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Title: Ford Manual (1919) - For Owners and Operators of Ford Cars and Trucks
Author: Company, Ford Motor
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Illustration: Ford Logo]



 Foreword                                          2

 The Car and Its Operation                         3

 The Ford Engine                                   9

 The Ford Cooling System                          17

 The Gasoline System                              21

 The Ford Ignition System                         25

 The Ford Transmission                            31

 The Rear Axle Assembly                           37

 The Ford Muffler                                 39

 The Running Gear                                 40

 The Ford Lubricating System                      46

 Care of the Tires                                48

 Points on Maintenance                            50

 The Ford Model T One Ton Truck                   51

 The Ford Starting and Lighting System            55

 Summary of Engine Troubles and Their Causes      61

 Index                                            62

[Illustration: Ford The Universal Car]

                            FORD MANUAL

                     For Owners and Operators
                      of Ford Cars and Trucks

                         Copyrighted 1919
                        Ford Motor Company
                        All rights reserved

                          _Published by_
                        FORD MOTOR COMPANY
                    Detroit, Michigan, U. S. A.


 It is a significant fact that nearly all Ford cars are driven by
 laymen--by owners, who in the great majority of cases have little
 or no practical experience with things mechanical.

 The simplicity of the Ford car and the ease with which it
 is operated renders an intimate knowledge of mechanical
 technicalities unnecessary for its operation.

 And the further fact that there are more than twenty thousand Ford
 service stations distributed throughout the civilized world--where
 adjustments and repairs may be had with no annoying delay--gives
 to Ford owners a singular freedom from mechanical annoyances
 which beset owners of cars having limited service facilities and

 But while it is not imperative, it is, however, altogether
 desirable that every Ford owner should thoroughly understand his
 car. With such knowledge at his command he is always master of the
 situation--he will maintain his car more economically--prolong its
 usefulness--and he will also derive more pleasure from it, for it
 is a truism that the more one knows about a thing the more one
 enjoys it.

 The mastery of a thorough knowledge of Ford construction is by no
 means a difficult or time-consuming task. The Ford is the simplest
 car made. It is easy to understand, and is not difficult to keep
 in proper adjustment and repair.

 That the Ford construction may be thoroughly understood--and
 that there may be an authoritative guide for the making of Ford
 adjustments--this book is published.


 _It is most important that owners of Ford cars shall insist upon
 getting the genuine Ford-made materials, or "Parts," when having
 repairs or replacements made. This will be assured when the car
 is taken to the authorized Ford agent. Imitation, or "bogus" or
 counterfeit parts of inferior quality are being made and sold as
 "Ford Parts." Avoid their use by dealing with the authorised Ford

 The Car and Its Operation

 _What must be done before starting the Car?_         _Answer No. 1_

 Before trying to start the car, fill the radiator (by removing cap
 at top) with clean fresh water. If perfectly clean water cannot
 be obtained it is advisable to strain it through muslin or other
 similar material to prevent foreign matter from getting in and
 obstructing the small tubes of the radiator. The system will hold
 approximately three gallons. It is important that the car should
 not be run under its own power unless the water circulating system
 has been filled. Pour in the water until you are sure that both
 radiator and cylinder water jackets are full. The water will run
 out of the overflow pipe onto the ground when the entire water
 system has been properly filled. During the first few days that a
 new car is being driven it is a good plan to examine the radiator
 frequently and see that it is kept properly filled. The water
 supply should be replenished as often as may be found necessary.
 Soft rain water, when it is to be had in a clean state, is
 superior to hard water, which may contain alkalies and other salts
 which tend to deposit sediment and clog the radiator. (See chapter
 on Cooling System.)

 _What about Gasoline?_                               _Answer No. 2_

 The ten-gallon gasoline tank should be filled--nearly full--and
 the supply should never be allowed to get low. When filling the
 tank be sure that there are no naked flames within several feet,
 as the vapor is extremely volatile and travels rapidly. Always
 be careful about lighting matches near where gasoline has been
 spilled, as the air within a radius of several feet is permeated
 with the highly explosive vapor. The small vent hole in the
 gasoline tank cap should not be allowed to get plugged up, as
 this would prevent proper flow of the gasoline to the carburetor.
 The gasoline tank may be drained by opening the pet cock in the
 sediment bulb at the bottom.

 _How about the Oiling System?_                      _Answer No. 3_

 Upon receipt of the car see that a supply of medium light,
 high-grade gas engine oil is poured into the crank case through
 the breather pipe at the front of the engine (a metal cap covers
 it). Down under the car in the flywheel casing (the reservoir
 which holds this oil) you will find two pet cocks. Pour oil in
 slowly until it runs out of the upper cock. Leave the cock open
 until it stops running--then close it. After the engine has
 become thoroughly limbered up, the best results will be obtained
 by carrying the oil at a level midway between the two cocks--but
 under no circumstances should it be allowed to get below the lower
 cock. All other parts of the car are properly oiled when it leaves
 the factory. However, it will be well to see that all grease cups
 are filled and that oil is supplied to necessary parts. (See Cut
 No. 18, also chapter on Lubrication.)

 _How are Spark and Throttle Levers used?_           _Answer No. 4_

Under the steering wheel are two small levers. The right-hand
(throttle) lever controls the amount of mixture (gasoline and air)
which goes into the engine. When the engine is in operation, the
farther this lever is moved downward toward the driver (referred
to as "opening the throttle") the faster the engine runs and the
greater the power furnished. The left-hand lever controls the
spark, which explodes the gas in the cylinders of the engine. The
advancing of this lever "advances the spark," and it should
be moved down notch by notch until the motor seems to reach its
maximum speed. If the lever is advanced beyond this point a dull
knock will be noticed in the engine. (See chapter on Ignition.)

 [Illustration: Steering Wheel, showing reduction gears meshing
 with the teeth of the gear case and center pinion. (Cut No. 1)]

 _Where should these levers be when starting the Engine?_
                                                      _Answer No. 5_

 The spark lever should usually be put in about the third or fourth
 notch of the quadrant (the notched half-circle on which the levers
 operate). The throttle should usually be opened about five or
 six notches. A little experience will soon teach you where these
 levers should be placed for proper starting. Care should be taken
 not to advance the spark lever too far, as the engine may "back

 _What else is necessary before starting the Engine?_ _Answer No. 6_

 First, see that the hand lever, which comes up through the floor
 of the car at the left of the driver, is pulled back as far as it
 will go. The lever in this position holds the clutch in neutral
 and engages the hub brake, thus preventing the car moving forward
 when the engine is started. Second, after inserting the switch key
 in the switch on the coil box, throw the switch lever as far to
 the left as it will go--to the point marked "magneto." This switch
 connects the magneto with the engine. The engine can't be started
 until it is on--and the throwing off of this switch stops the

 _How is the Engine started?_                         _Answer No. 7_

 If the car is not equipped with a starter the engine is started
 by the lifting of the starting crank at the front of the car.
 Take hold of the handle and push firmly toward the car till you
 feel the crank ratchet engage, then lift upward with a quick
 swing. With a little experience this operation wall become an
 easy matter. Don't, as a usual thing, crank downward against the
 compression--for then an early explosion may drive the handle
 vigorously backward. This does not mean however, that it is not
 advisable, when the car is hard to start, to occasionally "spin"
 the engine by the use of the starting handle--but be sure the
 spark lever is retarded when spinning or cranking the engine
 against compression, otherwise a sudden backfire may injure the
 arm of the operator. When the engine is cool it is advisable to
 prime the carburetor by pulling on the small wire at the lower
 left corner of the radiator while giving the engine two or three
 quarter turns with the starting handle.

 If the car is equipped with a starter the spark and throttle
 levers should be placed in the same position on the quadrant as
 when cranking by hand, and the ignition switch turned on. Current
 from either battery or magneto may be used for ignition. However,
 we recommend that the magneto be used at all times. The magneto
 was designed to furnish ignition for the Model T engine and
 better results will be obtained by operating in this way. Special
 attention must be paid to the position of the spark lever as a
 too advanced spark will cause serious backfiring which in turn
 will bend or break the shaft in the starter. The starting motor is
 operated by a push button, conveniently located in the floor of
 the car at the driver's feet. With the spark and throttle levers
 in the proper position, and the ignition switch turned on, press
 on the push button with the foot. This closes the circuit between
 the battery and starting motor, causing the pinion of the Bendix
 drive shaft to engage with the teeth on the flywheel, thus turning
 over the crankshaft. When the engine is cold it may be necessary
 to prime it by pulling out the carburetor priming rod, which is
 located on the instrument board. In order to avoid flooding the
 engine with an over rich mixture of gas, the priming rod should
 only be held out for a few seconds at a time.

 _How is the Engine best started in cold weather?_    _Answer No. 8_

 As gasoline does not vaporize readily in cold weather it is
 naturally more difficult to start the motor under such conditions.
 The usual method of starting the engine when cold is to turn
 the carburetor dash adjustment one-quarter turn to the left in
 order to allow a richer mixture of gasoline to be drawn into the
 cylinders; then hold out the priming rod, while you turn crank
 from six to eight one-quarter turns in quick succession, or turn
 the motor over a few times with the starter. Another method of
 starting a troublesome cold engine is as follows: Before you throw
 on the magneto switch, (1) close throttle lever; (2) hold out
 priming rod while you give crank several quick turns, or turn the
 motor over a few times with the starter, then let go of priming
 rod (being careful that it goes back all the way); (3) place spark
 lever in about third notch and advance throttle lever several
 notches; (4) throw on switch (being sure to get it on side marked
 "Magneto"); (5) give crank one or two turns, or close the starting
 switch, and the motor should start. After starting the motor it
 is advisable to advance the spark eight or ten notches on the
 quadrant and let the motor run until thoroughly heated up. If you
 start out with a cold motor you will not have much power and are
 liable to "stall." The advantage of turning on the switch last, or
 after priming, is that when you throw on the switch and start the
 motor, you have plenty of gas in the cylinders, to keep the motor
 running, thereby eliminating the trouble of the motor starting and
 stopping. After motor is warmed up turn carburetor adjustment back
 one-quarter turn.

 To facilitate starting many drivers make a practice of stopping
 their engine by pulling out on the priming rod, which has the
 effect of shutting off the air suction and filling the cylinders
 full of a very rich gasoline vapor. This should not be done unless
 the car is going to stand over night or long enough to cool off.
 If the motor is stopped in this way and then started when hot,
 starting is apt to be difficult on account of the surplus gasoline
 in the carburetor.

 _What function does the Hand Lever perform?_         _Answer No. 9_

 Its chief purpose is to hold the clutch in neutral position. If it
 were not for this lever the driver would have to stop the engine
 whenever he left the driver's seat. He would also be unable to
 crank the engine without the car starting forward with the first
 explosion. When pulled back as far as it will go, the hand lever
 acts as an emergency brake on the rear wheels, by expanding the
 brake shoes in the rear wheel drums. Therefore the hand lever
 should be back as far as it will go when cranking the engine or
 when the car is at rest. It should be only in a vertical position,
 and not far enough backward to act as a brake on the rear wheels,
 when the car is to be reversed. When the car is operating in high
 or low speed the hand lever should be all the way forward.

 _How do the Foot Pedals operate?_                   _Answer No. 10_

 The first one toward the left operates the clutch. When pressed
 forward the clutch pedal engages the low speed. When half-way
 forward the clutch is in neutral (i. e., disconnected from the
 driving mechanism of the rear wheels), and the releasing of this
 pedal engages the high-speed clutch. The center pedal operates the
 reverse. The right-hand pedal operates the transmission brake.

 _How is the Car started?_                           _Answer No. 11_

 Slightly accelerate the engine by opening the throttle, press
 the clutch pedal half way forward, thereby holding the clutch in
 a neutral position while throwing the hand lever forward; then
 press the pedal forward into slow speed and when under sufficient
 headway (20 to 30 feet), allow the pedal to drop back slowly into
 high speed, at the same time partially closing the throttle,
 which will allow the engine to pick up its load easily. With a
 little practice, the change of speeds will be easily accomplished,
 and without any appreciable effect on the smooth running of the

 _How is the Car stopped?_                           _Answer No. 12_

 Partially close the throttle; release the high speed by pressing
 the clutch pedal forward into neutral; apply the foot brake slowly
 but firmly until the car comes to a dead stop. Do not remove foot
 from the clutch pedal without first pulling the hand lever back
 to neutral position, or the engine will stall. To stop the motor,
 open the throttle a trifle to accelerate the motor and then throw
 off the switch. The engine will then stop with the cylinders full
 of explosive gas, which will naturally facilitate starting.

 Endeavor to so familiarize yourself with the operation of the
 car that to disengage the clutch and apply the brake becomes
 practically automatic--the natural thing to do in case of

 _How is the Car reversed?_                          _Answer No. 13_

 It must be brought to a dead stop. With the engine running,
 disengage the clutch with the hand lever and press the reverse
 pedal forward with the left foot, the right foot being free to use
 on the brake pedal if needed. Do not bring the hand lever back too
 far or you will set the brakes on rear wheels. Experienced drivers
 ordinarily reverse the car by simply holding the clutch pedal in
 neutral with the left foot, and operating the reverse pedal with
 the right.

