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Title: Origin Myths among the Mountain Peoples of the Philippines
Author: Beyer, H. Otley
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Origin Myths among the Mountain Peoples of the Philippines" ***

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                           By H. Otley Beyer

   (From the Division of Ethnology, Bureau of Science, Manila, P. I.)

                              Four plates

Beliefs as to the origin of the earth, and of the men, animals,
plants, and various topographical features found in it, seem to
survive with greater persistence than any other trait of primitive
culture. These beliefs lie at the base of nearly all religions, and
the myths in which the beliefs are preserved are the foundation of
literature. The preservation and study of origin myths is, therefore,
of much importance in the reconstruction of the history of mankind
which is the chief aim of anthropology.

The peoples of the Philippines have a rich and varied mythology
as yet but little explored, but which will one day command much
attention. Among the Christianized peoples of the plains the myths
are preserved chiefly as folk tales, but in the mountains their
recitation and preservation is a real and living part of the daily
religious life of the people. Very few of these myths are written;
the great majority of them are preserved by oral tradition only.

Until recent years, it has been believed that all ancient records
written in the syllabic alphabets which the Filipinos possessed at
the time of the Spanish conquest had been lost. It is now known,
however, that two of these alphabets are still in use, to a limited
extent, by the wild peoples of Palawan and Mindoro; and ancient
manuscripts written in the old Bisaya alphabet have been lately
discovered in a cave in the Island of Negros. Many of these Negros
manuscripts are written myths, and translations of them are shortly
to be published. The Bisaya peoples, in general, have preserved
their old pagan beliefs to a greater extent than have the other
Christian Filipinos, and it is to be hoped that the discovery of
these manuscripts will stimulate further investigations.

Among the pagan mountain peoples, with which this paper will chiefly
deal, there are no written myths except those which have been recorded
by Europeans in modern times. Some of the myths are sung or chanted
only, while others are repeated in the form of stories. In nearly
every case, the repeating of the myths forms an important part of
the religious ceremonies of the people. Many different grades of
culture are represented among these mountain peoples, and we find a
correspondingly unequal development of their mythologies. All classes
are represented: primitive, such as the beliefs of the Mangyans of
Mindoro, the Tagbanwas of Palawan, and the Ilongots of northern Luzon;
mediocre, as the beliefs of the pagan tribes of Mindanao; and highly
developed, such as the elaborate polytheisms of the Ifugaos, Igorots,
Kalingas, and the other peoples of the Mountain Province in Luzon.

Most of the myths and legends recorded here were collected by men
well acquainted with the dialect of the people from whom the myth or
legend was obtained; they are, therefore, of much greater value than
if they had been secured through interpreters.

I shall next discuss a few myths from each of the classes just


Our knowledge of the more primitive tribes of the Philippines is very
limited and is chiefly confined to the material culture, together
with a few of the more obvious social traits. Nothing like a complete
study of any one of these tribes has ever been made. Of the Ilongots,
most of our knowledge [2] is contained in the records of the early
Spanish missionaries of the first part of the 18th century, at which
time an extensive exploration of the Ilongot country was made. [3]
There are two modern sources of information: a paper by Worcester,
[4] which deals chiefly with the material culture, and the notes of
Dr. William Jones, who was killed while studying the ethnology of
this people. Dr. Jones' notes are now in the possession of the Field
Museum, Chicago, and have not yet been published. Relating to the
Mangyans, there are three important papers by Worcester, [5] Gardner,
[6] and Miller, [7] but these likewise deal chiefly with the material
and general social culture, and give only fragmentary notes regarding
the religious beliefs. Two papers, one by Worcester [8] and one by
Venturello, [9] relate to the Tagbanwas. The religion of these people
is interesting, although primitive. The general character of their
beliefs may be seen by the following quotation from Worcester: [10]

    I was especially interested in their views as to a future
    life. They scouted the idea of a home in the skies, urging that
    it would be inaccessible. Their notion was that when a Tagbanua
    died he entered a cave, from which a road led down into the
    bowels of the earth. After passing along this road for some time,
    he came suddenly into the presence of one Taliákood, a man of
    gigantic stature, who tended a fire which burned forever between
    two tree-trunks without consuming them. Taliákood inquired of
    the new arrival whether he had led a good or a bad life in the
    world above. The answer came, not from the individual himself,
    but from a louse on his body.

    I asked what would happen should the man not chance to possess
    any of these interesting arthropoda, and was informed that such
    an occurrence was unprecedented! The louse was the witness,
    and would always be found, even on the body of a little dead child.

    According to the answer of this singular arbiter, the fate of the
    deceased person was decided. If he was adjudged to have been a bad
    man, Taliákood pitched him into the fire, where he was promptly
    and completely burned up. If the verdict was in his favour, he
    was allowed to pass on, and soon found himself in a happy place,
    where the crops were always abundant and the hunting was good. A
    house awaited him. If he had died before his wife, he married
    again, selecting a partner from among the wives who had preceded
    their husbands; but if husband and wife chanced to die at the same
    time, they remarried in the world below. Every one was well off
    in this happy underground abode, but those who had been wealthy
    on earth were less comfortable than those who had been poor. In
    the course of time sickness and death again overtook one. In fact,
    one died seven times in all, going ever deeper into the earth and
    improving his surroundings with each successive inward migration,
    without running a second risk of getting into Taliákood's fire.

    I could not persuade the Tagbanuas to advance any theories as
    to the nature or origin of the sun, moon, and stars. Clouds they
    called "the breath of the wind."

    They accounted for the tide by saying that in a far-distant sea
    there lived a gigantic crab: when he went into his hole the water
    was forced out, and the tide rose; when he came out the water
    rushed in, and the tide fell. The thing was simplicity itself.

    I asked them why the monkey looked so much like a man. They said
    because he was once a man, who was very lazy when he should have
    been planting rice. Vexed at his indolence, a companion threw
    a stick at him which stuck into him; whereupon he assumed his
    present form, the stick forming his tail.

From the foregoing, it is evident that the Tagbanwa beliefs are
not highly developed. However, several items are of interest for
comparison with the beliefs of the more cultured tribes to be later
described. Of these items, those most to be kept in mind are the
idea of a seven-storied underworld, and the name of the chief deity
of that underworld, Taliákud. This name comes from the stem tákud,
túkud, or tókod, which is common to many Philippine dialects and
means "post" or "support." It is generally applied to the four legs
or posts of the common Philippine house. Now, the belief in an Atlas,
or god who supports the earth world, is widespread in the Philippines,
and the name applied to this god is nearly always derived from this
same stem túkud. The Ifugao Atlas is Tinúkud of the underworld, and
I suspect that the Tagbanwa Taliákud of the underworld is a deity of
the same character.


The interior of Mindanao is occupied by some ten pagan tribes, the
most important being the Manóbos, Mandayas, Atás, Bagóbos, Biláns,
Tirurais, and Subánuns. These tribes are all remarkably alike in
culture; much more so, in fact, than any other similar group of peoples
in the Philippines; and this culture shows a close resemblance to
that of the tribes in the interior of Borneo. In the development of
their myths and of their religious beliefs, these peoples occupy a
middle position between the more primitive and the highest developed
types of the Philippines. John M. Garvan has recently completed a
very extensive study of the Manóbo peoples of the Agusan Valley,
in eastern Mindanao, and the following beliefs and myths are quoted
from his unpublished notes.


    The story of the creation of the world is variable throughout the
    whole Agúsan Valley. In the district surrounding Talakógon, the
    creation is attributed to Makalídung, the first great Manóbo. The
    details of his great work are very meager. He set it up on posts
    (some say iron posts) with one in the center. At the central
    post he has his abode, in company with a python, according to
    the version of some, and whenever he feels displeasure toward
    men, he shakes the post, thereby producing an earthquake, and at
    the same time intimating to man his anger. It is believed that,
    should the trembling continue, the world would be destroyed.

    In the same district it is believed that the sky is round and that
    its extremities are at the limits of the sea. Somewhat near these
    limits is an enormous hole called the navel of the sea through
    which the waters descend.

    It is said that in the early days of creation the sky was low,
    but that one day a woman, while pounding rice, hit it with her
    pestle and it ascended to its present position.

    Another version of the creation, prevalent among the Manóbos of
    the Argauan and Híbung Rivers, gives the control of the world to
    Dágau, who lives at the four fundamental pillars in the company of
    a python. Being a woman, Dágau dislikes the sight of human blood,
    and when it is spilled upon the face of the earth she incites the
    huge serpent to wreathe itself around the pillars and shake the
    world to its foundations. Should she become exceedingly angry,
    she diminishes the supply of rice either by removing it from the
    granary or by making the soil unproductive.

    Another variation of the story to be heard on the Upper Agúsan,
    Simulau, and Umayan Rivers, has it that the world is like a
    huge mushroom and that it is supported upon an iron pillar in
    the center. This pillar is controlled by the higher and more
    powerful order of diuwáta, who on becoming angered at the actions
    of men manifest their feelings by shaking the pillar and thereby
    reminding men of their duties.

Three points in the beliefs just mentioned should be kept in
mind. First, the recurrence of the idea that the earth world is
supported by a post created by the chief deity and near which he
dwells. Second, the belief in the púsod nang dágat, or "navel of the
sea," which is common to all of the pagan tribes of Mindanao and was
also known by the ancient Bisáyas, Tagálogs, and other peoples now
Christianized. It is extremely probable that this belief originated
from some great whirlpool, known to the ancestors of the Philippine
peoples or passed by them on their voyages. [11] Third, the belief that
the sky was once very near the earth, and was raised to its present
position by some deity. This belief is also common in northern Luzon.

