 1.50).

[Illustration: ]

                           GREAT BLUE HERON.
            194.     Ardea herodias herodias.     48 inches.

This handsome Heron in general color in the adult stage is bluish gray,
relieved by a black crest, and black primaries and patches on the sides
and a white crown. Young birds are much duller colored and lack the crest
of the old birds. It takes several years for them to obtain their perfect
plumage. In the South they breed in large colonies, often in company with
many other species.

Nest.—Is usually built of sticks, making a rude platform in the trees
near swamps or wet woods. In some localities as many as 40 nests have
been found in a single tree. Three to five eggs of a greenish blue color
(2.50 × 1.50).

Range.—North America except the extreme northern part, breeds from
British Columbia to southern Lower California.

                              GREEN HERON.
         201.     Butorides virescens virescens.     17 inches.

This is the smallest of our Herons, and is well known all over the
country. In most sections of the country they will be found nesting, one
of two pairs together, along the border of some swamp or stream; 3 to 5
pale greenish blue eggs (1.45 × 1.10).

[Illustration: ]

               196.     Herodias egretta.     41 inches.

This is our most beautiful pure white Heron; one which has persistently
been hunted for its beautiful plumes for millinery purposes. They usually
breed in colonies with several others of the Heron family.

Nest.—Is generally a frail platform in small trees or bushes over the
water in which they lay three or four light bluish green colored eggs
(2.25 × 1.45). Breeds in Oregon and California.

                              SNOWY EGRET.
             197.     Egretta candidissima.     24 inches.

Plumage white; in breeding season with numerous recurved plumes growing
from the middle of the back; long crest of plumes on back of the head,
and on the breast. Bill black, greenish at the base; legs black and feet
yellow. With the protection which has been placed on these birds and the
large breeding places in their favorite locations made into Government
reservations we hope to see these become more abundant within a few
years. Their nesting habits are the same as above, only the eggs are
smaller (1.80 × 1.25).

[Illustration: ]

                       BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT HERON.
         202.     Nycticorax nycticorax nævius.     24 inches.

A well-known bird often called “quawk” from the note which it makes
during its evening flights. They are usually found nesting in large
colonies, while in some places a few secluded pairs nest; a favorite
place being among pine trees on the edge of muddy ponds.

Nest.—Is built of sticks, with no lining, and placed in the higher limbs
of the trees, not unusual to find a dozen or more in each tree. Eggs are
pale greenish color (2.00 × 1.40).

                      YELLOW-CROWNED NIGHT HERON.
              203.     Nyctanassa violacea.     23 inches.

The head of this species is adorned with three long, rounded white
plumes; in life these plumes are rarely separated, but are nested
together so that they appear to be as one. On the back they also have
long lanceolate gray plumes; crown and a comet shaped patch under the eye
of a yellowish white. As dusk approaches, these birds start out from
their roosting places, and, with slow, measured flaps, wing their way to
their feeding grounds, which are fresh water bogs, their food consisting
of insects, frogs, snails and small fish.

[Illustration: ]

                     WHOOPING CRANE—Family Gruidæ.
                204.     Grus americana.     50 inches.

This is the largest of the family in America. The plumage of the adults
is pure white, with black primaries; the bare parts of the head and face
are carmine; eyes yellow; bill and feet black. These great birds are not
uncommon on the prairies of the interior of America.

Nest.—Either upon the solid earth or marshy places on the bogs, the nest
being very bulky, a mass of grass and weeds two or three feet in
diameter. They lay two eggs of a brownish buff color blotched with shades
of brown and gray (3.75 × 2.50).

Range.—Interior of North America, breeding to the Arctic regions and
wintering to the Gulf states and southward.

                          LITTLE BROWN CRANE.
                205.     Grus canadensis.     36 inches.

This smaller variety is very much like the Sandhill Crane, but more
brown, especially on the wings. When in flight this family always carry
the neck fully extended, while the Herons draw the neck back between the
wings. Unlike herons the young birds are born covered with down, and can
run about as soon as they appear.

Range.—In northern Canada, where it breeds.

[Illustration: ]

                   LIGHT-FOOTED RAIL.—Family Rallidæ.
               210.1.     Rallus levipes.     10 inches.

They inhabit the grassy marshes, and keep closely concealed if any danger
is lurking about the locality where they are. They are very quick to get
away in the tall grass if startled, and rarely take to the wing for
protection. This species is found about the marshes in southern

                        CALIFORNIA CLAPPER RAIL.
               210.     Rallus obsoletus.     15 inches.

Color above olive-grayish, with no strong black markings; cinnamon
colored breast. It is an abundant species on nearly all of the marshes
along the coast. They are excellent runners, and are very difficult to
start from the marsh grass in which they are concealed. Its nest is built
on the ground on the higher parts of the marsh, where it is comparatively
dry, building it of grass and strips of rushes.

Nest.—They lay from four to nine eggs of a light buff color, spotted and
blotched with brown and lilac (1.75 × 1.25). The young of this family are
born covered with a shining black down, and remain in the nest but a few

[Illustration: ]

                             VIRGINIA RAIL.
              212.     Rallus virginianus.     10 inches.

Back handsomely patterned with black, olive-brown and gray; wing coverts
grayish brown, neck and breast cinnamon brown, brightest on the breast.
Sides sharply barred with black and white; chin and line over the eye
white, side of head slaty color. Like others of this species, it is found
in either the fresh or salt marshes, but more abundant in the fresh.

Nest.—Of grasses on the ground or in tufts of rushes; eggs of a creamy
white spotted and blotched with brown and lilac; six to ten are the
number laid (1.25 × .90).

Range.—North America, breeding from British Columbia to southern
California and the Gulf of Mexico.

                               SORA RAIL.
                214.     Porzana carolina.     9 inches.

Adults with throat and face black; young with no black on the head.
Unless disturbed they pass the greater part of the day in quiet and do
most of their feeding after dusk, when their clucking notes may be heard
all over the marshes.

Nest.—A rude structure of grass in the rushes; 6 to 16 eggs, buff colored
with reddish-brown specks (1.25 × .90).

[Illustration: ]

                              YELLOW RAIL.
           215.     Coturnicops noveboracensis.     7 inches.

This is a very handsome species, with plumage of glossy brown, yellowish
buff; black and white barred side feathers. The back is blackish with the
feathers edged with white. These small Rails are like field mice, hard to
locate or obtain sight of when in the marsh grass. They object to flying
unless forced to do so, and trust to their small size and their agility
to get through rushes to avoid being seen.

Nest.—Is placed on the ground and made of grass woven and twisted
together; the six to twelve eggs are rich buff color, specked with
reddish brown in a wreath about the larger end (1.10 × .80).

Range.—Locally distributed in temperate America from southern California
to British Columbia.

                              BLACK RAIL.
             216.     Creciscus coturniculus.     5 inches.

This is the smallest of the Rails. A dark slaty colored bird, with back a
dark brown thickly spotted with white, gray feathers on the sides and
flank spotted and barred with white.

Nest.—These are woven of strips of rushes and grass, nicely cupped to
hold the eggs, which number from six to twelve; creamy white, specked all
over with reddish brown (1.03 × .75).

[Illustration: ]

                           FLORIDA GALLINULE.
               219.     Gallinula galeata.     13 inches.

Plumage gray, changing to blackish about the head; the back a brownish
color. Bill and frontal plate bright red, the former being tipped with
yellow, legs greenish with a red ring about the top. The grayish side
feathers tipped with white at the wing and lower ones with black. They
have an almost endless variety of notes; all of them harsh and explosive.

Nest.—They build in colonies in the marshes, making their nests of rushes
and grasses woven together and attached to stalks of rushes quite often
over the water. They lay from six to ten eggs of a creamy buff color
(1.60 × 1.15).

                             AMERICAN COOT.
               221.     Fulica americana.     15 inches.

Head and neck nearly black, shading into a gray over the whole bird. Toes
lobed and scalloped along the edge; bill white with a blackish band near
the tip; shield narrow and brownish, ending in a point.

Nest.—This is placed in the same localities as are the Rails, and they
have the same retiring habits. Six to fifteen eggs of a grayish color
finely specked all over with black or brown (1.80 × 1.30).

[Illustration: ]

                  RED PHALAROPE.—Family Phalaropodidæ.
             222.     Phalaropus fulicarius.     8 inches.

These birds are very rarely seen in the United States in their breeding
plumage; when they come in the fall nearly all have changed to their
winter dress, and they retain this until after they leave us in the
spring. In summer the under parts and neck a reddish brown; sides of the
head white; top of head blackish; wings bluish gray crossed by a white
band. The female is the larger and brighter plumaged bird.

Nest.—A hollow in the ground, lined with a few grasses. Three or four
eggs greenish buff color, spotted and blotched with brown or black (1.20
× .80).

Range.—Northern hemisphere, breeding in the far north, and in winter
migrating to middle portions of United States on both coasts.

                          NORTHERN PHALAROPE.
                223.     Lobipes lobatus.     8 inches.

This is a maritime species that nests in the far north, and appears on
the coasts a short time during migration. Like the last they are expert
swimmers, and pass most of their time when not breeding upon the surface
of the water. They feed upon minute insects secured from beds of floating
kelp. Nest and eggs similar to above.

[Illustration: ]

                           WILSON PHALAROPE.
              224.     Steganopus tricolor.     9 inches.

This is the most handsome species of the family, being of a very graceful
form, of a grayish and white color, with a broad black stripe through the
eye and down the side of the neck, where it changes gradually into a rich
chestnut color. Bill is long and slender. It is a bird of the interior,
and is only rarely met with on the coasts. It does not congregate in
large flocks, as the two preceding, and is not as often seen upon the
water, although a good swimmer.

Nest.—Made of grasses on the ground, usually concealed in a tuft of grass
near the border of a marsh or pond. Three or four greenish-buff eggs with
black markings (1.30 × .90).

Range.—Interior of North America, breeding from Canada to southern
California and inland to Colorado and Dakota.

                             WILSON SNIPE.
              230.     Gallinago delicata.     11 inches.

This species to a great extent frequents the open marshy meadows with its
winding brooks. They procure their food by boring in the muddy banks of
the meadows, the tip of the bill being flexible.

Nest.—On grassy edge of ponds or marshes; 4 eggs (1.50 × 1.10).

[Illustration: ]

                     AVOCET—Family Recurvirostridæ.
            225.     Recurvirostra americana.     17 inches.

In summer the head and neck are pale cinnamon color; young birds and
winter adults have the head and neck white. Feathers on the under part
white and very thick and, duck-like, being impervious to water. Bill
slender and recurved; feet webbed. Large patches of white on the wings,
making them very conspicuous at all times. During the breeding season, if
not molested, they become very tame.

Nest.—Is simply a lining of grass in a slight depression in the ground.
They lay three or four eggs of a dark greenish or brownish buff color,
spotted and blotched with brown and black (1.90 × 1.30).

                          BLACK-NECKED STILT.
             226.     Himantopus mexicanus.     15 inches.

Legs extremely long and bright red; neck and bill moderately long and
slender. Male black and white as shown; female and young with back
brownish. They are strong and swift upon the wing.

Nest.—On the ground, made of weeds, twigs and grass. Three or four eggs,
greenish buff, with numerous markings of brown and black about the larger

[Illustration: ]

             231.     Macrorhamphus griseus.     11 inches.

Bill very long like that of the Snipe. In summer these birds are reddish
brown below; more or less specked with black on the breast and barred
with black on the sides; above mottled with brown and black, lighter or
even white on the rump, crossed with wavy lines of black.

In winter they are gray above and white below. By the gunners known as
“Red-breasted Snipe” in the spring and summer and as “Graybacks” in the
winter months.

Nest.—Placed in a slight hollow on the ground and lined with grass and
leaves; three or four eggs of a greenish buff color boldly marked with
brown most heavily about the larger end (1.75 × 1.15).

                            STILT SANDPIPER.
             233.     Micropalama himantopus.     9 inches.

These seem to be one of the least abundant of our shore birds, single
individuals being found in flocks of other species rather than in flocks
by themselves. Bill slender and only moderately long. In summer the
entire under parts are a rusty white, closely barred with blackish. In
winter they are gray above and white below.

[Illustration: ]

                234.     Tringa canutus.     11 inches.

This is one of the birds that feed along the ocean beaches, following out
each wave as it rolls away and eagerly picking the small insects from the
sand, and hurrying back to get clear from the next wave. Bill moderately
long and quite stout; form more robust than most of the shore birds.
Adults in summer mixed with brown and grayish above and of a reddish
uniform brown below. In winter plain gray above and white below.

Nest.—They are supposed to breed in Arctic America, but no eggs are known
as yet in any collections.

Range.—Arctic regions in summer; in winter south through the United
States to South America.

                          PRIBILOF SANDPIPER.
        235b.     Arquatella maritima ptilocnemis.     9 inches.

This bird has the feathers of the upper parts edged with rusty and the
under parts light, with a distinguishing patch of black on the breast.
Three or four eggs of a grayish buff color, spotted and blotched with
brown, laid on the ground in a depression with a light lining of grass
(1.50 × 1.05).

[Illustration: ]

                        SHARP-TAILED SANDPIPER.
                 238.     Pisobia aurita.     9 inches.

This species is blackish-brown above, feathers strongly edged with
reddish brown, white below except the breast, which is reddish brown.
Fairly common in summer on the coast of Alaska; in winter supposed to
migrate south wholly on the Asiatic side of the Pacific.

                          PECTORAL SANDPIPER.
                239.     Pisobia maculata.     9 inches.

A peculiar species, having the power during the mating season of
inflating the throat to a great extent. They have more the habits of the
Snipe than do most of the Sandpipers, frequenting grassy meadows or
marshes, and feeding along the muddy flats in place of the sandy beaches.
They are very dark brown above, with much lighter brown edging the
feathers, and are white below and on the throat; the breast is brownish.
These are well-known birds, and are called by gunners “Grass Snipe” or
“Jack Snipe” as a more common name.

Nest.—Are grass-lined depressions, in which are laid three or four
grayish or greenish buff eggs (1.45 × 1.00).

Range.—Whole of North America, breeding in the Arctic regions and
wintering south of the United States.

[Illustration: ]

                        WHITE-RUMPED SANDPIPER.
              240.     Pisobia fuscicollis.     7 inches.

Back, wings and top of head brownish streaked with black, below white,
but with the breast and throat streaked; primaries black; upper tail
coverts white. Nesting habits the same as those of the majority of the
family, breeding from Labrador northward, and wintering to Central
America. Eggs 1.30 × .90.

                            BAIRD SANDPIPER.
                241.     Pisobia bairdi.     7½ inches.

Very similar to the preceding, but without the white rump, being of a
blackish color instead.

Nest.—In the grass bordering fresh water ponds rather than near the
seashore. Their nest is a slight hollow in the ground lined with grasses
and usually concealed in a bunch of grass. Three to four eggs of a
grayish white marked with shades of brown and lilac (1.30 × .90).

                            LEAST SANDPIPER.
               242.     Pisobia minutilla.     6 inches.

This is the smallest of the family; except for size they are the same in
color and markings as the preceding. Found more on the seashore. Nesting
habits and eggs are the same as the two above.

[Illustration: ]

                         RED-BACKED SANDPIPER.
           243a.     Pelidna alpina sakhalina.     8 inches.

Bill slightly decurved and rather stout. Adults in summer, with the upper
parts largely bright chestnut, spotted with black; belly black; head,
throat, breast and sides strongly streaked with black.

In winter, dull brownish-gray above and white below, with the breast
washed with grayish and slightly streaked with dusky. These small birds
are found in large flocks both on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, during
migrations, but rarely in the interior. Their flight is very rapid and
performed in compact flocks, that act as if governed by one impulse.

Nest.—Usually built on dry grassy knolls, a hollow in the earth being
lined with a few dried grasses; they lay three or four eggs with a
greenish or brownish buff color, heavily spotted and blotched with shades
of brown and chestnut (1.40 × 1.00).

                          SPOONBILL SANDPIPER.
             245.     Eurynorhynchus pygmeus.     7 inches.

A very rare Asiatic species, which is taken in Alaska. It is a very
peculiar bird, having the end of the bill broadened and flattened into a
sort of spoon shape.

[Illustration: ]

               248.     Calidris leucophæa.     8 inches.

These are a handsome and abundant species, found during migrations by
thousands. On the coast it is one of the boldest of the shore birds,
feeding on the edge of the outer beach, often under the combing crest of
the incoming waves, retreating just as the wave breaks and is dashed to
foam on the beach. They are usually very shy, and will not allow a close
approach. Toes are short and stout; no hind toe. Adults in summer,
variegated above with bright reddish brown and black. In winter, plain
grayish above and white below.

Nest.—The three or four greenish buff eggs, spotted and blotched with
brown, are laid in nests that differ but little from others of this
family (1.45 × .90).

Range.—Found in all parts of North America, breeding within the Arctic
Circle, and wintering to southern California.

                           WESTERN SANDPIPER.
                247.     Ereunetes mauri.     6½ inches.

Their appearance is very similar to the Least Sandpiper, but they are
slightly larger and the feet are partially webbed. Their nesting habits
are the same, and eggs are very much alike.

[Illustration: ]

                            MARBLED GODWIT.
                 249.     Limosa fedoa.     19 inches.

These large waders are found in moderately large flocks both in the
interior and on the coast in the fall. They are like large Plovers, with
long, slightly upcurved bills. Back, wings and tail rufous barred with
black; rump white.

Nest.—Their eggs are laid upon the ground, sometimes there is no lining
to the nest, and again a few grasses may be twisted about the depression.
Three or four eggs with a ground color of grayish buff, sometimes quite
dark, are blotched with dark brown (2.25 × 1.60).

                          GREATER YELLOW-LEGS.
             254.     Totanus melanoleucus.     14 inches.

Head and neck streaked with gray and white; back dark gray margined with
white; rump white; tail barred black and white; primaries black; bill
long and rather slender; legs long and yellow.

Nest.—The eggs are laid in a depression on the ground with very little
attempt at nest building. Three or four eggs, grayish white, heavily
blotched with shades of brown and lilac (1.65 × 1.25).

Range.—North America, breeding in the British Provinces.

[Illustration: ]

                      WESTERN SOLITARY SANDPIPER.
       256a.     Helodromas solitarius cinnamomeus.     9 inches.

A bird with a greenish gray back, barred with buff, and white below.
These are almost always met with in pairs or singly, and are very rarely
seen even in small flocks. They prefer small ponds or streams in wet
woods or open meadows, rather than marshes, which are frequented by other
species. As their name signifies they are inclined to be alone.

Nest.—Is usually well concealed in a clump of grass, near some small
piece of water, and is only a slight hollow with very little lining of
grasses. Three to five eggs are clay colored, spotted with dark shades of
brown (1.30 × 1.00).

                            WESTERN WILLET.
     258a.     Catoptrophorus semipalmatus inoratus.     16 inches.

These breed in small colonies in the marshes in central Oregon and
northern California, and are quite abundant in many localities. Upper
parts a brownish gray, specked with black; under parts lighter gray, with
lighter streaks of darker gray. Primaries white at the base and black on
the outer end.

Nest.—Is placed upon the ground secreted in clumps of grass just barely
out of reach of the water. Three or four eggs; buff blotched with umber
(2.00 × 1.50).

[Illustration: ]

                           WANDERING TATTLER.
             259.     Heteractitis incanus.     11 inches.

This is a handsome species, uniform gray above and white below, closely
barred (in summer) with blackish, the bars becoming broken on the throat,
forming spots. In winter the under parts and throat are white. During the
breeding season it is found on the coast and islands of Alaska, building
its nest along the marshy shores and banks of streams.

             261.     Bartramia longicauda.     12 inches.

This is a bird of the hillsides or prairies, seldom being found near the
water, their food consisting more of insects and worms than is usual with
others of the Plover or Sandpiper families. They are quite shy, and are
one of the birds much hunted for the table. Upper parts almost black,
with feathers all edged with buff, giving them a very mottled appearance.
Black on top of the head; neck light buff, streaked with black; under
parts white.

Nest.—Usually placed in fields of grass, in slight hollows of the ground,
lined with grass. They are frequently made and eggs deposited in good
mowing fields just about the time for cutting the grass, and many nests
are destroyed at this time.

[Illustration: ]

                        BUFF-BREASTED SANDPIPER.
            262.     Tryngites subruficollis.     8 inches.

Above, brownish black; each feather edged with buff; under parts buff, as
are also the neck and head; blackish spots on the sides extending up the
back of the neck and top of the head; primaries black.

Nest.—Placed in tufts of grass or in open fields; nest scantily lined
with grass, in which three or four eggs, having a grayish white ground
color, spotted with rich brown and chestnut, are placed.

Range.—Interior of North America, breeding from the Hudson Bay region to
the Arctic coast. During migration, casual on the Pacific coast, and
abundant in the interior, to South America.

                           SPOTTED SANDPIPER.
               263.     Actitis macularia.     8 inches.

This is one of the most abundant of all the shore birds, covering the
whole United States. Its note, “peet-weet,” is a familiar sound to every
bird observer. It has a peculiar habit of continually moving its tail up
and down when at rest or when running along the shore, which has given it
the name of “Teeter-tail” or “Tip-up.”

[Illustration: ]

                          LONG-BILLED CURLEW.
              264.     Numenius americanus.     23 inches.

These birds, “Sickle-bills” as they are often called, are one of the
largest of our shore birds. They are very conspicuous when in flight, or
walking on the marshes or sandbars, their size appearing gigantic when in
company with a flock of smaller birds, as sometimes happens. They feed
both on the marshes and in shallow water, their food consisting of
insects and small crustaceans, the latter which they pull from their
holes in the sand with their long curved bill. They fly in compact
flocks, evidently led by one leader, for they wheel and circle in perfect

Nest.—Their nests are placed upon the ground, in meadows or on the
prairies, and three or four eggs are laid of a greenish buff color,
covered with numerous spots of dark brown (2.50 × 1.80).

                           HUDSONIAN CURLEW.
              265.     Numenius hudsonicus.     17 inches.

This is more grayish than the above; primaries black; a white stripe
along the top of the head; is fairly common, winters in California. Three
or four eggs, same color as above, only smaller (2.25 × 1.60).

[Illustration: ]

                BLACK-BELLIED PLOVER—Family Charadriidæ.
             270.     Squatarola squatarola.     12 inches.

A remarkably handsome species when in their summer dress. The upper parts
are largely white, with black spots and bars on the back, wings and tail;
the sides of head, throat, breast and fore under parts are black. This
species has a small hind toe. In winter they are brownish-black, somewhat
mottled above; below, dull white. This is a very familiar bird to
sportsmen, and is known better by the name of “Beetle-head” or
“Bull-head.” They are very numerous in the fall.

Nest.—Is made as usual with the Plover, without much lining and placed in
a tuft of grass; three or four eggs, brownish-buff in color and boldly
marked with black (2.00 × 1.40).

                             GOLDEN PLOVER.
             272.     Charadrius dominicus.     10 inches.

The black of the under parts extends to the lower tail coverts, and the
upper parts are variegated with black, golden yellow and white. These are
often found in large flocks with the above, especially in the fall,
during migration. The habits are also the same.

Nest.—Abundantly along the coast of the Arctic ocean, on the mainland and
also on the islands. Three to four eggs (1.90 × 1.30).

[Illustration: ]

              273.     Oxyechus vociferus.     11 inches.

Next to the Spotted Sandpiper this is one of the most commonly known of
the shore birds throughout the United States. They are very noisy,
continually uttering their note of “Kil-deer—kil-deer,” from which they
take their name. Rump and base of tail reddish brown; with a black line
across the tail near the end; the two central feathers black to the end,
the others white at the end. Breast crossed by two bands of black; a
white forehead, and white streak back of the eye.

Nest.—Is placed on the open ground, with a few pieces of grass for
lining. The four drab-colored eggs covered with dark brown spots are
usually placed in the nest with the small ends in the center (1.50 ×

                          SEMIPALMATED PLOVER.
             274.     Ægialitis semipalmata.     7 inches.

The “ringed” plover is smaller than the above but one black band across
the breast; black line from base of bill to eye and up over the top of
the head. Forehead white. Abundant along the shores.

[Illustration: ]

                             WILSON PLOVER.
            280.     Ochthodromus wilsonius.     7½ inches.