 _How is the Spark controlled?_                      _Answer No. 14_

 By the left-hand lever under the steering wheel. Good operators
 drive with the spark lever advanced just as far as the engine will
 permit. However, advancing the spark too far will cause a dull
 knock in the motor, due to the fact that the explosion occurs too
 early. The spark should only be retarded when the engine slows
 down on a heavy road or steep grade, but care should be exercised
 not to retard the spark too far as this will result in late
 ignition, which causes loss of power and overheating of the motor
 and may also result in warped, burned or cracked valves. Learn to
 operate the spark as the occasion demands. The greatest economy
 in gasoline consumption is obtained by driving with the spark
 advanced sufficiently to obtain the maximum speed.

 _How is speed of Car controlled?_                   _Answer No. 15_

 The different speeds required to meet road conditions are obtained
 by opening or closing the throttle. Practically all the running
 speeds needed for ordinary travel are obtained on high gear, and
 it is seldom necessary to use the low gear except to give the car
 momentum in starting. The speed of the car may be temporarily
 slackened in driving through crowded traffic, turning corners,
 etc., by "slipping the clutch," i. e., pressing the clutch pedal
 forward into neutral.

 _Is it advisable for owners to make their own Adjustments?_
                                                     _Answer No. 16_

 The Ford is the simplest of all cars. Most of the ordinary
 adjustments an owner will soon learn to make for himself. But
 we must strongly recommend that when it becomes necessary
 to employ the services of a mechanic, the car be taken to a
 Ford mechanic--one of our own representatives who thoroughly
 understands the car--and who will have no motive for running up
 useless repair bills. The entire Ford organization is interested
 in keeping every individual Ford car in constant operation, at the
 lowest possible cost. We have known of much damage done to many
 cars by unskilled repair men.

 _What attention does the Car need?_                 _Answer No. 17_

 Remember that a new machine requires more careful attention during
 the first few days it is being driven than after the parts have
 become thoroughly "worked in." The car which is driven slowly and
 carefully when new usually gives the most satisfactory service in
 the end. Never start out with your car until you are sure that
 is has plenty of oil and water. Frequently inspect the running
 gear. See that no unnecessary play exists in either front or rear
 wheels, and that all bolts and nuts are tight. Make a practice of
 taking care of every repair or adjustment as soon as its necessity
 is discovered. This attention requires but little time and may
 avoid delay or possible accident on the road. We aim to deliver
 the car in proper mechanical adjustment. Afterwards it is plainly
 the duty of the driver to keep it in that condition.

 The Ford Engine

 _What is the principle of the gasoline-driven Engine?_
                                                     _Answer No. 18_

 Gasoline when mixed with air and compressed is highly explosive.
 An explosion is a violent expansion caused by instantaneous
 combustion of confined gases. In the gasoline engine the mixture
 is drawn into a cylinder, where it is compressed by an advancing
 piston and then exploded by an electric spark, which sends the
 piston downward, and through the connecting rod imparts a rotary
 motion to the crankshaft. (See Cut No. 2.)

 _What are the functions of the Pistons?_            _Answer No. 19_

 On the downward stroke the suction of the piston draws the fresh
 gas from the carburetor, through the inlet pipe and valve, into
 the cylinder. The upward movement of the piston compresses the
 gas into a very small space, between the top of the piston and
 the depression in the cylinder head, known as the "combustion
 chamber." (The compressed gases exert a pressure of approximately
 60 pounds per square inch.) At this point the electric spark,
 generated by the magneto, explodes the gases--driving the piston
 downward--thus producing the power which turns the crank shaft.
 On the next stroke upward the piston drives the exploded gas out
 through the exhaust valve and pipe to the muffler. (See Cut No. 3.)

 _Connecting Rod--how removed?_                      _Answer No. 20_

 It is a steel rod, connecting piston and crank shaft. Should the
 babbitt bearing become worn, or burned out through lack of oil,
 a knocking in the engine will result in which case the entire
 connecting rod should be replaced. To make this replacement,
 (1) drain oil from crank case; (2) take off cylinder head; (3)
 remove detachable plate on bottom of crank case; (4) disconnect
 connecting rod from crank shaft; (5) take piston and rod out
 through top of cylinder.

 _What is the Valve Arrangement?_                    _Answer No. 21_

 One intake and one exhaust valve are located in each cylinder.
 The former admits the fresh gas drawn from the carburetor through
 the inlet pipe--the latter permits the exploded gas to be driven
 out through the exhaust pipe. The valves are alternately opened
 and closed (see Cut No. 3) by the cams on the cam shaft striking
 against push rods which in turn lift the valves from their seats.

 _What about Valve timing?_                          _Answer No. 22_

 In timing the engine the points of opening and closing of the
 valves are, of course, what should be considered. As the valves
 are properly timed at the factory when the engine is built the
 necessity for retiming would occur only when such parts as the cam
 shaft, time gears or valves were removed in overhauling the engine.

 [Illustration: Sectional View of the Model T Motor. (Cut No. 2)]

 [Illustration: Cylinder Assembly, showing the correct position of
 the valves with time gears properly set according to punch marks
 on the gears, also the relative position of the pistons in their
 strokes as indicated above. The firing order of the cylinders is
 1, 2, 4, 3. (Cut No. 3)]

 In fitting the large time gear to the cam shaft it is important to
 see that the first cam points in a direction opposite to the zero
 mark (see Cut No. 3). The time gears must also mesh so that the
 tooth marked zero (0) on the small time gear will come between the
 two teeth on the large gear at the zero point. The time gears now
 being properly set, the exhaust valve on No. 1 cylinder is open and
 the intake valve closed, the other valves being in the position
 indicated in Cut No. 3. The opening and closing of the valves being
 as follows: The exhaust valve opens when the piston reaches 5/16″
 of bottom center, the distance from the top of the piston head to
 the top of cylinder casting measuring 3⅜″. The exhaust valve will
 close on top centre, the piston being 5/16″ above the cylinder
 casting. The intake valve opens 1/16″ after top center, and closes
 9/16″ after bottom center, the distance from the top of the piston
 to the top of the cylinder casting measuring 3⅛″.

 [Illustration: How the valve lifting tool should be used. (Cut No. 4)]

 The clearance between the push rod and valve stem should never be
 greater than 1/32″ nor less than 1/64″. The correct clearance is
 naturally half way between these two measurements. The gap should
 be measured when the push rod is on the heel of the cam.

 _What about the care of the Valves?_                _Answer No. 23_

 They seldom get out of order--but they do get dirty, as a result
 of carbon collecting on the valve seats. These carbon deposits by
 preventing proper closing of the valves, permit the gases under
 compression to escape, resulting in loss of power and uneven
 running of the motor. If, when turning the engine over slowly,
 there is a lack of resistance in one or more cylinders, it is
 probable that the valves need re-grinding. As the "life" of the
 engine depends largely upon the proper seating of the valves, it
 is necessary that they be ground occasionally.

 _How are Valves removed for grinding?_              _Answer No. 24_

 (1) Drain radiator; (2) remove cylinder head; (3) remove the two
 valve covers on the right side of engine; (4) raise the valve
 spring with lifting tool (see Cut No. 4) and pull out the little
 pin under the valve seat. The valve may then be lifted out by the

 _How are Valves ground?_                            _Answer No. 25_

 For this work use a good grinding paste of ground glass and
 oil--procurable from auto supply houses. A convenient way is to
 put a small amount in a suitable dish, adding a spoonful or two of
 kerosene and a few drops of lubricating oil to make a thin paste.

 [Illustration: Method of grinding valve. (Cut No. 5)]

 Place the mixture sparingly on the bevel face of the valve. Put
 the valve in position on the valve seat, and rotate it back and
 forth (about a quarter turn) a few times, with a Ford grinding
 tool. Then lift slightly from the seat, change the position and
 continue the rotation, and keep on repeating this operation until
 the bearing surface is smooth and bright. The valve should not
 be turned through a complete revolution, as this is apt to cause
 scratches running around the entire circumference of the valve and
 seat. When the grinding is completed the valve should be removed
 from the cylinder, thoroughly washed with kerosene, and the valve
 seat wiped out thoroughly. Extreme care should be taken that no
 abrasive substance gets into the cylinders or valve guides. This
 can be avoided if the grinding paste is applied sparingly to
 the bevel face of the valve. If the valve seat is worn badly or
 seamed, it is best to have it reseated with a valve seating tool.
 This operation requires considerable skill, and perhaps had better
 be done by an expert mechanic. Care should be exercised against
 making too deep a cut, necessitating the retiming of the valve.

 _When the Valves and Push Rods are worn--what?_     _Answer No. 26_

 When the valves or push rods become worn, so as to leave too
 much play between them, thus reducing the lift of the valves and
 diminishing the power of the motor, it is best to replace the push
 rods with new ones. The clearance between the push rods and the
 valve stem should never be greater than 1/32″ nor less than 1/64″.
 If the clearance is greater, the valve will open late and close
 early, resulting in uneven running of the motor. If the clearance
 is less than 1/64″ there is danger of the valve remaining
 partially open all the time. If replacing the push rod does not
 give the proper clearance, the valve should also be replaced. We
 do not recommend drawing out the valve stem, as the operation
 requires experience and the price of the new part does not warrant
 the time and expense necessary to properly do the work.

 _What about the Valve Springs?_                     _Answer No. 27_

 When the valves fail to seat themselves properly, there is a
 possibility that the springs may be weak or broken. A weak inlet
 spring would probably not affect the running of the engine, but
 weakness in the exhaust valve spring causes a very uneven action,
 which is difficult to locate. The symptoms area lag in the engine
 due to the exhaust valve not closing instantaneously, and as
 a result a certain percentage of the charge under compression
 escapes, greatly diminishing the force of the explosion. Weakness
 in a valve spring can usually be detected by the following method:
 Remove the plate which encloses them at the side of the cylinder
 and insert a screw driver between the coils of the spring while
 the engine is running. If the extra tension thus produced causes
 the engine to pick up speed, the spring is obviously weak and
 should be replaced with a new one.

 _What cause "Knocking" in the Engine?_              _Answer No. 28_

 There are several causes, which may be enumerated as follows: (1)
 carbon knock--which is by far the most common--resulting from
 carbonizing of cylinders; (2) knock caused by a too advanced
 spark; (3) connecting rod knock; (4) crank shaft main bearing
 knock; (5) knock due to loose-fitting piston or broken ring; (6)
 knock caused by the piston striking the cylinder head gasket.
 When the engine knocks from any cause whatsoever, the matter
 should be promptly investigated by an experienced mechanic and the
 difficulty corrected.

 _How may the different Knocks be distinguished?_    _Answer No. 29_

 (1) The carbon knock is a clear, hollow sound, most noticeable in
 climbing sharp grades, particularly when the engine is heated.
 It is also indicated by a sharp rap immediately on advancing the
 throttle. (2) Too advanced spark will be indicated by a dull knock
 in the motor. (3) The connecting rod knock sounds like the distant
 tapping of steel with a small hammer, and is readily distinguished
 when the car is allowed to run idly down grade--or upon speeding
 the car to twenty-five miles an hour, then suddenly closing the
 throttle, the tapping will be very distinct. (4) The crank shaft
 main bearing knock can be distinguished, when the car is going
 uphill, as a dull thud. (5) The loose piston knock is heard only
 upon suddenly opening the throttle, when the sound produced might
 be likened to a rattle. The remedies for these knocks are treated
 under their proper division.

 _How is carbon removed from Combustion Chamber?_    _Answer No. 30_

 First, drain the water off by opening the pet cock at the bottom
 of the radiator; then disconnect the wires at the top of the motor
 and also the radiator connection attached to the radiator. Remove
 the 15 cap screws which hold the cylinder head in place. Take off
 the cylinder head and, with a putty knife or screw driver, scrape
 the carbonized matter from the cylinder head and top of pistons,
 being careful to prevent the specks of carbon from getting into
 the cylinders or bolt holes. In replacing the cylinder head gasket
 turn the motor over so that No. 1 and No. 4 pistons are at top
 center; place the gasket in position over the pistons and then put
 the cylinder head in place. Be sure and draw the cylinder head
 bolts down evenly (i. e., give each bolt a few turns at a time);
 do not tighten them on one end before drawing them up at the other.

 _How are Spark Plugs cleaned?_                      _Answer No. 31_

 After removing the plug from the engine the points may be cleaned
 with an old tooth-brush dipped in gasoline. However, in order to
 do the work thoroughly, the plug should be taken apart by securing
 the large hexagon steel shell in a vise and loosening the pack nut
 which holds the porcelain in place. The carbon deposits can then
 be easily removed from the porcelain and shell with a small knife.
 Care should be exercised not to scrape off the glazed surface of
 the porcelain, otherwise it will be apt to carbonize quickly. The
 porcelain and other parts should finally be washed in gasoline and
 wiped dry with a cloth.