The idea of the origin of curious-shaped rocks, hills, or mountains
by petrifaction of some living animal or plant is common in the
Philippines. Garvan gives the two following Manóbo legends of this


    In the old, old days a boat was passing the rocky promontory
    of Kágbubátang. [12] The occupants espied a monkey and a cat
    fighting upon the summit of the cliff. The incongruity of the
    thing suggested itself to them, and they began to give vent to
    derisive remarks, addressing themselves to the brute combatants,
    when, lo and behold! they and their craft were turned into rock. To
    this day the petrified craft and crew may be seen placed upon the
    promontory, and all who pass must make an offering, [13] howsoever
    small it be, to their vexed souls. To pass the point without making
    an offering might arouse the anger of its petrified inhabitants,
    and render the traveler liable to bad weather and rough seas. [14]

    The imitation of frogs is especially forbidden, for it might be
    followed not merely by thunderbolts but also by petrifaction of
    the offender, and in proof of this is adduced the legend of Angó
    of Bináoi. [15]


    Angó lived many years ago on a lofty peak with his wife and
    family. One day he hied him to the forest with his dogs in quest
    of game. Fortune granted him a fine big boar, but he broke his
    spear in dealing the mortal blow. Upon arriving at a stream, he
    sat down upon a stone and set himself to straightening out his
    spear. The croaking of the nearby frogs attracted his attention,
    and, imitating their shrill gamut, he boldly told them that
    it would be better to cease their cries and help him mend his
    spear. He continued his course up the rocky torrent, but noticed
    that a multitude of little stones began to follow behind in his
    path. Surprised at such a happening, he hastened his steps. Looking
    back he saw bigger stones join in the pursuit. He then seized his
    dog, and in fear began to run, but the stones kept in hot pursuit,
    bigger and bigger ones joining the party. Upon arriving at his
    sweet-potato patch, he was exhausted and had to slacken his pace,
    whereupon the stones overtook him and one became attached to his
    finger. He could not go on. He called upon his wife. She with
    the young ones sought the magic lime [16] and set it around
    her husband, but all to no avail for his feet began to turn
    to stone. His wife and children, too, fell under the wrath of
    Anítan. The following morning they were stone up to the knees,
    and during the following three days the petrifying continued
    from the knees to the hips, then to the breast, and then to the
    head. Thus it is that to this day there may be seen on Bináoi
    peak the petrified forms of Angó and his family. [17]

The sun, moon, and stars are great deities, or the dwelling place
of such deities, in nearly all Philippine religions. The following
Manóbo myth is interesting because of its resemblance to others from
northern Luzon.


    It is said that in the olden time the Sun and the Moon were
    married. They led a peaceful, harmonious life. Two children
    were the issue of their wedlock. One day the Moon had to attend
    to one of the household duties that fall to the lot of a woman,
    some say to get water, others say to get the daily supply of food
    from the fields. Before departing, she crooned the children to
    sleep and told her husband to watch them but not to approach lest
    by the heat that radiated from his body he might harm them. She
    then started upon her errand. The Sun, who never before had been
    allowed to touch his bairns, arose and approached their sleeping
    place. He gazed upon them fondly, and, bending down, kissed them,
    but the intense heat that issued from his countenance melted them
    like wax. Upon perceiving this he wept and quietly betook himself
    to the adjoining forest in great fear of his wife.

    The Moon returned duly, and after depositing her burden in the
    house turned to where the children slept but found only their
    dried, inanimate forms. She broke out into a loud wail, and in
    the wildness of her grief called upon her husband. But he gave no
    answer. Finally softened by the loud long plaints, he returned
    to his house. At the sight of him the wild cries of grief and
    of despair and of rebuke redoubled themselves until finally the
    husband, unable to soothe the wife, became angry and called her
    his chattel. At first she feared his anger and quieted her sobs,
    but, finally breaking out into one long wail, she seized the
    burnt forms of her babes, and in the depth of her anguish and
    her rage threw them to the ground in different directions. Then
    the husband became angry again, and, seizing some taro leaves
    that his wife had brought from the fields, cast them in her face
    and went his way. Upon his return he could not find his wife,
    and so it is to this day that the Sun follows the Moon in an
    eternal cycle of night and day. And so it is, too, that stars
    stand scattered in the sable firmament, for they, too, accompany
    her in her hasty flight. Ever and anon a shooting star breaks
    across her path, but that is only a messenger from her husband
    to call her back. She, however, heeds it not, but speeds on her
    way in never-ending flight with the marks of the taro leaves [18]
    still upon her face and her starry train accompanying her to the
    dawn and on to the sunset in one eternal flight.

On myths such as these the religions of the pagan tribes of Mindanao
are built up. These religions are by no means primitive, but are
accompanied by sacrifices, sometimes human, and the ceremonies are
performed by a well-developed priest class. [19]

Let us now turn to the highest type of Philippine beliefs:


I shall mention chiefly the Igorot, Bontok, and Ifugao peoples, as
these three, in addition to holding the highest order of beliefs,
are the best developed in general material and social culture of
any of the Philippine mountain tribes. The Tinggián, Kalinga, and
other tribes in that region also have religions of high type, but
our information concerning them is more limited. [20]

The literature relating to the Igorot-Bontok-Ifugao group is very
considerable in extent, and I shall refer only to a few of the more
important papers dealing particularly with religion and mythology.

Before taking up the mythology proper, we should have some idea of
the religion as a whole. These peoples believe that the regions of
the sky world, earth world, and underworld are peopled by an almost
incalculable number of deities of varying character and powers. Some of
these deities are the great beings who inspire the phenomena of nature,
while others are guardian spirits, messenger spirits, or mischievous
tricksters. The great nature deities are mostly of malevolent
character, and are much feared. Ancestral souls and the souls of sacred
animals are looked upon as mediators between gods and men. Pigs and
chickens are sacrificed to the deities, and other articles of food
and drink are provided for them. Many elaborate religious feasts
and ceremonies are held at which priests officiate. The priests
form a well-defined class, and in some districts there are also
priestesses. A religious ceremony is required for every important
act of life, and the priests and priestesses are usually busy people.

It would seem that a religion of this same general type was also
common among the lowland peoples of the Philippines before they were
Christianized by the Spaniards. Pigafetta, the first European to write
of the Philippines, describes a ceremony, which he saw performed in
Cebu in the year 1520, as follows: [21]

    In order that your most illustrious Lordship may know the
    ceremonies that those people use in consecrating the swine, they
    first sound those large gongs. Then three large dishes are brought
    in; two with roses and with cakes of rice and millet, baked and
    wrapped in leaves, and roast fish; the other with cloth of Cambaia
    and two standards made of palm-tree cloth. One bit of cloth of
    Cambaia is spread on the ground. Then two very old women come,
    each of whom has a bamboo trumpet in her hand. When they have
    stepped upon the cloth they make obeisance to the sun. Then they
    wrap the cloths about themselves. One of them puts a kerchief with
    two horns on her forehead, and takes another kerchief in her hands,
    and dancing and blowing upon her trumpet, she thereby calls out to
    the sun. The other takes one of the standards and dances and blows
    on her trumpet. They dance and call out thus for a little space,
    saying many things between themselves to the sun. She with the
    kerchief takes the other standard, and lets the kerchief drop,
    and both blowing on their trumpets for a long time, dance about
    the bound hog. She with the horns always speaks covertly to the
    sun, and the other answers her. A cup of wine is presented to
    her of the horns, and she dancing and repeating certain words,
    while the other answers her, and making pretense four or five
    times of drinking the wine, sprinkles it upon the heart of the
    hog. Then she immediately begins to dance again. A lance is given
    to the same woman. She shaking it and repeating certain words,
    while both of them continue to dance, and making motions four or
    five times of thrusting the lance through the heart of the hog,
    with a sudden and quick stroke, thrusts it through from one side
    to the other. The wound is quickly stopped with grass. The one
    who has killed the hog, taking in her mouth a lighted torch,
    which has been lighted throughout that ceremony, extinguishes
    it. The other one dipping the end of her trumpet in the blood
    of the hog, goes around marking with blood with her finger
    first the foreheads of their husbands, and then the others;
    but they never came to us. Then they divest themselves and go
    to eat the contents of those dishes, and they invite only women
    (to eat with them). The hair is removed from the hog by means of
    fire. Thus no one but old women consecrate the flesh of the hog,
    and they do not eat it unless it is killed in this way.

This ceremony, almost the same as described by Pigafetta, is in use
among the Ifugaos to-day, although it is performed by men instead of
by women and differs in a few minor details.

I shall next discuss the religion and mythology of the Igorots,
Bontoks, and Ifugaos, treated separately and in more detail.


These people occupy the subprovinces of Benguet, Lepanto, and Amburayan
in the Mountain Province. The region of their purest culture is in
northern Benguet and eastern Lepanto. Of the religion of this region,
we have considerable information from the writings of Fr. Angel Perez,
an Augustinian missionary; Sr. Sinforoso Bondad of Cervantes, Lepanto;
and a number of personal observations made by myself.

The sun gods, and the deities of the sky world in general, occupy the
most important place in the Igorot religion. Place-spirits and animal
deities are likewise highly developed. At a place called Kágubátan,
[22] at the foot of the sacred mountain Múgao in eastern Lepanto,
is a small lake full of sacred eels which the people guard with great
care. They believe that if these eels were killed the springs would all
dry up and they would have no water for their terraced rice fields. The
eels are fed every day with rice and sweet potatoes by the children
of the village, who, as they approach the lakelet, sing a peculiarly
sweet and mournful song, upon hearing which the eels all rise to the
surface of the water and approach the shore to receive their food.

The Igorots have both priests and priestesses, and they perform
many public and private ceremonies, both for the benefit of the
great deities and for the countless minor spirits which inhabit the
sacred mountains, cliffs, groves, trees, and bushes that are scattered
throughout the Igorot country. Sacrifices of pigs or chickens are made
at every ceremony. The ceremonies of the common people are more or
less of a private nature, but those of the aristocracy and of wealthy
men are nearly always public and general. The greatest ceremonies are
those connected with war and marriage and the great public festival
which proves a man's right to the title of nobility.

