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Title: The Book of Daniel Unlocked
Author: Auchincloss, W. S.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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The Book of Daniel Unlocked

BY

W. S. AUCHINCLOSS, C.E.

AUTHOR OF "LINK AND VALVE MOTIONS" (PUBLISHED IN BERLIN AS,
SCHEIBER-UND COULISSENSTEURUNGEN. PUBLISHED IN HOLLAND
AS, STOOMSCHUIF-EN SCHAARBEWEGINEN). AUTHOR OF
"NINETY DAYS IN THE TROPICS," ALSO OF
"WATERS WITHIN THE EARTH AND
LAWS OF RAINFALL"


INTRODUCTION BY

A. H. SAYCE, LL.D.

QUEEN'S COLLEGE, OXFORD, ENGLAND


NEW YORK

FOR SALE BY

D. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY

SCIENTIFIC BOOK PUBLISHERS

23 MURRAY STREET

1905



COPYRIGHT, 1905

BY

W. S. AUCHINCLOSS


DORNAN, PRINTER,

PHILADELPHIA



[Illustration: (Autographed) Dedicated to:--M. T. K. Auchincloss.]



[Illustration: Queen's College Seal with motto:
    "REGINÆ ERUNT NUTRICES TUÆ"]

QUEEN'S COLLEGE, OXFORD.
    SEPTEMBER 4, 1902.

Mr. Auchincloss has asked me to prefix a few words of introduction to
his book:

There is little to say, as the book tells its own tale--clear and to
the point.

He has very rightly taken the sidereal year as the basis of
his calculations; any other system of computation ends only in
difficulties.

But the reader will find other novelties, not the least among them
being the fact that the prophecies of Daniel are made to end with
the beginning of the history of the Christian Church, instead
of lengthening out into a still unknown future; this is a great
advance on previous interpreters. And he will doubtless be struck by
calculations according to which the 1290 Days of the Hebrew Prophet
terminated in A.D. 33.

[Illustration: signature of A. H. Sayce. ]



ASSOUAN, EGYPT,
    JANUARY 17, 1905.

Thus far I had written in 1902. Since then the public has shown that
it can appreciate good work by the rapidity with which copy after
copy of Mr. Auchincloss' little book has been called for. It is now
issued once more with additions and improvements, but otherwise in
an unchanged form.

There is one paragraph in it to which the Assyriologist is now able
to add a few words. Mr. Auchincloss draws attention to the sense of
completeness and perfection which is associated in the Old Testament,
not only with the number seven, but also with the number ten. It
has long been known that the Babylonians possessed a week of seven
days. But it is only recently that I have pointed out that they
also possessed a week of five days. Besides the week of five days,
however, there was a double week of ten days, the month consisting
of thirty days and being divided into three equal parts.

[Illustration: signature of A. H. Sayce. ]



PREFACE.

This study of the Book of Daniel is based on the conviction, that
its word is in very deed the Word of God. In approaching the subject
we have brought to the solution of its problems only such numerals
as were known to the ancient Hebrews and to the writers of the New
Testament. Numerals that were symbolized in their feasts and were
current before times of rejoicing. But towering over all, we have
brought God's own standard of time, viz: the sidereal year, which the
greatest of modern astronomers Laplace and Herschel tell us has not
varied the 1/100 part of a second of time in the last 2000 years. We
did so under the conviction that if the Book of Daniel was of human
origin, a piece of historic fiction, it could not stand this severe
test, yet if it was truly the Word of God it would be found resting
on that bed rock, viz:--a year whose length was

    365 days, 6 hours, 9 minutes and 9-6/10 seconds

a period unknown to the ancients but given to us by modern science.
The Book has stood the test and its true character comes out in bold
relief.

Without a perfectly fitting key, the tendency of its readers is to
treat the Book lightly, call in question its statements and smile at
its prophecies. Time, however, vindicates the statements of Daniel
and fixes on them the seal of truth. Also, newly-found inscriptions
both on rocks and tablets, together with ancient writings composed
in those times, bring to confusion adverse criticism.

The Book of Daniel is a most important part of the Word of God,
and is set like a gem among jewels. Its words of warning were
sounded 600 years before the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus. Its
prophecies are like mile-stones along the highway of Jewish history,
each one bringing the observer nearer to Messiah's kingdom, to that
"Great and Notable day of the Lord"--Pentecost of A.D. 33--when the
Holy Spirit was manifested to the Jews, also nearer to A.D. 39, the
year of the manifestation to the Gentiles. Daniel alone of all the
prophets received Divine illumination regarding these dates. They
mark the remotest boundary of his book, and therefore bar the way to
fanciful conclusions in regard to later times. Read aright, Daniel's
words have no uncertain sound, they are definite and exact like the
forecast of an astronomer.

Viewed from every standpoint the grand old President of the Chaldean
Court had a character of rare beauty and symmetry, that will continue
to shine throughout the ages. He will stand in his lot to the end
of the days; the noblest example of human courage coupled with
unquestioning faith, the typical companion, the nobleman, courtier,
seer and Prophet;--A MAN GREATLY BELOVED!



CONTENTS.

                                                    PAGE
  Introduction by Prof. A. H. Sayce, LL.D.             7
  Preface                                              9


  The Book of Daniel, with interpretation.
  Part  I.  Historic Section                       17-49
  Part II.  Prophetic Section                      53-85


NOTES.

  Notes. Jewish Independence Day                      91

        A.  Darius, or Cyaxares                       95
        B.  The Sum of the Matters                    99
        C.  Days                                     103
        D.  Two Thousand and Three Hundred Days      107
        E.  The Exodus from Persia                   113
        F.  Date of the Crucifixion                  115


CHRONOLOGY.

  The Birth of Christ. [See accompanying Chart]      121
  Years in the Life of Christ                        127
  Years in the Life of Herod                         129
  Asmonean Dynasty                                   131
  Reigns of the Chaldean and Medo-Persian Kings      133



THE BOOK OF DANIEL.



PART I.

HISTORIC SECTION.


CHAPTER I. [WRITTEN IN HEBREW].

[Sidenote: B.C. 606.]

1. In the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim king of Judah came
Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon unto Jerusalem, and besieged it.

    --This siege took place in B.C. 606. Verse 5 says that
    Daniel and the royal captives received 3 years' training
    and verse 18 shows that at the end of 3 years they
    graduated. This brings us to the year B.C. 603 which
    chapter 2 verse 1 says was the 2nd of Nebuchadnezzar's
    reign, consequently Nebuchadnezzar began to reign in
    B.C. 605. This date agrees with the figures given in the
    Almagesta of Ptolemy, also with the statements of Berosus.
    Besides it harmonizes perfectly the Bible account of
    the first 5 years in Jehoiakim's reign, as set forth in
    Jeremiah XXV, XXVI, XXVII, XXXV, XXXVI, XLV, XLVI, and
    II Kings XXIV. Still further a draughtsman can plot it
    on a chart, with the same accuracy that a surveyor can
    map a piece of land, provided he governs his work by that
    remarkable group of locking-dates set forth in Jeremiah
    XXV. 1. 2. 3. and Ezekiel XL. 1, also takes full account
    of the historic events which happened in the 1st, 7th,
    8th, 18th, and 19th years of Nebuchadnezzar's reign. It
    thus will become manifest that Daniel and his companions
    were taken captive in the Summer of B.C. 606.

2. And the Lord gave Jehoiakim king of Judah into his hand, with part
of the vessels of the house of God: which he carried into the land of
Shinar to the house of his god: and he brought the vessels into the
treasure house of his god.

    As foretold in Jeremiah XXIX. 10. the captivity of Judah
    lasted 70 years, B.C. 606 to B.C. 536, when the Lord
    stirred up the spirit of Cyrus to proclaim freedom to the
    captives. Ezra 1st. chap. Isaiah XLIV. 28.

3. And the king spake unto Ashpenaz the master of his eunuchs, that
he should bring _certain_ of the children of Israel, and of the
king's seed, and of the princes;

4. Children in whom _was_ no blemish, but well favoured, and skilful
in all wisdom, and cunning in knowledge, and understanding science,
and such as _had_ ability in them to stand in the king's palace, and
whom they might teach the learning and the tongue of the Chaldeans.

    --Precisely as foretold by the prophet Isaiah, more than a
    century prior to the event. Isaiah XXXIX. 7.

5. And the king appointed them a daily provision of the king's meat,
and of the wine which he drank: so nourishing them three years, that
at the end thereof they might stand before the king.

6. Now among these were of the children of Judah, Daniel, Hananiah,
Mishael, and Azariah:

7. Unto whom the prince of the eunuchs gave names: for he gave unto
Daniel _the name_ of Belteshazzar; and to Hananiah, of Shadrach; and
to Mishael, of Meshach; and to Azariah, of Abed-nego.

8. But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself
with the portion of the king's meat, nor with the wine which he
drank: therefore he requested of the prince of the eunuchs that he
might not defile himself.

    --"Though these three men, Noah, Daniel, and Job were
    in it, they should deliver but their own souls by their
    righteousness." Ezekiel XIV. 14. Note in passing, that
    by order of birth these names should be read Noah, Job
    and Daniel. However, according to a custom common among
    the writers of Scripture, the line of Divine favor was
    followed in preference to the order of birth. For example,
    Japheth, Ham, Shem was the order of birth; but the records
    stands: "These are the generations of the sons of Noah;
    Shem, Ham and Japheth." So too we read of "Abram, Nahor,
    and Haran" when the order of birth was Haran, Nahor and
    Abram. Also of "Aaron and Moses and Miriam," when the true
    order was Miriam, Aaron and Moses.

9. Now God had brought Daniel into favour and tender love with the
prince of the eunuchs.

10. And the prince of the eunuchs said unto Daniel, I fear my lord
the king, who hath appointed your meat and your drink: for why should
he see your faces worse liking than the children which _are_ of your
sort? then shall ye make _me_ endanger my head to the king.

11. Then said Daniel to Melzar, whom the prince of the eunuchs had
set over Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah,

12. Prove thy servants, I beseech thee, ten days; and let them give
us pulse to eat, and water to drink.

    The Scriptures everywhere associate a sense of
    completeness and perfection with the numeral 7, also with
    the numeral 10. The Mosaic Law teems with instances of
    this sort. A Sabbatic period covered 7 years. Sprinklings
    were administered 7 times, feasts lasted 7 days, priests
    carried 7 trumpets, Jericho was compassed 7 times, Naaman
    bathed 7 times in the Jordan, a servant bowed 7 times
    to his lord and so on. As to the numeral 10, the Law
    had 10 commandments, the tabernacle had 10 curtains,
    10 pillars, 10 sockets. After the Israelites had tempted
    the Lord 10 times, they were condemned to die in the
    wilderness. Ten plagues were inflicted on the Egyptians.
    In the matter of taxation, the herd was divided into
    10 parts and one part set aside for the Lord.

    When Nebuchadnezzar tested Daniel and his companions, "he
    found them 10 times better than all the magicians and
    astrologers." Thus we see plainly that the numerals 7 and
    10 conveyed the idea of completeness and perfection to the
    Hebrew mind.

[Sidenote: B.C. 603.]

13. Then let our countenances be looked upon before thee, and the
countenance of the children that eat of the portion of the king's
meat: and as thou seest, deal with thy servants.

14. So he consented to them in this matter, and proved them ten days.

15. And at the end of ten days their countenances appeared fairer and
fatter in flesh than all the children which did eat the portion of
the king's meat.

16. Thus Melzar took away the portion of their meat, and the wine
that they should drink; and gave them pulse.

17. As for these four children, God gave them knowledge and skill in
all learning and wisdom: and Daniel had understanding in all visions
and dreams.

    --"Behold art thou wiser than Daniel." Ezekiel XXVIII. 3.

18. Now at the end of the days that the king had said he should
bring them in, then the prince of the eunuchs brought them in before
Nebuchadnezzar.

    --At the end of the 3 years spoken of in verse 5.

19. And the king communed with them; and among them all was found
none like Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah: therefore stood
they before the king.

20. And in all matters of wisdom _and_ understanding, that the
king enquired of them, he found them ten times better than all the
magicians _and_ astrologers that _were_ in all his realm.

21. And Daniel continued _even_ unto the first year of king Cyrus.

    Cyrus began to reign, as king of Persia in B.C. 558, just
    twenty years prior to his conquest of Babylon in B.C. 538.
    The verse of course refers to the first year of his reign
    as king of Babylon. In the following chapter the narrative
    goes back to B.C. 603 which as already explained was the
    2nd year of Nebuchadnezzar's individual reign. His father
    Nabopolassar was still on the throne in B.C. 606, but on
    his death in B.C. 605 Nebuchadnezzar returned at once to
    Babylon and was made king, with full authority.


CHAPTER II. [HEBREW AND SYRIAC.]

[Sidenote: B.C. 603.]

1. And in the second year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar,
Nebuchadnezzar dreamed dreams, wherewith his spirit was troubled, and
his sleep brake from him.

2. Then the king commanded to call the magicians, and the
astrologers, and the sorcerers, and the Chaldeans, for to show the
king his dreams. So they came and stood before the king.

3. And the king said unto them, I have dreamed a dream, and my spirit
was troubled to know the dream.

    From this point to the end of the VI chapter Daniel wrote
    in the Syriac language. The rest of the book was written
    in Hebrew. In our own day men of affairs converse and
    write in several languages. Evidently one who was fitted
    to preside over 120 princes had many languages at his
    command.

4. Then spake the Chaldeans to the king in Syriack, O king, live
for ever; tell thy servants the dream, and we will shew the
interpretation.

5. The king answered and said to the Chaldeans, The thing is gone
from me: if ye will not make known unto me the dream, with the
interpretation thereof, ye shall be cut in pieces, and your houses
shall be made a dunghill.

6. But if ye shew the dream, and the interpretation thereof, ye shall
receive of me gifts and rewards and great honour: therefore shew me
the dream, and the interpretation thereof.

7. They answered again and said, Let the king tell his servants the
dream, and we will shew the interpretation of it.

8. The king answered and said, I know of certainty that ye would gain
the time, because ye see the thing is gone from me.

9. But if ye will not make known unto me the dream, _there is but_
one decree for you: for ye have prepared lying and corrupt words
to speak before me, till the time be changed: therefore tell me
the dream, and I shall know that ye can shew me the interpretation
thereof.

10. The Chaldeans answered before the king, and said, There is not
a man upon the earth that can shew the king's matter: therefore
_there is_ no king, lord, nor ruler, _that_ asked such things at any
magician, or astrologer, or Chaldean.

11. And _it is_ a rare thing that the king requireth, and there is
none other that can shew it before the king, except the gods, whose
dwelling is not with flesh.

12. For this cause the king was angry and very furious, and commanded
to destroy all the wise _men_ of Babylon.

13. And the decree went forth that the wise _men_ should be slain;
and they sought Daniel and his fellows to be slain.

14. Then Daniel answered with counsel and wisdom to Arioch the
captain of the king's guard, which was gone forth to slay the wise
_men_ of Babylon:

15. He answered and said to Arioch the king's captain, Why _is_ the
decree _so_ hasty from the king? Then Arioch made the thing known to
Daniel.

16. Then Daniel went in, and desired of the king that he would give
him time, and that he would shew the king the interpretation.

17. Then Daniel went to his house, and made the thing known to
Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, his companions:

18. That they would desire mercies of the God of heaven concerning
this secret; that Daniel and his fellows should not perish with the
rest of the wise _men_ of Babylon.