 In assembling the plug care should be taken to see that the pack
 nut is not tightened too much so as to crack the porcelain, and
 the distance between the sparking points should be 1/32″, about
 the thickness of a smooth dime.

 Dirty plugs usually result from an excess of oil being carried in
 the crank case--or from using oil of poor quality.

 _How is the Power Plant removed from the Car?_      _Answer No. 32_

 (1) Drain the water out of the radiator and disconnect the
 radiator hose;

 (2) disconnect the radiator stay rod which holds it to the dash;

 (3) take out the two bolts which fasten the radiator to the frame
 and take radiator off;

 (4) disconnect the dash at the two supporting brackets which rest
 on the frame;

 (5) loosen the steering post bracket, fastened to the frame, when
 the dash and steering gear may be removed as one assembly--the
 wires first having been disconnected;

 (6) take out the bolts holding the front radius rods in the socket
 underneath the crank case;

 (7) remove the four bolts at the universal joint;

 (8) remove pans on either side of cylinder casting and turn off
 gasoline, disconnect feed pipe from carburetor;

 (9) disconnect exhaust manifold from exhaust pipe by unscrewing
 large brass pack nut;

 (10) take out the two cap screws which hold the crank case to the
 front frame;

 (11) remove the bolts which hold the crank case arms to the frame
 at the side. Then pass a rope through the opening between the two
 middle cylinders and tie in a loose knot. Through the rope pass
 a "2x4," or a stout iron pipe about ten feet long, and let a man
 hold each end; let a third man take hold of the starting crank
 handle, when the whole power plant can be lifted from the car to
 the work bench for adjustment.

 _Connecting Rod Bearings--how adjusted?_            _Answer No. 33_

 Connecting rod bearings may be adjusted, without taking out the
 engine, by the following method: (1) drain off the oil; (2) remove
 plate on bottom of crank case--exposing connecting rods; (3) take
 off first connecting rod cap, and draw-file the ends--a very
 little at a time; (4) replace cap, being careful to see that file
 marks correspond, and tighten bolts until it fits shaft snugly;
 (5) test tightness of bearing by turning engine over by the
 starting handle. Experienced mechanics usually determine when the
 bearing is properly fitted by lightly tapping each side of the cap
 with a hammer; (6) then loosen the bearing and proceed to fit the
 other bearings in the same manner; (7) after each bearing has been
 properly fitted and tested--then tighten the cap bolts and the
 work is finished.

 Remember, there is a possibility of getting the bearings too
 tight, and under such conditions the babbitt is apt to cut out
 quickly, unless precaution is taken to run the motor slowly at the
 start. It is a good plan after adjusting the bearings to jack up
 the rear wheels and let the motor run slowly for about two hours
 (keeping it well supplied with water and oil) before taking it out
 on the road. Whenever possible these bearings should be fitted by
 an expert Ford mechanic.

 Worn connecting rods may be returned, prepaid, to the nearest
 dealer or branch house for exchange at a price of $1.00 each
 to cover the cost of rebabbitting. It is not advisable for any
 owner or repair shop to attempt the rebabbitting of connecting
 rods or main bearings, for without a special jig in which to form
 the bearings, satisfactory results will not be obtained. The
 constant tapping of a loose connecting rod on the crank shaft will
 eventually produce crystallization of the steel--result, broken
 crank shaft and possibly other parts of the engine damaged.

 _Crank Shaft Main Bearings--how adjusted?_          _Answer No. 34_

 Should the stationary bearings in which the crank shaft revolves
 become worn (evidenced by a pounding in the motor) and need
 replacing or adjusting, proceed as follows:

 (1) After the engine has been taken out of the car, remove crank
 case, transmission cover, cylinder head, pistons, connecting rods,
 transmission and magneto coils. Take off the three babbitted caps
 and clean the bearing surfaces with gasoline. Apply Prussian blue
 or red lead to the crank shaft bearing surfaces, which will enable
 you, in fitting the caps, to determine whether a perfect bearing
 surface is obtained.

 (2) Place the rear cap in position and tighten it up as much as
 possible without stripping the bolt threads. When the bearing has
 been properly fitted, the crank shaft can be turned with one hand.
 If the crank shaft cannot be turned with one hand, the contact
 between the bearing surfaces is evidently too close, and the
 cap requires shimming up, one or two brass liners usually being
 sufficient. In case the crank shaft moves too easily with one
 hand, the shims should be removed and the steel surface of the cap
 filed off, permitting it to set closer.

 (3) After removing the cap, observe whether the blue or red
 "spottings" indicate a full bearing the length of the cap. If
 "spottings" do not show a true bearing, the babbitt should be
 scraped and the cap refitted until the proper results are obtained.

 (4) Lay the rear cap aside and proceed to adjust the center
 bearing in the same manner. Repeat the operation with the front
 bearing, with the other two bearings laid aside.

 (5) When the proper adjustment of each bearing has been obtained,
 clean the babbitt surface carefully and place a little lubricating
 oil on the bearings, also on the crank shaft; then draw the caps
 up as closely as possible--the necessary shims, of course, being
 in place. Do not be afraid of getting the cap bolts too tight, as
 the shim under the cap and the oil between the bearing surfaces
 will prevent the metal being drawn into too close contact. If oil
 is not put on the bearing surfaces, the babbitt is apt to cut out
 when the motor is started up before the oil in the crank case can
 get into the bearing. In replacing the crank case and transmission
 cover on the motor, it is advisable to use a new set of gaskets to
 prevent oil leaks.

 The Ford Cooling System

 _How is the Engine cooled?_                         _Answer No. 35_

 The heat generated by the constant explosions in the engine would
 soon overheat and ruin the engine, were it not cooled by some
 artificial means. The Ford engine is cooled by the circulation
 of water in jackets around the cylinders. The heat is extracted
 from the water by its passing through the thin metal tubing of the
 radiator--to which are attached scientifically worked out fins,
 which assist in the rapid radiation of the heat. The fan, just
 back of the radiator, sucks the air around the tubing--around
 which the air is also driven by the forward movement of the
 car. The belt should be inspected frequently and tightened when
 necessary--not too tight, however--by means of the adjusting screw
 in the fan bracket. Take up the slack till the fan starts to bind
 when turned by hand.

 _How does the Water circulate?_                     _Answer No. 36_

 The cooling apparatus of the Ford car is known as the
 Thermo-syphon system. It acts on the principle that hot water
 seeks a higher level than cold water--consequently when the water
 reaches a certain heat, approximately 180 degrees Fahrenheit,
 circulation commences and the water flows from the lower radiator
 outlet pipe up through the water jackets, into the upper radiator
 water tank, and down through the tubes to the lower tank, to
 repeat the process.

 _What are the causes of Overheating?_               _Answer No. 37_

 (1) Carbonized cylinders; (2) too much driving on low speed; (3)
 spark retarded too far; (4) poor ignition; (5) not enough or poor
 grade oil; (6) racing motor; (7) clogged muffler; (8) improper
 carburetor adjustment; (9) fan not working properly on account of
 broken or slipping belt; (10) improper circulation of water due to
 clogged or jammed radiator tubes, leaky connections or low water.

 _What should be done when the Radiator overheats?_  _Answer No. 38_

 Keep the radiator full. Don't get alarmed if it boils
 occasionally--especially in driving through mud and deep sand or
 up long hills in extremely warm weather. Remember that the engine
 develops the greatest efficiency when the water is heated nearly
 to the boiling point. But if there is persistent overheating when
 the motor is working under ordinary conditions--find the cause of
 the trouble and remedy it. The chances are that the difficulty
 lies in improper driving or carbonized cylinders. Perhaps twisting
 the fan blades at a greater angle to produce more suction may
 bring desired results. By reference to the proper division of this
 book each of the causes which contribute to an overheated radiator
 is treated and remedies suggested. No trouble can result from the
 filling of a heated radiator with cold water--providing the water
 system is not entirely empty--in which case the motor should be
 allowed to cool before the cold water is introduced.

 _How about cleaning the Radiator?_                  _Answer No. 39_

 The entire circulating system should be thoroughly flushed out
 occasionally. To do this properly, the radiator inlet and outlet
 hose should be disconnected, and the radiator flushed out by
 allowing the water to enter the filler neck at ordinary pressure,
 from whence it will flow down through the tubes and out at the
 drain cock and hose. The water jackets can be flushed out in the
 same manner. Simply allow the water to enter into the cylinder
 head connection and to flow through the water jackets and out at
 the side inlet connection.

 [Illustration: The Thermo-Syphon Cooling System, showing course
 of water through water passages. (Cut No. 6)]

 _Will the Radiator freeze in winter?_               _Answer No. 40_

 Yes, unless an anti-freezing solution is used in the circulating
 system you are bound to experience trouble. As the circulation
 does not commence until the water becomes heated, it is apt to
 freeze at low temperature before it commences to circulate. In
 case any of the radiator tubes happen to be plugged or jammed they
 are bound to freeze and burst open if the driver undertakes to get
 along without using a non-freezing solution. Wood or denatured
 alcohol can be used to good advantage. The following table gives
 the freezing points of solutions containing different percentages
 of alcohol:

  20% solution freezes at 15 degrees above zero.
  30% solution freezes at 8 degrees below zero,
  50% solution freezes at 34 degrees below zero.

 A solution composed of 60% water, 10% glycerine and 30% alcohol is
 commonly used, its freezing point being about 8 degrees below zero.

 On account of evaporation fresh alcohol must be added frequently
 in order to maintain the proper solution.

 _How are leaks and jams in the Radiator repaired?_  _Answer No. 41_

 A small leak may be temporarily repaired by applying brown soap or
 white lead--but the repair should be made permanent with solder as
 soon as possible. A jammed radiator tube is a more serious affair.
 While the stopping of one tube does not seriously interfere
 with the circulation, it is bound to cause trouble sooner or
 later--and the tube will freeze in cold weather. Cut the tube an
 inch above and below the jam and insert a new piece, soldering the
 connections. If the entire radiator is badly jammed or broken it
 would probably be advisable to install a new one.

 [Illustration: This cut illustrates the principle of Ford
 Carburetion. (Cut No. 7)]

 The Gasoline System

 _The Carburetor--how does it work?_                 _Answer No. 42_

 The carburetor is of the automatic float feed type, having but
 one adjustment--the gasoline needle valve. The cross-section
 diagram of carburetor on page 20 shows how the gasoline enters the
 carburetor, is vaporized by a current of air and passes through
 the inlet pipe to the engine in the form of an explosive mixture.
 The gasoline, entering the bowl of the carburetor, gradually
 raises the float to a point where the inlet needle is forced
 upwards into its seat, thus cutting off the flow of gasoline. As
 the gasoline in the bowl recedes, the float lowers, allowing the
 needle to drop from its seat and the flow of gasoline is resumed.
 It is plain to see that a constant level of gasoline is maintained
 in the carburetor by the automatic action of float and needle.
 The quantity of gasoline entering into the mixture is governed by
 the needle valve (see Answer No. 45). The volume of gas mixture
 entering the intake pipe is controlled by opening and closing the
 throttle, according to the speed desired by the driver.

 _Why is Carburetor adjustment placed on the dash?_  _Answer No. 43_

 For the convenience of the driver in adjusting the carburetor.
 After the new car has become thoroughly worked in, the driver
 should observe the angle of the carburetor adjusting rod at
 which the engine runs most satisfactorily. In cold weather it
 will probably be found necessary to turn the dash adjustment
 one-quarter turn to the left, particularly in starting a cold
 engine. As gasoline vaporizes readily in warm weather, the driver
 will find it economical to reduce the quantity of gasoline in the
 mixture by turning the carburetor adjustment to the right as far
 as possible without reducing speed. This is particularly true when
 taking long drives where conditions permit a fair rate of speed
 being maintained, and accounts for the excellent gasoline mileage
 obtained by good drivers.

 _What is meant by a "lean" and a "rich" Mixture?_   _Answer No. 44_

 A lean mixture has too much air and not enough gasoline. A rich
 mixture has too much gasoline and not enough air. A rich mixture
 will not only quickly cover the cylinders, pistons and valves with
 carbon, but will tend to overheat the cylinders, and is likewise
 wasteful of the fuel. It will often choke the engine and cause
 misfiring at slow speeds, although at high speeds the machine will
 run perfectly. The mixture should be kept as lean as possible
 without the sacrifice of any of the power of the motor. A lean
 mixture will often result in backfiring through the carburetor,
 for the reason that the gas burns slowly in the cylinder, and is
 still burning when the inlet valve opens again, which causes the
 gas in the intake to ignite. A rich mixture is shown by heavy,
 black exhaust smoke with a disagreeable smell. Proper mixture will
 cause very little smoke or odor.