The Igorots have a high code of morals which is closely associated
with their religious belief. They also have a scientific calendar
and a considerable knowledge of astronomy which has effected many
modifications in their religion. Their mythology is extensive, and
they have a rich unwritten literature of epic poems, hero-stories,
and historical legends. Most of the myths are too long to be given
here, but for purposes of comparison I give the following short one
which was collected by the Dominican, Fr. Mariano Rodriguez:

    It has been mentioned above that among their tales and stories
    they preserve a tradition relating to their origin and beginning,
    after a great and dreadful flood which, a very long time ago, as
    their old people relate, covered the earth. All the inhabitants
    except a brother and sister were drowned. The brother and sister,
    though separated from each other, were saved, the woman on the
    summit of the highest mountain in the District of Lepanto, called
    Kalauítan, and the man in a cave of the same mountain. After the
    water had subsided, the man of the cave came out from his hiding
    place one clear and calm moonlight night, and as he glanced around
    that immense solitude, his eyes were struck by the brightness of a
    big bonfire burning there on the summit of the mountain. Surprised
    and terrified, he did not venture to go up on the summit where the
    fire was, but returned to his cave. At the dawn of day he quickly
    climbed toward the place where he had seen the brightness the
    preceding night, and there he found huddled up on the highest peak
    his sister, who received him with open arms. They say that from
    this brother and sister so providentially saved, all the Igorots
    that are scattered through the mountains originated. They are
    absolutely ignorant of the names of those privileged beings, but
    the memory of them lives freshly among the Igorots, and in their
    feasts, or whenever they celebrate their marriages, the aged people
    repeat to the younger ones this wonderful history, so that they
    can tell it to their sons, and in that way pass from generation
    to generation the memory of their first progenitors. [23]

This myth of the great flood, and of the brother and sister who
survived it, is common throughout northern Luzon. It is most highly
developed by the Ifugaos, as we shall later see.


The Bontoks are sometimes wrongly called Igorots, but have no more
right to that name than have the Ifugaos. They are a distinct people,
occupying a part of the subprovince of Bontok. They are in some
respects unique, and possess certain social institutions and traits
which have not been found elsewhere in the Philippines. Most of our
information concerning them is contained in the monograph by Jenks;
[24] in the bulky volume on the language by Seidenadel; [25] and
in my own observations on the general culture and ethnology of the
Bontoks. Jenks' monograph is excellent as an economic paper, but
the few myths given are mostly children's stories. Seidenadel [26]
gives several myths in the form of texts, and some of these I have
freely translated as follows:


    The sons of Lumáwig went hunting. In all the world there were
    no mountains, for the world was flat, and it was impossible to
    catch the wild pigs and the deer. Then said the elder brother:
    "Let us flood the world so that mountains may rise up." Then they
    went to inundate at Mabúd-bodóbud. Then the world was flooded. Then
    said the elder brother: "Let us go and set a trap." They used as
    a trap the head-basket at Mabúd-bodóbud. Then they raised the
    head-basket and there was much booty: wild pigs and deer and
    people--for all the people had perished. There were alive only
    a brother and sister on Mt. Pókis. Then Lumáwig looked down on
    Pókis and saw that it was the only place not reached by the water,
    and that it was the abode of the solitary brother and sister. Then
    Lumáwig descended and said: "Oh, you are here!" And the man said:
    "We are here, and here we freeze!" Then Lumáwig sent his dog and
    his deer to Kalauwítan to get fire. They swam to Kalauwítan,
    the dog and the deer, and they got the fire. Lumáwig awaited
    them. He said: "How long they are coming!" Then he went to
    Kalauwítan and said to his dog and the deer: "Why do you delay
    in bringing the fire? Get ready! Take the fire to Pókis; let me
    watch you!" Then they went into the middle of the flood, and the
    fire which they had brought from Kalauwítan was put out! Then
    said Lumáwig: "Why do you delay the taking? Again you must bring
    fire; let me watch you!" Then they brought fire again, and he
    observed that that which the deer was carrying was extinguished,
    and he said: "That which the dog has yonder will surely also be
    extinguished." Then Lumáwig swam and arrived and quickly took the
    fire which his dog had brought. He took it back to Pókis and he
    built a fire and warmed the brother and sister. Then said Lumáwig:
    "You must marry, you brother and sister!" Then said the woman:
    "That is possible; but it is abominable, because we are brother
    and sister!" Then Lumáwig united them, and the woman became
    pregnant. They had many children * * * and Lumáwig continued
    marrying them. Two went to Maligkong and had offspring there;
    two went to Gináang and had offspring there; and the people
    kept multiplying, and they are the inhabitants of the earth *
    * *. Moreover, there are the Mayinit-men, the Baliwang-men, the
    Tukúkan-men, the Kaniú-men, the Barlig-men, etc. Thus the world is
    distributed among the people, and the people are very many! * * *

Another story runs as follows:

    The brother-in-law of Lumáwig said to him: "Create water, because
    the sun is very hot, and all the people are thirsty!" Then said
    Lumáwig: "Why do you ask so much for water? Let us go on," he
    continued, "I shall soon create water." Then they went on, and at
    last his brother-in-law said again: "Well, why do you not create
    water? It should be easy, if you are really Lumáwig!" Then said
    Lumáwig: "Why do you shame me in public?" And then they quarreled,
    the brothers-in-law. Then they climbed on up the mountain, and
    at last the brother-in-law said again: "Why do you care nothing
    because the people are thirsty, and you do not create water?" Then
    said Lumáwig: "Let us sit down, people, and rest." Then he struck
    the rock with his spear, and water sprang out. Then he said to
    the people: "Come and drink!" And his brother-in-law stepped
    forth to drink, but Lumáwig restrained him, saying: "Do not
    drink! Let the people drink first, so that we shall be the last
    to drink." And when the people had finished drinking, Lumáwig
    drank. Then he said to his brother-in-law: "Come and drink." Then
    the brother-in-law stooped to drink, and Lumáwig pushed him into
    the rock. Water gushed out from his body. Then said Lumáwig:
    "Stay thou here because of thy annoying me!" Then they named that
    spot ad Isik. [27] Then the people went home; and the sister
    of Lumáwig said to him: "Why did you push your brother-in-law
    into the rock?" Then said Lumáwig: "Surely, because he angered
    me!" Then the people prayed and performed sacrifices. * * *

In the above stories we see the recurrence of the flood myth and the
origin of fire, or rather the manner in which men received it. The
story of bringing water out of a rock is interesting, and occurs again
in Ifugao mythology in a slightly different form. It is possible,
of course, that this is a biblical story which was brought in by some
wandering Christians several generations past; but the flood legend
is certainly native, and I see no good reason why the story of the
miraculous drawing of water from a rock should not also be a native
development in spite of its similarity to the Hebrew myth.

The Bontoks have hundreds of myths and stories about Lumáwig, who
corresponds to the Ifugao Líddum, who is the good god who gave men
fire, animals, plants, and all the useful and necessary articles of
daily life. These myths are of great value, and it is to be hoped
that a full collection of them will some day be made.

The Bontok religion is, on the whole, somewhat less developed than
that of the Igorots and Ifugaos. The same general beliefs are held,
however, and the ceremonial life is similar. Priests are the rule,
rather than priestesses; and the same sacred animals are used, as in
the other areas. In the social organization, the clan system is in
a more perfect state of development than among any other people in
the Philippines.

I shall now take up the last religion to be discussed, and the one
which is at the same time the most highly developed:


The subject of the Ifugao religion is an extensive one, and I have no
intention of discussing it in detail here. I shall merely give a few
general facts, and a few of the more interesting myths. In addition
to some minor papers by the Dominican fathers Malumbres and Campa,
most of our information concerning the Ifugao religion is contained
in three extensive manuscript monographs. [29] The myths that I shall
give here are selected from the first and third of these manuscripts,
and the general facts are taken from all three.


The Ifugao conception of the universe differs considerably in the
different religious districts. [30] The Western Ifugao and Central
Ifugao beliefs are closely associated, but stand quite apart from
those of Kiángan Ifugao. The people of the latter area think of the
universe as being composed of a large number of horizontal layers
which are very similar one to the other. The upper face of each
of these layers is of earth, while the lower face of each of them
is of a smooth blue stone called múling. [31] The layer on which
we live is called the Earth World (Lúta). The four layers above us
constitute the Sky World (Dáya), and are called, in order from the
top down, Húdog, Luktág, Hubulán, and Kabúnian. The last is the
layer immediately above the Earth World, and it is the blue-stone
underfacing of this layer that we call the "sky." The Under World
(Dálom) consists of an unknown number of layers beneath the one on
which we live. All of the layers meet in the farthest horizon, [32]
where lie the mythical regions of the East (Lágud) and other places.

Some of the Kiángan priests seem to have developed the further
idea that this Dáwi, or farthest horizon, is in the form of a great
celestial globe that surrounds the universe, forming its boundary,
the inside face of which can be distinguished in the hazy distance
where the deep blue of the sky fades into a very light blue or
whitish color. [33] The Earth World, or layer on which we live,
lies approximately at the center of the universe. It is therefore
the largest layer, and the layers of the Sky World and Under World
grow successively smaller as they approach the zenith and nadir of
the celestial globe, the boundary of the universe. [34]

The inhabitants of the universe consist chiefly of an incalculable
number of greater and lesser deities and spirits. [35] In addition
to these, there are the souls of men, animals, and plants. They
have always existed in the various regions of the universe, and were
brought to the Earth World by the gods. Men are descended from the
gods of the Sky World, as we shall see in the myths.