19. Then was the secret revealed unto Daniel in a night vision. Then
Daniel blessed the God of heaven.

20. Daniel answered and said, Blessed be the name of God for ever and
ever: for wisdom and might are his:

21. And he changeth the times and the seasons: he removeth kings, and
setteth up kings: he giveth wisdom unto the wise, and knowledge to
them that know understanding:

22. He revealeth the deep and secret things: he knoweth what _is_ in
the darkness, and the light dwelleth with him.

23. I thank thee, and praise thee, O thou God of my fathers, who hast
given me wisdom and might and hast made known unto me now what we
desired of thee: for thou hast _now_ made known unto us the king's
matter.

24. Therefore Daniel went in unto Arioch, whom the king had ordained
to destroy the wise _men_ of Babylon: he went and said thus unto him;
Destroy not the wise _men_ of Babylon: bring me in before the king,
and I will shew unto the king the interpretation.

25. Then Arioch brought in Daniel before the king in haste, and said
thus unto him, I have found a man of the captives of Judah, that will
make known unto the king the interpretation.

26. The king answered and said to Daniel, whose name _was_
Belteshazzar, Art thou able to make known unto me the dream which
I have seen, and the interpretation thereof?

27. Daniel answered in the presence of the king, and said, The secret
which the king hath demanded cannot the wise _men_, the astrologers,
the magicians, the soothsayers, shew unto the king;

28. But there is a God in heaven that revealeth secrets, and maketh
known to the king Nebuchadnezzar what shall be in the latter days.
Thy dream, and the visions of thy head upon thy bed, are these:

29. As for thee, O king, thy thoughts came _into thy mind_ upon
thy bed, what should come to pass hereafter: and he that revealeth
secrets maketh known to thee what shall come to pass.

30. But as for me, this secret is not revealed to me for _any_ wisdom
that I have more than any living, but for _their_ sakes that shall
make known the interpretation to the king, and that thou mightest
know the thoughts of thy heart.

31. Thou, O king, sawest, and behold a great image. This great image,
whose brightness _was_ excellent, stood before thee; and the form
thereof _was_ terrible.

32. This image's head _was_ of fine gold, his breast and his arms of
silver, his belly and his thighs of brass,

33. His legs of iron, his feet part of iron and part of clay.

34. Thou sawest till that a stone was cut out without hands, which
smote the image upon his feet _that were_ of iron and clay, and brake
them to pieces.

35. Then was the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold,
broken to pieces together, and became like the chaff of the summer
threshingfloors; and the wind carried them away, that no place was
found for them: and the stone that smote the image became a great
mountain, and filled the whole earth.

36. This _is_ the dream; and we will tell the interpretation thereof
before the king.

37. Thou, O king, _art_ a king of kings: for the God of heaven hath
given thee a kingdom, power, and strength, and glory.

38. And wheresoever the children of men dwell, the beasts of the
field and the fowls of the heaven hath he given into thine hand, and
hath made thee ruler over them all. Thou _art_ this head of gold.

39. And after thee shall arise another kingdom inferior to thee

    --the Medo-Persian--

and another third kingdom of brass, which shall bear rule over all
the earth

    --the Macedonian.

40. And the fourth kingdom shall be as strong as iron:

    --the Roman Empire--

forasmuch as iron breaketh in pieces and subdueth all things: and as
iron that breaketh all these, shall it break in pieces and bruise.

41. And whereas thou sawest the feet and toes, part of potters' clay,
and part of iron, the kingdom shall be divided; but there shall be
in it of the strength of the iron, forasmuch as thou sawest the iron
mixed with miry clay.

42. And _as_ the toes of the feet _were_ part of iron, and part of
clay, _so_ the kingdom shall be partly strong, and partly broken.

43. And whereas thou sawest iron mixed with miry clay, they shall
mingle themselves with the seed of men: but they shall not cleave one
to another, even as iron is not mixed with clay.

44. And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a
kingdom, which shall never be destroyed: and the kingdom shall not be
left to other people, _but_ it shall break in pieces and consume all
these kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever.

    The birth of Christ took place in B.C. 2, in the palmiest
    days of the Roman Empire. The angel Gabriel declared,
    thou "shalt call his name Jesus. He shall be great and
    shall be called the Son of the Highest; and the Lord God
    shall give unto him the throne of his father David; and
    he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of
    his kingdom there shall be no end."--Luke I. 31.--The
    right of taxation is the prerogative of sovereign power.
    When therefore Augustus Caesar began to enroll the Jews
    for purposes of taxation in B.C. 2 the power of the holy
    people was at an end and the full time of prophecy had
    arrived. It was then that Christ was born in Bethlehem
    of Judea. "The Sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor
    a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and
    unto him shall the gathering of the people be."--Genesis
    XLIX. 10.

45. Forasmuch as thou sawest that the stone was cut out of the
mountain without hands, and that it brake in pieces the iron, the
brass, the clay, the silver, and the gold; the great God hath made
known to the king what shall come to pass hereafter: and the dream
_is_ certain, and the interpretation thereof sure.

46. Then the king Nebuchadnezzar fell upon his face, and worshipped
Daniel, and commanded that they should offer an oblation and sweet
odours unto him.

47. The king answered unto Daniel, and said, Of a truth _it is_, that
your God _is_ a God of gods, and a Lord of kings, and a revealer of
secrets, seeing thou couldest reveal this secret.

48. Then the king made Daniel a great man, and gave him many great
gifts, and made him ruler over the whole province of Babylon, and
chief of the governors over all the wise _men_ of Babylon.

49. Then Daniel requested of the king, and he set Shadrach, Meshach,
and Abed-nego, over the affairs of the province of Babylon: but
Daniel _sat_ in the gate of the king.


CHAPTER III. [SYRIAC.]

[Sidenote: B.C. 593.]

1. Nebuchadnezzar the king made an image of gold, whose height _was_
threescore cubits, _and_ the breadth thereof six cubits: he set it up
in the plain of Dura, in the province of Babylon.

    --The dream described in the previous chapter, seems to
    have touched the inventive genius of king Nebuchadnezzar in
    a way, that inspired him to produce a mechanically perfect
    image--a casting of gold of priceless value--especially
    strong in every part, and one in which there were no planes
    of weakness whatever. An image that seemed to bid defiance
    to the course of events foreshadowed by the prophet Daniel.

2. Then Nebuchadnezzar the king sent to gather together the princes,
the governors, and the captains, the judges, the treasurers, the
counsellors, the sheriffs, and all the rulers of the provinces, to
come to the dedication of the image which Nebuchadnezzar the king had
set up.

    --Doubtless it was in response to this invitation that
    Zedekiah visited "Babylon in the 4th year of his reign."
    Jer. LI. 59 to 64.

3. Then the princes, the governors, and captains, the judges, the
treasurers, the counsellors, the sheriffs, and all the rulers of the
provinces, were gathered together unto the dedication of the image
that Nebuchadnezzar the king had set up; and they stood before the
image that Nebuchadnezzar had set up.

4. Then an herald cried aloud, To you it is commanded, O people,
nations, and languages,

5. _That_ at what time ye hear the sound of the cornet, flute, harp,
sackbut, psaltery, dulcimer, and all kinds of musick, ye fall down
and worship the golden image that Nebuchadnezzar the king hath set up.

    --A monarch so wealthy and whose sway covered so many
    lands, must have had at his command musicians, highly
    skilled in the use of a great variety of musical
    instruments, gathered both from Europe and Asia.

6. And whoso falleth not down and worshippeth shall the same hour be
cast into the midst of a burning fiery furnace.

7. Therefore at that time, when all the people heard the sound of
the cornet, flute, harp, sackbut, psaltery, and all kinds of musick,
all the people, the nations, and the languages, fell down, _and_
worshipped the golden image that Nebuchadnezzar the king had set up.

8. Wherefore at that time certain Chaldeans came near, and accused
the Jews.

    At the time of the Babylonian captivity the Hebrews began
    to be known as Jews, or inhabitants of Judea.

9. They spake and said to the king Nebuchadnezzar, O king, live for
ever.

10. Thou, O king, hast made a decree, that every man that shall
hear the sound of the cornet, flute, harp, sackbut, psaltery, and
dulcimer, and all kinds of musick, shall fall down and worship the
golden image:

11. And whoso falleth not down and worshippeth, _that_ he should be
cast into the midst of a burning fiery furnace.

12. There are certain Jews whom thou hast set over the affairs of
the province of Babylon, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego; these men,
O king, have not regarded thee: they serve not thy gods, nor worship
the golden image which thou hast set up.

13. Then Nebuchadnezzar in _his_ rage and fury commanded to bring
Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego. Then they brought these men before
the king.

14. Nebuchadnezzar spake and said unto them, _Is it_ true,
O Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, do not ye serve my gods, nor
worship the golden image which I have set up?

15. Now if ye be ready that at what time ye hear the sound of the
cornet, flute, harp, sackbut, psaltery, and dulcimer, and all kinds
of musick, ye fall down and worship the image which I have made;
_well_: but if ye worship not, ye shall be cast the same hour into
the midst of a burning fiery furnace; and who _is_ that God that
shall deliver you out of my hands?

16. Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, answered and said to the king,
O Nebuchadnezzar, we _are_ not careful to answer thee in this matter.

17. If it be _so_, our God whom we serve is able to deliver us from
the burning fiery furnace, and he will deliver _us_ out of thine
hand, O king.

18. But if not, be it known unto thee, O king, that we will not serve
thy gods, nor worship the golden image which thou hast set up.

19. Then was Nebuchadnezzar full of fury, and the form of his visage
was changed against Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego: _therefore_
he spake, and commanded that they should heat the furnace one seven
times more than it was wont to be heated.

    --Or, 8 times as hot as the usual temperature. The
    numeral 7 expressed the utmost intensity known to the king.

20. And he commanded the most mighty men that _were_ in his army to
bind Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, _and_ to cast _them_ into the
burning fiery furnace.

21. Then these men were bound in their coats, their hosen, and their
hats, and their _other_ garments, and were cast into the midst of the
burning fiery furnace.

22. Therefore because the king's commandment was urgent, and the
furnace exceeding hot, the flame of the fire slew those men that took
up Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego.

    --This seems to have been what is technically called
    "back-draught," which those who are skilled in feeding
    furnaces are careful to guard against, but which a soldier
    knows nothing about.

23. And these three men, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, fell down
bound into the midst of the burning fiery furnace.

24. Then Nebuchadnezzar the king was astonied, and rose up in haste,
_and_ spake, and said unto his counsellors, Did not we cast three men
bound into the midst of the fire? They answered and said unto the
king, True, O king.

25. He answered and said, Lo, I see four men loose, walking in the
midst of the fire, and they have no hurt; and the form of the fourth
is like the Son of God.

26. Then Nebuchadnezzar came near to the mouth of the burning fiery
furnace, _and_ spake, and said, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, ye
servants of the most high God, come forth, and come _hither_. Then
Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, came forth of the midst of the fire.

27. And the princes, governors, and captains, and the king's
counsellors, being gathered together, saw these men, upon whose
bodies the fire had no power, nor was an hair of their head singed,
neither were their coats changed, nor the smell of fire had passed
on them.

28. _Then_ Nebuchadnezzar spake, and said, Blessed _be_ the God
of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, who hath sent his angel, and
delivered his servants that trusted in him, and have changed the
king's word, and yielded their bodies, that they might not serve nor
worship any god, except their own God.

29. Therefore I make a decree, That every people, nation, and
language, which speak any thing amiss against the God of Shadrach,
Meshach, and Abed-nego, shall be cut in pieces, and their houses
shall be made a dunghill: because there is no other God that can
deliver after this sort.

30. Then the king promoted Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, in the
province of Babylon.


CHAPTER IV. [SYRIAC.]

1. Nebuchadnezzar the king, unto all people, nations, and languages,
that dwell in all the earth; Peace be multiplied unto you.

2. I thought it good to shew the signs and wonders that the high God
hath wrought toward me.

3. How great _are_ his signs! and how mighty _are_ his wonders! his
kingdom _is_ an everlasting kingdom, and his dominion _is_ from
generation to generation.

4. I Nebuchadnezzar was at rest in mine house, and flourishing in my
palace:

5. I saw a dream which made me afraid, and the thoughts upon my bed
and the visions of my head troubled me.

6. Therefore made I a decree to bring in all the wise _men_
of Babylon before me, that they might make known unto me the
interpretation of the dream.

7. Then came in the magicians, the astrologers, the Chaldeans, and
the soothsayers: and I told the dream before them; but they did not
make known unto me the interpretation thereof.

8. But at the last Daniel came in before me, whose name was
Belteshazzar, according to the name of my god, and in whom _is_ the
spirit of the holy gods: and before him I told the dream, _saying_,

9. O Belteshazzar, master of the magicians, because I know that
the spirit of the holy gods _is_ in thee, and no secret troubleth
thee, tell me the visions of my dream that I have seen, and the
interpretation thereof.

10. Thus _were_ the visions of mine head in my bed; I saw, and behold
a tree in the midst of the earth, and the height thereof _was_ great.

11. The tree grew, and was strong, and the height thereof reached
unto heaven, and the sight thereof to the end of all the earth:

12. The leaves thereof _were_ fair, and the fruit thereof much, and
in it _was_ meat for all: the beasts of the field had shadow under
it, and the fowls of the heaven dwelt in the boughs thereof, and all
flesh was fed of it.

13. I saw in the visions of my head upon my bed, and, behold, a
watcher and an holy one came down from heaven;

14. He cried aloud, and said thus, Hew down the tree, and cut off his
branches, shake off his leaves, and scatter his fruit: let the beasts
get away from under it, and the fowls from his branches:

15. Nevertheless leave the stump of his roots in the earth, even with
a band of iron and brass, in the tender grass of the field; and let
it be wet with the dew of heaven, and _let_ his portion _be_ with the
beasts in the grass of the earth:

16. Let his heart be changed from man's, and let a beast's heart be
given unto him; and let seven times pass over him.

    In view of the fact that Nebuchadnezzar's probation lasted
    for 12 months, see verse 29, it is reasonable to suppose
    that his dementia lasted for 7 months, or until the moon
    had passed over him 7 times, a period long enough to
    permit a rank growth of both hair and nails and yet short
    enough for a regency to hold his kingdom together without
    losing hope of his final recovery. Besides the events in
    the years of his reign are too well known to admit of a
    much longer season of affliction.

17. This matter _is_ by the decree of the watchers, and the demand
by the word of the holy ones: to the intent that the living may know
that the most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to
whomsoever he will, and setteth up over it the basest of men.

18. This dream I king Nebuchadnezzar have seen. Now thou,
O Belteshazzar, declare the interpretation thereof, forasmuch as all
the wise _men_ of my kingdom are not able to make known unto me the
interpretation: but thou _art_ able; for the spirit of the holy gods
_is_ in thee.

19. Then Daniel, whose name _was_ Belteshazzar, was astonied for
one hour, and his thoughts troubled him. The king spake, and said,
Belteshazzar, let not the dream, or the interpretation thereof,
trouble thee. Belteshazzar answered and said, My lord, the dream
_be_ to them that hate thee, and the interpretation thereof to thine
enemies.

20. The tree that thou sawest, which grew, and was strong, whose
height reached unto the heaven, and the sight thereof to all the
earth;

21. Whose leaves _were_ fair, and the fruit thereof much, and in it
_was_ meat for all; under which the beasts of the field dwelt, and
upon whose branches the fowls of the heaven had their habitation:

22. It _is_ thou, O king, that art grown and become strong: for thy
greatness is grown, and reacheth unto heaven, and thy dominion to the
end of the earth.

23. And whereas the king saw a watcher and an holy one coming down
from heaven, and saying, Hew the tree down, and destroy it; yet leave
the stump of the roots thereof in the earth, even with a band of iron
and brass, in the tender grass of the field; and let it be wet with
the dew of heaven, and _let_ his portion _be_ with the beasts of the
field, till seven times pass over him;

24. This _is_ the interpretation, O king, and this _is_ the decree of
the most High, which is come upon my lord the king:

25. That they shall drive thee from men, and thy dwelling shall be
with the beasts of the field, and they shall make thee to eat grass
as oxen, and they shall wet thee with the dew of heaven, and seven
times shall pass over thee, till thou know that the most High ruleth
in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever he will.