 _How is the Carburetor adjusted?_                   _Answer No. 45_

 The usual method of regulating the carburetor is to start the
 motor, advancing the throttle lever to about the sixth notch,
 with the spark retarded to about the fourth notch. The flow of
 gasoline should now be cut off by screwing the needle valve down
 to the right until the engine begins to misfire, then gradually
 increase the gasoline feed by opening the needle valve until the
 motor picks up and reaches its highest speed and no trace of black
 smoke comes from the exhaust. Whenever it is necessary to turn the
 adjusting needle down more than a quarter turn below its normal
 position, the lock nut on top of the carburetor at the point
 through which needle passes should first be loosened, as otherwise
 it is impossible to tell when the needle is turned down in its
 seat too far. Turning the needle down too tightly will result
 in its becoming grooved and the seat enlarged. When these parts
 are damaged it is difficult to maintain proper adjustment of the
 carburetor. Having determined the point where the motor runs at
 its maximum speed, the needle valve lock nut should be tightened
 to prevent the adjustment being disturbed. For average running, a
 lean mixture will give better results than a rich one.

 _Why does water clog the Carburetor?_               _Answer No. 46_

 The presence of water in the carburetor or gasoline tank, even
 in small amounts, will prevent easy starting and the motor will
 misfire and stop. As water is heavier than gasoline it settles
 to the bottom of the tank and into the sediment bulb along with
 other foreign matter. As it is difficult nowadays to get gasoline
 absolutely free from impurities, especially water, it is advisable
 to frequently drain the sediment bulb under the gasoline tank.
 During cold weather the water which accumulates in the sediment
 bulb is likely to freeze and prevent the flow of gasoline through
 the pipe leading to the carburetor. Should anything of this kind
 happen it is possible to open the gasoline line by wrapping a
 cloth around the sediment bulb and keeping it saturated with hot
 water for a short time. Then the water should be drained off. In
 event the water gets down into the carburetor and freezes, the
 same treatment may be applied.

 _What makes the Carburetor leak?_                   _Answer No. 47_

 The flow of gasoline entering the carburetor through the feed
 pipe is automatically regulated by the float needle raising and
 lowering in its seat. Should any particle of dirt become lodged
 in the seat, which prevents the needle from closing, the gasoline
 will overflow in the bowl of the carburetor and leak out upon the

 _When there is dirt in the Carburetor--what?_       _Answer No. 48_

 The spraying nozzle of the carburetor having a very small opening,
 a minute particle of grit or other foreign matter will clog up the
 orifice, and result: motor will begin to misfire and slow down as
 soon as it has attained any considerable speed. This is accounted
 for by the fact that at high speeds the increased suction will
 draw the particles of dust, etc., into the nozzle. By opening
 the valve needle half a turn and giving the throttle lever two
 or three quick pulls the dirt or sediment will often be drawn
 through, when the needle may be turned back to its original place.
 If this does not accomplish the purpose, the carburetor should be

 _If Engine runs too fast or chokes with throttle retarded--what?_
                                                     _Answer No. 49_

 If the engine runs too fast with throttle fully retarded unscrew
 the carburetor throttle lever adjusting screw until the engine
 idles at suitable speed. If the motor chokes and stops when
 throttle is fully retarded the adjusting screw should be screwed
 in until it strikes the boss, preventing the throttle from closing
 too far. When proper adjustment has been made, tighten lock-screw
 so that adjustment will not be disturbed.

 _What is the purpose of the Hot Air Pipe?_          _Answer No. 50_

 It takes the hot air from around the exhaust pipe and conducts it
 to the carburetor--where the heat facilitates the vaporizing of
 the gasoline. It is usually advisable to remove this pipe in the
 hot season--but it is an absolutely necessary feature during cold

 _What is the purpose of the Cork Float?_            _Answer No. 51_

 It automatically controls the flow of the gasoline into the
 carburetor. If it floats too low, starting will be difficult; if
 too high, the carburetor will flood and leak. A cork float which
 has become fuel soaked should be removed and replaced by a new one
 or thoroughly dried and then given a couple of coats of liquid
 shellac to make it waterproof.

 _Should Priming Rod be used in starting when Motor is warm?_
                                                     _Answer No. 52_

 No. The carburetor does not ordinarily require priming when the
 motor is warm, and starting with the rod pulled out is apt to
 "flood" the engine with an over-rich mixture of gas, which does
 not readily explode. This naturally causes difficulty in starting.
 If you should accidentally flood the engine, turn the carburetor
 adjusting needle down (to the right) until it seats; then turn
 the engine over a few times in order to exhaust the rich gas. As
 soon as the motor starts, turn back the needle (to the left) and
 readjust the carburetor.

 [Illustration: Wiring of Ford Ignition System. (Cut No. 8)]

 The Ford Ignition System

 _What is the purpose of the Ignition System?_       _Answer No. 53_

 It furnishes the electric spark which explodes the charge in
 the combustion chamber, thus producing the power which runs the
 engine. It is important that the charge be correctly ignited
 at the proper time, in order to obtain satisfactory results in
 running the car. In the Ford car the ignition system is as simple
 as it is possible for human invention to make it.

 _How does the Magneto generate the current?_        _Answer No. 54_

 In revolving at the same rate of speed as the motor, the magnets
 on the flywheel passing the stationary coil spools create an
 alternating low tension electric current in coils of wire which
 are wound around spools fastened to the stationary part of the
 magneto, and is carried from these coils to the magneto connection
 (wire) leading to the coil box on the dash.

 _Should the Coil Vibrator Adjustment be disturbed?_
                                                     _Answer No. 55_

 The present style of coil unit is properly adjusted when it leaves
 the factory and this adjustment should not be disturbed unless to
 install new points or to reduce the gap between the points which
 may have increased from wear. When adjustments are necessary they
 should, whenever possible, be made by one of our service stations
 who have special equipment for testing and adjusting units and
 will gladly furnish expert service. If the points are pitted
 they should be filed flat with a fine double-faced file and the
 adjusting thumb nut turned down so that with the spring held down
 the gap between the points will be a trifle less than 1/32″ of
 an inch. Then set the lock nut so that the adjustment can not be
 disturbed. Do not bend or hammer on the vibrators, as this would
 affect the operation of the cushion spring of the vibrator bridge
 and reduce the efficiency of the unit.

 _How is a Weak Unit detected?_                      _Answer No. 56_

 With the vibrators properly adjusted, if any particular cylinder
 fails or seems to develop only a weak action, change the position
 of the unit to determine if the fault is actually in the unit. The
 first symptom of a defective unit is the buzzing of the vibrator
 with no spark at the plug. Remember that a loose wire connection,
 faulty spark plug, or worn commutator may cause irregularity
 in the running of the motor. These are points that should be
 considered before laying the blame on the coil.

 _How may short circuit in Commutator Wiring be detected?_
                                                     _Answer No. 57_

 Should the insulation of the primary wires (running from coil to
 commutator) become worn to such an extent that the copper wire is
 exposed--the current will leak out (i. e. short circuit) whenever
 contact with the engine pan or other metal parts is made. A steady
 buzzing of one of the coil units will indicate a "short" in the
 wiring. When driving the car the engine will suddenly lag and
 pound on account of the premature explosion. Be careful not to
 crank the engine downward against compression when the car is in
 this condition, as the "short" is apt to cause a vigorous kick

 _Does Coil Adjustment affect starting?_             _Answer No. 58_

 Yes. When the vibrators are not properly adjusted more current is
 required to make and break the contact between the points, and,
 as a result, at cranking speeds you would not get a spark between
 the spark plug points. Do not allow the contact points to become
 "ragged," otherwise they are apt to stick and cause unnecessary
 difficulty in starting, and when running they are apt to produce
 an occasional "miss" in the engine.

 _What is the purpose of the Commutator?_            _Answer No. 59_

 The commutator (or timer) determines the instant at which the
 spark plugs must fire. It effects the "make and break" in the
 primary circuit. The grounded wire in the magneto allows the
 current to flow through the metal parts to the metal roller in the
 commutator. Therefore, when the commutator roller in revolving
 touches the four commutator contact points, to each of which is
 attached a wire connected with a coil unit, an electrical circuit
 is passed through the entire system of primary wires. This circuit
 is only momentary, however, as the roller passes over the contact
 point very rapidly and sets up the circuit in each unit as the
 roller touches the contact point connected with that unit. The
 commutator should be kept clean and well oiled at all times.

 [Illustration: The Ford Commutator. (Cut No. 9)]

 _What about the Spark Plugs?_                       _Answer No. 60_

 One is located at the top of each cylinder and can easily be taken
 out with the spark plug wrench included with every car, after the
 wire connection is removed. The high voltage current flows out of
 the secondary coils in the coil box and on reaching the contact
 points in each spark plug it is forced to jump a 1/32″ gap,
 thereby forming a spark which ignites the gasoline charge in the

 The spark plugs should be kept clean (i. e., free from carbon) and
 should be replaced if they persist in not working properly. There
 is nothing to be gained by experimenting with different makes of
 plugs. The make of plugs with which Ford engines are equipped
 when they leave the factory are best adapted to the requirements
 of our motor, notwithstanding the opinion of various garage men
 to the contrary. All wire connections to spark plugs, coil box
 and commutator should, of course, at all times be kept in perfect

 _What are the indications of Ignition trouble?_     _Answer No. 61_

 The uneven sputter and bang of the exhaust means that one or
 more cylinders are exploding irregularly or not at all, and that
 the trouble should be promptly located and overcome. Misfiring,
 if allowed to continue, will in time injure the engine and the
 entire mechanism. If you would be known as a good driver you will
 be satisfied only with a soft, steady purr from the exhaust. If
 anything goes wrong, stop and fix it if possible--don't wait until
 you get home.

 _How can one tell which Cylinder is missing?_       _Answer No. 62_

 This is done by manipulating the vibrators on the spark coils.
 Open the throttle until the engine is running at a good speed
 and then hold down the two outside vibrators. No. 1 and No. 4,
 with the fingers, so they cannot buzz. This cuts out the two
 corresponding cylinders. No. 1 and No. 4, leaving only No. 2 and
 No. 3 running. If they explode regularly it is obvious the trouble
 is in either No. 1 or No. 4. Relieve No. 4 and hold down No. 2
 and No. 3 and also No. 1; if No. 4 cylinder explodes evenly it
 is evident the misfiring is in No. 1. In this manner all of the
 cylinders in turn can be tested until the trouble is located.
 Examine both the spark plug and the vibrator of the missing

 _If the Coil and Plug are right--what?_             _Answer No. 63_

 The trouble is probably due to an improperly seated valve, worn
 commutator, or short circuit in the commutator wiring. Weakness in
 the valves may be easily determined by lifting the starting crank
 slowly the length of the stroke of each cylinder in turn, a strong
 or weak compression in any particular valve being easily detected.
 It sometimes happens that the cylinder head gasket (packing)
 becomes leaky--permitting the gas under compression to escape, a
 condition that can be detected by running a little lubricating oil
 around the edge of the gasket and noticing whether bubbles appear
 or not.

 _Does a worn Commutator ever cause misfiring?_      _Answer No. 64_

 Yes. If misfiring occurs when running at high speed, inspect
 the commutator. The surface of the circle around which roller
 (see Cut No. 9) travels should be clean and smooth, so that the
 roller makes a perfect contact at all points. If the roller fails
 to make a good contact on any one of the four contact points,
 its corresponding cylinder will not fire. Clean these surfaces,
 if dirty. In case the fibre, contact points and roller of the
 commutator are badly worn the most satisfactory remedy is to
 replace them with new parts. The spring should be strong enough to
 make a firm contact between the roller points if they are worn or

 Misfiring may also be caused by short circuited commutator wires.

 _How is the Commutator removed?_                    _Answer No. 65_

 Remove cotter pin from spark rod and detach latter from
 commutator. Loosen the cap screw which goes through breather pipe
 on top of time gear cover. This will release the spring which
 holds the commutator case in place and this part can be readily
 removed. Unscrew lock nut; withdraw steel brush cap and drive out
 the retaining pin. The brush can then be removed from the cam

 In replacing the brush, care must be exercised to see that it is
 replaced so that the exhaust valve on the first cylinder is closed
 when the brush points upward. This may be ascertained by removing
 the valve door and observing the operation of No. 1 valve.

 _Does cold weather affect the Commutator?_          _Answer No. 66_

 It is a well-known fact that in cold weather even the best grades
 of lubricating oil are apt to congeal to some extent. If this
 occurs in the commutator it is very apt to prevent the roller from
 making perfect contact with the contact points imbedded in the
 fibre. This, of course, makes difficult starting as the roller arm
 spring is not stiff enough to brush away the film of oil which
 naturally forms over the contact points. To overcome this, as
 well as any liability of the contact points to rust, we recommend
 a mixture of 25% kerosene with commutator lubricating oil, which
 will thin it sufficiently to prevent congealing, or freezing, as
 it is commonly called. You have probably noticed in starting your
 car in cold weather that perhaps only one or two cylinders will
 fire for the first minute or so, which indicates that the timer is
 in the condition described above and as a consequence a perfect
 contact is not being made on each of the four terminals.