A very common Plover, which may be distinguished from the preceding by
the much heavier bill; it has no black on top of the head and white on
the forehead extends back behind the eye; the black band across the
breast is heavier and does not extend around the back of the neck.

Nest.—Is usually placed on pebbly “shingle” or back in the marsh grass on
the bare ground; eggs are olive gray, scratched all over with markings of
brown and gray (1.40 × 1.05).

Range.—Abundant on the Gulf Coast and of Lower and southern California.

                            MOUNTAIN PLOVER.
               281.     Podasocys montanus.     9 inches.

A peculiar species, inhabiting even the driest portions of the western
prairies and plains even at high altitudes. It is more quiet, and seems
to be less aquatic than any of the Plovers, and is rarely found in the
vicinity of the water.

Nest.—Placed on the bare ground in a simple hollow are four eggs,
brownish gray, spotted and blotched with shades of brown (1.50 × 1.10).

[Illustration: ]

                             SNOWY PLOVER.
               278.     Ægialitis nivosa.     6½ inches.

This is the palest of the Plovers, and one of the smallest. A small black
crescent-shaped patch on either side of the breast; a black spot under
and back of the eye, and one also on top of the head. They are about the
color of the dry sands of the beach, and the young when hatched and
running about resemble a small bunch of cotton being blown about on the

Nest.—A simple hollow in the sand placed just above high water, lined
with pieces of broken shells. The eggs are about the color of the sand
and it is almost impossible to see them a few feet away. Four eggs, clay
colored; very lightly marked with fine dots (1.20 × .90).

Range.—Breeds along the Pacific coast of the United States. Winters from
California to South America.

                      SURF-BIRD—Family Aphrizinæ.
                282.     Aphriza virgata.     10 inches.

This species, which is found on the Pacific coast, from Alaska to South
America, seems to be the connecting link between the Plovers and
Turnstones, having the habits of the latter combined with the bill of the

[Illustration: ]

                            BLACK TURNSTONE.
             284.     Arenaria melanocephala.     9 inches.

Upper parts a greenish black color; head, neck, breast and throat black;
a white spot in front of eye and on forehead; under parts white.

Nest.—In the far north on the shores of Alaska and more northern islands,
laying their sets of four eggs in hollows with a few grasses for lining;
the eggs are light gray, marked with various shades of brown and lilac
(1.60 × 1.10).

Range.—Pacific coast of North America, wintering to Lower California.

                            RUDDY TURNSTONE.
         283a.     Arenaria interpres morinella.     10 inches.

This species has the upper parts variegated with reddish brown, black and
white; the under parts are pure white with a wide black band across the
breast, as in illustration. It has a peculiar, slightly upturned bill,
which is used, as the name implies, for turning over pebbles and stones
in their search for food. From the coloring the bird is known as
“Calico-bird,” “Checkered Snipe,” etc.

Nest.—About Hudson Bay and Alaska; eggs laid in a hollow in the ground
near water. Four eggs (1.65 × 1.10).

[Illustration: ]

               BLACK OYSTER-CATCHER—Family Hæmatopodidæ.
              287.     Hæmatopus bachmani.     17 inches.

The plumage on this bird is entirely black, with a bluish wash on the
upper parts, and brownish black below. They are found upon the rocky
coasts and islands more frequently than on the sandy beaches. Their eggs
are laid upon the rocks or small pebbles with no attempt at nest
building; three or four eggs are laid of an olive buff color spotted and
blotched with shades of black and brown (2.20 × 1.55). Found on the
Pacific coast of North America, from Lower California to Alaska.

                         FRAZAR OYSTER-CATCHER.
              286.1.     Hæmatopus frazari.     18 inches.

This is very similar to the American Oyster-catcher; possibly having the
colors a little darker on the back. Bill very long, heavy, compressed,
and thin and chisel-like at the tip. Bill and eyes red; legs flesh color;
under parts white, and a white wing bar. These are large, awkward looking
birds, and are not uncommon in their somewhat restricted range in Lower

[Illustration: ]

                             Order GALLINÆ.

                    BOB-WHITE—Family Odontophoridæ.
              289.     Colinus virginianus.     10 inches.

This is one of the most celebrated of the “Game Birds,” or best known.
Throughout New England it has been so persistently hunted that it is
getting to be a rare bird; it gets to be more common as we go south as
far as Florida, and through the middle west. It has been introduced in
many places on the Pacific coast, and now is fairly abundant in parts of
California, Oregon and Washington. They feed largely upon insects and
grain, and about the grain fields is where they are mostly found.

Nest.—These are built along the roadsides or beside stone walls or any
dry locality affording good shelter. It is concealed in the tall grass or
weeds, and arched over with grass. They lay from ten to twenty pure white
eggs. Often two broods are reared in a season (1.20 × .95).

                           MASKED BOB-WHITE.
               291.     Colinus ridgwayi.     10 inches.

This handsome species is marked similar to the “Bob-white” on the upper
parts, but has a black throat, and the rest of the under parts are of a
reddish brown.

[Illustration: ]

                            MOUNTAIN QUAIL.
                292.     Oreortyx picta.     11 inches.

This is a beautiful bird, with its long black crest and rich coloring.
Upper parts an olive brown; the top of the head a rich gray. Throat and
sides a beautiful shade of chestnut, with wide bands of black and white
on the sides; breast a clear gray. Female very similar to the male, but
not as brightly marked and with a shorter crest.

Nest.—These birds nest abundantly in the mountainous region of northern
California, and in Oregon, and gradually increasing more northerly. The
nest is placed on the ground under bush or grass for protection. Eight to
fifteen eggs of a pale reddish buff color are laid (1.35 × 1.05).

                             SCALED QUAIL.
              293.     Callipepla squamata.     10 inches.

This is a bluish gray colored bird nearly all over. The feathers on the
neck and under parts have narrow dark borders, which give the appearance
of scales, from which the bird is given its name. They have a small tuft
of whitish or buffy feathers on the top of the head.

It is especially abundant in the dry arid portions of its range, being
found often many miles from water.

[Illustration: ]

                           CALIFORNIA QUAIL.
             294.     Lophortyx californica.     10 inches.

With its crest of black feathers rising from the crown and curving
forward so that the broadened ends hang directly over the bill, this is
one of the most beautiful of the family. Upper parts a grayish brown,
with buff stripes along the sides of the back; throat black, bordered
with white; under parts white, with feathers edged with black, making a
shell marking, and having a chestnut patch in the center; breast gray.

Nest.—Usually concealed in a brush pile or in the grass; ten to twenty
eggs; of a creamy white or buffy ground color, handsomely blotched with
brown of varying shades (1.20 × .93).

                             GAMBEL QUAIL.
               295.     Lophortyx gambeli.     10 inches.

Head with an elegant recurved crest of six or seven feathers; normally
these are carried as one feather, so closely do they nest together, but
when excited or during the mating season, they may separate the feathers,
or sometimes curve them forward so as to touch the bill. Hindhead and
sides chestnut, the sides with white or buff streaks; the middle of belly

[Illustration: ]

           296.     Cyrtonyx montezumæ mearnsi.     9 inches.

These strange birds are very local in their distribution in the
southwest, rare in some localities and quite abundant in others. They are
so confiding in their disposition, that this, in connection with their
clownish plumage, has given them the name of “Fool Quail.” The bill is
very stout and compressed; crest large, puffy and flat. They frequent dry
deserts, valleys or mountains to quite a high altitude. Their eggs, which
are pure white, are not distinguishable with certainty from the
Bob-white, possibly average a little longer (1.25 × .90).

                    DUSKY GROUSE—Family Tetraonidæ.
             297.     Dendragapus obscurus.     20 inches.

Plumage gray, white and black; darkest on the back and tail, which is
margined with a light gray. Female smaller, browner and more barred
above. Like the Ruffed Grouse, during the mating season, the males of
this species strut with tail fully spread over the back, and head thrown
back until it nearly touches the tail.

Nest.—They build their nests under fallen trees or at the base of
standing ones. They lay from six to ten eggs of a buff color, spotted and
blotched with shades of brown (2.00 × 1.40).

[Illustration: ]

                            FRANKLIN GROUSE.
             299.     Canachites franklini.     16 inches.

Upper parts dark gray, marked with black bands, and narrower bands of
lighter gray; tail feathers black to the tip, with the upper tail coverts
strongly barred with white; tail having sixteen feathers. Like the
preceding these birds are at home in the dense evergreen forests. It is
very similar to the eastern bird, the Canada Grouse, and has the same
local name given it from its unsuspicious nature, of “Fool-hen.”

Nest.—Is placed on the ground under logs or low branching fir trees, and
from eight to fifteen eggs are laid. These are brownish buff in color,
spotted and blotched with rich brown (1.75 × 1.30).

                        CANADIAN RUFFED GROUSE.
            300a.     Bonasa umbellus togata.     17 inches.

A darker form of the eastern variety, the under parts being more heavily
marked with brown. Found in the northern United States and southern
British Provinces, from Maine and Nova Scotia west to Oregon and British
Columbia. Eight to fourteen eggs of a brownish buff color (1.55 × 1.15).

[Illustration: ]

                           WILLOW PTARMIGAN.
                301.     Lagopus lagopus.     15 inches.

These are Grouse-like birds, feathered to the toe-nails; they have many
changes of plumage, in winter being nearly pure white and in summer
largely reddish brown, mottled and barred with black. This bird has a
black tail and bill, the latter very stout. In the breeding plumage they
have a bright red bare spot over the eye.

Nest.—They nest on the ground in hollows of the rocks filled with moss,
lining the nest with leaves and grass, and sometimes a few feathers. They
lay from six to sixteen eggs, which have a ground color of buff, heavily
speckled, blotched and marbled with blackish brown (1.75 × 1.25).

                            ROCK PTARMIGAN.
               302.     Lagopus rupestris.     14 inches.

This is somewhat smaller than the above, with a smaller bill, and in
summer the plumage is more gray than brown. Its nesting habits are the
same as the others; eggs slightly smaller (1.70 × 1.20).

[Illustration: ]

                              PRAIRIE HEN.
            305.     Tympanuchus americanus.     18 inches.

This is the most familiar game bird of the West; brownish above and white
or buff below, with broad black bands on the back and finer black lines
on the under parts. In place of the ruffs on a grouse are long tufts of
rounded or square ended feathers, and below these a peculiar sac; bright
orange in the breeding season, and capable of being inflated to the size
of a small orange; this is done when the bird makes its familiar
“booming” noise. They are one of the best “table birds,” being of good
size and excellent flavor.

Nest.—In hollows on the ground in the cover of tufts of grass; they lay
from eight to fifteen eggs, having a buffy ground color, finely sprinkled
with brown spots (1.70 × 1.25).

                        WHITE-TAILED PTARMIGAN.
               304.     Lagopus leucurus.     13 inches.

Found in the higher ranges of the Rocky Mountains, from Colorado north to
Alaska. This species differs from any of the preceding in having at all
seasons of the year a white tail; it is also somewhat smaller than the
Rock Ptarmigan. From six to twelve creamy white eggs; speckled and
blotched with chestnut brown (1.70 × 1.15).

[Illustration: ]

     308a.     Pediœcetes phasianellus columbianus.     18 inches.

These have no pinnates or ruffs on the neck, but the head is a little
more crested than that of the Prairie Hen. The tail has the central
feathers nearly two inches longer than the others, which are also
graduated so that the outside ones are much the shortest, and are lighter
in color than the central ones. It is not barred like the former, but the
black markings on the back and under parts are more in the form of
crescents. It is also much lighter in general color.

Nest.—They are usually concealed in thickets or tufts of grass and
contain from six to fourteen eggs of a drab color, finely dotted all over
with dark brown (1.70 × 1.25).

Range.—Northwestern United States and British Columbia to central Alaska.

                         RING-NECKED PHEASANT.
              ***     Phasianus torquatus.     32 inches.

The male of this beautiful Pheasant varies greatly in length according to
the development of the tail, it sometimes being 36 inches long. These
birds have been introduced in Oregon and Washington, as well as in many
places in the East, and are becoming very abundant.

[Illustration: ]

                              SAGE GROUSE.
           309.     Centrocercus urophasianus.     29 inches.

The female of this large and interesting Grouse differs from the male
only in its smaller size and paler plumage. They are found in abundance
on the dry sagebrush covered plains about the Rocky Mountains and to the
westward. In fall and winter their food consists almost entirely of the
leaves of the sagebrush, their flesh being unfit to eat at this season.
In the mating season they indulge in the usual antics of the grouse
family. They have the same peculiar sacs on the sides of the neck which
they inflate so that the whole neck is a small orange colored balloon, at
the same time spreading their long pointed tail feathers to their fullest
extent, and strutting about after the manner of the turkey.

Nest.—Are shallow hollows in the ground, under, generally, a sagebush or
some protection to cover the nest; six to twelve eggs of a greenish drab
color, spotted with brown (2.15 × 1.50).

                            MERRIAM TURKEY.
         310.     Meleagris gallopavo merriami.     48 inches.

Female much duller and smaller than the male. The plumage is a coppery
bronze color and their upper tail coverts are a dusty color with no white
edges. 8 to 16 eggs; buff spotted with brownish (2.55 × 1.90).

[Illustration: ]

                  BAND-TAILED PIGEON—Family Columbidæ.
               312.     Columba fasciata.     16 inches.

This large species may be recognized by the white crescent on the back of
the neck, by the broad gray band; bordered with black at the end of tail.
Back, near the neck, brownish shading into a gray nearer the tail. Head
and neck of iridescent colors, very changeable in different positions.
They are very abundant on the mountain ranges, sometimes in immense
flocks. They feed on grain, wild berries and acorns, and are found mostly
in the oak and pine woods.

Nest.—Is a rude platform of sticks, just enough to barely keep in place
the single white egg (rarely two) which they lay (1.55 × 1.10).

Range.—The Rocky Mountains and westward to the Pacific, from British
Columbia to Mexico.

                             MOURNING DOVE.
        316.     Zenaidura macroura carolinensis.     12 inches.

Now that the Passenger Pigeon has become extinct, this is the only one to
be found nearly all over the United States, and is common in the
southern, central and western parts. Nests are placed at low elevations
in the trees. Two white eggs (1.15 × .80).

[Illustration: ]

                          MEXICAN GROUND DOVE.
        320a.     Chæmepelia passerina pallescens.     7 inches.

Size very small; tail short and nearly square; back of head and under
parts with breast a pinkish gray, with feathers tipped with black, giving
a scaly appearance; back brownish gray, faintly barred; several black
spots on wing coverts.

Nest.—Is made of weeds and twigs, placing the flat, frail structure
either in bushes or on the ground, in which are placed the two white eggs
(.85 × .65).

Range.—Border of the United States, from Texas and southern California

                               INCA DOVE.
                321.     Scardafella inca.     8 inches.

Tail is longer than preceding and more rounded, and the outer feathers
are tipped with white. Head, neck and whole body of a pinkish gray;
scaled as is the former. These are very tame, and are to be met with in
the roads, barnyards, and seem to be almost domesticated in their habits,
even feeding with the poultry about the farmhouse.

Nest.—These are rather more compactly made, of twigs, rootlets and weeds,
and placed near the ground in low bushes; only two white eggs are laid
(.85 × .65). Not as common as the previous.

[Illustration: ]

                 CALIFORNIA VULTURE—Family Cathartidæ.
            324.     Gymnogyps californianus.     50 inches.

The largest of the Vultures, with an extent of about ten feet, and
weighing twenty pounds or more. Its plumage is blackish, with lengthened
lanceolate feathers about the neck. Head and neck without feathers and of
an orange color. Wing coverts grayish, tipped with white in adult birds.
The birds are very rare in their restricted range, and becoming more so
each year, owing to their being shot and the nests robbed. While the eggs
are but rarely found, and obtained at great risk, they are not as
unobtainable as many suppose.

Nest.—They lay but a single egg, placing it generally in caves or
recesses of the rocks in the face of cliffs, hundreds of feet from the
ground; ashy gray in color (4.45 × 2.55).

                            TURKEY VULTURE.
        325.     Cathartes aura septentrionalis.     30 inches.

The plumage of this bird is darkish brown, the naked head being red. It
is very common in the southern and central portion of its range, where it
may be seen about the streets and dooryards picking up any refuse that
may be edible. It is a graceful bird upon the wing, and can readily be
identified at a distance by the upturned ends of the wings.

[Illustration: ]

                           WHITE-TAILED KITE.
                328.     Elanus leucurus.     16 inches.

This species may be recognized by its light bluish gray mantle, black
shoulders and white tail. It is a very active and graceful bird, feeding
upon insects and reptiles, and small birds and mammals.

Nest.—Is usually made of sticks, weeds and leaves, placed well up in oaks
or in willows beside the rivers. The eggs are creamy white, profusely
blotched and spotted with reddish brown (1.65 × 1.25).

                           SWALLOW-TAIL KITE.
             327.     Elanoides forficatus.     24 inches.

This most beautiful Kite can never be mistaken for any other; its whole
head, neck and under parts are snowy white, while the back, wings and
tail are a glossy blue black, the tail being long and deeply forked; feet
short, but stout; bill black, with cere and feet bluish gray.

Nest.—As a rule is placed in the tallest trees, live oaks or pines, and
is made of twigs which it picks from the ground while in flight, lining
the nest with rootlets and moss; two, or rarely three eggs, bluish white,
spotted with brown (1.80 × 1.50).

[Illustration: ]

                            WESTERN GOSHAWK.
        334a.     Astur atricapillus striatulus.     22 inches.

This is one of the largest, strongest, and most audacious of the American
hawks, frequently carrying off grouse and poultry, the latter often in
the presence of the owner. It is a handsome bird, in the adult stage, and
as graceful in flight as in appearance. Adults, above, bluish gray,
darkest on the crown; a white line over the eye; below, white streaked
with blackish brown; tail with four black bands, and very long.

Nest.—Is usually placed in the tallest trees in deep forests, and is made
of sticks, lined with twigs, leaves and grass; three or four eggs, bluish
white, usually unmarked (2.30 × 1.70).

                              MARSH HAWK.
               331.     Circus hudsonius.     19 inches.

The adults of this species are very light colored; bluish gray above and
white beneath. Young birds of the first two years are brown, much lighter
on the under parts. In both the old and young they have a large white
patch at the base of the tail. Nest is made in and on swampy ground; four
to seven eggs; white (1.80 × 1.40).

[Illustration: ]

                          SHARP-SHINNED HAWK.
                332.     Accipiter velox.     12 inches.

This little hawk is one of the most active of the family, and from this
fact it gets its name (Velox), meaning swift. It is often seen in woods,
orchards or even in large cities, in which latter place it does good
service in catching English sparrows. They also eat a great many mice and
meadow moles. It is one of the most daring as well as beautiful of the
small hawks.

Nest.—It is a rude and very frail platform of twigs and leaves placed in
the crotch of a tree, usually at about fifteen feet from the ground,
sometimes higher. Three white eggs, blotched with brown.

                              COOPER HAWK.
               333.     Accipiter cooperi.     16 inches.

The markings of this bird are the same as the preceding and its larger
size is the only difference. Also like the last this is a very
destructive species to the small birds and chickens. Their nests are
placed in taller trees at higher elevation from the ground than the
former, and built in the same manner. Three bluish white eggs unmarked or
faintly specked with brown (1.90 × 1.45).

[Illustration: ]

                              HARRIS HAWK.
         335.     Parabuteo unicinctus harrisi.     20 inches.

This is a peculiar dark colored species; black under parts; lighter on
the back; shoulders, thigh and under-wing coverts reddish brown; tail
coverts, base and end of tail white. Bare space in front of eye, except
for stiff hair like bristles, yellow, as is also the cere.

Nest.—Are made of twigs and weeds and placed usually in low trees. The
three or four eggs are a dull white in color, faintly specked with a few
spots of brownish (2.10 × 1.65).

Range.—Southern California, Arizona, Texas and New Mexico.

                           WESTERN RED-TAIL.
            337b.     Buteo borealis calurus.     21 inches.

This bird varies greatly in its coloration; from the same as the eastern
form to a sooty color above and below, with the dark red tail crossed by
several bands, where the eastern bird has only one broad band.

Nest.—Placed for choice in evergreen trees at heights from the ground
varying from 30 to 50 feet. Two to four eggs, white, usually spotted and
blotched with different shades of brown (2.35 × 1.80).

[Illustration: ]

                           RED-BELLIED HAWK.
            339b.     Buteo lineatus elegans.     19 inches.

These birds are darker in color than the Red-shouldered Hawk of the East,
and in their habits very much resemble the Red-tail; for food they prefer
the large variety of small rodents and rarely disturb poultry or birds.
The under parts are a bright reddish brown, without bars. They may be
found covering the same territory as the Red-tail on the Pacific Coast
west of the Rockies from British Columbia south to Lower California.

Nest.—Is made of twigs lined with rootlets and leaves and feathers. They
lay from two to four eggs of a white color spotted and blotched all over
with a light shade of brown and lilac (2.15 × 1.75).

                           ZONE-TAILED HAWK.
               340.     Buteo abbreviatus.     19 inches.

This whole bird is black, with the exception of the tail, which has three
wide bands of white and the ends of the tail feathers tipped with white.
Like others of the Buteo family they feed almost entirely on the small
rodents, which they find in abundance in the marsh and prairie, or in the
low brush. Eggs, two to four, white, faintly spotted with light chestnut
(2.15 × 1.75).

[Illustration: ]

                             SWAINSON HAWK.
                342.     Buteo swainsoni.     20 inches.

Their plumage is extremely variable, having all of the intergradations
from a sooty blackish to the typical bluish gray above, and white below,
with breast a rich chestnut color. Their habits are nearly as variable as
their plumage. In some localities they nest wholly in trees; in others
upon the ground or on rocky ledges. They seem to prefer, though, the low
open lands covered with sage bush, where their food consists almost
wholly of the small rodents; squirrels; mice and grasshoppers, the latter
being eaten in large numbers.

Nest.—Is made similar to others of the family, laying two to four white
eggs, splashed and spotted with various shades of brown, usually more
about the larger end (2.20 × 1.70).

Range.—Western North America, from the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean,
and Hudson Bay to southern California.

                            MEXICAN GOSHAWK.
               346.     Asturina plagiata.     17 inches.

Found in the southern borders of the United States and Mexico. These are
graceful and active birds, feeding largely on small rodents.

[Illustration: ]

                           ROUGH-LEGGED HAWK.
     347a.     Archibuteo lagopus sancti-johannis.     21  inches.

These are large, heavily built birds of prey, specially characterized by
the completely feathered legs to the feet; in the normal plumage has a
whitish head, neck, breast and tail, the former being streaked and the
latter barred with blackish; remainder of upper and under parts, blackish
brown. Eyes brown. In the dark phase they are blackish brown, more or
less mixed with rusty, the tail remaining the same as in the light

Nest.—Is made of sticks and smaller twigs, lined with leaves and moss,
placed in trees or more often on ledges. They lay three or four bluish
white eggs, boldly blotched with different shades of brown, oftener about
the larger end (2.25 × 1.75).

            348.     Archibuteo ferrugineus.     23 inches.

These are very much more of a reddish brown color than the last, on the
back; head and breast is whiter, with fewer markings. Legs the same,
feathered to the feet. It is much more abundant than the last and is a
western bird wholly, breeding on the ledges, where its eggs are laid.

[Illustration: ]

                             GOLDEN EAGLE.
               349.     Aquila chrysætos.     35 inches.

These may be distinguished from the Bald Eagle in all plumages by the
completely feathered tarsus. Plumage blackish brown, adults having the
lanceolate feathers on the neck of a golden brown color, and the tail
more or less mixed with white.

Nest.—These are made up of large sticks, lined with smaller ones and
moss, leaves and weeds, building quite a bulky affair. Their two or three
eggs are very handsome, being white, speckled and spotted with shades of
brown, and clouded with gray and lilac. They vary greatly in their
markings (2.90 × 2.50).

Range.—West of the Mississippi, being most abundant in the Rockies and
along the Pacific coast ranges.

                              BALD EAGLE.
            352.     Haliætus leucocephalus.     34 inches.

In the adult birds, the white head and tail will always identify them,
but in the first and second year they are a brownish black, the second
year showing traces of the white on head and tail. They are found
throughout the United States. Their food consists largely of fish.

[Illustration: ]

                            GRAY GYRFALCON.
               354.     Falco rusticolus.     23 inches.