The mythology of the Kiángan Ifugaos is rich and varied. As an
introduction to it, I have selected the following:



    Origin of the mountains.--The first son of Wígan, called Kabigát,
    went from the sky region Húdog to the Earth World to hunt with
    dogs. As the earth was then entirely level, his dogs ran much
    from one side to another, pursuing the quarry, and this they did
    without Kabigát hearing their barking. In consequence of which, it
    is reported that Kabigát said: "I see that the earth is completely
    flat, because there does not resound the echo of the barking of
    the dogs. [37]" After becoming pensive for a little while, he
    decided to return to the heights of the Sky World. Later on he
    came down again with a very large cloth, and went to close the
    exit to the sea of the waters of the rivers, and so it remained
    closed. He returned again to Húdog, and went to make known to
    Bongábong that he had closed the outlet of the waters. Bongábong
    answered him: "Go thou to the house of the Cloud, and of the Fog,
    and bring them to me." For this purpose he had given permission
    beforehand to Cloud and Fog, intimating to them that they should
    go to the house of Baiyuhíbi, [38] and so they did. Baiyuhíbi
    brought together his sons Tumiok, Dumalálu, Lum-údul, Mumbatánol,
    and Inaplíhan, and he bade them to rain without ceasing for three
    days. Then Bongábong called to X ... and to Mangiuálat, and so
    they ceased. Wígan said, moreover, to his son Kabigát: "Go thou
    and remove the stopper that thou hast placed on the waters," and
    so he did. And in this manner, when the waters that had covered
    the earth began to recede, there rose up mountains and valleys,
    formed by the rushing of the waters. [39] Then Bongábong called
    Mumbá'an that he might dry the earth, and so he did.


    The first inhabitants of the Earth World.--Such being the
    state of affairs, Kabigát went to hunt once again; and, while
    following the dogs, that were chasing a quarry, he made a thrust
    with his spear into a spring (or fountain) at the foot of a large
    tree. Immediately Kabigát returned to Húdog, bringing with him the
    captured quarry. When he had dressed and eaten the savory game,
    Kabigát said to his father Wígan that he had seen on the Earth
    World a spring and very good and beautiful trees for timber with
    which to make houses, and that accordingly he was desirous of going
    down to live at such a delightful place. His father answered him
    that if he so desired he might do so.

    Some time after Kabigát had departed, and after he had cut
    excellent timber wherewith to build a house, Wígan said to his
    daughter Búgan: "Look, daughter! Thy brother Kabigát is down in
    Kai-áng building a house. I think that it would behoove thee to
    look after his meals." Búgan volunteered to descend with such
    a design. This intention having been carried out, she lodged
    herself in the upper part of the house, and her brother dwelt in
    the lower part.

    In the meantime, Kabigát, reflecting on his solitude and want
    of company, and, seeing that the domestic chickens, even though
    related among themselves, produced other roosters and hens,
    resolved to know carnally his sister Búgan, during her sleep. Some
    time having expired, the sister noted that she had fruit in her
    womb. * * * Such was the sadness and melancholy that came upon her,
    that she did nothing else but to weep and bewail herself, and to
    seek by some means alleviation for her sorrow through a violent
    death. She pretended to her brother that she was going to look for
    ísda, [40] but what she did was to follow the course of the river
    until she arrived at its mouth in Lágud (the Eastern World). Upon
    arriving at the shore of the sea, she remained there weeping and
    waiting for someone to take away her life in a violent way. Soon
    her brother Kabigát (who had followed her) appeared there, and
    Búgan, upon discerning him, cast herself into the depths; but,
    instead of going to the bottom, she stopped at the rice granary
    of Ngílîn Mangóngol. The brother, who witnessed the tragedy,
    did not stop at trifles but at once cast himself after her into
    the depths of the ocean, stopping, by a strange coincidence, at
    the very same rice granary as his fugitive sister and spouse. She
    continued there, bemoaning her misfortune, when, behold! Ngílîn,
    hearing her plaint, approached and inquired the cause of her
    affliction. She related to him her trouble, how she had conceived
    by her carnal brother when she was asleep. Ngílîn soothed her as
    follows: "Do not be afflicted, daughter, by that. Are not the
    fowls of Kai-áng related among themselves, and yet they beget
    just like those that are not so?" The maiden became somewhat calm,
    but still, out of shame for what had happened, she refused to eat
    what Ngílîn offered her. Then he said to her: "In order that thou
    mayst further assure thyself of what I tell thee, and in order
    that thou mayst quiet thyself, let us go and consult my elder
    brother Ambúmabbákal." And so they did. Ambúmabbákal, having been
    informed of the circumstances, burst out laughing and said to them:
    "Peradventure have ye not done well and righteously, there not
    being in existence any others but yourselves to procreate? However,
    for greater assurance, let us all go together to set forth the case
    before Muntálog my father." Muntálog, having heard their story,
    applauded the conduct of the solitary brother and sister. He told
    them, accordingly, to calm themselves and to rest there for a
    few days,--and so they did.


    The bringing of fire to the Earth World.--On the third day, Kabigát
    requested leave to return, but Muntálog answered: "Wait one day
    more, until I in my turn go to my father Mumbónang." Muntálog
    found his father and mother seated facing each other; and, upon
    his arrival, his mother, Mumboniag, came forward and asked him:
    "What news do you bring from those lower regions, and why do you
    come?" The father also became aware of the presence of his son,
    through the questioning of the mother, and inquired likewise as to
    the reason of his coming. Muntálog answered: "I have come, father,
    to ask thee for fire for some Ifugaos who remain in the house of
    Ambúmabbákal." "My son," the father replied, "those Ifugaos of
    yours could not arrive at (or, come to) Mumbónang without danger of
    being burned to cinders." Then he continued: "It is well! Approach
    me!" [41] Muntálog accordingly approached Mumbónang, who said to
    him: "Seize hold of one of those bristles that stand out from my
    hair," and so Muntálog did, noticing that the said point faced
    the north, and he placed it in his hand. Then Mumbónang said
    to him again: "Come nigh! Take this white part, or extremity,
    of the eye that looks toward the northeast, toward the place
    called Gonhádan." And he took it and placed it in his hand. And
    Mumbónang said to him once more: "Come near again, and take the
    part black as coal, the dirt of my ear which is as the foulness
    of my ear." And so he did. Then Mumbónang said to Muntálog: "Take
    these things and bring them to thy son Ambúmabbákal and to Ngílîn,
    in order that the latter may give them to the Ifugaos." And he
    said again to Muntálog: "Take this white of my eye (flint), this
    wax from my ear (tinder), and this bristle or point like steel
    for striking fire, in order that thou mayst have the wherewith to
    attain what thou seekest (that is, fire), and to give gradually
    from hand to hand to the Ifugao; and tell him not to return to
    live in Kai-áng, but to live in Otbóbon, and cut down the trees
    and make a clearing there, and then to get together dry grass;
    and that they make use of the steel for striking fire, holding
    it together in this manner, and burying it in the grass. And
    on making the clearing if they see that snakes, owls, or other
    things of evil omen approach, it is a sign that they are going
    to die or to have misfortunes. But if they do not approach them,
    it is a sign that it will go well with them in that place; that
    the soil will be productive, and that they will be happy."


    The journey to Ifugao land from the East.--Upon the return of
    Muntálog, at the termination of the fourth day, he said to Búgan
    and Kabigát: "Now ye can go but let Ngílîn and Ambúmabbákal
    accompany you as far as the house of Lingan, [42] in order that
    there they may make the cloth or clothes necessary for wrapping
    the child according to the usage of the Earth World."

    Lingan actually furnished to them the cloth and the seamstress to
    make the swaddling clothes for the child--and then they continued
    their journey unto the house of Ambúmabbákal. The latter said to
    them: "Take this cloth and this pair of fowls, male and female,
    and do not return to live at Kai-áhang but go to Otbóbon." And
    Ambúmabbákal accompanied them to the house of Ngílîn á Mangóngan
    [43] and said to the latter: "It will be well if we beseech the
    búni [44] to take pity on these poor people, considering the great
    distance that still remains to them unto Otbóbon, and keeping
    in mind also the great heat that prevails." So they did, saying:
    "Ye búni, take pity upon these unhappy ones and shorten for them
    the distance." The prayer was heard, and after two or three days
    they found themselves at the end of their journey.


    The peopling of Ifugao land.--Having arrived at Otbóbon, they
    built a temporary hut on fertile land. Later they constructed
    a good house, and it was just after it was finished that Búgan
    gave birth to a healthy boy; and the fowls also procreated.

    The child grew a little, but there came to him an unlooked-for
    sickness. Then Kabigát remembered that Ambúmabbákal had advised
    them to offer fowls to their ancestors in case any sickness
    should come upon them. So they killed a rooster and a hen, and
    offered them to Ampúal, Wigan, and their other ancestors. The
    child recovered and began to grow very robust and plump. They
    named him Balitúk. Búgan conceived again, and she gave birth to a
    strong girl, to whom she gave the name of Lingan. These children
    grew up, and, having attained a marriageable age, were married
    like their parents, and gave origin to the Silipanes. [45]

    Their parents, Kabigát and Búgan, had a second son, on whom they
    placed the name Tad-óna, and then another daughter, whom they
    called Inúke. She and Tad-óna did what their parents and brother
    and sister had done, and gave birth to Kabigát, the second, and
    Búgan, the second. These latter two, imitating the preceding ones,
    were united in wedlock and begot sons and daughters who peopled
    the remainder of the Ifugao region. [46]


    Establishment of religious ceremonies.--Upon their marriage
    Tad-óna and Inúke did not offer pigs or fowls to the
    búni as was customary. This being observed by Líddum from
    Kabúnian, he descended and asked them: "Why have ye not offered
    sacrifices?" They answered him that they were ignorant of such a
    custom or ceremony. Then Líddum returned to Kabúnian and brought
    them the yeast with which to make búbûd, or wine from fermented
    rice; and he taught Tad-óna the method of making it, saying:
    "Place it in jars on the third day," and he returned to the Sky
    World. On the fifth day he came down again to teach them the
    manner of making the mum-búni. [47]

Some version of the above myth is known to the people of every
Ifugao clan, although the details of the story vary considerably in
the different culture areas. The myth is also known to the Igorots
and Bontoks, as we have already seen. I have in my possession some
twenty different versions that have been collected from various clans
of Central, Western, and Kiangan Ifugao. These may all be classified
into two general types, one of which is represented above. [48] An
example of the other type, entitled The Ifugao Flood-Myth, is given
later in this paper under the heading Central Ifugao Beliefs.