 [Illustration: The Ford Magneto. The flywheel with magnets
 revolves while magneto coils remain stationary. (Cut No. 10)]

 _How is the Magneto removed?_                       _Answer No. 67_

 It is necessary to take the power plant out of the car (see Answer
 No. 32) in order to remove the magneto. Then remove crank case
 and transmission cover--take out the four cap screws that hold
 the flywheel to the crank shaft. You will then have access to
 the magnets and entire magneto mechanism. In taking out these
 parts--or any parts of the car--the utmost care should be taken to
 make sure that the parts are so marked that they may be replaced

 _When the Magneto gets out of order--what?_         _Answer No. 68_

 The Ford magneto is made of permanent magnets and there is very
 little likelihood of their ever losing their strength, unless
 acted upon by some outside force. For instance, the attachment of
 a storage battery to the magneto terminal will demagnetize the
 magnets. If anything like this happens, it is not advisable to
 try to recharge them, but rather install a complete set of new
 magnets. The new magnets will be sent from the nearest agent or
 branch house, and will be placed on a board in identically the
 same manner as they should be when installed on the flywheel.
 Great care should be taken in assembling the magnets and lining
 up the magneto so that the faces of the magnets are separated
 from the surface of the coil spool just 1/32 of an inch. To take
 out the old magnets, simply remove the cap screw and bronze screw
 which holds each in place. The magneto is often blamed when the
 trouble is a weak current caused by waste or other foreign matter
 accumulating under the contact spring, which is held in place by
 the binding post on top of the crank case cover. Remove the three
 screws which hold the binding post in place, remove binding post
 and spring and replace after foreign substance has been removed.

 [Illustration: Transmission showing all gears in mesh. (Cut No.

 The Ford Transmission

 _What is the function of the Transmission?_         _Answer No. 69_

 It is that part of the mechanism of an automobile which lies
 between the crank shaft and the drive shaft and by which one is
 enabled to move at different speeds from the other. It is the
 speed gear of the car. It sends the car forward at low and high
 speeds and by it the car is reversed.

 _What is meant by the term "Planetary Transmission?"_
                                                     _Answer No. 70_

 One in which the groups of gears always remain in mesh and revolve
 around a main axis. The different sets of gears are brought into
 action by stopping the revolution of the parts which support the
 gears. By means of bands (similar to brake bands) the rotation of
 the different parts is stopped. The planetary transmission is the
 simplest and most direct means of speed control--and is a distinct
 advantage of the Ford car.

 _What is the purpose of the Clutch?_                _Answer No. 71_

 If the crank shaft of the engine ran without break straight
 through to the differential--and through it applied its power
 direct to the rear wheels--the car would start forward immediately
 upon the starting of the engine (were it possible to get it
 started under such conditions). To overcome this difficulty the
 shaft is divided and by means of the clutch the part of the shaft
 to which the running engine is delivering its power is enabled to
 take hold of the unmoving part gradually and start the car without
 jolt or jar. The forward part of the shaft is referred to as the
 crank shaft, the rear part as the drive shaft.

 _How is the Clutch controlled?_                     _Answer No. 72_

 By the left pedal at the driver's feet (see Answer No. 10). If
 the clutch pedal, when pushed forward into slow speed, has a
 tendency to stick and not come back readily into high, tighten
 up the slow speed band as directed in Answer No. 74. Should the
 machine have an inclination to creep forward when cranking, it
 indicates that the clutch lever screw which bears on the clutch
 lever cam has worn, and requires an extra turn to hold the clutch
 in neutral position. When the clutch is released by pulling back
 the hand lever the pedal should move forward a distance of 1¾″ in
 passing from high speed to neutral. See that the hub brake shoe
 and connections are in proper order so that the brake will act
 sufficiently to prevent the car creeping very far ahead. Also
 be sure the slow speed band does not bind on account of being
 adjusted too tight. Don't use a too heavy grade of oil in cold
 weather as it will have a tendency to congeal between the clutch
 discs and prevent proper action of the clutch.

 _How is the Clutch adjusted?_                       _Answer No. 73_

 Remove the plate on the transmission cover under the floor boards
 at the driver's feet. Take out the cotter key on the first clutch
finger and give the set screw one-half to one complete turn to the
right with a screw-driver. Do the same to the other finger set
screws. But be sure to give each the same number of turns and don't
forget to replace the cotter key. And after a considerable period
of service the wear in the clutch may be taken up by installing
another pair of clutch discs, rather than by turning the adjusting
screws in too far.

 [Illustration: The above drawing of Transmission shows clearly the
 operation of Clutch, Reverse and Brake Pedals. (Cut No. 12)]

 CAUTION: Let us warn you against placing any small tools or
 objects over or in the transmission case without a good wire or
 cord attached to them. Otherwise if they are dropped into the
 transmission case it is almost impossible to recover them without
 taking off the transmission cover.

 _How are the Bands adjusted?_                       _Answer No. 74_

 The slow speed band may be tightened by loosening the lock nut
 at the right side of the transmission cover, and turning the
 adjusting screw (see Cut No. 12) to the right. To tighten the
 brake and reverse bands remove the transmission cover door and
 turn the adjusting nuts on the shafts to the right. See that the
 bands do not drag on the drums when disengaged, as they exert a
 brake effect, and tend to overheat the motor. However, the foot
 brake should be adjusted so that a sudden pressure will stop the
 car immediately, or slide the rear wheels in case of emergency.
 The bands, when worn to such an extent that they will not take
 hold properly, should be relined, so that they will engage
 smoothly without causing a jerky movement of the car. The lining
 is inexpensive and may be had at any Ford service station at small

 _How are the Bands removed?_                        _Answer No. 75_

 Remove the starting motor (see Answer No. 128). Take off the door
 on top of transmission cover. Turn the reverse adjustment nut and
 the brake adjustment nut to the extreme end of the pedal shafts,
 then remove the slow speed adjusting screw. Remove the bolts
 holding the transmission cover to crank case and lift off the
 cover assembly. Slip the band nearest the flywheel over the first
 of the triple gears, then turn the band around so that the opening
 is downward. The band can now be removed by lifting upward. The
 operation is more easily accomplished if the three sets of triple
 gears are so placed that one set is about ten degrees to the right
 of center at top. Each band is removed by the same operation. It
 is necessary to shove each band forward on to the triple gears as
 at this point only is there sufficient clearance in the crank case
 to allow the ears of the transmission bands to be turned downward.
 By reversing this operation the bands may be installed. After
 being placed in their upright position on the drums pass a cord
 around the ears of the three bands, holding them in the center so
 that when putting the transmission cover in place no trouble will
 be experienced in getting the pedal shafts to rest in the notches
 in the band ears. The clutch release ring must be placed in the
 rear groove of the clutch shift. With the cover in place remove
 the cord which held the bands in place while the cover was being

 _How is the Transmission assembled?_                _Answer No. 76_

 Cut No. 13 shows the transmission parts in their relative
 assembling positions and grouped in their different operations of

 The first operation is the assembling of group No. 2, which is as
 follows: Place the brake drum on table with the hub in a vertical
 position, place the slow speed plate over the hub with gear
 uppermost. Then place reverse plate over the slow speed plate so
 that the reverse gear surrounds the slow speed gear. Fit the two
 keys in the hub just above the slow speed gear. Put the driven
 gear in position with the teeth downward so that they will come
 next to the slow speed gear. Take the three triple gears and mesh
 them with the driven gear according to the punch marks on the
 teeth, the reverse gear or smallest of the triple gear assembly
 being downward. After making sure that the triple gears are
 properly meshed tie them in place by passing a cord around the
 outside of the three gears. Take the flywheel and place it on
 the table with the face downward and the transmission shaft in a
 vertical position; then invert the group which you have assembled
 over the transmission shaft, setting it in position so that the
 triple gear pins on the flywheel will pass through the triple
 gears. This will bring the brake drum on top in a position to hold
 the clutch plates, etc. The next step is to fit the clutch drum
 key in the transmission shaft. Press the clutch disc drum over
 the shaft and put the set screw in place to hold the drum. Put a
 large disc over the clutch drum, then a small disc, alternating
 with large and small discs until the entire set of discs are in
 position, ending up with a large disc on top.

 [Illustration: Transmission parts in their relative assembling
 positions. (Cut No. 13)]

 If a small disc is on top it is liable to fall over the clutch
 drum in changing the speed from high to low and as a result you
 would be unable to change the speed back into high. Next put the
 clutch push ring over the clutch drum, and on top of the discs
 with the three pins projecting upward (see Group No. 4, Cut No.
 13). You will note the remaining parts are placed as they will
 be assembled. Next bolt the driving plate in position so that
 the adjusting screws of the clutch fingers will bear against the
 clutch push ring pins. Before proceeding further it would be a
 good plan to test the transmission by moving the plates with
 the hands. If the transmission is properly assembled they will
 revolve freely. The clutch parts may be assembled on the driving
 plate hub as follows: Slip the clutch shift over the hub so that
 the small end rests on the ends of the clutch fingers. Next put
 on the clutch spring, placing the clutch support inside so that
 the flange will rest on the upper coil of the spring and press
 into place, inserting the pin in the driving plate hub through
 the holes in the side of the spring support. Then turn the clutch
 spring support until the pin fits into the lugs on the bottom
 of the support. The easiest method of compressing the spring
 sufficiently to insert the pin is to loosen the tension of the
 clutch finger by means of the adjusting screws. When tightening
 up the clutch again the spring should be compressed to within a
 space of two or two and one-sixteenth inches to insure against the
 clutch slipping. Care should be exercised to see that the screws
 in the fingers are adjusted so the spring is compressed evenly all

 [Illustration: The Rear Axle System. (Cut No. 14)]

 The Rear Axle Assembly

 _How is the Rear Axle removed?_                     _Answer No. 77_

 Jack up car and remove rear wheels as instructed in Answer No. 89.
 Take out the four bolts connecting the universal ball cap to the
 transmission case and cover. Disconnect brake rods. Remove nuts
 holding spring perches to rear axle housing flanges. Raise frame
 at the rear end, and the axle can be easily withdrawn.

 _How is the Universal Joint disconnected from the Drive Shaft?_
                                                     _Answer No. 78_

 Remove two plugs from top and bottom of ball casting and turn
 shaft until pin comes opposite hole, drive out pin and the joint
 can be pulled or forced away from the shaft and out of the housing.

 _How are the Rear Axle and Differential disassembled?_
                                                     _Answer No. 79_

 With the universal joint disconnected, remove nuts in front end
 of radius rods and the nuts on studs holding drive shaft tube
 to rear axle housing. Remove bolts which hold the two halves
 of differential housing together. If necessary to disassemble
 differential a very slight mechanical knowledge will permit one to
 immediately discern how to do it once it is exposed to view. Care
 must be exercised to get every pin, bolt and keylock back in its
 correct position when reassembling.

 _How is the Drive Shaft Pinion removed?_            _Answer No. 80_

 The end of the drive shaft, to which the pinion is attached, is
 tapered to fit the tapered hole in the pinion, which is keyed
 onto the shaft, and then secured by a cotter-pinned "castle" nut.
 Remove the castle nut, and drive the pinion off.

 _How are the Differential Gears Removed?_           _Answer No. 81_

 The differential gears are attached to the inner ends of the rear
 axle shaft. They work upon the differential pinions when turning
 a corner, so that the axle shafts revolve independently, but when
 the car is moving in a straight line the differential pinions and
 differential gears and axle shafts move as an integral part. If
 you will examine the rear axle shafts you will notice that the
 gears are keyed on, and held in position by a ring which is in two
 halves and fits in a groove in the rear axle shaft. To remove the
 differential gears, force them down on the shaft, that is, away
 from the end to which they are secured, drive out the two halves
 of ring in the grooves in shaft with screw-driver or chisel, then
 force the gears off the end of the shafts.

 _How is the Rear Axle Shaft removed?_               _Answer No. 82_

 Disconnect rear axle as directed in Answer No. 77, then unbolt the
 drive shaft assembly where it joins the rear axle housing at the
 differential. Disconnect the radius rods and brake rods at the
 outer ends of the housing. Take out the bolts which hold the two
 halves of the rear axle housing together at the center and remove
 the housing. Take the inner differential casing apart and draw the
 axle shaft out.

 After replacing the axle shaft be sure that the rear wheels are
 firmly wedged on at the outer end of the axle shaft and the key
 in proper position. When the car has been driven thirty days or
 so, make it a point to remove the hub cap and set up the lock nut
 to overcome any play that might have developed. It is extremely
 important that the rear wheels are kept tight, otherwise the
 constant rocking back and forth against the keyway may in time
 cause serious trouble.

 [Illustration: The Ford Emergency Brake. (Cut No. 15)]

 If the rear axle or wheel is sprung by skidding against a curb,
 or other accident, it is false economy to drive the car without
 correcting the trouble, as tires, gears and all other parts will
 suffer. If the axle shaft is bent, it can, with proper facilities,
 be straightened, but it is best to replace it.