These are birds of the Arctic regions and are rarely taken in the United
States even in winter.

Nest.—They build upon the ledges of high cliffs, laying three or four
eggs of a buffy color, marked with fine spots and blotches of shades of

                            PRAIRIE FALCON.
                355.     Falco mexicanus.     18 inches.

This is quite an abundant species in some localities, and like the Duck
Hawk in many ways is one of the most graceful, fearless and swiftest of
the Falcons. A blackish patch on the sides of the throat; upper parts
brownish with darker markings; under parts white, streaked with brown,
much heavier on the flanks. Throat, clear white.

Nest.—Is generally placed on rocky ledges and cliffs, and sometimes in
trees. Their nests are made of sticks lined with weeds and grass; three
or four eggs of a reddish buff color, thickly blotched and sprinkled all
over with reddish brown (2.05 × 1.60).

Range.—West of the Mississippi and from Dakota and Washington south to
Mexico. Their food is mostly rodents secured on the prairies.

[Illustration: ]

                               DUCK HAWK.
           356a.     Falco peregrinus anatum.     17 inches.

A most beautiful species, with a black patch, or moustache, on side of
the throat from the bill; head and upper parts bluish gray with darker
markings; under parts white, tinged with huffy on the lower part, and
lightly barred with black, with the throat pure white. Their food
consists mostly of ducks, which they always take while on the wing. It
breeds abundantly on the Pacific coast and in some parts of Dakota on the
rocky ledges.

Nest.—They are not home builders as a general thing, but lay their three
or four eggs on the gravel or bare rocks of ledges or cliffs. The eggs
are a reddish buff color, completely blotched and dotted with reddish
brown. These are the darkest, brightest and the most beautiful of the
Falcon eggs (2.05 × 1.55).

                              PIGEON HAWK.
               357.     Falco columbarius.     12 inches.

A small Falcon, similar to the Sharp-shinned Hawk, but a much darker and
stouter built bird. It is a daring little fellow, and will attack birds
much larger than itself. It feeds on small birds and mice.

[Illustration: ]

                            APLOMADO FALCON.
            359.     Falco fusco-cœrulescens.     14 inches.

Found in some of the more southerly states, Texas, Arizona, New Mexico
and Central America. In habits it is very much the same as the following,
getting its supply of food, consisting of small birds and insects, on the
plains covered with the cactus and yucca, in which they build their nest
of twigs, lining it with roots and grass, in which they lay three or four
eggs, creamy white, strongly marked with shades of brown (1.75 × 1.30).

                          DESERT SPARROW HAWK.
           360a.     Falco sparverius phalæna.     11 inches.

This is next to the smallest of the Falcons, the Eastern form being a
trifle smaller. They cannot be mistaken for any other species, because of
their bright color and markings as illustrated. Their flight will almost
of a certainty identify them at a long distance, a few rapid wing beats,
then a short sail, alternately. Their food consists of grasshoppers, mice
and an occasional small bird.

Nest.—Is built in the cavity of some tree, either in the woods or open
field. The eggs are placed on the decayed wood without any lining.

[Illustration: ]

                           AUDUBON CARACARA.
              362.     Polyborus cheriway.     22 inches.

A strongly marked bird; black wings, back and under parts with neck pure
white, excepting on the lower part, with many short bar-like markings.
Upper part of head black, with feathers elongated, making a slight crest.

Nest.—Is a bulky affair, shabbily built of sticks, weeds and grass, piled
into a promiscuous heap, generally located in bushes or low trees. Two or
three eggs; brownish buff, with spots and patches of shades of brown
nearly covering the under color. They vary very much in the coloration
and markings from light to dark.

Range.—Southern borders of the United States.

                      AMERICAN OSPREY; FISH HAWK.
         364.     Pandion haliætus carolinensis.     23 inches.

Probably no fisherman in the United States is so well known as is this
bird. It is one of the pleasantest sights along the coast to watch a
number of these great birds as they soar at an elevation above the water,
watching for a fish to come near the surface, when, with folded wings,
the bird speeds downward and plunges into the water, rarely missing his
prey. Three or four creamy white eggs, with spots of brown of different
shades (2.40 × 1.80).

[Illustration: ]

                       BARN OWL—Family Aluconidæ.
               365.     Aluco pratincola.     18 inches.

This is one of the lightest colored of the owls; it has a long peculiarly
hooded face, from which it gets the name of “Monkey-faced Owl.” Its
plumage is yellowish buff, with black spots over the breast and under

Nest.—In most any situation out of sight, such as hollows in old trees,
or in ledges, in barns or bell towers. It lays from four to six white
eggs (1.70 × 1.30).

Range.—North America, but most common in the Gulf States and on the
western coast.

                    LONG-EARED OWL—Family Strigidæ.
               366.     Asio wilsonianus.     15 inches.

This species has unusually long ear tufts, from which it is given its
name; the face is brown, the under parts white and buff, with streaks and
bars of brownish black; back is brown, with almost black markings; wings
and tail brown; barred with black.

Nest.—Usually in trees, frequently using a crow’s nest instead of
building for themselves. They are in great disfavor with the crows. They
lay from four to seven pure white eggs (1.55 × 1.35).

[Illustration: ]

                            SHORT-EARED OWL.
                 367.     Asio flammeus.     16 inches.

About the same size as the preceding, but readily identified from it by
the short ear tufts and rounded head, and also lighter color. It is
streaked on under parts and not barred. Tail is barred. Their flight is
perfectly silent, which aids them in securing their prey of field mice
and moles, which they usually get without stopping in their flight, just
swooping down, and extending their long legs, armed with wicked little
sharp claws, and it is all over with the little rodent, he being carried
to a nearby stump and devoured, fur, bones and all.

Nest.—Is usually built upon the ground in marshy places, sometimes of
grass and weeds, under some bush or near or under some log or stump. Four
to seven pure white eggs (1.55 × 1.25).

                              SPOTTED OWL.
              369.     Strix occidentalis.     20 inches.

This is very similar to the Barred Owl of the Eastern and Southern
States, but spotted, instead of barred, on the back of the head and neck,
and much more extensively barred on the under parts.

[Illustration: ]

                            GREAT GRAY OWL.
              370.     Scotiaptex nebulosa.     27 inches.

This owl in appearance is the largest of the family, but it is mostly in
feathers, which are long and very fluffy. They do not weigh nearly as
much as either the Horned or Snowy Owls. The plumage is dark gray above,
mottled with white, and below is white with heavy streaks of brown. The
facial disc is very large, and the eyes are small and yellow, while in
the Barred Owl of similar appearance the face is much smaller, the eyes
are larger and are bluish black in color.

Nest.—Is made of sticks and twigs, lined with leaves and moss. Two to
four eggs; pure white (2.15 × 1.70).

Range.—In winter they are found quite abundantly in Minnesota and North
Dakota, and occasionally in northern California and Oregon.

                            RICHARDSON OWL.
        371.     Cryptoglaux funerea richardsoni.     10 inches.

This bird is dark grayish and white, without ear tufts. Back and wings
brownish, spotted with white; facial disc very light, with faint gray
lines, and under parts light gray with brown streaks.

[Illustration: ]

                             SAW-WHET OWL.
              372.     Cryptoglaux acadica.     8 inches.

This species is similar to the preceding, but is smaller and more of a
brownish color all over. It has no ear tufts. They are very quiet little
birds, nocturnal in their habits, and cannot see well in the strong
light, a fact that has allowed them to be captured by hand from their
roosting places in the trees.

Nest.—They will usually select the hole of a woodpecker, in which to lay
their four white eggs. Their eggs are laid and the young are hatched and
out of the nests before the breeding time for woodpeckers, so that the
same home may be occupied later by another family (1.20 × 1.00).

Range.—North America, breeding in the northern part of the United States
and British Columbia, and wintering to southern California.

                              SCREECH OWL.
                373.     Otus asio asio.     10 inches.

These may be found in two color phases, the red or gray with black and
white markings. It is frequently called the “Little Horned Owl,” because
of its ear tufts. They are easily tamed and become great pets, and about
a barn are as good as a cat for catching mice.

[Illustration: ]

                        FLAMULATED SCREECH OWL.
                374.     Otus flammeolus.     9 inches.

This is a trifle smaller than the two preceding, has shorter ear tufts,
and the plumage is much streaked and edged with rusty. The toes are
unfeathered to the base. The number of eggs and nesting habits are
practically the same as the preceding, as are also the five or six
sub-species between this and the last, all of which occur in the
southwestern part of the United States.

                          WESTERN HORNED OWL.
         375a.     Bubo virginianus pallescens.     22 inches.

These large birds are the most fierce and destructive of the family. They
are powerfully built, and their size and strength allow them to attack
and secure some of the larger animals, such as skunks, woodchucks,
rabbits, grouse and poultry. They seem to be especially fond of skunks,
and more than half of them that are killed will have unmistakable
evidence of their recent and close association with this animal.

Nest.—Is usually in some large deserted nest, or in hollow cavities of
large trees. Three or four white eggs, almost round (2.20 × 1.85).

[Illustration: ]

                               SNOWY OWL.
                 376.     Nyctea nyctea.     25 inches.

Like the Horned Owls they are strong, fearless and rapacious birds,
feeding upon hares, squirrels and smaller mammals, as well as Grouse,
Ptarmigan and many of the smaller birds. They are locally abundant in the
far north, preferring low marshy land to the more heavily timbered

Nest.—Placed on the ground, on mossy hummocks on the dry portions of
marshes, made of moss with a few feathers. Three to eight eggs, pure
white, and the shell very smooth (2.25 × 1.75).

Range.—Arctic Regions of North America, and in winter casually as far
south as California.

                               HAWK OWL.
            377a.     Surnia ulula caparoch.     15 inches.

This owl, mottled and barred, gray and black, might readily be taken for
a Hawk, because of his hawk-like appearance, and long rounded tail. They
are very active birds especially in the day time, and they do most of
their hunting in daylight rather than at night. Their food consists of
small rodents and many small birds.

Nest.—In hollow trees or upon the ground. Four to eight white eggs (1.50
× 1.20).

[Illustration: ]

                             BURROWING OWL.
         378.     Speotyto cunicularia hypogæa.     10 inches.

These birds are wholly different in plumage, form and habits from any
other American Owls. Easily identified by their long, slender and
scantily feathered legs. They are brownish above, spotted with white, and
under parts are white spotted with brown. Tail dark brown, with five
white bars across it. They are an abundant and useful species west of the
Mississippi. They live in the same regions as the Prairie Dogs are found,
and use the deserted burrows of these animals, or take them by force, for
they are more than a match for these curious animals.

Nest.—Generally in quite large communities in burrows in the ground,
usually lining them with grass and feathers. They may often be seen
sitting at the opening of their burrows during the day time. Six to ten
white eggs are laid (1.25 × 1.00).

                               PYGMY OWL.
                379.     Glaucidium gnoma.     7 inches.

These interesting little Owls, which are found in the Rocky Mountains,
westward from British Columbia to Mexico, feed in the day time upon
insects, mice and occasionally small birds. They are to be seen in the
wooded districts. Nest in holes of trees. Four eggs (1.00 × .90).

[Illustration: ]

                         FERRUGINOUS PYGMY OWL.
             380.     Glaucidium phalænoides.     7 inches.

This is very similar to the last, but in color is much more rufous on the
upper parts, and the tail is of a bright chestnut color crossed by
several bands of black. They live largely on the small rodents and birds
which they secure during the daytime. They nest in hollow cavities of
trees, from ten to forty feet from the ground, laying four glossy white
eggs (1.10 × .90).

                                ELF OWL.
              381.     Micropallas whitneyi.     6 inches.

This odd little bird is the smallest of the family found in America. In
plumage it may be described as being very like a small Screech Owl,
without the ear tufts, only with the pattern of the markings much finer.
They are quite abundant in central Mexico and in southern Arizona, where
they build their nests in deserted Woodpecker holes, or perhaps more
frequently in the giant cactus. It differs from the preceding in being a
bird of the night, rarely flying in daylight. They feed almost
exclusively upon insects, and rarely a mole or field mouse. They lay from
three to five white eggs, having a slight gloss (1.02 × .90).

[Illustration: ]

                 THICK-BILLED PARROT—Family Psittacidæ.
         382.1.     Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha.     16 inches.

A Mexican bird, casually found north to the Mexican borders of the United
States. It has a heavy, thick bill; black; and the plumage is entirely
green, except for the deep red forehead and wings at the shoulder;
under-coverts of wings yellowish. Their eggs are white and laid in
natural cavities of trees in the deep forests.


            385.     Geococcyx californicus.     22 inches.

This curious species is known as the “Chaparral Cock,” “Ground Cuckoo,”
“Snake Killer,” etc. Its upper parts are a glossy greenish brown, each
feather being edged or fringed with white. The tail is very long, broad
and graduated, the central feathers being much the longest; the feathers
being tipped with white. They are noted for their swiftness of foot,
getting over the ground at an astonishing rate, aided by their
outstretched wings and spread tail, which act as aeroplanes. Their legs
are long, and they have two toes in front and two back. Their food
consists of caterpillars, lizards and small snakes.

[Illustration: ]

                           CALIFORNIA CUCKOO.
       387a.     Coccyzus americanus occidentalis.     13 inches.

This bird is the same as the eastern variety, except being a little
larger and the bill more stout. It may be distinguished by its blackish,
long tail, tipped with white, and its yellow under-bill. Reddish brown
patch on the wings.

Nest.—Is made of twigs loosely put together, and lined with grass, or
shreds of grape vine bark. The nests are generally very shabbily built
and so nearly flat on top that the eggs will frequently roll out. They
are located near the ground in low bushes or trees; three or four eggs
are deposited at intervals of several days, and frequently young birds
and eggs are found in the nest at the same time. Like the Flicker this
bird will continue laying if one egg is removed at a time, and as many as
twelve have been taken from the same nest by this means. Eggs are a pale
greenish blue (1.20 × .90).

                COPPERY-TAILED TROGAN—Family Trogonidæ.
                389.     Trogon ambiguus.     12 inches.

This is the only member of this family of beautiful birds that reaches
our borders. They nest in cavities of trees, usually in Woodpecker holes.
Three or four white eggs (1.10 × .85).

[Illustration: ]

                  BELTED KINGFISHER—Family Alcedinidæ.
                 390.     Ceryle alcyon.     13 inches.

The rattling note of this well known bird is familiar in almost all
localities in the neighborhood of ponds or rivers where small fish are
common, throughout North America. Their food consists almost entirely of
small fish, which they catch by plunging upon from high in the air, where
they will hover over the water similar to the Osprey, or they will spend
their time sitting upon an overhanging limb, and, when a fish is seen,
drop from that upon the fish, usually taking it back to the limb to be

Nest.—Is located at the end of burrows, which they dig out of the sand
banks or the banks of creeks and rivers, sometimes extending back from
six to eight feet, usually with a little rise in the tunnel for the
purpose of keeping it dry. They lay from five to eight glossy white eggs
(1.35 × 1.05).

                           RINGED KINGFISHER.
               390.1.     Ceryle torquata.     8½ inches.

This is somewhat larger than the above, and found only on the most
southern borders of the United States. Eggs white (1.45 × 1.10).

[Illustration: ]

                        Order PICI—WOODPECKERS.

                    HARRIS WOODPECKER—Family Picidæ.
          393c.     Dryobates villosus harrisi.     10 inches.

This species is similar in every way to its eastern relatives and for
coloring is as illustrated. The nesting habits of this and the
sub-species are the same, and the eggs cannot be identified as being
different. Four pure white eggs are placed at the bottom of some cavity,
in tall trees usually (.95 × .70).

                          CABANIS WOODPECKER.
        393d.     Dryobates villosus hyloscopus.     10 inches.

Some lighter on the under parts than preceding (not illustrated).

        393e.     Dryobates villosus monticola.     10½ inches.

A trifle larger, and white below (not illustrated).

                          GAIRDNER WOODPECKER.
         394a.     Dryobates pubescens gairdneri.     7 inches.

A smaller bird than any of the preceding, similar in coloring, as
illustrated. It is a more sociable bird and is found about the dwellings
in country places, and even in the larger cities about the parks.

[Illustration: ]

                           TEXAS WOODPECKER.
           396.     Dryobates scalaris bairdi.     7½ inches.

This species is brownish white below, has the back barred with black and
white, on account of which it is often known as the “Ladder-back
Woodpecker.” The male has the whole crown red, shading into mixed black
and whitish on the forehead. Its habits and eggs are the same as the
previous species.

                          NUTTALL WOODPECKER.
               397.     Dryobates nuttalli.     7 inches.

Where the two former have red crowns, this one has a crown of black and a
small red patch on the back of nape. Outer tail feathers nearly all
white, while in the former they are barred with black and white. They are
pugnacious little birds and will drive many of the larger Woodpeckers
from their locality.

Nest.—In holes of trees, either in dead stumps or growing trees at no
great elevation from the ground. Four pure white eggs are laid at the
bottom of the cavity, on the decayed wood (.85 × .65). Their food is
gathered from under the bark, consisting of larvæ, ants and small

[Illustration: ]

                          ARIZONA WOODPECKER.
               398.     Dryobates arizonæ.     8 inches.

This is an entirely different looking bird from any of the others of the
Woodpecker family, being uniform brownish above and a grayish white
below, with black spots. The male having a crescent shaped patch of red
on the back of the head, outlined mostly with white. It is locally common
at the higher altitudes in the mountains of Arizona.

Nest.—Is practically the same in habits as others mentioned, nesting in
holes of trees, and laying four white eggs (.85 × .60).

                        WHITE-HEADED WOODPECKER.
             399.     Xenopicus albolarvatus.     9 inches.

This odd species is wholly a dull black color, except for the white head
and neck, and basal half of the primaries. It also has on the male a
small red spot on the back of the neck. They are said to be more silent
than other members of the Woodpecker family, and rarely make the familiar
tapping and never the drumming sound. They secure their food by scaling
the bark from the trees, prying it off, instead of drilling a hole. They
nest at any height, but the greater number seem to prefer near the ground
(20 feet), and in old dead pine stubs. They lay from four to six glossy
white eggs (.95 × .70).

[Illustration: ]

                     ARCTIC THREE-TOED WOODPECKER.
               400.     Picoides arcticus.     9½ inches.

As implied by the name, members of this genus have but three toes, two in
front and one behind. The plumage of this species is entirely black
above, and whitish below, with the flanks barred with blackish. The male
has a yellow patch on the crown. They breed abundantly in coniferous
forests in mountain regions throughout their range, laying their four or
five pure white eggs in decayed tree stumps (.95 × .70). They do more
boring for their insect food, and, during mating season, are very
persistent in their roll call on dead limbs of trees.

              401.     Picoides americanus.     9 inches.

The greatest difference between this bird and the last is on the back, it
having several narrow bars of white near the neck or a patch of white in
place of the bars. Breeding habits are the same.

                     ALASKA THREE-TOED WOODPECKER.
         401a.     Picoides americanus fasciatus.     9 inches.

In every particular similar to the last, with the patch of white on the
back possibly a little larger. Habits just the same (not illustrated).

[Illustration: ]

                       YELLOW-BELLIED SAPSUCKER.
              402.     Sphyrapicus varius.     8½ inches.

This is one of the most handsomely marked of the family; they may be
identified easily by the red crown and throat (female having white on the
throat), each bordered by black, forming a wide breast band, with a band
of white, black and white back of it. The under parts yellow. This
species and the two following are the only real sapsuckers, a crime that
is often attributed to the most useful of the family. While they without
doubt will take some of the sap from trees, their food consists more of
insect life, ants in particular.

Nest.—Is placed in a cavity of decayed trees. Four to seven glossy white
eggs (.85 × .60).

                        RED-BREASTED SAPSUCKER.
               403.     Sphyrapicus ruber.     8½ inches.

A Pacific coast bird from Lower California to Oregon. The entire head,
neck and breast of this species is red, of varying shades in different
individuals, from carmine to nearly a scarlet. The remainder of their
plumage is similar to the above. Nesting habits the same.

[Illustration: ]

                         WILLIAMSON SAPSUCKER.
             404.     Sphyrapicus thyroideus.     9 inches.

A great variation in the plumage of this oddly marked bird is found. The
male is mostly black on the back and breast, with a white rump, and with
only a narrow patch of red on the throat; the under parts are bright
yellow. The female is entirely different, being brownish in place of the
black on the male, has no red on the throat, and on the back is barred
with black and white.

Their nesting habits are the same as those of the family previously
mentioned. Four to seven white eggs (.97 × .67).

       405a.     Phlœotomus pileatus albieticola.     17 inches.

This is one of the largest and strongest of the Woodpeckers; they are a
sooty black on the upper parts and breast; the crest is long and bright
red, and the male has a red line back of the eye; sides of the neck pure
white, and patch of white on the wings. Female is more of a grayish black
color than the male. As the large trees are being cut away in many
localities where these birds were to be found, they are gradually driven
farther north or into the mountain regions, where they can find the heavy
timber in which they make their homes.

[Illustration: ]

                         RED-HEADED WOODPECKER.
          406.     Melanerpes erythrocephalus.     9½ inches.

In flight, this is one of the most conspicuous of the woodpeckers. It has
a bright red head, neck and breast, glossy blue-black on the back and
tail, white rump, under parts and secondaries. It is more abundant in the
east and middle United States, but occurs fairly common in Arizona and
Texas to Colorado. It nests in any kind of trees, telegraph poles or will
even drill a hole under the eaves of the barn or house in some
localities. They are the most pugnacious of the woodpeckers, and often
are seen chasing one another or driving away some other bird. They feed
also upon ants, larvæ of insects, and small fruits and berries.

They lay from four to eight pure white eggs (1.00 × .75).

                         CALIFORNIA WOODPECKER.
        407a.     Melanerpes formicivorus bairdi.     9½ inches.

A common and attractive woodpecker throughout California and Oregon. With
its red cap and white forehead, and back or upper parts black tinged with
green, a solid black band across the breast, white under parts and rump,
and, above all, their continual talking among themselves. Nest, eggs,
food, same as above, with the addition to its diet of acorns in great

[Illustration: ]

                           LEWIS WOODPECKER.
              408.     Asyndesmus lewisi.     10½ inches.

An oddly colored species, with a crimson red face, under parts streaked
with crimson and white, a gray breast, and upper parts a glossy greenish
black. They are more common in the mountain ranges among the tall pines
from the eastern Rockies to the Pacific coast range, breeding high up in
the trees. Their food consisting of insect life mostly, and acorns, which
they gather and store away for future use. Four to eight eggs are pure
white (1.05 × .80).

                        RED-BELLIED WOODPECKERS.
              409.     Centurus carolinus.     9½ inches.

Found on the eastern slope of the Rockies and south to central Texas. It
is an attractive bird, frequently called the “Zebra Woodpecker,” on
account of the black and white markings on the back, wings and tail.
Nests in live trees; three to five white eggs (1.00 × .75). Not

                            GILA WOODPECKER.
             411.     Centurus uropygialis.     9½ inches.

This is also one of the “Zebra Woodpeckers” to be found in Arizona and
the Mexican borders of the United States. Its preference for nesting site
is the Giant Cactus. Eggs same as above.

[Illustration: ]

                        RED-SHAFTED WOODPECKER.
            413.     Colaptes cafer collaris.     13 inches.

These birds are not inclined to search for their food among the trees as
are most of the woodpeckers, but may often be found on the ground on the
edges of the woods or in open fields, where they secure ants as their
principal article of food. The top of the head is brownish instead of
gray, and the under parts of the wings, tail and the quills are reddish
orange and not yellow as on the eastern varieties. The male has a bright
red streak from the bill extending back and below the eye, the female
does not have this. The throat is a gray, with a black crescent on the
breast, under parts light gray with numerous black spots, rump is white
and tail is mostly black above.

Nest.—Is placed in holes of trees in the woods, or in any locality where
they make or find a suitable hole.

Four to eight white eggs (1.10 × .90).

                            GILDED FLICKER.
              414.     Colaptes chrysoides.     13 inches.

Very similar to above, with the under side of wings and tail yellow.
Found only in southern California and Arizona southward.

[Illustration: ]

              STEPHENS WHIP-POOR-WILL—Family Caprimulgidæ.
      417a.     Antrostomus vociferus macromystax.     10 inches.