26. And whereas they commanded to leave the stump of the tree roots;
thy kingdom shall be sure unto thee, after that thou shalt have known
that the heavens do rule.

27. Wherefore, O king, let my counsel be acceptable unto thee, and
break off thy sins by righteousness, and thine iniquities by shewing
mercies to the poor; if it may be a lengthening of thy tranquillity.

28. All this came upon the king Nebuchadnezzar.

29. At the end of twelve months he walked in the palace of the
kingdom of Babylon.

30. The king spake, and said, Is not this great Babylon, that I have
built for the house of the kingdom by the might of my power, and for
the honour of my majesty?

31. While the word _was_ in the king's mouth, there fell a voice from
heaven, _saying_, O king Nebuchadnezzar, to thee it is spoken; The
kingdom is departed from thee.

32. And they shall drive thee from men, and thy dwelling _shall be_
with the beasts of the field: they shall make thee to eat grass as
oxen, and seven times shall pass over thee, until thou know that the
most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever
he will.

33. The same hour was the thing fulfilled upon Nebuchadnezzar: and
he was driven from men, and did eat grass as oxen, and his body was
wet with the dew of heaven, till his hairs were grown like eagles'
_feathers_, and his nails like birds' _claws_.

34. And at the end of the days I Nebuchadnezzar lifted up mine eyes
unto heaven, and mine understanding returned unto me and I blessed
the most High, and I praised and honoured him that liveth for ever,
whose dominion _is_ an everlasting dominion, and his kingdom _is_
from generation to generation:

35. And all the inhabitants of the earth _are_ reputed as nothing:
and he doeth according to his will in the army of heaven, and _among_
the inhabitants of the earth: and none can stay his hand, or say unto
him, What doest thou?

36. At the same time my reason returned unto me; and for the glory
of my kingdom, mine honour and brightness returned unto me; and my
counsellors and my lords sought unto me; and I was established in my
kingdom, and excellent majesty was added unto me.

37. Now I Nebuchadnezzar praise and extol and honour the King of
heaven, all whose works _are_ truth, and his ways judgment: and those
that walk in pride he is able to abase.


CHAPTER V. [SYRIAC.]

[Sidenote: B.C. 538.]

1. Belshazzar the king made a great feast to a thousand of his lords,
and drank wine before the thousand.

    --According to the Almagesta of Ptolemy, Nabonadios the
    father of Belshazzar ruled Babylon for 17 years. During
    the last 3 years of his reign the court and the army were
    under the control of his son who became acting king. The
    three tablets of Belshazzar fully establish his identity
    and the annalistic tablet of Cyrus throws much light on
    the affairs of the Chaldean court during the last years of
    the joint-reign. It reads like a nice piece of detective
    work.

2. Belshazzar, whiles he tasted the wine, commanded to bring the
golden and silver vessels which his father Nebuchadnezzar had taken
out of the temple which _was_ in Jerusalem; that the king, and his
princes, his wives, and his concubines, might drink therein.

    --Belshazzar's mother was a daughter of Nebuchadnezzar
    and the word Father is used in the sense of grandfather,
    exactly as in II Samuel 19. 24. Mephibosheth is spoken of
    as the son of Saul, when in fact he was the grandson of
    Saul.

3. Then they brought the golden vessels that were taken out of the
temple of the house of God which _was_ at Jerusalem; and the king,
and his princes, his wives, and his concubines, drank in them.

4. They drank wine, and praised the gods of gold, and of silver, of
brass, of iron, of wood, and of stone.

5. In the same hour came forth fingers of a man's hand, and wrote
over against the candlestick upon the plaister of the wall of the
king's palace: and the king saw the part of the hand that wrote.

6. Then the king's countenance was changed, and his thoughts troubled
him, so that the joints of his loins were loosed, and his knees smote
one against another.

7. The king cried aloud to bring in the astrologers, the Chaldeans,
and the soothsayers. _And_ the king spake, and said to the wise
_men_ of Babylon, Whosoever shall read this writing, and shew me the
interpretation thereof, shall be clothed with purple,

    --R.V.--

and _have_ a chain of gold about his neck, and shall be the third
ruler in the kingdom.

    --First Nabonadios, second Belshazzar, his son, and third
    the Interpreter.

8. Then came in all the king's wise _men_: but they could not read
the writing, nor make known to the king the interpretation thereof.

9. Then was the king Belshazzar greatly troubled, and his countenance
was changed in him, and his lords were astonied.

10. _Now_ the queen by reason of the words of the king and his lords
came into the banquet house: _and_ the queen spake and said, O
king, live for ever: let not thy thoughts trouble thee, nor let thy
countenance be changed.

    --This queen was the wife of Nabonadios and mother of
    Belshazzar. Her death is recorded on the annalistic
    tablet of Cyrus. Her funeral rites were conducted by
    Cambyses in the "Temple of the Sceptre of the world," and
    his free will offerings aggregated "Ten times the usual
    amount," a most appropriate tribute to the daughter of
    Nebuchadnezzar, that wonderful warrior, engineer and man
    of letters.

11. There is a man in thy kingdom, in whom _is_ the spirit of the
holy gods; and in the days of thy father light and understanding and
wisdom, like the wisdom of the gods, was found in him; whom the king
Nebuchadnezzar thy father, the king, _I say_, thy father, made master
of the magicians, astrologers, Chaldeans, _and_ soothsayers;

12. Forasmuch as an excellent spirit, and knowledge, and
understanding, interpreting of dreams, and shewing of hard sentences,
and dissolving of doubts, were found in the same Daniel, whom the
king named Belteshazzar: now let Daniel be called, and he will shew
the interpretation.

13. Then was Daniel brought in before the king. _And_ the king spake
and said unto Daniel, _Art_ thou that Daniel, which _art_ of the
children of the captivity of Judah, whom the king my father brought
out of Jewry?

14. I have even heard of thee, that the spirit of the gods _is_ in
thee, and _that_ light and understanding and excellent wisdom is
found in thee.

15. And now the wise _men_, the astrologers, have been brought
in before me, that they should read this writing, and make known
unto me the interpretation thereof: but they could not shew the
interpretation of the thing:

16. And I have heard of thee, that thou canst make interpretations,
and dissolve doubts: now if thou canst read the writing, and make
known to me the interpretation thereof, thou shalt be clothed with
purple,

    --R.V.--

and _have_ a chain of gold about thy neck, and shalt be the third
ruler in the kingdom.

17. Then Daniel answered and said before the king, Let thy gifts be
to thyself, and give thy rewards to another; yet I will read the
writing unto the king, and make known to him the interpretation.

18. O thou king, the most high God gave Nebuchadnezzar thy father a
kingdom, and majesty, and glory, and honour:

19. And for the majesty that he gave him, all people, nations, and
languages, trembled and feared before him: whom he would he slew; and
whom he would he kept alive; and whom he would he set up; and whom he
would he put down.

20. But when his heart was lifted up, and his mind hardened in pride,
he was deposed from his kingly throne, and they took his glory from
him:

21. And he was driven from the sons of men; and his heart was made
like the beasts, and his dwelling _was_ with the wild asses: they
fed him with grass like oxen, and his body was wet with the dew of
heaven; till he knew that the most high God ruled in the kingdom of
men, and _that_ he appointeth over it whomsoever he will.

22. And thou his son, O Belshazzar, hast not humbled thine heart,
though thou knewest all this;

23. But hast lifted up thyself against the Lord of heaven; and they
have brought the vessels of his house before thee, and thou, and thy
lords, thy wives, and thy concubines, have drunk wine in them; and
thou hast praised the gods of silver, and gold, of brass, iron, wood,
and stone, which see not, nor hear, nor know: and the God in whose
hand thy breath _is_, and whose _are_ all thy ways, hast thou not
glorified:

24. Then was the part of the hand sent from him; and this writing was
written.

25. And this _is_ the writing that was written, MENE, MENE, TEKEL,
UPHARSIN.

26. This _is_ the interpretation of the thing: MENE; God hath
numbered thy kingdom, and finished it.

27. TEKEL; Thou art weighed in the balances, and art found wanting.

28. PERES; Thy kingdom is divided, and given to the Medes and
Persians.

29. Then commanded Belshazzar, and they clothed Daniel with purple,

    --R.V.--

and _put_ a chain of gold about his neck, and made a proclamation
concerning him, that he should be the third ruler in the kingdom.

30. In that night was Belshazzar the king of the Chaldeans slain.

31. And Darius the Median took the kingdom, _being_ about threescore
and two years old.

    --After Cyrus entered Babylon and pacified its inhabitants
    he started on other expeditions and temporarily placed on
    the throne his uncle Cyaxares, king of the Medes, who was
    known as Darius among his new subjects, a name less liable
    to be confused with that of his illustrious nephew. It is
    a well known fact, that expediency often determines the
    choice of an official name for the sovereign. Thus the
    present king of England might have been known as Albert I,
    instead of Edward VII. For full explanation see NOTE A.


CHAPTER VI. [SYRIAC.]

[Sidenote: B.C. 538.]

1. It pleased Darius to set over the kingdom an hundred and twenty
princes, which should be over the whole kingdom;

2. And over these three presidents; of whom Daniel _was_ first: that
the princes might give accounts unto them, and the king should have
no damage.

3. Then this Daniel was preferred above the presidents and princes,
because an excellent spirit _was_ in him; and the king thought to set
him over the whole realm.

[Sidenote: B.C. 537.]

4. Then the presidents and princes sought to find occasion against
Daniel concerning the kingdom; but they could find none occasion nor
fault; forasmuch as he _was_ faithful, neither was there any error or
fault found in him.

5. Then said these men, We shall not find any occasion against this
Daniel, except we find _it_ against him concerning the law of his God.

6. Then these presidents and princes assembled together to the king,
and said thus unto him, King Darius, live for ever.

7. All the presidents of the kingdom, the governors, and the princes,
the counsellors, and the captains, have consulted together to
establish a royal statute, and to make a firm decree, that whosoever
shall ask a petition of any God or man for thirty days, save of thee,
O king, he shall be cast into the den of lions.

8. Now, O king, establish the decree, and sign the writing, that it
be not changed, according to the law of the Medes and Persians, which
altereth not.

9. Wherefore king Darius signed the writing and the decree.

10. Now when Daniel knew that the writing was signed, he went
into his house; and his windows being open in his chamber toward
Jerusalem, he kneeled upon his knees three times a day, and prayed,
and gave thanks before his God, as he did aforetime.

11. Then these men assembled, and found Daniel praying and making
supplication before his God.

12. Then they came near, and spake before the king concerning the
king's decree; Hast thou not signed a decree, that every man that
shall ask _a petition_ of any God or man within thirty days, save of
thee, O king, shall be cast into the den of lions? The king answered
and said, The thing _is_ true, according to the law of the Medes and
Persians, which altereth not.

13. Then answered they and said before the king, That Daniel, which
_is_ of the children of the captivity of Judah, regardeth not thee,
O king, nor the decree that thou hast signed, but maketh his petition
three times a day.

14. Then the king, when he heard _these_ words, was sore displeased
with himself, and set _his_ heart on Daniel to deliver him: and he
laboured till the going down of the sun to deliver him.

15. Then these men assembled unto the king, and said unto the king,
Know, O king, that the law of the Medes and Persians _is_, That no
decree nor statute which the king establisheth may be changed.

16. Then the king commanded, and they brought Daniel, and cast _him_
into the den of lions. _Now_ the king spake and said unto Daniel, Thy
God whom thou servest continually, he will deliver thee.

17. And a stone was brought, and laid upon the mouth of the den; and
the king sealed it with his own signet, and with the signet of his
lords; that the purpose might not be changed concerning Daniel.

18. Then the king went to his palace, and passed the night fasting:
neither were instruments of musick brought before him: and his sleep
went from him.

19. Then the king arose very early in the morning, and went in haste
unto the den of lions.

20. And when he came to the den, he cried with a lamentable voice
unto Daniel: _and_ the king spake and said to Daniel, O Daniel,
servant of the living God, is thy God, whom thou servest continually,
able to deliver thee from the lions?

21. Then said Daniel unto the king, O king, live for ever.

22. My God hath sent his angel, and hath shut the lions' mouths, that
they have not hurt me: forasmuch as before him innocency was found in
me; and also before thee, O king, have I done no hurt.

23. Then was the king exceeding glad for him, and commanded that
they should take Daniel up out of the den. So Daniel was taken up
out of the den, and no manner of hurt was found upon him, because he
believed in his God.

    --Hebrews XI. 32, 33.

24. And the king commanded, and they brought those men which had
accused Daniel, and they cast _them_ into the den of lions, them,
their children, and their wives; and the lions had the mastery of
them, and brake all their bones in pieces or ever they came at the
bottom of the den.

25. Then king Darius wrote unto all people, nations, and languages,
that dwell in all the earth; Peace be multiplied unto you.

26. I make a decree, That in every dominion of my kingdom men tremble
and fear before the God of Daniel: for he _is_ the living God,
and stedfast for ever, and his kingdom _that_ which shall not be
destroyed, and his dominion _shall be even_ unto the end.

27. He delivereth and rescueth, and he worketh signs and wonders in
heaven and in earth, who hath delivered Daniel from the power of the
lions.

28. So this Daniel prospered in the reign of Darius, and in the reign
of Cyrus the Persian.

    Here ends the historical portion of the book of Daniel.



PART II.

PROPHETIC SECTION.



CHAPTER VII. [HEBREW.]

[Sidenote: B.C. 541.]

1. In the first year of Belshazzar king of Babylon Daniel had a dream
and visions of his head upon his bed: then he wrote the dream, _and_
told the sum of the matters.

2. Daniel spake and said, I saw in my vision by night, and, behold,
the four winds of the heaven strove upon the great sea.

    --The known world.--

3. And four great beasts came up from the sea, diverse one from
another.

    --Symbolical of Four powerful dynasties.--

[Sidenote: B.C. 490.]

4. The first _was_ like a lion, and had eagle's wings:

    --Medo-Persian empire.--

I beheld till the wings thereof were plucked,

    --Persia defeated by Greece at Marathon.--

and it was lifted up from the earth, and made stand upon the feet as
a man, and a man's heart was given unto it.

    --Was transformed by Greek art and civilization.

5. And behold another beast, a second, like to a bear,

    --The Hellenes, or Greece and her colonies in their palmy
    days--

and it raised up itself on one side,

    --faced in the direction of Persia--

and _it had_ three ribs in the mouth of it between the teeth of it:

    --3 columns of strength, viz:--Athens, Sparta and Thebes.
    The vision made its appearance 21 years before the
    Alliance was formed. The ribs therefore, had not knit in
    place when the heavenly visitor made known the fact of
    their future union. The alliance lasted 93 years, see
    Thucydides III. 69.--

and they said thus unto it, Arise, devour much flesh

    --destroy hundreds of thousands in your Persian and civil
    wars.

6. After this I beheld, and lo another, like a leopard,

    --The Macedonian Empire--

which had upon the back of it four wings of a fowl; the beast had
also four heads; and dominion was given to it.

    Philip king of Macedon subjugated the disunited Greek
    States at the battle of Chaeronea in B.C. 338, and
    Alexander the Great conquered a kingdom extending from
    Greece to India in B.C. 336.

7. After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast,
dreadful and terrible,

    --Roman Empire.--

and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth: it devoured and
brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it: and it
_was_ diverse

    --a republic, not a kingdom--

from all the beasts that _were_ before it; and it had 10 horns.