The god Wígan is one of the greatest and best known figures in
Ifugao mythology. He has three sons, Kabigát, Balitúk, and Ihîk, and
one daughter, Búgan. The following story about Ihîk is especially
interesting because of its resemblance to one of the Bontok myths
previously given.


    Ihîk nak Wígan, in company with his brothers Kabigát and Balitúk,
    went to catch fish in the canal called Amkídul at the base
    of Mt. Inúde. After catching a supply of fish, they strove to
    ascend to the summit of the mountain; but, ever as they went up,
    Ihîk kept asking his brothers for water to satiate his devouring
    thirst. They answered him: "How can we find water at such an
    elevation? Water is found at the base of the mountains but not at
    their summits!" But Ihîk kept on importuning them. At last, when
    they were in the middle of their ascent, they came to an enormous
    rock. Balitúk struck the rock with his spear, and instantly there
    burst forth a large jet of water.

    Ihîk desired to drink first but they deterred him, saying: "It is
    not just that thou shouldst drink first, being the last born of us
    brothers!" Then Kabigát drank, and afterwards Balitúk. Just as Ihîk
    was about to do so, Balitúk seized him and shoved the whole of his
    head under the rock, adding: "Drink! Satiate thyself once for all,
    and serve henceforth as a tube for others to drink from!" And so
    it came to pass that Ihîk on receiving the water through his mouth
    sent it forth at the base of his trunk. He said to his brothers:
    "You are bent on making me take the part of a water-spout! I shall
    do so, but bear in mind that I shall also take just vengeance
    on your descendants for this injury." In view of this threat,
    Kabigát and Balitúk did not dare to make use of the improvised
    fountain, and so they returned home.

This myth, which is very long, then relates how certain of the great
deities befriended Ihîk by setting him free and assisting him in
obtaining vengeance on his brothers and their descendants.

Another myth, showing an interesting resemblance to a Manóbo myth
already given, tells how the sky region of Manaháut, [50] which was
once very near the Earth World, was raised to its present position. The
cannibalistic and voracious appetite of Manaháut was causing the slow
extermination of the human race, [51] and the aid of the gods was
invoked. The Ifugaos have a number of powerful deities who always
remain in a sitting posture. One of these suddenly rose up, and,
with his head and shoulders, thrust the sky region of Manaháut to a
vast height above the earth, thereby preventing the extermination of
the people. [52]

As a final example of Kiángan Ifugao mythology, I give the following
story which is one of the best specimens of Ifugao literature.

    WITH A MAN [53]

    The wife of the god Hinumbían is Dakáue. She has no children
    except a daughter called Búgan. This Búgan was with her parents in
    Luktág. Let it be noted that these divinities of the highest region
    of the Sky World do not see directly that which takes place in the
    lower spheres, but the first calls the second, and the second the
    third, etc. According to this order, the first or principal god,
    known as Bungóngol, charges or gives orders to his son Ampúal,
    who in turn orders his son Balittíon, and the latter orders and
    charges Líddum of the lowest sky region, or Kabúnian. This Líddum
    is the one that communicates directly with the Ifugaos. The said
    Búgan, daughter of Hinumbían, was at that time a maiden, while
    in Luktág, and her uncle Baiyuhíbi [54] told her to go down and
    amuse herself in the third sky region, Hubulán. So, according
    to the wishes of her relatives, she went down to Hubulán where
    Dologdógan, the brother of Balittíon, was. The said Dologdógan
    had gone to Hubulán to marry another Búgan. The first Búgan,
    daughter of Hinumbían, had been advised to marry in Luktág, but
    she did not wish to do so, and so they told her to go off and
    divert herself in Hubulán. Having settled down in this sky region,
    her uncles advised her to get married there, but neither did she
    wish this. In view of her attitude on this question, Dologdógan
    exhorted her to descend to Kabúnian, and go to take her abode in
    the house of Líddum her relative and the son of Amgalíngan. The
    said Líddum wished her to marry in Kabúnian, but she also refused
    to do this. Near the house, or town, of Líddum (whose wife is
    called Lingan) there was a village called Habiátan, and the lord
    of the village also bore this name. Such being the case, the said
    Habiátan went to the house of Líddum, and, upon seeing the young
    Búgan in the condition of maidenhood, he asked Líddum: "Why does
    this maid not marry?" The former answered him: "We have counseled
    her to it, but she does not wish to do so. I, upon seeing that she
    did not wish to get married, nor to follow my advice, said to her:
    'Why dost thou not get married?' She began to laugh. I replied:
    'Then, if thou dost not wish to get married in Kabúnian, it were
    better for thee to return to thy people and thy family of Luktág,'
    but she answered: 'That is not necessary, and I should like to stay
    with thee in thy house--and I shall take care to get married at
    my pleasure, when I see or meet someone of my liking, and then I
    shall tell thee.'" Habiátan, after hearing this story of Líddum,
    said to him: "According to this, I shall take the young Búgan
    to my rancheria and house in Habiátan to see if she wishes to
    marry my son Bagílat." [55] To which Líddum rejoined: "If Búgan
    so desire, it goes without saying that she can accompany thee at
    once." The maiden having been consulted, assented, and went off
    with Habiátan to his house and village. Having arrived at the said
    place, and after Búgan had observed somewhat the young Bagílat,
    as if Habiátan had asked her whether she desired to marry him,
    she answered: "How am I to wish to marry him (Bagílat), grim
    and fierce as he is, and making use of such an extraordinary
    spear! Moreover, he never stops--but is always running around
    in all parts of the Sky World, through the north and the south,
    through the east and the west;" and she told Habiátan that she
    did not wish to marry his son Bagílat, the Lightning, because
    that through his effects he harmed plants, fruits, and possibly
    might injure even herself. Then said Habiátan: "Thou art somewhat
    fastidious, and I see that thou couldst with great difficulty get
    married in these regions; it would be better that thou return once
    more to thy land." She answered that she did not desire to return
    any more to her people, and that accordingly she would betake
    herself to some other point more to her liking. This dialogue
    being completed, she went down from the house of Habiátan, and,
    casting a glance at the four cardinal points, she saw that the
    weather was clear and calm, and descried on the Earth a place
    called Pangagáuan, over (or on) Umbuk, where there was an Ifugao
    called Kinggáuan--a young man, unmarried, naked, and without a
    clout (which he had thrown away because of its age), because he
    was engaged in making pits, or wells, for catching deer with a trap
    (according to the custom)--and there he had a hut. Upon seeing him
    Búgan exclaimed: "Oh! the poor man! and how unfortunate!" And,
    hiding the occurrence from Habiátan, she determined to return
    to her sky region of Luktág in order to manifest to her father,
    Hinumbían, that it was her desire to descend to the Earth World
    in order to get married with that poor Ifugao.

    The paternal permission having been obtained, she made ready
    the necessary provisions--consisting of a vessel of cooked
    rice and a clout (or bahág). In this fashion she proceeded to
    Kinggáuan's hut and entered it, saying: "Who is the owner of this
    hut?" "I," answered Kinggáuan, "but I am ashamed to approach thee,
    because thou art a woman and I am naked." To which she replied:
    "Never mind! because here I have a clout for thee." But he did
    not approach for shame; and so she threw him the clout from afar,
    in order that he might cover himself. The surprised man expressed
    to her his astonishment, saying: "Why dost thou approach here,
    knowing that the appearance of a woman, when men are engaged
    in such an occupation, is of evil omen for the hunt?" [56] And
    she replied to him: "By no means shall it come to pass as thou
    thinkest, but, on the contrary, thou shalt be extremely lucky in
    it. For the present let us eat together, and let us sleep this
    night in thy hut. To-morrow thou shalt see how lucky we are in
    the hunt." The following day, upon going to visit the pits, they
    actually found them full. Kinggáuan killed the quarry and spent
    the rest of the day in carrying the carcasses to his hut. He
    kept alive only two little pigs, a male and a female, which he
    delivered to Búgan that she might tie them in the dwelling-place
    while he was bringing in the rest of the dead game. On the second
    day Búgan asked the solitary one: "Why dost thou dwell in such
    evil places?" Kinggáuan answered her: "Because my parents are so
    parsimonious in giving me what I need." Then said Búgan to him:
    "Let us go to Kiángan," and he consented. Leaving, then, the
    dead game in the hut, they carried with them only the two live
    "piglets." Kinggáuan carried the male one, and Búgan the female
    one--arriving at the above-mentioned place on the nightfall of
    the second day.

    Having arrived at Kiángan, they took up their lodging in the
    house of Kinggáuan's mother--the man entering first and then
    Búgan. The mother of the former was surprised, and asked him:
    "Who is this woman?" The son answered: "I was at the hunting place
    and she presented herself to me there and I do not know whence
    she comes." The aged mother after having looked at them a little
    while--when seated--addressed herself to Búgan and asked: "Who art
    thou? How dost thou call thyself? From whence dost thou come?" The
    maiden replied that her name was Búgan, that she was the daughter
    of Hinumbían and Dakáue, and that she belonged to the sky region of
    Luktág. But the reason of her descent to that terraqueous region,
    and of accompanying her son, was her having seen him so poor and
    deserted * * * "for which reason I took pity on him and came down
    to visit him and to furnish him with an abundance of game" * *
    * and she added that on the following day the mother should send
    many people to collect the dead game which they had left in the
    lonely hut of her son. By a coincidence, the mother of the young
    man was also called Búgan, with the addition of na kantaláo.