 The Ford Muffler

 _Why is the Muffler necessary?_                     _Answer No. 83_

 The exhaust as it comes from the engine through the exhaust pipe
 would create a constant and distracting noise were it not for
 the muffler. From the comparatively small pipe, the exhaust is
 liberated into the larger chambers of the muffler, where the force
 of the exhaust is lessened by expansion and discharged out of the
 muffler with practically no noise. The Ford muffler construction
 is such that there is very little back pressure of the escaping
 gases, consequently there is nothing to be gained by putting a
 cut-out in the exhaust pipe between the engine and the muffler.

 _How is the Muffler disconnected?_                  _Answer No. 84_

 Disconnect the exhaust pipe from the motor by unscrewing the pack
 nut and remove the bolts which hold the muffler to the frame.
 After the muffler has been disconnected it can be disassembled by
 removing the nut at the rear end.

 The Running Gear

 _What care should the Running Gear have?_           _Answer No. 85_

 In the first place it at all times should have proper lubrication
 (see chapter on Lubrication). Once in every thirty days the front
 and rear axles should be carefully gone over to see that every
 moving part, such as the bushings in spring connections, spring
 hangers, steering knuckles and hub bearings, are thoroughly
 lubricated, and that all nuts and connections are secured with
 cotter pins in place. The spring clips, which attach the front
 spring to the frame, should be inspected frequently to see that
 everything is in perfect order.

 _How is the Front Axle removed?_                    _Answer No. 86_

 Jack up front of car so wheels can be removed (see Answer No. 89),
 disconnect steering gear ball arm from the spindle connecting rod,
 disconnect radius rod at ball joint, and remove two cotter pin
 bolts from spring shackle on each side, so detaching front spring.

 To disconnect radius rod from axle, remove cotter-pinned nuts. To
 remove radius rod entirely, take the two bolts out of the ball
 joint and remove lower half of cap.

 _In case of accident, how is the Front Axle straightened?_
                                                     _Answer No. 87_

 Should the axle or spindle become bent extreme care must be used
 to straighten the parts accurately. Do not heat the forgings,
 as this will untemper the steel, but straighten them cold. If
 convenient it would be better to return such parts to the dealer,
 where they may be properly straightened in jigs designed for that
 purpose. It is very essential that the wheels line up properly
 (see Answer No. 90).

 [Illustration: The Ford Spindle and Front Hub Assembly. (Cut No.

 The eye is not sufficiently accurate to determine whether the
 parts have been properly straightened, and excessive wear of the
 front tires will occur if everything is not in perfect alignment.

 _What about the Wheels?_                            _Answer No. 88_

 The wheels should be jacked up periodically and tested, not
 only for smoothness of running, but for side play as well. If
 in spinning a front wheel a sharp click occurs now and then and
 the wheel is momentarily checked, it is probable that there is
 a chipped or split ball in the bearing which should be removed,
 otherwise it may necessitate the removal of the entire bearing. A
 wheel in perfect adjustment should, after spinning, come to rest
 with the tire valve directly below the hub. Undue wear of the hub
 bearings is usually caused by lack of lubrication and excessive
 friction, due to the adjusting cone being screwed up too tight. It
 is a good plan to clean the bearings frequently and keep the hub
 well filled with grease.

 _How are the Wheels removed?_                       _Answer No. 89_

 Front wheels: Take off hub cap, remove cotter pin and unscrew
 castle nut and spindle washer. The adjustable bearing cone can
 then be taken out and the wheel removed. Care should be taken to
 see that the cones and lock nuts are replaced on the same spindle
 from which they were removed, otherwise there is a liability of
 stripping the threads which are left on the left spindle and right
 on the opposite as you stand facing the car. Rear wheels: They
 should not be removed unless absolutely necessary--in which case
 proceed as above, then with a wheel puller remove the wheel from
 the tapered shaft to which it is locked with a key. In replacing
 rear wheels be sure that nut on axle shaft is as tight as possible
 and cotter pin in place. The hub caps of the rear wheels should
 be removed occasionally and the lock nuts which hold the hub in
 place tightened up. If these nuts are allowed to work loose, the
 resulting play on the hub key may eventually twist off the axle

 _How does the setting of the Front Wheels differ from that of the
 Rear Wheels?_                                       _Answer No. 90_

 It will be observed that the front wheels are "dished;" that is,
 the spokes are given a slight outward flare to enable them to meet
 side stresses with less rigid resistance--while the spokes of the
 rear wheels are straight. The front wheels are also placed at an
 angle--that is to say, the distance between the tops of the front
 wheels is about three inches greater than between the bottoms.
 This is to give perfect steering qualities and to save wear on the
 tires when turning corners. The front wheels should not, however,
 "toe-in" at the front--at least not more than a quarter of an
 inch. Lines drawn along the outside of the wheels when the latter
 are straight in a forward position should be parallel. All wheels
 should always be kept in proper alignment, otherwise steering will
 be difficult and tire wear greatly increased. Adjustment can be
 made by turning the yoke at the left end of the spindle connecting
 rod, to draw the wheels into a parallel position.

 _What about installing Roller Bearing Cups?_        _Answer No. 91_

 Whenever it is necessary to install roller bearing cups, either
 in changing over from ball bearings to roller bearings or in
 replacing worn cups, the work should be done by a Dealer or Garage
 which has the necessary equipment for this work. In order to avoid
 excessive wear of the bearings it is essential that the cups be
 fitted absolutely true and this is practically impossible without
 the use of special equipment.

 [Illustration: Sectional view of Hub showing Roller Bearings. (Cut
 No. 17)]

 _How are the Roller Bearings installed?_            _Answer No. 92_

 First, pack the hub full of clean good quality cup grease. Take
 the inner cone with its rollers and pack it with grease, filling
 all of the space around and between the rollers. Then place the
 inner cone in the larger cup. Next, drive the dust ring with felt
 washer into the inner end of the hub so that it is flush with the
 end of the hub.

 Place the wheel carrying the inner bearings with dust ring on the
 spindle. The inner cone is a one-thousandth fit, or, in other
 words, a slip fit on the spindle. (See Cut No. 17.) It is never
 necessary to force the cone onto the spindle as the cups are
 forced into the hub. Pack the outer or threaded cone and rollers
 with cup grease, filling all the space between the rollers, as
 was done with the inner cone. The cones are made up in right-and
 left-hand threads to correspond to the threads on the spindles.
 Care should be taken that a right-hand threaded cone is not forced
 onto a left-hand threaded spindle. The right-hand thread is on the
 left-hand side of the car, while the left-hand thread is on the
 right-hand side of the car. Place the cone on the spindle, running
 it up tight enough so that the wheel seems to bind; give the wheel
 a few turns to be sure that all the working parts are in perfect
 contact; then back off the cone ¼ to ½ a turn which will be
 sufficient to allow the wheel to revolve freely without end play.
 To determine if there is end play, grasp the spokes and shake the
 wheel. Do not mistake loose spindle bushings for loose bearings.
 Insert a cold chisel between axle and spindle to take up any play
 while testing the bearings. Next, put on the spindle washer and
 nut, drawing the nut to a firm bearing. Make sure that the cone
 has not been forced out of adjustment. This can be determined by
 giving the wheel a few turns. Insert the cotter pin which locks
 the nut on the spindle, fill the hub cap with grease and screw it
 in place on the hub.

 _How often should the Bearings be lubricated?_      _Answer No. 93_

 Every three or four months the wheels should be removed, the old
 grease taken out and the hubs and bearings thoroughly cleansed
 with kerosene. Then repack the hub and bearings with clean grease
 and readjust the bearings.

 _What care do the Springs need?_                    _Answer No. 94_

 The springs should be lubricated frequently with oil or graphite.
 To do this, pry the leaves apart near the ends and insert the
 lubricant between them. Whenever a car is given a general
 overhauling, the springs should be disassembled and the leaves
 polished with emery cloth, afterwards packing them with graphite
 when reassembling. Rust can be prevented from accumulating on the
 springs by painting them when necessary with a quick drying black
 paint. You will find that these suggestions if carried out will
 not only improve the riding qualities of the car but prolong the
 life of the parts as well.

 _Should Spring Clips be kept tight?_                _Answer No. 95_

 Yes. If the spring clips are allowed to work loose the entire
 strain is put on the tie bolt which extends through the centre of
 the spring. This may cause the bolt to be sheared off and allow
 the frame and body to shift a trifle to one side. It is a good
 plan to frequently inspect the clips which hold the springs to the
 frame and see that they are kept tight.

 _What about the Steering Apparatus?_                _Answer No. 96_

 It is exceedingly simple and will need little care--except, of
 course, proper lubrication. The post gears which are arranged in
 the "sun and planet" form are located at the top of the post just
 below the hub of the wheel (see Cut No. 1). By loosening the set
 screw and unscrewing the cap--after having removed the steering
 wheel--they may readily be inspected and replenished with grease.
 To remove the steering wheel, unscrew the nut on top of the post
 and drive the wheel off the shaft with a block of wood and hammer.

 _How is Steering Gear tightened?_                   _Answer No. 97_

 Should the steering gear become loose, that is, so that a slight
 movement of the wheel does not produce immediate results, it may
 be tightened in the following manner: Disconnect the two halves
 of the ball sockets which surround the ball arm at the lower end
 of the steering post and file off the surface until they fit
 snugly around the ball. If the ball is badly worn it is best to
 replace it with a new one. Also tighten the ball caps at the other
 end of the steering gear connecting rod in the same manner. If
 the bolts in the steering spindle arms appear to be loose, the
 brass bushings should be replaced with new ones (see Cut No. 16).
 Excessive play in the front axle may be detected by grasping one
 of the front wheels by the spokes and jerking the front axle back
 and forth. After the car has been in service two or three years
 excessive play in the steering gear may make necessary the renewal
 of the little pinions, as well as the brass internal gear just
 underneath the steering wheel spider.

 It is also advisable to inspect the front spring and front spring
 perches occasionally to determine whether or not new bushings are
 necessary to overcome any excessive vibration.

 [Illustration: Lubrication Chart. (Cut No. 18)]

 The Ford Lubricating System

 _How does the Ford Lubricating System differ from others?_
                                                     _Answer No. 98_

 It is simplified--and there are fewer places to oil. Practically
 all of the parts of the engine and transmission are oiled by the
 Ford splash system, from the one big oil reservoir in the crank
 case. Cut No. 18 shows the principal points of lubrication, and
 specifies when replenishment should be made, according to mileage.
 This chart should be studied carefully and often. It is a good
 plan to frequently supply all oil cups with the same oil used in
 the engine (any good light grade lubricating oil will answer) and
 the dope cups with good grease. Be sure to see that the commutator
 is kept freely supplied with oil at all times.

 _Which is the best way to fill the "Dope" Cups?_    _Answer No. 99_

 When it is advisable to fill dope cup covers screw them down,
 refill with grease and repeat the operation two or three times.
 Always open oil cups by turning to right, as this keeps tightening
 rather than loosening them. Occasionally remove front wheels and
 supply dope to wearing surface. A drop of oil now and then in
 crank-handle bearing is necessary, also on fan belt pulleys and
 shaft. The axles drive shaft and universal joint are well supplied
 with lubricant when the car leaves the factory, but it is well to
 examine and oil them frequently.

 _What kind of Oil should be used?_                 _Answer No. 100_

 We recommend only medium light high-grade gas engine oil for use
 in the Model T motor. A medium light grade of oil is preferred
 as it will naturally reach the bearings with greater ease and
 consequently less heat will develop on account of friction. The
 oil should, however, have sufficient body so that the pressure
 between the two bearing surfaces will not force the oil out and
 allow the metal to come in actual contact. Heavy and inferior oils
 have a tendency to carbonize quickly, also "gum up" the piston
 rings, valve stems and bearings. In cold weather a light grade of
 oil having a low cold test is absolutely essential for the proper
 lubrication of the car. Graphite should not be used as a lubricant
 in the engine or the transmission as it will have a tendency to
 short-circuit the magneto.

 _How often should Oil be drained from Crank Case?_ _Answer No. 101_

 It is advisable to clean out the crank case by draining off the
 dirty oil when the new car has been driven three hundred and
 fifty miles; thereafter it will only be necessary to repeat this
 operation about every seven hundred and fifty miles. Remove the
 plug underneath the flywheel casing and drain off the oil. Replace
 the plug and pour in a gallon of kerosene oil through the breather
 pipe. Turn the engine over fifteen or twenty times so that the
 splash from the kerosene oil will thoroughly cleanse the engine.
 Remove crank case plug and drain off kerosene oil. It is of vital
 importance that all the kerosene be removed from the depressions
 in the crank case. To do this put about a quart of lubricating oil
 into the motor and turn engine over several times, then remove the
 crank case plug and drain off the flushing oil; then replace plug
 and refill with fresh oil. (See Answer No. 3.)