    --verse 24, the rulers following the Jugurthine war.

8. I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them
another little horn,

    --the family of the Caesars--

before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the
roots: and, behold, in this horn _were_ eyes like the eyes of a man,
and a mouth speaking great things

    --the triumvirate ended with the battle of Actium
    Sept. 3rd, B.C. 31. Divine honors were accorded to
    Augustus. He took 3 censuses of the Roman Empire and
    possessed the most intimate knowledge of its resources,
    the last inventory was found in his own handwriting.
    Suetonius, Aug. XVI.----Livy CXXXII.

9. I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of days
did sit, whose garment _was_ white as snow, and the hair of his head
like the pure wool: his throne _was like_ the fiery flame, _and_ his
wheels _as_ burning fire.

10. A fiery stream issued and came forth from before him: thousand
thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand
stood before him: the judgment was set, and the books were opened.

    --Divine forbearance had reached its limit, the voice of
    the prophets went unheeded, and the desolation spoken of
    by Moses was about to fall on the Jews.

11. I beheld then because of the voice of the great words which the
horn spake: I beheld _even_ till the beast was slain, and his body
destroyed, and given to the burning flame.

12. As concerning the rest of the beasts, they had their dominion
taken away: yet their lives were prolonged for a season and time.

13. I saw in the night visions, and, behold, _one_ like the Son of
man came with the clouds of heaven,

    --"while they beheld, he was taken up; and a cloud
    received him out of their sight," Acts I. 9--

and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him.

    --"I see the heavens opened, and the Son of man standing
    on the right hand of God."--Acts VII. 55.

14. And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that
all people, nations, and languages, should serve him: his dominion
_is_ an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his
kingdom _that_ which shall not be destroyed.

    "For unto us a child is born, unto us a Son is given; and
    the government shall be upon his shoulders: and his name
    shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, the mighty God, the
    everlasting Father, the Prince of Peace. Of the increase
    of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon
    the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it,
    and to establish it with judgment and with justice from
    henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the Lord of hosts
    will perform this."--Isa. IX. 6 and 7.

15. I Daniel was grieved in my spirit in the midst of _my_ body, and
the visions of my head troubled me.

16. I came near unto one of them that stood by, and asked him the
truth of all this. So he told me, and made me know the interpretation
of the things.

17. These great beasts, which are four, _are_ four kings, _which_
shall arise out of the earth.

18. But the saints of the most High shall take the kingdom, and
possess the kingdom for ever, even for ever and ever.

    --The Spiritual kingdom of the Messiah.

19. Then I would know the truth of the fourth beast, which was
diverse from all the others, exceeding dreadful, whose teeth _were_
of iron, and his nails _of_ brass; _which_ devoured, brake in pieces,
and stamped the residue with his feet;

20. And of the ten horns that _were_ in his head, and _of_ the other
which came up, and before whom three fell; even _of_ that horn that
had eyes, and a mouth that spake very great things, whose look _was_
more stout than his fellows.

21. I beheld, and the same horn made war with the saints, and
prevailed against them;

    --Nero the descendant of Augustus began the first
    persecution in A.D. 65.

22. Until the Ancient of days came, and judgment was given to the
saints of the most High; and the time came that the saints possessed
the kingdom.

23. Thus he said, The fourth beast shall be the fourth kingdom upon
earth, which shall be diverse from all kingdoms, and shall devour the
whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces.

24. And the ten horns out of this kingdom _are_ ten kings _that_
shall arise: and another shall rise after them; and he shall be
diverse from the first, and he shall subdue three kings.

25. And he

    --in the person of his descendants--

shall speak _great_ words against the most High, and shall wear out
the saints of the most High, and think to change times and laws: and
they shall be given unto his hand until a time and times and the
dividing of time.

    --This formula summarizes that which has gone before. It
    starts with the Medo-Persian kingdom of Cyrus, established
    in the year B.C. 558, as typified by the lion in verse
    four, and reaches over to the year A.D. 39 when the
    Gentiles were admitted to Messiah's kingdom as promised
    in verse 18. For full explanation see NOTE B.

26. But the judgment shall sit, and they shall take away his
dominion, to consume and to destroy _it_ unto the end.

27. And the kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of the kingdom
under the whole heaven, shall be given to the people of the saints
of the most High, whose kingdom _is_ an everlasting kingdom, and all
dominions shall serve and obey him.

28. Hitherto _is_ the end of the matter. As for me Daniel, my
cogitations much troubled me, and my countenance changed in me: but
I kept the matter in my heart.


CHAPTER VIII. [HEBREW.]

[Sidenote: B.C. 539-8.]

1. In the third year of the reign of king Belshazzar a vision
appeared unto me, _even unto_ me Daniel, after that which appeared
unto me at the first.

2. And I saw in a vision; and it came to pass, when I saw, that
I _was_ at Shushan _in_ the palace, which _is_ in the province of
Elam; and I saw in a vision, and I was by the river of Ulai.

3. Then I lifted up mine eyes, and saw, and, behold, there stood
before the river a ram which had _two_ horns: and the _two_ horns
_were_ high;

    --the Medo-Persian Empire--

but one

    --Persia--

_was_ higher than the other, and the higher came up last.

4. I saw the ram pushing westward, and northward, and southward;

    --The Medo-Persian Empire embraced all the civilized
    nations of Asia--

so that no beast might stand before him, neither was there any that
could deliver out of his hand; but he

    --Cyrus, and his descendants and next of kin--

did according to his will, and became great.

5. And as I was considering, behold a he-goat

    --The Hellenes (Greece and her colonies)--

came from the West on the face of the whole earth, and touched not
the ground; and the goat had a notable horn between his eyes.

6. And he came to the ram that had two horns, which I had seen
standing before the river and ran unto him in the fury of his power

    --Battles of Marathon B.C. 490, Salamis and Plataea
    B.C. 480 and 479.

7. And I saw him

    --Alexander the Great, after Greece was conquered by the
    Macedonians B.C. 334--

come close unto the ram

    --Battles of Granicus and Issus.--

and he was moved with choler against him, and smote the ram, and
brake his two horns, and there was no power in the ram to stand
before him;

    --Alexander was greatly pleased when shown this
    prophecy--Josephus 11. 8. 5.--

but he cast him down to the ground and stamped upon him, and there
was none that could deliver the ram out of his hand.

    --B.C. 331 Alexander defeated the Persians on the plain
    of Babylon. He then pushed on to India and conquered the
    Punjaub, land of the five rivers.

8. Therefore the he-goat waxed very great:

    --Alexander the Great also conquered Egypt, Palestine,
    Phoenicia and Tyre. He built Alexandria and ruled from
    Greece to the Ganges.--

and when he was strong, the great horn was broken;

    --Alexander died in India of intemperance and left no
    successor.--

and for it came up four notable ones toward the 4 winds of heaven.

    --Alexander's kingdom fell to his 4 generals:
          Antigonus took Persia,
          Seleucus took Syria,
          Ptolemy took Egypt,
          Cassander took Macedon.

9. And out of one of them

    --Seleucus--

came forth a little horn

    --kingdom of the Seleucidæ--

which waxed exceeding great, toward the south

    --Egypt--

and toward the east

    --between the Hellespont and the Indus--

and toward the pleasant land.

    --Palestine.

10. And it waxed great

    --under Antiochus III, the Great--

even to the host of heaven;

    --the Jewish nation--

and it cast down some of the host and of the stars to the ground,

    --Judah and Benjamin--

and stamped upon them.

11. Yea it

    --under king Antiochus Epiphanes--

magnified itself, even to the Prince of the host;

    --Judah, and the capital city Jerusalem--

and it took away from him the continual burnt offering, and the place
of his Sanctuary was cast down.

    --R.V.

12. And the host was given over to it together with the continual
burnt offering through transgression;

    --Antiochus also set up heathen altars in every village
    and town, on which the Jews were obliged to sacrifice
    swine's flesh daily--

and it cast down the truth to the ground, and it did its pleasure and
prospered.

    --R.V.

13. Then I heard one saint speaking and another saint said unto that
certain saint which spake:--

"How long shall be the vision concerning the daily sacrifice and the
transgression of desolation, to give both the Sanctuary and the host

    --the National government--

to be trodden under foot?"

14. And he said unto me, Unto two thousand and three hundred days;
then shall the sanctuary be cleansed.

    --The period amounted to 308 yrs. 6 mos. 21 days and
    extended from Oct. 14th B.C. 450 to May 4th B.C. 141, at
    which time the TEMPLE was CLEANSED by Simon Maccabeus. For
    a full explanation see NOTES C. and D.

15. And it came to pass, when I, _even_ I Daniel, had seen the
vision, and sought for the meaning, then, behold, there stood before
me as the appearance of a man.

16. And I heard a man's voice between _the banks of_ Ulai, which
called, and said, Gabriel, make this _man_ to understand the vision.

17. So he came near where I stood: and when he came, I was afraid,
and fell upon my face: but he said unto me, Understand, O son of man:
for at the time of the end _shall be_ the vision.

18. Now as he was speaking with me, I was in a deep sleep on my face
toward the ground: but he touched me, and set me upright.

19. And he said, Behold, I will make thee know what shall be in the
last end of the indignation: for at the time appointed the end _shall
be_.

20. The ram which thou sawest having _two_ horns _are_ the kings of
Media and Persia.

21. And the rough goat _is_ the king of Grecia: and the great horn
that _is_ between his eyes _is_ the first king.

    --Alexander the Great who united Greece and Macedon
    (verse 8).

22. Now that being broken, whereas four stood up for it, four
kingdoms shall stand up out of the nation, but not in his power.

23. And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors
are come to the full,

    --the Jewish people--

a king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences shall
stand up.

    --Antiochus III, the Great, who subjected Judea and
    greatly oppressed the Jewish people. His times were noted
    for corruption and crime.

24. And his power shall be mighty, but not by his own power: and he
shall destroy wonderfully, and shall prosper, and practise, and shall
destroy the mighty and the holy people.

25. And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in
his hand; and he shall magnify _himself_ in his heart, and by peace
shall destroy many: he shall also stand up against the Prince of
princes;

    --the Roman Empire had no kings and therefore its rulers
    were spoken of as Princes. It was a favorite term for a
    king to designate himself as "King of Kings." The same
    thought could be expressed as regards the Romans, by the
    words "Prince of Princes"--

but he shall be broken without hand.

    --Antiochus died from intemperance.

26. And the vision of the evening and the morning which was told _is_
true: wherefore shut thou up the vision; for it _shall be_ for many
days.

27. And I Daniel fainted, and was sick _certain_ days; afterward
I rose up, and did the king's business; and I was astonished at the
vision, but none understood _it_.


CHAPTER IX. [HEBREW.]

[Sidenote: B.C. 538-7.]

1. In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of
the Medes, which was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans;

    --by Cyrus.

2. In the first year of his reign I Daniel understood by books
the number of the years, whereof the word of the LORD came to
Jeremiah the prophet, that he would accomplish seventy years in
the desolations of Jerusalem.

    --"For thus saith the Lord, that after 70 years be
    accomplished at Babylon I will visit you, and perform my
    good word toward you, in causing you to return to this
    place." Jeremiah XXIX. 10.

3. And I set my face unto the Lord God, to seek by prayer and
supplications, with fasting, and sackcloth, and ashes:

4. And I prayed unto the Lord my God, and made my confession, and
said, O Lord, the great and dreadful God, keeping the covenant and
mercy to them that love him, and to them that keep his commandments;

5. We have sinned, and have committed iniquity, and have done
wickedly, and have rebelled, even by departing from thy precepts and
from thy judgments:

6. Neither have we hearkened unto thy servants the prophets, which
spake in thy name to our kings, our princes, and our fathers, and to
all the people of the land.

7. O Lord, righteousness _belongeth_ unto thee, but unto us confusion
of faces, as at this day; to the men of Judah, and to the inhabitants
of Jerusalem, and unto all Israel, _that are_ near, and _that are_
far off, through all the countries whither thou hast driven them,
because of their trespass that they have trespassed against thee.

8. O Lord, to us _belongeth_ confusion of face, to our kings, to our
princes, and to our fathers, because we have sinned against thee.

9. To the Lord our God _belong_ mercies and forgivenesses, though we
have rebelled against him;

10. Neither have we obeyed the voice of the LORD our God, to walk in
his laws, which he set before us by his servants the prophets.

11. Yea, all Israel have trangressed thy law, even by departing, that
they might not obey thy voice; therefore the curse is poured upon us,
and the oath that _is_ written in the law of Moses the servant of
God, because we have sinned against him.

12. And he hath confirmed his words, which he spake against us, and
against our judges that judged us, by bringing upon us a great evil:
for under the whole heaven hath not been done as hath been done upon
Jerusalem.

13. As _it is_ written in the law of Moses, all this evil is come
upon us: yet made we not our prayer before the LORD our God, that we
might turn from our iniquities, and understand thy truth.

14. Therefore hath the LORD watched upon the evil, and brought it
upon us: for the LORD our God _is_ righteous in all his works which
he doeth: for we obeyed not his voice.

15. And now, O Lord our God, that hast brought thy people forth out
of the land of Egypt with a mighty hand, and hast gotten thee renown,
as at this day; we have sinned, we have done wickedly.

16. O Lord, according to all thy righteousness, I beseech thee, let
thine anger and thy fury be turned away from thy city Jerusalem, thy
holy mountain: because of our sins, and for the iniquities of our
fathers, Jerusalem and thy people _are become_ a reproach to all
_that are_ about us.

17. Now therefore, O our God, hear the prayer of thy servant, and his
supplications, and cause thy face to shine upon thy sanctuary that is
desolate, for the Lord's sake.

18. O my God, incline thine ear, and hear; open thine eyes, and
behold our desolations, and the city which is called by thy name:
for we do not present our supplications before thee for our
righteousnesses, but for thy great mercies.

19. O Lord, hear; O Lord, forgive; O Lord, hearken and do; defer not,
for thine own sake, O my God: for thy city and thy people are called
by thy name.

20. And whiles I was speaking, and praying, and confessing my sin and
the sin of my people Israel, and presenting my supplication before
the LORD my God for the holy mountain of my God;

21. Yea, whiles I _was_ speaking in prayer, even the man Gabriel,
whom I had seen in the vision at the beginning,

    --Daniel VIII. 16--

being caused to fly swiftly, touched me about the time of the evening
oblation.

22. And he informed _me_, and talked with me, and said, O Daniel,
I am now come forth to give thee skill and understanding.

23. At the beginning of thy supplications the commandment came
forth, and I am come to shew _thee_; for thou _art_ greatly beloved:
therefore understand the matter, and consider the vision.

    The next four verses should be read as a whole. The burden
    of their message is the date of Messiah's sacrifice, the
    time when he would "be cut off, but not for himself."
    An event of supreme moment to the entire human race. In
    making this revelation the heavenly visitor took the
    Sabbatic period of 7 years as his standard of time. The
    Greeks had a system of Olympiads, each 4 years in length.
    In our day the standard measure is one year. We must
    therefore lay aside our ordinary line of thought and in
    reading the next 4 verses we must accustom ourselves to
    thinking in PERIODS OF 7 YEARS EACH and remember that
    whenever an event took place it happened in some period
    7 years in length. So that when the angel spoke of "the
    going forth of the commandment" he pointed to a Sabbatic
    period of 7 years, not to a certain day, hour, or minute
    of a given year, but to a group of 7 years as a whole,
    in a word to a certain "week," when therefore, he spoke
    of more "weeks" to follow the additional ones came in
    regular succession and the sum of the series must of
    necessity equal the full time revealed. The starting point
    was plainly the river Ahava and the time of their Exodus
    from Persia was just 2 days prior to the Passover of
    B.C. 458--see NOTE E. The first "week" therefore ended
    in B.C. 451, the second "week" in B.C. 444, the third
    in 437 and so on, until the end of the eighth week in
    B.C. 402. Up to that time the Jews were favored by
    the Persian government, but Persia lost her power and
    influence at the battle of Cunaxa in B.C. 401. Then
    followed 62 Sabbatic periods, or 434 years, ending with
    the Passover of A.D. 33 at which time Messiah was cut
    off. The three periods, 1 week plus 7 weeks plus 62 weeks
    make a total of "70 weeks" and prove the accuracy of the
    heavenly prediction.

24. Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy
city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and
to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting
righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint
the most Holy.

25. Know therefore and understand, _that_ from the

    --week of the--

going forth of the commandment

    --of Artaxerxes--

to restore and to build Jerusalem unto Messiah the Prince _shall be_
7 weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built
again, and the wall, even in troublous times.

    --How troublous is told by Nehemiah where he says: "we
    returned all of us to the wall, every one unto his work.
    And it came to pass from that time forth, the half of my
    servants wrought in the work and the other half of them
    held both the spears, the shields, and the bows and the
    coats of mail."

26. And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but
not for himself: and the people of the prince that shall come

    --the Romans under Petronius in A.D. 40 and under Titus in
    A.D. 66--

shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof _shall
be_ with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are
determined.

    --or, "it shall be cut off by desolations." Josephus says
    that 1,100,000 perished in the siege and 97,000 were
    carried away captive.

27. And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in
the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation
to cease,

    --This "one week" was divided into 2 parts of 3½ years
    each. The first half covered the Ministry of the Messiah
    and therefore was embraced within the 70 weeks. The last
    half extended beyond the 70 weeks and ended in A.D. 36.
    It was a period of remarkable growth in the infant church;
    Pilate however ceased to be procurator in A.D. 36 and
    the persecution described in the VIIIth chapter of Acts
    immediately set in.--

and for the overspreading of abomination he shall make _it_ desolate,

    --or, "upon the battlements shall be the idols of the
    desolator." see also Matt. XXIV. 15.--

even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon
the desolate.

    --Jerusalem was taken by the Romans on the 2nd of Sept.
    A.D. 70. Then the prophecy of Ezekiel was fulfilled:--"I
    will scatter thee among the heathen and disperse thee in
    the countries."

    REMARKS. To understand what follows, all divisions of
    chapter and verse should be obliterated, from this point
    to the end of the book. The subject matter should be taken
    as descriptive of what Daniel saw and heard "by the side
    of the great river, which is Hiddekel" "in the third year
    of Cyrus, king of Persia." The description reminds us
    forcibly of the experiences of the apostle John and the
    apostle Paul. The vision had a twofold object: first, to
    reveal "what shall befall thy people in the latter days,"
    and second, to give additional information concerning
    Messiah's kingdom said to be distant "many days." The
    entire eleventh chapter from verse 2 to the end is devoted
    to the days following Nehemiah's rule. In the first four
    verses of Chapter XII. we catch a glimpse of the coming
    kingdom, also the destruction of Jerusalem, while verses
    5 to 13 set forth the coming of the Holy Spirit.

    More than 200 years prior to Daniel's day, the prophet
    Joel had pointed to the same great event when he
    said:--"And it shall come to pass afterward, that I will
    pour out my Spirit upon all flesh; and your sons and your
    daughters shall prophesy, your old men shall dream dreams,
    your young men shall see visions; And also upon the
    servants and upon the handmaids in those days will I pour
    out my Spirit." Joel II. 28, also Acts II. 17.


CHAPTER X. [HEBREW.]

[Sidenote: B.C. 536-5.]

1. In the third year

    --third since the conquest of Babylon, but first in the
    personal reign over Babylon--

of Cyrus king of Persia a thing was revealed unto Daniel, whose name
was Belteshazzar; and the thing _was_ true, but the time appointed
was long: and he understood the thing, and had understanding of the
vision.

2. In those days I Daniel was mourning three full weeks.

3. I ate no pleasant bread, neither came flesh nor wine in my mouth,
neither did I anoint myself at all, till three whole weeks were
fulfilled.

4. And in the four and twentieth day of the first month, as I was by
the side of the great river, which _is_ Hiddekel;

    --Tigris is the modern name for the river Hiddekel. The
    period of Daniel's mourning began on Saturday, March 31st,
    B.C. 536, and continued 3 weeks until Saturday, April 21st.
    Meantime the Passover occurred on Thursday, April 12th.

5. Then I lifted up mine eyes, and looked, and behold a certain man
clothed in linen, whose loins _were_ girded with fine gold of Uphaz:

    --Ophir--

6. His body also _was_ like the beryl, and his face as the appearance
of lightning, and his eyes as lamps of fire, and his arms and his
feet like in colour to polished brass, and the voice of his words
like the voice of a multitude.

    --"One like unto the Son of man, clothed with a garment
    down to the foot, and girt about the paps with a golden
    girdle. His head and his hairs were white like wool, as
    white as snow; and his eyes were as a flame of fire; and
    his feet like unto fine brass, as if they burned in a
    furnace; and his voice as the sound of many waters."
    Rev. I. 13, 14, 15.

7. And I Daniel alone saw the vision: for the men that were with me
saw not the vision; but a great quaking fell upon them, so that they
fled to hide themselves.

    --"And they that were with me saw indeed the light, and
    were afraid; but they heard not the voice of Him that
    spake to me." Acts XXII. 9 also IX. 7.

8. Therefore I was left alone, and saw this great vision, and there
remained no strength in me: for my comeliness was turned in me into
corruption, and I retained no strength.

9. Yet heard I the voice of his words: and when I heard the voice of
his words, then was I in a deep sleep on my face, and my face toward
the ground.

    Daniel was completely overcome by the glory of this Divine
    manifestation.

10. And, behold, an hand touched me, which set me upon my knees and
_upon_ the palms of my hands.

    The angel Gabriel now appears on the scene, and again
    assures Daniel that he is greatly beloved and continues the
    kindly offices spoken of in Daniel VIII. 16.--IX. 21, 22.

11. And he said unto me, O Daniel, a man greatly beloved, understand
the words that I speak unto thee, and stand upright: for unto thee
am I now sent. And when he had spoken this word unto me, I stood
trembling.

    --John was the beloved apostle, John XIII. 23 and Daniel
    the beloved prophet, Dan. IX. 23.

12. Then said he unto me, Fear not, Daniel: for from the first day
that thou didst set thine heart to understand, and to chasten thyself
before thy God, thy words were heard, and I am come for thy words.

13. But the prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me one and
twenty days: but, lo, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help
me; and I remained there with the kings of Persia.

    --"Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, that the
    word of the Lord spoken by the mouth of Jeremiah might be
    accomplished, the Lord stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king
    of Persia, that he made a proclamation." II Chron. XXXVI. 22.

14. Now I am come to make thee understand what shall befall thy
people in the latter days: for yet the vision _is_ for _many_ days.

15. And when he had spoken such words unto me, I set my face toward
the ground, and I became dumb.

16. And, behold, _one_ like the similitude of the sons of men touched
my lips: then I opened my mouth, and spake, and said unto him that
stood before me, O my lord, by the vision my sorrows are turned upon
me, and I have retained no strength.

17. For how can the servant of this my lord talk with this my lord?
for as for me, straightway there remained no strength in me, neither
is there breath left in me.

18. Then there came again and touched me _one_ like the appearance of
a man, and he strengthened me,

19. And said, O man greatly beloved, fear not: peace _be_ unto thee,
be strong, yea, be strong. And when he had spoken unto me, I was
strengthened, and said, Let my lord speak; for thou hast strengthened
me.

20. Then said he, Knowest thou wherefore I come unto thee? and now
will I return to fight with the prince of Persia: and when I am gone
forth, lo, the prince of Grecia shall come.

    --Dan. VIII. 21.

21. But I will shew thee that which is noted in the scripture of
truth:

    --the Book of future events--

and _there is_ none that holdeth with me in these things, but Michael
your prince.

    --"Michael the archangel." See Jude 9th verse.--"The
    captain of the Lord's host." See Joshua V. 15.--"Michael
    and his angels fought against the dragon and his angels."
    Rev. XII. 7.

    The next chapter gives a bird's-eye view of the period
    covered by the 2300 days. For a full explanation see NOTE D.


CHAPTER XI. [HEBREW.]

1. Also I

    --Gabriel--

in the first year of Darius the Mede, _even_ I, stood to confirm and
to strengthen him.

    --This does not indicate a change of date, it simply
    declares that the same solicitude was now bestowed
    on Cyrus, as had been manifested toward his royal
    representative Darius the Mede, when first placed on
    the throne of Babylon by Cyrus.

2. And now

    --"in the third year" since Cyrus captured the city.
    Daniel X. 1.--

will I show thee the truth. Behold there shall stand up yet

    --after the setting up of the sanctuary and the host,
    B.C. 445, three kings in Persia, viz.: Darius Nothus,
    Artaxerxes Mnemon, and Ochus,--

and the fourth

    --Darius Codomannus--

shall be far richer than _they_ all: and by his strength and through
his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia.

3. And a mighty king

    --Alexander the Great--

shall stand up, that shall rule with great dominion, and do according
to his will.

    --from Greece to India.

4. And when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall
be divided toward the four winds of heaven;

    --among his four generals;--

and not to his posterity, nor according to his dominion which he
ruled: for his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others beside
those.

5. And the king of the south

    --Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt--

shall be strong, and _one_ of his princes; and he shall be strong
above him

    --Antiochus II--

and have dominion; his dominion _shall_ be a great dominion.

6. And in the end of the years

    --in the course of time--

they shall join themselves together; for the king's daughter

    --Bernice--

of the south shall come to the king of the north to make an agreement:

    --Antiochus banished his own wife Laodice and her children
    in favor of Bernice--

but she shall not retain the power of the arm; neither shall he
stand, nor his arm: but she shall be given up

    --Antiochus after the death of Ptolemy expelled Bernice
    and recalled the rejected Laodice.--

and they that brought her, and he that begat her, and he that
strengthened her in _these_ times.

7. But out of a branch of her roots

    --Ptolemy II, called Evergetes--

shall _one_ stand up in his estate, which shall come with an army,
and shall enter into the fortress of the king of the north and shall
deal against them and shall prevail:

    --Laodice placed her son Seleucus II on the throne.
    Ptolemy III made an expedition against Syria, slew Laodice
    and conquered the realm from Cilicia to the Tigris.

8. And shall also carry captives into Egypt their gods, with their
princes, _and_ with their precious vessels of silver and of gold

    --the booty was immense, 2500 idols, 4000 talents of gold,
    etc.--

and he shall continue _more_ years than the king of the north.

9. So the king of the south shall come into _his_ kingdom, and shall
return into his own land.

10. But his sons

    --Seleucus III and Antiochus III, the Great--

shall be stirred up and shall assemble a multitude of great forces:
and _one_ shall certainly come, and overflow, and pass through; then
shall he return, and be stirred up, _even_ to his fortress.

11. And the king of the south

    --Ptolemy IV, was luxurious and indolent--

shall be moved with choler, and shall come forth and fight with him,
_even_ with the king of the north: and he shall set forth a great
multitude: but the multitude shall be given into his hand.

    --Ptolemy defeated Antiochus near Gaza but did not follow
    up the victory.

12. _And_ when he hath taken away the multitude, his heart shall be
lifted up; and he shall cast down _many_ ten thousands: but he shall
not be strengthened _by it_.

13. For the king of the north

    --Antiochus the Great--

shall return, and shall set forth a multitude greater than the
former, and shall certainly come after certain years with a great
army and with much riches.

14. And in those times there shall many stand up against the king of
the south; also the robbers of thy people

    --secret enemies of the Jews--

shall exalt themselves to establish the vision; but they shall fail.

15. So the king of the north shall come, and cast up a mount, and
take the most fenced cities; and the arms of the south shall not
withstand, neither his chosen people, neither _shall there be any_
strength to withstand.

16. But he that cometh against him shall do according to his own will,

    --the wars of Antiochus the Great--

and none shall stand before him: and he shall stand in the glorious
land

    --Palestine--

which by his hand shall be consumed.

17. He shall also set his face to enter with the strength of his
whole kingdom, and upright ones with him; thus shall he do: and he
shall give him the daughter of women, corrupting her:

    --Using marriage for political gain: Antiochus gave his
    daughter Cleopatra in marriage to Ptolemy Epiphanes,
    hoping for benefit, but it turned out otherwise--

but she shall not stand _on his side_, neither be for him.

18. After this he shall turn his face unto the Isles, and shall take
many: but a prince

    --a Roman General--

for his own behalf shall cause the reproach offered by him to cease;
without his own reproach

    --Antiochus said:--"Asia did not concern the Romans and he
    was not subject to their orders"--

he shall cause _it_ to turn upon him.

    --He was defeated by the Romans, at Magnesia.

19. Then he shall turn his face toward the fort of his own land;

    --pillage the temples--

but he shall stumble and fall, and not be found.

    --Antiochus the Great was slain.

20. Then shall stand up in his estate a raiser of taxes _in_ the
glory of the kingdom:

    --his son Seleucus Philopater, who sent out Heliodorus and
    taxed the temples as well as the people--

but within a few days he shall be destroyed, neither in anger, nor in
battle.

    --Seleucus shortly after, died in a mysterious manner.

21. And in his estate shall stand up a vile person,

    --Antiochus Epiphanes--

to whom they shall not give the honor of the kingdom: but he shall
come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries.

22. And with the arms of a flood shall they be overflown from before
him, and shall be broken; yea, also the prince of the covenant.

    --Onias III, the high priest was put to death by his order.

23. And after the league _made_ with him he shall work deceitfully:
for he shall come up, and shall become strong with a small people.

24. He shall enter peaceably even upon the fattest places of the
province; and he shall do that which his fathers have not done, nor
his father's fathers; he shall scatter among them the prey, and
spoil, and riches: yea, and he shall forecast his devices against
the strongholds even for a time.

25. And he shall stir up his power and his courage against the king
of the south with a great army; and the king of the south

    --Ptolemy Philometer--

shall be stirred up to battle with a very great and mighty army; but
he shall not stand: for they shall forecast devices against him.

26. Yea, they that feed of the portion of his meat shall destroy him,
and his army shall overflow: and many shall fall down slain.

27. And both these kings' hearts _shall_ be to do mischief, and they
shall speak lies at one table

    --a pretended friendship--

but it  shall not prosper: for yet the end _shall be_ at the time
appointed.

28. Then shall he return into his land with great riches; and his
heart _shall be_ against the holy covenant;

    --the worship of Jehovah--

and he shall do _exploits_, and return to his own land.

29. At the time appointed he shall return, and come toward the south;
but it shall not be as the former, or as the latter.

30. For the ships of Chittim

    --the fleet of the Romans under Laenas--

shall come against him: therefore he shall be grieved, and return,
and have indignation against the holy covenant: so shall he do; he
shall even return, and have intelligence with them

    --the Samaritans--

that forsake the holy covenant.

31. And arms shall stand on his part, and they shall pollute the
sanctuary of strength,

    --the Temple--

and shall take away the daily _sacrifice_, and they shall place the
abomination that maketh desolate.

    --Antiochus Epiphanes established idol-altars in every
    town and village of Palestine, and ordered a daily
    sacrifice of swine on the altars.

32. And such as do wickedly against the covenant shall he corrupt by
flatteries: but the people that do know their God shall be strong and
do _exploits_.

    --Mattathias and his 5 sons, the "Maccabees."

33. And they that understand among the people shall instruct many:
yet they shall fall by the sword, and by flame, by captivity, and by
spoil, _many_ days.