One of the birds that are heard much more often than seen, and in their
habits they are very secluded, keeping in the dark woods the greater part
of the time, rarely leaving its place of concealment before dark. In
pursuit of insects, they are swift and noiseless, their soft plumage
giving forth no sound, as their wings cleave the air.

Nest.—Is on the ground among the leaves, usually in dense woods. Their
two eggs of a grayish or creamy white are very faintly marbled or marked
with pale brown and gray. These birds are only found in southern Arizona,
Texas and New Mexico.

             418.     Phalænoptilus nuttalli.     8 inches.

The smallest of the family. A handsome species, with plumage mottled
black, white and gray, beautifully blended together. To be found west of
the Mississippi from British Columbia to southern California. Eggs are a
pure white (1.00 × .75).

[Illustration: ]

                           WESTERN NIGHTHAWK.
        420a.     Chordeiles virginianus henryi.     10 inches.

The nighthawk may be distinguished from the Whip-poor-wills by its forked
tail in place of the rounded tail of the “Poor-wills.” It also has a
white band near the end of the tail, and across the primaries, the latter
making a very conspicuous mark when in flight.

Nest.—They lay their eggs upon the ground or on a ledge with no attempt
at nest building. The two eggs are a grayish white color, marbled,
blotched and spotted with darker shades of gray and brown (1.20 × .95).
Found from the plains to the Pacific and from British Columbia to Mexico.

                           SENNETT NIGHTHAWK.
       420c.     Chordeiles virginianus sennetti.     10 inches.

A paler and more of a grayish color than preceding. Habits the same.

                            TEXAS NIGHTHAWK.
        421.     Chordeiles acutipennis texensis.     10 inches.

The markings of this species are much finer and more mottled with a
reddish brown color than the preceding. They are very abundant in
Arizona, southern Texas and quite common in southern California.

[Illustration: ]

                    BLACK SWIFT.—Family Micropodidæ.
           422.     Cypseloides niger borealis.     7 inches.

The plumage of the Swift is a dull sooty black, somewhat lighter on the
under parts. The tail is slightly forked and does not have the spines
which are usual with this family. Although the general habits of this
species are well known, but little is known of their nesting; they are
seen during the breeding season about the higher ranges of their United
States range, and are supposed to nest in the crevices of cliffs at high

                              VAUX SWIFT.
                 424.     Chætura vauxi.     4½ inches.

This small Swift is not nearly as common as the preceding, is much paler
in color and white on the under parts and throat. Their habits are much
like the last, only that they make use of hollow trees in which to place
their nests, which are made of twigs glued to the tree with the glutinous
saliva of the birds, forming a very shallow platform in which they
deposit three or four pure white eggs. They are on the wing much of the
time during the day catching insects, or several pairs seemingly at play
in the air, generally at quite high elevations, toward dusk returning to
their nesting places.

[Illustration: ]

                         WHITE-THROATED SWIFT.
            425.     Aeronautes melanoleucus.     6½ inches.

A handsome bird, in fact, the most beautiful and graceful of this family.
Its flight is very rapid, and they congregate in thousands about the tops
of inaccessible cliffs, where in small burrows in the earth or under the
sods, or in crevices they build their nests, which are generally made of
roots and grasses and lined with feathers. Four or five dull white eggs
are laid (.85 × .50).

Range.—Western United States, mostly in the Rocky Mountains, and in
California ranges north to Canada borders.

                 RIVOLI HUMMINGBIRD.—Family Trochilidæ.
                426.     Eugenes fulgens.     5 inches.

This is one of the most gorgeous of the Hummers, having the crown a
violet purple color, and the throat a changeable brilliant green. Upper
parts a bronze green, the under parts almost a black. Female lacks all
the brilliant colors of the male. Upper parts dull green, under parts
greenish gray, top of head brownish with a small white spot back of the
eye. This species saddles its nest upon the branches, generally for its
favorite tree selecting a maple or sycamore, and usually at from twenty
to thirty feet from the ground.

[Illustration: ]

                       BLUE-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD.
             427.     Cyanolæmus clemenciae.     5 inches.

This bird is a trifle larger than the preceding, and, as the name
implies, it has an iridescent bright blue throat, with a streak of white
extending from the bill to back of the eye, the upper parts of a uniform
greenish color, under parts are a greenish gray. Tail dark with outer
tail feathers broadly tipped with white.

Nest.—Is built similar to above, but placed at lower elevations, at times
very near the ground. They are to be found only in Arizona and the
southern borders of the United States.

                       BLACK-CHINNED HUMMINGBIRD.
             429.     Archilochus alexandri.     3½ inches.

This is similar in size and appearance to the “Ruby-Throat,” but has the
chin and upper throat black, the rest of the throat being violet or
amethyst, as seen in different lights. It is a very common bird in the
southern part of its range. It nests low, rarely above ten feet from the
ground. Nest made of plant fiber, not covered with lichens, but resembles
a small piece of sponge.

[Illustration: ]

                           COSTA HUMMINGBIRD.
                 430.     Calypte costæ.     3 inches.

A slightly smaller bird than the last, with the crown and the lengthened
feathers of the neck which form a ruff of the most brilliant violet or
amethyst, back and rump of a greenish bronze color, under parts whitish
with a green cast on the sides. Female lacks the brilliant colors of the
male on the head and neck and shows no sign of a ruff.

Nest.—Is usually placed in the forks of small shrubs near the ground,
seldom above six feet from it, and made of plant down, with shreds of
weeds, bark and lichens worked into the outside portion, and lined with a
few soft feathers. Two pure white eggs (.48 × .32).

                           ANNA HUMMINGBIRD.
                  431.     Calypte anna.     3 inches.

This bird is marked much like the preceding, but varying greatly in the
colors. The crown and lengthened feathers of the neck are a beautiful
iridescent purplish pink. Upper parts are the usual metallic green, under
parts light gray, with sides greenish. Tail is more forked and has no
brown or white like the former. They are very abundant in their
restricted range, and frequently raise two broods in a season.

[Illustration: ]

                       BROAD-TAILED HUMMINGBIRD.
            432.     Selasphorus platycercus.     4 inches.

The crown, back and central tail feathers are a metallic green. They do
not have the elongated feathers on the throat and no ruff. Under parts
dull white, shading into light green on the sides, the throat is a bright
lilac. They are very abundant in Arizona and Colorado, where they nest
much as does the “Ruby-Throat” in the east.

                          RUFOUS HUMMINGBIRD.
               433.     Selasphorus rufus.     3½ inches.

A beautiful little bird, with the back and tail reddish brown and with a
throat of orange red, the feathers being lengthened into a ruff on the
sides of the neck. Their nests are made of vegetable fibers covered with
lichens and cobwebs, and placed near the ground on vines or low-hanging
bushes. Two white eggs.

                          ALLEN’S HUMMINGBIRD.
              434.     Selasphorus alleni.     3¼ inches.

This is very much like the last, with the back more greenish and the tail
being a reddish brown. They are found on the Pacific Coast from British
Columbia southward, breeding most abundantly in southern California.

[Illustration: ]

                         CALLIOPE HUMMINGBIRD.
               436.     Stellula calliope.     3 inches.

This is the smallest of the family of North American Hummers. It is
greenish on the upper parts, growing darker toward the tail, the end of
which is a light brown. The throat is a rich violet, showing white at the
base of the feathers. They are found from British Columbia southward and
from the Rockies westward, most common during breeding in California and
Oregon. They build their nests in all manner of locations, from high up
in tall pines to within a foot of the ground in low bushes. They are made
of plant down and shreds of bark and lichens, breeding high up on the

                          LUCIFER HUMMINGBIRD.
              437.     Calothorax lucifer.     3½ inches.

Found only on the southern borders of the United States, but is quite
common in Central Mexico. Throat is a metallic purple, with feathers
elongated on the sides.

                          RIEFFER HUMMINGBIRD.
                438.     Amizilis tzacatl.     4 inches.

Found only on the southern borders like above. Upper parts a dark bluish
green, tail and rump light brown.

[Illustration: ]

                       BUFF-BELLIED HUMMINGBIRD.
       439.     Amisilis cerviniventris chalconota.     4 inches.

These birds are very similar to the last, but the under parts are of a
pale brownish buff color, throat, back and tail coverts metallic green.
Breeds in low bushes near the ground.

                          XANTUS HUMMINGBIRD.
               440.     Basilinna xantusi.     4 inches.

Found in Lower California, where it breeds and builds very much as does
the preceding near the ground. (Not illustrated.)

                        WHITE-EARED HUMMINGBIRD.
             440.1.     Basilinna leucotis.     3¼ inches.

These birds are of a bright metallic green above and also on the breast,
the forehead, sides of head and throat are an iridescent blue, and a
white line extends back from the eye. Found in the southern parts of
Arizona and Texas into Central America. Nesting habits same as above.

                        BROAD-BILLED HUMMINGBIRD
             441.     Cyanthus latirostris.     3½ inches.

Markings are in every way very similar to the above, being brighter on
the throat, showing a more brilliant blue. Found in the southern borders
of Arizona and Texas, where it breeds in the lower lands and near the
ground. Nests similar to above.

[Illustration: ]

                      KINGBIRD.—Family Tyrannidæ.
               444.     Tyrannus tyrannus.     8½ inches.

From the time of their arrival Kingbirds are much in evidence about
farmyards and orchards. They are very noisy birds, ready for a quarrel at
any time and usually come off victorious in whatever they undertake. They
seem to delight in driving away crows, and may frequently be seen to
alight on the back of one when chasing them. These are found only on the
eastern slope of the Rockies and eastward, where they are very common.

Nest.—Is placed in almost any kind of trees in open fields or woods.
Nearly every orchard will have one or more pairs breeding. Their nests
are made of twigs, roots, or strips of fiber from vines and lined with
the down from catkins and horsehair. Three to five creamy white eggs,
mottled and streaked with brown and lilac, are laid (.95 × .70).

                           ARKANSAS KINGBIRD.
              447.     Tyrannus verticalis.     9 inches.

A more western variety, lighter in color and with a bright yellow breast
and under parts. Its habits are much the same as the above in its home
building or in trying to find a neighbor to quarrel with. The eggs are
the same in size and color.

[Illustration: ]

                            CASSIN KINGBIRD.
              448.     Tyrannus vociferans.     9 inches.

These birds are very much like the last, except that the throat and
breast are darker.

                           DERBY FLYCATCHER.
        449.     Pitangus sulphuratus derbianus.     10½ inches.

This is one of the largest and most handsome of the family. With its
bright yellow crown, surrounded with a black border and this by white and
another band of black, with the under parts a bright yellow makes him one
of the most attractive. They are found, though, only on the southern
borders of Texas into Central America. (Not illustrated.)

                      SULPHUR-BELLIED FLYCATCHER.
           451.     Myiodynastes luteiventris.     8 inches.

Unlike any of the previous, and only found breeding in the mountains of
Arizona south to Panama. The back is grayish streaked with black, the
tail a dull reddish brown, and the under parts yellow, streaked on the
sides with dusky; a white throat patch, bordered with black; the crown
with a concealed yellow spot bordered with dusky and a narrow white
stripe over the eye. They place their nests in the cavity of some tree,
and lay from three to five buff colored eggs spotted and blotched with
brown and lavender (1.05 × .75).

[Illustration: ]

                          CRESTED FLYCATCHER.
               452.     Myiarchus crinitus.     9 inches.

This is more an eastern bird, but is found in Texas and down through
Central America. They nest in cavities of trees, it being made of twigs,
weeds, grasses, and invariably a piece of snake skin. They lay from four
to six eggs of a buff color scratched and spotted with rich shades of
brown and lavender (.85 × .65). (Not illustrated.)

                      ARIZONA CRESTED FLYCATCHER.
          453.     Myiarchus magister magister.     9½ inches.

The throat and breast are lighter than the previous bird, and the under
parts are paler yellow. Its nesting habits are the same as above even to
including the piece of snakeskin, or in place of it part of a lizard skin
will answer their purpose.

                        ASH-THROATED FLYCATCHER.
             454.     Myiarchus cinerascens.     8½ inches.

A much more quiet bird than either of the above, in looks as well as in
actions. The upper parts are grayish brown, while the under parts, breast
and throat are almost white. They build their nests in the giant cactus
or in holes of stumps, lining the cavity with roots and grass or bits of
rubbish of almost any kind, and generally include the piece of snake skin
as do the ones above.

[Illustration: ]

                               SAY PHŒBE.
                 457.     Sayornis sayus.     8 inches.

The Phoebe is a bird that will select for its nesting place the heavy
beam of some old bridge, or in some old mill where the timbers are
falling down, and place its nest in some dark corner, building it of mud,
moss and grasses lined with feathers, or in some localities the nests may
be placed in the crevice of some cliff or ledge where they lay four or
five white eggs, rarely dotted with brown.

It is slightly larger than the eastern variety, with the under parts
showing more of a brownish color, and is found breeding from the Arctic
to Lower California.

                              BLACK PHŒBE.
               458.     Sayornis nigricans.     7 inches.

Slightly smaller than the above, and much darker, almost black on the
head and back with white under parts. Their habits are very much the same
as above, frequenting old buildings in villages where a stream is near
by, or in localities where insect life abounds. Their nest is made the
same as above, and eggs are the same.

[Illustration: ]

                        OLIVE-SIDED FLYCATCHER.
             459.     Nuttallornis borealis.     7½ inches.

These are nowhere abundant, and in some parts of the country, especially
in the central portions, they are very rare. In the western range, they
may be found from Alaska to southern California; for breeding places they
seem to prefer swampy land, covered with many dead coniferous trees,
mixed in with the green trees; their nests are placed well up in the
trees and are made of twigs, loosely put together, and lined with small
roots and moss. The three or four creamy white eggs are spotted with
brown and lilac, forming about the larger end (.85 × .65).

                          WESTERN WOOD PEWEE.
            462.     Myiochanes richardsoni.     6½ inches.

Very much like the eastern variety in looks and habits. To be found
breeding from Alaska to Lower California. Their nests are placed on
horizontal branches, made of plant down, grass and fibers; very compact,
and much resembling a knot on the branch. Three or four white eggs with
small spots about the larger end (.80 × .55).

[Illustration: ]

                          WESTERN FLYCATCHER.
              464.     Empidonax difficilis.     6 inches.

Very much like the last, but having more of the yellow cast on the under
parts; it may be found breeding from Alaska to southern California. Its
favorite nesting place is along some stream, bordered with willows or
alders, and the nest is placed on the lower branches near the ground; it
is nicely made of fibers and plant down; three or four white eggs,
spotted with brown (.80 × .55).

                           TRAILL FLYCATCHER.
               466.     Empidonax trailli.     6 inches.

Upper parts an olive brown, becoming darker on the head; under parts
white, and also a white ring about the eye; two wing-bars a pale buff
color, and the breast a light gray. They seem to prefer much the same
localities for their nesting site as do the “Western.”

Nest.—Is usually built very low in willows or alders, bordering brooks or
ponds, and is made of plant fibers, lined with the down, and sometimes
horsehair; three or four creamy white eggs are marked with blotches of
brown about the larger end (.70 × .54).

[Illustration: ]

                          HAMMOND FLYCATCHER.
              468.     Empidonax hammondi.     5½ inches.

A western form of the “Least Flycatcher” of the east, differing but very
little in appearance or habits from its eastern relative. Upper parts an
olive gray color, with the breast the same, but a little lighter. Their
nesting place is usually a fork of some small tree, or upon some
horizontal branch at low elevation, and is a nicely woven, compact
structure, made of plant fibers, strings, hair and cobwebs. Three to five
pale creamy white eggs (.65 × .50).

                           WRIGHT FLYCATCHER.
               469.     Empidonax wrighti.     6 inches.

Similar to the last, but much lighter below. They are much more abundant
than the last, and are found from Oregon to Mexico, where they breed more
in open woods and thickets. Their nests and eggs are practically the same
in every way.

                            GRAY FLYCATCHER.
              469.1.     Empidonax griseus.     6½ inches.

This slightly larger species is more grayish above, and lighter below. It
is found in Arizona and Mexico, into southern California. No record of
its nesting habits or eggs can be given.

[Illustration: ]

                       BUFF-BREASTED FLYCATCHER.
         470a.     Empidonax fulvifrons pygmæus.     5 inches.

This small variety is not at all common in any locality, but is found in
Arizona, Mexico and Lower California, to southern California. It is
brownish gray above and of a buff color below. The nests are placed
similar to the preceding, but more in the mountain regions; eggs are the
same, being a trifle larger.

                         VERMILION FLYCATCHER.
         471.     Pyrocephalus rubinus mexicanus.     6 inches.

This is one of the most brilliant colored of the Flycatcher family, as
shown in the illustration. The female is almost of an entirely light gray
color, barely tinged with pink on the under parts. They are very common
in southern Texas, Arizona and New Mexico.

Nest.—This is one of the prettiest nests made, generally of twigs and
plant fiber, lined with down, wool and feathers, and frequently covered
with lichens, held in place by a winding of cobwebs; three or four buff
eggs, boldly blotched with brown and lavender (.70 × .50).

                         BEARDLESS FLYCATCHER.
              472.     Camptostoma imberbe.     5 inches.

A light gray bird, found in Texas and south, into Central America.

[Illustration: ]

                  PALLID HORNED LARK—Family Alaudidæ.
         474a.     Otocoris alpestris arcticola.     8½ inches.

This is the largest of the Larks. It has the throat white, with no trace
of yellow; the horned tufts are black, and curve upwards. Found in
Alaska, south to Oregon (not illustrated).

                          DESERT HORNED LARK.
         474c.     Otocoris alpestris leucolæma.     8 inches.

Found from British Columbia south, in winter to southern California,
Texas and New Mexico. They are one of our handsome winter birds, with
horn-like tufts of black on either side of the head; forehead, patch
under the eye and band on the breast black; yellow throat, and white
under parts; upper parts, a light pinkish shade of brown. Three or four
eggs, white, marked with shades of brown, are placed in their nest of
grasses and rootlets, on the ground, usually concealed under a tuft of
grass (.92 × .65).

                        CALIFORNIA HORNED LARK.
           474e.     Otocoris alpestris actia.     8 inches.

Similar, but back deeper brown. Southern and Lower California.

                           RUDDY HORNED LARK.
           474f.     Otocoris alpestris rubea.     8 inches.

The same as above, but still more rufous. Central California.

[Illustration: ]

                       Family CORVIDÆ—CROWS, JAYS

                            AMERICAN MAGPIE.
              475.     Pica pica hudsonia.     20 inches.

Like the “Blue Jays,” the Magpies are great talkers, and are usually
found in colonies where they can carry on conversation in their own way
with each other. They are a large handsome bird, with pure white under
parts and wing coverts, and the upper parts, head, tail and breast are a
bronzy black, with iridescent changes. Tail very long, and graduated.
They are very bold birds, inquisitive, and great thieves. Their food
consists of small rodents, a large variety of insect life, and the eggs
and young of small birds.

Nest.—Is a bulky affair, placed at almost any elevation, composed of
sticks and small twigs, with an opening on the side; the inside of the
nest is lined with finer materials, grass and plant fiber. Four to eight
grayish white eggs, spotted with brown and drab (1.25 × .90).

                              STELLER JAY.
              478.     Cyanocitta stelleri.     13 inches.

Range.—From Alaska south to central California. Nests are quite bulky;
three to six greenish eggs, spotted with shades of brown (1.25 × .90).

[Illustration: ]

                             WOODHOUSE JAY.
             480.     Aphelocoma woodhousei.     12 inches.

These birds are abundant in the Great Basin between the Rockies and the
Sierra Nevadas, breeding in scrubby trees or bushes at low elevations and
usually near some stream. They have the crown and forehead bluish, and
the under parts are gray, streaked with a darker shade on the breast.
Their food consists of acorns and a variety of insects.

Nest.—This is usually of small sticks, loosely arranged, with smaller
twigs and roots for a lining. Four to six eggs, of a pale green, faintly
spotted with shades of brown (1.20 × .90).

                            CALIFORNIA JAY.
            481.     Aphelocoma californica.     12 inches.

These are the most common of the Jays on the Pacific coast of California,
Oregon and Washington. They are more tame or fearless than most of the
family, and frequent the trees about houses, and are given the bad name
of robbing the nests of other birds of their eggs and young. In color
these are just the reverse of the previous one, being brownish below, and
gray above.

[Illustration: ]

                              ARIZONA JAY.
          482.     Aphelocoma sieberi arizonæ.     13 inches.

A common bird in Arizona and south into Mexico. The upper parts are a
bluish gray, shading into a brownish gray on the head; under parts are a
pale gray. They are a very sociable bird during the breeding season, and
often several pairs will nest in the same clump of trees, usually placing
their nests at low elevations.

Nest.—Is made similar to the preceding, but the four eggs are more of a
bluish color, without markings (1.20 × .85).

                          ROCKY MOUNTAIN JAY.
       484a.     Perisoreus canadensis capitalis.     12 inches.

This is almost the counterpart of the Canada Jay of the east, with the
exception of having more white on the head, and only a small space on the
back of the neck. He is the same “old coon” as the eastern bird about
camps, and is rightfully called “Camp Robber.” Their nesting habits are
the same as above, but their eggs are drab, spotted and blotched with
brown, of varying shades (1.15 × .80).

                              OREGON JAY.
              485.     Perisoreus obscurus.     11 inches.

Like the last in every way, but with a blacker head, forehead white.

[Illustration: ]

                            AMERICAN RAVEN.
             486.     Corvus corax sinuatus.     24 inches.

This is a large edition of the Crow, and is found west of the Rockies
from British Columbia southward. Their plumage is a bluish black, with
lengthened and stiffened feathers on the neck. Their general habits are
much the same as the Crow. Their food consists principally of carrion,
fish, and eggs and young of smaller birds. They nest on the high cliffs
in almost inaccessible places, building large nests of sticks, in which
they deposit four eggs of a pale greenish white, spotted and blotched
with shades of brown and drab (1.95 × 1.25).

                          WHITE-NECKED RAVEN.
              487.     Corvus cryptoleucus.     21 inches.

A smaller bird than the above, and has the base of the neck feathers
white. It is a more southern variety, and is found in Arizona and on the
Mexican borders. They build at low elevations, making their nests of
sticks and twigs. Four pale blue eggs, spotted with dark brown (1.75 ×

                           NORTHWESTERN CROW.
                489.     Corvus caurinus.     17 inches.

This is one of the smaller Crows, found only on the coasts of Oregon to
Alaska, where it feeds almost wholly upon fish.

[Illustration: ]

                           CLARKE NUTCRACKER,
             491.     Nucifraga columbiana.     12 inches.

Found in the mountains of western North America, from Mexico to Alaska.
In habits they much resemble the Crow or some of the Jays. Their food
consisting largely of seeds from the pine cones, insects of many
varieties, larvæ and berries. They seem to prefer the tops of the higher
mountain ranges, coming down into the valleys for their supply of food.
Their nesting sites are well up in the mountains, where they build their
nests in the coniferous trees, of twigs, weeds, strips of bark and plant
fibers, making a deep cup-shaped nest in which they lay from three to
five greenish gray eggs, spotted over the whole surface with brown and
lavender (1.30 × .90).

                               PINON JAY.
          492.     Cyanocephalus cyanocephalus.     11 inches.

To be found in the pine regions of the Rockies and west, and from British
Columbia to southern California. They are very sociable birds, keeping in
colonies, and always have much to talk about among themselves; after the
breeding season they may be seen in large flocks. Three to five bluish
gray eggs, are spotted with different shades of brown (1.20 × .85).

[Illustration: ]

                       BOBOLINK—Family Icteridæ.
             494.     Dolichonyx oryzivorus.     7 inches.

This bird is found over most of North America from the southern parts of
Canada south, and has been gradually extending westward as far as
California. During mating season it is hard to find any other bird so
completely filled with music as are these birds. They are also quite
sociable birds, and several pairs of them may be found nesting in the
same piece of meadow land, and filling the air with their sweet, wild
music. They place their nest in a shallow hollow on the ground; it is
lined with grass and frequently so covered as to be almost arched over to
conceal the eggs. Four or five eggs of a grayish white, thickly blotched
and spotted with brown of different shades and lilac, generally covered
with ground color on the larger end (.84 × .62).

                495.     Molothrus ater.     7½ inches.

It is to be found throughout the United States and the southern portion
of Canada. They are the only birds which we have that neither make a nest
of their own nor care for their young. They will deposit a single egg
(sometimes two) in the nest of some other bird, usually of a smaller

[Illustration: ]

                            BRONZED COWBIRD.
                496a.     Tangavius æneus.     7 inches.