 _How often should Commutator be oiled?_            _Answer No. 102_

 Keeping the commutator well oiled is a matter of far greater
 importance than many drivers believe, and is necessary in order to
 have a smooth operating engine. Don't be afraid to put a little
 oil into the commutator every other day--at least every 200 miles.
 Remember that the commutator roller revolves very rapidly, and
 without sufficient lubrication the parts soon become badly worn.
 When in this condition perfect contact between the roller and the
 four contact points is impossible, as a result the engine is apt
 to misfire when running at a good rate of speed.

 [Illustration: Oiling the Ford Commutator. (Cut No. 19)]

 _What about Lubricating the Differential?_         _Answer No. 103_

 Do not make the mistake of putting too much grease in the
 differential housing. The housing should not be more than
 one-third full. The differential is supplied with the required
 amount of lubricant when the car leaves the factory. The oil
 plug should be removed about every 1000 miles and more grease
 added if necessary. If a fluid grease is used the level should be
 approximately one and one-half inches below the oil hole.

 Care of the Tires

 _How are Ford Tires removed?_                      _Answer No. 104_

 First, jack up the wheel clear of the road. The valve cap should
 be unscrewed, the lock nut removed and the valve stem pushed into
 the tire until its bead is flush with the rim. This done, loosen
 up the head of the shoe in the clinch of the rim by working and
 pushing with the hands, then insert one of the tire irons or
 levers under the beads. The tire iron should be pushed in just
 enough to get a good hold on the under side of the bead, but not
 so far as to "pinch" the inner tube between the rim and the tool.
 A second iron should be inserted in the same fashion some seven or
 eight inches from the first, and the third tool the same distance
 from the second. As a clincher tire must be pried over the clinch,
 three levers will come in handy in a case of a "one-man job," and
 the knee of the driver can be used to good advantage to hold down
 one lever while the other two are being manipulated in working the
 shoe clear of the rim. After freeing a length of the bead from
 the clinch, the entire outer edge of the casing may be readily
 detached with the hands, and the damaged inner tube removed and
 "patched" or a spare tube inserted. Always use plenty of soapstone
 in replacing an inner tube.

 _How are Casings repaired?_                        _Answer No. 105_

 Should the casing be cut so there is danger of the inner tube
 being blown through it, a temporary repair can be made by
 cementing a canvas patch on the inside of the casing. Before
 applying the patch the part of the casing affected should be
 cleaned with gasoline and when dry, rubber cement applied to both
 casing and patch. This will answer as an emergency repair--but the
 casing should be vulcanized at the first opportunity.

 To prolong the life of the tire casings, any small cuts in the
 tread should be filled with patching cement and a specially
 prepared "plastic" sold by the tire companies.

 _How may Tire Expense be reduced?_                 _Answer No. 106_

 Tire cost constitutes one of the most important items in the
 running expenses of an automobile. To get the most service at the
 least expense, the tires should be inspected frequently and all
 small cuts or holes properly sealed or repaired--thus preventing
 dirt and water working in between the rubber tread and the fabric,
 causing blisters or sand boils.

 Tires should never be run partially deflated, as the side walls
 are unduly bent and the fabric is subject to stresses which cause
 what is known as rim cutting. The chances of getting a puncture
 will be greatly reduced by keeping your tires properly inflated,
 as a hard tire exposes much less surface to the road than a soft
 tire, and also deflects sharp objects that would penetrate a soft

 Running a tire flat, even for a short distance, is sure to be
 costly. Better run on the rim, very slowly and carefully, rather
 than on a flat tire.

 Remember that fast driving and skidding shorten the life of the
 tires. Avoid locking the wheels with the brakes--no tire will
 stand the strain of being dragged over the pavement in this

 Avoid running in street car tracks, in ruts, or bumping the sides
 of the tire against the curbing.

 The wheel rims should be painted each season and kept free from
 rust. When a car is idle for any appreciable length of time, it
 should be jacked up to take the load off the tires. If the car is
 laid up for many months it is best to remove the tires, and wrap
 up the outer casings and inner tubes separately, and store them
 in a dark room not exposed to extreme temperatures. Remove oil or
 grease from the tires with gasoline. Remember that heat, light and
 oil are three natural enemies of rubber.

 _How is a puncture in the Inner Tube repaired?_    _Answer No. 107_

 After locating the puncture, carefully clean the rubber around
 the leak with benzine or gasoline. Then roughen the surface with
 sandpaper to give a hold for the cement. Apply the cement to
 both patch and tube, allowing it to dry for about five minutes,
 repeating the application twice with like intervals between for
 drying. When the cement is dry and sticky press the patch against
 the tube firmly and thoroughly to remove all air bubbles beneath
 it and insure proper adherence to the surface--then spread some
 soapstone or talc powder over the repair so as to prevent the
 tube sticking to the casing. Before the tube is put back into the
 casing plenty of talc powder should be sprinkled into the latter.
 A cement patch is not usually permanent and the tube should be
 vulcanized as soon as possible. In replacing the tire on the rim
 be very careful not to pinch the tube.

 Points on Maintenance

 _What is the proper way to wash the Car?_          _Answer No. 108_

 Always use cold or lukewarm water--never hot water. If a hose is
 used, don't turn on the water at full force, as this drives the
 dirt into the varnish and injures the finish. After the surplus
 mud and grime have been washed off take a sponge and clean the
 body and running gear with a tepid solution of water and Ivory
 or linseed oil soap. Rinse off with cold water; then rub dry and
 polish the body with a chamois skin. A body or furniture polish of
 good quality may be used to add lustre to the car. Grease on the
 running gear may be removed with a gasoline-soaked sponge or rag.
 The nickeled parts may be polished with any good metal polish.

 _What care does Top need?_                         _Answer No. 109_

 When putting the top down be careful in folding to see that the
 fabric is not pinched between the bow spacers, as they will chafe
 a hole through the top very quickly. Applying a good top dressing
 will greatly improve the appearance of an old top.

 _What should be done when the Car is stored?_      _Answer No. 110_

 Drain the water from the radiator, and then put in about a quart
 of denatured alcohol to prevent freezing of any water that may
 possibly remain. Remove cylinder head and clean out any carbon
 deposits in combustion chamber. Draw off all the gasoline. Drain
 the dirty oil from the crank case and cleanse the engine with
 kerosene as directed in Answer No. 101. Refill the crank case with
 fresh oil and revolve the engine enough to cover the different
 parts with oil. Remove the tires and store them away. Wash up the
 car, and if possible cover the body with a sheet of muslin to
 protect the finish.

 _What attention do the Electric Head Lights require?_
                                                    _Answer No. 111_

 Very little. When the cars leave our factory the lamps are
 properly focused and unless the bulb burns out there should be no
 occasion for removing the door, as there is nothing to get out of
 order. Should the door be removed for any reason care should be
 exercised not to touch the silver-plated reflector or the bulb
 with anything but a soft, clean rag, preferably flannel. To focus
 the lamps turn the adjusting screw in the back of lamp in either
 direction until the desired focus is attained.

 The Ford Model T One Ton Truck

 _Do the Instructions relative to the Car apply to the Truck?_
                                                    _Answer No. 112_

 The answers pertaining to the car are applicable to the truck,
 with the exception of Nos. 79, 80 and 81.

 _How are the Rear Axle and Differential disassembled?_
                                                    _Answer No. 113_

 With the universal joint disconnected, remove the bolt in front
 end of radius rods and the cap screws which hold the drive
 shaft tube to the rear axle housing. Then remove the rear axle
 housing cap; also the bolts which hold the two halves of the
 differential housing together. With the differential exposed to
 view, the manner of disassembling it will be apparent. Care must
 be exercised to get every part back in its correct position when
 reassembling, being sure to use new paper liners.

 _How is the Worm removed?_                         _Answer No. 114_

 To remove the worm, drive out the pins which hold the coupling
 to the worm and drive shaft. Then remove the felt washer, roller
 bearing sleeve, and roller bearing by slipping them over the
 coupling. Drive the coupling off from the drive shaft and then
 force the worm from the coupling. Removing the worm nut will
 permit the removal of the retaining washer, thrust bearing and
 rear worm roller bearing. In reassembling be sure that the pin
 which holds the retaining washer stationary is in place.

 _How is the Differential Gear removed from the Shaft?_
                                                    _Answer No. 115_

 The differential gear is fastened to the inner end of the rear
 axle shaft by means of splines, and is held in position by a
 ring which is in two halves and fits in a groove in the rear
 axle shaft. To remove the gear, force it down on the shaft, that
 is, away from the end to which it is fastened, drive out the two
 halves of the ring in groove in shaft with screw-driver or chisel,
 and force the gear off the end of the shaft.

 _What about Lubricating the Rear Axle?_            _Answer No. 116_

 Extreme care must be used in lubricating the differential. An A-l
 heavy fluid or semi-fluid oil, such as Mobiloil C or Whittemore's
 Worm Gear Protective, should be used and carried at a level with
 the upper oil plug. The differential is supplied with the required
 amount of lubricant when the truck leaves the factory and the
 supply should be maintained by replenishments as required. After
 running the truck about 500 miles, the oil should be drained
 off by removing the lower oil plug, and the differential filled
 with fresh lubricant. This operation should be repeated at
 approximately 1000 miles, and after that whenever necessary. The
 rear axle outer roller bearings are lubricated by means of dope
 cups. These cups should be kept filled with a good grade of grease
 and given a full turn every 100 miles. Before putting the truck
 back in service after the rear axle has been taken down, fill the
 differential with oil, jack up the axle and run it for five or ten
 minutes to insure proper lubrication of all bearings.

 [Illustration: Truck Rear Axle--Longitudinal View. (Cut No. 20)]

 [Illustration: Truck Rear Axle--Cross Section showing Worm and
 Worm Gear. (Cut No. 21)]

 [Illustration: Starter and Generator Units. (Cut No. 22)]

 The Ford Starting and Lighting System

 _Of what does the Starting and Lighting System consist?_
                                                    _Answer No. 117_

 The starting and lighting system is of the two unit type and
 consists of the starting motor, generator, storage battery,
 ammeter, and lights, together with the necessary wiring and

 _Where is the Starter located?_                    _Answer No. 118_

 The starting motor is mounted on the left-hand side of the engine
 and bolted to the transmission cover. When in operation the pinion
 on the Bendix drive shaft engages with the teeth on the flywheel.

 _What if the Engine fails to start?_               _Answer No. 119_

 If the starting motor is turning the crank shaft over and the
 engine fails to start, the trouble is not in the starting
 system. In this event release the button at once so as not to
 unnecessarily discharge the battery and inspect the carburetor and
 ignition system to determine the trouble.

 _What if the Starting Motor fails to act?_         _Answer No. 120_

 If the starting motor fails to act, after pushing the button,
 first inspect the terminal on the starting motor, the two
 terminals on the battery and the two terminals on starting switch,
 making sure all of the connections are tight; then examine the
 wiring for a break in the insulation that would cause a short
 circuit. If the wiring and connections are O. K. and the starting
 motor fails to act, test the battery with a hydrometer. If the
 hydrometer reading is less than 1.225 the trouble is no doubt due
 to a weak or discharged battery.

 _What if the driver steps on Starting Button when engine is
 running?_                                          _Answer No. 121_

 Should the driver accidentally step on the starting button while
 the engine is running, no harm will result. The pinion merely
 touches the revolving flywheel gear once and immediately rotates
 with the threaded shaft out of contact with the flywheel, in
 the same manner as when it has been disengaged by the engine's

 _How is the Generator operated?_                   _Answer No. 122_

 The generator is mounted on the right-hand side of the engine
 and bolted to the cylinder front end cover. It is operated by
 the pinion on the armature shaft engaging with the large time
 gear. The charging rate of generator is set so as to cut in at
 engine speeds corresponding to 10 miles per hour in high speed
 and reaches a maximum charging rate at 20 miles per hour. At
 higher speeds the charge will taper off, which is a settled
 characteristic of a generator. This operation of cutting in and
 cutting out at suitable speeds is accomplished by the cut-out,
 which is mounted on the generator. This cut-out is set properly
 at the factory and should not under any circumstances be tampered

 [Illustration: Wiring Diagram Cars Equipped with Starter. (Cut No.

 _What about Oiling?_                               _Answer No. 123_

 The starting motor is lubricated by the Ford splash system, the
 same as the engine and transmission. The generator is lubricated
 by a splash of oil from the time gears. In addition an oil cup is
 located at the end of the generator housing and a few drops of oil
 should be applied occasionally.

 _What should be done when repairing the Ignition?_ _Answer No. 124_

 The introduction of a battery current into the magneto will
 discharge the magnets and whenever working on the ignition system
 or wiring do not fail to disconnect the positive wire from the
 battery. The end of this wire should be wound with tape to prevent
 its coming in contact with the terminal again.