34. Now when they shall fall, they shall be holpen with a little
help: but many shall cleave to them with flatteries.

    --see life of Judas Maccabeus.

35. And _some_ of them of understanding shall fall, to try them, and
to purge, and to make _them_ white, _even_ to the time of the end:
because _it is_ yet for a time appointed.

36. And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt
himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak
marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the
indignation be accomplished: for that, that is determined shall be
done.

37. Neither shall he regard the god of his fathers, nor the desire of
women,

    --in other words, the idol Astarte, "the queen of heaven"--

nor regard any god: for he shall magnify himself above all.

38. But in his estate shall he honor the God of forces:

    --a god of castles or fortresses--

and a god whom his fathers knew not shall he honor with gold, and
silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things.

39. Thus shall he do in the most strongholds with a strange god, whom
he shall acknowledge _and_ increase with glory: and he shall cause
them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for gain.

40. And at the time of the end shall the king of the south push
at him: and the king of the north shall come against him like a
whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships; and
he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over.

41. He shall enter also into the glorious land,

    --Palestine--

and many _countries_ shall be overthrown: but these shall escape out
of his hand, _even_ Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of
Ammon

    --Antiochus passed them by. When, however, they tried to
    take advantage of Judas Maccabeus, he defeated them.

42. He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries: and the
land of Egypt shall not escape.

43. But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver,
and over all the precious things of Egypt: and the Libyans and the
Ethiopians _shall_ be at his steps.

44. But tidings out of the east and out of the north shall trouble
him:

    --rumors of rebellion and lack of funds made him resolve
    to go at once to Persia, restore order and collect taxes.--

therefore he shall go forth with great fury

    --Threatened on his return to exterminate the Jews--

to destroy, and utterly to make away many.

45. And he shall plant the tabernacles of his palace between the seas
in the glorious holy mountain;

    --he left a garrison in the Citadel adjoining the Temple--

yet he shall come to his end

    --B.C. 163--

and none shall help him.


CHAPTER XII. [HEBREW.]

1. And at that time shall Michael

    --the archangel, see Jude verse 9--

stand up, the great prince which standeth for the children of thy
people: and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since
there was a nation _even_ to that same time,

    --"For then shall be great tribulation, such as was not
    since the beginning of the world to this time, no, nor
    ever shall be." Matt. XXIV. 21. Josephus says 1,100,000
    perished in the Siege.--

and at that time thy people shall be delivered,

    --"But he that shall endure unto the end, the same shall
    be saved." Matt. XXIV. 13--

every one that shall be found written in the book.

    --At the time of the siege all of the Christians escaped
    to the little town of Pella.

2. And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake,
some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt.

    --As to the righteous:--"the graves were opened; and many
    bodies of the saints which slept arose. And came out of
    the graves after his resurrection, and went into the holy
    city, and appeared unto many." Matt. XXVII. 52. As to the
    wicked:--Scripture is silent.

3. And they that be wise shall shine as the brightness of the
firmament; and they that turn many to righteousness as the stars for
ever and ever.

    --Witness for instance the life of the Apostle Paul and
    the lives of a vast host of Christian saints.

4. But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, _even_
to the time of the end: many shall run to and fro, and knowledge
shall be increased.

    --These words find special emphasis in the present
    century, noted for its railways, steam engines,
    automobiles, bicycles, telephones, wireless telegraphy,
    public libraries, books, photographs, microscopes,
    antitoxins, _x_-rays, etc.

5. Then I Daniel looked, and, behold, there stood other two, the one
on this side of the bank of the river, and the other on that side of
the bank of the river.

    --In verses 4 and 5 of chapter X, Daniel beheld only one
    heavenly visitor, he now looks and discovers other two.

6. And _one_ said to the man clothed in linen, which _was_ upon the
waters of the river, How long _shall it be to_ the end of these
wonders?

7. And I heard the man clothed in linen, which _was_ upon the waters
of the river, when he held up his right hand and his left hand unto
heaven, and sware by him that liveth for ever that _it shall be_ for
a time, times, and an half; and when he shall have accomplished to
scatter the power of the holy people, all these _things_ shall be
finished.

    --Since the power of the holy people was scattered in
    A.D. 70, all these things were finished at that time and
    right there Daniel's prophetic work ended. The formula,
    "time, times, and an half" has already been considered
    under the head of Dan. VII. 25. See NOTE B.

8. And I heard, but I understood not: then said I, O my Lord, what
_shall be_ the end of these _things_?

9. And he said, Go thy way, Daniel: for the words _are_ closed up and
sealed till the time of the end.

10. Many shall be purified, and made white,

    --"And the same day there were added _unto them_ about
    three thousand souls."--Acts II. 41.--"Howbeit many of
    them which heard the word believed, and the number of the
    men was about five thousand."--Acts IV. 4--

and tried;

    --"At that time there was a great persecution against the
    church which was at Jerusalem."--Acts VIII. 1--

but the wicked shall do wickedly: and none of the wicked shall
understand; but the wise shall understand.

11. And from the time that the daily sacrifice shall be taken away
and the abomination that maketh desolate set up

    --the sacrifice of swine and pollution of the holy place
    B.C. 168 to 141--

there shall be a thousand two hundred and ninety days.

    In B.C. 168, these sacrifices were ordered to be made
    DAILY, in every village and town throughout Palestine.
    The desecration of the temple area lasted until May 4th
    B.C. 141. Every moment of this time was part of one great
    abomination. Counting each prophetic day as made up of
    49 ordinary days, the 1290 days bring us to May 24th
    A.D. 33--THE DAY OF PENTECOST--"THAT GREAT AND NOTABLE DAY
    OF THE LORD"--when the Holy Spirit was revealed to the
    Jews, and about 3000 souls were converted.

12. Blessed is he that waiteth

    --THE GENTILES--

and cometh to the thousand three hundred and five and thirty days.

    --the Gentiles did wait for six years, while the disciples
    were busy, "PREACHING THE WORD TO NONE, BUT UNTO THE JEWS
    ONLY." Acts XI. 19.--If now we make the calculation for
    1335 days, we shall find, that the prophecy brings us
    direct to June 7th A.D. 39--on which day, the Holy Spirit
    was revealed to the GENTILES.

13. But go thou thy way till the end _be_: for thou shalt rest, and
stand in thy lot at the end of the days.

    Thus the heavenly visitor announced the fact of a
    resurrection day, but gave no intimation whatever as
    to when that day would come. In this respect also the
    teachings of Daniel are in perfect accord with those of
    the New Testament. "Of that day and hour knoweth no man;
    no, not the angels of Heaven." Matt. XXIV. 36.



NOTES.



JEWISH INDEPENDENCE DAY.

The era of the Seleucidæ among the Greeks and Eastern nations,
sometimes called the "era of contracts," dated from the capture
of Babylon by Seleucus Nicator, Oct. 1st B.C. 312. The complete
subjugation of the city followed 6 months later, and therefore the
Babylonians counted from the spring of B.C. 311. With this exception
the former date has been generally regarded as the true epoch. The
years run as below:

                    YEARS OF THE SELEUCIDÆ.

      1st year began Oct. B.C. 312 and ended Oct. B.C. 311
      2nd   "    "       "     311    "          "     310
      3rd   "    "       "     310    "          "     309
      5th   "    "       "     308    "          "     307
     10th   "    "       "     303    "          "     302
     50th   "    "       "     263    "          "     262
    100th   "    "       "     213    "          "     212
    150th   "    "       "     163    "          "     162
    170th   "    "       "     143    "          "     142
    171st   "    "       "     142    "          "     141
    and so on.

We pause at the beginning of the 171st year because it was a year
of great moment in the life of the Jewish nation. The deepest
interest is focussed on "the 23rd day of the 2nd month" when Simon,
brother of Judas Maccabeus, "destroyed a great enemy out of Israel,"
and CLEANSED the Temple of its abominations. He also ordained,
that the day should be observed ever after, as a National
holiday.--I Macc. XIII. 51.

We note that the 171st year, like all others of the Seleucidæ,
began with the month of October, which was the first month of the
Macedonian calendar. It was called Hyperberetaeus, the second month
Dius, the third, Apellaeus and so on. But the question that concerns
us most is, whether the writer of First Maccabees actually reckoned
by Macedonian months? A careful examination of the entire book shows
that he mentioned 4 Hebrew months by name--"Casleu, Adar, Elul and
Sabat"--also that he clearly located another, viz:--Tisri, but not
in a single instance did he mention the name of a Macedonian month,
or refer to the Macedonian calendar in any manner whatsoever. That he
did not regard October as being the FIRST month is plainly declared
in I Macc. X. 21, where he says:--

    "So in the SEVENTH month of the 160th year, at the feast
    of tabernacles, Jonathan put on the holy robe," etc.

Sept./Oct. therefore was the SEVENTH month, according to the usage of
the writer of the First book of Maccabees, which gives the following
succession:--

    B.C. 142 Sept./Oct., the SEVENTH  month TISRI
        "    Oct./Nov.,   "  EIGHTH     "   Marchesvan
        "    Nov./Dec.,   "  NINTH      "   Casleu
        "    Dec./Jan.,   "  TENTH      "   Tebeth
    B.C. 141 Jan./Feb.,  the ELEVENTH month Shebat
        "    Feb./March,  "  TWELFTH    "   ADAR
        "    Mar./April,  "  FIRST      "   NISAN
        "    Apr./May,    "  SECOND     "   IYAR

The rest of the way is easy. We have only to follow the Jewish
calendar of Rabbi Hillel II and we learn that the "23rd day of the
SECOND month" corresponded with the

    4TH DAY OF MAY B.C. 141,

the great day of National Independence. Having thus far followed
exclusively the years of the Seleucidæ as common among Greeks and
Orientals, let us now turn to the system of the Babylonians. Their
era began, as already explained, with the spring of B.C. 311.
Accordingly, their 171st year began with the spring of B.C. 141, and
the SECOND month of course coincided with Apr./May, or the Jewish
month Iyar. It matters not, therefore, whether you follow the system
of the Greeks or that of the Babylonians, you will arrive at the same
goal, viz:--May 4th B.C. 141.

One can hardly overestimate the importance of this discovery, because
a knowledge of the National Independence day gives a fixed starting
point for that mysterious group of DAYS--2300, 1290 and 1335--as
revealed by the angel Gabriel to "Daniel the Prophet."



NOTE A.

DARIUS, OR CYAXARES. [DANIEL V. 31.]

"And Darius the Median took the kingdom, being about threescore and
two years old." In the first verse of the 9th chapter we are told
that Darius was the son of Ahasuerus, the same Assuerus spoken of in
the 15th verse of the 14th chapter of Tobit, the Astyages of Median
history. Astyages was king of the Medes and reigned for 35 years from
B.C. 593-558. His son Cyaxares [Josephus X. 11, 4.] succeeded him on
the throne and his daughter Mandané married Cambyses of Persia. Their
offspring was Cyrus the Great, who thus represented the Royal houses
of both Media and Persia. Cyaxares therefore was the uncle of Cyrus.
As a boy Cyrus was brought up by his grandfather and accompanied
his uncle on shooting expeditions. A very strong attachment was
formed with the latter so that in after years when Cyrus deposed his
grandfather, in B.C. 558, he made his uncle the king of Media. Still
later when Cyrus took Babylon and pacified the inhabitants he made
his uncle Cyaxares king _pro tem_, who occupied the throne from
B.C. 538-536. Cyrus of course continued to be, as the annalistic
tablet relates, "the powerful king, the king of Babylon, 'the king of
Sumar and Akkad'--the king of the four zones." But the laws of Persia
as outlined by Herodotus [VII. 1. 2. and III. 66] made it necessary
for him to appoint a successor before starting out to war, who would
govern during his absence. So we find, "after Gobryas the governor
of the country of Ararat and the soldiers of Cyrus, without fighting
entered Babylon," the country became submissive and attention could
be directed elsewhere; that "when in the course of their march they
arrived in the Median territory Cyrus turned off to visit Cyaxares;
and after they had embraced each other, Cyrus first told Cyaxares
that there were domestics and palaces set apart for him in Babylon,
that when he came thither he might have what was his own to come to."
[Xenophon VIII.] It is hard to imagine how Cyrus could have paved the
way more perfectly for the reign of his uncle Cyaxares in Babylon,
whom we believe was Darius the Mede of Scripture. His reign was of
short duration, but it came at a critical period in the history
of the Jews. Only two years remained to complete the Babylonian
captivity and Divine influences were at work for the return of
the chosen people. [Daniel X. 13.] More than a century previous
to that time the Scriptures had named Cyrus as the "shepherd,"
[Isaiah XLV. 1, 3.] and when Cyrus placed his uncle temporarily on
the throne of Babylon, a heavenly messenger was sent to Darius who
"stood to confirm and strengthen him." [Daniel XI. 1.] This gave
the Jews a friend at court who paved the way for that celebrated
emancipation proclamation which Cyrus issued on his return to
Babylon. Naturally such a document belonged among the state papers
and should have been found "in the house of the rolls where the
treasures were laid up in Babylon," but diligent search proved of
no avail. [Ezra VI. 1.] However, as the document was dated in the
time of Darius the Mede, official attention was next directed to
"the palace that is in the province of the Medes," where a careful
search proved successful. [Ezra VI. 2.] There they found the original
"roll" stowed away among the royal documents and forwarded it to King
Darius Hystaspes. The king promptly ratified the decree of Cyrus and
added, "Let it be done with speed." The history of Darius the Mede is
therefore one of peculiar interest in the life of the Jewish people.



NOTE B.

"THE SUM OF THE MATTERS." [DANIEL VII. 1 AND 25.]

The vision of the four great beasts is now complete and we have
reached the sum of the matters in verse 25. Already in chapter II.
the same subject was summarized by the following language: "In the
days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which
shall never be destroyed ... and it shall stand forever." The present
summary differs from the first in that it localizes the endless
kingdom, and tells the year when it would be set up. Whenever we send
a telegram and wish to conceal our meaning from the public we employ
single words to express conditions and quantities. Twice, Daniel
was told by his heavenly visitor:--"shut thou up the vision," it
is therefore proper to infer that the word TIME was used to express
a certain number of years and TIMES to express a greater number of
years. But what heavenly measure of time do we find in the Bible,
associated with the punishment of nations, that can be taken as
the unit period for measuring seasons of God's displeasure? Turn
to Zech. I. 12th and we read:--"Then the angel of the Lord answered
and said, O Lord of hosts, how long wilt thou not have mercy on
Jerusalem and on the cities of Judah against which thou hast had
indignation these threescore and ten years." For other examples, see
NOTE D. If then the word TIME was inserted in the heavenly message
as a symbol for 70 years, and the numeral 7 conveyed to the Jewish
mind the idea of a perfect quantity, then a week of TIME, or 7 times
70 might very naturally be symbolized by the word TIMES. We find in
Gen. II. 4. that the 7 DAYS of creation are spoken of in the singular
as, "the DAY the Lord God made the earth and the heavens." Besides
every 7th year was a Sabbatic year. So that whatever the word TIME
means in the singular, we may reasonably take the word TIMES to
mean a 7 fold quantity in the plural. We find another measure in
Matt. XVIII. 22. where the Divine idea of forgiveness is expressed
in numerals. The apostle Peter thought that he did well in fixing the
unit of forgiveness at 7 fold, but he was told to multiply his scant
number by 70 before he could attain to the Divine standard. If now
we substitute these values for their symbols in the formula: "Time,
Times and Half-time" we shall obtain, 70 plus 490, plus 35, equals
to 595 years. Verse four supplies the initial date for this series
of years. From it we learn that the "sum of the matters" started with
the Medo-Persian kingdom of Cyrus, who united in his own person the
blood of both royal houses and became king in B.C. 558. From this
date to the Christian era was 557 years and from the era to A.D. 39
was 38 years more, making a total of 557 plus 38, or 595 years. From
which we learn that the "sum of the matters" or the full time arrived
for the setting up of the kingdom in A.D. 39. The prophecy therefore
gives us the year, and we shall find that the 12th verse of the 12th
chapter supplies the day when "all these things" were finished. The
apostle Peter in describing the events of that day said:--"Forasmuch
then as God gave them (the Gentiles) the like gift as he did unto
us, who believed on the Lord Jesus Christ, what was I, that I could
withstand God? When they heard these things they held their peace,
and glorified God, saying, Then hath God also on the Gentiles granted
repentance unto life." Acts XI. 17, 18.