The same as above, being more of a bronze color, found in Arizona and

                           RED-EYED COWBIRD.
         496.     Tangavius æneus involucratus.     8½ inches.

Habits as above. Plumage is glossy black, with brassy reflections. They
are abundant in southern Texas, and in Mexico (not illustrated).

                        YELLOW-HEADED BLACKBIRD.
         497.     Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus.     10 inches.

A large and handsome bird, with bright yellow head and breast; body
black, with a white patch on the wing. They are a western bird, being
found from the central United States to California. They breed abundantly
in suitable marshes throughout their range. Their nests are made of
strips of rushes, interwoven and fastened to the upright rushes only a
few inches above the water. The four to six grayish white eggs are
spotted with shades of brown and gray (1.00 × .70).

[Illustration: ]

                         RED-WINGED BLACKBIRD.
               498.     Agelaius phœniceus.     9 inches.

An eastern bird, found as far west as the eastern part of the Rockies.
Very common in many parts of the east, where it builds much the same as
does the previous, laying four or five eggs, bluish white, spotted,
blotched and scratched with shades of brown (1.00 × .70).

                       SONORA RED-WING BLACKBIRD.
        498a.     Agelaius phœniceus sonoriensis.     9 inches.

Similar, but with more of a buff in place of the white on the wing. In
southern California and Arizona (not illustrated).

                          BICOLORED RED-WING.
       499.     Agelaius gubernator californicus.     8½ inches.

The male of this species do not have the light margins to the red on the
shoulders, as do the others. They are found on the Pacific coast from
Washington to southern California. Eggs and nests the same.

[Illustration: ]

                          TRICOLORED RED-WING.
               500.     Agelaius tricolor.     9 inches.

This species is a much deeper red on the shoulders, and the buff color on
the preceding is white on this bird. They are restricted to a small
range, the Pacific coast of California and Oregon, and are not nearly as
common as the eastern variety. Their nesting habits are the same, and the
eggs are indistinguishable.

                          WESTERN MEADOWLARK.
              501.1.     Sturnella neglecta.     9 inches.

This variety is somewhat paler than the eastern bird. In habits it is the
same. The nests and eggs cannot be separated from the eastern. There
seems to be one great distinguishing quality between the two, and that is
in their song or notes. The first one that I had the pleasure of hearing
was in Oregon, and my first thought was of our eastern Bobolink, but on
seeing the bird in flight, I at once knew that it was a new song, sung by
our eastern Meadowlark in appearance. They feed on insect life, beetles,
etc. They lay from four to seven eggs, spotted with shades of brown (1.10
× .80).

[Illustration: ]

                             SCOTT ORIOLE.
               504.     Icterus parisorum.     8 inches.

This is not a common species in any part of its range, from southern
California to Texas, and in Mexico. It is a handsomely marked bird, with
its clear black and yellow. They build a hanging nest, usually suspended
from the under sides of the leaves of the yucca palm, or from small
branches of low trees. Three to four bluish white eggs, specked and
blotched with brown about the larger end (.95 × .65).

                            SENNETT ORIOLE.
          505.     Icterus cucullatus sennetti.     7½ inches.

This is a deeper yellow; the face, throat, back, wings and tail being
black, the wings with two white bars. Found in Texas and south into
Mexico. Nests are made of hanging moss (not illustrated).

                         ARIZONA HOODED ORIOLE.
          505a.     Icterus cucullatus nelsoni.     7½ inches.

This is very much like the last, but lighter, and is found common in
Arizona, New Mexico and southern California. Its favorite nesting place
seems to be a bunch of Spanish moss, looping up the ends and weaving it
closely together, and forming a pocket inside, which they line with dried
grasses and yucca fibers.

[Illustration: ]

                            BULLOCK ORIOLE.
               508.     Icterus bullocki.     7½ inches.

This is a western representative of our eastern bird, the Baltimore
Oriole, and their ranges overlap each other on the eastern slope of the
Rockies. They build a hanging nest, and in the southern part of their
range use the Spanish moss and mistletoe for the foundation of the nest,
lining the opening with grasses, hair and small fiber. Three or four
white eggs, spotted and streaked with shades of brown (.94 × .62). These
birds are of great benefit to the small fruit growers in eating the many
injurious insects.

                            RUSTY BLACKBIRD.
               509.     Euphagus carolinus.     9 inches.

This is a bird of the east, but is found on the eastern slope of the
Rockies, and straying into southern California to the Gulf of Mexico.
Breeds along the northern borders of the United States, northwest to
Alaska. The female is very much lighter than the male, and of a brownish
drab color. They build large substantial nests of moss, twigs and grass,
lined with finer material of the same, and placed in low bushes or trees
only a few feet from the ground. Three to five eggs, pale bluish green,
blotched and spotted with brown (.96 × .71).

[Illustration: ]

                           BREWER BLACKBIRD.
            510.     Euphagus cyanocephalus.     10 inches.

Found throughout western North America, breeding from Alaska to southern
California. They differ from the preceding in having a purplish
reflection on the head and upper parts, and greenish black body. They
nest abundantly throughout their range, either in bushes or trees at low
elevations, or upon the ground; the nests are made of sticks, roots and
grasses, lined with finer grass. Three to five eggs are laid, which are
very variable in marking, a dull white, spotted and blotched all over
thickly with brown of different shades (1.00 × .75).

                       WESTERN EVENING GROSBEAK.
        514a.     Hesperiphona vespertina montana.     8 inches.

Western North America, and breeding from British Columbia to central
California. They build in the evergreen trees upon the mountain side or
along some stream in the willows; they are always frail structures made
up of a few loosely put together twigs and roots. Three or four pale
greenish eggs, spotted sparingly with brown, are the usual complement
(.90 × .65).

[Illustration: ]

                       CALIFORNIA PINE GROSBEAK.
        515b.     Pinicola enucleator californica.     8 inches.

These are one of the most unsuspicious birds that we have, and can be
approached to within a few feet. The male is a bright red above and an
ashy gray below, having much less of the red than his eastern relative.
The female is a dull ashy gray, with a yellowish brown on the top of head
and rump. They like the cooler places in which to live, and are found
about the snow lines on the mountain, where they feed largely upon the
seeds of the coniferous trees, in which they place their nests, making
them of fine twigs and rootlets, and lining with grass and moss. They lay
three or four eggs, light greenish blue, with splashes of brown and
fainter markings of lilac (1.00 × .70).

                        CALIFORNIA PURPLE FINCH.
       517a.     Carpodacus purpureus californicus.     6 inches.

This is found from British Columbia to southern California. It breeds
well up in the mountains, usually in evergreens. Three or four eggs of a
greenish blue, spotted with brown (.85 × .65).

[Illustration: ]

                          CASSIN PURPLE FINCH.
               518.     Carpodacus cassini.     6 inches.

It is found west of the Rockies, breeding from British Columbia south to
New Mexico, well up in the mountain regions, as far as the timber line
extends. The back, wings and tail of this are darker than the preceding
species; the purple color being more of a rosy tint. Their nests are made
of twigs and rootlets, loosely put together, and almost flat; they lay
three or four eggs not to be recognized from the last.

                              HOUSE FINCH.
         519.     Carpodacus mexicanus frontalis.     6 inches.

This is one of the most familiar birds on the Pacific coast. With his
bright colors, and the more quiet colors of his mate, and the habit they
have of keeping close to civilization, building their nests in the vines
about the porches of the houses, both in the country and even in the
cities, they are great favorites with every one. Their clear and pleasant
song is kept up continually during the day, and where two or three pairs
are nesting nearby, there is no lack for bird music. Their nests are made
of fine rootlets and grass placed in almost any bush, tree or vine, if
near some dwelling.

[Illustration: ]

            521.     Loxia curvirostra minor.     6 inches.

Found throughout the greater part of North America, and breeds in
suitable locations on the mountain sides among the coniferous trees. On
the Pacific coast, breeding from Alaska to southern California. In
abundance they vary each year greatly, according to the food supply of
cones in the evergreen trees from which they secure their seed supply;
their twisted bill quickly opening up the cones and cleaning out the
small seeds. Their nests are made of fine roots and grasses, and three or
four eggs, greenish white, spotted and lined with shades of brown, are
laid (.75 × .55).

                        WHITE-WINGED CROSSBILL.
               522.     Loxia leucoptera.     6½ inches.

These are of a lighter and more rosy color than the preceding, and also
have a large white patch on the wings. The female is marked the same,
with grayish and buff in place of the red on the males. Nesting habits
and locations are the same as above. The eggs average a little larger and
heavier marked (.80 × .55).

[Illustration: ]

                          ALEUTIAN ROSY FINCH.
            523.     Leucosticte griseonucha.     6½ inches.

This is the largest of the family; they are pretty birds, with dark
chestnut back and breast, and with the rump, wings and tail with a rosy
tint. These are birds of the mountains and high altitudes, above or near
the snow line. They are found breeding on the islands of Bering Sea, and
in the western part of Alaska. They nest in crevices of the rocks or
under ledges, making their nests of grasses and roots. Their four or five
eggs are pure white (.97 × .67).

                        GRAY-CROWNED ROSY FINCH.
            524.     Leucosticte tephrocotis.     6½ inches.

This is a lighter colored bird than the above. It is found on the eastern
slope of the Rockies and has been found breeding in the Sierra Nevadas,
in crevices of the rocks, after the same manner as the above. The eggs
cannot be distinguished from the above.

                          HEPBURN ROSY FINCH.
      524a.     Leucosticte tephrocotis littoralis.     6½ inches.

These have more gray on the back of the head; otherwise the same as
preceding in habits and nesting.

[Illustration: ]

                           BLACK ROSY FINCH.
              525.     Leucosticte atrata.     6½ inches.

This species is the same in markings as the Gray-crowned, excepting that
the brown is replaced with almost black on the back and breast. The
females of this family are much the same as the males, only not as bright
in markings, and the young are the same as the females. Found in the
northern Rocky Mountains, breeding in the mountains south to Colorado.
They are all restless birds, seldom making a long stop in one place, but
flitting from one locality to another. After the breeding season, they
congregate in large flocks and keep together about the snow line, getting
their supply of seed and insect food. Their nesting habits and their eggs
are the same as the Gray-crowned.

                        BROWN-CAPPED ROSY FINCH.
             526.     Leucosticte australis.     6½ inches.

These are to be found more southerly in the Rocky Mountains than any of
the others, breeding in Colorado, and wintering in New Mexico. Their
nesting habits and eggs are the same. Most of this family keep above the
timber line during the summer, and only come down into the valleys as the
heavy snow comes.

[Illustration: ]

                             HOARY REDPOLL.
         527a.     Acanthis hornemanni exilipes.     5 inches.

These pretty little birds, with their caps of bright crimson and rosy
breasts, are birds of the coldest regions, breeding in the Arctic
regions, and wintering to the northern parts of the United States.

Nest.—They build very large nests, mostly of small sticks and grass, and
lined with fine grass and feathers, which are placed usually within a
foot or two of the ground in scrub bushes. Their three to five eggs are a
light bluish green, with specks of brown, mostly about the larger end
(.65 × .50).

                528.     Acanthis linaria.     5 inches.

Its range is the northern part of North America, breeding in Alaska, and
wintering as far south as southern Oregon, or into California on the
western coast, in the mountain regions above the timber line. In
Colorado, they have been seen at 10,000 feet, and with the temperature
far below zero. Their nesting habits are the same as the above, and eggs
are the same.

[Illustration: ]

                            PALE GOLDFINCH.
         529a.     Astragalinus tristis pallidus.     5 inches.

A paler form, found in the Rockies, south to Colorado (not illustrated).

                           WILLOW GOLDFINCH.
          529b.     Astragalinus t. salicamara.     5 inches.

A western form of the eastern bird, rarely reaching the five inches in
length, and of a paler color, both the black and the yellow. It is common
on the Pacific coast, from Washington to southern California, breeding in
willows and low bushes. Nest is made of plant down, very compactly built,
usually in a crotch. Four to five eggs, plain bluish white (.60 × .45).

                          ARKANSAS GOLDFINCH.
             530.     Astragalinus psaltria.     5 inches.

Found from Colorado to Mexico in the Rockies (not illustrated).

                        GREEN-BACKED GOLDFINCH.
         530a.     Astragalinus p. hesperophilus.     5 inches.

In southwestern United States from Central California to Mexico.

[Illustration: ]

                          LAWRENCE GOLDFINCH.
            531.     Astragalinus lawrencei.     4½ inches.

This bird differs from the others of this family in being mostly gray in
place of the yellow, having the head and throat black. They are found
quite commonly on the Pacific coast of California, and south to Mexico.
Their nests are nicely made, cup-like structures of plant down, in which
they deposit four white eggs.

                              PINE SISKIN.
                  533.     Spinus pinus.     5 inches.

These are a more northern bird, breeding mostly to the Canadian zone, and
in the Rockies and higher mountains to the west. They feed largely upon
weed seeds and seeds from the different coniferous trees, the latter of
which they most often frequent, building their nests in these trees of
twigs and rootlets loosely put together and placed on the crotch of a
horizontal limb; usually four eggs, of a greenish white color, spotted
finely with reddish brown (.65 × .45). They have a habit, while feeding,
of clinging to the under side of a branch or cone, similar to the
Chickadee, and, if disturbed when on some favorite tree, will make a
short flight and circle back to the same tree.

[Illustration: ]

                       SNOW BUNTING OR SNOWFLAKE.
             534.     Plectrophenax nivalis.     7 inches.

To be found in the whole of the northern hemisphere, breeding within the
Arctic Circle and wintering south to the central portions of the United
States. They are one of the birds that change their dress completely from
winter to summer, in color. In winter they are a clear black and white,
while in summer the black is changed for a coat of chestnut or brownish.
They are to be found in the winters, on the hillsides and in fields where
the weeds are showing through, feeding upon the small seeds, and at this
time they are as restless and uncertain as the snowflake itself, from
which it is called. They nest on the ground, making it of dried grasses
and lining with finer grass and feathers; the four or five eggs are a
dull white, spotted and splashed with shades of brown, mostly on the
larger end (.90 × .65).

                          McKAY SNOW BUNTING.
           535.     Plectrophenax hyperboreus.     7 inches.

This species is still more white than the preceding, having only a few
specks of black on the tips of the primaries, and the central tail
feather. They build, in crevices of the rocks on the ground, a nest of
grass, lined with moss and feathers.

[Illustration: ]

                           ALASKAN LONGSPUR.
       536a.     Calcarius lapponicus alascensis.     6½ inches.

Their breeding grounds are in the northern part of Alaska in summer, and
in winter coming as far south as Oregon and Colorado, when they may be
frequently found in with flocks of Snow Buntings, and, like the
Snowflakes, they breed on the ground in a depression in the moss or under
some boulder, making their nest of grass and lining it with feathers.
Their four to six eggs are grayish, nearly covered with spots and
blotches of shades of dark brown (.80 × .60).

                        WESTERN VESPER SPARROW.
          540a.     Poœcetes gramineus confinis.     6 inches.

The chestnut shoulders and outer white tail-feather will distinguish this
from any others of the sparrows, and the sides are more of a gray color
than the eastern variety. Its habit of singing later in the evening gave
it the name of “Vesper.” Found on the Pacific coast, from British
Columbia to Mexico. Nest is made of grass, placed in a depression on the
ground. Four dull white eggs, blotched with brown (.80 × .60).

[Illustration: ]

                       WESTERN SAVANNAH SPARROW.
           542b.     Passerculus s. alaudinus.     5½ inches.

This is a slightly paler form of the preceding, and is very common in the
fields and meadows, from northern Alaska to Mexico. They are birds but
very little seen, keeping in the grass the greater part of the time.
Their nests are hollows in the ground lined with fine grass and concealed
by tufts of grass. They usually deposit four eggs, grayish white,
blotched heavily with brown (.75 × .55).

                            BRYANT SPARROW.
            542c.     Passerculus s. bryanti.     5½ inches.

Found on the salt marshes of California to Lower California. It is a
darker and brighter bird than the preceding (not illustrated).

                            BELDING SPARROW.
             543.     Passerculus beldingi.     5½ inches.

Found on the marshes of southern and Lower California. Is darker and more
streaked below. Nesting habits the same; eggs darker.

[Illustration: ]

                         LARGE-BILLED SPARROW.
             544.     Passerculus rostratus.     5½ inches.

The large and stouter bill, paler, and more of a grayish brown color,
will distinguish this from any of the preceding. They are fairly common
in the salt marshes of southern and Lower California. Their nesting
habits and eggs are practically the same as those mentioned previously.

                          SAN BENITO SPARROW.
           544c.     Passerculus r. sanctorum.     5½ inches.

Breeds on San Benito Islands, winters in southern Lower California.
Nesting habits are identical (not illustrated).

                             BAIRD SPARROW.
               545.     Ammodramus bairdi.     5¼ inches.

These sparrows breed abundantly in parts of the Dakotas on the plains,
and winter in eastern Colorado, through Arizona to New Mexico. The
tail-feathers of this species are much more pointed than on any of the

Nest.—This is placed on the ground in clumps of grass, and is made of
fine dried grass. Usually four eggs are laid of a dull white, blotched
and spotted with shades of brown and lilac (.80 × .60).

[Illustration: ]

                      WESTERN GRASSHOPPER SPARROW.
           546a.     Ammodramus s. bimaculatus.     5 inches.

These birds are common in dry fields and pastures, where their faint
lisping song is heard throughout the day. Nest is usually a deep
structure in a hollow in some dry field, and usually placed near some
rock or suitable place where they can watch the locality for danger. Four
eggs are laid; white, finely dotted with chestnut (.72 × .55).

                            LECONTE SPARROW.
            548.     Passerherbulus lecontei.     5 inches.

More slender in form than the preceding; breeding above the line and
winters through eastern Colorado to southern Texas. Nesting habits and
eggs similar to above (not illustrated).

                         WESTERN LARK SPARROW.
        552a.     Chondestes grammacus strigatus.     6½ inches.

One of the most common, as well as the most handsome of the sparrow
family on the western coast; with its bright chestnut on the sides of the
head, and black and white on the crown. They nest in low bushes, or on
the ground in a clump of grass; four eggs are laid; white with dark brown
markings, mostly about the larger end (.80 × .60).

[Illustration: ]

                            GAMBEL SPARROW.
        554a.     Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelt.     6½ inches.

This bird, a favorite with the people of the northwest, has been rightly
called the “Northern Nightingale.” Their sweet song may be heard all
during the day about dwellings or remote from them, or even in the night
they have a habit of awakening and giving out the same sweet notes. In
habits they much resemble the above, feeding upon the ground among the
dead leaves in search of seed and insect food.

Nest.—This is placed on the ground in a clump of grass, and is made of
fine grasses; four to six eggs of a pale greenish blue color, spotted and
splashed with shades of brown (.90 × .65).

                        GOLDEN-CROWNED SPARROW.
              557.     Zonotrichia coronata.     7 inches.

The crown of white in the above is replaced with a golden color. These
are common birds about the cities of California during the winter months.
Habits the same as above, and also their eggs.

[Illustration: ]

                         WESTERN TREE SPARROW.
          559a.     Spizella monticola ochracea.     6 inches.

Somewhat resembling the “Chippy Sparrow,” but is larger and has a dark
spot on the breast as an identification mark. It breeds in the far north,
above the northern borders of the United States, and in winter is common
through Oregon, California, into Arizona and Texas.

Nest.—This is usually placed in low trees or bushes or on the ground made
of grasses and lined with feathers. They lay three to five greenish white
eggs, spotted with different shades of brown (.80 × .55).

                       WESTERN CHIPPING SPARROW.
          560a.     Spizella passerina arizonæ.     5 inches.

This is one of the most helpful birds to our gardens, living upon insects
injurious to vegetation and on the seeds from the garden weeds. They will
nest in trees and shrubs, or vines about the house, making a small
compact nest, mostly of rootlets and horsehair. They lay from three to
five greenish blue eggs, with few spots of brown, mostly about the larger
end (.70 × .52).

[Illustration: ]

                         CLAY-COLORED SPARROW.
               561.     Spizella pallida.     5¼ inches.

These are much like the Chipping Sparrow in every way, with the exception
of color, the brown being replaced by the clay-color. Breeds in the
Northern United States and into Canada; winters south to Texas and
Mexico, rarely in eastern Colorado. Their nest is usually placed on the
ground, but may be found in low shrubs in some localities; four eggs are
the usual complement, of a light greenish blue, with spots of brown about
the larger end (.65 × .50).

                            BREWER SPARROW.
                562.     Spizella breweri.     5 inches.

This is very similar to above, but much more streaked with dark above. It
is to be found from British Columbia south to Mexico, especially in
sections where the sage brush is found, and in southern California near
the coast. Its nesting habits are much the same as the above, and the
eggs are indistinguishable.

                            WORTHEN SPARROW.
               564.     Spizella wortheni.     5 inches.

This is a southern form of the Chipping Sparrow, and is found in New
Mexico and Mexico.

[Illustration: ]

                         BLACK-CHINNED SPARROW.
             565.     Spizella atrogularis.     5½ inches.

This is easily identified by the black chin, throat and forehead. It is
quite common in parts of southern California, and south into Arizona and
New Mexico. The habits are similar to those of the Field Sparrow, their
eggs differing in being unspotted and are a bluish green (.65 × .50).

                          WHITE-WINGED JUNCO.
                 566.     Junco aikeni.     6½ inches.

This is slightly larger than the common “Black and White Snowbird”
(Hyemalis). It is also a paler bird and the wings are crossed by two
white bars. It is found in the central Rocky Mountain regions, where it
breeds in the northern part, and winters to eastern Colorado.

                          SLATE-COLORED JUNCO.
                 567.     Junco hyemalis.     6 inches.

This is common “Black and White Snowbird” of the east, and is the same as
above, but darker and does not have any white wing bars. They breed
mostly north of the United States, nesting on the ground, often under
some boulder, making their nest of roots and grass in which they lay four
greenish white eggs, spotted with brown about the larger end (not

[Illustration: ]

                             OREGON JUNCO.
            567a.     Junco hyemalis oreganus.     6 inches.

There are several of the sub-species of “Hyemalis,” all of which are very
much alike in habits; varying in color and location. The Oregon Junco is
found from British Columbia to southern California, breeding on the
mountains of Oregon and northward. In color, this differs much from the
preceding, with more black, and on the back a brownish color. The nesting
habits and eggs are very much the same as the preceding.

                           PINK-SIDED JUNCO.
            567g.     Junco hyemalis mearnsi.     6 inches.

These breed at high altitudes in the mountains of Montana, Wyoming and
Idaho, and winter south to Mexico.

                             THURBER JUNCO.
            567c.     Junco hyemalis thurberi.     6 inches.

Found most commonly in the Sierra Nevadas from Oregon to southern
California. The difference in coloring is shown in the illustrations of
this and the two preceding.

[Illustration: ]

                           GRAY-HEADED JUNCO.
           570b.     Junco phœonotus caniceps.     6 inches.

The same as the Slate-colored, with the exception of having the back a
reddish brown. The nests of all the Juncos are placed on the ground, and
the markings of their eggs vary but little.

                              BAIRD JUNCO.
                 571.     Junco     bairdi.   6 inches.

Found in the mountains of southern and Lower California. This is a
gray-headed variety with brown on the back and sides.

                            GUADALUPE JUNCO.
                572.     Junco insularis.     5½ inches.

One of the smallest of the family, and found locally only on the
Guadalupe Islands off the lower California coast, where they nest
commonly in the pine groves, among the needles on the ground, or
frequently protected by some overhanging stone. Their nest and eggs are
the same as the others. Eggs bluish white, with fine dots of brown about
the larger end (.77 × .60).

[Illustration: ]

                            DESERT SPARROW.
       573a.     Amphispiza bilineata deserticola.     5¼ inches.

This is an abundant bird among the foothills of southwestern United
States, in Texas, New Mexico and southern California. It is found in the
hot desert plains, where it builds its nest in low bushes, of the
sagebrush or cactus, within two or three feet of the ground. It is made
up of twigs, roots and fine grass, and lined with feathers and horsehair.
They lay three or four bluish white eggs (.72 × .55).

                             BELL SPARROW.
               574.     Amphispiza belli.     5¼ inches.