 _How does the Ammeter operate?_                    _Answer No. 125_

 The ammeter is located on the instrument board. This indicator
 registers "charge" when the generator is charging the battery and
 "discharge" when the lights are burning and the engine not running
 above 10 miles per hour. At an engine speed of 15 miles per hour
 or more the ammeter should show a reading of from 10 to 12. If
 the engine is running above 15 miles per hour and the ammeter
 does not show a proper reading, first inspect the terminal posts
 on the ammeter, making sure that the connections are tight, then
 disconnect the wire from the terminal on generator, and with the
 engine running at a moderate speed, take a pair of pliers or a
 screw-driver and short-circuit the terminal stud on the generator
 to the generator housing. If the generator is O. K., a good live
 spark will be noted. (Do not run the engine any longer than is
 necessary with the terminal wire disconnected.) Next inspect the
 wiring from the generator through the ammeter, to the battery for
 a break in the insulation that would result in a short-circuit. If
 the trouble is not located, then remove the dust cap from the end
 of generator and thoroughly clean the generator commutator, using
 for this work a fine grade of sandpaper which has been slightly
 oiled. With the motor running hold the sandpaper against the
 commutator with the fingers until all dirt has been removed and a
 bright surface attained.

 _How are the Lights operated?_                     _Answer No. 126_

 The lighting system consists of two headlights and a tail light
 operated by a combination lighting and ignition switch located on
 the instrument board. The headlamp bulbs are of 6-8 volt, double
 filament type. The major filament is 18 candle-power, and the
 minor filament is 2¾ candle-power. The small bulb used in the tail
 light is of 6-8 volt, single contact, two candle-power type. All
 of the lamps are connected in parallel so that the burning out or
 removal of any one of them will not affect the other. Current for
 the lamps is supplied by the battery. Do not connect the lights to
 the magneto as it will result in burning out the bulbs and might
 discharge the magnets. Cut No. 23 shows the different circuits and
 the course of the current.

 _What about repairing Starter and Generator_       _Answer No. 127_

 If either the starter or generator fails to give proper service,
 the owner should at once consult an authorized Ford dealer.
 _Owners should not attempt to repair or adjust the mechanism of
 the starter and generator._

 _How is the Starter removed?_                      _Answer No. 128_

 When removing the starter to replace transmission bands, or for
 any other reason, first remove the engine pan on the left-hand
 side of the engine and with a screw-driver remove the four small
 screws holding the shaft cover to the transmission cover. Upon
 removing cover and gasket, turn the Bendix drive shaft around
 so that the set screw on the end of the shaft is at the top.
 Immediately under the set screw is placed a lock washer, designed
 with lips or extensions opposite each other. One of these is
 turned against the collar and the other is turned up against the
 side of the screw head. Bend back the lip which has been forced
 against the screw and remove the set-screw. As the lock washer
 will no doubt be broken or weakened in removing the starter, a new
 one must be used when replacing it. Next, pull the Bendix assembly
 out of the housing, being careful that the small key is not
 misplaced nor lost. Remove the four screws which hold the starter
 housing to the transmission cover, and pull out the starter,
 taking same down through the chassis--this is why it was necessary
 to remove the engine pan. Extreme care should be used in removing
 the Bendix drive and other parts that none are misplaced nor lost
 and that they are replaced in their former position. In replacing
 the starter, be sure that the terminal connection is placed at
 the top. If the car is to be operated with the starter removed,
 be sure to put the transmission cover plates in position. These
 plates may be obtained from the nearest dealer.

 _How is the Bendix Drive assembled to the Starting Motor?_
                                                     _Answer No. 129_

 When assembling the Bendix Drive to the starting motor shaft, care
 must be used to see that the stop nut or bearing which enters the
 mounting bracket on the starting motor is not too tight; also
 that the bearing is in proper alignment with the bracket. The
 bearing should be oiled and then fitted so that it can be turned
 readily with the fingers. If the bearing is too tight, it should
 be dressed down with an oil stone. Too tight a fit will cause the
 bearing to freeze to the bracket, resulting in serious damage to
 the starter.

 _How is the Generator removed?_                    _Answer No. 130_

 If it is found necessary to remove the generator, first take
 out the three cap screws holding it to the front end cover and
 by placing the point of a screw-driver between the generator
 and front end cover, the generator may be forced off the engine
 assembly. Always start at the top of the generator and force it
 backward and downward at the same time. Plates may be obtained
 from the nearest dealer to place over the time gear if the car is
 to be operated with the generator removed.

 _What should be done when replacing the Generator?_
                                                    _Answer No. 131_

 When installing the generator, the drive pinion must be properly
 meshed with the large time gear. The generator bracket, that is,
 the section to which the generator is bolted is separate from the
 cylinder block and the meshing of the generator driving pinion
 with the large time gear can be regulated by the use of one or
 more paper gaskets between the bracket and the cylinder block.
 The bracket should rest tightly on the crankcase gasket and line
 up with the face of the time gear case. If these gears are meshed
 too tightly, a humming noise will result, also the generator shaft
 will be thrown out of alignment.

 _Can the Engine be run with the Generator disconnected from the
 battery?_                                          _Answer No. 132_

 If for any reason the engine is run with the generator
 disconnected from the battery, as on a block test, or when
 battery has been removed for repair or recharging, be sure that
 the generator is grounded by running a wire from the terminal on
 generator to one of the dust cover screws in the yoke. Two strands
 of shipping tag wire may be used for this purpose. Be sure that
 the connections at both ends of the wire are tight. Failure to do
 this when running the engine with the generator disconnected from
 the battery will result in serious injury to the generator. _Never
 ground the generator through the cut-out._

 _What type of Battery is used?_                    _Answer No. 133_

 The Ford Starting System uses a six-volt, three-cell battery.

 _How are Hydrometer Readings taken?_               _Answer No. 134_

 [Illustration: Hydrometer Readings. (Cut No. 24)]

 Hydrometer readings should be taken about every two weeks to make
 sure that the generator is keeping the battery charged. To take
 a hydrometer reading, remove the filling plugs (remove the plug
 from only one cell at a time). Next, insert hydrometer syringe
 in the filler tube and draw up enough of the solution to float
 the glass bulb inside the instrument. The reading of the scale
 at the surface of the liquid (see Cut No. 24) gives the strength
 of the solution. Be sure to return the electrolyte to the cell
 from which it was taken. Following is a list of the readings with
 their indications. The readings in parentheses apply to batteries
 used in tropical climates where water never freezes. Readings of
 1.275 (1.200) or more indicate a fully charged battery. Readings
 of less than 1.225 (1.130) but more than 1.150 (1.080) indicate
 complete discharge. Hydrometer tests taken immediately after
 filling with water and before it has become thoroughly mixed
 with the electrolyte will not show the true condition of the
 battery. If the hydrometer reading shows the battery less than
 one-half charged, it should be taken to the nearest authorized
 Battery Service Station for recharging. Continued operation in
 a less than half-charged condition is injurious to the battery
 somewhat as running on a soft or deflated tire is injurious to the
 tire. Before replacing the battery, the cause of the discharged
 condition should be removed. It may be due to leaks or grounds
 in the car wiring or to the electric system having gotten out
 of adjustment so that the battery is not kept supplied with the
 proper amount of current from the generator. If the reading in
 one cell is more than 50 points different from the others, it
 indicates that the cell is not in good order and the battery
 should be taken to a skilled service man for attention.

 _When should water be added to the Battery?_       _Answer No. 135_

 Add nothing but pure water to the cells and do it often enough to
 keep the plates covered at all times. The solution (electrolyte)
 should be maintained at a level with the bottom of the filling
 tube. Distilled water, melted artificial (but not natural) ice and
 rain water, if obtained in the open country from a clean slate or
 shingle-covered roof, are generally satisfactory. All water for
 battery use should be kept in clean, covered vessels of glass,
 china, earthenware, rubber or lead. In cold weather add water only
 immediately before running the engine so that the charging will
 mix the water and electrolyte, and avoid freezing. If, for any
 reason, it is necessary to add acid, the battery should be taken
 to an authorized Service Station.

 _What care should be given the Filling Plugs and Connections?_
                                                    _Answer No. 136_

 Keep the filling plugs and connections tight and the top of the
 battery clean. Wiping the battery with a rag moistened with
 ammonia will counteract the effect of any of the solution which
 may be on the outside of the battery. A coating of heavy oil or
 vaseline will protect the connectors from corrosion. Keep the
 battery firmly secured in position. If clamps are loose, the
 battery will shift about in the compartment and result in loose
 connections, broken cells and other trouble. If repairs are
 necessary or if the car is to be laid up for the winter, take the
 battery to a skilled service man for proper attention and storage.
 Do not entrust the battery to inexperienced or unskilled hands.

            Summary of Engine Troubles and Their Causes


 1. Gas mixture too lean.

 2. Water in gasoline.

 3. Vibrators adjusted too close.

 4. Water or congealed oil in commutator.

 5. Magneto contact point (in trans. cover) obstructed with foreign

 6. Gasoline supply shut off.

 7. Carburetor frozen (in zero weather).

 8. Water frozen in gasoline tank sediment bulb.

 9. Coil switch off.


At Low Speeds.

 1. Poor compression--account leaky valves.

 2. Gas mixture too rich or too lean.

 3. Spark plugs dirty.

 4. Coil vibrator improperly adjusted.

 5. Air leak in intake manifold.

 6. Weak exhaust valve spring.

 7. Too great clearance between valve stem and push rod.

 8. Too close gap between spark plug points.

At High Speeds.

 1. Commutator contact imperfect.

 2. Weak valve spring.

 3. Too much gap in spark plug.

 4. Imperfect gas mixture.

 5. Vibrator points dirty or burned.


 1. Gasoline tank empty.

 2. Water in gasoline.

 3. Flooded carburetor.

 4. Dirt in carburetor or feed pipe.

 5. Magneto wire loose at either terminal.

 6. Magneto contact point obstructed.

 7. Overheated--account lack of oil or water.

 8. Gas mixture too lean.


 1. Lack of water.

 2. Lack of oil.

 3. Fan belt torn, loose or slipping.

 4. Carbon deposit in combustion chamber.

 5. Spark retarded too far.

 6. Gas mixture too rich.

 7. Water circulation retarded by sediment in radiator.

 8. Dirty spark plugs.


 1. Carbon deposit on piston heads.

 2. Loose connecting rod bearing.

 3. Loose crank shaft bearing.

 4. Spark advanced too far.

 5. Engine overheated.


  CARE OF TIRES                                         Page

    Care of Inner Tubes                                   48
    Casings--How Repaired                                 48
    How to Remove Tires                                   48
    Repair Puncture                                       49


    Causes of Overheating                                 17
    Purpose                                               17
    Radiator Care in Winter                               19
    Repairing Radiator                                    19
    What to Do When Overheated                            17


    Carbon--How Removed                                   14
    Connecting Rod and Bearings                           15
    Engine Fails to Start                                 61
    Engine Lacks Power--Runs Irregularly                  61
    Engine Stops Suddenly                                 61
    Engine Overheats                                      61
    Engine Knocks                                         61
    Knocking--Causes                                      14
    Main Bearing--How Adjusted                            16
    Piston                                                 9
    Power Plant--How Removed                              15
    Valves                                                 9


    Carburetor--How to Adjust                             21
    Carburetor--How Controlled                            21
    Carburetor--Trouble                                   22
    Carburetor--How it Works                              21


    Coils                                                 25
    Commutator--Its Purpose                               26
    Magneto                                               25
    Magneto Trouble                                       29
    Spark Plugs                                           20
    Where to Look for Trouble                             27


    How it Differs from Others                            45
    Kind of Oil to Use                                    45
    To Fill "Dope" Cups                                   45


    Care of Top                                           50
    Storing Cars                                          50
    To Keep Car Clean                                     50


    What It Is For                                        39
    How to Disconnect                                     39


    Adjustments--What to Do                                5
    Gasoline                                               3
    Getting Ready to Start                                 3
    Hand Lever                                             6
    Oiling                                                 3
    Slow Speed, Brake and Reverse                          6
    Spark--How Controlled                                  7
    Speed--How Controlled                                  7
    Starting                                               5
    Starting in Cold Weather                               6


    Differential Gear--How Removed                        37
    Rear Axle--How to Remove Parts                        37
    Universal Joint--To Disconnect                        37


    About Wheels                                          41
    Care of Springs                                       43
    Cups--How Installed                                   41
    Its Care                                              40
    Lubricating the Bearings                              43
    Remove Front Axle                                     40
    Roller Bearings--How Installed                        43
    Steering Apparatus                                    44
    Wheels                                                41


    Bands                                                 33
    Clutch                                                31
    Planetary Transmission--What Is It                    31
    Transmission--How Assembled                           33

 Model T Truck

  Worm, How Removed                                       51
  Lubricating the Differential                            51

 The Ford Starting and Lighting System

  Type of System                                          55
  The Starting Motor--What if it Fails to Act             55
  Oiling the Starter and Generator                        57
  The Starter--How Removed                                58
  The Bendix Drive--How Assembled to Starting Motor       58
  The Generator--How Removed                              58
  The Battery--Repairing and Recharging                   59

                        TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE

-Obvious print and punctuation errors fixed.

-A Table of Contents was not in the original work; one has been
produced and added by Transcriber.

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