The admission of the Gentiles was deemed a matter of so great
importance that the formula has been repeated in the 7th verse of
the 12th chapter, also material has been given in the 12th verse of
the same chapter by which the very day itself can be computed. The
passages stand to each other in the relation of demonstration to
proof.



NOTE C.

"DAYS."

In searching for symbolic numbers we found that number 49 stood both
for the Jubilee year and for the Feast of Weeks:--Concerning the
Jubilee it was said:--"And thou shalt number 7 sabbaths of years unto
thee, 7 times 7 years: and the space of 7 sabbaths of years shall
be unto thee 49 years." Leviticus XXV. 8.--Concerning Pentecost it
was said: "And thou shalt keep the feast of weeks unto the Lord thy
God"--"Seven weeks shalt thou number unto thee: begin to number the
7 weeks from such time as thou beginnest to put the sickle to the
corn." Deu. XVI. 9, 10. The feast was to be kept in a fourfold manner
with the offering of a tribute, with rejoicing, with remembrance, and
with obedience. For more than 3600 years has this beautiful custom
been observed among the Jews, so that 49, the number of days, comes
to us with special emphasis. With such a prominent place assigned
to it in the Jewish ritual, no wonder if it found a place in the
symbolic language of the heavenly visitor. We have discovered that
such was the case and accordingly have made calculations for the
three periods represented by "2300 days," "1290 days" and "45 days"
(1335 less 1290) on the basis that each prophetic "day" equals
49 ordinary days of 24 hours each. They stand for 112,700 ordinary
days; 63,210 days and 2205 days. In reducing these days to years the
sidereal year was taken as the Standard year. A sidereal year, or
time in which the earth makes one revolution, the point of reference
being a fixed star, amounts to 365 days 6 hours 9 minutes 9-6/10
seconds, expressed decimally it equals 365.2563611 days. By dividing
each period of ordinary days by the number of days in a sidereal year
we obtain the actual length of each prophetic period. In arranging
these periods, the starting point was May 4th B.C. 141, or day on
which the Temple precincts were cleansed by Simon Maccabeus. The
1290 days carries us directly to May 24th A.D. 33, which was the day
of Pentecost "that great and notable day of the Lord" when the Holy
Spirit descended upon the disciples at Jerusalem. It is interesting
to note in this case how very precise is the language of Scripture.
The passage reads:--"When the day of Pentecost was FULLY come."
After their return from Babylon the Jews were accustomed to devote
two days, instead of one, to the observance of the feast, and as
Pentecost that year fell on May 23rd and 24th, the day of Pentecost
was FULLY come on the day indicated by our chart. The event therefore
happened precisely as foretold by the heavenly visitor, who said to
Daniel, "the vision of the evening and the morning which was told is
TRUE," and it came about with that degree of exactness with which
astronomers become familiar in their study of the heavenly bodies.
The chart clearly proves that the "1290 days" is a perfect fit
between two well-known dates. The other periods give us two extremely
important dates heretofore absolutely unknown to Bible students.

    THE ONLY KEY TO DANIEL'S PROPHECIES.

    =2300 DAYS.=--Dan. VIII. 14.

    Sidereal year = 365 days    365.0000000 days.
                      6 hrs.      0.2500000   "
                      9 min.      0.0062500   "
                      9.6 sec.    0.0001111   "
                                -----------
                                365.2563611   "
                                -----------

                          2300 "days."
                          49
                         -----
                         207
                         92
                       ---------------
          365.2563611 ) 112700.00000 ( 308.55041 years.
                        109576 90833
                        --------------
                         31230916700
                         29220508888
                         -------------
                          20104078120
                          18262818055
                          -------------
                           18412600650
         365.2563611       18262818055
              .55041       -------------
         -----------         14978259500
          3652563011         14610254444
        14610254444          ------------
      18262818055              3680050560
     18262818055               3652563611
    ----------------           ----------
    201.040763713051 days.
    ---------------- |

    =2300= DAYS equal to:
              =308= YEARS, =6= MONTHS, =21= DAYS.

       *       *       *       *       *

    =1290 DAYS.=--Dan. XII. 11.

                          1290 "days."
                           49
                         -----
                         1161
                         516
                        --------------
           365.2563611 ) 63210.00000 ( 173.0565343 years.
                         36525 63611
                         ------------
                         26684 363890
                         25567 945277
                         -------------
                          1116 4186130
                          1095 7690833
                          --------------
                            20 649529700
                            18 262818055
                            -------------
                             2 3867116450
                             2 1915381666
                             -------------
                               19517347840
          365.2563611          18262818055
             .0565343          ------------
          -----------           12545297850
          10957690833           10957690833
         14610254444            ------------
        10957690833              15876070170
       18262818055               14610254444
      21915381666                ------------
     18262818055                  12658157260
    -----------------             10957690833
    20.64951269533573 days.       -----------
    -----------------

    =1290= DAYS equal to:
              =173= YEARS, =0= MONTHS, =20= DAYS.

       *       *       *       *       *

    =1335 DAYS.=--Dan. XII. 12.

                          1335 "days."
                     Less 1290
                          ----
               Difference   45 "days."
                            49
                          ----
                           405
                          180
                         ---------------
            365.2563611 ) 2205.0000000 ( 6.036856 years.
                          2191 5381666
                          --------------
                            13 461833400
                            10 957690833
                            -------------
                             2 5041425670
                             2 1915381666
                             ------------
                               31260440040
                               29220508888
                               ------------
                               20399311520
                               18262818055
                               ------------
         365.2563611            21364934650
             .036856            21915381666
         -----------            -----------
         21915381666
        18262818055
       29220508888
      21915381666
     10957690833
    ----------------
    13.4618884447016 days.
    ----------------

    =45= DAYS equal to:
           =6= YEARS, =0= MONTHS, =13= DAYS.

       *       *       *       *       *

                                      "TEMPLE CLEANSED"
    =October 14 B.C. 450=    2300      =May 4 B.C. 141=     1290
      END OF THE DOUBLE     <---->       NATIONAL DAY.     <---->
    INDIGNATION. Note D.     Days            Note C.        Days

        "PENTECOST"
      =May 24 A.D. 33=        45       =June 7 A. D. 39=
       THAT GREAT AND       <---->  THE HOLY SPIRIT BESTOWED
     NOTABLE DAY OF THE      Days    "ON THE GENTILES ALSO."
        LORD.  Note F.                       Note C.

    _Examined and Found Correct, LAWRENCE E. BROWN & CO.,
    Public Accountants for State of Pennsylvania._

    Copyright 1905, by W. S. AUCHINCLOSS.

The Holy Spirit's appearance to the Gentiles in the Summer of A.D. 39
was at a time peculiarly favorable for the conversion of Cornelius.
The persecution of A.D. 36, following the dismissal of Pilate, was
succeeded by a period of rest and rapid growth among the infant
churches. There was, then, neither the marching of armies, nor even
the rumor of war. True, these all came in the Fall of A.D. 40, when
Petronius was sent to Syria with instructions to place the images of
the Romans in the Temple at Jerusalem. It may be said in passing,
that the expedition landed in Ptolemais and there wintered. But in
the Spring of A.D. 41 the attitude of the Jews was so determined,
that Petronius sent to Rome for additional instructions. The Emperor,
however, died quite suddenly, and the expedition was finally
abandoned. The year A.D. 39 was a time of peace and good order; a
time most favorable to the all-important mission of the Holy Spirit.



NOTE D.

"TWO THOUSAND AND THREE HUNDRED DAYS." [DAN. VIII. 14.]

In the vision of "the evening and the morning" it is evident that
2300 days must end with a complete cleansing of the sanctuary, and
unquestionably this was accomplished by Simon Maccabeus on May the
4th B.C. 141. [I Mac. XIII. 51]; but at what time they should begin
to count is not so evident. The 19th verse tells us: "I will make
thee know what shall be in the last end of the indignation."

We ask: what indignation? When was the first end? When the middle?
and When the last end?

We note first, that the speaker was the angel Gabriel, consequently
the indignation referred to was of Divine origin. The word
indignation stands for "sore displeasure" [Zech. I. 2]. It arose in
the year B.C. 590, the seventh of the captivity, at which time Israel
was cast off and Nebuchadnezzar prepared to wage war against them.
It was announced in the following words:--"As I live saith the Lord
God, I will not be inquired of by you" [Ezek. XX. 3]. The indignation
lasted just 70 years [Zech. I. 12] and ended by a promise of pardon
made in the eighth month, which according to the calendar of Rabbi
Hillel II. (IDAN OLAMIM of J. L. Sossnitz) began October 25th
B.C. 520 [Zech. I. 1 and 3]. We note in passing that although Cyrus
put an end to the Babylonian captivity in B.C. 536 and the people
returned to the land of Judea, yet they encountered insuperable
obstacles which held up their work [Ezra V. 3] until the year
B.C. 520, which was the end of 70 years' indignation. From these
passages we learn what were the limitations in one case of "sore
displeasure." But Isaiah prophesied that Jerusalem would receive of
the Lord's hand _double_ for all her sins [Isa. XL. 2]. Jeremiah also
spoke in the same vein "And first I will recompense their iniquity
and their sin _double_" [Jer. XVI. 18]. When we reach B.C. 433 we
find that Nehemiah dreaded a still further return of God's sore
displeasure and warned the nobles of Judah against profaning the
Sabbath day. [Neh. XIII. 16, 18.] As the first indignation ended
with the 8th month of B.C. 520, a double period ought to end with
the 8th month of B.C. 450, that is, with October 2nd of that year.
But you object, how could a period be truly 70 years in length, when
it began with October 25th and ended with October the 2nd? This
question admits of easy explanation. According to the Jewish calendar
the eighth month comes and goes with the phases of the moon, just
like our Easter occurs at different seasons, hence we must take the
average of these dates, viz: October the 14th as our representative
day. We have already alluded to the delays experienced by the Jews
when freed by Cyrus and desire at this point to draw attention to the
fact that Zerubbabel's temple was not completed until B.C. 515, JUST
5 YEARS after the indignation period expired, in B.C. 520; and that
in like manner Nehemiah's temple was not completed until B.C. 445,
JUST 5 YEARS after the next indignation period expired, in B.C. 450.
We might also add that from the time when the Jews first worshipped
in Babylon as captives in B.C. 585, to the time when they worshipped
in Zerubbabel's temple as free men in B.C. 515 was another instance
of a period 70 years long. This frequent recurrence of 70-year
periods shows that as a numeral 70 may justly be regarded as one
of the units of TIME in the dispensation of God's providence, and
therefore to be reckoned with in the study of prophecy.

But returning to our representative day, October 14th B.C. 450, we
realize that when the first and the second indignation had passed,
the time came for "the last end of the indignation" spoken of in the
19th verse, and known as the "2300 days." By the calculations given
in NOTE C, we find that 2300 prophetic days exactly fill the interval
between Oct. 14th B.C. 450 and May the 4th B.C. 141. Having thus
brought out the limitations of the "2300 days" we would add, that
Daniel's eleventh chapter gives in outline a complete history of the
period under consideration, so that the Jews had it in their power
to tell the prophetic time of day at any moment between B.C. 450 and
B.C. 141.

    "DAYS."

    GRAPHIC EXHIBIT.

    End of the                             October 14, B.C. 450.
    ----------------------------++------------------------------
    DOUBLE INDIGNATION  ^       ||             [Sabbattic year.]
    Jeremiah XVI. 18.   |       ||
                        |       ||
                        |       ||
                      2300......||.......DAYS.  [Dan. VIII. 14.]
                        |       ||
                        |       ||
      TEMPLE CLEANSED;  |       ||
         National       |       ||
      Independence Day__v_______||______________May 4, B.C. 141.
      I Mac. XIII. 51.          ||        ^
                                ||        |
                                ||        |
                     1290.......||......DAYS. [Dan. XII. 11.]
                                ||        |
        "THAT GREAT AND         ||        |
    NOTABLE DAY OF THE LORD."   ||        |
          "PENTECOST" __________||________v_____May 24, A.D. 33.
          Acts II. 20.   ^      ||
                         |      ||
                         |      ||
                        45......||......DAYS [= 1335 less 1290].
                         |      ||               [Dan. XII. 12.]
    The HOLY SPIRIT      |      ||
        bestowed         v      ||
    ----------------------------++------------------------------
    "ON THE GENTILES ALSO."                     June 7, A.D. 39.
           Acts X. 45.



NOTE E.

THE EXODUS FROM PERSIA. [DANIEL IX. 25.]

Ezra gives a full account of this great event in his history of the
Jews, in the VIIIth and VIIth chapters of his book, where he says,
they "began to go from Babylon" on the 1st day of the 1st month in
the 7th year of king Artaxerxes, also that they were not fairly under
way until the 12th day of the 1st month, which was within two days of
the Passover. After a journey of 4 months they arrived at the city of
Jerusalem.

In fixing the date of the Exodus from Persia we must determine the
boundaries of the 7th year of Artaxerxes. First, as to the year
itself, it has been well established that his reign began in
B.C. 465. Then as to the month, the statement found in Neh. I. 1.
and II. 1. render a commencement impossible between the months of
November and March, while the statement made in Ezra VII. 7, 8
and 9 preclude the interval from March to August following. This
narrows the field for the commencement of Artaxerxes' reign down to
the months of August, September and October. Although there is no
possible way of distinguishing between the relative claims of these
three months, yet from the wording of Nehemiah I. 1. we shall decide
in favor of the last, viz: the month of October.

  It follows that:--

   1st year of Artaxerxes began Oct. B.C. 465, ended Oct. B.C. 464
   2nd    "        "           "      "   464       "      "   463
   3rd    "        "           "      "   463       "      "   462
   4th    "        "           "      "   462       "      "   461
   5th    "        "           "      "   461       "      "   460
   6th    "        "           "      "   460       "      "   459
   7th year of Artaxerxes began Oct. B.C. 459, ended Oct. B.C. 458
      and so on:
  20th year of Artaxerxes began Oct. B.C. 446, ended Oct. B.C. 445
      and so on:
  32nd year of Artaxerxes began Oct. B.C. 434, ended Oct. B.C. 433
      --Neh. V. 14. and XIII. 6.

Whence by reference to the calendar of Rabbi Hillel II. [IDAN OLAMIM
of J. L. Sossnitz], we derive the following dates for the

  EXODUS FROM PERSIA:

  Jews began to leave Babylon   March 25th B.C. 458
    "  left the river of Ahava  April  5th  "   458
    "  arrived at Jerusalem      July 21st  "   458

In conclusion we observe, that the real start of the Jews under the
commandment, viz: their "going forth" took place: April 5th B.C. 458,
and as Christ rose from the dead on April 5th A.D. 33, the interval
between dates amounted to 490 years, or SEVENTY WEEKS, exactly as
foretold by the angel Gabriel in Daniel IX. 24.



NOTE F.

DATE OF THE CRUCIFIXION. [DAN. IX. 26.]