In the hot valleys and foothills of the southern half of California and
in the Colorado Desert, south to Lower California, these grayish, black
and white sparrows are found abundantly in localities where the sagebrush
is common. They build their nests of roots and twigs, loosely put
together, and usually lined with grass, feathers and horsehair, in the
low sagebrush within two feet of the ground, or quite often placed on the
ground under the cover of one of these bushes. They lay three or four
pale greenish eggs, heavily blotched and spotted with shades of brown
(.75 × .60).

[Illustration: ]

                             SAGE SPARROW.
            574.1.     Amphispiza nevadensis.     6 inches.

These are a very quiet and shy sparrow, rarely singing except at their
breeding season, and to be found commonly throughout the sage deserts of
the Great Basin, from Oregon and Montana to Lower California and New
Mexico. They nest either in small sagebrush or upon the ground, making
their nests of shred from the sage and grasses, lining it with feathers
and hair. They lay from three to four grayish eggs, with heavy markings
of shades of brown about the larger end (.75 × .60).

                        CALIFORNIA SAGE SPARROW.
          574.1b.     Amphispiza n. canescens.     5½ inches.

Somewhat smaller than the last, and found from eastern California east to
Nevada (not illustrated).

                            BOTTERI SPARROW.
                576.     Peucæa botterii.     6¼ inches.

A larger gray sparrow, streaked with brown, and black spots. A southern
bird, found in Arizona, Texas and Mexico (not illustrated).

[Illustration: ]

                            CASSIN SPARROW.
                578.     Peucæa cassini.     5½ inches.

Found on the arid plains from Texas to Kansas, where it breeds much the
same as does the Sage Sparrow.

                         RUFOUS-WINGED SPARROW.
              579.     Aimophila carpalis.     5¼ inches.

This small and paler sparrow is found on the plains of Mexico and north
to Arizona. In appearance and habits it is similar to the Chipping
Sparrow, and the two are frequently found in the same locality. They nest
in low bushes, making them of coarse grass and lined with down and hair,
in which they place four sunmarked, bluish white eggs (.70 × .60).

                        RUFOUS-CROWNED SPARROW.
              580.     Aimophila ruficeps.     5½ inches.

Slightly larger than the former, and the color more of a brown streaked
with darker, and still more of a reddish brown on the crown. It is found
throughout California along the coast to Lower California. They build on
the ground, concealing their nest in a clump of grass or under some bush.
They lay from three to five pale bluish white, unmarked eggs (.80 × .60).

[Illustration: ]

                             SONG SPARROW.
               581.     Melospiza melodia.     6¼ inches.

A bird of song, as the name indicates, and their song can be heard in
every state of the Union and in Canada. This is the most subdivided of
any of the bird family; more than twenty sub-species are listed, all
having about the same song and general appearance. In some localities
they will be a darker brown, and in the light desert sands they are very
light in color. It is almost impossible to distinguish one from another
even when in the hand. Their eggs also have the same variation, and
cannot be positively identified one from another. They all build either
in low bushes or upon the ground. Usually four eggs, greenish white,
blotched and spotted with all shades and patterns of brown (.80 × .60).

                         HEERMANN SONG SPARROW.
            581c.     Melospiza m. heermanni.     6¼ inches.

Found in the central valleys of California, casually to Nevada.

                          RUSTY SONG SPARROW.
             581e.     Melospiza m. morphna.     6¼ inches.

In the Pacific Coast belt from Alaska to southern California.

[Illustration: ]

                            LINCOLN SPARROW.
              583.     Melospiza lincolni.     5½ inches.

To be found most commonly in the central and western parts of North
America, rare in the eastern part. In appearance they are very much like
the Song Sparrow, but in their habits are more retiring, and keep more
closely in the grass, and out of sight. They nest in tufts of grass
within a few inches of the ground, or in a slight depression in the
ground. The nest is made of twigs, roots and grasses. Their eggs are
similar to the Song Sparrows; three or four in number, greenish white,
heavily marked with brown (.80 × .58).

                         SHUMAGIN FOX SPARROW.
       585a.     Passerella iliaca unalaschcensis.     6½ inches.

These are large reddish brown sparrows, thickly marked with spots of
darker brown on the back and under parts. They are to be found from
Alaska to southern California.

Nest.—In low bushes near the ground. Four pale greenish eggs, marked with
brown (.94 × .68).

                       THICK-BILLED FOX SPARROW.
          585b.     Passerella i. megarhyncha.     7¼ inches.

This is quite a little larger than the above, has a much thicker bill,
and is to be found throughout California in the mountains.

[Illustration: ]

                             OREGON TOWHEE.
           588b.     Pipilo maculatus oregonus.     8 inches.

This family are all ground birds, and are usually found scratching among
the leaves for their food supply of seeds and insects. This is a much
darker bird than his eastern relative. The females are marked much the
same as the males, replacing the black with a brown. They build their
nest on or near the ground, of twigs, grass and with a finer lining of
grass, and usually it is well concealed in bunches of grass or under some
brush pile. They lay four or five eggs of a pale gray or white, much
spotted with brown (.95 × .75).

                           SAN DIEGO TOWHEE.
          588d.     Pipilo maculatus megolonyx.     8 inches.

Darker and with few white markings. Southern California (not

                             CANON TOWHEE.
           591.     Pipilo fuscus mesoleucus.     8½ inches.

These birds have more brown, and nest in bushes or trees and not so much
on the ground. Their eggs are more strongly marked. They range from
Colorado to Texas and Arizona.

[Illustration: ]

                           CALIFORNIA TOWHEE.
              591.1.     Pipilo crissalis.     9½ inches.

A larger and still darker variety, with but very little white if any. It
is found in California, from Shasta County to the southern part of the
state. They are not as shy as the Towhee family generally are, and
frequently come about habitations, where they will scratch about
barnyards like chickens. They nest within a few feet of the ground,
building much the same as other members of this family. The eggs are also
very similar to the others.

                             ABERT TOWHEE.
                 592.     Pipilo aberti.     9 inches.

More of a reddish brown. Found in Arizona, New Mexico and southern
California, where it breeds on the coast range.

                          GREEN-TAILED TOWHEE.
              592.1.     Oreospiza chlorura.     7 inches.

This member of the family has characteristics of his own entirely
different from any of the others. They are birds of the brush, and rarely
appear above the shrubbery in which they nest.

[Illustration: ]

                           ARIZONA CARDINAL.
            593a.     Cardinalis c. superbus.     9 inches.

These are birds of vine grown gardens and thickets, where, with their
beautiful song, brilliant plumage, and quiet disposition, they make
themselves the favorites of mankind. The bill is very large and stout,
but the general makeup of the bird, with its long crest, is much to be
admired. They build their nest of twigs, roots and grasses, loosely put
together, which is placed in bushes, vines or low trees. Their three or
four eggs are a pale bluish white, with varied markings or spots of
shades of brown, mostly about the larger end (1.00 × .70). Found in
Arizona and into Mexico.

                          ARIZONA PYRRHULOXIA.
              594.     Pyrrhuloxia sinuata.     8½ inches.

The bill of these birds is more hooked, short and stout like the parrots.
Their crest, which is not as heavy as the Cardinals, they have the habit
of raising and lowering often, changing the whole appearance of the bird.
Their nesting habits and eggs are similar to the last.

[Illustration: ]

                         BLACK-HEADED GROSBEAK.
            596.     Zamelodia melanocephala.     7½ inches.

This species similar in size to the Rose-breasted Grosbeak of the eastern
sections (which is sometimes found west to Colorado), does not have the
bright colors of his eastern brother. In habits they appear to be much
the same, their song is wonderfully sweet and clear. They are very quiet
birds, and when nesting will almost allow one to touch them before
leaving. Their nests are simply a few straws and sticks, loosely laid on
the forks of some horizontal branch of a bush or low tree, so frail that
frequently their eggs can be seen from beneath. They lay four eggs of a
bluish green, spotted and blotched with different shades of brown (1.00 ×

                         WESTERN BLUE GROSBEAK.
            597a.     Guiraca cærulea lazula.     7 inches.

Found more in the open woods, in small groves and along the roadside in
the small brush. It seems out of place to have three members of the same
family with such a difference of plumage. One with rose, white and black;
the next with black, brown and yellow; and this bird, a blue and black.
Their nesting habits and also their eggs are much the same as above, the
eggs being a little smaller (.85 × .62).

[Illustration: ]

                            INDIGO BUNTING.
                598.     Passerina cyanea.     5 inches.

An eastern form, of an indigo blue on the head, shading to lighter on the
under parts and towards the rump. It is found as far west as Colorado and
into Texas (not illustrated).

                            LAZULI BUNTING.
                599.     Passerina amœna.     5½ inches.

Similar to the above, but lighter, while the under parts and breast are
brownish. The wings are barred with two bands of white. It is found from
British Columbia to Lower California and from the western coast to
eastern Colorado. The nesting habits and eggs of the two are identical.
They build in bushes or lower branches of trees, only a few feet from the
ground, three or four eggs of a pale bluish white, unmarked (.75 × .58).

                           BEAUTIFUL BUNTING.
         600a.     Passerina versicolor pulchra.     5½ inches.

These are the most varied in color markings of any of our North American
birds, having bright colors. Found in southern and Lower California,
Arizona and into Mexico. Like the above they are to be found in thickets
and hedges, where they build their nests within a few feet of the ground.

[Illustration: ]

                604.     Spiza americana.     6¼ inches.

The male is a prettily marked bird with a yellow line over the eye, on
the side of the throat, edge of wing and front under parts; black patch
on the breast, white throat and a bright chestnut patch on the wing. It
is found rarely in Colorado and into southern California (not

                             LARK BUNTING.
            605.     Calamospiza melanocorys.     7 inches.

Bill very short and thick, and light color. The male in summer is a dull
black all over, with the exception of white wing-coverts. Their habits
are similar to the above. They have a fine song, which they often give
while on the wing, after the manner of the Bobolink. The female is a
sparrow-like looking bird, mottled brown and white. They are birds of the
plains, from Canada to Texas, occasionally in California and Colorado.
Nest on the ground, laying four pale blue eggs (.85 × .65).

                            WESTERN TANAGER.
              607.     Piranga ludoviciana.     6½ inches.

Found from British Columbia to southern California, breeding in
mountains. Three or four eggs, bluish green, spotted with brown (.95 ×

[Illustration: ]

                            HEPATIC TANAGER.
               609.     Piranga hepatica.     7½ inches.

A pale colored bird as compared with the Scarlet Tanager of the east,
lacking also the black wings of its eastern brother. The female is a pale
yellow on the under parts and an olive above. Their range is throughout
Arizona and into Mexico. The nest is built upon horizontal branches of
trees at varying heights from the ground, and is made of twigs, grass and
hair, usually a frail structure, in which they lay four eggs of a
greenish blue, spotted with shades of brown (.92 × .64).

                            COOPER TANAGER.
             610a.     Piranga rubra cooperi.     7 inches.

Western United States, breeding from Central California to Texas and the
borders of Mexico. Their breeding habits are the same and the eggs are
not distinguishable from the others, all of them varying in the markings,
but practically of the same size and general color.

[Illustration: ]

                            WESTERN MARTIN.
            611a.     Progne subis hesperia.     8½ inches.

The male of this is not to be distinguished from the eastern Purple
Martin, and in the female a lighter gray on the forehead is the only
difference. They nest in cavities of trees or in boxes provided for them
in the cities and towns, both in the east and west, as they are to be
found breeding throughout the United States and into British Columbia.
They make their nests of twigs, roots and mud, usually lined with
feathers, and lay from four to six white eggs (.95 × .65).

                             CLIFF SWALLOW.
            612.     Petrochelidon lunifrons.     5½ inches.

Their range is throughout the whole of North America; they can easily be
recognized by their brownish throat and breast, white forehead and black
cap. Their nests or homes are built of mud, securely cemented to the face
of cliffs, or under the eaves of buildings. They make them round or
gourd-shaped, with a small opening in the side, and lining the inside
with grass and feathers. They lay four eggs, creamy white, spotted with
shades of brown (.80 × .55).

[Illustration: ]

                             BARN SWALLOW.
             613.     Hirundo erythrogastra.     7½ inches.

Their range is throughout North America, breeding generally from Alaska
to southern California, and over the eastern part of the United States.
They nest in barns, sheds or in any buildings where they are not likely
to be disturbed, building their nests of mud on the rafters or beams near
the roof, and lining it with feathers. They are a familiar bird in all
parts of the country, and one of the most graceful while on the wing,
skimming over the ponds and meadows in search of the insect life which
constitutes their food. Their eggs are similar to the Cliff Swallow,
creamy white, spotted with shades of brown and chestnut (.80 × .55).

                             TREE SWALLOW.
              614.     Iridoprocne bicolor.     6 inches.

Perhaps this is more commonly known as the White-bellied Swallow, and it
is found in the whole of temperate North America, breeding from the
middle United States northward. They nest in holes of trees and stumps
naturally, but accept the bird houses that are put up for them in
suitable locations near ponds or wet marshes. Their eggs are the same as
above, both in number and markings.

[Illustration: ]

         615.     Tachycineta thalassina lepida.     5¼ inches.

In the Rocky Mountain regions of the United States and west to the
Pacific, breeding throughout its range. A most beautiful species with its
blue, green and purple back and white under parts. They are abundant in
favorable localities in California, building their nests in holes of
trees, at times well up in the mountains, in the tops of some of the
largest redwoods and pines, using woodpecker holes, and at times placing
their nest in a crevice of the cliffs. Their nests are made of grass and
fine roots, and nicely lined with feathers. Their four to six eggs are
pure white (.72 × .50).

                             BANK SWALLOW.
                616.     Riparia riparia.     5½ inches.

The whole of North America north to the limit of trees, and south to the
Gulf of Mexico, breeding from the middle portion of the United States
northward. These birds build their nests in sand banks in almost all
sections of the country, digging a small tunnel from one to three feet in
length, enlarged and lined with grass at the end. They lay from four to
six pure white eggs (.70 × .50).

[Illustration: ]

                         ROUGH-WINGED SPARROW.
          617.     Stelgidopteryx serripennis.     5½ inches.

This species is about the same size as the last, and similar, but with
the throat and breast grayish in place of the white. The outer webs of
the outer primaries are recurved, forming a series of hooks. It nests in
holes of embankments or in the crevices of cliffs, or among the stones of
bridges and buildings. Their eggs are four in number and are pure white
(.75 × .52). The range of these birds covers the whole of the United
States, breeding from Mexico to British Columbia.

                           BOHEMIAN WAXWING.
              618.     Bombycilla garrula.     8½ inches.

A northern variety, breeding in Alaska and northward, winters to
California and the northern states of the United States. It may be
identified from the following by the markings on the wings of white and
yellow, and the larger band of yellow at the end of the tail. The
wax-like appendages on the wings and tail may be found on both species.

Their nests are made of rootlets, grass and moss, and placed in bushes or
trees at a few feet from the ground. Usually four eggs are laid, of a
grayish color, sharply spotted with brown (.95 × .70).

[Illustration: ]

                             CEDAR WAXWING.
              619.     Bombycilla cedrorum.     7½ inches.

These are a North American bird, and great travelers in large flocks all
over the country, separating at breeding time, and mating up, with a pair
or two selecting some orchard or suitable locality to remain during
nesting time. They breed throughout the northern United States and north
into Canada. Their nests are placed in almost any kind of tree, on
horizontal limbs, made of twigs, rootlets, string and grass, in which
they lay usually four eggs of a dull grayish color, spotted with dark
brown, mostly about the larger end (.85 × .60).

              620.     Phainopepla nitens.     7½ inches.

These are found from central California to Texas and into Mexico. In
habits they are very much like the preceding, and the female is quite
similar in looks, while the male is a rich shining blue black, with a
long pointed crest, and a white patch on the wings. Their food consists
of insects and small berries. They build loosely constructed nests, with
a more compact lining of plant down. They lay two or three eggs of a
light gray, spotted with brown (.88 × .65).

[Illustration: ]

                            NORTHERN SHRIKE.
                621.     Lanius borealis.     10 inches.

One of the largest of the family in the United States, the breast being
barred with wavy lines of gray above the paler gray, with the wings and
tail having much white, showing especially in flight. They are bold
birds; carnivorous in their habits, living upon other small birds,
insects and small rodents. In winter they have been known frequently to
live about cities, catching the English Sparrows in the parks and city
streets. They tear their food to pieces with their bill, which is shaped
similar to that of a hawk’s, while their feet are small and weak, not at
all resembling the hawk’s feet. Their nests are placed in thickets or
thorny bushes, and are made of shreds of vines, grasses and plant down.
Four to six grayish white eggs are laid, these being spotted and blotched
with shades of brown (1.05 × .75).

                           CALIFORNIA SHRIKE.
          622b.     Lanius ludovicianus gambeli.     8 inches.

In size the same as the White-rumped Shrike, and in habits and general
appearance much the same, being somewhat darker, more on the under parts
and sides. Eggs similar but smaller.

[Illustration: ]

                            RED-EYED VIREO.
              624.     Vireosylva olivacea.     6 inches.

One of the most common of the family throughout its range, from the
eastern slope of the Rockies over the United States. Wherever they may be
found, their song is heard continuously during the day, from early
morning until late in the evening, it consisting only of two or three
notes, first a rising inflection, then a falling, and repeated over and
over, even while they are feeding. The nests are placed within a few feet
of the ground on an overhanging limb, suspended from a fork, and made of
strips of bark, plant fiber and often with pieces of string and paper
included in its construction. Three or four eggs are white, specked
sparingly with brown (.85 × .55). This is one of the favorite nests in
which the Cowbird deposits its eggs.

                            WARBLING VIREO.
               627.     Vireosylva gilva.     5½ inches.

These are nearly as common as the above, but probably not as well known,
as they keep well up in the tops of the taller trees, where they also
build their nests, very much the same as the Red-eye. Their song is much
more pleasant. Four eggs, like above (.72 × .52).

[Illustration: ]

                             CASSIN VIREO.
         629a.     Lanivireo solitarius cassini.     5 inches.

To be found west of the Rockies from British Columbia south to Lower
California and Mexico. In southern California, it is found breeding much
more commonly than the Western Warbling Vireo, placing its nest high in
the oaks and coniferous trees. It belongs to the same musical family,
keeping up its song from morning until night. The nest is made of similar
material to the previous, and the eggs are the same, except in size (.75
× .58).

                          BLACK-CAPPED VIREO.
              630.     Vireo atricapillus.     4½ inches.

A smaller variety, the male marked with a black cap. Breeds in Texas,
north to Kansas. Winters in Mexico (not illustrated).

                             HUTTON VIREO.
                 632.     Vireo huttoni.     4½ inches.

Similar to last, without the black cap. Found in central and southern
California. Nesting habits similar to others of the family. Eggs white
with a few spots of brown about the larger end (.70 × .50).

[Illustration: ]

                             ANTHONY VIREO.
            632c.     Vireo huttoni obscurus.     4¼ inches.

Like Hutton, but a trifle smaller and darker. Found from British Columbia
to southern California, breeding in Oregon (not illustrated).

                              LEAST VIREO.
             633a.     Vireo belli pusillus.     4¼ inches.

Much like the last, and found nesting in southern California, Texas and
Arizona. Their nest is a neat, compact, cup-shaped structure, made of
shreds of vines and fine roots, and lined with fine grass. The four eggs
are white, spotted finely with brown about the larger end (.70 × .80).

                              GRAY VIREO.
                634.     Vireo vicinior.     5½ inches.

Found in the southwestern United States, from western Texas, and southern
California, into Mexico. They are not uncommon birds in the mountains of
Arizona, where they nest in low bushes or trees, building their nest
similar to the Red-eyed vireo in the horizontal fork of some overhanging
limb, within a few feet from the ground. Usually four white eggs, which
are finely spotted with brown about the larger end (.72 × .53).

[Illustration: ]

                   Family MNIOTILTIDÆ—WOOD WARBLERS.

                        BLACK-AND-WHITE WARBLER.
                636.     Mniotilta varia.     5¼ inches.

This eastern bird, with its black and white markings, is found in
southern Texas, and has been seen accidental in California and Washington
(not illustrated).

                             LUCY WARBLER.
                643.     Vermivora luciæ.     4 inches.

Range.—Southwestern United States and Mexico. It breeds quite commonly in
Arizona, where it builds in almost any situation, in the loose bark on
tree trunks, in deserted woodpecker holes, in the cactus or in small
bushes near the ground. The nest is made of fine grass, leaves and
feathers, in which they lay usually four white eggs, spotted and wreathed
with brown about the larger end (.60 × .50).

                           VIRGINIA WARBLER.
              644.     Vermivora virginiæ.     4¼ inches.

Range.—Rocky Mountains, from Colorado to Arizona, and winters in Mexico.
They are much like the last, but have a patch of yellow on the rump and
breast. Their nest on the ground, beside some rock or stump, is made of
shreds of vines and grass. Three or four white eggs, specked and wreathed
with brown (.62 × .50).

[Illustration: ]

                           CALAVERAS WARBLER.
      645a.     Vermivora rubricapilla gutturalis.     4½ inches.

Found in the Pacific coast regions, breeding from central California
north to British Columbia. Winters south to Mexico. In Oregon and
California, these birds are quite common in favorable localities on the
mountain sides. They build their nest on the ground in a slight
depression, making it of twigs and grasses, and usually well concealed
with overhanging grass or brush. Their four eggs are a creamy white, with
fine spots of brown and lavender, forming a wreath about the larger end
(.60 × .45).

                        ORANGE-CROWNED WARBLER.
               646.     Vermivora celata.     4½ inches.

Range.—Central North America, breeding in the Rockies locally, from
Alaska to Mexico. Crown with a concealed, dull orange patch. Nesting
habits and eggs same as above (not illustrated).

                           LUTESCENT WARBLER.
          646a.     Vermivora celata lutescens.     4¼ inches.

This bird is found breeding from Alaska along the Pacific coast to
southern California. Nest placed in similar locations, and the eggs are
the same as above (.60 × .45).

[Illustration: ]

                             OLIVE WARBLER.
             651.     Peucedramus olivaceus.     5 inches.

Range.—In the mountains of Arizona and New Mexico, southward. They may be
easily identified by their orange-brown head and neck, with a broad black
band through the eyes. Their nests are placed at high elevations in
coniferous trees on the mountain sides. They build a very compact nest,
saddled upon a horizontal limb, the nest having a resemblance to a knot;
it is made of moss, lichens, etc., and lined with fine rootlets and down
from plants. Their four eggs are a pale gray, completely covered with
spots of dark brown, the heaviest at the larger end (.64 × .48).

                            YELLOW WARBLER.
                652.     Dendroica æstiva.     4 inches.

Range.—The whole of North America, breeding throughout its range. They
are active little bunches of yellow, as they gather in their many insects
for food, all the while singing their happy song. They place their nests
in almost any kind of trees, but seem to prefer willows and alders near
some brook or pond, where insect life is abundant. Their nest is a
compact, cup-shaped structure, made of fibers and grasses, lined with
plant down or cotton.

[Illustration: ]

                            MYRTLE WARBLER.
              655.     Dendroica coronata.     5½ inches.

Range.—Most of North America. On the Pacific coast, it is found from
central Oregon to southern California. It is quite commonly known as the
Yellow-rumped Warbler, both in the east and west. They differ from the
following, mostly in the throat markings, this one having a white throat
and much more black on the head and breast, while on the following the
throat is yellow. They nest in the lower branches of coniferous trees,
making it of grasses, rootlets and fiber, in which they lay usually four
eggs, white, spotted with shades of brown and lilac, more heavily about
the larger end (.70 × .50).

                            AUDUBON WARBLER.
              656.     Dendroica auduboni.     5½ inches.

This species is found in the western United States from British Columbia
to Mexico, and rarely east of the Rockies. They are more of a
dull-colored bird than the preceding. Their nesting habits and eggs are
identical with the last (.68 × .52).

[Illustration: ]

                           MAGNOLIA WARBLER.
               657.     Dendroica magnolia.     5 inches.

Range.—This is an eastern bird, found west to the Rockies and accidental
in California. The white over the eye, white wing patch, and the band of
white across the tail will identify this species (not illustrated).

                          BLACK-POLL WARBLER.
              661.     Dendroica striata.     5½  inches.