    During all this, the young couple had already been united in the
    bond of matrimony--without any of the prescribed formalities--at
    the place called Pangagáuan, and Búgan gave birth to a vigorous
    son to whom she gave the name Balitúk. The little pigs, also,
    which they had brought, gave forth their fruit. The child grew
    a little, but he did not yet know how to walk. His mother,
    Búgan, as a being from the Sky World, did not eat like the
    rest of the people of Kiángan, but desired only boiled rice,
    birds, and meat of game. Those of that region bore her much envy
    because of her being a stranger; and, because they knew she did
    not like certain vegetables of theirs, they strove to make her
    depart from their town and to betake herself to her birthplace
    of Luktág in the sky. Their envy toward her increased upon their
    seeing the abundance of her fowls and pigs. With the object,
    then, of disgusting her, and of driving her away, they attempted
    to surround her house with certain garden stuffs, greens, and
    fish. With these they succeeded effectively in making Búgan fall
    sick with an intense itch and fever; for which reason she abandoned
    that house and went to another place, while her husband moved to
    a rice granary. But they persecuted her again in her new place
    of lodging, surrounding it with the vegetables and other things
    spoken of above, and causing her nausea in a stomach accustomed to
    other food. In view of such wearisome tricks, Búgan proposed to
    Kinggáuan her desire to return to her land with the new blossom
    of spring, their child. Her husband answered her: "I should
    well like to accompany thee, but I am afraid of ascending to so
    high a place." "There is no reason to be afraid," replied Búgan,
    "I myself shall take thee up in the áyud (a kind of hammock)." She
    accordingly strove to persuade him, but Kinggáuan did not lay aside
    his fear; then she attempted to take him up bound to a rope, but
    neither did she effect this. During these labors, she soared aloft
    with the child to the heights of Luktág, but upon perceiving that
    her husband had not followed her she went down again, with her
    son in the band which the Ifugaos use for that purpose. (Plate
    III, fig. 2.) After conferring with Kinggáuan, she said to him:
    "Thou seest the situation. I cannot continue among thy countrymen,
    because they hate me unto death. Neither dost thou dare to ascend
    unto Luktág. What we can do is to divide our son," * * * and,
    seizing a knife, Búgan divided her son Balitúk in the middle,
    or just above the waist, and made the following division: The
    head and the rest of the upper trunk she left to Kinggáuan--that
    it might be easier for him to give a new living being to those
    upper parts--and she retained for herself the lower part of the
    trunk unto the feet; and as for the entrails, intestines, heart,
    liver, and even the very excrement, she divided them--leaving
    the half for her husband. The partition having been completed,
    Búgan mounted to her heavenly mansion, taking with her the part of
    her son which fell to her lot, and, giving it a breath of life,
    she converted it into a new celestial being retaining the very
    name of Balitúk. On the other hand, the part which she had left
    to her husband, on the earth, began to be corrupted and decayed,
    because he, Kinggáuan, had not been able, or did not know how,
    to reanimate it. The foul odor of the putrified flesh reached unto
    the dwelling place of Búgan in Luktág, and, having been perceived
    by her, she descended to Kabúnian in order to better acquaint
    herself with the happening. From Kabúnian she saw that the evil
    odor issued from the decomposition of the part of the entrails
    which she had left on the earth in charge of her husband, and which
    he had not reanimated. Then she broke forth in cries of grief,
    pity, and compassion--and, descending to Kiángan, she severely
    accused Kinggáuan, saying unto him: "Why hast thou allowed our son
    to rot? And why hast thou not quickened him to life?" Upon which
    he answered that he did not understand the art of reanimation.

    Búgan endeavored to remove the greatest possible portion of the
    corrupted part of her son. Consequently, she changed the head
    of Balitúk into an owl [57]--a nocturnal bird called akúp by the
    Ifugaos--whence the origin of the Kiángan custom of auguring evil
    from this bird, and the offering of sacrifices of fowls to Búgan,
    in order that no harm should come to them, and that the said owl
    should not return to them.

    The ears she threw into the forest, and for that reason there come
    forth on the trees certain growths, like chalk, half spherical
    (certain species of fungi). The nose she threw away and changed
    it also into a certain species of shell which attaches itself
    to trees. Of the half of the excrement she made the bill of a
    small bird called ido, from which the Ifugaos augur well or ill,
    according to certain variations of its song. [58]

    From the putrified tongue she produced a malady, or swelling,
    of the tongue in men, which is cured with a hot egg, or with a
    chicken, which they offer to their mother, Búgan.

    From the bones of the breast she created a venomous serpent. From
    the heart she made the rainbow. From the fingers she made certain
    very long shells, after the form of fingers. From the hair, thrown
    into the water, she created certain little worms or maggots. From
    the skin she drew forth a bird of red color, called kúkuk. From
    the half of the blood she created the small bats (litálît). From
    the liver she drew forth a certain disease of the breast. From
    the intestines she formed a class of somewhat large animals,
    resembling rabbits or rats (amúnîn?). From the bones of the arms
    she made pieces of dry or rotted wood that fall from trees upon
    passers-by who approach them.

    The Balitúk that Búgan reanimated is in the sky region of
    Luktág. [59]

The myth just given is an example of one of the most interesting
processes in the early development of literature. It is probable
that originally it was only a simple origin myth, but it has been
elaborated and developed until now it is worthy of its little niche
in the world's literature.


The exact difference between the Central Ifugao and the Kiángan beliefs
is not an easy matter to determine. There has been much mixture between
the two peoples accompanied by a corresponding exchange of ideas. The
effect of this exchange in some cases has been to produce a deceptive
similarity in beliefs and myths that originally were fundamentally
different; while in other cases myths that were originally the same
have been so greatly differentiated in the two areas that their unity
can scarcely be recognized.

However, it would seem that some basic differences really exist, and
the probability is that they are survivals from the ancient cultures
of the peoples who went to make up the present distinctly composite
Ifugao group. But the evidence at hand is not sufficient to warrant
a full discussion of this question here, and I shall merely cite one
example. Kiángan myths are nearly always told from the standpoint
of the gods, and have to do with the dealings of the gods with one
another and with men. On the other hand, Central Ifugao myths are
told from the standpoint of men in their relations and dealings with
the gods. This will be made plain by a comparison of the following
Central Ifugao myth with the Origin of the Ifugaos previously given.



    The Golden Age.--Ifugao knowledge of the prediluvian period is
    very vague. It is known, however, that the Earth World was entirely
    flat except for two great mountains, one in the east called Amúyao
    and one in the west called Kalauítan. [61] This level country was
    heavily forested, and all of the people lived along a large river
    that ran through the central plain between the two great mountains.

    The period was something like a Golden Age, when things were much
    better than they are now. The people were demigods whose life
    was a happy one and their country a sort of Garden of Eden. To
    obtain rice, all that they needed to do was to cut down a stalk
    of bamboo, which was plentiful, and split open the joints which
    were filled with hulled rice ready to cook. Stalks of sugar-cane
    were filled with baiyax, [62] and needed only to be tapped to
    furnish a most refreshing drink. The river was full of fish, and
    the forests were filled with deer and wild hogs which were much
    easier to catch than those of the present day. The rice grains
    of that time were larger and more satisfying, and a handful of
    them was sufficient to feed a large family.

    But this Golden Age, like others, was not destined to last.


    The flood, and the origin of the mountains.--One year when the
    rainy season should have come it did not. Month after month passed
    by and no rain fell. The river grew smaller and smaller day by
    day until at last it disappeared entirely. The people began to
    die, and at last the old men said: "If we do not soon get water,
    we shall all die. Let us dig down into the grave of the river,
    for the river is dead and has sunk into his grave, and perhaps we
    may find the soul of the river and it will save us from dying." So
    they began to dig, and they dug for three days. On the third day
    the hole was very large, and suddenly they struck a great spring
    and the water gushed forth. It came so fast that some of them
    were drowned before they could get out of the pit.

    Then the people were happy, for there was plenty of water;
    and they brought much food and made a great feast. But while
    they were feasting it grew dark and began to rain. The river
    also kept rising until at last it overflowed its bank. Then the
    people became frightened and they tried to stop up the spring
    in the river, but they could not do so. Then the old men said:
    "We must flee to the mountains, for the river gods are angry
    and we shall all be drowned." So the people fled toward the
    mountains and all but two of them were overtaken by the water
    and drowned. The two who escaped were a brother and sister named
    Wígan and Búgan--Wígan on Mt. Amúyao and Búgan on Kalauítan. And
    the water continued to rise until all the Earth World was covered
    excepting only the peaks of these two mountains.

    The water remained on the earth for a whole season or from rice
    planting to rice harvest. [63] During that time Wígan and Búgan
    lived on fruits and nuts from the forests that covered the tops of
    the two mountains. Búgan had fire which at night lit up the peak
    of Kalauítan, and Wígan knew that there was someone else alive
    besides himself. He had no fire, and suffered much from the cold.

    At last the waters receded from the earth and left it covered
    with the rugged mountains and deep valleys that exist to-day;
    and the solitary brother and sister, looking down from their
    respective peaks, were filled with wonder at the sight.


    The repopulation of the Earth World.--As soon as the earth was dry,
    Wígan journeyed to Kalauítan where he found his sister Búgan,
    and their reunion was most joyous. They descended the mountain
    and wandered about until they came to the beautiful valley that
    is to-day the dwelling place of the Banáuol clan--and here Wígan
    built a house. When the house was finished, Búgan dwelt in the
    upper part and Wígan slept beneath.

    Having provided for the comfort of his sister, Wígan started out
    to find if there were not other people left alive in the Earth
    World. He traveled about all the day and returned to the house
    at night to sleep. He did this for three days, and then as he
    was coming back on the third evening he said to himself that
    there were no other people in the world but themselves, and if
    the world was to be repopulated it must be through them. * *
    * At last Búgan realized that she was pregnant. She burst into
    violent weeping, and, heaping reproaches on his head, ran blindly
    away toward the East, following the course of the river. After
    traveling a long way, and being overcome with grief and fatigue,
    Búgan sank down upon the bank of the river and lay there trembling
    and sobbing. [64] After having quieted herself somewhat, she arose
    and looked around her, and what was her surprise to see sitting on
    a rock near her an old man with a long white beard! He approached
    her and said: "Do not be afraid, daughter! I am Maknóngan, and
    I am aware of your trouble, and I have come to tell you that it
    is all right!" While he was speaking, Wígan, who had followed his
    sister, appeared on the scene. Then Maknóngan placed the sanction
    and blessing of the gods upon their marriage, assuring them that
    they had done right, and that through them the world must be
    repeopled. He told them to return to their house, and whenever
    they were in trouble to offer sacrifices to the gods. After
    Búgan had become convinced in this manner, they left Maknóngan
    and returned home.