Since the prophecy of Daniel points directly to the time when Messiah
would be cut off and not to the date of Christ's birth, it is evident
that neither the natal day nor the length of his life on earth are
necessary to a complete understanding of the prophecy. What we need
most to know are the day and the year in which Messiah was crucified.
Happily these points can be determined by data found in the Bible.
Turn to Luke III. 1 and 23 and we learn that Jesus "began to be about
30 years of age" in the 15th year of Tiberius Caesar. Not that Jesus
attained the age of 30 in the 15th year of Tiberius, but that when
the last day of the 15th year arrived, viz: Aug. 18th A.D. 29, Jesus
was VERY NEAR 30 years old. His birthday anniversary therefore comes
in the Fall of the year. From that time on, we count 3½ years to his
crucifixion in A.D. 33. We learn from the parable of the barren fig
tree, also from Daniel's prophecy that Messiah's ministry would last
one-half a prophetic week, or 3½ years. The parable itself accounts
for 3 years: "Behold these three years I come seeking fruit and find
none;" and since the parable was given, about the time of the harvest
home, or feast of tabernacles, another half year was necessary to
carry the time over from the feast of tabernacles to the following
Passover. When this was completed his ministry ended. At the very
outset of our Lord's ministry he spoke of the work before him and
proclaimed God's good pleasure in sending him, to preach the gospel
to the poor, to heal the broken hearted, to preach deliverance to
the captives, the recovery of sight to the blind, and to set at
liberty them that are bruised. [Luke IV. 18.] With this ministry
expressive of God's favor, He then contrasted the ministry of Elias,
expressive of God's displeasure "when the heaven was shut up 3 YEARS
AND SIX MONTHS, when great famine was throughout the land." This
reference seems to have been a sign as to the exact length of
time Christ's ministry would continue on earth, precisely as the
experience of Jonah in the fish was a sign of the length of time
Christ would remain "in the heart of the earth." [Matthew XII. 40.]
But the strongest evidence is furnished by the 4 Passovers which were
celebrated during the period of said ministry.

The years therefore ran as follows:--

    Christ began his ministry when 30 years old   Fall A.D. 29
    1st Passover John II. 13                    Spring  "   30
    2nd    "      "    V.  1                       "    "   31
    3rd    "      "   VI.  4                       "    "   32
    4th    "      "   XI. 55                       "    "   33

As regards the exact date of the fourth Passover we know by astronomy
that there was a full moon at 4.15 P.M. on Friday April 3 A.D. 33. On
that day therefore Messiah was "cut off."

At this point let us glance backward 490 years, or 70 weeks to the
Passover of B.C. 458, and we shall meet the children of Israel making
their Exodus from Persia [Ezra VIII. 31] "going forth" under the
leadership of Ezra, by "commandment" of Artaxerxes ordering them
"to restore and to build Jerusalem." In view of this marvellous
fulfilment of prophecy, how frivolous do seem the charges of those
who claim that the Book of Daniel is--"a bundle of loose leaves"--"a
consolatory political pamphlet"--and "written as historic fiction
in 168-165 B.C." Pretty good fiction, is it not? for one writing in
B.C. 168 to make declaration that a certain event, figured from a
given starting point, would _positively_ take place at the end of
490 years! We have many writers of historic fiction in our own day,
but none so venturesome as "the chief of the governors over all the
wise men of Babylon." Those who call the predictions found in the
Book of Daniel--"historic fiction"--simply destroy the meaning of
words and pour contempt upon the Word of God.

Our explanation robs the IXth chapter of Daniel of all its mystery
and shows why the LORD called him "Daniel the PROPHET."



CHRONOLOGY.



THE BIRTH OF CHRIST.

Christ was born in the year B.C. 2. In support of this announcement
we do not propose to give a table of dates, setting forth the ideas
of the Christian Fathers who wrote prior to the 5th century. Nor
those of Dionysius Exiguus, of the Venerable Bede, or of Roger Bacon,
all of whom wrote between the 5th and the 14th centuries. Neither
shall we give those of Archbishops Usher and Lloyd in the 17th
century, nor those of Dr. Hales and of Sir Isaac Newton in the 18th
century, nor those of Prideaux and of the talented chronologist
H. Fynes Clinton in the 19th century. We find our authority in
Eusebius the "father of ecclesiastical history" [A.D. 325] and
give with it a 20th century Chart in proof of the accuracy of his
statement.

Of course back of Eusebius lay Jewish tradition, which in modern
times has found expression in the "Jewish Calendar" of E. H. Lindo;
London, 1838. Under the title of the "Book of the Generations," that
noted chronologist states that the Christian Era began with the year
A.M. 3760, in other words with the 30th day of August B.C. 2 as shown
in the diagram.

    LOCATION OF CHRISTIAN ERA

                                JEWISH CALENDAR.

                                      ||
     A.M. A.M.                    A.M.||A.M.           A.M.
    +----+----+------------------+----||----+---------+----+
    |5666|5665|..................|3760||3759|.........|  1 |
    +----+----+------------------+----||----+---------+----+
        |                        |    ||                   |
        |<---------1906 yrs---------->||<----3759 yrs----->|
        |                             ||                   |
    ----^-----                    ----^^---            ----^---
    Sept. 30th                    Aug. 30th            Oct. 7th
    ----v-----                    ----vv---            ----v---
        |                             ||                   |
        |A.D. A.D.        A.D.    B.C.||               B.C.|B.C.
       ++---+----+-----+---+---++----+----+----------+----++---+
       |1905|1904|.....| 2 | 1 ||  1 |  2 |......... |3760|3761|
       ++---+----+-----+---+---||----+----+----------+----++---+
        |                      ||   B.C.                   |
        |<------1904¾ yrs----->||<--------3760¼ yrs------->|
        |             CHRISTIAN CALENDAR.                  |
        |                                                  |
        |<---------------------5665 yrs------------------->|

Eusebius, who as Bishop of Caesarea, spent most of his life in Judea,
possessed rare opportunities for verifying Jewish tradition. It is
very significant that his scholarly research led him to accept and
endorse a date for the commencement of the Christian Era, which is
identically the same as that preserved by the Jews.

The New Testament plainly declares that Christ was born shortly prior
to the death of Herod the Great. The most perfect history we possess
of Herod's life is found in the works of Flavius Josephus, who
acknowledged indebtedness to the "Commentaries of King Herod," and
to the works of "Nicolaus of Damascus, the historiographer of Herod."
It should be remembered that for his facts Josephus depended entirely
on others, because Herod died almost 40 years before Josephus was
born and therefore, however accurate Josephus might be individually,
he was liable to be mistaken by the error of others. Let us turn to
the XIVth book of his "Antiquities," because it contains a statement
of than ordinary precision which bears directly on the date of
Herod's death and may rightly be regarded as the corner stone of
Josephus' calculations regarding Herod's reign. It is there recorded
that Hyrcanus began to rule in the "3d year of the 177th olympiad"
[B.C. 70/69]. At first sight, one cannot help being pleased, that
in so important a matter, Josephus took special pains to be exact,
for nowhere else in all his writings does he give the year of any
olympiad. It was his custom simply to announce the olympiad and leave
the reader to guess in which one of four years the event took place.
However, in this one instance he gave the year and left nothing to
be supplied. This apparent accuracy has led many readers astray,
for they have lost sight of the fact that his statement is not
historically correct.

It is a well-established fact that Pompey took Jerusalem on the 24th
day of May, B.C. 63, that he deposed Aristobulus and made Hyrcanus
monarch. According to this, the brothers reigned about 6¾ years.
Josephus, however, states that one reigned 3 years and 6 months
[XIV. 6. 1], and the other reigned only 3 months [XV. 6. 4], making a
total of 3¾ years instead of 6¾ years. Here, then, we have discovered
a huge gap of about 3 years in the reckoning of Josephus. We believe
this is the first time that public attention has been directed to
this grave error: we say grave, because it has led the Christian
world astray and fostered the belief that Christ was born in B.C. 5
instead of the year B.C. 2. Happily, Eusebius escaped this pitfall.

It is evident from the chart, that in the case of 6 reigns Josephus
STRETCHED HIS FIGURES and made them occupy 103 years instead of
100 years. This proves that his figures, in part, were matters of
calculation and not rigid statements of historical facts. No notice
can be taken of the joint-rule exercised by Augustus and Tiberius
between A.D. 11 and 14, because that mode of reckoning is unnatural.
The day of one's death is the natural dividing line between reigns,
and as Augustus Caesar died on the 19th day of August, A.D. 14
Tiberius Caesar began to reign on the same day. Besides, to admit a
joint-rule would hopelessly add another 3 years to Josephus' error
and put him in the light of having carried his process for STRETCHING
FIGURES 6 points instead of 3 points. What he did do in that line is
bad enough, without making matters worse.

It will be observed that the work of contracting Josephus' figures
has been accomplished in part on the second line, but the final
rectification appears on the last line. These results maintain the
integrity of all that Josephus said about the following olympiads,
viz: the 179th, 184th, 185th, 187th, and 192nd.--They also accord
with the discovery of Zumpt regarding a double term in the
governorship of Cyrenius. We reach a solid ground on the 15th year
of Tiberius Caesar and arrive at last at the first Easter Sunday,
viz: April 5, A.D. 33, the end of the SEVENTY WEEKS of the Prophet
Daniel.

In conclusion we observe, that the life of Christ on earth covered a
period of 33½ years, and that

    CHRIST WAS BORN IN THE FALL OF B.C. 2.



YEARS IN THE LIFE OF CHRIST.

The dates given herewith have been collated from the chart which
accompanies this volume.

    Birth--about time of the Feast of Tabernacles  Fall  B.C.   2

    Christ in the Temple                                 A.D.  11

    His baptism [Luke III. 1 and 23]             Summer   "    29

    Began his ministry                             Fall   "    29

    Purgeth the Temple                           Spring   "    30

    Disciples baptize throughout Judea                    "    30

    Spends the year in Galilee                            "    31

    John Baptist imprisoned                      Spring   "    31

    The Apostles sent out                                 "    31

    John beheaded                                Spring   "    32

    Fed the multitudes, 5000 and 4000                     "    32

    The transfiguration                                   "    32

    Feast of Tabernacles, see}       Thursday, Oct. 9th   "    32
      John VII. 2 and 14     }

    Completed 3 years of ministry.}
      Parable of fig-tree, barren }                       "    32
      for 3 years, see Luke 13, 6 }

    Feast of dedication             Thursday, Dec. 18th   "    32

    The crucifixion                   Friday, April 3rd   "    33

    The resurrection                  Sunday, April 5th   "    33

    Ministry lasted 3½ years, or  } Fall of A.D. 29 to Spring  33
      "one-half a WEEK" of 7 years}

    The Ascension                      Friday, May 15th  A.D.  33



YEARS IN THE LIFE OF HEROD.

The dates here given are the result of a geometric plotting of the
facts given in the works of Flavius Josephus:--see chart with this
volume.

    Herod the Great was born in                  B.C.   71

    Made Governor of Galilee when  }
      18 years old (not 15) and in }              "     54
      the 9th year of Hyrcanus II. }

    Made king by the Romans                       "     40

    Married Mariamne   }
    Captured Jerusalem }                          "     37

    Battle of Actium in 7th year of his reign     "     31

    Hyrcanus II. put to death }
    Herod recrowned by Caesar }                   "     30

    Mariamne put to death                         "     29

    Herod afflicted with madness                  "     28

    1st year of famine                            "     24

    2nd     "     "                               "     23

    Herod offered to rebuild Temple               "     21

    The priests began work                        "     19

    Sanctuary dedicated                           "     18

    Cloisters finished                            "     11

    1st of Caesar's Games                         "      9

    2nd       "       "                           "      4

    Alexander and Aristobulus put to death        "      4

    Total eclipse of the Moon January 9th         "      1

    [See "Eclipses Past and Future," by Johnson]

    Death of Herod the Great           February  B.C.    1



ASMONEAN DYNASTY.

This government was founded by a priest named Mattathias, who had
five sons named respectively:--John, Simon, Judas, Eleazar, and
Jonathan. The dynasty lasted 130 years and was succeeded by the
Idumean dynasty of Herod the Great. The dates here given result from
a geometric plotting of the facts given by Josephus and the books of
the Maccabees.

    Mattathias began to rule in       B.C.  167

    Judas Maccabeus began to rule in   "    166

    The feast of lights instituted
        November 26th                  "    165

    Alcimus, high priest               "    162

    7 years interregnum                "    159

    Jonathan Maccabeus                 "    152

    Simon made governor                "    145

    Simon Maccabeus                    "    143

    Temple cleansed May 4th            "    141

    John Hyrcanus                      "    135

    Judas Aristobulus, king            "    105

    Alexander Janneus                  "    104

    Queen Alexandra                    "     76

    Hyrcanus II.                       "     67

    Aristobulus                        "     67

    Hyrcanus II.                       "     63

    Antigonus                          "     40

    Antigonus put to death             "     37



REIGNS OF THE CHALDEAN AND MEDO-PERSIAN KINGS.

These dates have been established after careful study of the works of
Herodotus, Thucydides, Ctesias, Josephus, Berosus, Manetho, Ptolemy,
Diodorus, Julius Africanus, Eusebius, Egibi tablets; also Annalistic
tablet of Cyrus and "Records of the Past."

    MONARCHS.

                                   B.C.         Reigned.
    Nabopolassar began to reign     626           21 years

    Siege of Jerusalem              606

    Nebuchadnezzar                  605           43   "

    Astyages, king of Media         593           35   "

    Evil-Merodach                   562            2   "

    Nergal-sarra-utsur              560            4   "

    Cyrus the Great,
      king of Persia                558           29   "

    Laborosoarkhodos                556         9/12 year

    Nabonadios, alone         }     556  14
    Nabonadios and Belshazzar }     541   3
                                        ---       17 years

    Babylon taken by Cyrus          538

    Cyrus and Darius }              538   2
    Cyrus alone      }              536   7
                                        ---        9   "

    Cambyses                        529       7-5/12   "

    Gomates                         522         7/12 year

    Darius Hystaspes                521           36 years

    Xerxes                          485           20   "

    Artabanus (USURPER)

    Artaxerxes Longimanus           465           40   "

    Xerxes II. and Sogdianus                         mos.

    Darius Nothus                   425           29 years

    Artaxerxes Mnemon               396           36   "

    Ochus                           360           21   "

    Arses                           339            2   "

    Darius Codomannus               337            4   "


       *       *       *       *       *



Transcriber's Notes

Punctuation has been standardized.

Italic text has been denoted by _underscores_ and bold text by =equal
signs=.

Characters in small caps have been replaced by all caps.

Words printed in red in the original text have been displayed by
indenting the block of text.

Roman numerals have been standarized as capital letters.

Non-Latin characters have been given an English transliteration:
    'oe' ligature --> oe

This book was written in a period when many words had not become
standardized in their spelling. Words may have multiple spelling
variations or inconsistent hyphenation in the text. These have been
left unchanged unless noted below:

    Page   50 - 'Danel' replaced with 'Daniel'
                (with a lamentable voice unto Daniel:)

    Page   52 - 'ino' replaced with 'into'
                (cast _them_ into the den of lions,)

    Page   70 - 'troblous' replaced with 'troublous'
                (even in troublous times.)

    Page   70 - 'befal' replaced with 'befall'
                (what shall befall thy people)

    Page   77 - Verse # omitted in original text
                (1. Also I)

    Page   84 - 'Judus' replaced with 'Judas'
                (take advantage of Judas Maccabeus,)

    Page   96 - 'Babylonion' replaced with 'Babylonian'
                (complete the Babylonian captivity)

    Page  111 - 'Sabattic' replaced with 'Sabbattic'
                ([Sabbattic year.])

    Page  134 - 'Codomanus' changed to 'Codomannus' for consistency
                (Darius Codomannus)





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