Range.—North America, mostly east of the Rockies, but found in the
Rockies from Alaska to Colorado. They nest on the lower branches of
coniferous trees, made of roots and strips of vine, and lined with
feathers and lichens. Four dull white eggs, spotted with brown (.72 ×

                             GRACE WARBLER.
               664.     Dendroica graciæ.     4½ inches.

Range.—Western North America, British Columbia to Lower California and
Arizona. Nest usually in pines near the tops of the trees, made of roots,
fibers and lined with plant down. Eggs white, with light spots of brown
(.65 × .45).

[Illustration: ]

                      BLACK-THROATED GRAY WARBLER.
             665.     Dendroica nigrescens.     4½ inches.

Range.—Western North America, British Columbia to Lower California. A
small bird, with a black throat and breast, forming a circle about the
neck, and black on top of the head. They are found mostly in the
woodlands, bordered with thickets, in which they will place their nests,
within a few feet of the ground. It much resembles that of the Yellow
Bird, being compact and made of the same materials. Three or four eggs
are creamy white, spotted with brown, forming a wreath about the larger
end (.65 × .52).

                     BLACK-THROATED GREEN WARBLER.
                667.     Dendroica virens.     5 inches.

Range.—Mostly in the eastern part of North America, but occasionally in
the southern Rockies, Texas and Arizona. Black throat and breast, with
bright yellow cheeks and olive head and back (not illustrated).

                           TOWNSEND WARBLER.
              668.     Dendroica townsendi.     5 inches.

Range.—Western United States. A similar bird to the above, with black on
top of the head in place of the olive. Nesting habits are practically the
same, as are also the eggs.

[Illustration: ]

                            HERMIT WARBLER.
             669.     Dendroica occidentalis.     5 inches.

Range.—Western North America, from British Columbia to southern
California, Texas and Arizona. These are to be found in the high,
mountainous regions among the coniferous trees, where they build their
nests on the outer limbs of tall pines, almost impossible to find. Their
nests are made of grass, and the needles from the pine, and not much of a
nest as compared with some of this same family. They lay four white eggs,
spotted and wreathed with shades of brown (.68 × .52).

                         GRINNELL WATER THRUSH.
            675a.     Seiurus noveboracensis.     5½ inches.

Range.—From Alaska to Mexico, breeding in the northern portions. They are
a quiet bird, solitary in habits, nesting in stumps near the ground or
among roots of fallen trees. Four white eggs, spotted and blotched with
brown and lilac (.80 × .60).

[Illustration: ]

                         MACGILLIVRAY WARBLER.
               680.     Oporornis tolmiei.     5½ inches.

Range.—Western North America, from British Columbia to southern
California, breeding throughout its range. They are common warblers of
the Pacific coast, to be found on or near the ground in thick shrubbery,
where they build their nests within a few feet of the ground. This is
made of grasses and shreds of vines, and lined with finer grasses and
hair. Four eggs are laid, white, spotted and quite heavily marked with
shades of brown (.72 × .52).

                         WESTERN YELLOW-THROAT.
       681a.     Geothlypis trichas occidentalis.     5¼ inches.

Range.—Western North America, from British Columbia south to Arizona, but
not near the Pacific coast. It is one of the seven or eight forms of the
Maryland Yellow-throat, the greatest difference in them being in the
locality in which they are found. They place their nest in a clump of
grass, well concealed, laying usually four white eggs, with few spots of
brown (.70 × .50).

                         PACIFIC YELLOW-THROAT.
          681c.     Geothlypis trichas arizela.     5¼ inches.

Range.—The Pacific coast. Habits, nest and eggs same as above.

[Illustration: ]

                           LONG-TAILED CHAT.
          683a.     Icteria virens longicauda.     7½ inches.

Range.—Western United States, breeding from British Columbia to Mexico.
They are an attractive bird both in looks and habits. They are great
singers, but nature seemed to give them no special song of their own, and
they make good attempts to mimic the song of any bird in their locality,
and keep continually at it. They like the bramble and vine-covered
hillsides, where it is hard to obtain a sight of the bird. They build
their nests in the thickest of such places a few feet from the ground,
made up of shreds of vines, leaves and twigs, lined with grass. Four
white eggs, spotted with fine dots of shades of brown (.90 × .70).

                          PILEOLATED WARBLER.
          685a.     Wilsonia pusilla pileolata.     5 inches.

Range.—Western North America, breeding in Oregon, Washington and
California to Mexican borders. These little birds, with their deep yellow
under parts and breast, and little cap of jet black, are quite common
about many of the orchards and gardens when the trees are in full
blossom, taking insects that abound at that time. They nest in moist
grounds in a slight depression or in low bushes, made of fibers and

[Illustration: ]

              687.     Setophaga ruticilla.     5½ inches.

Range.—North America, found more commonly east of the Rockies, but less
common in Oregon, California and to Arizona. These birds are always the
most conspicuous when in flight, at that time showing off to the best
advantage their bright orange markings on the wings and tail of the
males, and the bright yellow of the females. They build a neat,
cup-shaped nest of plant fibers and down, which is placed in the crotch
of small trees, in which they lay four white eggs, spotted with different
shades of chestnut and black (.65 × .50). They are very active, and
constantly flying from place to place, taking insects while on the wing,
which constitute their food.

                           PAINTED REDSTART.
                688.     Setophaga picta.     5½ inches.

Range.—New Mexico and Arizona. These have much the same habits as the
above, except that they build their homes in cavities of rocks or on the
ground in swampy places.

                           RED-FACED WARBLER.
             690.     Cardellina rubrifrons.     5¼ inches.

Range.—Arizona and New Mexico.

[Illustration: ]

                          ALASKAN YELLOW TAIL.
           696.     Budytes flavus alascensis.     6½ inches.

Range.—Alaska and Bering Sea in summer, where they are fairly common on
the islands and coast. They nest on the ground, under or beside stones
and in bunches of grass; it is made of roots and grasses, lined with moss
and animal fur. They lay from four to six white eggs, thickly covered
with spots of brown (.75 × .55).

                           PIPIT, OR TITLARK.
               697.     Anthus rubescens.     6½ inches.

Range.—It breeds on the high mountains of Colorado, California, Alaska,
north to the Arctic Zone. During migration they may be found over most of
the United States in quite large flocks. Their nests are placed on the
ground in tufts of grass, and are made of fine grass and moss, lined with
feathers and hair. Four to six eggs are grayish, heavily blotched with
brown (.75 × .55).

                             SPRAGUE PIPIT.
                700.     Anthus spraguei.     6½ inches.

Range.—Breeds from Manitoba to Montana and Dakota, and west to the
Rockies. Habits, nest and eggs are similar to preceding.

[Illustration: ]

                     Family MIMIDÆ.—SAGE THRASHER.
             702.     Oreoscoptes montanus.     8½ inches.

Range.—From Lower California and Mexico on the plains to Montana. This is
an abundant bird in the sage regions of the plains throughout its range,
and are frequently called the Mockingbird, on account of the varied song
which they give from the top of some sagebrush or cactus, in which they
nest. Four eggs, greenish, spotted with brown (.60 × .55).

                            Family CINCLIDÆ.

                        DIPPER, OR WATER OUZEL.
           701.     Cinclus mexicanus unicolor.     8 inches.

Range.—Mountains of western North America from Alaska to Mexico. Among
the rapid streams that are falling down the mountain side, these gray
birds are to be found. They are strange members of bird life; they do not
have webbed feet, and yet they swim on, or under the water, using their
wings as paddles. They have a thrush-like bill, the habit of teetering
similar to the sandpiper, and a song that is not to be forgotten if once
heard. They nest on the rocks of these rapid streams, making their nest
of moss, a bulky affair with an opening in the side, in which they
deposit their four or five eggs of pure white (1.00 × .70).

[Illustration: ]

                          WESTERN MOCKINGBIRD
        703a.     Mimus polyglottos leucopterus.     10 inches.

Range.—Texas to California and southward, breeding commonly from central
California southward. These birds not only have a song of their own which
puts them in the opera class, but, as their name implies, they can mimic
or mock nearly anything in the bird line for song or bird notes. They are
not satisfied with a few notes early in the morning and evening, but will
keep their song in full play all day, without hardly seeming to take time
to hunt up a few worms or insects, as if eating was not to be considered
when he could sing.

They nest usually low down in bushes and thickets, and construct a bulky
nest of sticks, roots and grass. Three to five eggs are of a greenish
color, spotted and blotched all over in many patterns with shades of
brown (.95 × .72).

             704.     Dumetella carolinensis.     9 inches.

Range.—Mostly eastern North America, but extends over the Rockies,
occasionally to the Pacific coast. It is a fine songster and almost as
much of a mimic as the Mockingbird. Breeding habits are much the same,
but eggs are bluish green (.95 × .70).

[Illustration: ]

                            PALMER THRASHER.
        707a.     Toxostoma curvirostre palmeri.     11 inches.

Range.—Arizona to Mexico, breeding abundantly in the desert regions of
Arizona, where the cactus is mostly to be found. They all seem to belong
to the happy family of songsters, and there is no lack of bird music in
localities where these birds are in any numbers. Their nests are usually
placed in cactus, or on the ground under them, and are made up of twigs,
dried grass and moss. Usually four eggs are laid, bluish green, spotted
with brown very finely all over (1.00 × .80).

                           BENDIRE THRASHER.
              708.     Toxostoma bendirei.     10 inches.

Range.—Arizona and Mexico to southern Colorado. It breeds in Arizona and
southern California. General habits are the same as above. While it may
not be as common as the above, it is possibly a better singer. Eggs are
the same, spots larger (1.00 × .72)

                          CALIFORNIA THRASHER.
              710.     Toxostoma redivivum.     12 inches.

Range.—California, from Shasta county to Lower California. The habits and
song, as are also the nest and eggs, much like the above (1.12 × .82).

[Illustration: ]

                           LECONTE THRASHER.
              711.     Toxostoma lecontei.     10½ inches.

Range.—Southern and Lower California to Mexico. This is the lightest in
color of any of the family, and has taken on the color of the sand of the
low hot deserts in which it lives. Where it is so hot and dry that even
the cactus and thornbush are stunted in their growth, where the ground is
covered with the small varieties of cacti, with spines like needles. In
such a place one cannot imagine that a bird would be as full of song as
in a shaded piece of woodland, yet this bird has the same qualifications,
and morning and night his voice may be heard, pouring out as rich a song
as his brother of the north. Their nest, composed of twigs, weeds and
lined with grass, is usually very bulky, and placed in low mesquite trees
or cactus. The eggs are lighter in color than above, and with fewer and
finer spots of brown (1.10 × .75).

                           CRISSAL THRASHER.
              712.     Toxostoma crissale.     11 inches.

Range.—From Utah and Nevada to southern and Lower California and Texas.
This species is somewhat darker, and more rufous on the under tail
coverts than the above.

[Illustration: ]

                              CACTUS WREN.
          713.     Heleodytes brunneicapillus.     8½ inches.

Range.—Southern part of California, to Texas, and north to Nevada and
Utah. They are the largest of the Wrens, and look the least like that
family of any of them. They are a common bird in the desert lands, where
the cactus abounds, but lacks the sweet song of some of the smaller
members of the family. Their nests are bulky, ball-shaped structures,
made up of sticks, moss, grass, and lined with feathers. There is an
opening on the side for an entrance, and it is usually placed in a thorn
bush or cactus. Their four to seven eggs are creamy white, dotted thickly
with chestnut (.95 × .65).

                               ROCK WREN.
              715.     Salpinctes obsoletus.     6 inches.

Range.—Western coasts from British America to Mexico. These bird are
equally at home on the mountain sides or in the deep canyons, building
their nests in the crevices of rocks or stumps, where they lay from five
to eight white eggs, with fine spots of brown about the larger end (.72 ×

[Illustration: ]

                              CAÑON WREN.
        717a.     Catherpes mexicanus conspersus.     5½ inches.

Range.—Rocky Mountain ranges, from Colorado to Mexico, breeding
throughout its range. As he is gathering his supply of food among the
huge boulders and in the large rocky canyons, where he makes his home,
you will, at short intervals, hear his loud joyous song, a song that puts
to shame that of his largest relative of the plains. They build their
nest of small sticks, leaves, grass and feathers, which is placed in the
crevice of some rock, either down near some swiftly running mountain
stream or high up in the cliffs above. Their three to five eggs are
white, with spots of brown and lilac well covering the under color (.72 ×

                              VIGOR WREN.
         719a.     Thryomanes     bewicki spilurus.   5 inches.

Range.—Coast regions of California. These are active and restless little
birds. Eating and singing, and singing and eating is all this life holds
for them. Nesting in bird boxes, holes in trees, in sheds, or almost any
locality in which to place their six eggs (.65 × .50).

[Illustration: ]

                          WESTERN HOUSE WREN.
          721a.     Troglodytes aedon parkmani.     5 inches.

Range.—Pacific coast, from British Columbia southward to Lower
California. These happy little songsters are to be met with more about
civilization, and seem to prefer the cultivated lands to the wild. They
build in bird houses or holes of trees, and no matter how large the
tenement may be they will keep busy until it is filled, leaving only
space enough for their nest. They lay from five to seven eggs of a
pinkish color, with a wreath of brown dots about the larger end (.65 ×

                          WESTERN WINTER WREN.
           722a.     Nannus hiemalis pacificus.     4 inches.

Range.—From Alaska to New Mexico, through North America. This is the
smallest of the family, and is also one of the most quiet in song. They
are active little fellows, just a bunch of feathers, with a short stub of
a tail up over their backs when observed, and getting about the brush
heaps and stone walls like little mice. They nest in walls or crevices of
rocks, and stumps, building of twigs, leaves, grass and feathers, in
which usually six or seven eggs, creamy white, finely specked with brown,
are laid (.60 × .48).

[Illustration: ]

                              ALASKA WREN.
               723.     Nannus alascensis.     4½ inches.

Range.—Aleutian Islands and Alaska. This is a somewhat larger variety of
the preceding, and is found only in the far north. Its breeding habits
are the same, as are also the eggs, which average a little larger (.65 ×

                             ALEUTIAN WREN.
               723.1.     Nannus meliger.     4½ inches.

Range.—Western Aleutian Islands to Alaska. Very similar to the above,
both in song and general habits. They nest in the crevices of rocks or
between boulders, making their nests of rootlets and grass, lining it
with hair and feathers. Usually six eggs are laid, white with a few
specks of brown (.58 × .46).

                               TULE WREN.
          725a.     Telmatodytes p. paludicola.     5½ inches.

Range.—Pacific coast, from British Columbia to southern California. This
is a western form of the Long-billed Marsh Wren, found more east of the
Rockies. They build a globular-shaped nest of grass and rushes, attached
to upright rushes just above the water. Five eggs are laid, of a pale
chestnut color, with darker markings (.64 × .45).

[Illustration: ]

                        ROCKY MOUNTAIN CREEPER.
          726b.     Certhia familiaris montana.     5½ inches.

Range.—From Alaska, in the Rocky Mountains, to southern California and
Mexico, breeding throughout its range. A quiet, small, brown colored bird
of the deep woods, where its lisping note may be heard, if the air is
very quiet, and one is looking for bird life. When found, it will
generally be climbing up the trunk of some tall tree, searching the
crevices of the bark for the small insect life on which it feeds; when
near the top, a downward flight to the base of another tree. Always
flying down, and climbing up. Their nest is placed in the loose bark, and
is made of fiber, moss and grass. They lay from four to seven white eggs,
spotted with chestnut (.58 × .48).

                        SLENDER-BILLED NUTHATCH.
          727a.     Sitta carolinensis aculeata.     6 inches.

Range.—Pacific coast region, from British Columbia to southern
California. These are similar to the White-breasted bird of the east.
Unlike the above, although these are tree climbers, they are as often
found coming down the tree as climbing up. They build in cavities of
various kinds of trees, laying five or six white eggs, quite heavily
marked with brown and lilac (.80 × .60).

[Illustration: ]

                         RED-BREASTED NUTHATCH.
               728.     Sitta canadensis.     4½ inches.

Range.—North America, breeding in the northern part of the United States
and northward. Like the former, these are great acrobats, looking into
every crevice of the bark in search of their supply of food, caring
little whether they are going up or down in their search. After the
breeding season these birds are often found in flocks about the
coniferous trees, and appear to be very sociable, keeping up a continuous
“yank, yank,” among themselves. They have no other song.

Their nest is usually placed in a cavity of some tree at quite an
elevation from the ground, being lined with strips of bark and feathers.
They lay from four to six white eggs, thickly spotted with shades of
brown (.60 × .50).

                            PYGMY NUTHATCH.
                  730.     Sitta pygmæa.     4 inches.

Range.—West of the Rockies, from British Columbia to southern California
and Mexico, breeding throughout its range. These are the smallest of the
family, and their habits and nest and eggs are the same as the preceding.
Their eggs being slightly smaller.

[Illustration: ]

                            PLAIN TITMOUSE.
              733.     Bæolophus inornatus.     5½ inches.

Range.—California and Oregon, west of the Sierra Nevadas. These are quite
common throughout their range; they are quite a little bird, with only a
few “quit, quit” like notes, and in color they are as quiet as in habits.
They build in cavities of trees or old stumps, their nest lined with
grasses, hair and feathers. Their five to eight eggs are white, rarely
with a few specks of brown (.70 × .50).

                        BLACK-CRESTED TITMOUSE.
           732.     Bæolophus astricristatus.     5½ inches.

Range.—Texas, south into Mexico. Similar to above, but darker and with
the crest black and forehead white. Nesting habits same as the above (not

                           BRIDLED TITMOUSE.
              734.     Bæolophus wollweberi.     5 inches.

Range.—Arizona and Texas into Mexico. This plain colored “tit,” with the
only markings about the head, black crest and breast, with white above
and below the eyes, is common in parts of Arizona, where it builds within
a few feet of the ground in cavities of trees. Nest and eggs the same as
the Plain Titmouse (.70 × .50).

[Illustration: ]

                           OREGON CHICKADEE.
     735b.     Penthestes atricapillus occidentalis.     5 inches.

Range.—Northwest coast, from British Columbia to Oregon. These lively
little birds are willing to make friends with almost anyone, and will get
so tame that they will take pieces of suet from the hand. Their well
known call of “dee, dee, dee” often repeated, is a cheerful sound, but
their other note of “phoe-be,” or, as it seems to me they say
“great-way,” is rather mournful and suggests that they are tired and have
a “great-way” yet to go. They build in old stumps, usually near the
ground, lining the cavity with grass, hair and plant down, in which they
deposit from five to eight white eggs, spotted with brown (.60 × .45).

                           MEXICAN CHICKADEE.
              737.     Penthestes sclateri.     5 inches.

Range.—Arizona into Mexico. Has more black on the throat. Habits and
their nest and eggs are much the same.

                          MOUNTAIN CHICKADEE.
              738.     Penthestes gambeli.     5½ inches.

Range.—Western North America, Rocky Mountains west. Habits same as the

[Illustration: ]

                           ALASKA CHICKADEE.
         739.     Penthestes cinctus alascensis.     5 inches.

Range.—Alaska and eastern Siberia. One would naturally think that these
little animated bunches of feathers would freeze in the far north where
they make their homes. But they are the same sprightly little
“chick-a-dee-dee-dee” that we have farther south, and do not seem to mind
the severe cold at all. In habits, nest and eggs, these birds are so near
alike that it is impossible to identify them.

                          HUDSONIAN CHICKADEE.
             740.     Penthestes hudsonicus.     5 inches.

Range.—Western half of British America. Habits the same as above.

                       CHESTNUT-BACKED CHICKADEE.
              741.     Penthestes rufescens.     5 inches.

Range.—Alaska to Oregon on the Pacific coast, and occasionally to central
California. Habits the same as preceding.

                         CALIFORNIA CHICKADEE.
            741a.     Penthestes r. neglectus.     5 inches.

Range.—Middle section of California, near the coast (not illustrated).

[Illustration: ]

             743.     Psaltriparus minimus.     4½ inches.

Range.—Pacific coast of California, Oregon and Washington. In habits all
of these birds are similar to the Chickadees. They are full of life, and
in searching for insects are as much at home when upside down on the
outer end of a bunch of pine needles as are the Chickadees. For nest
building they have no superiors, making long gourd-like structures of
fibers, moss, and grass, woven closely together, lined with feathers and
wool, suspended from twigs at a low elevation or woven into some thick
brush; they have a small opening near the top for the doorway. They lay
from four to nine pure white eggs (.54 × .40).

                         LEAD-COLORED BUSH-TIT.
             744.     Psaltriparus plumbeus.     4½ inches.

Range.—Oregon, Colorado, to southern California and Texas. The habits are
identical with above. Nests are made the same, and from eight to twelve
inches long.

                            LLOYD BUSH-TIT.
         745.     Psaltriparus melanotis lloydi.     4½ inches.

Range.—Arizona, Texas and New Mexico. Habits the same as above.

[Illustration: ]

              746.     Auriparus flaviceps.     4½ inches.

Range.—Colorado and southern California to Mexico. This bird is simply
nothing more than a Bush-tit with his Sunday clothes on, or not a full
suit, but a bright yellow head and neck dress. They are abundant and
active little fellows in the thick chaparral brush, where they build a
nest more bulky than the “tit” but not as artistic or compact. They are
placed in thorn or other bushes within a few feet of the ground, made of
twigs and weeds, and lined with fur and feathers. Their eggs, four to
six, are white. For amusement, they construct one or two additional
nests, in which they remain at night.

                742.     Chamæa fasciata.     5 inches.

Range.—From southern California north to Oregon along the coast. These
are much like the Chickadee in habits, only much more secluded,
frequenting the deep ravines along the mountain sides, where they build
their nests of twigs, fibers of vines, grasses and feathers, in bushes
near the ground. Four or five greenish blue, unmarked eggs are their
complement (.70 × .50).

[Illustration: ]

                           KENNICOTT WARBLER.
            747.     Acanthopneuste borealis.     5 inches.

Range.—In Alaska casually. Breeds in the extreme northern part of Asia.
Their nest and eggs have not been found on this continent as far as we
know at present. They build on the ground in a tussock of grass, laying
from three to five white eggs finely spotted with chestnut (.70 × .50).

          748a.     Regulus satrapa olivaceus.     4½ inches.

Range.—Alaska to southern California, on the Pacific coast. These little
birds are found commonly in company with small flocks of the Chickadee,
and like them may be seen hanging on the under side of the outer ends of
the coniferous trees in search of their insect food. They nest in the
northern part of their range, building large, comfortable-looking
structures of needles from the pines, strips of vines and grass, nicely
lined with feathers. Four to eight eggs, dull white, spotted with brown
and lilac (.55 × .42).

                         RUBY-CROWNED KINGLET.
               749.     Regulus calendula.     5 inches.

Range.—North America, breeding mostly north of the United States or in
the Rocky Mountain regions farther south.

[Illustration: ]

                          WESTERN GNATCATCHER.
          751a.     Polioptila cærulea obscura.     5 inches.

Range.—Western United States, breeding in northern Colorado and
California. These birds in their actions somewhat resemble the Redstart,
with their long tail, and quick flights into the air for insects and back
again to the same twig, possibly near where their nest is placed. They
build one of the prettiest of nests, very deep and cup-shaped, and on the
top of some moss-covered limb at twenty to forty feet from the ground.
Making the nest from plant down and moss, completely covered with
lichens, so that it resembles a large knot on the limb, much like the
nest of the Ruby-throated Hummingbird. Four or five dull white eggs,
spotted with brown (.58 × .45).

                         PLUMBEOUS GNATCATCHER.
              752.     Polioptila plumbea.     4½ inches.

Range.—Southern California, Texas into Mexico. Breeds like the above
quite commonly in southern Texas; eggs a little smaller.

                       BLACK-TAILED GNATCATCHER.
            753.     Polioptila californica.     4½ inches.

Range.—Southern and Lower California, on the Pacific coast.

[Illustration: ]

                          TOWNSEND SOLITAIRE.
              754.     Myadestes townsendi.     9 inches.

Range.—From British Columbia to southern California, through the western
United States. They nest at high altitudes among the mountain tops,
placing their nest upon the ground, among the rocks along the mountain
streams. They build a large, loosely constructed nest of roots and twigs,
lined with pine needles and moss, in which they lay their four or five
white eggs, spotted with shades of brown more about the larger end (.96 ×

                             WILLOW THRUSH.
       756a.     Hylocichla fuscescens salicicola.     7½ inches.