    In the course of time nine children were born to Wígan and Búgan,
    five sons and four daughters. The four oldest sons married the
    four daughters, and from them are descended all of the people
    of the Earth World. The youngest son, who was named Igon, had no
    wife. [65]


    The sacrifice of Igon.--One year the crops failed, there was much
    sickness, and everything went wrong. Then Wígan remembered the
    advice of Maknóngan, and he told his sons to procure an animal
    for the sacrifice. They caught a rat and sacrificed it, but the
    evil conditions were not remedied. Then they went out into the
    forest and captured a large snake and sacrificed it to the gods,
    but the disease and crop failure still continued. Then Wígan said:
    "The sacrifice is not great enough, for the gods do not hear! Take
    your brother Igon, who has no wife, and sacrifice him!" So they
    bound Igon, and sacrificed him, and called upon the gods. And
    Maknóngan came, and all the other great gods, to the feast. And
    they took away the sickness, and filled the granaries with rice,
    and increased the chickens, the pigs, and the children. Then
    Maknóngan said to the people: "It is well, but you have committed
    an evil in spilling human blood and have thereby brought war
    and fighting into the world. Now you must separate to the north,
    south, east, and west, and not live together any more. And when
    ye have need to sacrifice to the gods, do not offer rats, snakes,
    or your children, but take pigs and chickens only."

    And one of the sons of Wígan went to the north, and one to the
    south, and one to the east, and one to the west; and from them
    are descended the peoples of the Earth World, who fight and kill
    one another to this day because of the sacrifice of Igon.

Many other illustrations might be given of the differences between
the Central and Kiángan Ifugao religious conceptions, but the above
will suffice for the purposes of the present paper. [66]

One more type of Ifugao origin myth merits our attention before we
come to the conclusion. This type consists of the myths invented
to explain the origin of the ancient Chinese jars, bronze gongs,
amber-agate beads, and other rare articles of foreign manufacture on
which the Ifugaos place a high value, and the origin of which they
do not know. Many of these objects have been in the possession of the
people for at least several hundred years. They were probably brought
into the Islands by Chinese traders centuries before the coming of
the Spaniards, and gradually found their way to the Ifugaos through
the medium of their cursory commerce with the surrounding peoples. [67]

One of these myths, explaining the origin of three well-known jars,
runs as follows.


    A long time ago, before the coming of the Spaniards, there lived
    at Hinagángan a man called Banggílît. He was a wealthy man,
    possessing four rice granaries and a very large house; but he
    was not a priest. His constant desire was to hunt in the forest.

    One day Banggílît went hunting in the forest and was overtaken
    by night. He called his dogs but they did not come. He made fire,
    cooked, and ate. Then one dog came to him, and he took it in lead
    and departed. Near by he found a path. The dog with him barked
    and the second dog answered, and they went on. And the dog with
    Banggílît began to whimper and whine, and to pull on the leash;
    and Banggílît ran, and they went on. Suddenly it became light all
    around them, and they came out of the forest into a large group of
    people. And the people said among themselves: "Surely Banggílît
    is dead," and they examined his body and asked: "Where were you
    speared?" And Banggílît spoke and said: "I have not been speared! I
    went hunting and was overtaken by night, and my dog here ran ahead
    on our path. I followed, and came here, and lo! it is light here!"

    And they took Banggílît and went to their town--for there are many
    large towns there in the dwelling-place of souls. They wished to
    give him food, but he said: "Wait until my own food is exhausted,
    and then I will eat of your rice here." And they asked him: "How
    many days will you remain with us?" and Banggílît answered that
    he would remain four days. Then the people began to laugh and one
    of them said: "Not four days but four years here!" "Ha!" cried
    Banggílît, "I shall never do that! Wait until you see!" "Just
    so!" answered the other, "but one day here is the same as a year
    on the Earth World," but Banggílît thought that he was lying.

    Banggílît visited all of the towns there. He worked in the rice
    fields and they gave him four jars as his wages. Then his host said
    to him: "Return home now, for you have been here four days, which,
    according to the usage of the Earth World, are four years." "Yes,"
    answered Banggílît, "I wish to go home now, as I am homesick for
    my family. You have been very good to me, for you have given me
    wages for my work." And the host said: "It was a gift; not wages,
    but a gift, that I gave you," and he led the way and pointed out
    to Banggílît a ladder. "Go down that ladder, and in a short time
    you will arrive at your house," he said. Banggílît started to go
    down, but one of the jars struck heavily against the ladder and
    was broken. He went down the ladder and at last arrived in the top
    of a betel-nut tree. He slid down the trunk of the tree to the
    ground, and the chickens were crowing and it was just dawn. And
    he looked at his surroundings and exclaimed: "Why this is my own
    house!" His relatives came out and said: "Who are you?" and he
    replied: "This is my house." They looked at him closely and cried:
    "Well now, it is Banggílît who has been gone these four years!" And
    they sat down and talked long together. He showed them the jars,
    and they asked: "Where did you get those?" And he answered:
    "I brought them from the Sky World," and they were afraid and
    went to look for the ladder but it was no longer there. [69]

The above myth may well have been invented by some man who, unknown
to his relatives and friends, wandered across the mountains into
Lepanto or Benguet and returned after four years with the jars in
question. Hundreds of myths and legends of this type are current
among the Ifugaos.

No representative collection of Philippine myths has yet been made,
and the present paper can only be considered a beginning. I hope to
be able to continue the work.


[1] Read before The Philippine Academy, October 2, 1912. The paper
is intended as an introduction to a series of more complete studies
in Philippine mythology and religion.

[2] A complete bibliography cannot be given within the limits of
this paper, but a number of the most important printed titles and
manuscripts have been cited.

[3] Blair and Robertson, The Philippine Islands. Cleveland (1906), 37;
(1907), 48.

[4] This Journal (1906), 1, 812-818. Many plates illustrating Ilongot
types and culture are given.

[5] The Philippine Islands and Their People. New York (1898), 362-434.

[6] A typewritten manuscript of 60 pages, entitled "The Hampángan
Mangyans of Mindoro" by Dr. Fletcher Gardner. U. S. A. (1905). In
the records of the division of ethnology, Bureau of Science, Manila.

[7] This Journal, Sec. D (1912), 7, 135-156.

[8] Loc. cit., 76-122.

[9] Smithsonian Misc. Colls. (Paper No. 1700), 48, 514-558.

[10] Loc. cit., 109-111.

[11] I am informed by Dr. N. M. Saleeby that this myth is also known
among the Malays of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula.

[12] Kágbubátang is a point within sight of the town of Placer,
eastern Mindanao.

[13] The offering may be very small, even a little piece of wood,
and is thrown overboard while passing the point.

[14] There is said to be a similar locality near Taganíto, eastern

[15] Bináoi is the name of an oddly shaped peak at the source of the
River Angdánan, tributary of the River Wáwa, Agúsan Valley.

[16] Limes and lemons are said to be objects of fear to the búsao.

[17] Garvan suggests these stories as illustrations of punishment
following the imitating or making fun of animals, acts which are
strictly tabú in Manóbo culture.

[18] Some say that the spots upon the moon are a cluster of bamboos,
others, that they are a baléte tree.

[19] Our information concerning these peoples is limited, but of
much interest. Besides the work of Garvan, the chief sources are the
Letters of the Jesuit Fathers and a paper on the Subánuns [Christie,
Pub. P. I. Bur. Sci., Div. Ethnol. (1909), 6, pt. 1]. The latter
does not record any myths, but gives several song-stories about great
culture-heroes which throw much light on the character of the Subánun
mythology and identify it with the mythologies of the other pagan
tribes of Mindanao. These hero-stories are too long to be given here.

[20] The Tinggiáns, or Itnegs, should be excepted, as there are
important and accurate accounts of these people by Gironière, Reyes,
Worcester, Cole, and others.

[21] According to the translation by James A. Robertson in Blair and
Robertson, The Philippine Islands (1906), 33, 167-171.

[22] Note the similarity of this place-name to the Kágbubátang of
the Manóbo legend, p. 89.

[23] Translated by Roberto Laperal from "Igorrotes," by Angel
Perez. Manila (1902), 319-320.

[24] Jenks, Albert Ernest, The Bontoc Igorot,
Pub. P. I. Ethnol. Surv. (1905), 1.

[25] Seidenadel, Carl Wilhelm, The First Grammar of the Language
Spoken by the Bontoc Igorot, with a Vocabulary and Texts. The Open
Court Publishing Co., Chicago (1909).

[26] Opus. cit., 485-510. Seidenadel gives an interlinear literal
translation, which is, in some places, slightly inaccurate. I have
made a new free translation directly from the Bontok. The text was
told in the form of a story rather than that of a myth, and contains
much extraneous matter which I have omitted.

[27] Place of anger.

[28] There are about 127,000 Ifugaos, nearly all living in the
subprovince of Ifugao. They are divided into a large number of
hereditary clans, each of which has its own social and political
organization. They are an agricultural people, and have developed
their great stone-faced terraced rice fields to an extent probably not
equaled elsewhere in the world. I do not believe that the physical
type, language, or culture of these people is wholly a native
development. The evidence seems to indicate that the present-day
Ifugaos are the result of mixture, perhaps one or more thousand years
ago, of several widely different native types with an incoming people
of high culture. Indications seem to point to the highlands of Burma
as the original home of this highly-cultured people, but this is
a supposition that will require proof. Within historic times the
Ifugaos have been almost entirely free from mixture of any sort.