Range.—Western United States from British Columbia to southern
California. It breeds and is quite abundant in the foothills and canyons
of the mountain ranges. It is a western form of the common eastern
“Veery,” and its breeding habits are the same, nesting in an old stump on
or near the ground, making the nest of grasses and leaves, usually quite
bulky. They lay four unspotted bluish green eggs (.90 × .65). Their song
is peculiar and not as attractive as others of the Thrush family.

[Illustration: ]

                          GRAY-CHEEKED THRUSH.
               757.     Hylocichla alicæ.     7½ inches.

Range.—From British Columbia northward, and winters south to Mexico.
Their nests are placed on or near the ground in a stump or tussock,
usually in very moist places, and are composed largely of leaves and
mosses. Their three or four eggs are a bluish green, spotted and blotched
with reddish brown (.88 × .64).

                         RUSSET-BACKED THRUSH.
              758.     Hylocichla ustulata.     7½ inches.

Range.—From Alaska to Central America, breeding in the northern part, in
Oregon and Alaska. Their nests are made and placed usually the same as
the above, the eggs being of the same size, but of a lighter color. The
Thrushes feed on small insect life and many of the small fruits and

                         OLIVED-BACKED THRUSH.
           758a.     Hylocichla u. swainsoni.     7½ inches.

Range.—North America, breeding on the western coast in Alaska, Oregon,
California and Colorado. Their nesting habits, eggs and song are the same
as the Russet-backed (not illustrated).

[Illustration: ]

                         ALASKA HERMIT THRUSH.
              759.     Hylocichla guttata.     6½ inches.

Range.—Alaska to Mexico, breeding in its extreme northern range. These
birds are noted for their sweet and musical song, which may be heard from
the swamps and thickets in which they make their home. They nest either
on or near the ground, building it of shreds of vines, leaves and
grasses. Four bluish green eggs, unmarked, are usually laid (.85 × .65).

                         AUDUBON HERMIT THRUSH.
            759a.     Hylocichla g. auduboni.     7½ inches.

Range.—Rocky Mountain region, from British Columbia to Arizona. Tail is
much lighter than above, and bird larger. Their habits in home life are
the same, this bird having the stronger and sweeter voice of the two (not

                             WESTERN ROBIN.
     761a.     Planesticus migratorius propinquus.     10½ inches.

Range.—West of the Rockies, from British Columbia to Mexico. This is not
the familiar bird that is found in the east, but is very secluded, and
its song is seldom heard. Nest is made of leaves, grass and twigs,
plastered with mud. Four greenish blue eggs (1.15 × .80).

[Illustration: ]

                             VARIED THRUSH.
                763.     Ixoreus nævius.     9½ inches.

Range.—Pacific coast, from Alaska to Mexico, breeding in Oregon,
Washington and California. They breed quite abundantly in the northern
ranges in California and north to Alaska. Their nest is placed in small
trees and bushes, usually near the ground, and is made of twigs, weeds
and grass, lined with moss. Their eggs, usually four in number, are
greenish blue, sharply spotted with few spots of dark brown (1.12 × .80).
They have a pleasing song, which is rarely heard in their southern range.

                765.     Saxicola ænanthe.     6 inches.

Range.—Alaska and accidental in Colorado, breeding in Asia. They nest in
crevices of cliffs or in stone walls, building a rude nest of sticks and
weeds, lined with hair and feathers. Their four or five eggs are a pale
greenish blue (.90 × .60).

[Illustration: ]

                           WESTERN BLUEBIRD.
          767.     Sialia mexicana occidentalis.     7 inches.

Range.—British Columbia to Lower California, along the Pacific coast.
These familiar birds build in cavities in trees, or in bird houses, and
make themselves at home near dwellings, especially if in the vicinity of
orchards of any kind. The note of the western bird has the same familiar
warble as their eastern relative. They live on small insects and
caterpillars, and some of the small berries. Their four eggs are a pale
bluish white (.80 × .60).

                       CHESTNUT-BACKED BLUEBIRD.
            767a.     Sialia mexicana bairdi.     7 inches.

Range.—Rocky Mountains from Colorado to Texas (not illustrated).

                           MOUNTAIN BLUEBIRD.
              768.     Sialia currucoides.     7½ inches.

Range.—Rocky Mountain regions from Canada to Mexico. Their habits are
just the same, eggs averaging slightly larger.


  Albatross, Blackfoot, 31
  Albatross, Layson, 32
  Albatross, Short-tail, 31
  Albatross, Sooty, 32
  Albatross, Yellow-nose, 32
  Auklet, Cassin, 14
  Auklet, Crested, 15
  Auklet, Least, 16
  Auklet, Paroquet, 15
  Auklet, Rhinoceros, 14
  Auklet, Whiskered, 15
  Avocet, 75

  Bittern, 64
  Bittern,  Least, 64
  Blackbird, Bicolored, 162
  Blackbird, Brewer, 166
  Blackbird, Redwing, 162
  Blackbird, Rusty, 165
  Blackbird, Sonora, 162
  Blackbird, Thick-billed, 162
  Blackbird, Tricolored, 163
  Blackbird, Yellow-headed, 161
  Bluebird, Chestnut-backed, 239
  Bluebird, Mountain, 239
  Bluebird, Western, 239
  Bobolink, 160
  Bunting, Beautiful, 195
  Bunting, Indigo, 195
  Bunting, Lark, 196
  Bunting, Lazuli, 195
  Bunting, McKay, 175
  Bunting, Snow, 175
  Bush Tit, 231
  Bush Tit, Lead-colored, 231
  Bush Tit, Lloyd, 231

  Caracara, Audubon, 116
  Cardinal, Arizona, 193
  Catbird, 219
  Chat, Long-tailed, 215
  Chickadee, Alaska, 230
  Chickadee, California, 230
  Chickadee, Chestnut-backed, 230
  Chickadee, Hudsonian, 230
  Chickadee, Mexican, 229
  Chickadee, Mountain, 229
  Chickadee, Oregon, 229
  Coot, American, 72
  Cormorant, Baird, 40
  Cormorant, Brandt, 39
  Cormorant, Farallone, 39
  Cormorant, Red-faced, 40
  Cowbird, 160
  Cowbird, Bronzed, 161
  Cowbird, Dwarf, 161
  Crane, Little Brown, 68
  Crane, Whooping, 68
  Creeper, Rocky Mountain, 226
  Crossbill, 169
  Crossbill, Mexican, 169
  Crossbill, White-winged, 169
  Crow, Northwestern, 158
  Cuckoo, California, 126
  Curlew, Hudsonian, 86
  Curlew, Long-billed, 86

  Dickcissel, 196
  Dipper, 218
  Dove, Inca, 103
  Dove, Mexican Ground, 103
  Dove, Mourning, 102
  Dowitcher, 76
  Duck, American Golden-eye, 51
  Duck, American Widgeon, 45
  Duck, Baldpate, 45
  Duck, Barrow Golden-eye, 51
  Duck, Black-bellied Tree, 61
  Duck, Blue-bill, 49
  Duck, Buffle-head, 52
  Duck, Canvas-back, 49
  Duck, Fulvous Tree, 61
  Duck, Gadwall, 44
  Duck, Harlequin, 53
  Duck, King Eider, 55
  Duck, Lesser Scaup, 50
  Duck, Long-tailed, 52
  Duck, Mallard, 44
  Duck, Old Squaw, 52
  Duck, Pacific Eider, 53
  Duck, Pintail, 47
  Duck, Red-head, 48
  Duck, Ring-necked, 50
  Duck, Ruddy, 57
  Duck, Scaup, 49
  Duck, Scoter, 55
  Duck, Shoveller, 47
  Duck, Spectacled Eider, 54
  Duck, Stellar Eider, 54
  Duck, Surf Scoter, 56
  Duck, White-winged Scoter, 56
  Duck, Wood, 48

  Eagle, Bald, 112
  Eagle, Golden, 112
  Egret, 65
  Egret, Snowy, 65

  Falcon, Aplomado, 115
  Falcon, Prairie,  113
  Finch, Aleutian Rosy, 170
  Finch, Black Rosy, 171
  Finch, Brown-capped Rosy, 171
  Finch, California Purple, 167
  Finch, Cassin Purple, 168
  Finch, Gray-crowned Rosy, 170
  Finch, Hepburn Rosy, 170
  Finch, House, 168
  Flicker, Gilded, 138
  Flycatcher, Arizona Crested, 148
  Flycatcher, Ash-throated, 148
  Flycatcher, Beardless, 153
  Flycatcher, Buff-breasted, 153
  Flycatcher, Crested, 148
  Flycatcher, Derby, 147
  Flycatcher, Gray, 152
  Flycatcher, Hammond, 152
  Flycatcher, Olive-sided, 150
  Flycatcher, Sulphur-bellied, 147
  Flycatcher, Traill, 151
  Flycatcher, Vermilion, 153
  Flycatcher, Western, 151
  Flycatcher, Wright, 152
  Frigate Bird, 42
  Fulmar, Pacific, 33
  Fulmar, Slender-billed, 33

  Gallinule, Florida, 72
  Gnatcatcher, Black-tail, 234
  Gnatcatcher, Plumbeous, 234
  Gnatcatcher, Western, 234
  Godwit, Marbled, 82
  Godwit, Arkansas, 173
  Godwit, Green-backed, 173
  Godwit, Lawrence, 174
  Godwit, Pale, 173
  Godwit, Willow, 173
  Goose, Black Brant, 60
  Goose, Cackling, 59
  Goose, Canada, 59
  Goose, Emperor, 60
  Goose, Ross, 58
  Goose, Snow, 57
  Goose, White-fronted, 58
  Goshawk, Mexican, 110
  Goshawk, Western, 106
  Grackle, Bronze, 166
  Grebe, Eared, 10
  Grebe, Holboell, 9
  Grebe, Horned, 10
  Grebe, Pied-bill, 11
  Grebe, Western, 9
  Grosbeak, Black-headed, 194
  Grosbeak, California Pine, 167
  Grosbeak, Rocky Mountain Pine, 167
  Grosbeak, Western Blue, 194
  Grosbeak, Western Evening, 166
  Grouse, Canadian Ruffed, 97
  Grouse, Columbia Sharp-tail, 100
  Grouse, Dusky, 96
  Grouse, Franklin, 97
  Grouse, Sage, 101
  Guillemot, Pigeon, 17
  Gull, Bonaparte, 26
  Gull, California, 24
  Gull, Glaucous, 21
  Gull, Glaucous-winged, 22
  Gull, Heermann, 25
  Gull, Herring, 23
  Gull, Ivory, 20
  Gull, Pacific Kittiwake, 20
  Gull, Red-legged, 21
  Gull, Ring-billed, 24
  Gull, Sabine, 26
  Gull, Short-billed, 25
  Gull, Slaty-backed, 22
  Gull, Western, 23
  Gyrfalcon, Gray, 113

  Hawk, Cooper, 107
  Hawk, Desert Sparrow, 115
  Hawk, Duck, 114
  Hawk, Ferruginous Rough-legged, 111
  Hawk, Fish, 116
  Hawk, Harris, 108
  Hawk, Marsh, 106
  Hawk, Pigeon, 114
  Hawk, Red-bellied, 109
  Hawk, Rough-legged, 111
  Hawk, Sharp-shinned, 107
  Hawk, Swainson, 110
  Hawk, Western Red-tail, 108
  Heron, Black-crowned Night, 67
  Heron, Great Blue, 66
  Heron, Green, 66
  Heron, Yellow-crown Night, 67
  Hummingbird, Allen, 143
  Hummingbird, Anna, 142
  Hummingbird, Black-chinned, 141
  Hummingbird, Blue-throated, 141
  Hummingbird, Broad-billed, 145
  Hummingbird, Broad-tailed, 143
  Hummingbird, Buff-bellied, 145
  Hummingbird, Calliope, 144
  Hummingbird, Costa, 142
  Hummingbird, Lucifer, 144
  Hummingbird, Rieffer, 144
  Hummingbird, Rivoli, 140
  Hummingbird, Rufous, 143
  Hummingbird, White-eared, 145
  Hummingbird, Xantus, 145

  Ibis, Glossy, 63
  Ibis, Wood, 63

  Jaeger, Long-tailed, 19
  Jaeger, Parasitic, 19
  Jaeger, Pomerine, 18
  Jay, Arizona, 157
  Jay, California, 156
  Jay, Oregon, 157
  Jay, Pinon, 159
  Jay, Rocky Mountain, 157
  Jay, Stellar, 155
  Jay, Woodhouse, 156
  Junco, 185
  Junco, Baird, 185
  Junco, Gray-headed, 185
  Junco, Guadalupe, 185
  Junco, Oregon, 184
  Junco, Pink-sided, 184
  Junco, Slate-colored, 183
  Junco, Thurber, 184
  Junco, White-winged, 183

  Kingbird, 146
  Kingbird, Arkansas, 146
  Kingbird, Cassin, 147
  Kingfisher, Belted, 127
  Kingfisher, Ringed, 127
  Kinglet, Ruby-crowned, 233
  Kinglet, Western Golden-crowned, 233
  Kite, Swallow-tailed, 105
  Kite, White-tailed, 105

  Lark, California Horned, 154
  Lark, Desert Horned, 154
  Lark, Pallid Horned, 154
  Lark, Ruddy Horned, 154
  Longspur, Alaskan, 176
  Loon, 11
  Loon, Great Northern Diver, 11
  Loon, Pacific, 12
  Loon, Red-throated, 12

  Magpie, American, 155
  Magpie, Yellow-billed, 155
  Man-o’-War Bird, 42
  Martin, Western, 198
  Meadowlark, Rio Grande, 163
  Meadowlark, Western, 163
  Merganser, American, 42
  Merganser, Hooded, 43
  Merganser, Red-breasted, 43
  Mockingbird, Western, 219
  Murre, California, 18
  Murrelet, Ancient, 16
  Murrelet, Marbled, 16
  Murrelet, Xantus, 17

  Nighthawk, Western, 138
  Nighthawk, Sennett, 138
  Nighthawk, Texas, 138
  Nutcracker, Clarke, 159
  Nuthatch, Pygmy, 227
  Nuthatch, Red-breasted, 227
  Nuthatch, Slender-billed, 226

  Oriole, Arizona Hooded, 164
  Oriole, Bullock, 165
  Oriole, Scott, 164
  Oriole, Sennett, 164
  Osprey, American, 116
  Ouzel, Water, 218
  Owl, Barn, 117
  Owl, Burrowing, 123
  Owl, Elf, 124
  Owl, Ferruginous Pygmy, 124
  Owl, Flammulated Screech, 121
  Owl, Great Gray, 119
  Owl, Hawk, 122
  Owl, Long-eared, 117
  Owl, Pygmy, 123
  Owl, Richardson, 119
  Owl, Saw-whet, 120
  Owl, Screech, 120
  Owl, Short-eared, 118
  Owl, Snowy, 122
  Owl, Spotted, 118
  Owl, Western Horned, 121
  Oyster-catcher, Black, 92
  Oyster-catcher, Frazar, 92

  Parrot, Thick-billed, 125
  Pelican, California Brown, 41
  Pelican, White, 41
  Petrel, Ashy, 38
  Petrel, Black, 38
  Petrel, Fisher, 36
  Petrel, Fork-tailed, 36
  Petrel, Guadalupe, 37
  Petrel, Kaeding, 37
  Petrel, Leach, 37
  Petrel, Least, 36
  Pewee, Western Wood, 150
  Phainopepla, 202
  Phalarope, Northern, 73
  Phalarope, Red, 73
  Phalarope, Wilson, 74
  Pheasant, Ring-necked, 100
  Phoebe, Black, 149
  Phoebe, Say, 149
  Pigeon, Band-tailed, 102
  Pipit, 217
  Pipit, Sprague, 217
  Plover, Black-bellied, 87
  Plover, Golden, 87
  Plover, Killdeer, 88
  Plover, Mountain, 89
  Plover, Snowy, 90
  Plover, Surf Bird, 90
  Plover, Semipalmated, 88
  Plover, Upland, 84
  Plover, Wilson, 89
  Poor-will, 137
  Poor-will, Dusky, 137
  Prairie Hen, 99
  Ptarmigan, Rock, 98
  Ptarmigan, White-tailed, 99
  Ptarmigan, Willow, 98
  Puffin, Horned, 13
  Puffin, Tufted, 13
  Pyrrhuloxia, Arizona, 193

  Quail, Bob-white, 93
  Quail, California, 95
  Quail, Gambel, 95
  Quail, Masked Bob-white, 93
  Quail, Massena, 96
  Quail, Mearns, 96
  Quail, Mountain, 94
  Quail, Scaled, 94

  Rail, Black, 71
  Rail, California Clapper, 69
  Rail, Light-footed, 69
  Rail, Sora, 70
  Rail, Virginia, 70
  Rail, Yellow, 71
  Raven, American, 158
  Raven, White-necked, 158
  Red-poll, 172
  Red-poll, Hoary, 172
  Redstart, 216
  Redstart, Painted, 216
  Roadrunner, 125
  Robin, Western, 237

  Sandpiper, Baird, 79
  Sandpiper, Bartramian, 84
  Sandpiper, Buff-breasted, 85
  Sandpiper, Knot, 77
  Sandpiper, Least, 79
  Sandpiper, Pectoral, 78
  Sandpiper, Probilof, 77
  Sandpiper, Redbacked, 80
  Sandpiper, Sanderling, 81
  Sandpiper, Sharp-tailed, 78
  Sandpiper, Spoonbill, 80
  Sandpiper, Spotted, 85
  Sandpiper, Stilt, 76
  Sandpiper, Western, 81
  Sandpiper, Western Solitary, 83
  Sandpiper, White-rumped, 79
  Sapsucker, Red-breasted, 132
  Sapsucker, Williamson, 133
  Sapsucker, Yellow-bellied, 132
  Sea Parrot, 13
  Shearwater, Black-vented, 34
  Shearwater, Dark-bodied, 35
  Shearwater, Pink-footed, 34
  Shearwater, Slender-billed, 35
  Shearwater, Townsend, 34
  Shrike, California, 203
  Shrike, Northern, 203
  Siskin, Pine, 174
  Snipe, Wilson, 74
  Snowflake, 175
  Solitaire, Townsend, 235
  Sparrow, Aleutian Savannah, 177
  Sparrow, Baird, 178
  Sparrow, Belding, 177
  Sparrow, Bell, 186
  Sparrow, Black-chinned, 183
  Sparrow, Botteri, 187
  Sparrow, Brewer, 182
  Sparrow, Bryant, 177
  Sparrow, California Sage, 187
  Sparrow, Cassin, 187
  Sparrow, Clay-colored, 182
  Sparrow, Desert, 186
  Sparrow, Gambel, 180
  Sparrow, Golden-crowned, 180
  Sparrow, Heermann Song, 189
  Sparrow, Large-billed, 178
  Sparrow, Leconte, 179
  Sparrow, Lincoln, 190
  Sparrow, Oregon Vesper, 177
  Sparrow, Rufous-crowned, 188
  Sparrow, Rufous-winged, 188
  Sparrow, Rusty Song, 189
  Sparrow, Sage, 187
  Sparrow, San Benito, 178
  Sparrow, Shumagin Fox, 190
  Sparrow, Song, 189
  Sparrow, Thick-billed Fox, 190
  Sparrow, Western Chippy, 181
  Sparrow, Western Grasshopper, 179
  Sparrow, Western Lark, 179
  Sparrow, Western Savannah, 177
  Sparrow, Western Tree, 181
  Sparrow, Western Vesper, 176
  Sparrow, White-crowned, 180
  Sparrow, Worthen, 182
  Stilt, Black-necked, 75
  Swallow, Bank, 200
  Swallow, Barn, 199
  Swallow, Cliff, 198
  Swallow, Northern Violet Green, 200
  Swallow, Rough-winged, 201
  Swallow, Tree, 199
  Swan, Trumpeter, 62
  Swan, Whistling, 62
  Swift, Black, 139
  Swift, White-throated, 139
  Swift, Vaux, 140

  Tanager, Cooper, 197
  Tanager, Hepatic, 197
  Tanager, Western, 196
  Tattler, Wandering, 84
  Teal, Blue-wing, 46
  Teal, Cinnamon, 46
  Teal, Green-winged, 45
  Tern, Aleutian, 29
  Tern, Arctic, 29
  Tern, Black, 30
  Tern, Caspian, 27
  Tern, Common, 28
  Tern, Elegant, 27
  Tern, Forster, 28
  Tern, Least, 30
  Thrasher, Bendire, 220
  Thrasher, California, 220
  Thrasher, Crissal, 221
  Thrasher, Leconte, 221
  Thrasher, Palmer, 220
  Thrasher, Sage, 218
  Thrush, Alaska Hermit, 237
  Thrush, Audubon Hermit, 237
  Thrush, Gray-cheeked, 236
  Thrush, Olive-backed, 236
  Thrush, Russet-backed, 236
  Thrush, Varied, 238
  Thrush, Willow, 235
  Titlark, 217
  Titmouse, Black-crested, 228
  Titmouse, Bridled, 228
  Titmouse, Plain, 228
  Towhee, Abert, 192
  Towhee, California, 192
  Towhee, Canon, 191
  Towhee, Green-tailed, 192
  Towhee, Oregon, 191
  Towhee, San Diego, 191
  Trogan, Coppery-tailed, 126
  Turkey, Merriam, 101
  Turnstone, Black, 91
  Turnstone, Ruddy, 91

  Verdin, 232
  Vireo, Anthony, 206
  Vireo, Black-capped, 205
  Vireo, Cassin, 205
  Vireo, Gray, 206
  Vireo, Hutton, 205
  Vireo, Least, 206
  Vireo, Red-eyed, 204
  Vireo, Warbling, 204
  Vulture, California, 104
  Vulture, Turkey, 104

  Wagtail, Alaska Yellow, 217
  Warbler, Audubon, 210
  Warbler, Black and White, 207
  Warbler, Black-poll, 211
  Warbler, Black-throated, Gray, 212
  Warbler, Black-throated, Green, 212
  Warbler, Calaveras, 208
  Warbler, Grace, 211
  Warbler, Hermit, 213
  Warbler, Kennicott, 233
  Warbler, Lucy, 207
  Warbler, Lutescent, 208
  Warbler, Macgillivray, 214
  Warbler, Magnolia, 211
  Warbler, Myrtle, 210
  Warbler, Olive, 209
  Warbler, Orange-crowned, 208
  Warbler, Pacific Yellow, 214
  Warbler, Pileolated, 215
  Warbler, Red-faced, 216
  Warbler, Townsend, 212
  Warbler, Virginia, 207
  Warbler, Western Yellow-throat, 214
  Warbler, Yellow, 209
  Water Thrush, Grinnell, 213
  Waxwing, Bohemian, 201
  Waxwing, Cedar, 202
  Wheatear, 238
  Whip-poor-will, Stevens, 137
  Willet, Western, 83
  Woodpecker, Alaska Three-toed, 131
  Woodpecker, Alpine Three-toed, 131
  Woodpecker, American Three-toed, 131
  Woodpecker, Arctic Three-toed, 131
  Woodpecker, Arizona, 130
  Woodpecker, Cabanis, 128
  Woodpecker, California, 134
  Woodpecker, Gairdner, 128
  Woodpecker, Gila, 135
  Woodpecker, Gilded, 136
  Woodpecker, Harris, 128
  Woodpecker, Lewis, 135
  Woodpecker, Northern Pileated, 133
  Woodpecker, Nuttall, 129
  Woodpecker, Red-bellied, 135
  Woodpecker, Red-headed, 134
  Woodpecker, Red-shafted, 136
  Woodpecker, Rocky Mountain Hairy, 128
  Woodpecker, Texas, 129
  Woodpecker, White-headed, 130
  Wren, Alaskan, 225
  Wren, Aleutian, 225
  Wren, Cactus, 222
  Wren, Cañon, 223
  Wren, Rock, 222
  Wren, Tule, 225
  Wren, Vigor, 223
  Wren, Western House, 224
  Wren, Western Winter, 224
  Wren-Tit, 232

  Yellow-legs, Greater, 82

  [Illustration: ]


      *      *      *      *      *      *

Transcriber's note:

Obvious typographical errors were corrected without note.

Spelling of some bird names was made consistent; e.g., “Redwing
Blackbird” vs. “Red-winged Black-bird”.

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