[29] 1.--"The Religious Beliefs of the Kiángan Ifugaos," a manuscript
of some 300 pages, by Juan Fernandez Villaverde, translated and
annotated by myself with the assistance of Mr. John M. Garvan.

2.--"The Religion of the Kiángan Ifugaos," a manuscript of 350 pages,
by Roy Franklin Barton, with notes by myself.

3.--Unpublished notes. "The Religion of the Central Ifugaos," a
manuscript of about 300 pages, by myself.

[30] The subprovince of Ifugao may be divided into five general culture
areas which can be also considered as religious districts. These are:
Kiángan Ifugao, Western Ifugao, and Central Ifugao, speaking the Pure
Ifugao dialect; and Alímît Ifugao and Mayóyao Ifugao, speaking the
Sub-Ifugao dialect. (Plate I.) Very little is known of the religion
of Alímît Ifugao and Mayóyao Ifugao, and they will not be further
discussed in this paper.

[31] Or búling (?).

[32] Dáwi (?).

[33] It can only be seen at this point for the reason that the earth
beneath and the blue-stone underfacing of Kabúnian immediately above
cut off the view. Ifugao astronomical knowledge, plus the circular
nature of the horizon and the apparent slope of the whitish band
above it, has doubtless given rise to this belief in a celestial
globe surrounding the universe.

[34] The Ifugaos have no belief, that I have ever been able to
discover, as to the origin of the universe. To their minds it has
always existed and will always continue to exist.

[35] In the three previously mentioned manuscripts on the Ifugao
religion, between two and three thousand deities are spoken of by name,
and this is only a fraction of the number known to the Ifugaos. Of
course, only a few of them are really great deities, but even such
may be counted by hundreds. Of the very diverse and all-inclusive
character of these deities, no accurate idea can be given within the
brief limits of this paper. Suffice it to say there are gods of war,
of industry (such as weaving, metal-working, etc.), and of beauty and
love; nature-gods, cannibalistic gods, evil deities, mythical monsters,
messenger spirits, guardian spirits; and hosts of mischievous elves
and fairies.

[36] Collected by Juan Fernández Villaverde, in 1894, from a
celebrated Ifugao priest, Duminóng of Kiángan. Translated, corrected,
and annotated by myself with the assistance of Mr. John M. Garvan.

[37] This statement is significant, as it shows an understanding of
the true cause of the echo. Ifugao cosmographical and astronomical
knowledge is not very primitive, as a careful study of this myth will
clearly demonstrate.

[38] God of the rain.

[39] Ifugao knowledge of the part played by erosion in the formation
of the topographical features of the earth is clearly shown.

[40] Shellfish, greens, fruits, meats, or fish that constitute the
savory part of the meal, as contrasted with kánon which refers only
to staple foods such as rice, sweet potatoes, etc.

[41] Mumbónang has a head covered with bristles, just like a porcupine,
but radiating and sharp pointed like nails facing outward to penetrate
any object on the outside. He possibly represents some constellation.

[42] The goddess of weaving.

[43] Or Ngílîn an Maknóngan (?).

[44] Deities which the Ifugaos believe to be their ancestors.

[45] The people of Alímît Ifugao. (Plate I.)

[46] Tad-óna and Inúke are recognized as common ancestors by all the
Kiángan Ifugaos, and the myths about them are legion.

[47] Ceremonies to the búni, accompanied by prayers and sacrifices.

[48] A version of the same type, but very different in detail, is
contained in the unpublished notes of Mr. Roy Franklin Barton. I
have also several others from the same area (Kiángan Ifugao) that
were collected by Lieut. Maximo Meimban.

[49] For bibliographical reference, see Villaverde, loc. cit.

[50] Manaháut is the greatest and most hated evil deity of the Ifugaos.

[51] The memory of cannibalism so common in Ifugao mythology possibly
dates back to a period of contact with human cannibals.

[52] The Ifugao version of the story states that the sky was so low
that it interfered with the plying of the spear, while the Manóbo
story relates that the rice pestle would strike against it. It is
possible that this myth dates back to cave-dwelling ancestors--for
the low roof of a cave would be an inconvenience of the same character
as that which is here ascribed to the sky.

A further proof of this is the following Tagálog myth furnished me by
Mr. Roberto Laperal: "In former times the sky was very low and could be
touched with the hand; when men were playing, they would strike their
heads against it whenever they jumped upward. This made them impatient,
and one day they began to throw stones at the sky. The great god
Bathala was very angry and removed the sky to its present position."

[53] For bibliographical reference, see footnote 36. A less complete
version of this myth, differing somewhat in detail, is given by Barton
in the second manuscript mentioned in footnote 29.

[54] God of the rain.

[55] God of the lightning.

[56] It is a common belief, widespread in the Philippines, that the
appearance of a woman at a place where men are hunting will render
the search for game fruitless. J. M. Garvan.

[57] It will be noted that most of the things created by Búgan from
the corrupted half of Balitúk were pests and things of evil omen to
torment the people of Kiángan as they had tormented her.

[58] Ído, or ídu, is the Ifugao name for the omen spirits. A certain
small black and white bird called pîtpît is believed to be an omen
spirit, and therefore it is also properly called ído. When an Ifugao
is going on a journey and sees one of these birds, or hears its cry,
he immediately stops and calls out to it. He tells it where he is going
and why. If the bird flies away to one side or in a forward direction,
it is a good sign; but if it flies backward along the path, uttering a
sharp cry of fright, it is a very bad omen, and the man will probably
return home and not continue on his journey until another day.

[59] I am informed by Dr. Dean S. Fansler that he obtained from an
Igorot of Túblai, Benguet, in May, 1910, a myth very similar to this
story of Búgan and Kinggáuan. The details are different, but some
of the more important incidents are the same and I will give a brief
summary of the myth here: A god named Dumágid, whose home is in one of
the lower regions of the sky, came down to the earth and lived among
the people. He taught the people many things, and often went hunting
with them in the forest. But one day, when he was out in the woods
alone, he met a beautiful girl by the name of Dúgai with whom he fell
in love, and they were married. A son was born to them, and they named
him Ovug. Shortly after this Dumágid informed the people that he must
return to the Sky World to make report to the chief deity, Kabigat,
but that he would soon come down again to the Earth World. But the
people demanded that he take his wife with him, and that they leave
their son as security for their return. Dumágid told Dúgai that the
path was so hot that she might die, but this the people would not
believe. So Dumágid and Dúgai started out, but as they approached
the sun it grew so hot that Dúgai died. Dumágid returned her body
to the earth, and went on to his home in the sky. Later he came back
to the earth, in company with the god Bangan di Bai-ángan, and told
the people that he must take his son Ovug to the Sky World. This the
people refused to allow him to do, so Dumágid took a knife and divided
his son Ovug into equal parts by cutting him straight down. When he
had done this, he told the people to keep one half and make a new boy
out of it. The other half Dumágid took with him to the Sky World and
reanimated it. Then he looked down to the Earth World and saw that
the half of his son there was becoming decayed because the people
had not given it new life. So he came down with the boy he had made,
and made another beautiful boy out of the decayed half. Then he made
the two boys stand before the astonished people. For their greater
astonishment, Dumágid asked the boy he had made in the Sky World to
talk. He spoke very loud like sharp thunder, so that the people were
frightened almost to death. Then Dumágid asked the other boy to talk,
and he spoke low like the rolling thunder. Then the first boy went
up to the Sky World whirling like fire, and thundered there. And it
is believed that this is the origin of the lightning and the sharp
thunder that comes after; and it is also believed that the low thunder
is the voice of the second boy, or the one made on the earth.

[60] Collected by myself from various Ifugaos of Banáuol clan, in
1906. A similar but less complete version was collected at the same
place by Levi E. Case, in May, 1905, and published in This Journal,
Sec. A (1909), 4, 256-260.

[61] Or Alauítan in Sub-Ifugao. See Plates I and II.

[62] The Ifugao rice drink, usually known as búbûd.

[63] About six months. The duration of the flood varies greatly in
the different versions of this myth.

[64] Incest is looked upon by the Ifugaos with horror, and is held
to be one of the gravest of crimes.

[65] The number and names of the children of Wígan and Búgan are
variable in the different Ifugao clans.

[66] The frequent repetition of Búgan as the name of a female deity is
worthy of further explanation. Búgan is the Ifugao ideal of feminine
beauty. There is no single goddess of love and beauty such as Venus
or Aphrodite, but an abstract ideal of womanly perfection. Therefore,
all beneficent female deities are called Búgan, which is also the
most common name among Ifugao women. When a man wishes to praise his
wife, he speaks of her as Búgan-ko (my Búgan), and when a young man
goes courting he often speaks of it as mum-Búgan (searching for a
Búgan). Light, fleecy clouds, high in the sky, are often called "the
wavy hair of Búgan." Such poetic usages are almost innumerable. It
is an interesting conception, and is one of the proofs of Ifugao
æsthetic development.

[67] A Chinese author, Chao Ju-kua, writing in the year 1280, mentions
that porcelain jars and bronze gongs were two of the most important
exports from China to the Philippines.--Blair and Robertson, The
Philippine Islands (1906), 34, 181-191.

[68] Free translation of an Ifugao text obtained by myself in January,
1909, from Tugínai Páit (Plate III, fig. 3), an Ifugao of Amgodé clan,
Central Ifugao.

[69] The three unbroken jars brought by Banggílît from the village
of souls in the Sky World are still in existence and their location
is as follows: The first jar is called Inhyúwat, and is owned by
Bînwâg of Búwôt. The second is called Ináyao, and is owned by Ináyao
of Hinagángan. The third is called Búût, and is owned by Búût of
Hápao. These jars have an estimated value of several hundred pesos
each, but, unless driven to it by dire extremity, their owners would
not sell them for any price. (Plate IV, fig. 1.)

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